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Sample records for ostrea chilensis philippi

  1. The physiology of the larva of the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis and the utilisation of biochemical energy reserves during development: An extreme case of the brooding habit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro, O. R.; Navarrete, L. R.; Thompson, R. J.

    2006-05-01

    In the oyster Ostrea chilensis the adult female broods the young for almost the entire developmental period, releasing a large pediveliger larva (450 μm shell length) with an extremely short pelagic phase. In this study of the larval physiology, the dry weight of the embryo or larva remained constant during the early developmental stages (as far as, and including, the trochophore), but the veliger grew steadily to reach 8 μg at 450 μm shell length, the stage at which it was ready for release. During this growth period the veliger consumed metabolic reserves (62% protein and 38% lipid). Carbohydrate levels were negligible. Chilean oyster veligers larger than 275 μm shell length were able to remove particles from suspension, but clearance rate (2 μl h - 1 larva - 1 at 450 μm shell length) was much lower than published values for planktotrophic veligers. Low clearance rate in the veliger of O. chilensis is probably attributable to the absence of the postoral ciliary band. Oxygen uptake increased from 19 - 22 nl O 2 h - 1 ind - 1 for pre-veliger stages to 32 nl O 2 h - 1 ind - 1 for a veliger 450 μm long, which is consistent with published values for veligers in general when corrected for body weight. Excretion rate was low, increasing from 0.04 ng NH 4-N h - 1 larva - 1 in the trochophore to 0.13 ng NH 4-N h - 1 larva - 1 in a pediveliger of shell length 450 μm. Biochemical energy reserves were insufficient to meet the metabolic demands of the developing larva, suggesting that uptake of particles and/or dissolved organic matter from the mantle cavity of the female is necessary for successful development.

  2. Interlaboratory variability in screening for Bonamia ostreae, a protistan parasite of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Grace; Lynch, Sharon A; Longshaw, Matt; Stone, David; Martin, Paul; Ramilo, Andrea; Villalba, Antonio; Culloty, Sarah C

    2014-07-24

    The spread of the protozoan parasite Bonamia ostreae is of major concern to the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis industry. Many studies have looked at the sensitivity of individual methods available to screen for B. ostreae, but in this study, 3 separate laboratories examined 4 methods of diagnosis currently used routinely in laboratories: heart imprints, histology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridisation (ISH). The results were compared to estimate interlaboratory variability. Heart imprints and histology had the highest reproducibility amongst the 3 laboratories, with greatest agreement between detection of infected and uninfected individuals. PCR had the highest detection level in every laboratory. These positives were related to the presence of confirmed infections but also in unconfirmed infections, possibly due to the presence of traces of B. ostreae DNA in oysters where clinical infections were not observed. PCR, in combination with histology or ISH, provided the most reliable detection levels in every laboratory. Variation in results for PCR and ISH observed between laboratories may be due to the different protocols used by each laboratory for both methods. Overall, the findings from the 3 laboratories indicated that at least 2 methods, with fixed protocols, should be used for the accurate detection and determination of infection prevalence within a sample. This combination of methods would allow for a clearer and more precise diagnosis of B. ostreae, preventing further spread of the disease and providing more accurate detection levels and epidemiological information.

  3. Factors preventing the recovery of a historically overexploited shellfish species, Ostrea conchaphila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The native oyster in estuaries along the Pacific coast of North America, Ostrea conchaphila (prev. Ostrea lurida, Olympia oyster), experienced overexploitation throughout its range in the late 1800’s, resulting in commercial extinction before 1930. Significant harvest restrictions and marine reserv...

  4. Lignolytic Enzymes of a Mushroom Stereum ostrea Isolated from Wood Logs

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, K.; Viswanath, B.; Usha, K. Y.; Pallavi, H.; Venkata Subba Reddy, G.; Naveen, M.; Rajasekhar Reddy, B.

    2011-01-01

    Production of lignolytic enzymes by the mushroom fungus Stereum ostrea in liquid medium under conditions of vegetative growth was examined for 10 days in comparison to the reference culture Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Though growth and secretion of extracellular protein by S. ostrea were comparable to those of P. chrysosporium, yields of laccase enzyme by S. ostrea were higher than laccase titres of P. chrysosporium by more than 2 folds on the peak production time interval (IVth day of incubation). S. ostrea yielded titres of 25 units of laccase/ml as against 8.9 units of laccase/ml on the IVth day of incubation. Stereum ostrea also exhibited activities of other lignolytic enzymes, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), higher than the reference culture. Growth of S. ostrea on the medium in the presence of Remazol orange 16 resulted in the decolourisation of dye, confirming the presence of lignolytic enzymes. S. ostrea appears to be a promising culture with complete lignolytic system. PMID:21941632

  5. Lignolytic Enzymes of a Mushroom Stereum ostrea Isolated from Wood Logs.

    PubMed

    Praveen, K; Viswanath, B; Usha, K Y; Pallavi, H; Venkata Subba Reddy, G; Naveen, M; Rajasekhar Reddy, B

    2011-01-01

    Production of lignolytic enzymes by the mushroom fungus Stereum ostrea in liquid medium under conditions of vegetative growth was examined for 10 days in comparison to the reference culture Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Though growth and secretion of extracellular protein by S. ostrea were comparable to those of P. chrysosporium, yields of laccase enzyme by S. ostrea were higher than laccase titres of P. chrysosporium by more than 2 folds on the peak production time interval (IVth day of incubation). S. ostrea yielded titres of 25 units of laccase/ml as against 8.9 units of laccase/ml on the IVth day of incubation. Stereum ostrea also exhibited activities of other lignolytic enzymes, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), higher than the reference culture. Growth of S. ostrea on the medium in the presence of Remazol orange 16 resulted in the decolourisation of dye, confirming the presence of lignolytic enzymes. S. ostrea appears to be a promising culture with complete lignolytic system.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Olympia oyster Ostrea lurida (Bivalvia, Ostreidae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu; Wu, Xiangyun; Li, Lu; Yu, Ziniu

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the Olympia oyster Ostrea lurida (16,344 bp), an economically important bivalve, was newly sequenced and annotated. Ostrea lurida is the largest reported Ostrea oyster mt genomes to date and has a comparatively highest overall A + T content (65%) among the available genomes of marine oysters. High levels of variability of nad2 and nad6 genes and that of major non-coding region (MNR) indicate their potential value as useful molecular markers for population and conservation genetic studies in the future. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated nucleotide sequences from all 13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes show that the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis is sister to the Asian slipper oyster Ostrea denselamellosa, while O. lurida is put at the most basal position of the clade, and indicate that Ostrea are closer to Saccostrea than Crassostrea, although gene arrangement shows a closer relationship between Ostrea and Crassostrea. The observations of the evolutionary pattern of start codon usage among the three congeneric oysters indicate that variation in start codon usage is species-correlated rather than gene-correlated, and to some extent, bears useful phylogenetic information.

  7. Enhanced Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes by a Mushroom Stereum ostrea.

    PubMed

    Usha, K Y; Praveen, K; Reddy, B Rajasekhar

    2014-01-01

    The white rot fungi Stereum ostrea displayed a wide diversity in their response to supplemented inducers, surfactants, and copper sulphate in solid state fermentation. Among the inducers tested, 0.02% veratryl alcohol increased the ligninolytic enzyme production to a significant extent. The addition of copper sulphate at 300 μM concentration has a positive effect on laccase production increasing its activity by 2 times compared to control. Among the surfactants, Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X 100, tested in the studies, Tween 80 stimulated the production of ligninolytic enzymes. Biosorption of dyes was carried out by using two lignocellulosic wastes, rice bran and wheat bran, in 50 ppm of remazol brilliant blue and remazol brilliant violet 5R dyes. These dye adsorbed lignocelluloses were then utilized for the production of ligninolytic enzymes in solid state mode. The two dye adsorbed lignocelluloses enhanced the production of laccase and manganese peroxidase but not lignin peroxidase.

  8. Enhanced Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes by a Mushroom Stereum ostrea

    PubMed Central

    Usha, K. Y.; Praveen, K.; Reddy, B. Rajasekhar

    2014-01-01

    The white rot fungi Stereum ostrea displayed a wide diversity in their response to supplemented inducers, surfactants, and copper sulphate in solid state fermentation. Among the inducers tested, 0.02% veratryl alcohol increased the ligninolytic enzyme production to a significant extent. The addition of copper sulphate at 300 μM concentration has a positive effect on laccase production increasing its activity by 2 times compared to control. Among the surfactants, Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X 100, tested in the studies, Tween 80 stimulated the production of ligninolytic enzymes. Biosorption of dyes was carried out by using two lignocellulosic wastes, rice bran and wheat bran, in 50 ppm of remazol brilliant blue and remazol brilliant violet 5R dyes. These dye adsorbed lignocelluloses were then utilized for the production of ligninolytic enzymes in solid state mode. The two dye adsorbed lignocelluloses enhanced the production of laccase and manganese peroxidase but not lignin peroxidase. PMID:25610656

  9. Detection of Marteilia refringens infecting the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis and the dwarf oyster Ostrea stentina in southern Portugal and Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Sanmartín, Monserrat; Batista, Frederico M; del Carmen Marín, María; Garrido, Inmaculada; Quintero, David; Grade, Ana; Ruano, Francisco; de la Herrán, Roberto; Navas, José I

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, Marteilia sp. was detected by histological examination and in situ hybridisation in Ostrea edulis and Ostrea stentina collected in southern Iberian Peninsula. Marteilia refringens DNA was detected by PCR in O. edulis (collected in southern Portugal) and O. stentina (collected in southern Spain and Portugal). Sequencing analysis revealed the presence of M. refringens type O in O. edulis, and type O and M in O. stentina. This is the first confirmed detection of M. refringens in Portugal and the first report on the occurrence of M. refringens infecting O. stentina in Europe.

  10. Methoxylaricinolic acid, a new sesquiterpene from the fruiting bodies of Stereum ostrea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hee; Yun, Bong-Sik; Ryoo, In-Ja; Kim, Jong-Pyung; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Yoo, Ick-Dong

    2006-07-01

    Methoxylaricinolic acid (1), a new sesquiterpene with drimane skeleton was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Stereum ostrea, together with the known compound laricinolic acid (2). The structure of 1 was determined as 12-methoxy-7-oxo-11-drimanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  11. Sterostreins F-O, illudalanes and norilludalanes from cultures of the Basidiomycete Stereum ostrea BCC 22955.

    PubMed

    Isaka, Masahiko; Srisanoh, Urarat; Sappan, Malipan; Supothina, Sumalee; Boonpratuang, Thitiya

    2012-07-01

    Sterostreins F-O (1-10), 10 illudalanes and norilludalanes, were isolated from cultures of the Basidiomycete Stereum ostrea BCC 22955. Their structures were elucidated by analyses of the NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. Sterostreins M (8), N (9), and O (10) are pyridine-containing illudalanes.

  12. Sterostreins A-E, new terpenoids from cultures of the Basidiomycete Stereum ostrea BCC 22955.

    PubMed

    Isaka, Masahiko; Srisanoh, Urarat; Choowong, Wilunda; Boonpratuang, Thitiya

    2011-09-16

    Sterostreins A-E (1, 2, 3a/3b, 4, and 5), five novel terpenoids, were isolated from cultures of the mushroom fungus Stereum ostrea BCC 22955. Sterostrein A (1) exhibited antimalarial activity (IC(50) 2.3 μg/mL) and cytotoxicity (IC(50) 5.3-38 μg/mL).

  13. Investigating the possible role of benthic macroinvertebrates and zooplankton in the life cycle of the haplosporidian Bonamia ostreae.

    PubMed

    Lynch, S A; Armitage, D V; Coughlan, J; Mulcahy, M F; Culloty, S C

    2007-04-01

    Bonamia ostreae is a protistan parasite of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis. Though direct transmission of the parasite can occur between oysters, it is unclear if this represents the complete life cycle of the parasite, and the role of a secondary or intermediate host or carrier species cannot be ruled out. In this preliminary study, benthic macroinvertebrates and zooplankton from a B. ostreae-endemic area were screened for the presence of parasite DNA, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eight benthic macroinvertebrates and nineteen grouped zooplankton samples gave positive results. Certain species, found positive for the parasite DNA, were then used in laboratory transmission trials, to investigate if they could infect naïve oysters. Transmission of B. ostreae was effected to two naïve oysters cohabiting with the brittle star, Ophiothrix fragilis.

  14. [Study on medication regularity of grand master of traditional Chinese medicine YAN Zheng-hua's Ostreae Concha-containing prescriptions based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Rui; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing

    2014-07-01

    In this study, prescriptions were collected to establish a database based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS). Such data-mining methods as software's statistical statement module, data analysis module and apriori algorithm were used to analyze the frequency of single drug, the frequency of drug combination, the association rules and the core drug combinations of ostreae concha-containing prescriptions. The results showed that Ostreae Concha-containing prescriptions were frequently used to treat insomnia, vertigo, stomach-ache and other syndromes. The frequently used drugs included Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix and Paeoniae Rubra Radix. The frequently used drug combinations included "Ostreae Concha and Ossis Mastodi Fossilia", "Ostreae Concha and Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", and "Ostreae Concha and Polygoni Multiflori Caulis". The drug association rules with the confidence coefficient of more than 0. 95 included "Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-->Ostreae Concha", "Cocos Poria-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-Ostreae Concha", "Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-->Ostreae Concha", and "Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia--Ostreae Concha".

  15. Construction of an Ostrea edulis database from genomic and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) obtained from Bonamia ostreae infected haemocytes: Development of an immune-enriched oligo-microarray.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Belén G; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Cao, Asunción; Ramilo, Andrea; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Planas, Josep V; Villalba, Antonio; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-12-01

    The flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, is one of the main farmed oysters, not only in Europe but also in the United States and Canada. Bonamiosis due to the parasite Bonamia ostreae has been associated with high mortality episodes in this species. This parasite is an intracellular protozoan that infects haemocytes, the main cells involved in oyster defence. Due to the economical and ecological importance of flat oyster, genomic data are badly needed for genetic improvement of the species, but they are still very scarce. The objective of this study is to develop a sequence database, OedulisDB, with new genomic and transcriptomic resources, providing new data and convenient tools to improve our knowledge of the oyster's immune mechanisms. Transcriptomic and genomic sequences were obtained using 454 pyrosequencing and compiled into an O. edulis database, OedulisDB, consisting of two sets of 10,318 and 7159 unique sequences that represent the oyster's genome (WG) and de novo haemocyte transcriptome (HT), respectively. The flat oyster transcriptome was obtained from two strains (naïve and tolerant) challenged with B. ostreae, and from their corresponding non-challenged controls. Approximately 78.5% of 5619 HT unique sequences were successfully annotated by Blast search using public databases. A total of 984 sequences were identified as being related to immune response and several key immune genes were identified for the first time in flat oyster. Additionally, transcriptome information was used to design and validate the first oligo-microarray in flat oyster enriched with immune sequences from haemocytes. Our transcriptomic and genomic sequencing and subsequent annotation have largely increased the scarce resources available for this economically important species and have enabled us to develop an OedulisDB database and accompanying tools for gene expression analysis. This study represents the first attempt to characterize in depth the O. edulis haemocyte transcriptome in

  16. Redescription of the adults and new descriptions of the previously unknown immature stages of Culex (Culex) articularis Philippi, 1865 (Diptera: Culicidae) from central Chile.

    PubMed

    González, Christian R; Reyes, Carolina; Rada, Viviana

    2015-05-05

    Male and female adults of Culex (Culex) articularis Philippi are redescribed, and the 4th-instar larva and pupa are described and illustrated for the first time. Culex articularis is compared with other species of the subgenus Culex. Illustrations of diagnostic characters of the female, male genitalia, 4th-instar larva, and pupa are also provided.

  17. Kinetic properties of manganese peroxidase from the mushroom Stereum ostrea and its ability to decolorize dyes.

    PubMed

    Praveen, K; Usha, K Y; Viswanath, Buddolla; Reddy, B Rajasekhar

    2012-11-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was isolated from the culture filtrate of the wood log mushroom Stereum ostrea (S. ostrea), grown on Koroljova medium, and then purified by ammonium sulfate [70% (w/v)] fractionation, DEAE-cellulose anion exchange chromatography, and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography, with an attainment of 88.6-fold purification and the recovery of 22.8% of initial activity. According to SDS-PAGE the molecular mass of the MnP was 40 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature were found to be 4.5 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme was stable even after exposure to a pH range of 4.5 to 6.0, and at temperatures of up to 35 degrees C at a pH of 4.5 for 1h. The K(m) and V(max) values for the substrate phenol red were found to be 8 micronm and 111.14 U/mg of protein, respectively. The MnP also oxidized other substrates such as guaiacol, DMP, and veratryl alcohol. Sodium azide, EDTA, SDS, Cu(2+), and Fe(2+), at 1-5 mM, strongly inhibited enzyme activity, whereas Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) increased enzyme activity. The participation of the purified enzyme in the decolorization of dyes suggests that S. ostrea manganese peroxidase could be effectively employed in textile industries.

  18. Bacteriological analysis of the digestive tube of the mud snail (Bullacta exarata Philippi) and its rearing shoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoliang, Wang; Tianlun, Zheng; Tongxia, Lu; Yinong, Wang; Hong, Yu; Shan, Jin

    2002-10-01

    The bacterial flora in the digestive tube of Bullacta exarata Philippi and its rearing shoal were investigated. A total of 157 strains of heterotrophic bacteria, isolated from crop, stomach intestine and other parts of the digestive tube, mainly belong to the genera Photobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas Vibrio and some genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae. There are significantly more varieties of bacteria in crop than in stomach and intestine. A total of 173 strains of bacteria were isolated from the rearing shoal, belonging to 13 genera. The 5 predominant genera, such as Bacillus and Photobacterium, are the same as those in the digestive tube, but greatly differ in percentages. The number of heterotrophic bacteria and Vibrio in rearing shoal change in line with the alteration of the temperature, and are significantly affected by the use of pesticides.

  19. Ramophialophora humicola and Fibulochlamys chilensis, two new microfungi from soil.

    PubMed

    Madrid, H; Cano, J; Stchigel, A; Gené, J; Guarro, J

    2010-01-01

    In a study on soil microfungi from different countries two new hyphomycetes were found. The first one, Ramophialophora humicola, isolated from a soil sample collected in Ronda (Spain), is characterized by producing profusely branched conidiophores ending in sterile, sometimes swollen apices, and subhyaline, dacryoid conidia borne from both integrated and discrete phialides with conspicuous collaretes. ITS sequence data reveal its relationships with members of the Sordariales and its genetic differences with other fungi morphologically close, such as Cladorrhinum spp. The second species, Fibulochlamys chilensis, isolated from a soil sample collected in LaJunta (Chile), is characterized by micronematous, clamped, mostly branched conidiophores producing thallic, one-celled, thick-walled conidia that exhibit strongly wrinkled surfaces in age. The analysis of partial sequences of the ITS region and 28S rRNA gene reveal that this fungus is close to members of the gilled Agaricales.

  20. IATROGENIC MICROCHIP ARTERIAL EMBOLISM IN A CHILEAN FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Ewing, Jacob; Arruda, Paulo; Kuyper, Jennifer; Riedesel, Elizabeth; Miles, Kristina M

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant microchip migration has been reported in domestic animal species, but in most cases, this migration is atraumatic to the patient. Reports of microchip-associated trauma and sarcoma development also have been reported in a variety of mammal species. This report describes accidental arterial microchip insertion causing obstruction of the iliac artery in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Diagnostic imaging included digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography to determine the location of the microchip. Surgical removal of the microchip was attempted; however, the flamingo died intraoperatively. Postmortem evaluation found trauma to the epicardium, without penetration of the ventricle. The descending aorta was found traumatized and identified as the most likely insertion point leading to the embolism.

  1. The basement structure below the peat-lignite deposit in the Philippi sub-basin (Northern Greece) inferred by electromagnetic and magnetic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurk, M.; Tougiannidis, N.; Oikonomopoulos, I. K.; Kalisperi, D.

    2015-04-01

    During 2009 and 2010 electromagnetic (EM) soundings and a high-resolution magnetic survey were conducted to study the deeper structure of the peat-lignite deposit in the Philippi sub-basin in Northern Greece. The primary intention of investigating the basement structure of the Philippi sub-basin is to propose the ideal location for a deep and continuous paleoclimate drill site. Data were collected along a 12 km transect (NNE-SSW) through the largest extension of the basin from Krinides at the North to Eleftheroupolis at the South. We used a combined set of Radiomagnetotelluric (RMT), Time Domain Electromagnetic (TEM) and Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) soundings to derive a 2D model of the electrical resistivity distribution versus depth using a joint inversion approach. This model was then cross correlated with a 2D forward model of magnetic anomaly data. The magnetic survey detected strong anomalies in the North that appeared to have been generated by the Philippi granitoid pluton. All three individual data sets support each other and have jointly been analyzed. From this study we yield an asymmetric graben model of the basin structure that shows maximum thickness (ca. 500 m) in the northern part of the basin leading to a reduction of the thickness to the South. The interface between the basin fill and the bedrock ascend steeply in the North. The overall assessment of the deeper basin structure reveals a detachment system that is in good accordance with previous findings.

  2. Characterization of the protozoan parasite Marteilia refringens infecting the dwarf oyster Ostrea stentina in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Elgharsalli, Refka; Aloui-Bejaoui, Nejla; Salah, Hedi; Chollet, Bruno; Joly, Jean-Pierre; Robert, Maeva; Couraleau, Yann; Arzul, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    Marteilia refringens is a protozoan parasite recognized as a significant pathogen of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis. The life cycle of this species is still poorly known, although there is evidence of the need for intermediate host(s). In the present study, we have used molecular approaches to identify this parasite in samples of the dwarf oyster Ostrea stentina after reports of massive mortality along the Tunisian coasts. In 2009 we evaluated the status of O. stentina from Monastir and checked if there was an infection with M. refringens, using polymerase chain reaction assays. Of the 103 tested O. stentina, 85 were PCR-positive using a Marteilia genus-specific assay. Additional assays were subsequently carried out on some samples collected in 2010 in Monastir and processed for histology, transmission electron microscopy and complementary molecular analyses. PCR was carried out to amplify the IGS and ITS regions. Histological and transmission electron microscopy analyses allowed us to confirm the presence of this parasite in the digestive gland tissue of O. stentina and to characterize it at the ultrastructural level. This is the first record of the occurrence of M. refringens in the oyster O. stentina along the Tunisian coasts.

  3. Oyster parasites Bonamia ostreae and B. exitiosa co-occur in Galicia (NW Spain): spatial distribution and infection dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ramilo, Andrea; González, Mar; Carballal, María J; Darriba, Susana; Abollo, Elvira; Villalba, Antonio

    2014-07-24

    Bonamiosis constrains the flat oyster industry worldwide. The protistan species Bonamia ostreae had been considered solely responsible for this disease in Europe, but the report of B. exitiosa infecting Ostrea edulis 5 yr ago in Galicia (NW Spain), and subsequently in other European countries, raised the question of the relevance of each species in bonamiosis. The spatial distribution of B. exitiosa and B. ostreae in Galicia was addressed by sampling 7 natural O. edulis beds and 3 culture raft areas, up to 3 times in the period 2009 to 2010. B. ostreae infected flat oysters in every natural bed and every raft culture area. True B. exitiosa infections (histological diagnosis) were detected in every raft culture area but only in 2 natural beds, i.e. in 4 rías. PCR-positive results for B. exitiosa were recorded in 4 out of 5 beds where true infections were not found, thus the occurrence of B. exitiosa in those 4 beds cannot be ruled out. Additionally, 4 cohorts of hatchery-produced oyster spat were transferred to a raft to analyse Bonamia spp. infection dynamics through oyster on-growing. The highest percentages of oysters PCR-positive for both Bonamia spp. were recorded in the first months of on-growing; other peaks of PCR-positive diagnosis were successively lower. Differences in the percentage of PCR-positive cases and in the prevalence of true infection between B. exitiosa and B. ostreae through on-growing were not significant. Our results support that B. exitiosa is adapted to infect O. edulis in the Galician marine ecosystem.

  4. Effects of sewage discharges on lipid and fatty acid composition of the Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis.

    PubMed

    Rocchetta, Iara; Pasquevich, María Y; Heras, Horacio; Ríos de Molina, María del Carmen; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-02-15

    Lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition and selected oxidative stress parameters of freshwater clams (Dipolodon chilensis), from a sewage-polluted (SMA) and a clean site, were compared. Trophic markers FA were analyzed in clams and sediment. Saturated FA (SAFA), and bacteria and sewage markers were abundant in SMA sediments, while diatom markers were 50% lower. Proportions of SAFA, branched FA, 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were higher in SMA clams. Chronic exposure of D. chilensis to increasing eutrophication affected its lipid and FA composition. The increase in EPA and DHA proportions could be an adaptive response, which increases stress resistance but could also lead to higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation TBARS, lipofuscins (20-fold) and GSH concentrations were higher in SMA clams. FA markers indicated terrestrial plant detritus and bacteria are important items in D. chilensis diet. Anthropogenic input in their food could be traced using specific FA as trophic markers.

  5. New microsatellite loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Bessega, Cecilia F.; Pometti, Carolina L.; Miller, Joe T.; Watts, Richard; Saidman, Beatriz O.; Vilardi, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. • Methods and Results: Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. • Conclusions: These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection. PMID:25202541

  6. Effect of substrate component on the growth and survival of juvenile sunray surf clam ( Mactra chinensis Philippi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuekai; Li, Zhuang; Huo, Zhongming; Yan, Xiwu; Yang, Feng; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Xingzhi

    2016-08-01

    Substrate is a critical environmental factor affecting the activity of bivalves. To examine the effect of the substrate component on the growth and survival of juvenile sunray surf clam ( Mactra chinensis Philippi), a series of short-term experiments were conducted using a variety of substrates with different ratios of sand to mud. The experimental group cultured without substrate showed poor survival, with all juveniles died after day 20. The juveniles cultured in mud without sand showed a lower survival rate (25.54% ± 0.40% on day 45) than those in other groups. The juveniles cultured in sand without mud, or the mixtures of sand and mud with a ratio of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, exhibited modest survival at day 45. Maximal weight gain rate ( WGR), shell length growth rate ( LGR), and specific growth rate ( SGR) were observed when the sand concentration was 61.97%, 77.69%, and 64.64%, respectively. As the fast growth and high survival were observed when the sand to mud ratio was 1:1 (50% sand) and 2:1 (67% sand), a sand concentration of more than 50% is optimal. The optimal concentration of sand in the substrate for rearing juvenile sunray surf clams was 67% which resulted in the fastest growth and highest survival. These results can be used to developing a nursery/farming technique of improving the yield of sunray surf clams.

  7. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Stereum ostrea, an Inedible Wild Mushroom.

    PubMed

    Imtiaj, Ahmed; Jayasinghe, Chandana; Lee, Geon Woo; Lee, Tae Soo

    2007-12-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activities of liquid culture filtrate, water and ethanol extract (solid culture) of Stereum ostrea were evaluated against 5 bacteria and 3 plant pathogenic fungi. To determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), we studied 5~300 mg/ml concentrations against bacteria and fungi separately. The MIC was 10 mg/ml for Bacillus subtilis and 40 mg/ml for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum miyabeanus. Liquid culture filtrate was more effective against Gram positive than Gram negative bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus was the most inhibited (20.3 mm) bacterium. Water and ethanol extracts were effective against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and water extract was better than ethanol extract. In water and ethanol extract, inhibition zones were 23.6 and 21.0 mm (S. aureus) and 26.3 and 22.3 mm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), respectively. For plant pathogenic fungi, the highest and lowest percent inhibition of mycelial growth (PIMG) was found 82.8 and 14.4 against C. miyabeanus and Botrytis cinerea in liquid culture filtrate, respectively. In water extract, the PIMG was found to be the highest 85.2 and lowest 41.7 for C. miyabeanus and C. gloeosporioides, respectively. The inhibitory effect of ethanol extract was better against C. miyabeanus than C. gloeosporioides and B. cinerea. Among 3 samples, water extract was the best against tested pathogenic fungi. This study offers that the extracts isolated from S. ostrea contain potential compounds which inhibit the growth of both bacteria and fungi.

  8. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Stereum ostrea, an Inedible Wild Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaj, Ahmed; Jayasinghe, Chandana; Lee, Geon Woo

    2007-01-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activities of liquid culture filtrate, water and ethanol extract (solid culture) of Stereum ostrea were evaluated against 5 bacteria and 3 plant pathogenic fungi. To determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), we studied 5~300 mg/ml concentrations against bacteria and fungi separately. The MIC was 10 mg/ml for Bacillus subtilis and 40 mg/ml for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum miyabeanus. Liquid culture filtrate was more effective against Gram positive than Gram negative bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus was the most inhibited (20.3 mm) bacterium. Water and ethanol extracts were effective against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and water extract was better than ethanol extract. In water and ethanol extract, inhibition zones were 23.6 and 21.0 mm (S. aureus) and 26.3 and 22.3 mm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), respectively. For plant pathogenic fungi, the highest and lowest percent inhibition of mycelial growth (PIMG) was found 82.8 and 14.4 against C. miyabeanus and Botrytis cinerea in liquid culture filtrate, respectively. In water extract, the PIMG was found to be the highest 85.2 and lowest 41.7 for C. miyabeanus and C. gloeosporioides, respectively. The inhibitory effect of ethanol extract was better against C. miyabeanus than C. gloeosporioides and B. cinerea. Among 3 samples, water extract was the best against tested pathogenic fungi. This study offers that the extracts isolated from S. ostrea contain potential compounds which inhibit the growth of both bacteria and fungi. PMID:24015099

  9. Manganese speciation in Diplodon chilensis patagonicus shells: a XANES study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Goettlicher, J.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    In addition to other types of climate archives, biogenic skeletons of a variety of different organisms (i.e. shells of bivalves, skeletal hard parts of corals or sponges) are increasingly used for high-resolution climate reconstructions. Bivalves are particularly suited for such analyses because they are geographically broadly distributed and have been shown to record climate and environmental information reliably and over long time intervals. Variation of environmental parameters such as food supply, substratum type, salinity, illumination, temperature, concentration of dissolved oxygen or oxygen/carbon dioxide ratio, among others, may affect growth pattern, shell structure, mineralogy, isotopic fractionation and chemistry. Thus, shell features, minor and trace element composition patterns and isotopic signals may serve as an archive of environmental history. In turn, palaeoclimatic parameters such as ambient temperature, precipitation gradients, seawater salinity and primary production can be reconstructed from the shells by means of sclerochronological and geochemical methods. However, the distribution of minor and trace elements in the biominerals is not only influenced by the environment or vital effects, but also by intrinsic biomineralisation parameters like the carbonate polymorphism and the mineral habit (Soldati et al., 2008a). Generally, it is assumed that the X2+ ions are replacing the Ca2+ ion in the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) structure, but newest findings show that amorphous (or disordered) phases may play a role in hosting some of the elements use as proxies (Meibom et al., 2008; and Finch and Allison, 2007). In this work we focused on the freshwater clam Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, a widely distributed inhabitant of lakes and rivers in southern South America. Thanks to its long life span and seasonal growth Diplodon mussels exhibit excellent characteristics to construct an accurate chronological archive, with time windows of up to around a

  10. Isolation with differentiation followed by expansion with admixture in the tunicate Pyura chilensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pyura chilensis, a tunicate commercially exploited as food resource in Chile, is subject to management strategies, including restocking. The goal of this study was to examine the genetic structure of P. chilensis using information from a mitochondrial gene (Cytochrome Oxidase I, COI) and a nuclear gene (Elongation 1 alpha, EF1a), to characterize the geographic distribution of genetic diversity and differentiation, and to identify the main processes that have shaped it. We analyzed 268 and 208 sequences of COI and EF1a, respectively, from samples of eight local populations covering ca. 1800 km. Results For Pyura chilensis, partial sequences of the gene COI revealed three highly supported haplogroups that diverged 260000 to 470000 years ago. Two haplogroups currently are widely distributed and sympatric, while one is dominant only in Los Molinos (LM, 39°50′S). The two widespread COI haplogroups underwent a geographic expansion during an interglacial period of the Late Pleistocene ca. 100000 years ago. The nuclear gene was less divergent and did not resolve the COI haplogroups. Bayesian clustering of the nuclear gene’s SNPs revealed that individuals from the two widespread COI haplogroups were mostly assigned to two of the three detected clusters and had a marked degree of admixture. The third cluster predominated in LM and showed low admixture. Haplotypic diversity of both genes was very high, there was no isolation by distance, and most localities were genetically undifferentiated; only LM was consistently differentiated with both genes analyzed. Conclusions Pyura chilensis has less genetic structure than expected given its life history, which could be a consequence of dispersal on ship hulls. The only differentiated local population analyzed was LM. Coincidentally, it is the one furthest away from main maritime routes along the coast of Chile. The use of mitochondrial and nuclear markers allowed detection of divergent mitochondrial haplogroups in

  11. Ligands binding cadmium, zinc, and copper in a species of New Zealand oyster (Ostrea lutaria)

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.P.

    1983-04-01

    Analysis of Cd, Zn and Cu in the New Zealand oyster, Ostrea lutaria, showed that on an average it contained 5.8 ..mu..g Cd, 67 ..mu..g Zn and 14.1 ..mu..g Cu per g wet weight. Within the oyster tissue, the amount of Cd was equally distributed between the particulate and soluable (cytosol) fractions. The distribution of Zn and Cu was different, about 70% and 80% respectively being present in the cytosol. Separation of the Cd-binding ligands in the oyster cytosol on Sephadex G-75 column showed that about 60% of the cytosolic Cd was bound to high molecular weight (HMW) proteins eluted near the void volume. Similarly about 40% of Zn and Cu was also present in the HMW proteins.A significant proportion (32%) of the cytosolic Cd was present in low molecular weight (LMW) protein fractions. The protein was estimated to have a molecular weight in the range 6000 to 12,000 daltons and the protein fraction was defined as the metallothionein fraction. Only a very small amount (<1%) of Zn was associated with the MT fraction to the high concentration of Cu (2.23 ..mu..g Cu/g wet tissue). The LMW fraction of the oyster tissue cytosol had less than 1% of cytosolic Cd, but it contained a large proportion of Zn (about 60%) and Cu (about 32%).

  12. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Green, Dannielle Senga

    2016-09-01

    Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna.

  13. Trypanosoma humboldti n. sp. from the Chilean catshark, Schroederichthys chilensis (Guichenot, 1848).

    PubMed

    Morillas, J; George-Nascimento, M; Valeria, H; Khan, R A

    1987-08-01

    The morphology of Trypanosoma humboldti n. sp. is described from living and stained specimens obtained from the blood of a catshark, Schroederichthys chilensis. This represents the first report of a trypanosome in fish from the eastern Pacific Ocean. It is distinguished by its size and apparent lack of pleomorphism. The presence of a leech, Branchellion ravenellii, attached to the catshark, raises the possibility that it can act as a vector. Additionally, this leech is recorded for the first time from the Pacific Ocean.

  14. Reproductive biology of Zearaja chilensis (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, C; Vargas-Caro, C; Oddone, M C; Concha, F; Flores, H; Lamilla, J; Bennett, M B

    2012-04-01

    Between 2000 and 2002, three artisanal landing sites were sampled in southern Chile, with data on population structure and reproductive development collected from 5477 yellownose skates Zearaja chilensis. Total length (L(T) ) ranged from 33 to 158 cm for females and 34 to 155 cm for males. No sexual dimorphism was evident in disc size (length or width) or in L(T)-mass relationships. The smallest mature female was 95 cm L(T) and the size at which 50% were mature (L(T50) ) was 109 cm. Males matured between 80 and 90 cm L(T) with a L(T50) of 88 cm. Although the largest Z. chilensis captured by the artisanal fishery was 155 cm L(T) , 89% of landings comprised relatively small, immature fish. This situation may compromise the stock integrity if intrinsic vulnerability and probable long-life span of Z. chilensis are considered. Consequences for the survival of the species and possible signs of a fishery collapse must be reviewed by management authorities by consideration of both artisanal and industrial landings in Chile.

  15. Sequencing and de novo assembly of the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Aedo, J E; Maldonado, J; Estrada, J M; Fuentes, E N; Silva, H; Gallardo-Escarate, C; Molina, A; Valdés, J A

    2014-12-01

    The red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis) is an endemic fish species distributed along the coasts of the Eastern South Pacific. Biological studies on this fish are scarce, and genomic information for G. chilensis is practically non-existent. Thus, transcriptome information for this species is an essential resource that will greatly enrich molecular information and benefit future studies of red cusk-eel biology. In this work, we obtained transcriptome information of G. chilensis using the Illumina platform. The RNA sequencing generated 66,307,362 and 59,925,554 paired-end reads from skeletal muscle and liver tissues, respectively. De novo assembly using the CLC Genomic Workbench version 7.0.3 produced 48,480 contigs and created a reference transcriptome with a N50 of 846bp and average read coverage of 28.3×. By sequence similarity search for known proteins, a total of 21,272 (43.9%) contigs were annotated for their function. Out of these annotated contigs, 33.5% GO annotation results for biological processes, 32.6% GO annotation results for cellular components and 34.5% GO annotation results for molecular functions. This dataset represents the first transcriptomic resource for the red cusk-eel and for a member of the Ophidiimorpharia taxon.

  16. Ostalactones A-C, β- and ε-Lactones with Lipase Inhibitory Activity from the Cultured Basidiomycete Stereum ostrea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hahk-Soo; Kim, Jong-Pyung

    2016-12-23

    Ostalactones A-C (1-3), three new β- and ε-lactone natural products, were isolated from the culture broth of the basidiomycete Stereum ostrea. The structures were elucidated by interpretation of HRFABMS and 1D and 2D NMR data. The structures of 1 and 2 are characterized by the presence of a β-lactone containing a fused 4/5 bicyclic core structure. Compound 3 possesses a 2-oxepinone ring system, which is likely to be a biosynthetic precursor of compounds 1 and 2. Ostalactones A (1) and B (2) displayed potent inhibitory activity against human pancreatic lipase.

  17. Hsp70 expression in thermally stressed Ostrea edulis, a commercially important oyster in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Annamaria; Asirelli, Christian; Caselli, Federico; Fabbri, Elena

    2002-01-01

    Synthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in response to elevated temperatures and other denaturing agents is a common feature of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The heat-induced expression of Hsp70 family members in the gills and mantle of Ostrea edulis, a highly valued fisheries resource inhabiting primarily estuarine environments, has been studied. O edulis is exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stresses in the environment. Two isoforms of about 72 kDa and 77 kDa were constitutively present in unstressed organisms, reflecting the housekeeping function performed by these proteins under normal circumstances. Their expression in animals undergoing thermal stress was highly variable, and on the average, little change occurred under different experimental conditions. A third isoform of about 69 kDa was induced in both tissues after exposure to ≥32°C; its synthesis was detected within 4 hours of poststress recovery at 15°C, reaching the maximum expression after 24 hours in the gills and after 48 hours in the mantle and declining thereafter. Hsp69 expression was low at 38°C, a temperature lethal for about 50% of the individuals tested. Densitometric analysis of Western blots revealed that Hsp69 was mostly responsible for the significant heat-induced overexpression of Hsp70s in O edulis. Comparison with heat shock responses in tissues of Crassostrea gigas indicated a similar pattern of Hsp70 expression. In this organism, however, Hsp69 was induced after exposure to ≥38°C. We conclude that tissue expression of Hsp69 in O edulis, and possibly other bivalves, is an early sign of thermal stress; determining whether these changes also correlate with other major environmental stresses is the goal of ongoing studies. PMID:12482201

  18. Cloning and characterization of neoplasia-related genes in flat oyster Ostrea edulis.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gómez, Laura; Villalba, Antonio; Carballal, María Jesús; Abollo, Elvira

    2014-04-01

    Bonamiosis and disseminated neoplasia (DN) are the most important diseases affecting cultured flat oysters Ostrea edulis in Galicia (NW Spain). Previous research using suppresive substraction hybridisation that had been performed addressing the molecular basis of DN as well as the induction and development of the disease in oysters, yielded the whole open reading frame of nine genes: XBP-1, RACK, NDPk, C1qTNF, RPA3, SAP18, p23, ubiquitin and ferritin. These nine genes were characterized in this study. The phylogenetic relationships for each gene were studied using minimum-evolution methods. Quantitative-PCR assays were also developed to analyse the modulation of the expression of these genes by bonamiosis and disseminated neoplasia. Gene expression profiles were studied in haemolymph cells and in various organs (gill, gonad, mantle and digestive gland) of oysters affected by bonamiosis, disseminated neoplasia, both diseases and in non-affected oysters (control). The expression of XBP-1, NDPk, RPA3, SAP18 and ferritin increased in haemolymph cells of oysters with heavy bonamiosis. The expression of C1qTNF; SAP18 and p23 increased in haemolymph cells of oysters with DN. The expression of XBP-1, RACK, NDPk, RPA3 and p23 significantly increased in haemolymph cells of oysters affected by both diseases. There were changes in the expression of a number of genes in different organs depeding on disease stage: RACK expression increased in gills of oysters with bonamiosis, XBP-1 increased in mantle and digestive organs of oysters with light DN and RPA3 expression increased in gonads of oysters with heavy bonamiosis and heavy neoplasia.

  19. Role of microRNAs in the immunity process of the flat oyster Ostrea edulis against bonamiosis.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gómez, Laura; Villalba, Antonio; Kerkhoven, Ron H; Abollo, Elvira

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼22nt) non-coding regulatory single strand RNA molecules that reduce stability and/or translation of sequence-complementary target. miRNAs are a key component of gene regulatory networks and have been involved in a wide variety of biological processes, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Many miRNAs are broadly conserved among the animal lineages and even between invertebrates and vertebrates. The European flat oyster Ostrea edulis is highly susceptible to infection with Bonamia ostreae, an intracellular parasite able to survive and proliferate within oyster haemocytes. Mollusc haemocytes play a key role in the immune response of molluscs as main cellular effectors. The roles of miRNAs in the immune response of O. edulis to bonamiosis were analysed using a commercial microarray platform (miRCURY LNA™ v2, Exiqon) for miRNAs. Expression of miRNAs in haemocytes from oysters with different bonamiosis intensity was compared. Differential expression was detected in 63 and 76 miRNAs when comparing heavily-affected with non-affected oysters and with lightly-affected ones, respectively. Among them, 19 miRNAs are known to be linked to immune response, being responsible of proliferation and activation of macrophages, inflammation, apoptosis and/or oxidative damage, which is consistent with the modulation of their expression in oyster haemocytes due to bonamiosis.

  20. Screening of repetitive motifs inside the genome of the flat oyster (Ostrea edulis): Transposable elements and short tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Vera, Manuel; Bello, Xabier; Álvarez-Dios, Jose-Antonio; Pardo, Belen G; Sánchez, Laura; Carlsson, Jens; Carlsson, Jeanette E L; Bartolomé, Carolina; Maside, Xulio; Martinez, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    The flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) is one of the most appreciated molluscs in Europe, but its production has been greatly reduced by the parasite Bonamia ostreae. Here, new generation genomic resources were used to analyse the repetitive fraction of the oyster genome, with the aim of developing molecular markers to face this main oyster production challenge. The resulting oyster database, consists of two sets of 10,318 and 7159 unique contigs (4.8 Mbp and 6.8 Mbp in total length) representing the oyster's genome (WG) and haemocyte transcriptome (HT), respectively. A total of 1083 sequences were identified as TE-derived, which corresponded to 4.0% of WG and 1.1% of HT. They were clustered into 142 homology groups, most of which were assigned to the Penelope order of retrotransposons, and to the Helitron and TIR DNA-transposons. Simple repeats and rRNA pseudogenes, also made a significant contribution to the oyster's genome (0.5% and 0.3% of WG and HT, respectively).The most frequent short tandem repeats identified in WG were tetranucleotide motifs while trinucleotide motifs were in HT. Forty identified microsatellite loci, 20 from each database, were selected for technical validation. Success was much lower among WG than HT microsatellites (15% vs 55%), which could reflect higher variation in anonymous regions interfering with primer annealing. All microsatellites developed adjusted to Hardy-Weinberg proportions and represent a useful tool to support future breeding programmes and to manage genetic resources of natural flat oyster beds.

  1. Latitudinal variation in the degree of crassulacean acid metabolism in Puya chilensis.

    PubMed

    Quezada, I M; Zotz, G; Gianoli, E

    2014-07-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a photosynthetic pathway found in many plant species from arid and semiarid environments. Few studies aiming to characterise plant species as CAM or C3 account for inter-population differences in photosynthetic pathway, often relying on samples taken from herbarium material and/or a single plant or population. This may be especially problematic for species growing under contrasting climate conditions, as is the case for species with a wide geographic range. We used Puya chilensis, a species previously reported as CAM and C3, to study among-population variation in expression of the CAM pathway within its distribution range, which spans a significant climate gradient. We carried out a wide sampling scheme, including five populations and a combination of analytical methods (quantification of nocturnal acidification and stable isotope measurements). The study populations of P. chilensis encompass the entire latitudinal distribution range, from semi-arid to temperate oceanic climates. Our results indicate that CAM decreased with latitude. However, even in the southern (wetter) populations, where δ13C values were indicative of C3 metabolism, we found some nocturnal acidification. We stress the value of using two methods along with the use of samples from different populations, as this allows more reliable conclusions on the photosynthetic pathway for 'probable' CAM species that face varying climate conditions within their distribution ranges.

  2. Molecular detection of Plasmodium in free-ranging birds and captive flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gamble, Kathryn C; Krebs, Bethany; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Frozen blood samples from 13 species of free-ranging birds (n = 65) and captive Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) (n = 46) housed outdoors in the Chicago area were screened for Plasmodium. With the use of a modified polymerase chain reaction, 20/65 (30.8%) of free-ranging birds and 26/46 (56.5%) of flamingos were classified as positive for this parasite genus. DNA sequencing of the parasite cytochrome b gene in positive samples demonstrated that eight species of free-ranging birds were infected with five different Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages, and all positive Chilean flamingos were infected with Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages most closely related to organisms in the Novyella subgenus. These results show that Chilean flamingos may harbor subclinical malaria infections more frequently than previously estimated, and that they may have increased susceptibility to some Plasmodium species.

  3. Purification and characterization of saxitoxin from Mytilus chilensis of southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Rubio, D P; Roa, L G; Soto, D A; Velasquez, F J; Gregorcic, N A; Soto, J A; Martinez, M C; Kalergis, A M; Vasquez, A E

    2015-12-15

    In the current communication we describe an innovative method to purify saxitoxin (STX), a toxin presents in contaminated muscle of Mylitus chilensis extracted in the southern part of Chile, using a liquid chromatographic methodology based on ionic pairs. The STX was extracted using HCl and treated with ammonium sulfate following a treatment with trichloroacetic acid and hexane/diethyl ether (97/3). The samples were analyzed by a semi-preparative HPLC in order to collect pure fractions of STX and these fractions were eluted in solid-phase cationic interchange SCX extraction columns. The purified STX was stable and homogeneous and its identity was confirmed by LC-MS-MS, which demonstrated a high quality purification of STX, without presence of analogs such as neosaxitoxin (Neo) and decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX). The STX biological activity was analyzed in a bioassay in mice model and compared to the standard STX produced by the FDA and no significant differences were observed.

  4. Fatal Envenomation of a Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) From Eastern Yellow Jacket Wasps (Vespula maculifrons).

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Trupkiewicz, John G

    2014-12-01

    A 37-year-old, female Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) presented with severe facial angioedema, bilateral corneal and palpebral edema, nictitating membrane paralysis, bradycardia, bradypnea, hypothermia, and numerous stingers and remnants of eastern yellow jacket wasps (Vespula maculifrons) attached to the feathers of the head, palpebrae, and conjunctiva. Evaluation of 2 complete blood cell counts and results of plasma chemical analysis and serum protein electrophoresis revealed severe increases in creatinine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, electrolyte disturbances, and moderate increases in levels of α1, α2, β1, and γ immunoglobulins when compared with reference interval values and conspecifics. Despite intensive treatment, the bird died 19 hours after presentation. Results of histologic evaluation of tissues were compatible with envenomation. Response to envenomation in avian species is not documented but should be considered in birds presenting with angioedema.

  5. Saxitoxin Modulates Immunological Parameters and Gene Transcription in Mytilus chilensis Hemocytes

    PubMed Central

    Astuya, Allisson; Carrera, Crisleri; Ulloa, Viviana; Aballay, Ambbar; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Hégaret, Hélène; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) is a neurotoxin produced by dinoflagellates in diverse species, such as Alexandrium spp., and it causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans after the ingestion of contaminated shellfish. Recent studies have suggested that the immune functions of bivalves could be affected by harmful algae and/or by their toxins. Herein, hemocytes are the main effector cells of the immune cellular response. In this study, we evaluated the response of hemocytes from the mussel Mytilus chilensis to STX exposure in a primary culture. Cell cultures were characterized according to size and complexity, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated using a dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Finally, phagocytic activity was measured using both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy assays. Additionally, gene transcription of candidate genes was evaluated by qPCR assays. The results evidenced that exposures to different concentrations of STX (1–100 nM) for 24 h did not affect cell viability, as determined by an MTT assay. However, when hemocytes were exposed for 4 or 16 h to STX (1–100 nM), there was a modulation of phagocytic activity and ROS production. Moreover, hemocytes exposed to 100 nM of STX for 4 or 16 h showed a significant increase in transcript levels of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT), mitochondrial enzymes (COI, COIII, CYTB, ATP6, ND1) and ion channels (K+, Ca2+). Meanwhile, C-type lectin and toll-like receptor genes revealed a bi-phase transcriptional response after 16 and 24–48 h of exposure to STX. These results suggest that STX can negatively affect the immunocompetence of M. chilensis hemocytes, which were capable of responding to STX exposure in vitro by increasing the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26154765

  6. Phospholipases and galactolipases trigger oxylipin-mediated wound-activated defence in the red alga Gracilaria chilensis against epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Lion, Ulrich; Wiesemeier, Theresa; Weinberger, Florian; Beltrán, Jessica; Flores, Verónica; Faugeron, Sylvain; Correa, Juan; Pohnert, Georg

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the wound response of the commercially important red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, in order to obtain insight into its interaction with epiphytic pests. After wounding, the host releases free fatty acids as well as the hydroxylated eicosanoids, 8R-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (8-HETE) and 7S,8R-dihydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (7,8-di-HETE). While the release of free arachidonic acid and subsequent formation of 8-HETE is controlled by phospholipase A, 7,8-di-HETE production is independent of this lipase. This dihydroxylated fatty acid might be directly released from galactolipids. Physiologically relevant concentrations of oxylipins reduced spore settlement of Acrochaetium sp. (Rhodophyta, Acrochaetiaceae) and suppressed the development of hapteria in Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta, Ceramiaceae) when these model epiphytes were exposed to artificial surfaces that contained 8-HETE or 7,8-di-HETE. Thus, the immediate release of oxylipins can be seen as G. chilensis defence against epiphytes.

  7. De novo transcriptome analysis of the red seaweed Gracilaria chilensis and identification of linkers associated with phycobilisomes.

    PubMed

    Vorphal, María Alejandra; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Dagnino-Leone, Jorge; Vásquez, José Aleikar; Martínez-Oyanedel, José; Bunster, Marta

    2017-02-01

    This work reports the results of the Illumina RNA-Seq of a wild population of female haploid plants of Gracilaria chilensis (Bird et al., 1986) (Rhodophyta, Gigartinalis). Most transcripts were de novo assembled in 12,331 contigs with an average length of 1756bp, showing that 96.64% of the sequences were annotated with known proteins. In particular, the identification of linker proteins of phycobilisomes (PBS) is reported. Linker proteins have primary been identified in cyanobacteria but the information available about them in eukaryotic red alga is not complete, and this is the first report in G. chilensis. This resource will also provide the basis for the study of metabolic pathways related to polysaccharide production.

  8. The Potential of Algarrobo ( Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) for Regeneration of Desertified Soils: Assessing Seed Germination Under Saline Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Claus; Gachón, Paloma; Bravo, Jaime; Navarrete, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Due to their multipurpose use, leguminous trees are desirable for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Our aim was to investigate seed germination of the leguminous tree Prosopis chilensis in response to salinity, one of the major abiotic challenges of desertified soils. Germination percentages of seed from 12 wild P. chilensis populations were studied. Treatments included four aqueous NaCl concentrations (150, 300, 450, and 600 mM). In each population, the highest germination percentage was seen using distilled water (control), followed closely by 150 mM NaCl. At 300 mM NaCl or higher salt concentration, germination was progressively inhibited attaining the lowest value at 450 mM NaCl, while at 600 mM NaCl germination remained reduced but with large variation among group of samples. These results allowed us to allocate the 12 groups from where seeds were collected into three classes. First, the seeds from Huanta-Rivadavia showed the lowest percent germination for each salt condition. The second group was composed of moderately salt-tolerant seeds with 75 % germination at 300 mM NaCl, followed by 50 % germination at 450 mM NaCl and 30 % germination at 600 mM NaCl. The third group from Maitencillo and Rapel areas was the most salt tolerant with an impressive seed germination level of 97 % at 300 mM NaCl, 82 % at 450 mM NaCl, and 42 % at 600 mM NaCl. Our results demonstrate that P. chilensis seeds from these latter localities have an increased germination capability under saline stress, confirming that P. chilensis is an appropriate species to rehabilitate desertified soils.

  9. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    PubMed

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable.

  10. The Potential of Algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) for Regeneration of Desertified Soils: Assessing Seed Germination Under Saline Conditions.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Claus; Gachón, Paloma; Bravo, Jaime; Navarrete, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Due to their multipurpose use, leguminous trees are desirable for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Our aim was to investigate seed germination of the leguminous tree Prosopis chilensis in response to salinity, one of the major abiotic challenges of desertified soils. Germination percentages of seed from 12 wild P. chilensis populations were studied. Treatments included four aqueous NaCl concentrations (150, 300, 450, and 600 mM). In each population, the highest germination percentage was seen using distilled water (control), followed closely by 150 mM NaCl. At 300 mM NaCl or higher salt concentration, germination was progressively inhibited attaining the lowest value at 450 mM NaCl, while at 600 mM NaCl germination remained reduced but with large variation among group of samples. These results allowed us to allocate the 12 groups from where seeds were collected into three classes. First, the seeds from Huanta-Rivadavia showed the lowest percent germination for each salt condition. The second group was composed of moderately salt-tolerant seeds with 75% germination at 300 mM NaCl, followed by 50% germination at 450 mM NaCl and 30% germination at 600 mM NaCl. The third group from Maitencillo and Rapel areas was the most salt tolerant with an impressive seed germination level of 97% at 300 mM NaCl, 82 % at 450 mM NaCl, and 42 % at 600 mM NaCl. Our results demonstrate that P. chilensis seeds from these latter localities have an increased germination capability under saline stress, confirming that P. chilensis is an appropriate species to rehabilitate desertified soils.

  11. Disseminated neoplasia in flat oysters Ostrea edulis from Galicia (NW Spain): occurrence, ultrastructural aspects and relationship with bonamiosis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Fuentes, José; Villalba, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Disseminated neoplasia (DN) was one of the most important pathological conditions found in cultured flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) from different geographical origins grow in Galicia (NW Spain), during a two years selective breeding programme to produce oysters less susceptible to bonamiosis. Histological characteristics observed in oysters affected by DN included intense infiltration of connective tissue of various organs (gills, stomach, digestive gland and gonad) by large undifferentiated cells, with a large nucleus and a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. The main ultrastructural features were predominance of euchromatin over heterochromatin that was arrayed in small clumps in the nucleus, prominent granular nucleolus, swollen mitochondria with few cristae and high number of free ribosomes in the cytoplasm. A seasonal pattern of DN prevalence was detected, with higher values in spring-summer, but there were no significant differences between geographic origins or families within these origins. However, the intensity of the disease was significantly different between origins; oysters originating outside of Galicia (particularly those originating from Ireland) were more susceptible to develop advanced DN. DN (8%) and bonamiosis (4.9%) were found concurrently in oysters. The nature and significance of this association warrants more investigation to determine its importance, if any.

  12. Commercially sterilized mussel meats (Mytilus chilensis): a study on process yield.

    PubMed

    Almonacid, S; Bustamante, J; Simpson, R; Urtubia, A; Pinto, M; Teixeira, A

    2012-06-01

    The processing steps most responsible for yield loss in the manufacture of canned mussel meats are the thermal treatments of precooking to remove meats from shells, and thermal processing (retorting) to render the final canned product commercially sterile for long-term shelf stability. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the impact of different combinations of process variables on the ultimate drained weight in the final mussel product (Mytilu chilensis), while verifying that any differences found were statistically and economically significant. The process variables selected for this study were precooking time, brine salt concentration, and retort temperature. Results indicated 2 combinations of process variables producing the widest difference in final drained weight, designated best combination and worst combination with 35% and 29% yield, respectively. Significance of this difference was determined by employing a Bootstrap methodology, which assumes an empirical distribution of statistical error. A difference of nearly 6 percentage points in total yield was found. This represents a 20% increase in annual sales from the same quantity of raw material, in addition to increase in yield, the conditions for the best process included a retort process time 65% shorter than that for the worst process, this difference in yield could have significant economic impact, important to the mussel canning industry.

  13. [Use of mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Shuntz) in the manufacturing of cereal bars].

    PubMed

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Ugarte, V

    2000-06-01

    Cereal bars with peanut and walnut has shown to be snack foods of good organoleptic characteristics and high caloric value, due to their content of protein, lipids and carbohydrates. Cotyledons of mezquite seeds have a high protein content which biological quality improves with thermal processing like toasting, microwave or moist heat under pressure. The purposes of this research were to study the use of mezquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) in cereal bars with two different levels of peanut or walnut; and to determine the effect of two thermal treatment applied on the cotyledon upon the bar characteristics. Twelve different kind of bars were developed through the combination of two levels of peanut or walnut (15% and 18%); the use of mezquite cotyledon (0% and 6%); and the application of two thermal processing to the cotyledon (microwave and toasting). Cereal bars were analysed for chemical, physical and sensory characteristics: moisture, water activity, proximate chemical composition, sensory quality and acceptability. Moisture content of bars with peanut ranged between 10.4% and 10.9%; and for those with walnut, between 10.5% and 12.3%. Protein content was higher in the bars with mezquite cotiledon, being higher those with peanut. Thermal processing did not have any effect on the chemical composition. Bars with mezquite cotyledon treated by microwave showed a higher acceptability.

  14. The myostatin gene of Mytilus chilensis evidences a high level of polymorphism and ubiquitous transcript expression.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-02-15

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a protein of the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and plays a crucial role in muscular development for higher vertebrates. However, its biological function in marine invertebrates remains undiscovered. This study characterizes the full-length sequence of the Mytilus chilensis myostatin gene (Mc-MSTN). Furthermore, tissue transcription patterns and putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. The Mc-MSTN cDNA sequence showed 3528 base pairs (bp), consisting of 161 bp of 5' UTR, 2,110 bp of 3' UTR, and an open reading frame of 1,257 bp encoding for 418 amino acids and with an RXXR proteolytic site and nine cysteine-conserved residues. Gene transcription analysis revealed that the Mc-MSTN has ubiquitous expression among several tissues, with higher expression in the gonads and mantle than in the digestive gland, gills, and hemolymph. Furthermore, high levels of polymorphisms were detected (28 SNPs in 3'-UTR and 9 SNPs in the coding region). Two SNPs were non-synonymous and involved amino acid changes between Glu/Asp and Thr/Ile. Until now, the MSTN gene has been mainly related to muscle growth in marine bivalves. However, the present study suggests a putative biological function not entirely associated to muscle tissue and contributes molecular evidence to the current debate about the function of the MSTN gene in marine invertebrates.

  15. Left-right asymmetries and shape analysis on Ceroglossus chilensis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravi, Raffaella; Benítez, Hugo A.

    2013-10-01

    Bilateral symmetry is widespread in animal kingdom, however most animal can deviate from expected symmetry and manifest some kind of asymmetries. Fluctuating asymmetry is considered as a tool for valuating developmental instability, whereas directional asymmetry is inherited and could be used for evaluating evolutionary development. We use the method of geometric morphometrics to analyze left/right asymmetries in the whole body, in two sites and totally six populations of Ceroglossus chilensis with the aim to infer and explain morphological disparities between populations and sexes in this species. In all individuals analyzed we found both fluctuating asymmetry and directional asymmetry for size and shape variation components, and a high sexual dimorphism. Moreover a high morphological variability between the two sites emerged as well. Differences in diet could influence the expression of morphological variation and simultaneously affect body sides, and therefore contribute to the symmetric component of variation. Moreover differences emerged between two sites could be a consequence of isolation and fragmentation, rather than a response to local environmental differences between sampling sites.

  16. Oxidative stress and histological alterations produced by dietary copper in the fresh water bivalve Diplodon chilensis.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Sebastián E; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Luquet, Carlos M; Eppis, Maria Rosa; Bianchi, Laura; Ríos de Molina, María del Carmen

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the oxidative stress effects and histological alterations caused by dietary copper on the filter-feeding freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Bivalves were fed during 6 weeks with the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus previously exposed to copper. Metal concentration in algae cultures and bivalve digestive gland was measured by TXRF. A maximum accumulation of 0.49 μg Cu/mg protein was detected at week 6. Also at this week, the hepatosomatic index (HSI) showed the highest decrease (50%) in response to Cu exposure. SOD and GST activities were significantly increased at weeks 4, 5 and 6, reaching an activity on average 50% higher than in controls for GST. CAT activity and GSH increased significantly at weeks 5 and 6. Despite this response, oxidative damage measured as TBARS and carbonyl groups contents increased significantly at weeks 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Digestive tubule and duct atrophy and cell-type replacement in treated mussels were observed by histological studies. The presence of intracellular rhodanine-positive granules, suggests copper accumulation in intracellular vacuoles of digestive cells.

  17. Seasonal variation and resin composition in the Andean tree Austrocedrus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Olate, Verónica Rachel; Soto, Alex; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2014-05-21

    Little is known about the changes in resin composition in South American gymnosperms associated with the different seasons of the year. The diterpene composition of 44 resin samples from seven Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae) trees, including male and female individuals, was investigated in three different seasons of the year (February, June and November). Twelve main diterpenes were isolated by chromatographic means and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The diterpene composition was submitted to multivariate analysis to find possible associations between chemical composition and season of the year. The principal component analysis showed a clear relation between diterpene composition and season. The most characteristic compounds in resins collected in summer were Z-communic acid (9) and 12-oxo-labda-8(17),13E-dien-19 oic acid methyl ester (10) for male trees and 8(17),12,14-labdatriene (7) for female trees. For the winter samples, a clear correlation of female trees with torulosic acid (6) was observed. In spring, E-communic acid (8) and Z-communic acid (9) were correlated with female trees and 18-hydroxy isopimar-15-ene (1) with male tree resin. A comparison between percent diterpene composition and collection time showed p < 0.05 for isopimara-8(9),15-diene (2), sandaracopimaric acid (4), compound (7) and ferruginol (11).

  18. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  19. Uncovering the Complex Transcriptome Response of Mytilus chilensis against Saxitoxin: Implications of Harmful Algal Blooms on Mussel Populations

    PubMed Central

    Detree, Camille; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Roberts, Steven; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis. For this, RNA-seq and RT-qPCR approaches were used to evaluate the transcriptomic response of M. chilensis to a purified STX as well as in vivo Alexandrium catenella exposure. Approximately 800 million reads were assembled, generating 138,883 contigs that were blasted against the UniProt Mollusca database. Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) involved in mussel immunity, such as Toll-like receptors, tumor necrosis factor receptors, and scavenger-like receptors were found to be strongly upregulated at 8 and 16 h post-STX injection. These results suggest an involvement of PRRs in the response to STX, as well as identifying potential, novel STX-interacting receptors in this Chilean mussel. This study is the first transcriptomic overview of the STX-response in the edible species M. chilensis. However, the most significant contribution of this work is the identification of immune receptors and pathways potentially involved in the recognition and defense against STX’s toxicity and its impact of harmful algae blooms on wild and cultivated mussel populations. PMID:27764234

  20. Phylogenetic characterization of a novel herpesvirus found in the liver and lungs of a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    PubMed

    Coverdill, Christopher C; Barnes, Julie A; Garner, Michael M; Hinton, Kevin L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-05-01

    A novel herpesvirus was detected in a 17-day-old Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) with pneumonia, hepatopathy, and severe anemia that was housed in California. Postmortem examination identified a pale, enlarged liver, mildly increased fluid in the lungs, and red foci in the spleen. Histologic examination revealed marked hepatic necrosis with syncytia, splenic necrosis, and interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions within hepatocytes and in unidentified cells of the lung. Transmission electron microscopy identified virions consistent with a herpesvirus in the nucleus and cytoplasm of degenerative hepatocytes. Nested consensus PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis identified a novel herpesvirus within the genus Iltovirus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae.

  1. Biomarker responses to sewage pollution in freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) transplanted to a Patagonian river.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Rocchetta, Iara; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-09-19

    Field and laboratory experiments were combined to evaluate biomarker responses of Diplodon chilensis to sewage pollution. Mussels from an unpolluted area in Lacar lake (S0) were caged at a reference site (S1) and at two sites with increasing sewage pollution (S2, S3) in Pocahullo river (all in Argentina). After 1 month, gill (g) glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were found to be significantly elevated in S3, gGST being positively correlated with fecal bacteria (FC) concentration. Digestive gland (dg) enzyme activities were depressed and dgTBARS were increased in all transplanted mussels. After 3 mo, most variables returned to control levels in S1 mussels except for dgCAT and dgTBARS. After seven months, GST and CAT activities of S0 and S3 mussels were evaluated in the laboratory, before and after acute exposure (8 h) to high fecal bacteria concentration ([FC] in S3x 2). gGST increased in both groups, while dgGST responded only in S3 mussels. gCAT and dgCAT activities were similarly increased by acute exposure in both groups. Our results suggest that gGST and gCAT are suitable biomarkers for high FC pollution regardless of previous exposure history. In addition, we show that dgCAT is sensitive to the acute increase in FC load, both in naive and long-term exposed individuals, while dgGST becomes responsive after long-term acclimatization.

  2. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content.

  3. High resolution vertical distribution of the copepod Calanus chilensis in relation to the shallow oxygen minimum zone off northern Peru using LOKI, a new plankton imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirche, H. J.; Barz, K.; Ayon, P.; Schulz, J.

    2014-06-01

    The vertical distribution of copepodite stage V and adult Calanus chilensis was studied on two transects across the Humboldt Current System off northern Peru using the LOKI system. LOKI is an optical plankton recorder, which simultaneously collects images of zooplankton and environmental data such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence. Image quality allowed determination of CV, females and males and identification of C. chilensis from 3 co-occurring Calanid copepods. C. chilensis was inhabiting the upper 250 m. Highest abundances with a maximum of ca. 44.000 Ind. m-2 were observed in a narrow band within Cold Coastal Water at stations closest to the coast, coinciding with the Poleward Undercurrent. This raises questions for the life cycle closure within the Humboldt Current system. In contrast to observations in the southern part of the Humboldt Current System, the three stages studied were most abundant in hypoxic waters at oxygen concentrations between 5 and 50 μM. Thus C. chilensis seems to be the only species of the family Calanidae where not only a resting stage can tolerate hypoxia, but also both adult stages. This impacts availability to predators, as despite a locally high biomass only part of the population is available to anchovy and other important fish species which are restricted to waters with higher oxygen concentrations.

  4. Population density, sex ratio, body size and fluctuating asymmetry of Ceroglossus chilensis (Carabidae) in the fragmented Maulino forest and surrounding pine plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henríquez, Paula; Donoso, Denise S.; Grez, Audrey A.

    2009-11-01

    Habitat fragmentation results in new environmental conditions that may stress resident populations. Such stress may be reflected in demographical or morphological changes in the individuals inhabiting those landscapes. This study evaluates the effects of fragmentation of the Maulino forest on population density, sex ratio, body size, and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of the endemic carabid Ceroglossus chilensis. Individuals of C. chilensis were collected during 2006 in five locations at Los Queules National Reserve (continuous forest), in five forest fragments and in five areas of surrounding pine plantations (matrix). In each location, once a season, 40 pitfall traps (20 in the centre, 20 in the edge), were opened for 72 h. Population density of C. chilensis was higher in the small fragments than in the pine matrix, with intermediate densities in the continuous forest; sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1 in the three habitats. Individuals from the centre of fragments were smaller than those from the centre of continuous forest, and FA did not vary significantly among habitats. These results suggest that small forest fragments maintain dense populations of C. chilensis and therefore they must be considered in conservation strategies. Although the decrease of the body size suggests that small remnants should be connected by managing the structure of the surrounding matrix, facilitating the dispersion of this carabid across the landscape and avoiding possible antagonistic interactions inside small fragments.

  5. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2014-06-15

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  6. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  7. Comparison of haemocytic parameters among flat oyster Ostrea edulis stocks with different susceptibility to bonamiosis and the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Comesaña, Pilar; Casas, Sandra M; Cao, Asunción; Abollo, Elvira; Arzul, Isabelle; Morga, Benjamin; Villalba, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Farming of the flat oyster Ostrea edulis in Europe is severely constrained by the protozoan Bonamia ostreae. The introduction of the resistant species Crassostrea gigas has been a relief for the farmers, while the pilot programmes to select O. edulis strains resistant to bonamiosis performed in various countries can be seen as a promising strategy to minimise the effects of bonamiosis. However, the physiological bases of this differential susceptibility remain unknown. A search for an explanation of the intra and interspecific differences in oyster susceptibility to bonamiosis was accomplished by comparing some immune parameters among various O. edulis stocks and C. gigas. On December 2003, naïve and Bonamia-relatively resistant flat oysters from Ireland, Galician flat oysters and Pacific oysters C. gigas were deployed in a Galician area affected by bonamiosis; haemolymph samples were taken in February and May 2004. A new oyster deployment at the same place was carried out on June 2004 and haemolymph sampling was performed on April 2005. On November 2004, new sets of Irish flat oysters and C. gigas were deployed in Ireland and haemolymph sampling was performed in June 2005. Various haemocytic parameters were measured: total and differential haemocyte count, phagocytic ability, respiratory burst (superoxide anion [O(2)(-)] and hydrogen peroxide [H(2)O(2)]) and nitric oxide [NO] production. The comparison of the parameters was carried out at 3 levels: (1) between O. edulis and C. gigas, (2) among O. edulis stocks with different susceptibility to bonamiosis, and (3) between Bonamia-infected and non infected O. edulis. In addition, haemocyte-B. ostreaein vitro encounters were performed to analyse interspecific differences in the haemocytic respiratory burst, using flow cytometry. Significant differences associated with total and differential haemocyte count, and respiratory burst between O. edulis and C. gigas were detected, which could be linked to differences in

  8. Pharmacological reports about gastroprotective effects of methanolic extract from leaves of Solidago chilensis (Brazilian arnica) and its components quercitrin and afzelin in rodents.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Mariel; Mota da Silva, Luisa; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Cury, Benhur Judah; de Moura Burci, Ligia; Santin, José Roberto; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Monache, Franco Delle; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir

    2016-04-01

    Solidago chilensis Meyenmost (Asteraceae), popularly known as "Brazilian arnica" or "arnica-do-campo," is widely used in the folk medicine to treat gastric disorders. Based on this, the gastroprotective activity of S. chilensis methanolic extract was investigated. Besides, a phytochemical study allowed isolation of two flavonoids (quercitrin and afzelin). The gastroprotective effects were investigated in acute gastric ulcer models, and the antisecretory activity was assessed in vivo and in vitro. The adhered mucus levels, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were quantified in ulcerated tissues. The contribution of isolated compounds in extract effects was evaluated, and its doses were calculated according to its yield. To evaluate the in vivo healing properties of S. chilensis methanolic extract, a chronic gastric ulcer was induced in mice by 10 % acetic acid. Evaluation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels was also performed at the site of the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer. In parallel, effects on cell viability and cell proliferation of fibroblasts (L929 cells) were determined by in vitro trials. Firstly, the S. chilensis methanolic extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) reduced the ulcer area induced by ethanol/HCl in mice when compared to the vehicle group. Moreover, the S. chilensis extract (300 mg/kg) prevented the mucus depletion, the increase in MPO activity and the decrease in the GSH levels in the ulcerated gastric tissue. The S. chilensis extract also was able to decrease the indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The antisecretory effect of the extract (100 mg/kg, intraduodenal (i.d.)) was confirmed by the reduction in the volume and acidity in parallel to an increase in the pH of gastric content. In addition, quercitrin (1.38 mg/kg, but not 0.46 mg/kg) and afzelin (0.026 and 0.078 mg/kg) decreased the ethanol/HCl-induced gastric ulcer. In this model, quercitrin (1.38 mg/kg) prevented the depletion

  9. Tracing the Trans-Pacific Evolutionary History of a Domesticated Seaweed (Gracilaria chilensis) with Archaeological and Genetic Data

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Valero, Myriam; Faugeron, Sylvain; Nelson, Wendy; Destombe, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The history of a domesticated marine macroalga is studied using archaeological, phylogeographic and population genetic tools. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses demonstrated that the cultivated red alga Gracilaria chilensis colonised the Chilean coast from New Zealand. Combining archaeological observations with phylogeographic data provided evidence that exchanges between New Zealand and Chile have occurred at least before the Holocene, likely at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and we suggest that migration probably occurred via rafting. Furthermore, the remarkably low microsatellite diversity found in the Chilean populations compared to those in New Zealand is consistent with a recent genetic bottleneck as a result of over-exploitation of natural populations and/or the process of domestication. Therefore, the aquaculture of this seaweed, based essentially on clonal propagation, is occurring from genetically depressed populations and may be driving the species to an extinction vortex in Chile. PMID:25501717

  10. Stable oxygen isotopes (delta18(O)) in Austrocedrus chilensis tree rings reflect climate variability in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Roig, F A; Siegwolf, R; Boninsegna, J A

    2006-11-01

    The stable oxygen isotope (delta (18)O) composition of Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Endl. (Cupressaceae) tree rings potentially provide retrospective views of changes in environment and climate in the semi-arid lands of Patagonia. We report the development of the first annually resolved delta (18)O tree-ring chronology obtained from natural forests of the foothills of the northwestern Patagonian Andes. The isotope record spans between 1890 and 1994 AD. We explore the probable links between this record and the climate of the region. Air temperatures during summer conditions are significantly, but not strongly, inversely correlated with annual delta (18)O values from Austrocedrus tree rings. The strongest correlations are between the southern oscillation index (SOI) and the tree rings. The existence of millennial-age Austrocedrus trees in northern Patagonia provides interesting possibilities for examining these climate-related isotopic signals over most of the last 1,000 years.

  11. Tracing the trans-pacific evolutionary history of a domesticated Seaweed (Gracilaria chilensis) with archaeological and genetic data.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Valero, Myriam; Faugeron, Sylvain; Nelson, Wendy; Destombe, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The history of a domesticated marine macroalga is studied using archaeological, phylogeographic and population genetic tools. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses demonstrated that the cultivated red alga Gracilaria chilensis colonised the Chilean coast from New Zealand. Combining archaeological observations with phylogeographic data provided evidence that exchanges between New Zealand and Chile have occurred at least before the Holocene, likely at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and we suggest that migration probably occurred via rafting. Furthermore, the remarkably low microsatellite diversity found in the Chilean populations compared to those in New Zealand is consistent with a recent genetic bottleneck as a result of over-exploitation of natural populations and/or the process of domestication. Therefore, the aquaculture of this seaweed, based essentially on clonal propagation, is occurring from genetically depressed populations and may be driving the species to an extinction vortex in Chile.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC MARKERS LINKED TO SEX DETERMINATION IN THE HAPLOID-DIPLOID RED ALGA GRACILARIA CHILENSIS(1).

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Huanel, Oscar R; Martínez, Enrique A

    2012-04-01

    Bulk segregant analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) methods were used to identify sex-linked molecular markers in the haploid-diploid rhodophyte Gracilaria chilensis C. J. Bird, McLachlan et E. C. Oliveira. One hundred and eighty 10 bp primers were tested on three bulks of DNA: haploid males, haploid females, and diploid tetrasporophytes. Three RAPD primers (OPD15, OPG16, and OPN20) produced male-specific bands; and one RAPD primer (OPD12), a female-specific band. The sequences of the cloned putative sex-specific PCR fragments were used to design specific primers for the female marker SCAR-D12-386 and the male marker SCAR-G16-486. Both SCAR markers gave unequivocal band patterns that allowed sex and phase to be determined in G. chilensis. Thus, all the females presented only the female band, and all the males only the male band, while all the tetrasporophytes amplified both male and female bands. Despite this sex-specific association, we were able to amplify SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486 in both sexes at low melting temperature. The differences between male and female sequences were of 8%-9% nucleotide divergence for SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486, respectively. SCAR-D12-386 and SCAR-G16-486 could represent degenerated or diverged sequences located in the nonrecombining region of incipient sex chromosomes or heteromorphic sex chromosomes with sequence differences at the DNA level such that PCR primers amplify only one allele and not the other in highly specific PCR conditions. Seven gametic progenies composed of 19 males, 19 females, and the seven parental tetrasporophytes were analyzed. In all of them, the two SCAR markers segregated perfectly with sexual phenotypes.

  13. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  14. Up-regulation of lipoxygenase, phospholipase, and oxylipin-production in the induced chemical defense of the red alga Gracilaria chilensis against epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Florian; Lion, Ulrich; Delage, Ludovic; Kloareg, Bernard; Potin, Philippe; Beltrán, Jessica; Flores, Verónica; Faugeron, Sylvain; Correa, Juan; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-07-01

    The red alga Gracilaria chilensis is commercially farmed for the production of agar hydrocolloids, but some susceptible algae in farms suffer from intense epiphyte growth. We investigated the induced chemical defense response of G. chilensis against epiphytes and demonstrated that an extract of an epiphyte-challenged alga can trigger a defense response. The hormonally active metabolites were purified by RP-HPLC. Treatment with the extract or the purified fraction changed the chemical profile of the alga and increased resistance against epiphyte spores. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme assays demonstrated that this metabolic response occurs after an increase in lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 activity. Although this suggests the involvement of regulatory oxylipins, neither jasmonic acid nor the algal metabolite prostaglandin E2 triggers comparable defense responses.

  15. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

    PubMed

    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales.

  16. Biosynthesis of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK cultured in cellulose pulp mill effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Tobella, Lorena M; Bunster, Marta; Pooley, Amalia; Becerra, José; Godoy, Felix; Martínez, Miguel A

    2005-09-01

    Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) polymer is synthesized by different bacterial species. There has been considerable interest in the development and production of biodegradable polymers; however, the high cost of PHA production has restricted its applications. Kraft cellulose industry effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (10 or 20 microg ml(-1)) were used by the bacteria Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK to synthesize PHA. In this condition, S. chilensis S37 was able to grow and degrade 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (ca. 60%) and 80% of these cells accumulated PHA. Wautersia PZK completely degraded 2,4,6-TCP and more than 90% of the cells accumulated PHA in 72 h. The PHA detection was performed by flow cytometry and polyester composition was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), indicating that these polymers are made by 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid for S37 and PZK strains, respectively. Results demonstrated that strains' growth and PHA production and composition are not modified in cellulose effluents with or without 2,4,6-TCP (10-20 microg ml(-1)). Therefore, our results indicate that S. chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK are able to degrade a toxic compound such as a 2,4,6-TCP and simultaneously produce a valuable biopolymer using low-value substrates.

  17. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E.; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic–Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales. PMID:26790149

  18. Identification of limiting climatic and geographical variables for the distribution of the tortoise Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae): a baseline for conservation actions

    PubMed Central

    Leynaud, Gerardo C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Just as for most other tortoise species, the once common Chaco tortoise, Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae), is under constant threat across it distribution in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. Despite initial qualitative description of the species distribution and further individual reports of new locations for the species, there is no description of the species distribution in probabilistic terms. With this work we aim to produce an updated predictive distribution map for C. chilensis to serve as a baseline management tool for directed strategic conservation planning. Methods. We fitted a spatially expanded logistic regression model within the Bayesian framework that accounts for uncertainty on presence-only and generated pseudo-absence data into the parameter estimates. We contrast the results with reported data for the national networks of protected areas to assess the inclusion of the species in area-based conservation strategies. Results. We obtained maps with predictions of the occurrence of the species and reported the model’s uncertainty spatially. The model suggests that potential suitable habitats for the species are continuous across Argentina, West Paraguay and South Bolivia, considering the variables, the scale and the resolution used. The main limiting variables were temperature-related variables, and precipitation in the reproductive period. Discussion. Given the alarming low density and coverage of protected areas over the distribution area of C. chilensis, the map produced provides a baseline to identify areas where directed strategic conservation management actions would be more efficient for this and other associated species. PMID:26557430

  19. The Megavirus Chilensis Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutase: the First Viral Structure of a Typical Cellular Copper Chaperone-Independent Hyperstable Dimeric Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Lartigue, Audrey; Burlat, Bénédicte; Coutard, Bruno; Chaspoul, Florence; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Giant viruses able to replicate in Acanthamoeba castellanii penetrate their host through phagocytosis. After capsid opening, a fusion between the internal membranes of the virion and the phagocytic vacuole triggers the transfer in the cytoplasm of the viral DNA together with the DNA repair enzymes and the transcription machinery present in the particles. In addition, the proteome analysis of purified mimivirus virions revealed the presence of many enzymes meant to resist oxidative stress and conserved in the Mimiviridae. Megavirus chilensis encodes a predicted copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), an enzyme known to detoxify reactive oxygen species released in the course of host defense reactions. While it was thought that the metal ions are required for the formation of the active-site lid and dimer stabilization, megavirus chilensis SOD forms a very stable metal-free dimer. We used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis and activity measurements to show that the supplementation of the bacterial culture with copper and zinc during the recombinant expression of Mg277 is sufficient to restore a fully active holoenzyme. These results demonstrate that the viral enzyme's activation is independent of a chaperone both for disulfide bridge formation and for copper incorporation and suggest that its assembly may not be as regulated as that of its cellular counterparts. A SOD protein is encoded by a variety of DNA viruses but is absent from mimivirus. As in poxviruses, the enzyme might be dispensable when the virus infects Acanthamoeba cells but may allow megavirus chilensis to infect a broad range of eukaryotic hosts. IMPORTANCE Mimiviridae are giant viruses encoding more than 1,000 proteins. The virion particles are loaded with proteins used by the virus to resist the vacuole's oxidative stress. The megavirus chilensis virion contains a predicted copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD). The corresponding gene is present in some megavirus

  20. Herpesvirus infection in European flat oysters Ostrea edulis obtained from brood stocks of various geographic origins and grown in Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    da Silva, P Mirella; Renault, Tristan; Fuentes, José; Villalba, Antonio

    2008-01-24

    We evaluated differences in productive traits and disease susceptibility among Ostrea edulis stocks. We produced 4 to 5 families from each of 4 oyster populations (Irish, Greek and 2 Galician) in a hatchery. Spat corresponding to 19 different families were transferred to a raft in the Ría de Arousa (Galicia, Spain) for grow-out. Samples of each family were histologically processed every month for 2 yr. One of the pathological conditions disclosed by histological examination was characterised by the occurrence of numerous abnormal cells throughout the connective tissue of various organs, showing hypertrophied nuclei with marginated chromatin and a characteristic large intranuclear acidophilic inclusion. Ultrastructural examination showed that the abnormal cells contained herpesvirus-like particles. In situ hybridisation assay using a DNA probe specific for Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) confirmed that the abnormal cells were infected by OsHV-1 or a closely related herpesvirus. All cases of this pathological condition, except one, were detected during the first year of grow-out; thus it was mostly restricted to juvenile stages. The disease was detected in oysters of each origin but it was not found in all families of each origin, thus suggesting significant parental influence in the susceptibility to this disease or significant influence of the infective status of the parents on the infection of the progeny (vertical transmission). This pathological condition was likely responsible for oyster mortality to some extent during the first year of grow-out.

  1. Infection dynamics of Marteilia refringens in flat oyster Ostrea edulis and copepod Paracartia grani in a claire pond of Marennes-Oléron Bay.

    PubMed

    Audemard, Corinne; Sajus, Marie-Céline; Barnaud, Antoine; Sautour, Benoit; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Berthe, Frank J C

    2004-10-21

    The protozoan parasite Marteilia refringens has been partly responsible for the severe decrease in the production of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis Linnaeus in France since the 1970s. The calanoid copepod Paracartia grani Sars was recently found to be a host for M. refringens in French shallow-water oyster ponds ('claires'). This study reconsidered M. refringens transmission dynamics in the light of this finding, taking into account not only oyster infection dynamics and environmental factors but also data concerning the copepod host. P. grani population dynamics in the claire under study revealed that this species is the dominant planktonic copepod in this confined ecosystem. During winter, M. refringens overwintered in O. edulis, with P. grani existing only as resting eggs in the sediment. The increase in temperature in spring controlled and synchronized both the release of M. refringens sporangia in the oyster feces, and the hatching of the benthic resting eggs of the copepod. Infection of oysters by M. refringens was limited to June, July and August, coinciding with (1) the highest temperature recorded in the claire, and (2) the highest abundance of P. grani. PCR detection of M. refringens in P. grani during the summer period was linked to the release of parasite sporangia by the oyster. Our results are supported by previous results on the effective transmission of this parasite from the oyster to the copepod.

  2. The chilean superfruit black-berry Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae), Maqui as mediator in inflammation-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Cespedes, Carlos L; Pavon, Natalia; Dominguez, Mariana; Alarcon, Julio; Balbontin, Cristian; Kubo, Isao; El-Hafidi, Mohammed; Avila, Jose G

    2016-12-28

    The effects of phytochemicals occurred in fractions and extracts of fruits of "Maqui-berry" (Aristotelia chilensis), on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible-nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and the production of proinflammatory mediators were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW-264 cells, as well as their antioxidant activities. The MeOH extract (A), acetone/methanol extract (B), fractions F3, F4, subfractions (SF4-SF6, SF7, SF8-SF10, SF11-SF15, SF16-SF20), quercetin, gallic acid, luteolin, myricetin, mixtures M1, M2 and M3 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The results indicated that anthocyanins, flavonoids and its mixtures suppressed the LPS induced production of nitric oxide (NO), through the down-regulation of iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions and showed a potent antioxidant activity against SOD, ABTS, TBARS, ORAC, FRAP and DCFH. The inhibition of enzymes and NO production by selected fractions and compounds was dose-dependent with significant effects seen at concentration as low as 1.0-50.0 (ppm) and 5.0-10.0 μM, for samples (extracts, fractions, subfractions and mixtures) and pure compounds, respectively. Thus, the phenolics (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and organic acids) as the fractions and mixtures may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation associated disorders and therefore might be used as antagonizing agents to ameliorate the effects of oxidative stress.

  3. Isolation and identification of Vibrio toranzoniae associated with diseased red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis) farmed in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Aide; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Estrada, Juan M; Romalde, Jesús L

    2015-09-30

    The present study deals with the first isolation of Vibrio toranzoniae from cultured red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis). During the summer season of 2011, mortalities were observed in young red conger eel at one aquaculture experimental rearing system in Quintay, Valparaiso, Chile. The microbiological analysis of the diseased fish resulted in the isolation of three dominant and representative isolates, designated as R.17, R.18 and R.19, which were obtained from gill, fin and external lesions from three different fish, respectively. All isolates were identified as V. toranzoniae by means of a polyphasic taxonomic approach, including phenotypic characterization, sequencing of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Inoculation of a representative strain (R18) in turbot as model fish species demonstrated the pathogenic potential for fish of the Chilean isolates. Results obtained indicate that the geographical and host distribution of V. toranzoniae is wider than expected, and that this species may have negative incidence in the culture of marine organisms.

  4. Lineage divergence, local adaptation across a biogeographic break, and artificial transport, shape the genetic structure in the ascidian Pyura chilensis.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Nicolás I; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Poulin, Elie; Haye, Pilar A

    2017-03-16

    Marine benthic organisms inhabit a heterogeneous environment in which connectivity between populations occurs mainly through dispersive larval stages, while local selective pressures acting on early life history stages lead to non-random mortality, shaping adaptive genetic structure. In order to test the influence of local adaptation and neutral processes in a marine benthic species with low dispersal, in this study we used Genotyping by Sequencing technology to compare the neutral and putatively selected signals (neutral and outlier loci, respectively) in SNPs scattered throughout the genome in six local populations of the commercially exploited ascidian Pyura chilensis along the southeast Pacific coast (24°-42°S). This species is sessile as an adult, has a short-lived larval stage, and may also be dispersed by artificial transport as biofouling. We found that the main signal in neutral loci was a highly divergent lineage present at 39°S, and a subjacent signal that indicated a separation at 30°S (north/south), widely reported in the area. North/south separation was the main signal in outlier loci, and the linage divergence at 39°S was subjacent. We conclude that the geographic structure of the genetic diversity of outlier and neutral loci was established by different strengths of environmental, historical and anthropogenic factors.

  5. Lineage divergence, local adaptation across a biogeographic break, and artificial transport, shape the genetic structure in the ascidian Pyura chilensis

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Nicolás I.; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Poulin, Elie; Haye, Pilar A.

    2017-01-01

    Marine benthic organisms inhabit a heterogeneous environment in which connectivity between populations occurs mainly through dispersive larval stages, while local selective pressures acting on early life history stages lead to non-random mortality, shaping adaptive genetic structure. In order to test the influence of local adaptation and neutral processes in a marine benthic species with low dispersal, in this study we used Genotyping by Sequencing technology to compare the neutral and putatively selected signals (neutral and outlier loci, respectively) in SNPs scattered throughout the genome in six local populations of the commercially exploited ascidian Pyura chilensis along the southeast Pacific coast (24°–42°S). This species is sessile as an adult, has a short-lived larval stage, and may also be dispersed by artificial transport as biofouling. We found that the main signal in neutral loci was a highly divergent lineage present at 39°S, and a subjacent signal that indicated a separation at 30°S (north/south), widely reported in the area. North/south separation was the main signal in outlier loci, and the linage divergence at 39°S was subjacent. We conclude that the geographic structure of the genetic diversity of outlier and neutral loci was established by different strengths of environmental, historical and anthropogenic factors. PMID:28300177

  6. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-02-01

    A combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphologies and ecologies has enabled major advances in understanding the taxonomy of Sporothrix species, including members exhibiting distinct lifestyles such as saprobes, human/animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1/2 + 5.8s sequences split Sporothrix genus in two well-defined groups with dissimilar ecologies. Species embedded in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are frequently agents of human and animal sporotrichosis, and some of these are responsible for large sapronoses and zoonoses around the warmer temperate regions of the world. At the other extreme, basal saprophytic species evolved in association with decaying wood and soil, and are rarely found to cause human disease. We propose to create a new taxa, Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov., to accommodate strains collected from a clinical case of onychomycosis as well as from environmental origins in Chile. Multigene analyses based on ITS1/2 + 5.8s region, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor 1α revealed that S. chilensis is a member of the Sporothrix pallida complex, and the nearest taxon is Sporothrix mexicana, a rare soil-borne species, non-pathogenic to humans. The ITS region serves as a primary barcode marker, while each one of the protein-coding loci easily recognized species boundaries providing sufficient information for species identification. A disseminated model of murine sporotrichosis revealed a mild-pathogenic potential, with lung invasion. Although S. chilensis is not a primary pathogen, accidental infection may have an impact in the immunosuppressed population. With the introduction of distinct species with similar routes of transmission but different virulence, identification of Sporothrix agents at the species level is mandatory.

  7. Towards sustainable fishery management for skates in South America: The genetic population structure of Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma (Chondrichthyes, Rajiformes) in the south-east Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Carlos; Bennett, Michael B.; Ovenden, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    The longnose skates (Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma) are the main component of the elasmobranch fisheries in the south-east Pacific Ocean. Both species are considered to be a single stock by the fishery management in Chile however, little is known about the level of demographic connectivity within the fishery. In this study, we used a genetic variation (560 bp of the control region of the mitochondrial genome and ten microsatellite loci) to explore population connectivity at five locations along the Chilean coast. Analysis of Z. chilensis populations revealed significant genetic structure among off-shore locations (San Antonio, Valdivia), two locations in the Chiloé Interior Sea (Puerto Montt and Aysén) and Punta Arenas in southern Chile. For example, mtDNA haplotype diversity was similar across off-shore locations and Punta Arenas (h = 0.46–0.50), it was significantly different to those in the Chiloé Interior Sea (h = 0.08). These results raise concerns about the long-term survival of the species within the interior sea, as population resilience will rely almost exclusively on self-recruitment. In contrast, little evidence of genetic structure was found for D. trachyderma. Our results provide evidence for three management units for Z. chilensis, and we recommend that separate management arrangements are required for each of these units. However, there is no evidence to discriminate the extant population of Dipturus trachyderma as separate management units. The lack of genetic population subdivision for D. trachyderma appears to correspond with their higher dispersal ability and more offshore habitat preference. PMID:28207832

  8. Detection of domoic acid in Mytilus galloprovincialis and Ostrea edulis linked to the presence of Nitzschia bizertensis in Bizerte Lagoon (SW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchouicha-Smida, Donia; Lundholm, Nina; Sahraoui, Inès; Lambert, Christophe; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Hlaili, Asma Sakka

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal variation of DA in bivalves was monitored from August 2008 to March 2009 at a shellfish station in Bizerte Lagoon, one of the most important shellfish areas in Tunisia. At the same time, dynamics of potentially toxic diatoms was studied at six stations in the lagoon. Several diatom strains were isolated, maintained in culture and their identification as well as the toxicity was examined. During the study period, domoic acid (DA) was detected in Tunisia, in both mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis: 0.13-0.86 μg DA g-1 tissue) and oysters (Ostrea edulis: 0.42-1.04 μg DA g-1 tissue). The amount of DA in the two species was below the EU guideline limits for shellfish (20 μg DA g-1). Within the phytoplankton community, potentially toxic diatoms were observed in high densities (104-106 cells l-1). Among the 9 established cultured strains, seven were identified as the recently described species Nitzschia bizertensis sp. nov, which is apparently a commonly occurring species in the Bizerte Lagoon. Among tested five strains of N. bizertensis, four were confirmed to be toxin producers, containing 2-7 × 10-3 pg DA cell-1 during stationary growth phase. Our results indicate for the first time a Nitzschia species, here Nitzschia bizertensis, could be in relation to accumulation of DA in shellfish. Monitoring of DA in phytoplankton and shellfish should be considered for Bizerte Lagoon in order to gain knowledge about the ecology and toxin-production of N. bizertensis and to explore the risk of DA accumulation in the local shellfish industry caused by this species.

  9. Using particle dispersal models to assist in the conservation and recovery of the overexploited native oyster (Ostrea edulis) in an enclosed sea lough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, David; Kregting, Louise; Elsäßer, Björn; Kennedy, Richard; Roberts, Dai

    2016-02-01

    Oyster populations around the world have seen catastrophic decline which has been largely attributed to overexploitation, disease and pollution. While considerable effort and resources have been implemented into restoring these important environmental engineers, the success of oyster populations is often limited by poor understanding of site-specific dispersal patterns of propagules. Water-borne transport is a key factor controlling or regulating the dispersal of the larval stage of benthic marine invertebrates which have limited mobility. The distribution of the native oyster Ostrea edulis in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland, together with their densities and population structure at subtidal and intertidal sites has been documented at irregular intervals between 1997 and 2013. This paper revisits this historical data and considers whether different prevailing environmental conditions can be used to explain the distribution, densities and population structure of O. edulis in Strangford Lough. The approach adopted involved comparing predictive 2D hydrodynamic models coupled with particle tracking to simulate the dispersal of oyster larvae with historical and recent field records of the distribution of both subtidal and intertidal, populations since 1995. Results from the models support the hypothesis that commercial stocks of O. edulis introduced into Strangford Lough in the 1990s resulted in the re-establishment of wild populations of oysters in the Northern Basin which in turn provided a potential source of propagules for subtidal populations. These results highlight that strategic site selection (while inadvertent in the case of the introduced population in 1995) for the re-introduction of important shellfish species can significantly accelerate their recovery and restoration.

  10. First Harvestman Record for the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, with Morphological Notes on Acropsopilio chilensis (Opiliones: Caddidae: Acroposopilioninae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Abel; Ramírez, Martín J; Soto, Eduardo M; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-08-15

    Acropsopilio chilensis Silvestri, 1904 (Eupnoi: Caddidae: Acropsopilioninae), is recorded for Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. This is the first harvestman species recorded for the Juan Fernández Archipelago and also the first extra-continental record for this species. During the comparison with continental co-specific specimens, some previously unknown, remarkable morphological characteristics were discovered, among them: the absence of ovipositor seminal receptacles and tracheal system, small and probably imperforate spiracles and the presence of a subdistal spiny structure, maybe a stylus, in the major branch of the penis. 

  11. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

    PubMed Central

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  12. A Clinical Trial with Brazilian Arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen) Glycolic Extract in the Treatment of Tendonitis of Flexor and Extensor Tendons of Wrist and Hand.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ary Gomes; Machado, Elbe Rodrigues; de Almeida, Leonardo Mendes; Nunes, Ricardo Marcelo Menezes; Giesbrecht, Patrícia Caldeira Pena; Costa, Regina Mamed; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Kuster, Ricardo Machado

    2015-06-01

    One of the Brazilian arnicas, Solidago chilensis Meyen, is a species of the Asteraceae family. This plant is known by this common name because it shares remarkably similar organoleptic properties with the genus Arnica L., also within the family Asteraceae. We examined the effectiveness of the S. chilensis fluid extract used externally for treating tendinitis of flexor and extensor tendons of wrist and hand in placebo-controlled double-blind clinical pharmacological studies. This study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Scientific Research in Human Beings at University Vila Velha-UVV. Two daily skin applications on the arm skin of a gel cream containing a 5% glycolic plant extract were administered to eight volunteers for 21 days. Among the volunteers, one of their arms was used as the placebo group, and the other one was used as a test group. Statistical data analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in the perception of pain in the arms in the test group, when it was compared to those receiving only the placebo.

  13. Aerobic secondary utilization of a non-growth and inhibitory substrate 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and sphingopyxis-like strain S32.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Carlos; Godoy, Félix; Becerra, José; Barra, Ricardo; Martínez, Miguel

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (246TCP) degradation by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Sphingopyxis chilensis-like strain S32, which were unable to use 246TCP as the sole carbon and energy source. In R2A broth, the strains degraded 246TCP up to 0.5 mM. Results with mixtures of different 246TCP and glucose concentrations in mineral salt media demonstrated dependence on glucose to allow bacterial growth and degradation of 246TCP. Strain S32 degraded halophenol up to 0.2 mM when 5.33 mM glucose was simultaneously added, while strain S37 degraded the compound up to 0.1 mM when 1.33 mM glucose was added. These 246TCP concentrations were lethal for inocula in absence of glucose. Stoichiometric releases of chloride and analysis by HPLC, GC-ECD and GC-MS indicated 246TCP mineralisation by both strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacteria able to mineralize a chlorophenol as a non-growth and inhibitory substrate. The concept of secondary utilization instead of cometabolism is proposed for this activity.

  14. Deep sequencing reveals the complete genome and evidence for transcriptional activity of the first virus-like sequences identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry).

    PubMed

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F; Alzate, Juan F; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-04-03

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%-73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant.

  15. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves.

  16. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome and Evidence for Transcriptional Activity of the First Virus-Like Sequences Identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry)

    PubMed Central

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F.; Alzate, Juan F.; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%–73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant. PMID:25855242

  17. Oceanisphaera ostreae sp. nov., isolated from seawater of an oyster farm, and emended description of the genus Oceanisphaera Romanenko et al. 2003.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Chan; Kang, So-Jung; Jung, Yong-Taek; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2011-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, motile, non-spore-forming and short rod- or rod-shaped bacterial strain, T-w6(T), was isolated from seawater of an oyster farm in the South Sea, Korea. Strain T-w6(T) grew optimally at 25 °C and in the presence of 2% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain T-w6(T) joined the cluster comprising Oceanisphaera species with a bootstrap resampling value of 90.8%, and this cluster joined the clade comprising members of the genera Oceanimonas and Zobellella with a bootstrap resampling value of 100%. Strain T-w6(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.9 and 96.6% to the type strains of Oceanisphaera litoralis and Oceanisphaera donghaensis, respectively. Strain T-w6(T) and the type strains of Oceanisphaera litoralis and Oceanisphaera donghaensis had Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16:1)ω7c, C(18:1)ω7c and C(16:0) as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content of strain T-w6(T) was 56.6 mol%. Mean DNA-DNA relatedness of strain T-w6(T) with Oceanisphaera litoralis DSM 15406(T) and Oceanisphaera donghaensis KCTC 12522(T) was 13 and 10%, respectively. Phenotypic properties of strain T-w6(T) demonstrated that this strain could be distinguished from the other Oceanisphaera species. On the basis of the data presented, strain T-w6(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Oceanisphaera, for which the name Oceanisphaera ostreae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is T-w6(T) (=KCTC 23422(T) =CCUG 60525(T)). An emended description of the genus Oceanisphaera is also presented.

  18. Escherbothrium molinae n. gen. et n. sp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Triloculariidae) in Urotrygon chilensis (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Urolophidae) from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Berman, R; Brooks, D R

    1994-10-01

    Cestodes collected in spiral valves of the stingray Urotrygon chilensis from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica represent an undescribed species of Tetraphyllidea. By possessing more than 2 loculi as well as an apical sucker on each bothridium, the new species is diagnosably distinct from all other tetraphyllidean genera; therefore, a new genus is proposed for it. The new species also possesses globular structures irregularly arranged on the surface of the bothridia. We found similar structures on the bothridial faces of Trilocularia acanthiaevulgaris, possibly indicating phylogenetic relationships with the new species. This possibility is enhanced by the observation that the bothridia of T. acanthiaevulgaris comprise 2 loculi and an apical sucker, rather than 3 loculi.

  19. Heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in native mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) from Beagle Channel coast (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Duarte, Claudia A; Giarratano, Erica; Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers of pollution in native mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis from the Beagle Channel. Spatial and seasonal variations of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation in gills and digestive gland were analyzed in relation to environmental parameters, heavy metals in sediment and in tissue. Four sites with anthropogenic impact and a control site were selected and monitored during the four seasons of 2007. We found significant differences among sites in concentrations of dissolved nutrients and heavy metals in sediments, with the highest values recorded at sites with anthropogenic pressure. Different patterns were observed between concentrations of metals in tissues and in sediments suggesting differences in bioavailability. There were also significant differences in biomarker responses among sites, despite the strong seasonal variability. Our results showed relatively moderate levels of pollution in the study area as a result of urban influences.

  20. The occurrence of domoic acid linked to a toxic diatom bloom in a new potential vector: the tunicate Pyura chilensis (piure).

    PubMed

    López-Rivera, Américo; Pinto, Maricela; Insinilla, Andrea; Suárez Isla, Benjamín; Uribe, Eduardo; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose; James, Kevin J

    2009-11-01

    The tunicate Pyura chilensis (Molina, 1782); Phylum Chordata; Subphylum Urochordata; Class Ascidiacea, common local name "piure" or sea squirt; a filter-feeder (plankton and suspended particles) sessile species; may play an important role in monitoring domoic acid (DA) the principal toxic component of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). Significant DA concentrations have been determined in tunicate samples, collected during a recent ASP outbreak in Bahía Inglesa, an important scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) farming area. Several infaunal species were tested for the presence of DA, in addition to the usual scallop monitoring programme. DA was found at sub-toxic levels in filtering bivalves such as mussels (Mytilus chilensis), large mussels (Aulacomya ater) and clams (Protothaca thaca) (6.4, 5.4 and 4.7 microg DA/g tissue respectively). Of particular interest was the observation of significant accumulations of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia sp. diatoms in the internal siphon and atrium spaces of the tunicate. Toxin distribution within major tunicate organs was heterogeneous with 8.7-15.5 microg DA/g in edible tissues, 14.9-17.9 microg DA/g in the fecal material and 13.6-32.7 microg DA/g in the gut content. DA was determined by HPLC-UV and confirmed by diode-array detection and LC-MS/MS analysis. This is the first report of the presence of DA in a tunicate that is regularly consumed by coastal populations. These results confirm the need to include these organisms in sanitation programs for marine toxins.

  1. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D. chilensis

  2. Borrelia chilensis, a new member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex that extends the range of this genospecies in the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Larisa B.; Tomova, Alexandra; González-Acuña, Daniel; Murúa, Roberto; Moreno, Claudia X.; Hernández, Claudio; Cabello, Javier; Cabello, Carlos; Daniels, Thomas J.; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Although Ixodes spp. ticks are distributed in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, evidence for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in South America apart from Uruguay is lacking. We now report the presence of culturable spirochetes with flat-wave morphology and borrelial DNA in endemic Ixodes stilesi ticks collected in Chile from environmental vegetation and long-tailed rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Cultured spirochetes and borrelial DNA in ticks were characterized by multilocus sequence typing and by sequencing five other loci (16S and 23S ribosomal genes, 5S-23S intergenic spacer, flaB, ospC). Phylogenetic analysis placed this spirochete as a new genospecies within the Lyme borreliosis group. Its plasmid profile determined by PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis differed from that of B. burgdorferi B31A3. We propose naming this new South American member of the Lyme borreliosis group Borrelia chilensis VA1, in honor of its country of origin. PMID:24148079

  3. Genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations of the haploid-diploid red alga Gracilaria chilensis: how farming practices favor asexual reproduction and heterozygosity.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Faugeron, Sylvain; Destombe, Christophe; Viard, Frederique; Correa, Juan A; Valero, Myriam

    2008-06-01

    The extent of changes in genetic diversity and life-history traits associated with farming was investigated in the haploid-diploid red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, cultivated in Chile. This alga belongs to one of the most frequently cultivated seaweed genera around the world. Fifteen farmed populations, 11 wild populations, and two subspontaneous populations were sampled along the Chilean coast. The frequency of reproductive versus vegetative individuals and of haploid versus diploid individuals was checked in each population. In addition, the distribution of genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations was analyzed using six microsatellite markers. Our results first demonstrated that farmed populations are maintained almost exclusively by vegetative propagation. Moreover, the predominance of diploid individuals in farms showed that farming practices had significantly modified life-history traits as compared to wild populations. Second, the expected reduction in genetic diversity due to a cultivation bottleneck and subsequent clonal propagation was detected in farms. Finally, our study suggested that cultural practices in the southern part of the country contributed to the spread of selected genotypes at a local scale. Altogether, these results document for the first time that involuntary selection could operate during the first step of domestication in a marine plant.

  4. Effects of Post-Fire Plant Cover in the Performance of Two Cordilleran Cypress ( Austrocedrus chilensis) Seedling Stocktypes Planted in Burned Forests of Northeastern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urretavizcaya, María F.; Gonda, Héctor E.; Defossé, Guillermo E.

    2017-03-01

    Cordilleran cypress ( Austrocedrus chilensis [D.Don] Pic. Serm. et Bizarri) forests occupy 140,000 ha along a sharp environmental gradient of central Andean-Patagonia in Argentina. Every summer, about 3200 ha of these forests are affected by wildfires, taking thereafter long time to recover. To accelerate forest recovery, we determined in xeric and mesic cypress stands burned 5 and 2 year before whether survival and growth of two planted cypress seedling stocktypes are affected by plant cover and contrasting precipitation conditions. Two experiments were conducted on each site, involving 100 replicates of two seedling stocktypes, having each significantly different morphological attributes. The experiments comprised a dry and humid growing season on each site. Both stocktypes performed similarly within stands, but differently between stands. In the xeric stand, plant cover had neutral effects on seedling survival, favored seedling height growth in the dry season, and was negative on collar diameter and stem growth. In the mesic site, high plant cover favored survival and height growth, but was inconsequential for collar diameter and stem growth. In this short-term post-fire period, and independent of precipitation received during both seasons (dry or humid), plant cover appears as playing a facilitative role, having neutral or even positive effects on survival and growth of planted seedlings. During the early post-fire successional stages, and besides seedling stocktype, there was a synergistic balance between light and soil moisture that seems to benefit planted seedling performance in burned cypress forests, and especially in mesic sites.

  5. Intra and Inter-Population Morphological Variation of Shape and Size of the Chilean Magnificent Beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis in the Baker River Basin, Chilean Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Hugo A.; Briones, Raúl; Jerez, Viviane

    2011-01-01

    The alteration of habitat generates different degrees of stress in insects. It has been suggested that the degrees of phenotypic disturbances reflect the ability of an individual to overcome the effects of stress. The Baker River Basin in the Aysén Region, Chilean Patagonia has a very fragmented landscape, due to the destruction of the native forest and the use of land for agriculture and animal husbandry. This alteration should generate different degrees of disturbances in the insect communities, whose effects may be quantified by geometric morphometric tools. We analyzed morphological differences in 244 males and 133 females of the the Chilean magnificent beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected in January, 2007, in mixed forests of Nothofagus dombeyi Mirbel (Ørsted) (Fagales: Nothofagaceae) and N. nitida Hofmus and in Second-growth forest of N. pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser. Males were generally wider in the pronotum, while females had wider abdominal sternites. Although there were significant differences in shape and size between mature forests and second-growth forest, these were less significant among the sites within each type of vegetal formation. Individuals had more shape variations in the mature forest. We suggest that differences in shape are due at least in part to the isolation of the habitat. The differences found between sexes raises the question of how morphological variations and sexual dimorphism may be affected spatially by natural selection. PMID:21870986

  6. How do cold-sensitive species endure ice ages? Phylogeographic and paleodistribution models of postglacial range expansion of the mesothermic drought-tolerant conifer Austrocedrus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Souto, Cintia P; Kitzberger, Thomas; Arbetman, Marina P; Premoli, Andrea C

    2015-11-01

    In view of global climate change, it is important to understand the responses of tree species to climate changes in the past. Combinations of phylogeographic analysis of genetic evidence, coupled with species distribution models (SDMs), are improving our understanding on this subject. We combined SDMs and microsatellite data from populations of the entire range of Austrocedrus chilensis, a dominant mesotherm (cold-sensitive) conifer of dryland forests of the southern Andes, to test the hypothesis of long-distance postglacial migration from northern and warmer refugia at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The SDM indicated suitable conditions for Austrocedrus in northern Chile (western) at the LGM and largely unsuitable conditions in Argentina (eastern). Population genetic diversity and effective population sizes within populations decreased southward along the Andes, consistent with the hypothesis of long-distance dispersal from a northern refugium. Results support the hypothesis of one (or a few) warmer (low latitude) refugia in Chile for Austrocedrus. On balance, the evidence suggests that in contrast to cold-tolerant tree taxa with the capacity to fast-track postglacial warming thanks to local refugia, cold-sensitive species might have undergone long-distance range expansion, lagging behind progressive climate change throughout the Holocene.

  7. Conserved and species-specific oxylipin pathways in the wound-activated chemical defense of the noninvasive red alga Gracilaria chilensis and the invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    PubMed Central

    Rempt, Martin; Weinberger, Florian; Grosser, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Summary Chemical defense of the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been studied and compared to that of the noninvasive but related Gracilaria chilensis. Both species rely on a wound-activated chemical defense that makes them less attractive to the herbivorous sea snail Echinolittorina peruviana. The chemical stress response of both species was monitored by LC–ESIMS-based metabolic profiling and revealed commonalities and differences. Both algae rely on a rapid lipoxygenase mediated transformation of arachidonic acid to known and novel oxylipins. Common products are 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and a novel eicosanoid with an unusual γ-lactone moiety. Several prostaglandins were predominantly formed by the invasive species. The role of some of these metabolites was investigated by surveying the attachment of E. peruviana on artificial food containing the respective oxylipins. Both algae species are defended against this general herbivore by 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, whereas the prostaglandins and the novel oxylipins were inactive at naturally occurring concentrations. The role of different oxylipins in the invasive potential of Gracilaria spp. is discussed. PMID:22423296

  8. Recruitment Dynamics of the Relict Palm, Jubaea chilensis: Intricate and Pervasive Effects of Invasive Herbivores and Nurse Shrubs in Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marina; Marcelo, Wara; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; González, Luis Alberto; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period, a total of more than 300 seedlings were exposed to of four possible scenarios produced by independently weakening the effects of nurse shrubs and browsers. The experiment followed a two-way fully factorial design. We found consistent differences in survival between protected and unprotected seedlings (27.5% and 0.7%, respectively), and herbivory had a dramatic and overwhelmingly negative effect on seedling survival. The invasive rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is clearly creating a critical bottleneck in the regeneration process and might, therefore, partially explain the general lack of natural regeneration of wine palms under natural conditions. Apparently biotic filters mediated by ecological interactions are more relevant in the early stages of recruitment than abiotic, at least in invaded sites of central Chile. Our data reveal that plant-plant facilitation relationship may be modulated by plant-animal interactions, specifically by herbivory, a common and widespread ecological interaction in arid and semi-arid environments whose role has been frequently neglected. Treatments that protect young wine palm seedlings are mandatory to enable the seedlings to attain a height at which shoots are no longer vulnerable to browsing. Such protection is an essential first step toward the conservation and reintroduction of this emblematic and threatened species. PMID:26218100

  9. Effects of Post-Fire Plant Cover in the Performance of Two Cordilleran Cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis) Seedling Stocktypes Planted in Burned Forests of Northeastern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Urretavizcaya, María F; Gonda, Héctor E; Defossé, Guillermo E

    2017-03-01

    Cordilleran cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis [D.Don] Pic. Serm. et Bizarri) forests occupy 140,000 ha along a sharp environmental gradient of central Andean-Patagonia in Argentina. Every summer, about 3200 ha of these forests are affected by wildfires, taking thereafter long time to recover. To accelerate forest recovery, we determined in xeric and mesic cypress stands burned 5 and 2 year before whether survival and growth of two planted cypress seedling stocktypes are affected by plant cover and contrasting precipitation conditions. Two experiments were conducted on each site, involving 100 replicates of two seedling stocktypes, having each significantly different morphological attributes. The experiments comprised a dry and humid growing season on each site. Both stocktypes performed similarly within stands, but differently between stands. In the xeric stand, plant cover had neutral effects on seedling survival, favored seedling height growth in the dry season, and was negative on collar diameter and stem growth. In the mesic site, high plant cover favored survival and height growth, but was inconsequential for collar diameter and stem growth. In this short-term post-fire period, and independent of precipitation received during both seasons (dry or humid), plant cover appears as playing a facilitative role, having neutral or even positive effects on survival and growth of planted seedlings. During the early post-fire successional stages, and besides seedling stocktype, there was a synergistic balance between light and soil moisture that seems to benefit planted seedling performance in burned cypress forests, and especially in mesic sites.

  10. Recruitment Dynamics of the Relict Palm, Jubaea chilensis: Intricate and Pervasive Effects of Invasive Herbivores and Nurse Shrubs in Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Marina; Marcelo, Wara; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; González, Luis Alberto; Bustamante, Ramiro O

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period, a total of more than 300 seedlings were exposed to of four possible scenarios produced by independently weakening the effects of nurse shrubs and browsers. The experiment followed a two-way fully factorial design. We found consistent differences in survival between protected and unprotected seedlings (27.5% and 0.7%, respectively), and herbivory had a dramatic and overwhelmingly negative effect on seedling survival. The invasive rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is clearly creating a critical bottleneck in the regeneration process and might, therefore, partially explain the general lack of natural regeneration of wine palms under natural conditions. Apparently biotic filters mediated by ecological interactions are more relevant in the early stages of recruitment than abiotic, at least in invaded sites of central Chile. Our data reveal that plant-plant facilitation relationship may be modulated by plant-animal interactions, specifically by herbivory, a common and widespread ecological interaction in arid and semi-arid environments whose role has been frequently neglected. Treatments that protect young wine palm seedlings are mandatory to enable the seedlings to attain a height at which shoots are no longer vulnerable to browsing. Such protection is an essential first step toward the conservation and reintroduction of this emblematic and threatened species.

  11. Isolation of Vibrio tapetis from two native fish species (Genypterus chilensis and Paralichthys adspersus) reared in Chile and description of Vibrio tapetis subsp. quintayensis subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    Levican, Arturo; Lasa, Aide; Irgang, Rute; Romalde, Jesús L; Poblete-Morales, Matías; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2017-04-01

    A group of seven Chilean isolates presumptively belonging to Vibrio tapetis was isolated from diseased fine flounders (Paralichthys adspersus) and red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis) experimentally reared in Quintay (Chile). All isolates were confirmed as members of V. tapetis on the basis of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization values and G+C content. The ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR patterns were homogeneous among those isolates recovered from the same host (red conger or fine flounders), but distinct from the type strains V. tapetis subsp. tapetis CECT 4600T and V. tapetis subsp. britannicus CECT 8161T. On the basis of atpA, rpoA, rpoD, recA and pyrH gene sequence similarities (99.7-100 %) and clustering in the phylogenetic trees, the red conger isolates (Q20, Q047, Q48 and Q50) were confirmed as representing V. tapetis subsp. tapetis. However, they differed from V. tapetis subsp. tapetis CECT 4600T in their lipase, alpha quimiotripsin and non-acid phosphatase production. On the other hand, the fine flounder isolates (QL-9T, QL-35 and QL-41) showed rpoD, recA and pyrH gene sequence similarities ranging from 91.6 to 97.7 % with the type strains of the two V. tapetis subspecies (CECT 4600T and CECT 8161T) and consistently clustered together as an independent phylogenetic line within V. tapetis. Moreover, they could be differentiated phenotypically from strains CECT 4600T and CECT 8161T by nine and three different biochemical tests, respectively. In conclusion, the presence of V. tapetis in diseased red conger eel and fine flounder was demonstrated, extending the known host range and geographical location for this pathogen. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the three isolates from fine flounder represent a novel subdivision within V. tapetis, for which the name V. tapetis subsp. quintayensis subsp. nov. is proposed and with QL-9T (=CECT 8851T=LMG 28759T) as the type strain. Although QL

  12. Long-term feeding with Euglena gracilis cells modulates immune responses, oxidative balance and metabolic condition in Diplodon chilensis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) exposed to living Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Conforti, Visitación; Luquet, Carlos M

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the modulating effect of long-term feeding with lyophilized Euglena gracilis cells on immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis. Mussels, previously fed with Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV) or E. gracilis (EG) for 90 days, were challenged with an environmentally relevant concentration of Escherichia coli in water for 5 days, under feeding or starvation conditions. EG diet increased overall phagocytic activity and tissue hemocyte accumulation (gill and mantle), and favored hemocyte viability upon E. coli challenge. Tissular hemocyte accumulation, and humoral bacteriolytic activity and protein content were similarly stimulated by EG and E. coli, with no further effect when both stimuli were combined. Both, E. coli challenge and EG diet reduced gill bacteriolytic activity with respect to nonchallenged SV mussels, while no effect was observed in challenged EG mussels. Gill and digestive gland protein contents, along with digestive gland bacteriolytic activity were higher in EG than in SV mussels. Both SV and EG mussels showed increased gill mass upon E. coli challenge, while digestive gland mass was increased by bacterial challenge only in SV mussels. Bacterial challenge produced no effect on humoral reactive oxygen species levels of both groups. Total oxyradical scavenging capacity levels was reduced in challenged SV mussels but remained unaffected in EG ones. In general, EG diet decreased glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities in gill and digestive gland, compared with SV diet; but increased enzyme activity was evident in challenged mussels of both groups. Gill and digestive gland lipid peroxidation levels were higher in EG than in SV mussels but E. coli challenge had stronger effect on SV mussels. Adductor muscle RNA:DNA ratio was higher in EG mussels than in SV ones, and increased upon E. coli challenge in mussels of both groups. E. gracilis can be suggested as a nutritional and

  13. Migratory timing, rate, routes and wintering areas of White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis), a key seed disperser for Patagonian forest regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Susana Patricia; Cueto, Victor Rodolfo; Gorosito, Cristian Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Migratory animals often play key ecological roles within the communities they visit throughout their annual journeys. As a consequence of the links between biomes mediated by migrants, changes in one biome could affect remote areas in unpredictable ways. Migratory routes and timing of most Neotropical austral migrants, which breed at south temperate latitudes of South America and overwinter closer to or within tropical latitudes of South America, have yet to be described in detail. As a result, our understanding about how these birds provide links between South American biomes is almost non-existent. White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis) is a long-distance austral migrant that breeds in the Patagonian Forest biome and overwinters in tropical South America. Because this small flycatcher plays a key role in the regeneration of this ecosystem, our objective was to describe the annual cycle of White-crested elaenias to evaluate the degree of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas and therefore to determine if there are specific biomes of northern South America linked by elaenias to Patagonian forests. Fifteen individuals were successfully tracked throughout a complete migration cycle using miniature light-level geolocators. All individuals resided and moved through the same general regions. During fall (March-April-May), elaenias were located in the Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest biomes, from Rio de Janeiro to the region near Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. During winter (June-July-Aug.), birds were located further inland, within the Cerrado biome. Birds used three different routes during fall migration. Our results indicate that some individuals use a direct route, flying between 500–600 km/day, crossing desert and grasslands, while others took a detour, flying 100–200 km/day through forested areas with refueling opportunities. All birds used the Yunga forest during spring migration, with ten out of 15 individuals showing a clear

  14. Examining Relationships Among Several Oyster Pathogens in the Genus Bonamia Using Molecular Data, in Phylogenetic Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D.; Burreson, E.

    2006-12-01

    Bonamiasis is a disease that affects oyster stocks around the world and is caused by intracellular protozoan parasites. Bonamia species can rapidly spread through oyster stocks and cause clinical disease in the host. The type species in the genus, Bonamia ostreae, was described from the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis. Since that time, several bonamia-like species have been observed in the following oyster hosts: Crassostrea ariakensis deployed in North Carolina, USA, Ostrea pulchana from Argentina, Ostrea chilensis from Chile, and in Ostrea angasi from Australia. There is, however, much debate over the species identity of these undescribed Bonamia parasites. An hypothesis that I will test is whether the species of Bonamia that occurs in the aforementioned oysters are representative of one species of Bonamia, Bonamia exitiosa, or are representative of different, currently undescribed, species of Bonamia. To test this hypothesis, molecular techniques to include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and simultaneous bi-directional sequencing (SBS) reactions were utilized to target the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene complex for each of the undescribed Bonamia species and for Bonamia exitiosa. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced data in addition to pertinent morphological data, geographic distribution information, and possible host dispersals are included in this study to provide additional information for testing hypotheses developed based on molecular data.

  15. Phylogenetics of Bonamia parasites based on small subunit and internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kristina M; Stokes, Nancy A; Webb, Stephen C; Hine, P Mike; Kroeck, Marina A; Moore, James D; Morley, Margaret S; Reece, Kimberly S; Burreson, Eugene M; Carnegie, Ryan B

    2014-07-24

    The genus Bonamia (Haplosporidia) includes economically significant oyster parasites. Described species were thought to have fairly circumscribed host and geographic ranges: B. ostreae infecting Ostrea edulis in Europe and North America, B. exitiosa infecting O. chilensis in New Zealand, and B. roughleyi infecting Saccostrea glomerata in Australia. The discovery of B. exitiosa-like parasites in new locations and the observation of a novel species, B. perspora, in non-commercial O. stentina altered this perception and prompted our wider evaluation of the global diversity of Bonamia parasites. Samples of 13 oyster species from 21 locations were screened for Bonamia spp. by PCR, and small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions of Bonamia sp. ribosomal DNA were sequenced from PCR-positive individuals. Infections were confirmed histologically. Phylogenetic analyses using parsimony and Bayesian methods revealed one species, B. exitiosa, to be widely distributed, infecting 7 oyster species from Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, eastern and western USA, and Tunisia. More limited host and geographic distributions of B. ostreae and B. perspora were confirmed, but nothing genetically identifiable as B. roughleyi was found in Australia or elsewhere. Newly discovered diversity included a Bonamia sp. in Dendostrea sandvicensis from Hawaii, USA, that is basal to the other Bonamia species and a Bonamia sp. in O. edulis from Tomales Bay, California, USA, that is closely related to both B. exitiosa and the previously observed Bonamia sp. from O. chilensis in Chile.

  16. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Alderson Broaddus College, Philippi, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Data needed necessary to evaluate the design and operation of a solar energy heating and hot water system installed in a commercial application are presented. The information includes system descriptions, acceptance test data, schematics, as built drawing, problems encountered, all solutions and photographs of the system at various stages of completion.

  17. Community-University Engagement: The Philippi CityLab in Cape Town and the Challenge of Collaboration across Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Luthango, Mercy

    2013-01-01

    Debates about the role of the university in society have been going on for many decades. There have been several calls for a more "engaged" form of scholarship which applies itself consciously to the pursuit of applied knowledge which can contribute towards solving some of the most pressing societal challenges. Closer collaboration…

  18. Isolation and structural characterization of a novel antioxidant mannoglucan from a marine bubble snail, Bullacta exarata (Philippi).

    PubMed

    Liu, Donghong; Liao, Ningbo; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Wu, Dan; Guo, Xin; Zhong, Jianjun; Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Shiguo

    2013-11-11

    Bullacta exarata is one of the most economically important aquatic species in China, noted for not only its delicious taste and nutritional value, but also for its pharmacological activities. In order to explore its potential in medical applications, a mannoglucan designated as BEPS-IB was isolated and purified from the foot muscle of B. exarata after papain digestion. Chemical composition analysis indicated BEPS-IB contained mainly D-glucose and D-mannose in a molar ratio of 1:0.52, with an average molecular weight of about 94 kDa. The linkage information was determined by methylation analysis, and the anomeric configuration and chain linkage were confirmed by IR and 2D NMR. The results indicated BEPS-IB was composed of Glcp₆Manp heptasaccharide repeating unit in the backbone, with occasional branch chains of mannose residues (14%) occurring in the backbone mannose. Further antioxidant assay indicated BEPS-IB exhibited positive antioxidant activity in scavenging superoxide radicals and reducing power. This is the first report on the structure and bioactivity of the mannoglucan from the B. exarata.

  19. Isolation and Structural Characterization of a Novel Antioxidant Mannoglucan from a Marine Bubble Snail, Bullacta exarata (Philippi)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Donghong; Liao, Ningbo; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Wu, Dan; Guo, Xin; Zhong, Jianjun; Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Shiguo

    2013-01-01

    Bullacta exarata is one of the most economically important aquatic species in China, noted for not only its delicious taste and nutritional value, but also for its pharmacological activities. In order to explore its potential in medical applications, a mannoglucan designated as BEPS-IB was isolated and purified from the foot muscle of B. exarata after papain digestion. Chemical composition analysis indicated BEPS-IB contained mainly d-glucose and d-mannose in a molar ratio of 1:0.52, with an average molecular weight of about 94 kDa. The linkage information was determined by methylation analysis, and the anomeric configuration and chain linkage were confirmed by IR and 2D NMR. The results indicated BEPS-IB was composed of Glcp6Manp heptasaccharide repeating unit in the backbone, with occasional branch chains of mannose residues (14%) occurring in the backbone mannose. Further antioxidant assay indicated BEPS-IB exhibited positive antioxidant activity in scavenging superoxide radicals and reducing power. This is the first report on the structure and bioactivity of the mannoglucan from the B. exarata. PMID:24284423

  20. Revision of Plumarius Philippi 1873 (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea, Plumariidae) from Argentina north of Patagonia, with description of eighteen new species.

    PubMed

    Diez, Patricia A; Roig-Alsina, Arturo

    2016-04-07

    Twenty six species of Plumarius from Argentina north of Patagonia are revised. Eighteen new species: Plumarius politus sp. nov., P. sarophorus sp. nov., P. globulosus sp. nov., P. angulatus sp. nov., P. noa sp. nov., P. divergens sp. nov., P. malaris sp. nov., P. gracilior sp. nov., P. riojanus sp. nov., P. exophthalmus sp. nov., P. planatus sp. nov., P. albinervis sp. nov., P. truncatus sp. nov., P. mikrommatus sp. nov., P. obscurus sp. nov., P. gracilis sp. nov., P. fidalgoi sp. nov., and P. ocellulatus sp. nov. are described and illustrated. A new record for known species as well as a key to 26 known species in the region is given. A redescription of P. tumidulus Papp, 2000, which is the first record of the family Plumariidae from Uruguay, is done.

  1. A new species of Diadema (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Diadematidae) from the eastern Atlantic Ocean and a neotype designation of Diadema antillarum (Philippi, 1845).

    PubMed

    Rodoríguez, Adriana; Hernández, José Carlos; Clemente, Sabrina; Coppard, Simon Edward

    2013-01-01

    Diadenia africanum sp. nov. Rodríguez et al. 2013 occurs in the eastern Atlantic Ocean at depths of 1-80 meters off Ma- deira Islands, Salvage Islands, Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands, Sâo Tome Islands and at the continental coast off Sen- egal and Ghana. This species was previously considered an eastern Atlantic population of D. antillarum. Genetic distances between the holotype of D. africanum and the neotype of D. antillarun herein designated, measured 3.34% in Cytochrome oxidase I, 3.80% in ATPase-8 and 2.31% in ATPase-6. Such divergence is similar to that already highlighted between other accepted species of Diadena. Morphometric analysis of test, spine and pedicellarial characters also separated D. africanum from D. antillartn and reveals that this new species is morphologically similar to D. antillarum ascensionis from the mid Atlantic. The tridentate pedicellariae, which have been shown to have diagnostic characters which discriminate among species of Diadema, occur as both broad and narrow valved forms in D. antillarumn from the western Atlantic. In D. africanum the tridentate pedicellariae occur only as a single form which is characterized by moderately broad and curved valves, with an expanded distal gripping region. This form of tridentate pedicellaria is very similar to that of D. antillarum ascensionis from the central Atlantic, with only slight variations in valve serration and valve curvature differ- entiating the two forms.

  2. Cadmium Bioaccumulation in European Flat Oysters (Ostrea Edulis) from Middle Adriatic Sea (San Benedetto Del Tronto District, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Semeraro, Angela Marisa; Aliventi, Alessandra; Di Trani, Vittoria; Capocasa, Piero

    2014-01-01

    Bivalve molluscs represent an important source of cadmium exposure in humans, in particular oysters, because of their high filter feeding capability and high concentration of metal-binding metallothionein in tissues. In this study the authors investigated the difference in cadmium bioaccumulation in European flat oysters harvested from production areas in the district of San Benedetto del Tronto (Ascoli Piceno province, Italy), as a function of their origin (farming or natural beds) and the time of gathering. The beds lie 3 nm off-shore at a depth of 20-40 m and are collected by dredging. In the farms, baskets are suspended in the water column 2.5-3 nm offshore at a depth of 4 m. The authors analysed the results of cadmium monitoring plan carried out in oyster natural beds for a total of 15 samples collected from 2004 to 2012 and in two oyster farms for a total of 11 samples from 2009 to 2012. Although the few data did not allow to find a significant statistical association, they suggested two findings: i) cadmium concentration in oysters from natural beds seemed to be lower than in farmed oysters; and ii) in farmed oysters cadmium concentration even exceeded allowed maximum level for human consumption, in particular in autumn. The vertical stratification in the water column of phytoplankton and a cadmium dilution at oyster gonadal maturation might cause changes in oyster cadmium accumulation. PMID:27800338

  3. Chemical Profiles and Identification of Key Compound Caffeine in Marine-Derived Traditional Chinese Medicine Ostreae concha

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue; Zhou, Shi-Lu; Ma, Ai-Cui; Xu, Hai-Tao; Guan, Hua-Shi; Liu, Hong-Bing

    2012-01-01

    To compare the chemical differences between the medicinal and cultured oyster shells, their chemical profiles were investigated. Using the ultra performance liquid chromatography-electron spraying ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS), combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), the discrimination of the chemical characteristics among the medicinal and cultured oyster shells was established. Moreover, the chemometric analysis revealed some potential key compounds. After a large-scale extraction and isolation, one target key compound was unambiguously identified as caffeine (1) based on extensive spectroscopic data analysis (1D and 2D NMR, MS, and UV) and comparison with literature data. PMID:22822365

  4. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analysis of genetic heterogeneity among recruitment cohorts of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marine species with high fecundity and high early mortality may also have high variance in reproductive success among individuals due to stochastic factors, making successful reproduction a “sweepstakes.” In some cases, the impact is sufficient to reduce the effective number of breeders in wild popu...

  5. Giant Virus Megavirus chilensis Encodes the Biosynthetic Pathway for Uncommon Acetamido Sugars*

    PubMed Central

    Piacente, Francesco; De Castro, Cristina; Jeudy, Sandra; Molinaro, Antonio; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; Bernardi, Cinzia; Abergel, Chantal; Tonetti, Michela G.

    2014-01-01

    Giant viruses mimicking microbes, by the sizes of their particles and the heavily glycosylated fibrils surrounding their capsids, infect Acanthamoeba sp., which are ubiquitous unicellular eukaryotes. The glycans on fibrils are produced by virally encoded enzymes, organized in gene clusters. Like Mimivirus, Megavirus glycans are mainly composed of virally synthesized N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). They also contain N-acetylrhamnosamine (RhaNAc), a rare sugar; the enzymes involved in its synthesis are encoded by a gene cluster specific to Megavirus close relatives. We combined activity assays on two enzymes of the pathway with mass spectrometry and NMR studies to characterize their specificities. Mg534 is a 4,6-dehydratase 5-epimerase; its three-dimensional structure suggests that it belongs to a third subfamily of inverting dehydratases. Mg535, next in the pathway, is a bifunctional 3-epimerase 4-reductase. The sequential activity of the two enzymes leads to the formation of UDP-l-RhaNAc. This study is another example of giant viruses performing their glycan synthesis using enzymes different from their cellular counterparts, raising again the question of the origin of these pathways. PMID:25035429

  6. Adaptive genetic variation distinguishes Chilean blue mussels (Mytilus chilensis) from different marine environments.

    PubMed

    Araneda, Cristián; Larraín, María Angélica; Hecht, Benjamin; Narum, Shawn

    2016-04-26

    Chilean mussel populations have been thought to be panmictic with limited genetic structure. Genotyping-by-sequencing approaches have enabled investigation of genomewide variation that may better distinguish populations that have evolved in different environments. We investigated neutral and adaptive genetic variation in Mytilus from six locations in southern Chile with 1240 SNPs obtained with RAD-seq. Differentiation among locations with 891 neutral SNPs was low (FST = 0.005). Higher differentiation was obtained with a panel of 58 putative outlier SNPs (FST = 0.114) indicating the potential for local adaptation. This panel identified clusters of genetically related individuals and demonstrated that much of the differentiation (~92%) could be attributed to the three major regions and environments: extreme conditions in Patagonia, inner bay influenced by aquaculture (Reloncaví), and outer bay (Chiloé Island). Patagonia samples were most distinct, but additional analysis carried out excluding this collection also revealed adaptive divergence between inner and outer bay samples. The four locations within Reloncaví area were most similar with all panels of markers, likely due to similar environments, high gene flow by aquaculture practices, and low geographical distance. Our results and the SNP markers developed will be a powerful tool supporting management and programs of this harvested species.

  7. [Storage of cereal bars with mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz)].

    PubMed

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Guiñez, M A

    2000-06-01

    The use of walnut or peanut in the elaboration of cereal bars represents a possible risk of undesirable changes during their storage due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil; oxidizing of the fatty acids is one of the main causes of deterioration. Development of new snack products implies the use of packages that should protect the food against the damage caused by light and reduce the oxygen concentration of in their interior. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory changes in the storage of cereal bars with peanut or walnut and mezquite cotyledon subjected to two thermal treatments, packed in cellophane or milky polypropilene. Four types of bars were elaborated with 6% of mezquite cotyledon, treated by microwaves or toasted, and with 18% of peanut or walnut. The bars were stored for 90 days at room temperature; and each 30 days it was measured moisture content, peroxides index, water activity, sensory quality and acceptability. The peroxides values (4.9-13.8 meq/kg of oil) indicates that the shelf life of the bars in all the studied treatments was 90 days. The packaging materials used allows to maintain in good conditions, for 3 months, the cereals bars of moisture (7.4-11.2%), water activity (0.50-0.65) and sensory acceptability.

  8. Antioxidant Compound Extraction from Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Mol] Stuntz) Berries: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Quispe-Fuentes, Issis; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Campos-Requena, Víctor H.

    2017-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the antioxidant extraction from maqui berry were determined using a response surface methodology. A three level D-optimal design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables namely, solvent type (methanol, acetone and ethanol), solvent concentration and extraction time over total antioxidant capacity by using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. The D-optimal design considered 42 experiments including 10 central point replicates. A second-order polynomial model showed that more than 89% of the variation is explained with a satisfactory prediction (78%). ORAC values are higher when acetone was used as a solvent at lower concentrations, and the extraction time range studied showed no significant influence on ORAC values. The optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction obtained were 29% of acetone for 159 min under agitation. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the given predictive model describes an antioxidant extraction process from maqui berry.

  9. Factors affecting aggression in a captive flock of Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Gaalema, Diann E; Martin, Allison L; Dampier, Stephanie M; Maple, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    The influence of pair bond status, age and sex on aggression rates in a flock of 84 captive Chilean flamingos at Zoo Atlanta was examined. Analysis showed no difference between aggression rates of male and female flamingos, but adult flamingos had higher rates of aggression than juveniles. There were also significant differences in aggression depending on pair bond status (single, same-sex pair, male-female pair or group). Bonded birds were significantly more aggressive than single birds, which is consistent with the concept that unpaired birds are not breeding and do not need to protect pair bonds or eggs. Birds in typical pair bonds (male-female) and atypical pair bonds (same-sex pairs or groups) exhibited similar rates of aggression. These results contribute to the existing body of research on aggression in captive flamingos.

  10. Taxonomy of Hylotribus Jekel (Coleoptera: Anthribidae, Anthribinae): new synonymies, combinations and type designations.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Fernando Ávila; Elgueta, Mario; Mermudes, José Ricardo M

    2017-02-02

    The type material of six species of Anthribidae from Chile and one from Peru, originally described as Stenocerus Schoenherr and Stenorrhynchus Philippi & Philippi and later transferred to Hylotribus Jekel, was reexamined. These species are Stenocerus asperatus Blanchard, 1851, Stenocerus aspis Erichson, 1847, Stenocerus posticalis Philippi & Philippi, 1864, Stenocerus quadratipennis Germain, 1854, Stenorrhynchus quadrinotatus Philippi & Philippi, 1864, and Stenocerus tuberculosus Blanchard, 1851. Lectotype designations were made for Hylotribus asperatus, Hylotribus quadratipennis, and Hylotribus tuberculosus. New synonyms were established as follows: Hylotribus signatipes (Blanchard, 1851) = H. quadratipennis (Germain, 1854) syn. n., = H. quadrinotatus (Philippi & Philippi, 1864) syn. n., Hylotribus asperatus (Blanchard, 1851) = H. posticalis (Philippi & Philippi, 1864) syn. n.. While, Hylotribus aspis (Erichson, 1847) from Peru was transferred to Piesocorynus Dejean, 1834 and a new combination and synonymy proposed, Piesocorynus aspis (Erichson, 1847) n. comb. = Piesocorynus gracilicornis (Jekel, 1855) syn. n. The genus Hylotribus is defined with five species from Chile and six from Brazil, and the Chilean species are redescribed with illustrations. A new key to all species is included.

  11. Development of dye-sensitized solar cells based on naturally extracted dye from the maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyrer, Julio; Hunter, Renato; Rubilar, Monica; Pavez, Boris; Morales, Eduardo; Torres, Simonet

    2016-10-01

    The mini modules of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated for their conversion efficiency using anthocyanin-enriched extracts from maqui berry, which to date has never been tested in a DSSC. Anthocyanins are a group of red, purple, violet and blue water-soluble polyphenolic pigments widely found in berry fruits. Maqui berries are a particularly rich source. The aqueous extract concentrations of maqui fruit were tested at 750 and 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L. The immersion time to produce sensitized TiO2 film was 8 h. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSC prepared with 750 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.14%, with an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.43 V, a short-circuit current density (JSC) of 0.38 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.450. The conversion efficiency attained with 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.19%, with (VOC) of 0.45 V, (JSC) of 0.44 mA/cm2 and FF of 0.55. Therefore, a higher concentration brought about a higher photosensitized performance. The maqui extracts were successfully dye sensitized over a layer of TiO2 nanoparticles, providing useful information for further studies related to the use of natural pigments as sensitizers for solar cells.

  12. Improving survival and growth of planted Austrocedrus chilensis seedlings in disturbed patagonian forests of Argentina by managing understory vegetation.

    PubMed

    Pafundi, Leticia; Urretavizcaya, M Florencia; Defossé, Guillermo E

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining, under field conditions, early interactions between planted cypress seedlings and their associated shrubs in a mesic area of Andean Patagonia and, in a nursery, the effects of increasing light availability on cypress performance when soil water was not a limiting factor. The field experiment was performed in a former cypress-coihue mixed forest (42°02'S, 71°33'W), which was replaced in the 1970s by a plantation of radiata pine. In 2005, 800 cypress seedlings were planted under maqui shrubs in a clear-cut area of the pine stand. In 2007, two treatments were set: no-competition treatment ([NCT] i.e., the surrounding aboveground biomass was removed) and competition treatment ([CT] i.e., without disturbance). The nursery experiment (42°55'S, 71°21'W) consisted of two groups: "shade" (grown under shade cloth) and "sun" (grown at full sun) cypress seedlings. After one growing season, seedling survival and stem growth (in height and diameter) were determined at both sites. Furthermore, the growth rate of leaves, stems, and roots was determined in the nursery. In the field experiment, height growth and survival in NCT were significantly greater than in CT, and a competition process occurred between cypress and surrounding shrubs. In the nursery, sun plants grew more in diameter and increased root weight more than shade plants. Results also showed that in mesic areas of Patagonia, decreasing competition and increasing light levels produced stouter seedlings better adapted to support harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, the removal of protecting shrubs could be a good management practice to improve seedling establishment.

  13. Improving Survival and Growth of Planted Austrocedrus chilensis Seedlings in Disturbed Patagonian Forests of Argentina by Managing Understory Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafundi, Leticia; Urretavizcaya, M. Florencia; Defossé, Guillermo E.

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining, under field conditions, early interactions between planted cypress seedlings and their associated shrubs in a mesic area of Andean Patagonia and, in a nursery, the effects of increasing light availability on cypress performance when soil water was not a limiting factor. The field experiment was performed in a former cypress-coihue mixed forest (42°02'S, 71°33'W), which was replaced in the 1970s by a plantation of radiata pine. In 2005, 800 cypress seedlings were planted under maqui shrubs in a clear-cut area of the pine stand. In 2007, two treatments were set: no-competition treatment ([NCT] i.e., the surrounding aboveground biomass was removed) and competition treatment ([CT] i.e., without disturbance). The nursery experiment (42°55'S, 71°21'W) consisted of two groups: "shade" (grown under shade cloth) and "sun" (grown at full sun) cypress seedlings. After one growing season, seedling survival and stem growth (in height and diameter) were determined at both sites. Furthermore, the growth rate of leaves, stems, and roots was determined in the nursery. In the field experiment, height growth and survival in NCT were significantly greater than in CT, and a competition process occurred between cypress and surrounding shrubs. In the nursery, sun plants grew more in diameter and increased root weight more than shade plants. Results also showed that in mesic areas of Patagonia, decreasing competition and increasing light levels produced stouter seedlings better adapted to support harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, the removal of protecting shrubs could be a good management practice to improve seedling establishment.

  14. [Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture].

    PubMed

    Escobar, Berta; Estévez, Ana María; Fuentes, Carolina; Venegas, Daniela

    2009-06-01

    Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean "algarrobo" are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of "algarrobo" cotyledons, the use of "algarrobo cotyledon" flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100 g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100 g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100 g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted ("I like it very much"); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance ("I like it"). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

  15. Total and methyl-mercury content in bivalves, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck and Ostrea edulis Linnaeus: relationship of biochemical composition and body size

    SciTech Connect

    Najdek, M.; Sapunar, J.

    1987-07-01

    Mussels and oysters are of interest to pollution ecologists because they are widely distributed, suspension feeding invertebrates and are likely to accumulate pollutants from their environment (Goldberg 1975). Many authors have estimated the relation between the concentration of metals in the flesh and various biotic and abiotic parameters. Body mass (estimated in dry weight) is evidently an important factor governing the uptake of metals by these organisms. The highest concentrations of certain metals were often found in the smallest individuals. The relation between metal content and body size can best be described using Boyden's model which is useful for quantifying any physiological activities in relation to the dry weight of the specimens. In the present paper the authors describe the investigation into the relationship between total and methyl-mercury content and body mass in mussels and oysters.

  16. Nocardiosis in Mediterranean bivalves: first detection of Nocardia crassostreae in a new host Mytilus galloprovincialis and in Ostrea edulis from the Gulf of Naples (Italy).

    PubMed

    Carella, Francesca; Carrasco, Noelia; Andree, Karl B; Lacuesta, Beatriz; Furones, Dolors; De Vico, Gionata

    2013-11-01

    In this work M. galloprovincialis and O. edulis specimens were surveyed for a pathological study in the Gulf of Naples (Mediterranean sea, Campania Region, southern Italy). Clusters of Nocardia sp.-like cells were observed in histological slides. PCR amplification, sequencing and in situ hybridization were carried out in order to corroborate Nocardia species identification for both hosts. Blast results showed a 99% of maximum identity with Nocardia crassostreae sequences in Genbank. This is the first report of N. crassostreae in the new host M. galloprovincialis and, in a new area, the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. Experimental infection of European flat oyster Ostrea edulis with ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvar (OsHV-1μvar): Mortality, viral load and detection of viral transcripts by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    López Sanmartín, Monserrat; Power, Deborah M; de la Herrán, Roberto; Navas, José I; Batista, Frederico M

    2016-06-02

    Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections have been reported in several bivalve species. Mortality of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas spat has increased considerably in Europe since 2008 linked to the spread of a variant of OsHV-1 called μvar. In the present study we demonstrated that O. edulis juveniles can be infected by OsHV-1μvar when administered as an intramuscular injection. Mortality in the oysters injected with OsHV-1μvar was first detected 4 days after injection and reached 25% mortality at day 10. Moreover, the high viral load observed and the detection of viral transcripts by in situ hybridization in several tissues of dying oysters suggested that OsHV-1μvar was the cause of mortality in the O. edulis juveniles. This is therefore the first study to provide evidence about the pathogenicity of OsHV-1μvar in a species that does not belong to the Crassostrea genus. Additionally, we present a novel method to detect OsHV-1 transcripts in infected individuals' using in situ hybridization.

  18. Phylogeny of the Gondwanan beetle family Ulodidae (Tenebrionoidea).

    PubMed

    Leschen, Richard A B; Escalona, Hermes E; Elgueta, Mario

    2016-07-18

    Ulodidae is a small family of saproxylic and fungus feeding beetles restricted to New Zealand, Australia, Chile and New Caledonia. The phylogeny of this family is presented for the first time, based on a cladistic analysis of 53 adult characters from 16 ulodid genera, rooted with Parahelops Waterhouse (Promecheilidae). The topology shows Arthopus Sharp at the base of the tree and confirms the placement of Meryx Latreille as a member of Ulodidae and closely related to the Chilean genus Trachyderas Philippi & Philippi. The extinct New Zealand genus Waitomophylax Leschen & Rhode was placed among a clade consisting of Brouniphylax Strand, Exohadrus Broun, and Pteroderes Germain. Two new genera and two new species are described: Ulobostrichus gen. n. (type species: Ulobostrichus monteithi sp. n.) and Ulocyphaleus gen. n. (type species: Cyphaleus valdivianus Philippi & Philippi, 1864, now U. valdivianus (Philippi & Philippi) n. comb.; U. laetus sp. n.). Dipsaconia pyritosa Pascoe is designated as the type species of Dipsaconia Pascoe and a lectotype was designated for C. valdivianus. A fully illustrated key to the genera and a checklist of the 16 genera and 42 species is included. Based on the phylogeny, the following characters are derived in the family: tuberculate body surface and the presence of scales and /or encrustations. The presence of pore-fields in the abdominal cuticle has evolved at least three times in Meryx Latreille (Australia), Syrphetodes Pascoe (New Zealand) and Trachyderastes Kaszab (New Caledonia).

  19. 76 FR 69693 - Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ....; Coconut, Cocos nucifera L.; Coquito nut, Jubaea chilensis (Molina) Baill.; Dika nut, Irvingia gabonensis...; Okari nut, Terminalia kaernbachii Warb.; Pachira nut, Pachira insignis (Sw.) Savigny; Peach palm nut... (L.) Mill., C. ozarkensis Ashe) Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Coquito nut (Jubaea chilensis...

  20. Hybridization and introgression in Carpobrotus spp. (Aizoaceae) in California. I. Morphological evidence.

    PubMed

    Albert, M; D'Antonio, C; Schierenbeck, K

    1997-07-01

    Individuals of the invasive non-native plant species Carpobrotus edulis, its native or naturalized congener C. chilensis, and putative hybrids are found throughout coastal California. This study characterized morphological variation within the genus and assessed the extent of hybridization and direction of introgression between C. edulis and C. chilensis. Twelve randomly selected Carpobrotus individuals from each of 49 sample locations were classified as "C. edulis," "C. chilensis," or one of three intermediate morphotype classes, and compared for clonal, vegetative, and fruit characters. Univariate comparisons showed that C. edulis individuals had deeper mats with more cover within the mat boundary, longer, wider, more serrate leaves, and wider fruits with more carpels than intermediate and C. chilensis morphotype classes. Carpobrotus edulis and intermediates had more lateral branches than did C. chilensis, suggesting that hybrids tend to vary toward C. edulis. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) identified the following characters as discriminating significantly among Carpobrotus groups: leaf length, leaf width, leaf length/width, number of lateral branches, number of carpels, and fruit diameter. Using these characters, DFA correctly classified 98% of apparently pure C. edulis and C. chilensis, but only 76% of all Carpobrotus individuals when putative hybrids were included. Principal components analysis showed that C. edulis and C. chilensis cluster into distinct morphotypes, but that hybrids overlap with both groups, particularly with C. edulis. The genus Carpobrotus in California resembles a large hybrid swarm, with putative hybrids forming a large portion of the overall population and tending to vary toward C. edulis.

  1. Genetic variation and phylogeographic analyses of two species of Carpobrotus and their hybrids in California.

    PubMed

    Schierenbeck, Kristina A; Symonds, V Vaughan; Gallagher, Kelly G; Bell, Jeffrey

    2005-02-01

    Despite the commonality and study of hybridization in plants, there are few studies between invasive and noninvasive species that examine the genetic variability and gene flow of cytoplasmic DNA. We describe the phylogeographical structure of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation within and among several interspecific populations of the putative native, Carpobrotus chilensis and the introduced, Carpobrotus edulis (Aizoaceae). These species co-occur throughout much of coastal California and form several 'geographical hybrid populations'. Two hundred and thirty-seven individuals were analysed for variation in an approximate 7.0 kb region of the chloroplast genome using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Phylogenetic analyses and cpDNA population differentiation were conducted for all morphotypes. Historic geographical dispersion and the coefficient of ancestry of the haplotypes were determined using nested clade analyses. Two haplotypic groupings (I and II) were represented in C. chilensis and C. edulis, respectively. The variation in cpDNA data is in agreement with the previously reported allozyme and morphological data; this supports relatively limited variation and high population differentiation among C. chilensis and hybrids and more wide-ranging variation in C. edulis and C. edulis populations backcrossed with C. chilensis. C. chilensis disproportionately contributes to the creation of hybrids with the direction of gene flow from C. chilensis into C. edulis. The cpDNA data support C. chilensis as the maternal contributor to the hybrid populations.

  2. 75 FR 16179 - Notice of Affirmative Decisions on Petitions for Modification Granted in Whole or in Part

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ..., 2009). Petitioner: Wolf Run Mining Company, 1 Edmiston Way, Buckhannon, West Virginia 26201. Mine... (June 8, 2009). Petitioner: Wolf Run Mining Company, Rt. 3, Box 146, Philippi, West Virginia 26416. Mine... Variances, 1100 Wilson Boulevard, Room 2349, Arlington, Virginia 22209. All visitors must first stop at...

  3. Defining Workplace Literacy Education in Massachusetts. A Survey of Workplace Literacy Education Programs in Massachusetts, Conducted in September and October 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, David J.; Kale, Cerci

    A survey of 42 Massachusetts workplace literacy programs was conducted in fall 1989 to determine whether the programs generally fit a standard definition of workplace literacy derived from "A Guide to Developing Instruction for Workforce Literacy Programs" by Jorie W. Philippi. The study's seven-item questionnaire included the definition…

  4. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Pictipennis: A New Mosquito Record from the Atacama Region of Northern Chile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Santiago, this species rarely feeds on humans, but it is highly attracted to domestic animals (Linthicum 1988). In this paper, we report An. (N...Mosq Control Assoc 12:619-626. Neghme AR. 1943. Contribucion a la biologia del Anopheles pictipenllis (Philippi, 1865). I. Communica- cion

  5. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... polystachion (L.) Schult. Prosopis alapataco R.A. Philippi Prosopis argentina Burkart Prosopis articulata S... and H.E. Robins. Alectra spp. Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC. Asphodelus fistulosus L. Avena sterilis L. (including Avena ludoviciana Dur.) Azolla pinnata R. Br. Carthamus oxyacantha M. Bieb...

  6. Study of Upper Miocene Oysters(Plecypoda) From the Mishan Formation in south west of Firuzabad, Fars, Iran(Zagros mountain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbozorgi, Mehdi; Sabouhi, Mostafa; Nabavi, Hamid

    2010-05-01

    The out crapes of Mishan Formation located in Aghar area(Firuzabad city) south west of Fars and 70km south west of Firuzabad. this Formation mostly consist of limestone, marly limestone and marlstone with 800m thickness. 6key beds distinctive from limestone beds are recognized in this area. this key beds are useful for local and regional correlation in Zagros mountains. the key beds from base to top are: Red algae, Bryozoa, Gastropoda and Plecypoda, Crabs and Oysters. Mishan Formation in this area is between Gachsaran F.M(Under Formation), Conformable and Aghajari F.M(Upper Formation), Conformable. With due attention to rang and distribution of the Macrofossils, 5 local assmblage biozone were recognized, that is confirming time limit from Early- Upper Miocene. this research cheked and controled a biostrom Plecypoda(Oysters) level by thickness 3- 4m. this biostrom located around 550m the base of section. Ofcurse more of this Plecypoda be assinged to order pterriodia and Genus Oyster. Along with Oysters, Pecten and Venus can be see. This biostrom made up a bioclastic shoal shallow deep in the margin of sea Miocene. This Oysters report from Mishan Formation of Firuzabad, Fars, Zagros, Iran: Ostrea virleti var. crassicostat, Ostrea virleti Desh var. persica, Ostrea digitatai Echiwald var. rohlfsi, Ostrea lamellose. Ostrea cf. biowwondeli. Master of science in Geology (Paleontology), University of Isfahan, Iran.

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... if the fruit is fumigated either in Chile or at the port of first arrival in the United States with methyl bromide for B. chilensis in accordance with part 305 of this chapter. An APHIS inspector...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... if the fruit is fumigated either in Chile or at the port of first arrival in the United States with methyl bromide for B. chilensis in accordance with part 305 of this chapter. An APHIS inspector...

  9. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    PubMed

    Stotz, Gisela C; Suárez, Lorena H; Gonzáles, Wilfredo L; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó) and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo). In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó), and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  10. Local Host Adaptation and Use of a Novel Host in the Seed Beetle Megacerus eulophus

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Gisela C.; Suárez, Lorena H.; Gonzáles, Wilfredo L.; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó) and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo). In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó), and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations. PMID:23326528

  11. Characterization of glycerophospholipid molecular species in six species of edible clams by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhou, Da-Yong; Zhao, Qi; Yin, Fa-Wen; Hu, Xiao-Pei; Song, Liang; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Run; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-03-15

    The molecular species of glycerophosphocholine (GPCho), glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPEtn), glycerophosphoserine (GPSer), lysoglycerophosphocholine (LGPCho) and lysoglycerophosphoethanolamine (LGPEtn) from six species of edible clams were characterized by using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. At least 435, 453, 468, 443, 427 and 444 glycerophospholipid (GP) molecular species were characterized, respectively, from Cyclina sinensis, Mactra chinensis Philippi, Mactra veneriformis Reeve, Meretrix meretrix, Ruditapes philippinarum and Saxidomus purpurata. Most of the predominant GP molecular species in clam contained polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), indicating that clam is a potential resource of GP enriched PUFA. According to the amount of the major molecular species containing EPA and DHA, Cyclina sinensis was the best fit species for GPCho, Mactra veneriformis Reeve was the best fit species for GPEtn, Mactra chinensis Philippi was the best fit species for GPSer and LGPEtn, and Saxidomus purpurata was the best fit species for LGPCho.

  12. Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Sponsored by DTIC Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry Supply Chain Viability for the US Microwave Power Tube...Industry iii Supply Chain Viability for the North American Microwave Power Tube Industry September 2002 Therese M. Philippi Federico M. Sciammarella...Patterson Air Force Base 45433-7739 Supply Chain Viability for the US Microwave Power Tube Industry ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved Public

  13. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  14. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  15. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  16. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  17. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  18. GREEN CRAB (CARCINUS MAENAS LINNAEUS) CONSUMPTION RATES ON AND PREY PREFERENCES AMONG FOUR BIVALVE PREY SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, is a recent invader to Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries with a voracious appetite, especially for bivalves. To assess their potential impact, we estimated green crab consumption rates on four PNW bivalve species, Yaquina oyster (Ostrea ...

  19. [Analysis on medication rules of state medical master yan zhenghua's prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-rui; Guo, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Meng-di; Sheng, Xiao-guang

    2014-11-01

    The prescriptions including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis that built by Pro. Yan were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance assist system. The method of association rules with apriori algorithm was used to achieve frequency of single medicine, frequency of drug combinations, association rules between drugs and core drug combinations. The datamining results indicated that in the prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, the highest frequency used drugs were parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Ostreae Concha, Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Paeoniae Rubra Radix, and so on. The most frequent drug combinations were "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", "Ostreae Concha-Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia". The drug association rules of confidence coefficient 1 were "Ostreae Concha-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "Poria-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Paeoniae Alba Radix-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis". The core drug combinations in the treatment of insomnia were Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ostreae Concha, Polygalae Radix, Margaritifera Concha, Poria, and parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. And the core drug combinations in the treatment of obstruction of Qi in chest were Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Trichosanthis Fructus, Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus, and Paeoniae Rubra Radix.

  20. Reptile trade and the risk of exotic tick introductions into southern South American countries.

    PubMed

    González-Acuña, D; Beldoménico, P M; Venzal, J M; Fabry, M; Keirans, J E; Guglielmone, A A

    2005-01-01

    Ticks exotic for the Neotropical region were found on Python regius imported into Argentina and Chile. All ticks (7 males and 3 females) were classified as Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844 ( = Aponomma latum). Additionally, four lots comprising 18 males of the Argentinean tortoise tick, Amblyomma argentinae Neumann, 1904, were found on a terrestrial tortoise, Chelonoidis chilensis, and on three terrestrial tortoises (probably C. chilensis) imported to Uruguay presumably from Argentina). These findings alert us to the risk of expanding the distribution of reptile parasites and their diseases into regions previously free of these parasites.

  1. Stress tolerant crops from nitrogen fixing trees

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.; Saunders, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Notes are given on the nutritional quality and uses of: pods of Geoffroea decorticans, a species tolerant of saline and limed soils and saline water; seeds of Olneya tesota which nodulates readily and fixes nitrogen and photosynthesizes at low water potential; and pods of Prosopis chilensis and P. tamarugo which tolerate long periods without rain. 3 references.

  2. Gondwanamyia, a new empidoid (Diptera) genus of uncertain placement

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Bradley J.; Cumming, Jeffrey M.; Brooks, Scott E.; Plant, Adrian R.; Saigusa, Toyohei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new minute-size empidoid fly genus, Gondwanamyia gen. n. and two new species (Gondwanamyia chilensis Cumming & Saigusa, sp. n., Gondwanamyia zealandica Sinclair & Brooks, sp. n.) are described, illustrated, and their distributions mapped. The family and subfamily assignments remain uncertain, but features of the female terminalia potentially suggest Trichopezinae (Brachystomatidae). PMID:27833421

  3. Amino-acid racemizarion in Quaternary shell deposits at Willapa Bay, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Blunt, D.J.; Clifton, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    Extents of racemization ( d l ratios) of amino acids in fossil Saxidomus giganteus (Deshayes) and Ostrea lurida Carpenter were measured on shell deposits exposed at 21 sites on the east side of Willapa Bay, Washington. Amino acids from Saxidomus show less variability in d Spl ratios and, therefore, are of greater use in correlation and age estimation than are amino acids from Ostrea. Shells of two different ages, about 120,000 ?? 40,000 yr old and about 190,000 ?? 40,000 yr old, are present. These ages correspond to Stages 5 and 7 of the marine isotope record defined by Shackleton and Opdyke in 1973 and hence the shell deposits likely formed during two different high stands of sea level. The stratigraphic record at Willapa Bay is consistent with this interpretation. ?? 1979.

  4. Phylogeny and Species Diversity of Gulf of California Oysters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dataset of DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial loci (COI and 16S) used to infer the phylogeny of oysters in the genus Ostrea along the Pacific coast of North America.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Raith, M., D. Zacherl, E. Pilgrim , and D. Eernisse. Phylogeny and species diversity of Gulf of California oysters (Ostreidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA. American Malacological Bulletin. American Malacological Society, Arlington, VA, USA, 33(2): 263-283, (2016).

  5. A new species of Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae) from southern Argentina, with a key to the species of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the forensically interesting genus Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae), Oxelytrum selknan, is described from Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces, Argentina. The new species resembles Oxelytrum biguttatum (Philippi) in outer aspect, but has different male genitalia, in particular a median lobe longer than the paramera. All the described species of Oxelytrum have the median lobe shorter than the paramera. The internal sac, as far as it could be reconstructed from dry-pinned specimens, also shows differences between the two species. A key to the species of Oxelytrum is given and illustrated. PMID:22773910

  6. Revision of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789 (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae) with the description of six new species

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Richard N.; Fedosov, Alexander E.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789, type genus of the family Turridae, widespread in shallow-water habitats of tropic Indo-Pacific, is revised. A total of 31 species of Turris, are here recognized as valid. New species described: Turris chaldaea, Turris clausifossata, Turris guidopoppei, Turris intercancellata, Turris kantori, T. kathiewayae. Homonym renamed: Turris bipartita nom. nov. for Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836). New synonymies: Turris ankaramanyensis Bozzetti, 2006 = Turris tanyspira Kilburn, 1975; Turris imperfecti, T. nobilis, T. pulchra and T. tornatum Röding, 1798, and Turris assyria Olivera, Seronay & Fedosov, 2010 = T. babylonia; Turris dollyi Olivera, 2000 = Pleurotoma crispa Lamarck, 1816; Turris totiphyllis Olivera, 2000 = Turris hidalgoi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000; Turris kilburni Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Turris pagasa Olivera, 2000; Turris (Annulaturris) munizi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Gemmula lululimi Olivera, 2000. Revised status: Turris intricata Powell, 1964, Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836) and Pleurotoma yeddoensis Jousseaume, 1883, are regarded as full species (not subspecies of Turris crispa). Neotype designated: For Pleurotoma garnonsii Reeve, 1843, to distinguish it from Turris garnonsii of recent authors, type locality emended to Zanzibar. New combination: Turris orthopleura Kilburn, 1983, is transferred to genus Makiyamaia, family Clavatulidae. PMID:23847408

  7. Comparison between the polypeptide profile of halophilic bacteria and salt tolerant plants.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, G; González, C; Flores, P; Prado, B; Campos, V

    1997-12-01

    Changes in the polypeptide profile induced by salt stress in halotolerant and halophilic bacteria, isolated from the Atacama desert (northern Chile), were compared with those in the cotyledons of Prosopis chilensis (Leguminoseae) seedlings, a salt tolerant plant. SDS-PAGE analyses show the presence of four predominant polypeptides, with molecular weights around 78, 70, 60 and 44 kDa respectively, both in bacteria and in cotyledons from P. chilensis seedlings raised under salt stress conditions. Moreover, the 60 and 44 kDa polypeptides seem to be salt responsive, since their concentration increases with increasing NaCl in the growth medium. Our results suggest a common mechanism for salt tolerance in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes.

  8. Illustrated key for identification of the species included in the genus Leptoglossus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini), and descriptions of five new species and new synonyms.

    PubMed

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2014-05-05

    Five new species of Leptoglossus are described: L.caicosensis from Turks and Caicos Island, L. egeri and L. impensus from Bolivia, L. franckei from Costa Rica, and L. polychromus from Ecuador, Cooperative Republic of Guiana (British Guiana), and French Guiana. Leptoglossus argentinus Bergroth is synonymized under L. chilensis chilensis (Spinola) and Narnia anaticula Brailovsky & Barrera under Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann. Dorsal view drawings and key to the 61 known species and 1 subspecies are included; a complete checklist, and the position of each species within the species-group defined herein, are given except for two species L. macrophylus Stål and L. polychromus sp.nov., that are insertae-sedis. The pronotal disk, hind legs, and male genital capsule of the new species here described are illustrated.

  9. Description of a New Temnocephala Species (Platyhelminthes) from the Southern Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    de León, Rodrigo Ponce; Vera, Bárbara Berón; Volonterio, Odile

    2015-08-01

    The genus Temnocephala is endemic to the Neotropical region. Temnocephala mexicana and Temnocephala chilensis are the only 2 temnocephalans whose known distribution ranges extend to the south beyond Parallel 40°S. No Temnocephala species has ever been recorded from the extensive area between Parallel 43°S and the southern end of the South American continent, which makes the study of the southern limit of the distribution of the genus a topic of great interest. The southernmost report corresponds to T. chilensis from the Telsen River, Chubut Province, Argentina. In March 2000, several temnocephalans were found on the freshwater anomuran crustacean Aegla neuquensis from the same locality; the specimens were identified as belonging to a new species, which is described here. This species is characterized by possessing an unusually thin-walled, narrow zone that has the appearance of a deep groove connecting the introvert to the shaft of the penial stylet; an introvert with 36 longitudinal rows of spines, each bearing 6-8 spines that are progressively smaller towards the distal end; a distal end of the introvert with a very thin, sclerotized wall without spines; a seminal vesicle that opens sub-polarly into the contractile vesicle; a pair of paranephrocytes at the level of the pharynx and a second pair at the level of the anterior portion of the anterior testes, and eggs with very long stalks. On the basis of their overall morphology, host preference, and geographical distribution, T. chilensis and the new species are closely related, so a diagnostic key for the southern species of Temnocephala is also included. The type locality of the new species is in the southern limit of the known distribution area of T. chilensis, so after this work there are 2 known species marking the southern limit of the distribution of the genus.

  10. Hybridization and introgression in Carpobrotus spp. (Aizoaceae) in California. II. Allozyme evidence.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, K; Schierenbeck, K; D'Antonio, C

    1997-07-01

    Morphological evidence has indicated that hybridization and introgression are occurring between Carpobrotus edulis L., a nonindigenous, invasive species in California (Bolus), and its putative native congener, C. chilensis. The identification of allozyme markers has enabled us to quantify hybridization and the extent of introgression between these species. Samples from 20 individuals of each of five morphological types (both parent species and three hybrid phenotypes) were collected from 39 populations along the coast of California from the Mexico to Oregon borders. Ten enzyme systems revealed a total of 17 resolvable loci, eight of which were polymorphic for the genus. Five of the polymorphic loci easily differentiate C. edulis and C. chilensis. Allele frequencies among the morphologically defined types are consistent with estimations of allele frequency changes due to first- and second-generation backcrossing. In comparison to long-lived, herbaceous perennials and widespread species, C. edulis and intermediate types have more variation in their populations (P = 41.73, Ap = 2.11, Ho = 0.246, and P = 38.13, Ap = 2.06, Ho = 0.216, respectively) than C. chilensis (P = 11.76, Ap = 2.00, Ho = 0.082). Indirect estimates of gene flow indicate four of the five morphological types are outcrossing. Gene flow between previously allopatric species may have broad implications if it results in an increase in fitness; further experimentation is needed to determine the ultimate ecological consequences of this phenomenon and its possible threat to limited, remaining natural habitat in California.

  11. Detection of recent hybridization between sympatric Chilean Puya species (Bromeliaceae) using AFLP markers and reconstruction of complex relationships.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Katharina; Silvestro, Daniele; Kiehlmann, Elke; Vesely, Sanja; Novoa, Patricio; Zizka, Georg

    2010-12-01

    The Chilean Puya species constitute a monophyletic group, co-occurring in different species combinations within the country and displaying a remarkable morphological variability. Here, we studied the importance of recent hybridization and introgression in the group and reconstructed the complex inter- and intraspecific relationships. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, including 109 accessions of all Chilean Puya species and four putative hybrids, yielded 984 characters. Three main genetic groups were revealed, with the chilensis group (P. chilensis, P. gilmartiniae, P. boliviensis) diverging first, and the alpestris (P. alpestris, P. berteroniana) and coerulea group (P. venusta, P. coerulea) forming sister groups. STRUCTURE analyses confirmed a hybrid origin of morphologically intermediate individuals, and detected several additional hybrids. Hybrids were found between the chilensis and alpestris group, and between the alpestris and coerulea group. Exclusion of hybrids improved phylogenetic reconstructions. The study demonstrates that the detection of hybrids within Bromeliaceae can be difficult based on morphological characters alone and that efficient reproductive barriers may only slowly establish, leading to hybridization between closely related sympatric species. The importance of hybridization for the rapid diversification of Puya is discussed.

  12. Understanding morphological variability in a taxonomic context in Chilean diplomystids (Teleostei: Siluriformes), including the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Following study of the external morphology and its unmatched variability throughout ontogeny and a re-examination of selected morphological characters based on many specimens of diplomystids from Central and South Chile, we revised and emended previous specific diagnoses and consider Diplomystes chilensis, D. nahuelbutaensis, D. camposensis, and Olivaichthys viedmensis (Baker River) to be valid species. Another group, previously identified as Diplomystes sp., D. spec., D. aff. chilensis, and D. cf. chilensis inhabiting rivers between Rapel and Itata Basins is given a new specific name (Diplomystes incognitus) and is diagnosed. An identification key to the Chilean species, including the new species, is presented. All specific diagnoses are based on external morphological characters, such as aspects of the skin, neuromast lines, and main lateral line, and position of the anus and urogenital pore, as well as certain osteological characters to facilitate the identification of these species that previously was based on many internal characters. Diplomystids below 150 mm standard length (SL) share a similar external morphology and body proportions that make identification difficult; however, specimens over 150 mm SL can be diagnosed by the position of the urogenital pore and anus, and a combination of external and internal morphological characters. According to current knowledge, diplomystid species have an allopatric distribution with each species apparently endemic to particular basins in continental Chile and one species (O. viedmensis) known only from one river in the Chilean Patagonia, but distributed extensively in southern Argentina. PMID:28224053

  13. Mitogenomics of southern hemisphere blue mussels (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia): Insights into the evolutionary characteristics of the Mytilus edulis complex

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F.; Mesas, Andres; D’Elía, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Marine blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) are widespread species that exhibit an antitropical distribution with five species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere (M. trossulus, M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. californianus and M. coruscus) and three in the Southern Hemisphere (M. galloprovincialis, M. chilensis and M. platensis). Species limits in this group remain controversial, in particular for those forms that live in South America. Here we investigated structural characteristics of marine mussels mitogenomes, based on published F mtDNA sequences of Northern Hemisphere species and two newly sequenced South American genomes, one from the Atlantic M. platensis and another from the Pacific M. chilensis. These mitogenomes exhibited similar architecture to those of other genomes of Mytilus, including the presence of the Atp8 gene, which is missing in most of the other bivalves. Our evolutionary analysis of mitochondrial genes indicates that purifying selection is the predominant force shaping the evolution of the coding genes. Results of our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Pteriomorphia and fully resolved the phylogenetic relationships among its five orders. Finally, the low genetic divergence of specimens assigned to M. chilensis and M. platensis suggests that these South American marine mussels represent conspecific variants rather than distinct species. PMID:27241855

  14. Mushrooms collected from deogyu mountain, muju, Korea and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Kyoung; Jung, Yun-A; Yeom, Ji-Hee; Ki, Dae-Won; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Jin, Yong-Ju; Seok, Soon-Ja; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2012-06-01

    Mushrooms collected from Deogyu mountain, Korea, in 2011, were identified as four classes, four orders, 13 families, 22 genera, and 33 species. In particular, agaricales was most abundant and comprised more than 70%. Their antioxidant activities were estimated using three different bioassay methods, the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, and reducing power assay. As a result, the methanol extracts of Stereum ostrea, Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus, and Tyromyces sambuceus exhibited potent antioxidant activity in all bioassays tested.

  15. Mushrooms Collected from Deogyu Mountain, Muju, Korea and Their Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Kyoung; Jung, Yun-A; Yeom, Ji-Hee; Ki, Dae-Won; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Jin, Yong-Ju; Seok, Soon-Ja

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms collected from Deogyu mountain, Korea, in 2011, were identified as four classes, four orders, 13 families, 22 genera, and 33 species. In particular, agaricales was most abundant and comprised more than 70%. Their antioxidant activities were estimated using three different bioassay methods, the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, and reducing power assay. As a result, the methanol extracts of Stereum ostrea, Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus, and Tyromyces sambuceus exhibited potent antioxidant activity in all bioassays tested. PMID:22870057

  16. The life-cycle of the digenetic trematode, Proctoeces maculatus (Looss, 1901) Odhner, 1911 (Syn. P. rubtenuis [Linton, 1907] Hanson, 1950), and description of Cerceria adranocerca n. sp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stunkard, H.W.; Uzmann, J.R.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Proctoeces was erected by Odhner ( 191 1) to contain Distonium maculatuni Looss, 1901, from Labrus merula and Crenilabrus spp. at Triest. Odhner had found the parasite in Blennius ocellaris at Naples. One adult specimen from Chrysophrys bifasciata and two immature specimens from lulis lunaris taken in the Red Sea, were described as a new species, Proctoeces erythraeus. Dawes (1946) listed P. erythraeus as a synonym of  P. maculatus (Looss) , but the species was recognized by Manter ( 1947) on the basis of six specimens he had collected from Calamus calamus and Calamus bajonado at the biological laboratory of the Carnegie Institution at Dry Tortugas, Florida. Several additional species have been de scribed. Fujita ( 1925) reported a metacercaria from the Japanese oyster, Ostrea gigas, as a new species, Proctoeces ostreae. The paper was translated by R. Ph. Dollfus who noted (p. 57) ,“Il est à souhaiter que des recherches chez les poissons mangers de Lamellibranches, sur les côtes de la préfecture d'Hiroshima, permettent de découvrir des exemplaires complètement adultes de Proctoeces ostreae Fuj., chez lesquels l'extension des vitellogènes et les dimensions des oeufs puissent être observées avec précision; il sera alors possible de savoir définitivement si P. ostreae Fuj. doit ou non tomber en synonymie avec P. maculatus (Looss)." Yamaguti (1934) described P. maculatus from Sparus aries, Sparws macrocephalus, Pagrosomus auratus, and Epinephelus akaara in Japan. Several specimens from Pagrosomus auratus, which differed from P. maculatus in larger size, larger eggs, and trilobed ovary, he described as a new species, Proctoeces major. Yamaguti ( 1938) reported P. nzaculatus from Sensicossyphus reticulatus and described a larva from the liver of the pelecypod mollusk, Brachidontes senhausi, as an unidentified member of the genus Proctoeces. Manter ( 1940) described Proctoeces tnagnorus from a single specimen found in the intestine of Caulolatilus

  17. New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a key to New World genera

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Evert I.; Gillung, Jessica P.; Borkent, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n.) is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: Sphaerops micella Schlinger sp. n.) is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n.), is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (Pialea brunea Schlinger sp. n. and Pialea corbiculata Schlinger sp. n.)are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included. PMID:23730188

  18. Brachiopods from off the San Bernardo Archipelago (Colombian Caribbean), with comments on specific synonymies in Tichosina Cooper, 1977.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alexis; Gracia, Adriana; Patarroyo, Pedro

    2015-01-23

    Colombian brachiopod faunas have not been studied extensively. Only three brachiopod species have been reported from the Colombian Caribbean Sea so far, namely Argyrotheca barrettiana (Davidson, 1866), Terebratulina latifrons Dall, 1920, and the cosmopolitan Platidia anomioides (Scacchi & Philippi, 1844). In this work, brachiopods collected from deep-water environments (90-250 m) off the San Bernardo Archipelago, collected during the MARCORAL cruise, are examined. The studied material consists of four species, two of which are new records for Colombia: Terebratulina cailleti Crosse, 1865 and Tichosina plicata Cooper, 1977. The genus Tichosina belongs to the family Terebratulidae and comprises twenty extant species occurring across the Caribbean. Based on a revision of published descriptions and illustrations, we synonymize Tichosina bullisi Cooper, 1977 and Tichosina dubia Cooper, 1977 with Tichosina plicata Cooper, 1977. Remarkably, apart from reports from southern Guiana, T. plicata is restricted to the margins of the Caribbean plate. 

  19. Synopsis of Central Andean Orthalicoid land snails (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora), excluding Bulimulidae

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Avila, Valentín Mogollón

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A faunal overview is presented of the molluscan families Amphibulimidae, Megaspiridae, Odontostomidae, Orthalicidae, Simpulopsidae in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. These Central Andean countries are known for their biodiverse malacofauna, of which the superfamily Orthalicoidea takes relatively a large share. In this paper the five families containing 103 (sub)species, for which systematic information (original publication, type locality, type depository, summarizing literature) and distributional records are presented. All species are illustrated by photographs of the type material or, if this could not be located, by a reproduction of the original figure. The following new taxon is introduced: Thaumastus (Thaumastus) sumaqwayqu sp. n. Junior subjective synonyms are established for: Plekocheilus (Sparnotion) Pilsbry, 1944 = Plekocheilus (Eudolichotis) Pilsbry, 1896; Scholvienia (Thomsenia) Strebel, 1910 = Scholvienia Strebel, 1910; Sultana (Trachyorthalicus) Strebel, 1909 = Sultana (Metorthalicus) Pilsbry, 1899; Plekocheilus (Eurytus) conspicuus Pilsbry, 1932 = Thaumastus (Thaumastus) hartwegi (Pfeiffer in Philippi, 1846); Zebra gruneri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus maracaibensis (Pfeiffer, 1856); Scholvienia jaspidea minor Strebel, 1910 = Scholvienia alutacea (Reeve, 1850); Bulimus bifasciatus unicolor Philippi, 1869 = Scholvienia brephoides (d’Orbigny, 1835). A new status is given to Plekocheilus mcgintyi ‘Pilsbry’ H.B. Baker, 1963 (subspecies of Bulinus piperitus Sowerby I, 1837); Strophocheilus superstriatus var. prodeflexus Pilsbry, 1895 (subspecies of Bulinus piperitus Sowerby I, 1837); Thaumastus (Quechua) salteri maximus Weyrauch, 1967 (subspecies of Thaumastus (Quechua) olmosensis Zilch, 1954); Pseudoglandina agitata Weyrauch, 1967 (nomen inquirendum). New combinations are: Clathrorthalicus corydon (Crosse, 1869), and Cyclodontina chuquisacana (Marshall, 1930). Lectotypes are now designated for Bulimus incisus Hupé, 1857 and Bulinus piperitus

  20. Biostratigraphy of the San Joaquin Formation in borrow-source area B-17, Kettleman Hills landfill, North Dome, Kettleman Hills, Kings County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Fisk, Lanny H.; Maloney, David F.; Haasl, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The stratigraphic occurrences and interpreted biostratigraphy of invertebrate fossil taxa in the upper San Joaquin Formation and lower-most Tulare Formation encountered at the Chemical Waste Management Kettleman Hills waste disposal facility on the North Dome of the Kettleman Hills, Kings County, California are documented. Significant new findings include (1) a detailed biostratigraphy of the upper San Joaquin Formation; (2) the first fossil occurrence of Modiolus neglectus; (3) distinguishing Ostrea sequens from Myrakeena veatchii (Ostrea vespertina of authors) in the Central Valley of California; (4) differentiating two taxa previously attributed to Pteropurpura festivus; (5) finding a stratigraphic succession between Caesia coalingensis (lower in the section) and Catilon iniquus (higher in the section); and (6) recognizing Pliocene-age fossils from around Santa Barbara. In addition, the presence of the bivalves Anodonta and Gonidea in the San Joaquin Formation, both restricted to fresh water and common in the Tulare Formation, confirm periods of fresh water or very close fresh-water environments during deposition of the San Joaquin Formation.

  1. Pyruvate Oxidoreductases Involved in Glycolytic Anaerobic Metabolism of Polychaetes from the Continental Shelf off Central-South Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2000-10-01

    The presence of low oxygen conditions in extensive areas of the continental shelf off central-south Chile has important effects on the biochemical adaptations of the organisms living in this ecosystem. Polychaetes assemblages cohabit on the shelf with an extensively distributed prokaryotic community made up of giant filamentous sulfur bacteria (mainly Thioploca sp.). The aim of this research was to characterize the pyruvate oxidoreductases enzymes involved in the biochemical adaptation of these benthic polychaetes. Nine polychaete species ( Paraprionospio pinnata, Nephtys ferruginea, Glycera americana, Haploscoloplos sp., Lumbrineris composita, Sigambra bassi, Aricidea pigmentata , Cossura chilensis, and Pectinaria chilensis) were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), octopine dehydrogenase (OPDH), strombine dehydrogenase (STRDH) and alanopine dehydrogenase (ALPDH). Each species had a characteristic number of the pyruvate oxidoreductases assayed ranging from 4 in Paraprionospio pinnata to 1 in Pectinaria chilensis . The pyruvate saturation curves obtained for the enzymes from all species analysed, except L. composita, suggest that NADH can be oxidized at different rates depending on the amino acid used in the reaction with pyruvate. Our results indicate that organisms having more that one pyruvate oxidoreductase present a greater metabolic capacity to cope with functional and environmental hypoxia because these enzymes would better regulate the pyruvate consumption rate during the transition period. Thus, the dominance of Paraprionospio pinnata in the study area and its worldwide distribution is consistent with its higher number of pyruvate oxidoreductases with different pyruvate consumption rates involved in anaerobic metabolism. Finally, a positive allometric relationship was found between body size and the specific activity of ALPDH, STRDH, and maximum pyruvate oxidoreductase specific activity. This latter result suggests a positive scaling of the specific

  2. Holocene climate variability and environmental history at the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone: Lago Mosquito (lat. 42.50°S, long. 71.40°W) and Laguna del Cóndor (lat. 42.20°S, long. 71.17°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.; Bianchi, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Along the eastern Andes, a sharp ecotone separates steppe from North Patagonian forest dominated by Nothofagus spp. and Austrocedrus chilensis. The elevational position of the ecotone is determined by effective moisture, which in turn is governed by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Westerlies. As a result, past changes in ecotone position and composition, and fire activity provide an opportunity to examine past climate variations. Holocene environmental history at two sites in close proximity along a west-to-east moisture gradient is inferred from magnetic susceptibility, pollen and high-resolution charcoal data. Comparison of the two records enhanced the spatial resolution of the reconstruction. Pollen data suggest that, prior to 9 ka, vegetation resembled a modern steppe, in accordance with the widespread aridity characteristic of the period. Fires were infrequent, likely as a consequence of fuel discontinuity associated with low vegetation cover. At 9 ka, forest taxa expanded into the steppe. This change in community composition was reflected in the fire regime: fires became more frequent and biomass burning increased. This fire-vegetation linkage suggests that summers were arid enough to support fires but moisture was sufficient for Nothofagus forest to expand. Based on a westward displacement of the forest-steppe ecotone, drier-than-before conditions are inferred for the 5.5-3.7 ka period. A shift from crown to surface fires at the westernmost site, and lengthening fire return intervals towards the east accompanied this vegetation change. Between 3.7 and 2.4 ka, both sites registered an A. chilensis expansion, suggesting an increase in effective moisture. The last 2400 years are characterized by uninterrupted advances of Nothofagus forest. Ecotonal trees and shrubs, such as A. chilensis, Maytenus boaria and Rhamnaceae, have become less abundant, suggesting a recent trend towards cooler and/or wetter conditions.

  3. Automated Sound Recognition Provides Insights into the Behavioral Ecology of a Tropical Bird

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Olaf; Ganchev, Todor D.; Marques, Marinez I.; Schuchmann, Karl-L.

    2017-01-01

    Computer-assisted species recognition facilitates the analysis of relevant biological information in continuous audio recordings. In the present study, we assess the suitability of this approach for determining distinct life-cycle phases of the Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis lampronotus based on adult vocal activity. For this purpose we use passive 14-min and 30-min soundscape recordings (n = 33 201) collected in 24/7 mode between November 2012 and October 2013 in Brazil’s Pantanal wetlands. Time-stamped detections of V. chilensis call events (n = 62 292) were obtained with a species-specific sound recognizer. We demonstrate that the breeding season fell in a three-month period from mid-May to early August 2013, between the end of the flood cycle and the height of the dry season. Several phases of the lapwing’s life history were identified with presumed error margins of a few days: pre-breeding, territory establishment and egg-laying, incubation, hatching, parental defense of chicks, and post-breeding. Diurnal time budgets confirm high acoustic activity levels during midday hours in June and July, indicative of adults defending young. By August, activity patterns had reverted to nonbreeding mode, with peaks around dawn and dusk and low call frequency during midday heat. We assess the current technological limitations of the V. chilensis recognizer through a comprehensive performance assessment and scrutinize the usefulness of automated acoustic recognizers in studies on the distribution pattern, ecology, life history, and conservation status of sound-producing animal species. PMID:28085893

  4. A monoclinic form of dendocarbin A: a borderline case of one-dimensional isostructural polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristian; Burgos, Viviana; Suarez, Sebastián; Baggio, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The title compound, dendocarbin A [systematic name: (1R,5aS,9aS,9bR)-1-hydroxy-6,6,9a-trimethyldodecahydronaphtho[1,2-c]furan-3-one], C15H22O3, is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Drimys winteri var chilensis. The monoclinic phase described herein displays an identical molecular structure to the orthorhombic phase that we reported previously [Paz Robles et al. (2014). Acta Cryst. C70, 1007-1010], while varying significantly in chain pitch, and can thus be considered as a borderline case of one-dimensional isostructural polymorphism.

  5. First karyotype data on the family Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Natalia V.; Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Rakitov, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the first cytogenetic study of the recently proposed family Myerslopiidae the male karyotype of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, 1996) was analyzed using conventional chromosome staining, AgNOR- and C-bandings, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG)n telomeric probes. A karyotype of 2n = 16 + XY, NOR on a medium-sized pair of autosomes, subterminal location of C-heterochromatin, and presence of (TTAGG)n telomeric sequence were determined. Additionally, the male internal reproductive system was studied. PMID:25610543

  6. In vitro polymerization of mussel polyphenolic proteins catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Burzio, L A; Burzio, V A; Pardo, J; Burzio, L O

    2000-07-01

    The in vitro enzymatic polymerization of the polyphenolic protein purified from the mussels Aulacomya ater, Mytilus edulis chilensis and Choromytilus chorus was studied. Mushroom tyrosinase was used to oxidize the dopa residues present in these proteins, and polymerization was monitored by acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein from A. ater polymerized at a faster rate than the other two. Amino acid analysis of the crosslinked protein showed a notable decrease in the content of dopa, but no significant change of other amino acids. This suggests that crosslink formation may be limited to the oxidized dopa derivatives of the protein molecules.

  7. Purification of adhesive proteins from mussels.

    PubMed

    Pardo, J; Gutierrez, E; Sáez, C; Brito, M; Burzio, L O

    1990-11-01

    The adhesive polyphenolic proteins from the mussels Mytilus chilensis and Choromytilus chorus have been purified based on their solubility in dilute perchloric acid and on differential precipitation with acetone containing about 0.3 N HCl. The specific activity of the proteins obtained was 0.16 mg of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine per milligram of protein, or higher. The proteins have an apparent molecular weight of about 100,000 and they contain a high proportion of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, lysine, and proline.

  8. The caudinid sea cucumbers of New Zealand (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Molpadida: Caudinidae).

    PubMed

    Davey, Nicola; O'Loughlin, Mark

    2013-02-12

    Five species of Caudinidae occur in New Zealandwaters. Two new species are described: Paracaudina alta sp. nov.; Paracaudina reductia sp. nov. Two species reported previously are discussed: Paracaudina chilensis (Müller) and Paracaudina coriacea (Hutton). A lectotype has been established for P. coriacea (Hutton). Hedingia albicans var. glabra (Théel) is raised out of synonymy with Hedingia albicans (Théel), and the variety elevated to species status as Hedingia glabra (Théel). A key is provided for the New Zealand species of Caudinidae.

  9. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species.

  10. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of a polyadenylate synthase from Megavirus

    PubMed Central

    Lartigue, Audrey; Jeudy, Sandra; Bertaux, Lionel; Abergel, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Megavirus chilensis, a close relative of the Mimivirus giant virus, is also the most complex virus sequenced to date, with a 1.26 Mb double-stranded DNA genome encoding 1120 genes. The two viruses share common regulatory elements such as a peculiar palindrome governing the termination/polyadenylation of viral transcripts. They also share a predicted polyadenylate synthase that presents a higher than average percentage of residue conservation. The Megavirus enzyme Mg561 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. A 2.24 Å resolution MAD data set was recorded from a single crystal on the ID29 beamline at the ESRF. PMID:23295487

  11. Use of thermography and fluorescein angiography in the management of a Chilean flamingo with avascular necrosis of the wing.

    PubMed

    Hurley-Sanders, Jennifer L; Bowman, Karl F; Wolfe, Barbara A; Nutter, Felicia B; Sladky, Kurt K; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2012-12-01

    A Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) was presented to the veterinary clinic at the North Carolina Zoological Park for evaluation of acute weakness of the right wing. Results of a physical examination revealed a lack of a palpable pulse in the radial artery, which suggested occlusion or obstruction of the vessel. Radiography, thermography, and fluorescein angiography confirmed right wing injury and vascular compromise. Based on the poor prognosis for return to function associated with irreversible vascular damage, the wing was amputated. After a period of observation and treatment, the bird was returned to public exhibit.

  12. New species of Dinychus Kramer, 1886 from fragments of the former Gondwanaland (Acari: Uropodina: Dinychidae).

    PubMed

    Kontschán, Jenő; Ripka, Géza

    2016-07-15

    We describe two new species of Dinychus Kramer, 1886 from fragments of the former Gondwanaland supercontinent. Dinychus indica sp. nov. from India belongs to the Dinychus woelkei-group It differs from the previously known Dinychus species on the basis of the sculptural pattern of the sternal and genital shields of female. The female of Dinychus chilensis sp. nov. from Chile has a quadrangular genital shield, which is a unique character state in the genus Dinychus. New keys to the Central and South American Dinychus and to Dinychus woelkei-group are presented.

  13. A regional analysis of weather mediated competition between a parasitoid and a coccinellid predator of oleander scale.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Andrew P; Pizzamiglio, Marina A

    2007-01-01

    The regulation of an asexual population of the oleander scale [Aspidiotus nerii Bouchè (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)] on California bay tree [Umbellularia californica (Hopk. & Arn.) Nut.] by two natural enemies; an idiobiont, ectoparasitoid Aphytis chilensis Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and a coccinellid predator (Rhysobius lophanthae (Blaisd.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was examined using a general weather-driven, tri-trophic, physiologically based age-mass structured demographic model. The model is of intermediate complexity and was parameterized using extensive laboratory data and field observations from Albany, CA. Temperature-dependent physiological indices were estimated from the laboratory data and used to scale per capita growth, fecundity and survivorship rates from maximal values in a time varying environment. The tri-trophic model was integrated in a GIS (geographic information system) and the species dynamics examined across years and across the ecological zones of California. Field data and simulation results suggested the coccinellid predator was the most important regulating agent of oleander scale in the mild climate of Albany. However, multiple linear regression analysis of simulation data across all ecological zones of California shows that the parasitoid A. chilensis is the most important agent in suppressing oleander scale densities in warmer climates, while the predator R. lophanthae increases scale density an average of 9.7% across all regions.

  14. High resolution melting analysis for identification of commercially-important Mytilus species.

    PubMed

    Jilberto, Felipe; Araneda, Cristián; Larraín, María Angélica

    2017-08-15

    Mytilus are edible mussels, including commercially-significant species such as M. chilensis, M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis. The scientific name of the species must be indicated on commercial products to satisfy labelling and traceability requirements. Species identification using morphological criteria is difficult due the plasticity of these characteristics and the absence of shells in processed products, and conventional PCR-based methods are laborious and time-intensive. As alternative, we propose high resolution melting (HRM) analysis as a simple tool to detect and identify SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and length polymorphisms in Mytilus spp. We designed HRM-specific primers for the Mytilus genus to identify M. chilensis, M. galloprovincialis, M. edulis and their hybrids through clearly-distinguishable melting curves. HRM analysis showed high sensitivity (0.9639), specificity (1.0000) and precision (1.0000) compared to a conventional PCR-RFLP test. HRM is a fast and low cost method, being a reliable tool for species identification within the Mytilus genus.

  15. [Chemical characterization of integral flour from the prosopis spp. of Bolivia and Brazil].

    PubMed

    Galán, Abel González; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; de Abreu, Celeste Maria Patto; Barcelos, Maria de Fatima Piccolo

    2008-09-01

    The mature fruits of three species of algarroba found in Bolivia (Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stunz, P. alba Grisebach y P. nigra (Grisebach) Hieronymus) and of one of Brazil (P. juliflora (SW) DC) were analysed for some nutritional and antinutritional factors. P. nigra showed the highest levels of crude protein (11.33 g/100 g dry matter-DM) and ashes (4.12 g/100 g DM). P. juliflora presented the lowest levels of lipids (0.79 g/100 g DM), crude protein (8.84 g/100 g DM) and dietary fiber (40.15 g/100 g DM), and the highest levels of non reducing sugar (52.51 g/100 g DM) and in vitro protein digestibility (66.45%). Trypsin inhibitors concentration (0.29 to 9.32 UTI/mg DM) was inferior to that of raw soy; P. juliflora presented the higher values. Regarding saponin, hemagglutinin and poliphenol values, the levels found are considered low. As for nitrates, the levels found were higher than those reported for peas and beans, with P. chilensis presenting the highest value (2.92 g NO3(-)/kg DM). The levels of phytate varied from 1.31 a 1.53 g/100 g.

  16. An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

  17. Morphology, nectar characteristics and avian pollinators in five Andean Puya species (Bromeliaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornung-Leoni, C. T.; González-Gómez, P. L.; Troncoso, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Five Andean Puya species (Puya alpestris, Puya chilensis, Puya coerulea, Puya raimondii and Puya venusta) were studied to determine the relationship between their avian visitors, and plant morphology and nectar characteristics. Our results showed a significant relationship between nectar concentration, presence of sterile apex and avian pollinators's species. In contrast, nectar composition was not related to the frequency of avian visits. We found that Puya species were mainly visited by specialist nectarivorous birds such as hummingbirds (i.e., P. coerulea and P. venusta), lacked a sterile apex and produced high nectar concentration in low volumes. In contrast, species mainly visited by generalist passerines (i.e., P. chilensis and P. alpestris) were characterized by the presence of a sterile apex and production of highly diluted nectar in large volumes. In a mono-specific group we found that P. raimondii produces highly concentrated nectar in large volumes, and its flowers were visited by hummingbirds and passerine birds. We found no effect of nectar composition on bird's visits. Our study highlights the interplay between morphological traits, nectar characteristics and the ecological framework to explain specialized and generalized birds pollination systems.

  18. Echinostomatid larval stages in Lymnaea viatrix (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) from southwest Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Prepelitchi, Lucila; de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski

    2007-04-01

    The partial life cycle of an echinostomatid found in Lymnaea viatrix from Patagonia, Argentina, was experimentally clarified. Emerging cercariae were exposed to laboratory-reared specimens of Biomphalaria sp. Metacercariae obtained from both naturally and experimentally infected snails were force-fed to chicks. Specimens recovered from the chicks belong to Echinoparyphium sp. on the basis of morphological features. The studied species possesses 43 collar spines arranged in 4-4-27-4-4 at all stages, a cercariae with over 100 small corpuscles in the excretory system, a cercariae tail without finfolds, and a metacercariae with a thin cyst wall. The present species cannot be assigned to Echinoparyphium megacirrus despite their morphological similarity because of differences in the habitats of L. viatrix and the intermediate hosts of E. megacirrus, namely Chilina dombeiana, Diplodon chilensis, and Temnocephala chilensis. More information on some life cycle stages and on the ecology of the intermediate hosts is needed to clarify the taxonomic status of the parasite. This study represents the first detailed description of parasites other than Fasciola hepatica in L. viatrix from Argentina.

  19. Origin and evolutionary relationships of giant Galápagos tortoises.

    PubMed

    Caccone, A; Gibbs, J P; Ketmaier, V; Suatoni, E; Powell, J R

    1999-11-09

    Perhaps the most enduring debate in reptile systematics has involved the giant Galápagos tortoises (Geochelone nigra), whose origins and systematic relationships captivated Charles Darwin and remain unresolved to this day. Here we report a phylogenetic reconstruction based on mitochondrial DNA sequences from Galápagos tortoises and Geochelone from mainland South America and Africa. The closest living relative to the Galápagos tortoise is not among the larger-bodied tortoises of South America but is the relatively small-bodied Geochelone chilensis, or Chaco tortoise. The split between G. chilensis and the Galápagos lineage probably occurred 6 to 12 million years ago, before the origin of the oldest extant Galápagos island. Our data suggest that the four named southern subspecies on the largest island, Isabela, are not distinct genetic units, whereas a genetically distinct northernmost Isabela subspecies is probably the result of a separate colonization. Most unexpectedly, the lone survivor of the abingdoni subspecies from Pinta Island ("Lonesome George") is very closely related to tortoises from San Cristobal and Espanola, the islands farthest from the island of Pinta. To rule out a possible recent transplant of Lonesome George, we sequenced DNA from three tortoises collected on Pinta in 1906. They have sequences identical to Lonesome George, consistent with his being the last survivor of his subspecies. This finding may provide guidance in finding a mate for Lonesome George, who so far has failed to reproduce.

  20. Fleas associated with non-flying small mammal communities from northern and central Chile: with new host and locality records.

    PubMed

    Bazán-León, E A; Lareschi, M; Sanchez, J; Soto-Nilo, G; Lazzoni, I; Venegas, C I; Poblete, Y; Vásquez, R A

    2013-12-01

    Fleas associated with small mammals from seven localities from northern and central Chile were assessed. We captured 352 small mammals belonging to 12 species from which we obtained 675 fleas belonging to 15 different species. The most frequently captured flea species were Neotyphloceras crassispina crassispina (n = 198) and N. chilensis (n = 175). High values of flea species richness and diversity were found in Fray Jorge National Park (NP), a north-central Chilean site, whereas the highest values of mean abundance (MA) and prevalence were found in three diverse sites that include Los Molles River, a high altitude site located in north-central Chile, Fray Jorge NP and Dichato, in south-central Chile. On the other hand, high values of flea richness and diversity were found on two rodent species, Abrothrix olivacea and A. longipilis, whereas the highest values of MA and prevalence were found on Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, A. longipilis and Phyllotis xanthopygus. A total of three new host recordings, nine new localities and nine new host species and locality recordings are reported. Also, this study represents the first known record of Tetrapsyllus (Tetrapsyllus) comis in Chile and the first ecological analysis of Neotyphloceras chilensis.

  1. Whole-genome amplification: a useful approach to characterize new genes in unculturable protozoan parasites such as Bonamia exitiosa.

    PubMed

    Prado-Alvarez, Maria; Couraleau, Yann; Chollet, Bruno; Tourbiez, Delphine; Arzul, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    Bonamia exitiosa is an intracellular parasite (Haplosporidia) that has been associated with mass mortalities in oyster populations in the Southern hemisphere. This parasite was recently detected in the Northern hemisphere including Europe. Some representatives of the Bonamia genus have not been well categorized yet due to the lack of genomic information. In the present work, we have applied Whole-Genome Amplification (WGA) technique in order to characterize the actin gene in the unculturable protozoan B. exitiosa. This is the first protein coding gene described in this species. Molecular analysis revealed that B. exitiosa actin is more similar to Bonamia ostreae actin gene-1. Actin phylogeny placed the Bonamia sp. infected oysters in the same clade where the herein described B. exitiosa actin resolved, offering novel information about the classification of the genus. Our results showed that WGA methodology is a promising and valuable technique to be applied to unculturable protozoans whose genomic material is limited.

  2. Levels of PCBs in Oysters Coming from Galicia Coast: Comparison to Mussels from the Same Region.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2016-05-01

    PCBs were analyzed in two species of oyster (Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis) cultured in intertidal beds and rafts coming from the Galician Rías during the period 2011-2014. PCBs were also analyzed in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in the same Rías during 2011. The main objective of this work is to investigate the distribution of PCBs in Galician oysters and to study their suitability as bioindicator in comparison to mussels. The levels of ΣPCBs (ten congeners) ranged from 5.58 to 179.49 ng g(-1) d.w. The effect of biological parameters (shell length, lipid content and condition index) on bioaccumulation of PCBs was also evaluated. ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between species for higher chlorinated biphenyls (CBs 153 and 138). The spatial patterns were investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed differences between geographical areas (Rías Altas, Centrales and Baixas) in the distribution of PCBs.

  3. Characterization studies on the cadmium-binding proteins from two species of New Zealand oysters

    SciTech Connect

    Nordberg, M.; Nuottaniemi, I.; Cherian, M.G.; Nordberg, G.F.; Kjellstroem, T.; Garvey, J.S.

    1986-03-01

    Two different types of New Zealand oysters - Ostrea lutaria (OL) and Crassostrea glomerata (CG) - contained different concentrations of zinc, copper, and cadmium. Both kinds of oysters were shown by gel filtration (G-75) to contain cadmium and zinc in fractions corresponding to a high molecular weight protein which was heat labile. OL oysters contained cadmium in fractions corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 6500. The cadmium-binding protein in these fractions was heat-stable. This protein contained no detectable amounts of zinc and was not present in the CG oysters. CG oysters contained cadmium and zinc in a polypeptide with low molecular weight (MW 1000). The cadmium-binding oyster proteins are minimally reactive in a competitive binding radioimmunoassay in comparison to the reactivity of a typical vertebrate metallothionein; the proteins may be metallothioneins, but, if so, they do not exhibit the principal determinants characteristic of vertebrate metallothioneins.

  4. Denman Island disease in Washington State, USA: distribution and prevalence in Pacific and Olympia oysters.

    PubMed

    Elston, Ralph; Friedman, Carolyn; Gustafson, Lori; Meyer, Gary; Rogers, Russell

    2015-05-21

    We sampled over 2400 wild, feral, and cultured Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas and Olympia oysters Ostrea lurida in Washington State, USA, from 2002 to 2006 to estimate the prevalence of infection with Mikrocytos mackini, the causative agent of Denman Island disease. Both histology and qualitative PCR methods were used. Estimates of true prevalence of M. mackini infection in C. gigas, after accounting for imperfect test sensitivity, ranged from mean values of 0 to 10.0% by histology and 0 to 8.4% based on pooled PCR samples. M. mackini was not detected in any of the O. lurida samples. Results suggest a lower prevalence of the pathogen and severity of this oyster disease in Washington than that indicated in previous reports from British Columbia, Canada, potentially attributable to higher seawater temperatures in the Washington sample locations.

  5. Delta de l'Ebre is a natural bay model for Marteilia spp. (Paramyxea) dynamics and life-cycle studies.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, N; Arzul, I; Berthe, F C J; Fernández-Tejedor, M; Durfort, M; Furones, M D

    2008-03-03

    Marteilia spp. are paramyxean parasites that affect several bivalve species of economic interest, such as Ostrea edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis. Certain aspects of Marteilia spp., such as their life cycle and host affinity and infection dynamics, still remain unknown. The 'Delta de l'Ebre' constitutes a natural model for the study of the life cycle of the parasite Marteilia, since uninfected mussels and flat oysters immersed in the bays can become infected. This, along with the geographical and ecological characteristics of the bays, make it a very interesting location to study the Marteilia life cycle. Preliminary results concerning marteiliosis, mainly in mussels, such as prevalence dynamics, infectious periods, host affinity and host intermediate candidates are reported in the present paper. This information will be required for further, more exhaustive, studies in the bays of the Ebre delta.

  6. Contribution to the study of the physico-chemical structure of Clais

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hebert, Remy; Britt, S. E.

    1954-01-01

    The Cormeilles-en-Parisis hill shows one of the best geologic sections of the Paris region. The 80 meter high working face of the quarry exposes the complete section of the "Ludian" [the youngest beds of the Eocene] with its alternations of the marl and gypsum. Above is the sequence of supra-gypseous marls of the [lower oligocene] Sannosian stage, overlain by a very complex series of alternation brackish water and lacustrine layers, from blue marls to Brie limestone, up through the white Pantin marls, brown marls containing the pelecypod genus Cyrena and green marls. These strata overlain by the [Middle Oligocene] Stampian beds represented by the Fontainebleau sands and Ostrea-bearing marls. 

  7. The red tide event in El Salvador, August 2001-January 2002.

    PubMed

    Enrique Barraza, José; Armero-Guardado, Julio; Valencia de Toledo, Zobeyda Marisol

    2004-09-01

    A red tide event occurred in El Salvador from August 2001 to January 2002. National health authorities usually measured toxin levels in Ostrea iridescens, however other species were analyzed during this microalgae bloom: Anadara similis, Anadara tuberculosa and Modiolus sp. El Salvador authorities consider 400 mouse units/100 g the highest value that is safe for human health. During this period toxin levels in 0. iridescens and Modiolus sp. increased from values under 400 to 3977 and 15,468 mouse units/100 g, respectively. Persistent and higher levels were recorded in oyster and mussel banks on the west part of the country. The Ministry of Health and Social Assistance treated 41 slight to moderate intoxications associated to bivalve mollusks consumption.

  8. Identification of Marteilia refringens infecting the razor clam Solen marginatus by PCR and in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    López-Flores, Inmaculada; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A; de la Herran, Roberto; Ruiz-Rejón, Carmelo; Ruiz-Rejón, Manuel; Navas, José I

    2008-06-01

    Marteilia refringens is a protozoan parasite recognized as a significant pathogen of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis. It is believed to have a complex life-cycle involving several hosts. In this study, we applied molecular approaches to identify this parasite in samples of the razor clam Solen marginatus from the south west coast of Spain. We used a PCR assay to amplify a fragment of the IGS rDNA region. PCR products were sequenced and the phylogenetic affinity of the sequences was determined. In situ hybridization analysis showed tissue distribution and presence of different developmental stages of the parasite in the digestive diverticula epithelium, which suggested a true parasitism in these individuals. This is the first report of the occurrence of M. refringens in the razor clam S. marginatus in the south Atlantic. The methodology described herein may be useful for accurate identification of the parasite strain in different hosts and thus provide valuable information for marteiliosis control programmes.

  9. [PAHs concentrations in aquatic products and food safety evaluation in the coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Qiu; Li, Yao-Chu; Huang, Jin-Mu; Nan, Yan; Lin, Mao-Hong

    2012-06-01

    In order to know about the PAHs concentration in aquatic products from mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system and to make sure of food quality and food safety, HPLC was used to determine concentrations of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Tilapia mossambica, Mugil cephalu and Concha ostreae from coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ponds, food safety in aquatic products was also evaluated. The 13 PAHs were Fluorene (Flu), Phenanthrene (Phe), Anthracene (Ant), Fluoranthene (Fla), Pyrene (Pyr), Benz[a] anthraces (BaA), Chrysene (Chr), Benzo[b] fluoranthene (BbF), Benzo[k] fluoranthene (BkF), Benzo[a] Pyrene (BaP), Dibenzo [a, h] anthercene (DahA), Benzo [g, h, i] perylene (BghiP) and Indeno [1,2,3-c, d] pyrene (InP). Concentrations of PAHs were the highest in Concha ostreae which were in the range of 89.79-98.49 microg x kg(-1) dry weight, while those were in the range of 25.97-34.64 microg x kg(-1) in Mugil cephalu and 12.31-14.41 microg x kg(-1) in Tilapia mossambica. The content of fat affected the levels of PAHs content in different aquatic products. The individual composition of PAHs was characterized by 3 rings in samples with the range of 41.58% - 83.35%. Comparing with other areas, PAHs pollution of aquatic products in the studied area was in the mild level. Values of the total BaP(eq) concentration ranged from 0.0689 microg x kg(-1) to 1.0373 microg x kg(-1), which were lower than the maximum level set by European Union.

  10. The use of exopolysaccharide - producing cyanobacteria as biosorbents to remove copper from industrial waste - waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Federico; El Badaoui, Hajar; De Philippis, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in water bodies represent a widespread cause of pollution, and poses the need to develop novel technologies to remove metals at the source, abating the costs of the commonly used chemical and physio-chemical methods. The use of cyanobacteria as biosorbents has been acknowledged as a promising alternative, due to their charged polysaccharidic envelopes which have affinity for metal ions. Nonetheless, the reseach must move towards: i) assessing the effectiveness of the process towards complex wastewater solutions which contain chemical species that can interfere with the sorption process, also considering the characteristics of the used strains, and ii) developing novel devices that support biomass growth and use, in order to achieve a scaling up of the process. We compared the specific removal of three cyanobacteria, Cyanothece 16 Som 2, Cyanothece ET5 and Cyanospira capsulata, towards Cu2+ contained, with various other metals, in two industrial effluents (one at pH 1.26 and one at pH 10.26). The strains were selected due to their previously assayed affinity toward Cu2+ in pure solutions (De Philippis et al. 2011). Acid or basic pretreatments (respectively for the acid and the basic effluent) were performed in the tentative to increase the specific removal. Metal concentration in solution, before and after the contact with the biomasses, was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Specific removals resulted different to those obtained towards pure metal solutions, likely due to the presence of other competing ions. Cyanothece 16 Som 2 showed the highest Cu2+ specific removal towards both the effluents. The pretreatment was effective only in the case of the basic effluent. Results proved the capacity of Cyanothece 16 Som 2 to act as a selective Cu2+ sorbent even in the presence of complex solutions. A novel prototype device is being projected in order to support the growth and the immobilization of the cyanobacterial biomass for

  11. The role of microbial-produced extracellular polymeric matrix in the formation and survival of biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Federico; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are complex communities commonly constituting organo-mineral layers in arid and semiarid environment having a major influence on these ecosystems (Belnap and Lange, 2001). They have high tolerance towards a-biotic stresses and fluctuations in moisture, illumination, salinity and nutrients. The plasticity exhibited by BSCs is hugely contributed by the presence of the extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) that is synthesized by crustal organisms, notably cyanobacteria and microalgae. This polysaccharidic net plays key roles in biofilm relations with the surrounding constrained environment. Notably, EPM concurs in coping with water scarcity, freezing and salt stress; increases biolayers stability against erosion, and is involved in nutrient provision (Rossi and De Philippis, 2015). We conducted several investigations in a research area located in the Inner Mongolian desert (Inner Mongolia, China) where BSCs were induced over different sites through inoculation-based techniques performed in different years. Our studies were aimed at determining the role of EPM in BSC development and survival in such a hyper-arid system. This presentation will report the results concerning the role of EPM in water capture from non-rainfall sources, water maintenance at the topsoil, and in water infiltrability, the latter being a factor with important ecological implications. In additions we investigated the role of the matrix as a source of carbon for the crustal heterotrophs. Furthermore, EPM was extracted with methods optimized in our lab, aiming at removing tightly bound fractions and loosely bound fractions from BSCs having different ages. The fractions were analyzed in terms of monosaccharidic composition, and molecular weight (MW) distribution. We show how the relative amounts of uronic acids increase in the EPM with the age of the crusts, implying advantages for the community-water relations. In addition, we observed significant differences in MW

  12. The recent apple snails of Africa and Asia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae: Afropomus, Forbesopomus, Lanistes, Pila, Saulea): a nomenclatural and type catalogue. The apple snails of the Americas: addenda and corrigenda.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Robert H

    2015-03-27

    earlier catalogue of the apple snails of the Americas are provided. No new names are proposed. Seven apparently new combinations are introduced, all with the genus Pila Preston: complicata Reeve, dira Reeve, major Germain (described as a variety of ovata Olivier), major Germain (described as a variety of speciosa Philippi), obvia Mabille, pallens Philippi, turbinoides Reeve.

  13. The distal forelimb musculature in aquatic and terrestrial turtles: phylogeny or environmental constraints?

    PubMed

    Abdala, Virginia; Manzano, Adriana S; Herrel, Anthony

    2008-08-01

    We compared the muscular anatomy of the distal front limb in terrestrial and aquatic chelonians to test whether observed differences between the two groups are associated with their divergent lifestyles and locomotor modes. Given the different use of the forelimb in the two environments (body support and propulsion on land vs. mainly propulsion in water) we expected that: (1) aquatic and terrestrial turtles would show differences in their muscular anatomy, with aquatic species having more individualized muscle bundlesto allow for the complex forearm movements observed during swimming, and (2) that terrestrial turtles would have more robust muscles to support their body weight against gravity. To address these questions, we examined the forelimb myology and associated tissues in six aquatic or semi-aquatic turtles (Phyrnops hilarii, Podocnemis unifilis, Trachemys scripta, Sacalia bealei, Cuora amboinensis and Mauremys caspica) and six terrestrial or semi-terrestrial turtles (Geochelone chilensis, Testudo graeca, Cuora galbinifrons, Glyptemys insculpta, Terrapene carolina and Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima). This paper describes the general structure of the forelimb musculature in all species, and quantifies muscle masses in those species with more than five specimens available (Ph. hilarii, Po. unifilis and Ge. chilensis). The general structure of the forelimb muscles in the strictly terrestrial species Ge. chilensis and Tes. graeca was found to be notably different from the pattern of the aquatic and semi-aquatic species examined, showing a distinct fusion of the different muscular bodies. Ter. carolina also show a distinctly terrestrial pattern, but a less extensive tendon development. R. pulcherrima and GI. insculpta were found to be morphologically intermediate; in the geoemydids the strictly terrestrial bauplan never appears. Quantitative differences in the robustness or mass of the distal forelimb muscles were also observed for the species investigated, supporting

  14. [Analysis of iris: history and future].

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the iris has ancient roots, but iridology in its present sense was established by Philippi Meyers in 1670. The discipline was further developed by Ignaz Péczely in 1881 and by Nils Liljequist in 1890. Other studies have been published in Germany, Sweden, Norway, England, France, USA, Australia and elsewhere, and iridology is practiced worldwide. The techniques used are described and the sources of error are mentioned when several photos from the same patient are compared (e.g. the influences of differences in pupil size, magnification and the effect of oblique light). The iris key (irigraphy) and the interpretation of different sights are discussed in some detail; there is little agreement among iridologists. Some iris diagnoses are of little interest to day and some modern diseases are missing in the diagnostic system. Controlled studies reveal that iridology is of no use whatsoever for the detection of cancer and other diseases in the stomach, intestines, kidney, lungs and heart. The reason for the continued popularity of iridology is discussed, and it is concluded that this type of alternative medicine is not harmless.

  15. Neoparamoeba branchiphila infections in moribund sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Dyková, Iva; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Kostka, Martin; Valladares, Basilio; Pecková, Hana

    2011-07-12

    A total of 109 sea urchins from 3 species collected in 2 localities off the coast of Tenerife Island, Spain, were examined for the presence of free-living amoebae in their coelomic fluid. Amoeba trophozoites were isolated exclusively from moribund individuals of long-spined sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum (Philippi) (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) that manifested lesions related to sea urchin bald disease on their tests (16 out of 56 examined). No amoebae were detected in Arbacia lixula (L.) and Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck). From the former sea urchin species, 8 strains, established from 10 primary isolates, were identified as Neoparamoeba branchiphila Dyková et al., 2005 using morphological and molecular methods. Results of this study (limited to the screening for free-living amoebae) together with data on agents of sea urchin mortalities reported to date justify the hypothesis that free-living amoebae play an opportunistic role in D. aff. antillarum mortality. The enlargement of the dataset of SSU rDNA sequences brought new insight into the phylogeny of Neoparamoeba species.

  16. Resistance of wild Solanum accessions to aphids and other potato pests in Quebec field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fréchette, B; Bejan, M; Lucas, E; Giordanengo, P; Vincent, C

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae.

  17. Resistance of Wild Solanum Accessions to Aphids and Other Potato Pests in Quebec Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fréchette, B.; Bejan, M.; Lucas, É.; Giordanengo, P.; Vincent, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae. PMID:21054161

  18. Four marine digenean parasites of Austrolittorina spp. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in New Zealand: morphological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Katie; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Poulin, Robert; Faltýnková, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Littorinid snails are one particular group of gastropods identified as important intermediate hosts for a wide range of digenean parasite species, at least throughout the Northern Hemisphere. However nothing is known of trematode species infecting these snails in the Southern Hemisphere. This study is the first attempt at cataloguing the digenean parasites infecting littorinids in New Zealand. Examination of over 5,000 individuals of two species of the genus Austrolittorina Rosewater, A. cincta Quoy & Gaimard and A. antipodum Philippi, from intertidal rocky shores, revealed infections with four digenean species representative of a diverse range of families: Philophthalmidae Looss, 1899, Notocotylidae Lühe, 1909, Renicolidae Dollfus, 1939 and Microphallidae Ward, 1901. This paper provides detailed morphological descriptions of the cercariae and intramolluscan stages of these parasites. Furthermore, partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) for varying numbers of isolates of each species were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out at the superfamily level and along with the morphological data were used to infer the generic affiliation of the species.

  19. Differential adaptations between cold-stenothermal environments in the bivalve Lissarca cf. miliaris (Philobryidae) from the Scotia Sea islands and Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Adam J.; Linse, Katrin; Thatje, Sven

    2014-04-01

    The cold stenothermal nature of the Southern Ocean, and highly adapted fauna living within, raises the question of how much intra-specific variation there is among invertebrate populations, and how variation may have a role in speciation processes through ecological divergence, natural selection, and reproductive isolation. Despite decades of collecting biological material, this question remains largely unanswered, and many studies compare ‘populations' of pooled material from wide geographic ranges to compensate for sampling constraints. In this study, variations in ecophysiological traits are explored by measuring growth, reproduction, and shell morphology among six populations of the small bivalve Lissarca cf. miliaris (Philippi, 1845) from the Southern Ocean, which experience subtle differences in temperature, disturbance, and food availability. There are significant differences in shell morphology and growth among different populations and slower growth rates at higher latitude populations. Prodissoconch sizes show an inverse ‘U' shaped relationship with latitude, and are correlated with egg size at South Georgia and King George Island's Potter Cove. Higher brood sizes at the South Georgia population represent a trade-off with lower egg size, and correlate with shell morphology by offering lower internal capacity to brood young. Lower investment into offspring and morphological variations in L. cf. miliaris highlight the importance of local scale environmental variations on species' ecology. These variations in physical traits appear to be underestimated in the Southern Ocean, but may be important drivers of ecological divergence and speciation, which should be considered in future genetic investigations on different invertebrate populations.

  20. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the Megavirus superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Lartigue, Audrey; Philippe, Nadège; Jeudy, Sandra; Abergel, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Megavirus chilensis, a close relative of the Mimivirus giant virus, is able to replicate in Acanthamoeba castellanii. The first step of viral infection involves the internalization of the virions in host vacuoles. It has been experimentally demonstrated that Mimivirus particles contain many proteins capable of resisting oxidative stress, as encountered in the phagocytic process. These proteins are conserved in Megavirus, which has an additional gene (Mg277) encoding a putative superoxide dismutase. The Mg277 ORF product was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. A SAD data set was collected to 2.24 Å resolution at the selenium peak wavelength on the BM30 beamline at the ESRF from a single crystal of selenomethionine-substituted recombinant superoxide dismutase protein. PMID:23192047

  1. mRNA maturation in giant viruses: variation on a theme.

    PubMed

    Priet, Stéphane; Lartigue, Audrey; Debart, Françoise; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2015-04-20

    Giant viruses from the Mimiviridae family replicate entirely in their host cytoplasm where their genes are transcribed by a viral transcription apparatus. mRNA polyadenylation uniquely occurs at hairpin-forming palindromic sequences terminating viral transcripts. Here we show that a conserved gene cluster both encode the enzyme responsible for the hairpin cleavage and the viral polyA polymerases (vPAP). Unexpectedly, the vPAPs are homodimeric and uniquely self-processive. The vPAP backbone structures exhibit a symmetrical architecture with two subdomains sharing a nucleotidyltransferase topology, suggesting that vPAPs originate from an ancestral duplication. A Poxvirus processivity factor homologue encoded by Megavirus chilensis displays a conserved 5'-GpppA 2'O methyltransferase activity but is also able to internally methylate the mRNAs' polyA tails. These findings elucidate how the arm wrestling between hosts and their viruses to access the translation machinery is taking place in Mimiviridae.

  2. A monogenean fish parasite, Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp., belonging to a novel marine species lineage found in the South-Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean and North Seas.

    PubMed

    Ziętara, Marek S; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Muñoz, Gabriela; Lumme, Jaakko

    2012-10-01

    Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the Chilean tidal pond dweller Helcogrammoides chilensis (Cancino) (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S+ITS2 of rDNA placed the new species close to marine Gyrodactylus species found in Europe: G. orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Cave & Shinn, 2009 on gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea fish farms (Perciformes: Sparidae), and an undescribed species on the black goby Gobius niger L. from the North Sea (Perciformes: Gobiidae). A morphological description of the latter species is unavailable. These geographically distant parasite samples on different host families form a new well supported Gyrodactylus orecchiae lineage. Using molecular phylogenetics, it is shown that the marine species groups of Gyrodactylus may have a worldwide distribution.

  3. Grazing and excretion by zooplankton in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagg, M.; Cowles, T.; Whitledge, T.; Smith, S.; Howe, S.; Judkins, D.

    1980-01-01

    Rates of ingestion and excretion by adult females of the copepods Calanus chilensis, Eucalanus inermis, and Centropages brachiatus were measured in natural seawater during a cruise in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977. Simultaneously, zooplankton samples were collected for later determination of the abundance and distribution of these and other species. For these three organisms, feeding, and excretion rates of individuals are combined with information on the animal concentrations to estimate the grazing stress on the phytoplankton at each station, and to estimate the excretory nitrogen produced at each station. Comparison of grazing stresses with measured rates of primary production indicates that these large copepods were harvesting less than 5% of the daily phytoplankton production. Comparison of the nitrogen excretion rates with the amounts of excreted nitrogen in the water column indicates that less than 3% of the ambient excretory nitrogen was produced daily by these copepods. The importance of the abundant small zooplankton in the system is suggested.

  4. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol.

  5. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway.

  6. Seasonal and pollution-induced variations in biomarkers of transplanted mussels within the Beagle Channel.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2011-06-01

    The occurrence of biomarker variations linked to environmental factors makes it difficult to distinguish the effect of pollution. In an attempt to evaluate spatial and seasonal effects of environmental parameters on biomarker responses, mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis coming from an aquaculture farm were transplanted to several points within Ushuaia Bay (Beagle Channel) for 6 weeks in summer and winter. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and levels of lipid peroxidation were measured in gills and digestive gland. Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb concentrations were also assessed. Results indicated a significant effect of seasons on biological responses as well as in metal bioaccumulation showing the influence of natural factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and food availability. The interdependence of those environmental factors is important for the homeostasis of thermoconformers, especially regarding their oxidative metabolism and should also be taken into consideration to distinguish natural from pollution-induced variations.

  7. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  8. Fine-scale vertical distribution of coastal and offshore copepods in the Golfo de Arauco, central Chile, during the upwelling season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Leonardo R.; Troncoso, Victor A.; Figueroa, Dante R.

    2007-11-01

    In order to understand the mechanism by which zooplankters from different origins co-occur during the upwelling season within Golfo de Arauco, one of the most productive areas in central Chile, we assessed short term variations in the vertical distribution of the most abundant copepod species. Fine-scale, day and night vertical zooplankton sampling was done with a pump over 12 days in summer. The water column in the gulf consisted of three layers: Equatorial Subsurface Water of low dissolved oxygen content in the deeper part of the water column, strong temperature and oxygen gradients at mid-depth (15-25 m), and a layer of warmer, more oxygenated, less saline water at the surface. Copepods within the gulf originated from offshore, from the continental shelf, and from the coastal area. Most taxa showed distinctive vertical distributions. Three copepod groups were identified by their mean weighted depths of residence. One group included shallow residents found above the thermocline/oxycline ( Acartia tonsa, Centropages brachiatus, Corycaeus sp., Paracalanus parvus, Oncaea sp.). A second group was comprised by species distributed at or below the thermocline/oxycline ( Oithona sp., Oncaea conifera, Lucicutia sp., Metridia sp., Heterorhabdus papilliger). The third group was composed of vertical migrators that crossed the thermocline/oxycline ( Calanus chilensis, Calanoides patagoniensis, Aetideus armatus, Pleuromamma piseki). In spite of their different vertical distribution ranges, the most abundant and frequent copepod species ( P. parvus, C. chilensis, C. patagoniensis, C. brachiatus) share a common capacity to withstand wide ranges of oxygen concentration and temperature. This characteristic, along with the capacity to vary their life strategies under different environmental conditions, seems to facilitate the maintenance of large numbers of copepods in coastal waters along the Humboldt Current.

  9. Origin and evolutionary relationships of giant Galápagos tortoises

    PubMed Central

    Caccone, Adalgisa; Gibbs, James P.; Ketmaier, Valerio; Suatoni, Elizabeth; Powell, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Perhaps the most enduring debate in reptile systematics has involved the giant Galápagos tortoises (Geochelone nigra), whose origins and systematic relationships captivated Charles Darwin and remain unresolved to this day. Here we report a phylogenetic reconstruction based on mitochondrial DNA sequences from Galápagos tortoises and Geochelone from mainland South America and Africa. The closest living relative to the Galápagos tortoise is not among the larger-bodied tortoises of South America but is the relatively small-bodied Geochelone chilensis, or Chaco tortoise. The split between G. chilensis and the Galápagos lineage probably occurred 6 to 12 million years ago, before the origin of the oldest extant Galápagos island. Our data suggest that the four named southern subspecies on the largest island, Isabela, are not distinct genetic units, whereas a genetically distinct northernmost Isabela subspecies is probably the result of a separate colonization. Most unexpectedly, the lone survivor of the abingdoni subspecies from Pinta Island (“Lonesome George”) is very closely related to tortoises from San Cristóbal and Española, the islands farthest from the island of Pinta. To rule out a possible recent transplant of Lonesome George, we sequenced DNA from three tortoises collected on Pinta in 1906. They have sequences identical to Lonesome George, consistent with his being the last survivor of his subspecies. This finding may provide guidance in finding a mate for Lonesome George, who so far has failed to reproduce. PMID:10557302

  10. Germination and growth responses of hybridizing Carpobrotus species (Aizoaceae) from coastal California to soil salinity.

    PubMed

    Weber, E; D'Antonio, C M

    1999-09-01

    Germination, growth, and physiological responses of hybridizing Carpobrotus from coastal California to soil salinity were studied. Hybrids are presumably the result of hybridization and introgression between the exotic Carpobrotus edulis, a succulent perennial invading coastal habitats, and the native or long-naturalized C. chilensis. Germination responses were investigated at 0, 10, 20, and 50% seawater. Seedling growth and physiology were compared by irrigating seedlings with solutions of the same seawater concentrations and in low and high nutrients. Germination was inhibited in the presence of salt, but recovered after transferring the seeds to fresh water. Seeds exposed to salt had higher final germination rates than control. Growth of Carpobrotus was slightly enhanced by low seawater concentrations but reduced at high salinity at both nutrient regimes. Leaf cell sap osmolarity increased with increasing soil salinity, and taxa did not differ significantly in this physiological adjustment. Leaf carbon isotope ratios (∂(13)C) ranged from -28 to -22‰ and became less negative at higher salinities, indicating an improved water use efficiency in the seedlings at high salt concentrations. In addition, ∂(13)C values were generally less negative at high than at low nutrients. Differences among taxa were generally small. The results show that salinity affects both establishment and growth of hybridizing Carpobrotus. The overall weak species differences in salt tolerance indicate that the exotic C. edulis can occupy the same sites as C. chilensis in terms of salinity. The similarity of hybrids in their response to salinity suggests that they may contribute to the invasion by Carpobrotus.

  11. Survival, growth and vulnerability to drought in fire refuges: implications for the persistence of a fire-sensitive conifer in northern Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Landesmann, Jennifer B; Gowda, Juan H; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Kitzberger, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Fire severity and extent are expected to increase in many regions worldwide due to climate change. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the relative importance of deterministic vs. stochastic factors producing remnant vegetation to understand their function in the persistence of fire-sensitive plants. Vegetation remnants (areas within the landscape that have not burned for a considerable amount of time) may occur stochastically or in more predictable locations (fire refuges) where physical conditions decrease fire severity. Our aim was to determine if remnant forests of the fire-sensitive conifer Austrocedrus chilensis are associated with biophysical attributes that allow persistence in a fire-prone Patagonian landscape. We conducted a multi-scale approach, determining attributes of forest remnants and their surroundings (matrices) through remote sensing and field-based biophysical and functional characteristics, and quantifying how tree survival probability relates to microsite conditions. Trees within remnants displayed abundant fire scars, were twofold older and had threefold larger growth rates than matrix trees. Remnants were associated with high rocky cover and elevated topographical positions. Tree survival increased in hilltops, eastern aspects, and with sparse vegetation. Trees within remnants experienced severe reductions in growth during droughts. Our results suggest that A. chilensis remnants are mainly the result of refuges, where environmental conditions increase fire survival, but also increase susceptibility to drought. A trade-off between fire survival and drought vulnerability may imply that under increasing drought and fire severity, locations that in the past have served as refuges may reduce their ability to allow the persistence of fire-sensitive taxa.

  12. Negative impacts of a vertebrate predator on insect pollinator visitation and seed output in Chuquiraga oppositifolia, a high Andean shrub.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Alejandro A; Arroyo, Mary T K

    2004-01-01

    Studies on plant-pollinator interactions have largely neglected the potential negative effects of the predators of pollinators on seed output, even though anti-predatory behaviour of pollinators may affect visitation patterns, pollen transfer, and therefore potentially, plant reproductive output. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of lizards and insectivorous birds, by reducing pollinator visitation, can have significant negative effects on seed output in the insect-pollinated, genetically self-incompatible lower alpine Andean shrub, Chuquiraga oppositifolia (Asteraceae). The lower alpine belt supports a high density of territorial Liolaemus (Tropiduridae) lizards and low shrubs interspersed among rocks of varying sizes, the latter inhabited by lizards and commonly used by flycatchers Muscisaxicola (Tyrannidae) as perching sites. In a 2x2 factorial predator-exclusion experiment, visitation rates of the most frequent pollinators of C. oppositifolia (the satyrid butterfly Cosmosatyrus chilensis and the syrphid fly Scaeva melanostoma), the duration of pollinator visits, and seed output, were 2-4 times greater when lizards were excluded, while birds had no effect. In a natural experiment, visits by S. melanostoma were 9 times shorter, and pollinator visitation rates of C. chilensis and S. melanostoma, and C. oppositifolia seed output were 2-3 times lower on shrubs growing adjacent to lizard-occupied rocks compared to those growing distant from rocks. Our results, verified for additional Andean sites, suggest that lizard predators can alter the behaviour of pollinators and elicit strong top-down indirect negative effects on seed output. Such effects may be especially important in high alpine plant communities, where pollinator activity can be low and erratic, and pollen limitation has been reported.

  13. Polychaeta Orbiniidae from Antarctica, the Southern Ocean, the Abyssal Pacific Ocean, and off South America.

    PubMed

    Blake, James A

    2017-01-12

    The orbiniid polychaetes chiefly from Antarctic and subantarctic seas and off South America are described based on collections of the National Museum of Natural History and new material from surveys conducted by the United States Antarctic Program and other federal and privately funded sources as well as participation in international programs. A total of 44 species of Orbiniidae distributed in 10 genera are reported from the Pacific Ocean and waters off South America and Antarctica. Twenty-one species are new to science; one species is renamed. Berkeleyia heroae n. sp., B. abyssala n. sp., B. weddellia n. sp.; B. hadala n. sp., Leitoscoloplos simplex n. sp., L. plataensis n. sp., L. nasus n. sp., L. eltaninae n. sp., L. phyllobranchus n. sp., L. rankini n. sp., Scoloplos bathytatus n. sp., S. suroestense n. sp., Leodamas hyphalos n. sp., L. maciolekae n. sp., L. perissobranchiatus n. sp., Califia bilamellata n. sp., Orbinia orensanzi n. sp., Naineris antarctica n. sp., N. argentiniensis n. sp., Orbiniella spinosa n. sp., and O. landrumae n. sp. are new to science. A new name, Naineris furcillata, replaces N. chilensis Carrasco, 1977, a junior homonym of N. dendtritica chilensis Hartmann‑Schröder, 1965, which is raised to full species status. Leodamas cochleatus (Ehlers, 1900) is removed from synonymy and redescribed. A neotype is established for Leodamas verax Kinberg, 1966, the type species. A general overview of Leodamas species is provided. The Leitoscoloplos kerguelensis (McIntosh, 1885) complex is reviewed and partially revised. Definitions of the genera of the Orbiniidae are updated to conform to recently described taxa. Several new synonymies are proposed following a reexamination of previously described type specimens. The morphological characters used to identify and classify orbiniids are reviewed. The biogeographic and bathymetric distributions of the South American and Southern Ocean orbiniid fauna are reviewed.

  14. Natural Distribution of Parasitoids of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gabriela Murúa, M.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  15. Genetic considerations for mollusk production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Astorga, Marcela P.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first). Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops, and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources. PMID:25540651

  16. Effects of macroalgal mats and hypoxia on burrowing depth of the New Zealand cockle ( Austrovenus stutchburyi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Islay D.; Bressington, Melanie J.

    2009-02-01

    Macroalgal mats commonly occur in estuaries and sheltered embayments where they are thought to affect the oxygen conditions in the sediment, influence the geochemical process and influence the burrowing activity of bivalves. Laboratory experiments evaluated the effects of sediment hypoxia and algal mats on the burrowing ability and survival of the New Zealand cockle Austrovenus stutchburyi at 15 °C. Both dissolved oxygen concentration and time affected the burial depth of the cockles over the 12 days of the experiment. In hypoxic conditions (<2 mg L -1), cockles migrated to the sediment surface after 3.5 days and mortality occurred after 11 days. Bivalves exposed to oxygen concentrations of 2-3 mg L -1 buried closer to the sediment surface than those in the other treatments. Using a simulated tidal regime, in a mesocosm, burrowing behaviour of the cockle and pore-water oxygen conditions in the sediment were measured on exposure to experimental mats of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva spp. for over 6 days. Algal mats on the surface of the sediment significantly lowered the dissolved oxygen concentration of the sediment pore-water and this effect was greater for the Ulva spp. treatment than the G. chilensis treatment. Cockles were buried more deeply in the control treatment without algae than in either of the two algal treatments. It is concluded that reduced oxygen conditions (<3.5 mg L -1) develop under macroalgal mats and that this reduces the burial depth of cockles. The potential harmful effects of the mats can depend on the species forming the mat and these effects are likely to be greater in the field than they are in controlled laboratory conditions.

  17. Natural distribution of parasitoids of larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gabriela Murúa, M; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  18. Photosynthetic responses of trees in high-elevation forests: comparing evergreen species along an elevation gradient in the Central Andes

    PubMed Central

    García-Plazaola, José I.; Rojas, Roke; Christie, Duncan A.; Coopman, Rafael E.

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth at extremely high elevations is constrained by high daily thermal amplitude, strong solar radiation and water scarcity. These conditions are particularly harsh in the tropics, where the highest elevation treelines occur. In this environment, the maintenance of a positive carbon balance involves protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and taking advantage of any climatically favourable periods. To characterize photoprotective mechanisms at such high elevations, and particularly to address the question of whether these mechanisms are the same as those previously described in woody plants along extratropical treelines, we have studied photosynthetic responses in Polylepis tarapacana Philippi in the central Andes (18°S) along an elevational gradient from 4300 to 4900 m. For comparative purposes, this gradient has been complemented with a lower elevation site (3700 m) where another Polylepis species (P. rugulosa Bitter) occurs. During the daily cycle, two periods of photosynthetic activity were observed: one during the morning when, despite low temperatures, assimilation was high; and the second starting at noon when the stomata closed because of a rise in the vapour pressure deficit and thermal dissipation is prevalent over photosynthesis. From dawn to noon there was a decrease in the content of antenna pigments (chlorophyll b and neoxanthin), together with an increase in the content of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids. These results could be caused by a reduction in the antenna size along with an increase in photoprotection. Additionally, photoprotection was enhanced by a partial overnight retention of de-epoxized xanthophylls. The unique combination of all of these mechanisms made possible the efficient use of the favourable conditions during the morning while still providing enough protection for the rest of the day. This strategy differs completely from that of extratropical mountain trees, which uncouple light-harvesting and energy-use during long

  19. Photosynthetic responses of trees in high-elevation forests: comparing evergreen species along an elevation gradient in the Central Andes.

    PubMed

    García-Plazaola, José I; Rojas, Roke; Christie, Duncan A; Coopman, Rafael E

    2015-05-22

    Plant growth at extremely high elevations is constrained by high daily thermal amplitude, strong solar radiation and water scarcity. These conditions are particularly harsh in the tropics, where the highest elevation treelines occur. In this environment, the maintenance of a positive carbon balance involves protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and taking advantage of any climatically favourable periods. To characterize photoprotective mechanisms at such high elevations, and particularly to address the question of whether these mechanisms are the same as those previously described in woody plants along extratropical treelines, we have studied photosynthetic responses in Polylepis tarapacana Philippi in the central Andes (18°S) along an elevational gradient from 4300 to 4900 m. For comparative purposes, this gradient has been complemented with a lower elevation site (3700 m) where another Polylepis species (P. rugulosa Bitter) occurs. During the daily cycle, two periods of photosynthetic activity were observed: one during the morning when, despite low temperatures, assimilation was high; and the second starting at noon when the stomata closed because of a rise in the vapour pressure deficit and thermal dissipation is prevalent over photosynthesis. From dawn to noon there was a decrease in the content of antenna pigments (chlorophyll b and neoxanthin), together with an increase in the content of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids. These results could be caused by a reduction in the antenna size along with an increase in photoprotection. Additionally, photoprotection was enhanced by a partial overnight retention of de-epoxized xanthophylls. The unique combination of all of these mechanisms made possible the efficient use of the favourable conditions during the morning while still providing enough protection for the rest of the day. This strategy differs completely from that of extratropical mountain trees, which uncouple light-harvesting and energy-use during long

  20. Bronze age cosmology and rock art images. Solar ships, deer and charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriadis, G.

    Bronze Age societies were technologically complex. The impressive production of metal artefacts embodies clearly their astronomical culture and cosmological viewpoint. Same ascertainment is valid also for rock art. In fact, around the European landscape were discovered several cliffs engraved with solar ships, deer and charts. How one could be interpret them? Which is the hidden mentality? From the end of 3rd millennium-early 2nd millennium B. C. deep technological transformations are made by metals. New inventions such metal extraction for weapon production, horse pulling chariot used for war and the bull pulling one used for trade may shorten the culture and material distances between Central Europe and South Mediterranean area. Indeed, taphonomic studies indicate a specific modification of the human body mortuary traditional disposition (orientated to significant astronomical targets) below a substantial transformation of mortuary apparatus with spot evidence of weapons (halberds, swords, knifes) and ornaments (double spiral, lunar shape pectorals). The famous Trundhold Solar chart, the 2nd millennium terracotta chart form Dupljaja, the solar boats petroglyph in Bohusland and the horse rider carved on Philippi's cliffs were conceived by the same mentality: communion with the divinity. Culture expressions as communicate manifestation attested in rock art were produced by the same mentality presented in Bronze Age art-crafts such as, 1. Culture epidemiologic patterns dispersion took place through out iconographic motives, and, 2. Animals can play a double face function inside an analogical-mythological system: a. animal-reflex; b. animal-agent. The question is: Could such petroglyphs help us to "read" archaeoastronomical properly in an archaeological site?

  1. Comparative mitogenomic analysis reveals cryptic species: A case study in Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Meng, Xue Ping; Chu, Ka Hou; Zhao, Na Na; Tian, Mei; Liang, Meng; Hao, Jue

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese surf clam Mactra chinensis Philippi, 1846 is a commercially important marine bivalve belonging to the family Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). In this study, the M. chinensis mitochondrial genomic features are analyzed. The genome has 34 genes on the same strand, lacking atp8 and both trnS (trnS1 and trnS2) as compared with the typical gene content of metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The A+T content of M. chinensis mitochondrial genome is 63.72%, which is slightly lower than that of M. veneriformis (67.59%) and Coelomactra antiquata (64.33% and 64.14% for the samples from Ri Zhao, Shandong Province, and Zhang Zhou, Fujian Province, China, respectively) in the same family. There are 22 NCRs in the M. chinensis mitochondrial genome, accounting for 12.91% of the genome length. The longest NCR (1,075bp in length) is located between trnT and trnQ. A TRS (127bp×8.15) accounts for 96.3% (1,035/1,075) of this NCR. The occurrence of TRS in NCR is shared by the two Mactra mitochondrial genomes, but is not found in the two Coelomactra mitochondrial genomes. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 12 PCGs of 25 bivalve mitochondrial genomes shows that all seven genera (Mactra, Coelomactra, Paphia, Meretrix, Solen, Mytilus, and Crassostrea) constitute monophyletic groups with very high support values. Pairwise genetic distance analyses indicate that the genetic distance of C. antiquata from the two localities is 0.084, which is greater than values between congeneric species, such as those in Mactra, Mytilus, Meretrix, and Crassostrea. The results show that the C. antiquata from the two localities represent cryptic species.

  2. Assessment of metal pollution in Onsan Bay, Korea using Asian periwinkle Littorina brevicula as a biomonitor.

    PubMed

    Kang, S G; Choi, M S; Oh, I S; Wright, D A; Koh, C H

    1999-08-30

    Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the marine gastropod, Littorina brevicula Philippi, were determined to assess the metal pollution in Onsan Bay, Korea. Samples of L. brevicula employed as a biomonitor and seawater were collected from 12 to 20 stations of Onsan Bay in November 1997, respectively. Dissolved metal concentrations in surface seawater were highest at the station near Onsan Non-ferrous Industrial Complex: 1.15 micrograms l-1 for Cd, 2.49 micrograms l-1 for Pb, 3.75 micrograms l-1 for Cu and 23.98 micrograms l-1 for Zn. These values were 1-2 orders higher than those shown at outer regions of the Bay. Metal concentrations in the soft body of periwinkles were highly variable at different sampling locations: 0.48-27.11 micrograms g-1 for Cd, 1.41-24.91 micrograms g-1 for Pb, 57-664 micrograms g-1 for Cu and 83-246 micrograms g-1 for Zn. The values from stations near the industrial complex were higher than those expected from relationships between body sizes and metal body burdens in periwinkles collected from the whole Korean coast. Spatial distribution of metal concentrations in the periwinkle and seawater indicated that Onsan industrial complex near the Bay is the input source of these metals. Especially, Cd and Pb concentrations in the periwinkle and seawater were distinctly decreased with distance from the Onsan industrial complex. Non-essential metals such as Cd and Pb in the periwinkle showed a strong correlation with dissolved metal concentrations in seawater. Conversely, essential Cu and Zn in the periwinkle were hardly explained by those in seawater, except at the most contaminated sites.

  3. The genus Pirenella Gray, 1847 (= Cerithideopsilla Thiele, 1929) (Gastropoda: Potamididae) in the Indo-West Pacific region and Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Reid, David G; Ozawa, Tomowo

    2016-02-05

    Members of the genus Pirenella are abundant inhabitants of intertidal sedimentary shores, often found in association with mangroves, on the continental margins of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, and eastern Mediterranean Sea. Until recently, four morphological species were recognised in the tropical Indo-West Pacific region and classified in the genus Cerithideopsilla, while another species occupying the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean was classified as Pirenella conica. Molecular phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that all these species are congeneric and here it is shown that the valid name for the genus is Pirenella. A recently published molecular study recognised a total of 16 species and the present work is a systematic account of these species. Of the 16, nine are described as new. Other significant nomenclatural acts are: fixation of type species of Pirenella as Pirenella mammillata J.E. Gray, 1847; designation of neotypes for Cerithium alatum Philippi, 1849, Cerithium microptera Kiener, 1841, Cerithium conicum Blainville, 1829, Pirenella mammillata J.E. Gray, 1847 and Murex cingulatus Gmelin, 1791; designation of lectotype for Cerithium retiferum G.B. Sowerby II, 1855. The species accounts include full synonymies, detailed descriptions of shells (based on 831 museum samples), distribution records and maps, reviews of life history, of habitat and of ecology, and some images of radulae. Details of shell sculpture are adequate for the diagnosis of most species. Distorted shells are common in some populations and are suggested to represent parasitised individuals. Some species are pests of fishponds in Southeast Asia and P. conica is the intermediate host of a trematode responsible for the human disease heterophyiasis, while others are threatened by habitat destruction.

  4. Degradation of Three Aromatic Dyes by White Rot Fungi and the Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Chandana; Imtiaj, Ahmed; Lee, Geon Woo; Im, Kyung Hoan; Hur, Hyun; Lee, Min Woong; Yang, Hee-Sun

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of aromatic dyes and the production of ligninolytic enzymes by 10 white rot fungi. The results of this study revealed that Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes suaveolens, Stereum ostrea and Fomes fomentarius have the ability to efficiently degrade congo red on solid media. However, malachite green inhibited the mycelial growth of these organisms. Therefore, they did not effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. However, P. cinnabarinus and P. pulmonarius were able to effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. T. suaveolens and F. rosea decolorized methylene blue more effectively than any of the other fungi evaluated in this study. In liquid culture, G. lucidum, P. cinnabarinus, Naematoloma fasciculare and Pycnoporus coccineus were found to have a greater ability to decolorize congo red. In addition, P. cinnabarinus, G. lucidum and T. suaveolens decolorized methylene blue in liquid media more effectively than any of the other organisms evaluated in this study. Only F. fomentarius was able to decolorize malachite green in liquid media, and its ability to do so was limited. To investigate the production of ligninolytic enzymes in media containing aromatic compounds, fungi were cultured in naphthalene supplemented liquid media. P. coccineus, Coriolus versicolor and P. cinnabarinus were found to produce a large amount of laccase when grown in medium that contained napthalene. PMID:23990745

  5. Macrobenthos of the subtidal Wadden Sea: revisited after 55 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesen, W.; Reise, K.

    1982-12-01

    During the years 1923 1926 Hagmeier & Kändler (1927) sampled the macrofauna of subtidal shallows and channels of the Wadden Sea close to the Island of Sylt (German Bight, North Sea). Reinvestigating this study area in 1980, a substantially altered faunal composition was recorded. An approach is made to quantify the comparison in terms of abundance, species richness and diversity of invertebrate taxa. Human interference is assumed to be responsible for the major changes. Natural oyster beds have been overexploited and the local population of Ostrea edulis has been driven to extinction. Subsequently, mussels (Mytilus edulis) spread in the entire region, promoted by shell fishery. Particularly barnacles and many polychaetes took advantage of the expansion of mussel banks which is substantiated by correlation analysis. Reefs of the colonial polychaete Sabellaria spinulosa stood in the way of shrimp trawling and became destroyed together with the associated fauna. A subtidal Zostera marina bed was wiped out in 1934 by a natural epidemic disease but never succeeded in reestablishing itself. The associated fauna disappeared. Large epibenthic predators and scavengers (crabs, snails and starfish) survived all these changes. The total number of species remained approximately at the same level but molluscs experienced losses and polychaetes diversified. Overall abundance increased with a disproportionately large share of a few species (Mytilus edulis, Balanus crenatus, Cerastoderma edule, Scoloplos armiger). The subtidal fauna of the Wadden Sea proved to be vulnerable to human disturbance; thus, the present community can no longer be viewed as the outcome of entirely natural processes.

  6. Phaeobacter inhibens as biocontrol agent against Vibrio vulnificus in oyster models.

    PubMed

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Gram, Lone

    2016-08-01

    Molluscan shellfish can cause food borne diseases and here we investigated if addition of Vibrio-antagonising bacteria could reduce Vibrio vulnificus in model oyster systems and prevent its establishment in live animals. Phaeobacter inhibens, which produces an antibacterial compound, tropodithietic acid (TDA), inhibited V. vulnificus as did pure TDA (MIC of 1-3.9 μM). P. inhibens DSM 17395 (at 10(6) cfu/ml) eradicated 10(5) cfu/ml V. vulnificus CMCP6 (a rifampicin resistant variant) from a co-culture oyster model system (oyster juice) whereas the pathogen grew to 10(7) cfu/ml when co-cultured with a TDA negative Phaeobacter mutant. P. inhibens grew well in oyster juice to 10(8) CFU/ml and sterile filtered samples from these cultures were inhibitory to Vibrio spp. P. inhibens established itself in live European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and remained at 10(5) cfu/g for five days. However, the presence of P. inhibens could not prevent subsequently added V. vulnificus from entering the live animals, likely because of too low levels of the biocontrol strain. Whilst the oyster model studies provided indication that P. inhibens DSM 17395 could be a good candidate as biocontrol agent against V. vulnificus further optimization is need in the actual animal rearing situation.

  7. Stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation by oyster glycogen sulfated at C-6 position.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingfeng; Zhu, Beiwei; Zheng, Jie; Sun, Liming; Zhou, Dayong; Dong, Xiuping; Yu, Chenxu

    2013-04-15

    In this study, glycogen was extracted from oyster Ostrea talienwhanensis Crosse and used as a model to investigate the structure-activity correlation of polysaccharides. Purified oyster glycogen was characterized by methylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The oyster glycogen was subsequently sulfated by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method, and a C-6 substituted species (SOG) was identified to be the primary sulfated oyster glycogen species by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The molecular weight and sulfate content of the SOG was determined to be 3.2×10(4) g/mol and 33.6%, respectively. Another sulfated oyster glycogen species (SOG1) with C-2 and C-3 substitution was also identified at a lesser amount in the final product. SOG exhibited a much stronger stimulation effect to splenic lymphocyte proliferation than SOG1 in vitro, indicating that the position of sulfate substitution is a major determining factor on the efficacy of sulfated glycogens to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation.

  8. Spermatozeugmata structure and dissociation of the Australian flat oyster Ostera angasi: Implications for reproductive strategy.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Md Mahbubul; Qin, Jian G; Li, Xiaoxu

    2016-06-01

    Variation in reproductive strategy is one of the key factors contributing to recruitment success of molluscs in different habitats. Spermcasting is a unique mode in mollusc reproduction where males produce spermatozeugmata, a radially arrayed sperm cluster wrapped by gelatinous membrane. In this study, spermatozeugmata structure and their dissociation in the Australian flat oyster Ostrea angasi were investigated to elucidate the reproductive strategy in spermcasting molluscs. The histological observation indicated that spermatogonia gradually aggregated in the gonad follicle at the early gonad development stages and developed into spermatozeugmata and became tightly packed at the advanced stages. Even though mature male and female gametes could be found in a hermaphroditic individual, the animal may prevent self-fertilization by shedding different sex gametes at different time. The O. angasi sperm are similar in size and shape to broadcasting oysters, but have one additional mitochondrion. Variations in maintaining spermatozeugmata integrity and sperm motility between individuals depended on the level of masculinity or femineity. The durations of spermatozeugmata dissociation and sperm viability were longer in males than in hermaphrodites. The unique structure and capability for spermatozeugmata to maintain the functional integrity after spawning have adaptive significance for fertilization and gamete dispersal in this species.

  9. Neoplastic diseases of marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Carballal, María J; Barber, Bruce J; Iglesias, David; Villalba, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Two types of prevalent neoplastic diseases have been described in marine bivalves of commercial interest: disseminated neoplasia (DN) and gonadal neoplasia. The first involves the excessive proliferation of abnormal cells with unknown origin (probably of hemic source in some cases/species), disseminating through the circulatory system and infiltrating the connective tissue of various organs; the second consists of an abnormal proliferation of undifferentiated germinal cells of the gonad. These two types of bivalve neoplasia fit the criteria of malignant tumors: pleomorphic and undifferentiated cells, rapid and invasive growth, abundance of mitotic figures, metastasis and progressive development often resulting in the death of the affected individual. Different causes have been suggested regarding etiology: genetic alterations, virus, retrotranspons, and contaminants, although it could depend on the mollusk species; evidence of horizontal transmission of clonal cancer cells as the cause of DN spreading in clam Mya arenaria populations has been recently reported. In some species and populations, the neoplastic disorders affect only a few individuals, but in others reach high prevalence. Among the diagnostic methods, DN has been detected by histology and cytologic examination of hemolymph, and with developed specific antibodies. Recently, flow cytometry has also been applied, allowing detecting DNA quantity alteration. Several studies reported many genes and pathways critically involved in neoplastic transformation in Mya arenaria, Mytilus spp. and Ostrea edulis. These genetic studies will allow the development of diagnosis by PCR which can be used in biomonitoring studies.

  10. [Community structure of bivalves and gastropods in roots of red mangrove Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) in isla Larga, Mochima Bay, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Acosta Balbas, Vanessa; Betancourt Tineo, Rafael; Prieto Arcas, Antulio

    2014-06-01

    The Rhizophora mangle roots form a complex ecosystem where a wide range of organisms are permanently established, reproduce, and find refuge. In this study, we assessed the diversity of bivalves and gastropods that inhabit red mangrove roots, in isla Larga, Mochima, Venezuela Sucre state. Bimonthly collections were made from January 2007 to May 2008, in four study areas denominated: South, North, East and West. In each area, five mangrove roots were sampled, and the specimens were obtained. We analyzed a total of 180 roots and a total of 35 bivalve species and 25 gastropod species were found. The most abundant bivalves were: Isognomon alatus, Isognomon bicolor, Ostrea equestris, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Brachidontes exustus; among gastropods, the most common where: Littorina angulifera, (Cymatium pileare and Diodora cayenensis. The months with the highest abundances and number of individuals for both groups were January and July 2007, and March 2008. The mangrove ecosystem in isla Larga, presented a number of individuals and species higher than those reported for other regions in Venezuela and the Caribbean.

  11. Geochronology of upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Tew, B.H. Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL )

    1994-03-01

    Four samples of glauconitic sand from upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata of the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain were analyzed for conventional potassium-argon (K-Ar) age determination. Results from these analyses are as follows: Coal Bluff Marl Member of the Naheola Formation of the Midway Group (58.2 [+-] 1.5 MA), Ostrea thirsae beds of the Nanafalia Formation of the Wilcox Group (56.3 [+-] 1.5 MA), upper Tuscahoma Sand of the Wilcox Group (54.5 [+-] 1.4 MA), and Bashi Marl Member of the Hatchetigbee Formation of the Wilcox Group (53.4 [+-] 1.4 MA). The Nanafalia Formation (Wilcox Group) disconformably overlies the Naheola Formation (Midway Group), and based on the data presented here, the age of this unconformity is bracketed between 59.7 and 54.8 MA. The Paleocene-Eocene Epoch boundary occurs in the Wilcox Group and coincides with the lithostratigraphic contact of the upper Paleocene Tuscahoma Sand with the lower eocene Hatchetigbee Formation. The age of this boundary, which is also an unconformity, can be placed between 55.9 and 52.0 MA. The K-Ar age dates for this boundary in the Gulf Coastal Plain compare favorably with the numerical limits placed on the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in the published literature. Generally, the Paleocene-Eocene Epoch boundary is reported as approximately 54 to 55 MA.

  12. Nursery function of coastal temperate benthic habitats: New insight from the bivalve recruitment perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Pierrick; Meziane, Tarik; Forêt, Martin; Tremblay, Réjean; Robert, René; Olivier, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    Marine habitat function has been typically investigated in terms of biogeochemical regulation but rarely in terms of population renewal, which is mainly controlled by recruitment dynamics. The recruitment phase is crucial for organisms with a bentho-pelagic life cycle, such as bivalves, and it regulates the population renewal success. This study provides new insight on the role of temperate benthic habitats on bivalve recruitment, as a function of nursery areas. Six dominant benthic habitats of the Chausey archipelago (Normandy, France) were studied. In each habitat, bivalve recruit assemblages were described at the end of two reproductive seasons. Furthermore, Ostrea edulis juveniles were immerged on each habitat during two months to compare growth performances and feeding status, estimated by fatty acid composition. Recruit assemblages differ from each habitat according to sediment grain-size composition and bathymetrical levels. Subtidal habitats, and especially Crepidula fornicata banks and Glycymeris glycymeris coarse sands, supported the highest species abundance and richness of recruits. All O. edulis juveniles fed on the same trophic resources but digestive glands of juveniles from C. fornicata banks were more concentrated in total fatty acids than those from subtidal G. glycymeris coarse sands and maerl banks. Our results depict the key role of subtidal and structured habitats, composed of ecosystem engineers, in enhancing bivalve recruitment and extending the bivalve population renewal. This study suggests that the crucial role of these habitats as bivalve nurseries must be integrated in management perspectives.

  13. Characterization studies on the cadmium-binding proteins from two species of New Zealand oysters.

    PubMed Central

    Nordberg, M; Nuottaniemi, I; Cherian, M G; Nordberg, G F; Kjellström, T; Garvey, J S

    1986-01-01

    Two different types of New Zealand oysters--Ostrea lutaria (OL) and Crassostrea glomerata (CG)--contained different concentrations of zinc, copper, and cadmium. OL oysters had 5.3 micrograms Cd/g, 3.4 micrograms Cu/g, 100 micrograms Zn/g; CG oysters had 1.4 micrograms Cd/g and 936 micrograms Zn/g. Both kinds of oysters were shown by gel filtration (G-75) to contain cadmium and zinc in fractions corresponding to a high molecular weight protein (corresponding to the size of albumin or larger) which was heat labile. OL oysters contained cadmium in fractions corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 6500. The cadmium-binding protein in these fractions was heat-stable. This protein contained no detectable amounts of zinc and was not present in the CG oysters. Further purification by gel filtration (G-50) was performed to obtain a purer protein fraction. Isoelectric focusing of the protein obtained by G-50 filtration showed one main fraction of protein with a pI approximately 5.9 at approximately 13 degrees C. CG oysters contained cadmium and zinc in a polypeptide with low molecular weight (MW 1000). The cadmium-binding oyster proteins are minimally reactive in a competitive binding radioimmunoassay in comparison to the reactivity of a typical vertebrate metallothionein; the proteins may be metallothioneins, but, if so, they do not exhibit the principal determinants characteristic of vertebrate metallothioneins. PMID:3709467

  14. Loss of an ecological baseline through the eradication of oyster reefs from coastal ecosystems and human memory.

    PubMed

    Alleway, Heidi K; Connell, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Oyster reefs form over extensive areas and the diversity and productivity of sheltered coasts depend on them. Due to the relatively recent population growth of coastal settlements in Australia, we were able to evaluate the collapse and extirpation of native oyster reefs (Ostrea angasi) over the course of a commercial fishery. We used historical records to quantify commercial catch of O. angasi in southern Australia from early colonization, around 1836, to some of the last recorded catches in 1944 and used our estimates of catch and effort to map their past distribution and assess oyster abundance over 180 years. Significant declines in catch and effort occurred from 1886 to 1946 and no native oyster reefs occur today, but historically oyster reefs extended across more than 1,500 km of coastline. That oyster reefs were characteristic of much of the coastline of South Australia from 1836 to 1910 appears not to be known because there is no contemporary consideration of their ecological and economic value. Based on the concept of a shifted baseline, we consider this contemporary state to reflect a collective, intergenerational amnesia. Our model of generational amnesia accounts for differences in intergenerational expectations of food, economic value, and ecosystem services of nearshore areas. An ecological system that once surrounded much of the coast and possibly the past presence of oyster reefs altogether may be forgotten and could not only undermine progress towards their recovery, but also reduce our expectations of these coastal ecosystems.

  15. New occurrence of Lower Eocene (Capay Stage) strata, lower Piru Creek, Topatopa Mountains, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, R.L.; Yamashiro, D.A.

    1986-04-01

    A 900-m thick siltstone unit between Canton Canyon and Piru Creek, 16 km north of the town of Piru, California, previously was unnamed and considered as undifferentiated Eocene or middle Eocene in age. The Siltstone unconformably overlies the Whitaker Peak granodiorite basement complex. At the base of the siltstone is a veneer of gruss (weathered granodiorite). The gruss is usually overlain by about a few meters of shoreface carbonaceous sandstone that grades vertically upward into transition-zone siltstone (500 m) with storm-deposit accumulations of macrofossils. Collections made at 53 localities from these lower 500 m of strata yielded numerous shallow marine gastropods and bivalves, as well as specimens of discocyclinid foraminifers, colonial corals, calcareous worm tubes, and spataganoid echinoids. This fauna is indicative of the West Coast provincial molluscan Capay Stage (lower Eocene). Common age-diagnostic species are Turritella uvasana infera, T. Andersoni, and Ostrea haleyi. Overlying and gradational with the transition-zone siltstone is 400 m of muddy siltstone with rare storm-deposit accumulations of macrofossils. This muddy siltstone thickens westward and passes into deep-sea slope and inner-fan turbidite deposits. Collections made at three localities in the muddy siltstone yielded many shallow marine gastropods and bivalves indicative of the Domengine stage (upper lower through lower middle Eocene). Common age-diagnostic species are Turritella uvasana applinae and Pitar (Lamelliconcha) joaquinensis.

  16. [Estimation and experiment of carbon sequestration by oysters attached to the enhancement artificial reefs in Laizhou Bay, Shandong, China].

    PubMed

    Gong, Pi-Hai; Li, Jiao; Guan, Chang-Tao; Li, Meng-Jie; Liu, Chao

    2014-10-01

    Through sampling investigation of fouling organisms on the enhancement artificial reefs set up in Laizhou Bay, it was proved that oyster (Ostrea plicatula) was the dominant fouling species. Therefore the dry mass of shell (Ms), total fresh mass (Mt) and thickness (T) of oyster attached on the reefs were analyzed. The results showed that the Mt and Ms presented seasonal variation (P < 0.01), that is, the values were the lowest in April and the highest in December. The reef age and the length of the time the enhancement reefs placed in the sea had significant effect on Mt, Ms and T. With the increment of reef ages, all indices increased obviously. The carbon sinks of oysters attaching to the tube enhancement reefs constructed in 2009, 2010 and 2011 in Laizhou Bay were 17.61, 16.33 and 10.45 kg · m(-3), respectively. The oysters on the enhancement reefs of Jincheng marine ranch with an area of 64.25 hm2 had fixed carbon of 297.5 t C (equivalent to 1071 t of CO2) from 2009 to 2013 in Laizhou Bay. To capture and store the same amount of CO2 would cost about 1.6 x 10(5)-6.4 x 10(5) US dollars. Therefore, oysters attaching to the enhancement reefs bring about remarkable ecological benefits.

  17. Dynamics of the parasite Marteilia refringens (Paramyxea) in Mytilus galloprovincialis and zooplankton populations in Alfacs Bay (Catalonia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Carrasco, N; López-Flores, I; Alcaraz, M; Furones, M D; Berthe, F C J; Arzul, I

    2007-10-01

    Since the first description of Marteilia refringens (Paramyxea) in flat oysters Ostrea edulis in 1968 in the Aber Wrach, Brittany (France), the life-cycle of this parasite has remained unknown. However, recent studies, conducted in the 'claire' system, have proposed the planktonic copepod Acartia grani as a potential intermediate host for the parasite. Nevertheless, experimental transmission of the parasite through the copepod has failed. Recent studies in this field have reported the presence of the parasite in zooplankton from the bays of the Delta de l'Ebre, a more complex and natural estuarine environment than that of the claire. As a result, 2 new Marteilia host species were proposed: the copepods Oithona sp. (Cyclopoida) and an indeterminate Harpaticoida. Consequently, the objective of the present work was to study the dynamics of Marteilia in the zooplankton community from one of the bays, Alfacs Bay, as well as the dynamics of the parasite in cultivated mussels during 1 complete year. Six different zooplankton taxa appeared to be parasitized by M. refringens, including copepods (3 Calanoida, Acartia discaudata, A. clausi and A. italica; 1 Cyclopoida, Oithona sp.; and 1 Harpacticoida, Euterpina acutifrons), and larval stages of decapod crustaceans (zoea larvae of Brachyura, probably Portumnus sp.). These taxa are thus proposed as new subjects for study, since they could be intermediate hosts in the infection process of mussels by Marteilia.

  18. Contribution to the understanding of the cycle of the protozoan parasite Marteilia refringens.

    PubMed

    Arzul, I; Chollet, B; Boyer, S; Bonnet, D; Gaillard, J; Baldi, Y; Robert, M; Joly, J P; Garcia, C; Bouchoucha, M

    2014-02-01

    The paramyxean parasite Marteilia refringens infects several bivalve species including European flat oysters Ostrea edulis and Mediterranean mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Sequence polymorphism allowed definition of three parasite types 'M', 'O' and 'C' preferably detected in oysters, mussels and cockles respectively. Transmission of the infection from infected bivalves to copepods Paracartia grani could be experimentally achieved but assays from copepods to bivalves failed. In order to contribute to the elucidation of the M. refringens life cycle, the dynamics of the infection was investigated in O. edulis, M. galloprovincialis and zooplankton over one year in Diana lagoon, Corsica (France). Flat oysters appeared non-infected while mussels were infected part of the year, showing highest prevalence in summertime. The parasite was detected by PCR in zooplankton particularly after the peak of prevalence in mussels. Several zooplanktonic groups including copepods, Cladocera, Appendicularia, Chaetognatha and Polychaeta appeared PCR positive. However, only the copepod species Paracartia latisetosa showed positive signal by in situ hybridization. Small parasite cells were observed in gonadal tissues of female copepods demonstrating for the first time that a copepod species other than P. grani can be infected with M. refringens. Molecular characterization of the parasite infecting mussels and zooplankton allowed the distinguishing of three Marteilia types in the lagoon.

  19. Needle in a haystack: involvement of the copepod PARACARTIA grani in the life-cycle of the oyster pathogen Marteilia refringens.

    PubMed

    Audemard, C; Le, Roux F; Barnaud, A; Collins, C; Sautour, B; Sauria, P G; de, Montaudouin X; Coustau, C; Combes, C; Berthe, F

    2002-03-01

    Marteilia refringens is a major pathogen of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis Linnaeus. Since its description, the life-cycle of this protozoan parasite has eluded discovery. Attempts to infect oysters experimentally have been unsuccessful and led to the hypothesis of a complex life-cycle involving several hosts. Knowledge of this life-cycle is of central importance in order to manage oyster disease. However, the exploration of M. refringens life-cycle has been previously limited by the detection tools available and the tremendous number of species to be screened in enzootic areas. In this study, these two restrictions were circumvented by the use of both molecular detection tools and a mesocosm with low biodiversity. Screening of the entire fauna of the pond for M. refringens DNA was systematically undertaken using PCR. Here, we show that the copepod Paracartia (Acartia) grani is a host of M. refringens. Not only was DNA of M. refringens consistently detected in P. grani but also the presence of the parasite in the ovarian tissues was demonstrated using in situ hybridization. Finally, successful experimental transmissions provided evidence that P. grani can be infected from infected flat oysters.

  20. Ultrastructural comparison of Bonamia spp. (Haplosporidia) infecting ostreid oysters.

    PubMed

    Hine, P M; Carnegie, R B; Kroeck, M A; Villalba, A; Engelsma, M Y; Burreson, E M

    2014-07-24

    The ultrastructure of Bonamia from Ostrea angasi from Australia, Crassostrea ariakensis from the USA, O. puelchana from Argentina and O. edulis from Spain was compared with described Bonamia spp. All appear conspecific with B. exitiosa. The Bonamia sp. from Chile had similarities to the type B. exitiosa from New Zealand (NZ), but less so than the other forms recognized as B. exitiosa. Two groups of ultrastructural features were identified; those associated with metabolism (mitochondrial profiles, lipid droplets and endoplasmic reticulum), and those associated with haplosporogenesis (Golgi, indentations in the nuclear surface, the putative trans-Golgi network, perinuclear granular material and haplosporosome-like bodies). Metabolic features were regarded as having little taxonomic value, and as the process of haplosporogenesis is not understood, only haplosporosome shape and size may be of taxonomic value. However, the uni-nucleate stages of spore-forming haplosporidians are poorly known and may be confused with Bonamia spp. uni-nucleate stages. The many forms of NZ B. exitiosa have not been observed in other hosts, which may indicate that it has a plastic life cycle. Although there are similarities between NZ B. exitiosa and Chilean Bonamia in the development of a larger uni-nucleate stage and the occurrence of cylindrical confronting cisternae, the clarification of the identity of Chilean Bonamia must await molecular studies.

  1. Claire ponds as an experimental model for Marteilia refringens life-cycle studies: new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Audemard, C; Barnaud, A; Collins, C M.; Le Roux, F; Sauriau, P -G.; Coustau, C; Blachier, P; Berthe, F C.J.

    2001-02-20

    Since its first description, the paramyxean parasite Marteilia refringens (Grizel et al.) has been recognised as a significant pathogen of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis L. The existence of a complex life-cycle involving several hosts was postulated early on by many authors, although it remains unsolved. Recent developments in the DNA-based diagnosis of M. refringens provides new prospects for the detection of the parasite in potential hosts. However, this screening remains impeded by the number of species living in the vicinity of oyster beds. We report here on the use of semi-closed oyster ponds (so called 'claire' in Marennes-Oléron Bay) as a study model for the life-cycle of M. refringens. Claires are located in an endemic area for M. refringens and transmission of the disease to healthy oysters has been shown to be effective during the course of this study. The environmental characteristics of the claires strongly limit the number of species compared with intertidal areas and oyster beds. Consequently, extensive sampling of a limited number of species cohabiting with oysters was possible. These were preserved for future screening of M. refringens. The experimental model should bring new insights to the life-cycle of M. refringens, as it enables us to propose new conceptual schemes of M. refringens transmission. The role of species as potential hosts is discussed regarding their biology and geographical distribution.

  2. Summer mortalities and detection of ostreid herpesvirus microvariant in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Sweden and Norway.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Stein; Strand, Åsa; Bodvin, Torjan; Alfjorden, Anders; Skår, Cecilie K; Jelmert, Anders; Aspán, Anna; Sælemyr, Lisbeth; Naustvoll, Lars-Johan; Albretsen, Jon

    2016-01-13

    The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas has recently expanded its range in Scandinavia. The expansion is presumably a result of northwards larval drift. Massive settlements were recorded in many areas along the Swedish west coast and southern Norway in 2013 and 2014. After the spawning season in 2014, the temperature of the surface water peaked at 24-26°C. After this period, high and sudden mortalities occurred in a Swedish hatchery and in wild populations along the Swedish west coast and south coast of Norway. Surveys and collected data showed that mortalities mainly occurred during 3 wk in September. All size classes were affected, and affected populations displayed a patchy distribution with heavily affected and unaffected populations in close proximity. Flat oysters Ostrea edulis and blue mussels Mytilus edulis were unaffected. Ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV) was detected in moribund Pacific oyster spat as well as in surviving adults. The virus was identified as OsHV-1 μvar. This is the first detection of this variant in Scandinavia, showing that OsHV-1 μvar is present in areas with recent establishments of Pacific oysters, and where there is no aquaculture of this species.

  3. Ostreid herpesvirus in wild oysters from the Huelva coast (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    López-Sanmartín, M; López-Fernández, J R; Cunha, M E; De la Herrán, R; Navas, J I

    2016-08-09

    This is the first report of ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvariant (OsHV-1 µVar) infecting natural oyster beds located in Huelva (SW Spain). The virus was detected in 3 oyster species present in the intertidal zone: Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793), C. angulata (Lamarck, 1819) and, for the first time, in Ostrea stentina Payraudeau, 1826. Oysters were identified by a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and posterior restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis based on cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA. Results confirmed that C. angulata still remains the dominant oyster population in SW Spain despite the introduction of C. gigas for cultivation in the late 1970s, and its subsequent naturalization. C. angulata shows a higher haplotype diversity than C. gigas. OsHV-1 virus was detected by PCR with C2/C6 pair primers. Posterior RFLP analyses with the restriction enzyme MfeI were done in order to reveal the OsHV-1 µVar. Detections were confirmed by DNA sequencing, and infections were evidenced by in situ hybridization in C. gigas, C. angulata and O. stentina samples. The prevalence was similar among the 3 oyster species but varied between sampling locations, being higher in areas with greater harvesting activities. OsHV-1 µVar accounted for 93% of all OsHV-1 detected.

  4. Paleontology, paleobiogeography and paleoecology of Carolia-bearing beds from the Late Eocene rocks at Nile-Fayum Divide, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shazly, Soheir H.; Abdel-Gawad, Gouda I.; Salama, Yasser F.; Sayed, Dina M.

    2016-12-01

    The Paleontological study of the Carolia-bearing beds in (Qasr El-Sagha Formation) at Nile-Fayum Divide reveals the presences of thirteen species (three gastropods, six oysters and four Carolias). The paleobiogeography of these fauna indicates that genus Carolia Cantraine, 1838 was first recorded from the Lower Eocene of Egypt and Indian-Pakistani Region and spread out throughout the Tethyan province, West Africa and North and South America and its last occurrence was in the Early Miocene of North America. It shows also that, the first appearance of Ostrea (T.) multicostata (Deshayes, 1832) was in the Paleocene of Tunis and Algeria, and spread during the Eocene into India, northwestern Europe and the entire northern African regions. However, Cubitostrea (Cubitostrea) cubitus (Deshayes, 1832) was first reported in the Middle Eocene of France and spread to Texas in North America and North Africa. The statistical study on genus Carolia indicates that the distance between the byssal muscle scar and the retractor muscle scar increases with the increase of the left valve convexity. The paleoecological study of these faunal groups shows that, the predation and the parasitic elements as well as the stress environmental factors, caused the extinction of genus Carolia at the end of Late Eocene in Egypt.

  5. Development of SNP-genotyping arrays in two shellfish species.

    PubMed

    Lapègue, S; Harrang, E; Heurtebise, S; Flahauw, E; Donnadieu, C; Gayral, P; Ballenghien, M; Genestout, L; Barbotte, L; Mahla, R; Haffray, P; Klopp, C

    2014-07-01

    Use of SNPs has been favoured due to their abundance in plant and animal genomes, accompanied by the falling cost and rising throughput capacity for detection and genotyping. Here, we present in vitro (obtained from targeted sequencing) and in silico discovery of SNPs, and the design of medium-throughput genotyping arrays for two oyster species, the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis. Two sets of 384 SNP markers were designed for two Illumina GoldenGate arrays and genotyped on more than 1000 samples for each species. In each case, oyster samples were obtained from wild and selected populations and from three-generation families segregating for traits of interest in aquaculture. The rate of successfully genotyped polymorphic SNPs was about 60% for each species. Effects of SNP origin and quality on genotyping success (Illumina functionality Score) were analysed and compared with other model and nonmodel species. Furthermore, a simulation was made based on a subset of the C. gigas SNP array with a minor allele frequency of 0.3 and typical crosses used in shellfish hatcheries. This simulation indicated that at least 150 markers were needed to perform an accurate parental assignment. Such panels might provide valuable tools to improve our understanding of the connectivity between wild (and selected) populations and could contribute to future selective breeding programmes.

  6. Microplastics Affect the Ecological Functioning of an Important Biogenic Habitat.

    PubMed

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; O'Connor, Nessa E; Thompson, Richard

    2017-01-03

    Biological effects of microplastics on the health of bivalves have been demonstrated elsewhere, but ecological impacts on the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning of bivalve-dominated habitats are unknown. Thus, we exposed intact sediment cores containing European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) or blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in seawater to two different densities (2.5 or 25 μg L(-1)) of biodegradable or conventional microplastics in outdoor mesocosms. We hypothesized that filtration rates of the bivalves, inorganic nitrogen cycling, primary productivity of sediment dwelling microphytobenthos, and the structure of invertebrate benthic assemblages would be influenced by microplastics. After 50 days, filtration by M. edulis was significantly less when exposed to 25 μg L(-1) of either type of microplastics, but there were no effects on ecosystem functioning or the associated invertebrate assemblages. Contrastingly, filtration by O. edulis significantly increased when exposed to 2.5 or 25 μg L(-1) of microplastics, and porewater ammonium and biomass of benthic cyanobacteria decreased. Additionally the associated infaunal invertebrate assemblages differed, with significantly less polychaetes and more oligochaetes in treatments exposed to microplastics. These findings highlight the potential of microplastics to impact the functioning and structure of sedimentary habitats and show that such effects may depend on the dominant bivalve present.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission.

  8. Cristispira from oyster styles: complex morphology of large symbiotic spirochetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Nault, L.; Sieburth, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Crystalline styles (digestive organs) of bivalve mollusks provide the habitat for highly motile bacteria. Styles from freshly-collected oysters, Crassostrea virginica, were studied by electron microscopy; Cristispira spirochetes were abundant in these organs. Detailed study reveals these spirochetes to be among the most complex prokaryotic cells known. More than 600 periplasmic flagella and an adhering outer lipoprotein membrane (e.g., a 270 degrees sillon) form the ultrastructural basis for the "crista," first described by light microscopy. Unique rosette structures corresponding to the "chambers" or "ovoid inclusions" of light microscopy were detected at the periphery of all protoplasmic cylinders. Polar organelles and linearly aligned flagellar insertions are conspicuous. In size and complexity, Cristispira more resembles Pillotina, Diplocalyx, Clevelandina and Hollandina (large spirochetes symbiotic in termites) than it does Treponema. Cristispira pectinis (Gross, 1910), the type species; Spirillum ostrea (Noguchi, 1921); and another, less frequent bacterial symbiont are the predominant inhabitants of the dense style matrix. The ultrastructure of the spirillum and an electron micrograph of the third bacterium are shown.

  9. Host-parasite relationship of the geoduck Panopea abbreviata and the green alga Coccomyxa parasitica in the Argentinean Patagonian coast.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Nuria; Rodríguez, Francisco; Ituarte, Cristián; Klaich, Javier; Cremonte, Florencia

    2010-11-01

    The association of the geoduck Panopea abbreviata and the green alga Coccomyxa parasitica is described. The identity of the green alga was confirmed by molecular studies; the alga was found within the hemocytes that infiltrate the connective tissue of the geoduck siphons. Cytological characteristics of hemocytes were not altered by algal infection; very often the algae were seen enveloped by a digestive vacuole within the hemocyte cytoplasm, evidencing diverse degrees of resorption. Connective cells of siphons were rarely infected by C. parasitica. The mean prevalence of C. parasitica was higher (82%) in San Matías Gulf (42°00'S, 65°05'W) than in San José Gulf (45%) (40°32'S, 64°02'W); except for spring, when the two locations showed no differences in prevalences (80%). Independently of location, season and host size, infected geoducks showed lower condition index values than uninfected ones. Regarding other bivalve species, only one specimen of the razor clam Ensis macha was found infected, and none of the oysters Ostrea puelchana and Pododesmus rudis and scallop Aequipecten tehuelchus was parasitized by the green alga.

  10. Infection of Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum from Galicia (NW Spain) with a Mikrocytos-like parasite.

    PubMed

    Ramilo, Andrea; Iglesias, David; Abollo, Elvira; González, Mar; Darriba, Susana; Villalba, Antonio

    2014-07-24

    The name 'microcells' is frequently used to refer to small-sized unicellular stages of molluscan parasites of the genera Bonamia (Rhizaria, Haplosporidia) and Mikrocytos (Rhizaria). Histological examination of Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum revealed microcells in the connective tissue of adductor muscle, foot, mantle, gills, siphon and visceral mass. The clams had been collected from 4 beds on the coast of Galicia, Spain. The prevalence of these microcells ranged from 73 to 93% in surface clams and from 3 to 33% in buried clams. However, the detection of brown ring disease signs in clams from every bed prevented us from making the assumption that the microcells alone were responsible for clam mortality. PCR assays using primer pairs designed to detect Bonamia spp. and haplosporidians gave negative results, whereas positive results were obtained with primers for the genus Mikrocytos. A consensus sequence of 1670 bp of the ribosomal gene complex of the microcells was obtained. It contained a section of the 18S region, the whole first internal transcribed spacer, the 5.8S region, the second internal transcribed spacer and a section of the 28S region. Comparison of this sequence with those of M. mackini infecting Crassostrea gigas and Mikrocytos sp. infecting Ostrea edulis showed that the microcells of Galician clams were the most divergent among the compared parasites. This is the first report of a Mikrocytos-like parasite infecting Manila clams. Care must be taken to avoid the spread of this parasite through Manila clam transfers.

  11. Characterization of pathogenic vibrios isolated from bivalve hatcheries in Galicia, NW Atlantic coast of Spain. Description of Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus [corrected] subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    Prado, Susana; Dubert, Javier; Barja, Juan L

    2015-02-01

    The taxonomic position of the bivalve pathogen PP-638 was studied together with five similar isolates. The strains were isolated from flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) cultures during outbreaks of disease in two shellfish hatcheries (Galicia, NW Spain). The pathogenicity, previously established for PP-638, was demonstrated with all isolates and for several bivalve species, including the original hosts. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequences, a tight group was defined within the genus Vibrio. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the five housekeeping genes recA, rpoA, pyrH, gyrB and ftsZ revealed that these strains form a cluster within the Orientalis clade, close to the species Vibrio tubiashii. The results of MLSA, the DDH rate and the phenotypic differences with the type strain of V. tubiashii supported the differentiation of the Galician isolates as a new subspecies within V. tubiashii, for which the name V. tubiashii subsp. europaeus [corrected] subsp. nov. is proposed (type strain PP-638(T)=CECT 8136(T)=DSM 7349(T)) The emended description of V. tubiashii is included. The pathogenicity assays widen the host range of V. tubiashii to add two unreported species, Venerupis decussata and Donax trunculus, and the described as relatively resistant species V. philippinarum.

  12. Inducible defenses in Olympia oysters in response to an invasive predator.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jillian M; Griffith, Kaylee R; Sanford, Eric

    2017-03-01

    The prey naiveté hypothesis suggests that native prey may be vulnerable to introduced predators because they have not evolved appropriate defenses. However, recent evidence suggests that native prey sometimes exhibit induced defenses to introduced predators, as a result of rapid evolution or other processes. We examined whether Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida) display inducible defenses in the presence of an invasive predator, the Atlantic oyster drill (Urosalpinx cinerea), and whether these responses vary among oyster populations from estuaries with and without this predator. We spawned oysters from six populations distributed among three estuaries in northern California, USA, and raised their offspring through two generations under common conditions to minimize effects of environmental history. We exposed second-generation oysters to cue treatments: drills eating oysters, drills eating barnacles, or control seawater. Oysters from all populations grew smaller shells when exposed to drill cues, and grew thicker and harder shells when those drills were eating oysters. Oysters exposed to drills eating other oysters were subsequently preyed upon at a slower rate. Although all oyster populations exhibited inducible defenses, oysters from the estuary with the greatest exposure to drills grew the smallest shells suggesting that oyster populations have evolved adaptive differences in the strength of their responses to predators. Our findings add to a growing body of literature that suggests that marine prey may be less likely to exhibit naiveté in the face of invasive predators than prey in communities that are more isolated from native predators, such as many freshwater and terrestrial island ecosystems.

  13. Irradiated bivalve mollusks: Use of EPR spectroscopy for identification and dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Angelo; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Fuochi, Piergiorgio; Macciantelli, Dante; Mangiacotti, Michele; Marchesani, Giuliana; Plescia, Elena

    2011-12-01

    High energy radiation treatment of foodstuff for microbial control and shelf-life extension is being used in many countries. However, for consumer protection and information, the European Union has adopted the Directives 1999/2/EC and 1999/3/EC to harmonize the rules concerning the treatment and trade of irradiated foods in EU countries. Among the validated methods to detect irradiated foods the EU directives also include Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR/ESR) spectroscopy.We describe herein the use of EPR for identification of four species of bivalve mollusks, i.e. brown Venus shells (Callista chione), clams (Tapes semidecussatus), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis) irradiated with 60Co γ-rays. EPR could definitely identify irradiated seashells due to the presence of long-lived free radicals, primarily CO2-, CO33-, SO2- and SO3- radical anions. The presence of other organic free radicals, believed to originate from conchiolin, a scleroprotein present in the shells, was also ascertained. The use of one of these radicals as a marker for irradiation of brown Venus shells and clams can be envisaged. We also propose a dosimetric protocol for the reconstruction of the administered dose in irradiated oysters.

  14. Trace element ratios in bivalve shells as records of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynan, S.; Opdyke, B.; Welch, S.; Beavis, S.

    2007-12-01

    Stable isotope and trace element data from the carbonate of both marine and freshwater bivalves are proving to be useful tools in studies of palaeoclimate and environmental change. However, much of the work already done has shown that the trace element ratios in bivalve shells exhibit a complex relationship with the ambient environment and caution must be exercised when attempting to use them as environmental proxies. This work examines the feasibility of using the trace element ratios Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca of the shells of a number of different species of bivalves as records of the temperature and salinity of their ambient aquatic environment. The species analysed were the estuarine oysters Saccostrea glomerata, Ostrea angasi, and Crassostrea gigas, an estuarine mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the freshwater mussel Velesunio ambiguus. The estuarine shells were taken from monitoring experiments conducted over a period of 12 months at two different field sites. Freshwater shells were collected wild, from locations close to water monitoring stations. Preliminary results show distinct variations in the Mg/Ca of O. angasi shells with an apparent seasonal pattern. V. ambiguus shells show clear patterns in Mn/Ca, linked to environmental variations.

  15. Degradation of three aromatic dyes by white rot fungi and the production of ligninolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Chandana; Imtiaj, Ahmed; Lee, Geon Woo; Im, Kyung Hoan; Hur, Hyun; Lee, Min Woong; Yang, Hee-Sun; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of aromatic dyes and the production of ligninolytic enzymes by 10 white rot fungi. The results of this study revealed that Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes suaveolens, Stereum ostrea and Fomes fomentarius have the ability to efficiently degrade congo red on solid media. However, malachite green inhibited the mycelial growth of these organisms. Therefore, they did not effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. However, P. cinnabarinus and P. pulmonarius were able to effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. T. suaveolens and F. rosea decolorized methylene blue more effectively than any of the other fungi evaluated in this study. In liquid culture, G. lucidum, P. cinnabarinus, Naematoloma fasciculare and Pycnoporus coccineus were found to have a greater ability to decolorize congo red. In addition, P. cinnabarinus, G. lucidum and T. suaveolens decolorized methylene blue in liquid media more effectively than any of the other organisms evaluated in this study. Only F. fomentarius was able to decolorize malachite green in liquid media, and its ability to do so was limited. To investigate the production of ligninolytic enzymes in media containing aromatic compounds, fungi were cultured in naphthalene supplemented liquid media. P. coccineus, Coriolus versicolor and P. cinnabarinus were found to produce a large amount of laccase when grown in medium that contained napthalene.

  16. Six species of Acanthobothrium (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea) in stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Rajiformes: Myliobatoidei) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Marguee, F; Brooks, D R; Barriga, R

    1997-06-01

    Six species of Acanthobothrium, 4 described as new, are reported in stingrays from southern Ecuador. Acanthobothrium atahualpai n. sp. in Gymnura afuerae most closely resembles Acanthobothrium fogeli and Acanthobothrium parviuncinatum by having bothridial hooks with recurved prongs and short handles. It differs from A. fogeli by having bothridial hooks 163-195 microns vs. 78-114 microns long and averaging 25 vs. 32 testes per pruglottis: it differs from A. parviuncinatum by having bothridial hooks 163-195 microns vs. 87 microns long and averaging 25 vs. 13 testes per proglottis. Acanthobothrium minusculus n. sp. in Urolophus tumbesensis most resembles Acanthobothrium campbelli and Acanthobothrium vargasi by being no more than 3 mm long and having 6-30 testes per proglottis. It can be distinguished from them by having bothridial hooks averaging 86 microns vs. 108-111 microns and 130-133 microns long, and 6-10 vs. 15-23 and 22-29 testes per proglottis, respectively. Acanthobothrium monksi n. sp. in Aetobatus narinari resembles Acanthobothrium tasajerasi from Himantura schmardae by having a prominent genital atrium and a large globose cirrus sac; it differs by averaging 21 vs. 35 testes per proglottis and having bothridial hooks averaging 150 microns vs. 165 microns long. Acanthobothrium obuncus n. sp. in Dasyatis longus resembles a group of species characterized by wider than long to square immature and mature proglottides, bothridia at least partially fused to the scolex at their posterior ends, and asymmetrical ovarian arms with aporal arms extending anteriorly to the vaginal level. It resembles Acanthobothrium americanum by averaging 73 vs. 72 testes per proglottis, but differs by having bothridial hooks averaging 120-131 microns vs. 151 microns long; it resembles Acanthobothrium chilensis by having bothridial hooks averaging 120-131 microns vs. 130 microns long, but differs by averaging 73 vs. 90 testes per proglottis. Acanthobothrium campbelli in Urotrygon

  17. Phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella), the main edible non-timber product from native Patagonian forests of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pildain, María B; Visnovsky, Sandra B; Barroetaveña, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Morchella species are edible fungi in high demand and therefore command high prices in world markets. Phenotypic-based identification at the species-level remains inadequate because of their complex life cycles, minor differences and plasticity of morphological characteristics between species, and the lack of agreement between scientific and common names. In Patagonia-Argentina, morels are associated with native forests of Austrocedrus chilensis (Cordilleran or Chilean cypress) and Nothofagus antarctica (ñire) and several exotic conifers that were introduced from western North America. Little is known about their taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships with other species in the genus. This work focused on the identification of collections of Morchella from Patagonia and their phylogenetic relationships with other species from the Northern Hemisphere. The comparison was made by analysis of DNA sequences obtained from four loci: the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the partial RNA polymerase I gene (RPB1) for the complete collection; and ITS, RPB1, RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2), and translation elongation factor (EF1-α) for the species-rich Elata Subclade. Analyses of individual and combined data sets revealed that Patagonian morels belong to the Elata Clade and comprised three strongly supported species-level lineages from both Patagonian native forest, and exotic trees introduced from western North America. One lineage was identified as Morchella frustrata phylogenetic species Mel-2, which is known from the USA and Canada. The second lineage, which appeared to be 'fire-adapted', was identified as Morchella septimelata phylogenetic species (Mel-7), which is also known from the USA. This species was collected from burned native forests mainly composed of A. chilensis and N. antarctica but also Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Blanco, which is native to western North America. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the third species from

  18. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens. PMID:21673886

  19. Merizocotyle euzeti sp. n. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the nasal tissue of three deep sea skates (Rajidae) in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Irigoitia, Manuel M; Cantatore, Delfina M P; Delpiani, Gabriela E; Incorvaia, Inés S; Lanfranchi, Ana L; Timi, Juan T

    2014-06-01

    A new species of Merizocotyle Cerfontaine, 1894 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) is described from the nasal tissues of three deep sea rajid skates: the southern thorny skate, Amblyraja doellojuradoi (Pozzi), broadnose skate, Bathyraja brachyurops (Fowler), and yellownose skate, Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot), collected off Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, southwest Atlantic Ocean. Two additional species of sympatric rajid, the white-dotted skate, Bathyraja albomaculata (Norman), and the Patagonian skate, Bathyraja macloviana (Norman), were also examined but no merizocotylines were found. The taxonomy of the Merizocotylinae is not widely accepted and, as a result, the status of Thaumatocotyle and Mycteronastes, and their proposed synonymy with Merizocotyle are currently under discussion. The new species differs from its congeners by having a unique haptoral structure, 6 peripheral loculi that are asymmetrically arranged (one much smaller, indistinctly located in the left or right side of the haptor). The presence of the new species in three sympatric species of Rajidae belonging to distinct genera and subfamilies, as well as its absence in sympatric congenerics indicates the lack of phylogenetic host specificity. Host ecology and geographical distribution appear to be more important than host phylogeny in determining the distribution of this parasite across potential hosts in the region. This constitutes the first record of Merizocotyle in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Use of Cellulolytic Marine Bacteria for Enzymatic Pretreatment in Microalgal Biogas Production

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Camilo; Hidalgo, Catalina; Zapata, Manuel; Jeison, David; Riquelme, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we designed and evaluated a microalgal pretreatment method using cellulolytic bacteria that naturally degrades microalgae in their native habitat. Bacterial strains were isolated from each of two mollusk species in a medium containing 1% carboxymethyl cellulose agar. We selected nine bacterial strains that had endoglucanase activity: five strains from Mytilus chilensis, a Chilean mussel, and four strains from Mesodesma donacium, a clam found in the Southern Pacific. These strains were identified phylogenetically as belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Chryseobacterium, and Raoultella. The cellulase-producing capacities of these strains were characterized, and the degradation of cell walls in Botryococcus braunii and Nannochloropsis gaditana was tested with “whole-cell” cellulolytic experiments. Aeromonas bivalvium MA2, Raoultella ornithinolytica MA5, and Aeromonas salmonicida MC25 degraded B. braunii, and R. ornithinolytica MC3 and MA5 degraded N. gaditana. In addition, N. gaditana was pretreated with R. ornithinolytica strains MC3 and MA5 and was then subjected to an anaerobic digestion process, which increased the yield of methane by 140.32% and 158.68%, respectively, over that from nonpretreated microalgae. Therefore, a “whole-cell” cellulolytic pretreatment can increase the performance and efficiency of biogas production. PMID:24795376

  1. Assessment of patterns of fluctuating asymmetry and sexual dimorphism in carabid body shape.

    PubMed

    Benítez, H A

    2013-04-01

    The measurement tool most used to estimate developmental stability (DS) is fluctuating asymmetry (FA), which is a measure of the small random deviations that occur between the left and right sides of bilaterally symmetrical traits. In the Biobío Region of Chile, forest plantations are a widely extended phenomenon, which affect 27% of the surface area of the region and which are dominated by the monoculture of Pinus radiata. This study evaluated the presence of FA in the body shape of two populations of Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz) in two 13-year-old forest plantations (commercial thinning) using insects collected with interception traps. Since the biotic and abiotic components of forest plantations are subject to continual anthropic modifications that affect almost all ecological processes, including population dynamics, community composition, and material and energy flows, these characteristics are reflected in the DS of individuals. The results showed that there was greater precision using geometric morphometrics to detect the presence of asymmetry in plantations due to shape analysis, as proposed by studies in antennal morphology using traditional measures. It should be noted that the populations were exposed to different environments; the population in the Coast Range is more humid, while the Andes Foothills population is in a drier area with drier soils. In spite of this, there was minimum phenotypic variation detected at the population level, which reflected the different environments and may be associated with patterns of environmental phenotypic plasticity.

  2. Authentication of Punica granatum L.: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.

    PubMed

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Beghé, Deborah; Bruni, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (EMA), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus×domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method enabled the unequivocal detection of up to 1% of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. The recourse to such method may reduce the number of samples to be subjected to further phytochemical analyses when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. Vice versa, it allows the cross-check of suspect batches previously tested only for their anthocyanin profile. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from stored and processed commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable and low-cost screening method for the authentication of processed commercial pomegranate material.

  3. Isolation and molecular identification of free-living amoebae of the genus Naegleria from Arctic and sub-Antarctic regions.

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2006-07-01

    Twenty-three freshwater samples with sediment taken from two regions in the Arctic, Spitzbergen and Greenland, and one region in sub-Antarctica, Ile de la Possession, were cultured for amoebae at 37 degrees C and room temperature (RT). Only two samples yielded amoebae at 37 degrees C and the two isolates were identified from their morphological features to belong to the genus Acanthamoeba. Vahlkampfiid amoebae were isolated from 11 samples at RT. Morphological analysis of the cysts identified all 11 isolates as belonging to the genus Naegleria, although only about half of them (45%) transformed into flagellates. Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that these isolates represent novel species and that N. antarctica, N. dobsoni and N. chilensis are their closest relatives. Not surprisingly, these three species also grow at lower temperatures (<37 degrees C) than the majority of described Naegleria spp. Two of the eight new species were found in both Arctic and sub-Antarctic regions, and other new species from the Arctic are closely related to new species from the sub-Antarctic. Therefore, it seems the Naegleria gene pool present in the polar regions is different from that found in temperate and tropical regions.

  4. A new calymmate mimosoid polyad from the Miocene of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Caccavari; Barreda

    2000-05-01

    A palynomorph with an unequivocal relationship to the eight-grain polyads of the mimosoid genus Calliandra Benth., is described from the Miocene sediments of San Juan Province, Argentina. Comparison of the fossil palynomorph with polyads of the extant Calliandra species shows a resemblance to those which have one, highly specialized, appendiculate monad. The new palynomorph has a rudimentary appendix, apparently transitional in the path leading to the more highly developed appendiculate forms in the extant Calliandra group. This specialized polyad type is considered to be one of the most highly evolved forms in subfamily Mimosoideae. The closest affinity of the new fossil polyad is with the eight-grain calymmate polyads of Calliandra chilensis Benth., a species which has developed in the extra-tropical, xerophilous shrub, habitat of north-central Chile. The disappearance of Calliandra species in San Juan Province is thought to be related to the culmination of the Andean rising, and the consequent interruption to the Pacific Ocean climatic influence. This new discovery is the first fossil record of Calliandra for Argentina, as well as being the most southerly and the oldest. It reinforces the hypothesis of an early origin and diversification for the Leguminosae in Tropical America.

  5. mRNA maturation in giant viruses: variation on a theme

    PubMed Central

    Priet, Stéphane; Lartigue, Audrey; Debart, Françoise; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Giant viruses from the Mimiviridae family replicate entirely in their host cytoplasm where their genes are transcribed by a viral transcription apparatus. mRNA polyadenylation uniquely occurs at hairpin-forming palindromic sequences terminating viral transcripts. Here we show that a conserved gene cluster both encode the enzyme responsible for the hairpin cleavage and the viral polyA polymerases (vPAP). Unexpectedly, the vPAPs are homodimeric and uniquely self-processive. The vPAP backbone structures exhibit a symmetrical architecture with two subdomains sharing a nucleotidyltransferase topology, suggesting that vPAPs originate from an ancestral duplication. A Poxvirus processivity factor homologue encoded by Megavirus chilensis displays a conserved 5′-GpppA 2′O methyltransferase activity but is also able to internally methylate the mRNAs’ polyA tails. These findings elucidate how the arm wrestling between hosts and their viruses to access the translation machinery is taking place in Mimiviridae. PMID:25779049

  6. Linear-In-The-Parameters Oblique Least Squares (LOLS) Provides More Accurate Estimates of Density-Dependent Survival

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Vasco M. N. C. S.; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Huanel, Oscar R.; Guillemin, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Survival is a fundamental demographic component and the importance of its accurate estimation goes beyond the traditional estimation of life expectancy. The evolutionary stability of isomorphic biphasic life-cycles and the occurrence of its different ploidy phases at uneven abundances are hypothesized to be driven by differences in survival rates between haploids and diploids. We monitored Gracilaria chilensis, a commercially exploited red alga with an isomorphic biphasic life-cycle, having found density-dependent survival with competition and Allee effects. While estimating the linear-in-the-parameters survival function, all model I regression methods (i.e, vertical least squares) provided biased line-fits rendering them inappropriate for studies about ecology, evolution or population management. Hence, we developed an iterative two-step non-linear model II regression (i.e, oblique least squares), which provided improved line-fits and estimates of survival function parameters, while robust to the data aspects that usually turn the regression methods numerically unstable. PMID:27936048

  7. RAPD and microsatellite transferability studies in selected species of Prosopis (section Algarobia) with emphasis on Prosopis juliflora and P. pallida.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Minu; Smith, Steve; Patel, Ashok; Harris, Phil; Hand, Paul; Trenchard, Liz; Henderson, Janey

    2011-08-01

    The genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comprises 44 species widely distributed in arid and semi-arid zones. Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth and P. juliflora (Sw.) DC. are the two species that are truly tropical apart from P. africana, which is native to tropical Africa (Pasiecznik et al. 2004), and they have been introduced widely beyond their native ranges. However, taxonomic confusion within the genus has hampered exploitation and better management of the species. The present study focusses primarily on evaluating the genetic relationship between Prosopis species from the section Algarobia, containing most species of economic importance, though P. tamarugo from section Strombocarpa is also included for comparison. In total, 12 Prosopis species and a putative P. pallida x P. chilensis hybrid were assessed for their genetic relationships based on RAPD markers and microsatellite transferability. The results show that P. pallida and P. juliflora are not closely related despite some morphological similarity. Evidence also agrees with previous studies which suggest that the grouping of series in section Algarobia is artificial.

  8. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), Leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-09-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use of hot/arid lands in field trials in the California Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42 degrees C (108 degrees F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium floridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean oven-dry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosospis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (oven-dry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 oven-dry T ha-1 yr-1 for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba(0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. 30 references

  9. Neoselachians and Chimaeriformes (Chondrichthyes) from the latest Cretaceous-Paleogene of Sierra Baguales, southernmost Chile. Chronostratigraphic, paleobiogeographic and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Rodrigo A.; Oyarzún, José Luis; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Gutierrez, Nestor M.; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Torres, Teresa; Hervé, Francisco

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses a well-represented fossil record of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) from southern South America. The recovered samples allow the recognition of three assemblages with chronostratigraphic and paleogeographic value: i) typical Maastrichtian sharks and rays with affinities to eastern Pacific fauna, including the taxa Ischyrhiza chilensis, Serratolamna serrata, Centrophoroides sp. associated to Carcharias sp., and Dasyatidae indet.; ii) a scarce reworked assemblage of Paleocene-Early Eocene age including the taxa Otodus obliquus and Megascyliorhinus cooperi; iii) a rich assemblage with reworked taxa of Early to Middle Eocene age, together with autochthonous deposited Middle to Late Eocene taxa with close affinities to paleoichthyofaunas recovered from the North Atlantic, represented by Carcharias 'hopei', Odontaspis winkleri, Carcharoides catticus, Macrorhizodus praecursor, Carcharocles auriculatus, Striatolamia sp., Striatolamia macrota, Hexanchus agassizi, Notorhynchus sp., Myliobatis sp., Abdounia sp., Pristiophorus sp., Squatina sp., cf. Rhizoprionodon sp., Ischyodus sp., and one new species, Jaekelotodus bagualensis sp. nov. The studied samples include for the first time taxa with well established chronostratigraphic resolutions as well as taphonomic information that help clarifying the age of the fossil-bearing units. In addition, they provide relevant information about the evolution of the Magallanes (=Austral) Basin from the Upper Cretaceous to the Paleogene, suggesting a probable connection with the Quiriquina Basin of south-central Chile during the latest Cretaceous. Finally, the studied assemblages indicate a latitudinal pattern of distribution that provides valuable data on the environmental evolution and temperature of southern South America during the Paleogene.

  10. Diplodon shells from Northwest Patagonia as continental proxy archives: Oxygen isotopic results and sclerochronological analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, A. L.; Beierlein, L.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Freshwater mussels of the genus Diplodon (Bivalvia, Hyriidae) are the most abundant bivalve (today and in the past) in freshwater bodies at both sides of the South-Andean Cordillera. There are about 25 different Diplodon genera in Argentina and Chile that could be assigned almost completely to the species Diplodon chilensis (Gray, 1828) and two subspecies: D. ch. chilensis and D. ch. patagonicus; this latter species is found in Argentina between Mendoza (32˚ 52' S; 68˚ 51' W) and Chubut (45˚ 51' S; 67˚ 28' W), including the lakes and rivers of the target area, the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Castellanos, 1960). Despite their wide geographic distribution, Diplodon species have only rarely been used as climate archives in the southern hemisphere. Kaandorp et al. (2005) demonstrated for Diplodon longulus (Conrad 1874) collected from the Peruvian Amazonas that oxygen isotopic patterns in the shells could be used in order to reconstruct the precipitation regime and dry/wet seasonal of the monsoonal system in Amazonia. Although this study demonstrated the potential of Diplodon in climatological and ecological reconstructions in the southern hemisphere, as of yet, no systematic study of Diplodon as a multi-proxy archive has been undertaken for the Patagonian region. In this work we present sclerochronological analyses supported by ^18Oshell in recent mussel of Diplodon chilensis patagonicus (D'Orbigny, 1835) collected at Laguna El Trébol (42°S-71°W, Patagonia Argentina), one of the best studied water bodies in the region for paleoclimate analysis. Water temperature was measured every six hours for one year using a temperature sensor (Starmon mini®) placed at 5m depth in the lake, close to a mussel bank. Additionally, ^18Owater was measured monthly for the same time range.g^18Oshell values obtained by micro-milling at high spatial resolution in the growth increments of three Diplodon shells were compared to these records, and to air temperature and

  11. In silico model of an antenna of a phycobilisome and energy transfer rates determination by theoretical Förster approach

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Maximiliano; Martínez-Oyanedel, José; Matamala, Adelio R; Dagnino-Leone, Jorge; Mella, Claudia; Fritz, Rubén; Sepúlveda-Ugarte, José; Bunster, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Energy transfer (ET) in phycobilisomes, a macrocomplex of phycobiliproteins and linker proteins, is a process that is difficult to understand completely. A model for a rod composed of two hexamers of Phycocyanin and two hexamers of Phycoerythrin was built using an in silico approach and the three-dimensional structures of both phycobiliproteins from Gracilaria chilensis. The model was characterized and showed 125 Å wide and 230 Å high, which agree with the dimensions of a piling of four hexamers as observed in the images of subcomplexes of phycobilisomes obtained by transmission electron microscopy. ET rates between every pair of chromophores in the model were calculated using the Förster approach, and the fastest rates were selected to draw preferential ET pathways along the rod. Every path indicates that the ET is funneled toward the chromophores located at Cysteines 82 in Phycoerythrin and 84 in Phycocyanin. The chromophores that face the exterior of the rod are phycoerythrobilins, and they also show a preferential ET toward the chromophores located at the center of the rod. The values calculated, in general, agree with the experimental data reported previously, which validates the use of this experimental approach. PMID:23047609

  12. Macromolecular Antioxidants and Dietary Fiber in Edible Seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Pintos, Nerea; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Vergara-Salinas, José Rodrigo; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2017-02-01

    Seaweeds are rich in different bioactive compounds with potential uses in drugs, cosmetics and the food industry. The objective of this study was to analyze macromolecular antioxidants or nonextractable polyphenols, in several edible seaweed species collected in Chile (Gracilaria chilensis, Callophyllis concepcionensis, Macrocystis pyrifera, Scytosyphon lomentaria, Ulva sp. and Enteromorpha compressa), including their 1st HPLC characterization. Macromolecular antioxidants are commonly ignored in studies of bioactive compounds. They are associated with insoluble dietary fiber and exhibit significant biological activity, with specific features that are different from those of both dietary fiber and extractable polyphenols. We also evaluated extractable polyphenols and dietary fiber, given their relationship with macromolecular antioxidants. Our results show that macromolecular antioxidants are a major polyphenol fraction (averaging 42% to total polyphenol content), with hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols being the main constituents. This fraction also showed remarkable antioxidant capacity, as determined by 2 complementary assays. The dietary fiber content was over 50% of dry weight, with some samples exhibiting the target proportionality between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber for adequate nutrition. Overall, our data show that seaweed could be an important source of commonly ignored macromolecular antioxidants.

  13. New quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Cheyletoidea).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, A V; Fain, A; Skoracki, M

    2004-02-01

    Five new species and two new genera belonging to the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Cheyletoidea) are described from birds that died in the Antwerp Zoo during their quarantine: Charadriaulobia vanelli n. g., n. sp. from Vanellus chilensis (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) in Brazil; Fritschisyringophilus lonchurae n. g., n. sp. from Lonchura punctulata (Passeriformes: Estrildidae) in India; Mironovia coturnae n. sp. from Coturnix coturnix (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in Europe; Syringophiloidus daberti n. sp. from Passerina ciris (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) in Mexico; and S. serini n. sp. from Serinus mozambicus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Central Africa. Charadriaulobia n. g. differs from the closely related Aulobia Kethley, 1970, in both sexes, by the divergent epimeres I; in females, by the absence of protuberances on the hypostomal apex and by the situation of the bases of setae l4 distinctly anterior the bases of setae d4. Fritschisyringophilus n. g. differs from the closely related Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1972, in both sexes, by the presence of setae vs ' on legs II, the absence of setae dT on legs III and IV; in females, by the presence of median hypostomal protuberances and by short setae l1, l2 and l3. The relationships between the Syringophilidae and their hosts are briefly discussed. A list of all known syringophilid genera and their distribution on bird families is provided.

  14. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-01-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use on hot/arid lands in field trials in the Califronia Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42/sup 0/C (108/sup 0/F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium fluoridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean ovendry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosopis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (ovendry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 ovendry T ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba (0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse.

  15. Use of cellulolytic marine bacteria for enzymatic pretreatment in microalgal biogas production.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Camilo; Hidalgo, Catalina; Zapata, Manuel; Jeison, David; Riquelme, Carlos; Rivas, Mariella

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we designed and evaluated a microalgal pretreatment method using cellulolytic bacteria that naturally degrades microalgae in their native habitat. Bacterial strains were isolated from each of two mollusk species in a medium containing 1% carboxymethyl cellulose agar. We selected nine bacterial strains that had endoglucanase activity: five strains from Mytilus chilensis, a Chilean mussel, and four strains from Mesodesma donacium, a clam found in the Southern Pacific. These strains were identified phylogenetically as belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Chryseobacterium, and Raoultella. The cellulase-producing capacities of these strains were characterized, and the degradation of cell walls in Botryococcus braunii and Nannochloropsis gaditana was tested with "whole-cell" cellulolytic experiments. Aeromonas bivalvium MA2, Raoultella ornithinolytica MA5, and Aeromonas salmonicida MC25 degraded B. braunii, and R. ornithinolytica MC3 and MA5 degraded N. gaditana. In addition, N. gaditana was pretreated with R. ornithinolytica strains MC3 and MA5 and was then subjected to an anaerobic digestion process, which increased the yield of methane by 140.32% and 158.68%, respectively, over that from nonpretreated microalgae. Therefore, a "whole-cell" cellulolytic pretreatment can increase the performance and efficiency of biogas production.

  16. Changes of bacterioplankton apparent species richness in two ornamental fish aquaria.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Meziti, Alexandra; Hotos, George N; Mente, Eleni

    2013-12-01

    We analysed the 16S rRNA gene diversity within the bacterioplankton community in the water column of the ornamental fish Pterophyllum scalare and Archocentrus nigrofasciatus aquaria during a 60-day growth experiment in order to detect any dominant bacterial species and their possible association with the rearing organisms. The basic physical and chemical parameters remained stable but the bacterial community at 0, 30 and 60 days showed marked differences in bacterial cell abundance and diversity. We found high species richness but no dominant phylotypes were detected. Only few of the phylotypes were found in more than one time point per treatment and always with low relative abundance. The majority of the common phylotypes belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum and were closely related to Acinetobacter junii, Pseudomonas sp., Nevskia ramosa, Vogesella perlucida, Chitinomonas taiwanensis, Acidovorax sp., Pelomonas saccharophila and the rest belonged to the α-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, candidate division OP11 and one unaffiliated group. Several of these phylotypes were closely related to known taxa including Sphingopyxis chilensis, Flexibacter aurantiacus subsp. excathedrus and Mycobacterium sp. Despite the high phylogenetic diversity most of the inferred ecophysiological roles of the found phylotypes are related to nitrogen metabolism, a key process for fish aquaria.

  17. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  18. Illness associated with exposure to methyl bromide-fumigated produce--California, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-07-15

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) is a toxic gas used to fumigate agricultural fields and some produce. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) requires MeBr fumigation of grapes imported from Chile to prevent invasion by the Chilean false red mite, Brevipalpus chilensis. In 2010, two workers were exposed intermittently to MeBr over several months as part of their job inspecting produce at a cold-storage facility in Carson, California. Both workers had disabling neurologic symptoms (e.g., ataxia, memory difficulties, and dizziness) and elevated serum bromide concentrations. An environmental investigation revealed the potential for MeBr to accumulate in enclosed areas during the transportation and storage of fumigated grapes. Some MeBr air concentrations measured at a single point in time exceeded current 8-hour exposure limits, suggesting that exposure in confined areas could result in poisoning. Possible measures for facilities managers to consider to reduce postfumigation MeBr exposures include 1) increased aeration time, 2) reduction of packaging that might absorb MeBr or limit aeration, and 3) changes in the stacking of pallets to improve air flow. Facilities should monitor air MeBr levels if they store MeBr-fumigated commodities in enclosed spaces entered by workers. Clinicians should consider occupational and environmental exposures in their differential diagnosis, and workers who might become exposed to fumigants should be informed of the health hazards related to these pesticides.

  19. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins.

  20. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity, and Mode of Action of Essential Oils against Paenibacillus larvae, Etiological Agent of American Foulbrood on Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, María C; Alonso-Salces, Rosa M; Umpierrez, María L; Rossini, Carmen; Fuselli, Sandra R

    2016-12-10

    This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of Aloysia polystachia, Acantholippia seriphioides, Schinus molle, Solidago chilensis, Lippia turbinata, Minthostachys mollis, Buddleja globosa, and Baccharis latifolia essential oils (EOs), and to evaluate their antibacterial activities and their capacity to provoke membrane disruption in Paenibacillus larvae, the bacteria that causes the American Foulbrood (AFB) disease on honey bee larvae. The relationship between the composition of the EOs and these activities on P. larvae was also analyzed. Monoterpenes were the most abundant compounds in all EOs. All EOs showed antimicrobial activity against P. larvae and disrupted the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of P. larvae provoking the leakage of cytoplasmic constituents (with the exception of B. latifolia EO). While, the EOs' antimicrobial activity was correlated most strongly to the content of pulegone, carvone, (Z)-β-ocimene, δ-cadinene, camphene, terpinen-4-ol, elemol, β-pinene, β-elemene, γ-cadinene, α-terpineol, and bornyl acetate; the volatiles that better explained the membrane disruption were carvone, limonene, cis-carvone oxide, pentadecane, trans-carvyl acetate, trans-carvone oxide, trans-limonene oxide, artemisia ketone, trans-carveol, thymol, and γ-terpinene (positively correlated) and biciclogermacrene, δ-2-carene, verbenol, α-pinene, and α-thujene (negatively correlated). The studied EOs are proposed as natural alternative means of control for the AFB disease.

  1. Vertical distribution of rocky subtidal assemblages along the exposed coast of north-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotz, Wolfgang B.; Aburto, Jaime; Caillaux, Luis M.; González, Sergio A.

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic study of a stretch of coast in north central Chile, the variety and vertical zonation patterns of the rocky subtidal communities are described, thereby revising apparent uniformity and lack of vertical zonation of the rocky subtidal of southeastern Pacific shores previously reported in the literature. Over the 600 km of coast studied, the following pattern of depth-zonation is described: an upper fringe (lower part of the sublittoral fringe) characterized by barren grounds dominated by calcareous encrusting algae and the sea urchin Tetrapygus niger; an intermediate fringe (upper Infralittoral sub-zone) characterized either by deep barren grounds similar to the former, or kelp beds of Lessonia trabeculata, or an assemblage of suspension feeding organisms, as the big barnacle Austromegabalanus psittacus and/or the tunicate Pyura chilensis; and a deep fringe (Circalittoral sub-zone) dominated by small encrusting or mobile invertebrates. This basic vertical zonation pattern of the shallow rocky subtidal communities seems to be common to most of the temperate coasts of the world. The analysis, first of the occurrence of the general zonation pattern and second of the species composition within the assemblages corresponding to each sub-zone, offers a useful framework for the assessment of the eventual impacts and changes within the shallow rocky subtidal habitat, for example within environmental monitoring programs.

  2. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by willows growing in biosolids under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, W S; Arndt, S K; Huynh, T T; Gregory, D; Baker, A J M

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids produced by sewage treatment facilities can exceed guideline thresholds for contaminant elements. Phytoextraction is one technique with the potential to reduce these elements allowing reuse of the biosolids as a soil amendment. In this field trial, cuttings of seven species/cultivars of Salix(willows) were planted directly into soil and into biosolids to identify their suitability for decontaminating biosolids. Trees were irrigated and harvested each year for three consecutive years. Harvested biomass was weighed and analyzed for the contaminant elements: As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni, and Zn. All Salix cultivars, except S. chilensis, growing in soils produced 10 to 20 t ha(-1) of biomass, whereas most Salix cultivars growing in biosolids produced significantly less biomass (<6 t ha(-1)). Salix matsudana (30 t ha(-1)) and S. × reichardtii A. Kerner (18 t ha(-1)) had similar aboveground biomass production in both soil and biosolids. These were also the most successful cultivars in extracting metals from biosolids, driven by superior biomass increases and not high tissue concentrations. The willows were effectual in extracting the most soluble/exchangeable metals (Cd, 0.18; Ni, 0.40; and Zn, 11.66 kg ha(-1)), whereas Cr and Cu were extracted to a lesser degree (0.02 and 0.11 kg ha(-1)). Low bioavailable elements, As, Hg, and Pb, were not detectable in any of the aboveground biomass of the willows.

  3. Two New Species of Prismatolaimus de Man, 1880 (Nemata: Prismatolaimidae) in Southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Coomans, A. V.; Raski, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Two new species of Prismatolaimus are described from Orange Bay, Hoste Island, Chile. Prismatolaimus novoporus sp. n. is distinguished by its females being 1.08-1.28 mm long and monovarial with a long postvulvar sac, and having a long tail (c' = 21.5-32.2); males have 11-20 supplements confined to the posterior part of the body. Prismatolaimus chilensis sp. n. is distinguished by its amphidelphic reproductive system, short tail (c' = 9.5), V = 63.4; males have 23 supplements reaching up to the neck region. A well-developed dorsal body pore behind the cardia connected with an apparently glandular organ is reported in P. novoporus sp. n. Function of the organ is unknown, and it is not a general feature in the genus. The generic diagnosis of Prismatolaimus is emended and keys to species, both females and males, are presented. The systematic position of Prismatolaimus is discussed, and it is judged to be the only genus of Prismatolaimidae. Also, it is concluded that Prismatolaimidae and Bastianidae represent two sister taxa in Araeolaimida or Leptolaimina. PMID:19290212

  4. Broad spectrum of mimiviridae virophage allows its isolation using a mimivirus reporter.

    PubMed

    Gaia, Morgan; Pagnier, Isabelle; Campocasso, Angélique; Fournous, Ghislain; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The giant virus Mimiviridae family includes 3 groups of viruses: group A (includes Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus), group B (includes Moumouvirus) and group C (includes Megavirus chilensis). Virophages have been isolated with both group A Mimiviridae (the Mamavirus strain) and the related Cafeteria roenbergensis virus, and they have also been described by bioinformatic analysis of the Phycodnavirus. Here, we found that the first two strains of virophages isolated with group A Mimiviridae can multiply easily in groups B and C and play a role in gene transfer among these virus subgroups. To isolate new virophages and their Mimiviridae host in the environment, we used PCR to identify a sample with a virophage and a group C Mimiviridae that failed to grow on amoeba. Moreover, we showed that virophages reduce the pathogenic effect of Mimivirus (plaque formation), establishing its parasitic role on Mimivirus. We therefore developed a co-culture procedure using Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Mimivirus to recover the detected virophage and then sequenced the virophage's genome. We present this technique as a novel approach to isolating virophages. We demonstrated that the newly identified virophages replicate in the viral factories of all three groups of Mimiviridae, suggesting that the spectrum of virophages is not limited to their initial host.

  5. Tropical ancient DNA reveals relationships of the extinct Bahamian giant tortoise Chelonoidis alburyorum.

    PubMed

    Kehlmaier, Christian; Barlow, Axel; Hastings, Alexander K; Vamberger, Melita; Paijmans, Johanna L A; Steadman, David W; Albury, Nancy A; Franz, Richard; Hofreiter, Michael; Fritz, Uwe

    2017-01-11

    Ancient DNA of extinct species from the Pleistocene and Holocene has provided valuable evolutionary insights. However, these are largely restricted to mammals and high latitudes because DNA preservation in warm climates is typically poor. In the tropics and subtropics, non-avian reptiles constitute a significant part of the fauna and little is known about the genetics of the many extinct reptiles from tropical islands. We have reconstructed the near-complete mitochondrial genome of an extinct giant tortoise from the Bahamas (Chelonoidis alburyorum) using an approximately 1 000-year-old humerus from a water-filled sinkhole (blue hole) on Great Abaco Island. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses place this extinct species as closely related to Galápagos (C. niger complex) and Chaco tortoises (C. chilensis), and provide evidence for repeated overseas dispersal in this tortoise group. The ancestors of extant Chelonoidis species arrived in South America from Africa only after the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and dispersed from there to the Caribbean and the Galápagos Islands. Our results also suggest that the anoxic, thermally buffered environment of blue holes may enhance DNA preservation, and thus are opening a window for better understanding evolution and population history of extinct tropical species, which would likely still exist without human impact.

  6. Correction of angular limb deformity in two subspecies of flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) utilizing a transphyseal bridging technique.

    PubMed

    Zollinger, Tawnia J; Backues, Kay A; Burgos-Rodriguez, Armando G

    2005-12-01

    Three hand-raised American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber) chicks and one hand-raised Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis) developed valgus angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsal bone. All flamingos underwent surgical correction to unequally retard the growth plate using transphyseal bridging. Positive profile pins were placed in the proximal epiphysis and distal to the growth plate in the metaphysis on the convex side of the affected tarsometatarsus. Various banding techniques were used in each flamingo to create tension. Three of the four flamingos responded in 7-14 days with correction or slight overcorrection of the valgus limb deformity. The fourth flamingo's leg deformity did not improve for reasons thought to be related to improper implant placement. Growth plate retardation by transphyseal bridging proved successful in correcting valgus limb deformity of the proximal tarsometatarsus. This technique may be considered as an option for correction of angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsus in flamingos less than 90-120 days of age.

  7. Heavy metal and trace elements in riparian vegetation and macrophytes associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia Andean Range.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Andrea; Arribére, María A; Arcagni, Marina; Williams, Natalia; Rizzo, Andrea; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia was studied for heavy metal and trace element contents, regarding their elemental contribution to these aquatic ecosystems. The research focused on native species and exotic vascular plant Salix spp. potential for absorbing heavy metals and trace elements. The native species studied were riparian Amomyrtus luma, Austrocedrus chilensis, Chusquea culeou, Desfontainia fulgens, Escallonia rubra, Gaultheria mucronata, Lomatia hirsuta, Luma apiculata, Maytenus boaria, Myrceugenia exsucca, Nothofagus antarctica, Nothofagus dombeyi, Schinus patagonicus, and Weinmannia trichosperma, and macrophytes Hydrocotyle chamaemorus, Isöetes chubutiana, Galium sp., Myriophyllum quitense, Nitella sp. (algae), Potamogeton linguatus, Ranunculus sp., and Schoenoplectus californicus. Fresh leaves were analyzed as well as leaves decomposing within the aquatic bodies, collected from lakes Futalaufquen and Rivadavia (Los Alerces National Park), and lakes Moreno and Nahuel Huapi (Nahuel Huapi National Park). The elements studied were heavy metals Ag, As, Cd, Hg, and U, major elements Ca, K, and Fe, and trace elements Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn. Geochemical tracers La and Sm were also determined to evaluate contamination of the biological tissues by geological particulate (sediment, soil, dust) and to implement concentration corrections.

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes cf. neuquenensis and Ixodes sigelos ticks from the Patagonian region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Patrick S; Bottero, Maria Noelia Saracho; Carvalho, Luis; Mackenstedt, Ute; Lareschi, Marcela; Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in ixodid ticks from the Patagonia region in the south of Argentina. Therefore, ticks were collected on rodents in the provinces of Chubut, Río Negro and Santa Cruz. These ticks were identified as nymphs of Ixodes cf. neuquenensis and Ixodes sigelos. The B. burgdorferi s.l. infection was tested by a battery of PCR methods targeting the gene flagellin (fla) and the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region (IGS). Three pools of I. sigelos nymphs from Chubut and Santa Cruz provinces as well as one pool of I. cf. neuquenensis nymphs from Río Negro province were tested positive in the fla-PCR. The samples of I. sigelos were also positive for the IGS-PCR. Phylogenetically, the haplotypes found in the positive ticks belong to the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex, and they were closely related to Borrelia chilensis, a genospecies isolated from Ixodes stilesi in Chile. The pathogenic relevance of the Borrelia genospecies detected in both I. neuquenensis and I. sigelos is unknown.

  9. Polynuclear aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in mussels from the coastal zone of Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I; Sericano, José L

    2011-03-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) were collected from 12 coastal locations in Ushuaia Bay, Argentina, and the surrounding area in October 1999 and again in October 2003. Concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and selected chlorinated pesticides were determined to assess the impact of a fast-growing population in the area. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 2.24 to an extremely high concentration of 2,420 µg/g lipid measured in mussels collected near an oil jetty used to discharge to shore storage tanks. The composition of PAHs in these samples indicates that the source of these compounds inside Ushuaia Bay is predominantly petrogenic, with some pyrogenic background, whereas mostly pyrogenic-related PAHs were evident in areas outside the bay. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged between 12.8 and 8,210 ng/g lipid, with the highest concentration, detected inside Ushuaia harbor, representing a 10-fold increase when compared with historical data. Chlorinated pesticides were detected at comparatively lower concentrations, with 4-4'- 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene being the most common. The aggressive increase in population and related activities observed in the city of Ushuaia over the last two decades might have affected the environmental quality of the local bay. Moreover, the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions existing in Ushuaia Bay and surrounding areas may favor the accumulation and long-term presence of these organic pollutants in all compartments of this fragile environment.

  10. The life cycle of Prosorhynchoides carvajali (Trematoda: Bucephalidae) involving species of bivalve and fish hosts in the intertidal zone of central Chile.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, G; Valdivia, I; López, Z

    2015-09-01

    We describe the life cycle of the bucephalid Prosorhynchoides carvajali from the intertidal rocky zone of central Chile. To elucidate the life cycle of this digenean, two mytilid bivalves, Semimytilus algosus and Perumytilus purpuratus, and ten intertidal fish species belonging to the families Blenniidae, Tripterygiidae, Labrisomidae, Kyphosidae and Gobiesocidae were analysed for natural infections. In addition, experimental infections of fish were undertaken and molecular analyses were performed of several developmental stages of the digeneans in various host species. Experimental infections of fish were made from infected mytilids to determine which fish species were suitable for the metacercarial stage of Prosorhynchoides. We also determined the abundance and prevalence of metacercariae in natural infections in fish and found that they were lower than in the experimental infections. A molecular analysis showed that sporocysts from S. algosus were identical to metacercariae from five fish species and P. carvajali adults. Sporocysts isolated from P. purpuratus were similar to metacercaria found in one fish species only (G. laevifrons) but were different from P. carvajali, with 1.9-2.0% genetic divergence. Therefore, the complete life cycle of P. carvajali consists of the mytilid species S. algosus as the first intermediate host, at least five intertidal fish species as second intermediate hosts (Scartichthys viridis, Auchenionchus microcirrhis, Hypsoblennius sordidus, Helcogrammoides chilensis and Gobiesox marmoratus), two carnivorous fish as definitive hosts (Auchenionchus microcirrhis and A. variolosus) and one occasional definitive host (Syciases sanguineus). This is the second description of a life cycle of a marine digenean from Chile.

  11. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  12. Spatial distribution of intertidal sandy beach polychaeta along an estuarine and morphodynamic gradient in an eutrophic tropical bay.

    PubMed

    Omena, E P; Lavrado, H P; Paranhos, R; Silva, T A

    2012-09-01

    The spatial distribution of polychaeta along pollution gradients often reflects different degrees of disturbance. In order to evaluate polychaeta fauna of an organically polluted tropical bay, 20 sandy beaches distributed in five areas were sampled. The relationship between community structure, slope, beach index, exposure, sediment and water quality parameters were analysed. Multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) showed differences among areas and beaches. Scolelepis chilensis dominated at mouth of bay beaches whereas Streblospio gynobranchiata and Capitella capitata complex, at inner beaches. Highest polychaete density was recorded at areas 3 and 5 with the dominance of Saccocirrus sp. and the organic indicator species C. capitata complex and Polydora sp. The most important factors obtained from canonical analysis were sorting, slope, mud and organic matter percentage. Marine biotic index (AMBI) showed that areas 3 and 5 were highly affected by anthropogenic factors, given that a poor polychaeta fauna, dominated by opportunistic species, were found. Polychaete assemblages were affected by eutrophication along an estuarine gradient as well as by morphodynamic condition of the beaches.

  13. Delphinidin-Rich Maqui Berry Extract (Delphinol®) Lowers Fasting and Postprandial Glycemia and Insulinemia in Prediabetic Individuals during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Jorge L.; Salgado, Ana-María; Lyon, Carolina; Vigil, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Delphinidin anthocyanins have previously been associated with the inhibition of glucose absorption. Blood glucose lowering effects have been ascribed to maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) extracts in humans after boiled rice consumption. In this study, we aimed to explore whether a standardized delphinidin-rich extract from maqui berry (Delphinol) affects glucose metabolism in prediabetic humans based on glycemia and insulinemia curves obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a challenge with pure glucose. Volunteers underwent four consecutive OGTTs with at least one week washout period, in which different doses of Delphinol were administered one hour before glucose intake. Delphinol significantly and dose-dependently lowered basal glycemia and insulinemia. Lower doses delayed postprandial glycemic and insulinemic peaks, while higher doses reversed this tendency. Glycemia peaks were dose-dependently lowered, while insulinemia peaks were higher for the lowest dose and lower for other doses. The total glucose available in blood was unaffected by treatments, while the total insulin availability was increased by low doses and decreased by the highest dose. Taken together, these open exploratory results suggest that Delphinol could be acting through three possible mechanisms: by inhibition of intestinal glucose transporters, by an incretin-mediated effect, or by improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:28025651

  14. New beverages of lemon juice enriched with the exotic berries maqui, açaı́, and blackthorn: bioactive components and in vitro biological properties.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; García-Viguera, Cristina; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-04

    Following previous research on lemon juice enriched with berries, the aim of this work was to design new blends based on lemon juice mixed with different edible berries of exotic and national origin: maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaı́ ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), and blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L.). The phytochemical characterization of controls and blends was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Their antioxidant capacity against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and their potential to inhibit cholinesterases were also assessed. The profiling of the red fruits and lemon revealed a wide range of bioactive phenolics. The novel beverage based on lemon juice and maqui berry (LM) was the most interesting blend in terms of antioxidant capacity. Berry control samples displayed reduced effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, the lemon juice control being always the most active. This activity was also remarkable for lemon-blackthorn (LB) and lemon-açaı́ (LA) blends, the last being the most effective inhibitor of cholinesterases among all samples. The results suggested that lemon juice enriched with berries could be of potential interest in the design of new drinks with a nutritive related function on health for chronic diseases.

  15. Broad Spectrum of Mimiviridae Virophage Allows Its Isolation Using a Mimivirus Reporter

    PubMed Central

    Gaia, Morgan; Pagnier, Isabelle; Campocasso, Angélique; Fournous, Ghislain; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The giant virus Mimiviridae family includes 3 groups of viruses: group A (includes Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus), group B (includes Moumouvirus) and group C (includes Megavirus chilensis). Virophages have been isolated with both group A Mimiviridae (the Mamavirus strain) and the related Cafeteria roenbergensis virus, and they have also been described by bioinformatic analysis of the Phycodnavirus. Here, we found that the first two strains of virophages isolated with group A Mimiviridae can multiply easily in groups B and C and play a role in gene transfer among these virus subgroups. To isolate new virophages and their Mimiviridae host in the environment, we used PCR to identify a sample with a virophage and a group C Mimiviridae that failed to grow on amoeba. Moreover, we showed that virophages reduce the pathogenic effect of Mimivirus (plaque formation), establishing its parasitic role on Mimivirus. We therefore developed a co-culture procedure using Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Mimivirus to recover the detected virophage and then sequenced the virophage's genome. We present this technique as a novel approach to isolating virophages. We demonstrated that the newly identified virophages replicate in the viral factories of all three groups of Mimiviridae, suggesting that the spectrum of virophages is not limited to their initial host. PMID:23596530

  16. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Brusina, Pisidium amnicum (Müller), species have been determined from the mudstone, claystone, carbonated sandstone lithologies. These fauna are characteristic for the Dasic basin in Late Pliocene (Romanian). Also, Avimactra karabugasica (Andrussow), Avimactra ososkovi (Andrussow), Avimactra subcaspia (Andrussow), Avimactra venjukovi (Andrussow). Dreissena (Dreissena) polymorpha (Pallas), Dreissena rostriformis Deshayes species have been determined from the upper level of the section composed of carbonated sandstone lithology. These fauna are characteristic for the Caspic basin in the Late Pliocene (Aktschaglian). In the Treenean and Monastrian times, the marine fauna (Gibbula (Adriaria) albida (Gmelin), Gibbula (Tunulus) umblicaris (Linneaus), Hydrobia (Hydrobia) acuta (Draparnaud), Alvania (Alvania) reticulata (Montagu), Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata (Brocchi), Pirenella conica (Blainville), Bittium (Bittium) reticulatum (Da Costa), Thericium (Thericium) vulgatum (Brugiere), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller) are belonging to the Gastropoda and Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin in Linneaus), Ostrea edulis Linneaus, Ostrea lamellosa Linneaus, Paphia (Polititapes) senescens (Coc.), Timoclea ovata (Pennant), Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba (Olivi)) have been observed. In the Pontian, the Basin has been low salinity and semi-marine conditions. In the Lower Romanian, the Basin was developed as brackish water character feeding by fresh water. Late Lower Romanian=Lower Kujalnikien, Basin was became more brackish character by increasing salinity. During the Upper Kujalnikien=Upper Romanian, feeding by freshwater was increased. The youngest sequence of the basin is Treenean-Monastrian terraces sedimented by increasing sea level. These marine fauna indicate that there was a connection between Black Sea and Mediterranean in that time. Key words: Neogene, Gastropoda-Bivalvia, Romanian, Dasic, Caspic.

  17. Host preference and species richness of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoraceous fungi in a cool temperate area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Hattori, Tsutomu; Abe, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    We examined the species richness and host utilization patterns of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoraceous fungi (polypores and related fungi) in an old-growth beech and oak forest in a cool, temperate area of Japan. Coarse woody debris (CWD) > or = 20 cm diam within a 6 ha plot was surveyed in Sep 2002. Tree genus, diameter, decay class and tree part of CWD samples were recorded. Fruiting bodies of aphyllophoraceous fungi that arose from the CWD were surveyed three times and identified to species. In total 256 CWD samples from 12 tree genera were surveyed with Quercus being the most frequent followed by Castanea and Fagus. From 196 CWD samples we recorded 436 wood-inhabiting fungi belonging to 63 species. Fifteen fungal species had at least 10 records, with Hymenochaete rubiginosa, Daedalea dickinsii, Xylobolus frustulatus, Rigidoporus cinereus and the small form of Fomes fomentarius being the most frequent. The number of fungal species that appeared on Fagus was significantly larger than that on Castanea, when the number of fruiting bodies collected was at least 50. The occurrences of the 15 dominant fungal species, except Trametes versicolor, were related to traits of the CWD. Tree genus was a predictor variable that affected the appearance of 11 of the 15 species of wood-inhabiting fungi. Only the tree part was selected for the models of Rigidoporus eminens, Schizopora flavipora and Stereum ostrea. Our results suggest that tree genus and tree part are important factors determining fungal community structure because these were selected as complementary predictor variables. Both oak and beech appear to be the most important tree genera for maintaining wood-inhabiting fungal species richness because the fungal flora formed on oak CWD is nearly complementary to those on chestnut, with low fungal species richness.

  18. Using Mg/Ca on oyster shells as paleoclimatic proxy, example from the Paleogene of Central Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougeois, Laurie; de Rafélis, Marc; Reichart, Gert-Jan; de Nooijer, Lennart; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    Due to their large occurrence in sedimentary records from Triassic to Quaternary, their strong resistance to post-mortem alteration, and the incremental nature of their shell growth, oysters are recognized to be a highly powerful tool to infer infra-annual paleoclimate variations. However, the common use of δ18O in biomineralisation to infer paleotemperatures is hindered by the difficulties in valuating δ18O of sea water (δ18Osw). If the δ18Osw values can be fairly well estimated when orking at the million-year time scale, the estimation of the infra-annual variation of the δ18Osw constitutes a considerable barrier for high-resolution paleo-reconstitutions. This issue can be resolved using the Mg/Ca ratio as a suitable and valuable independent high-resolution paleothermometer in oyster shells. However, if numerous studies provided new paleothermometer using Mg/Ca ratio in calcitic bivalve shells, their application to paleo-studies remains to be established. In this study, we combine incremental δ18O analyses with Mg/Ca ratio on Paleogene oyster shells from the Proto-Paratethys (Central Asia) that is characterized by high seasonal variability. We analysed various species growing in different depositional environments throughout late Paleocene to late Eocene times. Results from both proxies show consistent values from oysters of the same age and of the same species, attesting for the consistent Mg incorporation into shells. However, the Mg/Ca-T calibrations tested in this study reveals the importance of specie-specific effect for the incorporation of Mg, as well as the environment. This enables discarding results inappropriate for existing Mg/Ca calibrations and identifying those yielding meaningful paleo-temperatures. In particular, the consistency of the Mg/Ca temperature proxies yielded by the species Ostrea (T.) strictiplicata and Sokolowia buhsii shows that, with careful data selection, Mg/Ca provides a reliable infra-annual paleotemperature proxy.

  19. Molecular phylogenetics and systematics of the bivalve family Ostreidae based on rRNA sequence-structure models and multilocus species tree.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Daniele; Macali, Armando; Mariottini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The bivalve family Ostreidae has a worldwide distribution and includes species of high economic importance. Phylogenetics and systematic of oysters based on morphology have proved difficult because of their high phenotypic plasticity. In this study we explore the phylogenetic information of the DNA sequence and secondary structure of the nuclear, fast-evolving, ITS2 rRNA and the mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes from the Ostreidae and we implemented a multi-locus framework based on four loci for oyster phylogenetics and systematics. Sequence-structure rRNA models aid sequence alignment and improved accuracy and nodal support of phylogenetic trees. In agreement with previous molecular studies, our phylogenetic results indicate that none of the currently recognized subfamilies, Crassostreinae, Ostreinae, and Lophinae, is monophyletic. Single gene trees based on Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BA) methods and on sequence-structure ML were congruent with multilocus trees based on a concatenated (ML and BA) and coalescent based (BA) approaches and consistently supported three main clades: (i) Crassostrea, (ii) Saccostrea, and (iii) an Ostreinae-Lophinae lineage. Therefore, the subfamily Crassostreinae (including Crassostrea), Saccostreinae subfam. nov. (including Saccostrea and tentatively Striostrea) and Ostreinae (including Ostreinae and Lophinae taxa) are recognized [corrected]. Based on phylogenetic and biogeographical evidence the Asian species of Crassostrea from the Pacific Ocean are assigned to Magallana gen. nov., whereas an integrative taxonomic revision is required for the genera Ostrea and Dendostrea. This study pointed out the suitability of the ITS2 marker for DNA barcoding of oyster and the relevance of using sequence-structure rRNA models and features of the ITS2 folding in molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy. The multilocus approach allowed inferring a robust phylogeny of Ostreidae providing a broad molecular perspective on their systematics.

  20. Persistent carry-over effects of planktonic exposure to ocean acidification in the Olympia oyster.

    PubMed

    Hettinger, Annaliese; Sanford, Eric; Hill, Tessa M; Russell, Ann D; Sato, Kirk N S; Hoey, Jennifer; Forsch, Margaux; Page, Heather N; Gaylord, Brian

    2012-12-01

    Predicting impacts of global environmental change is challenging due to the complex life cycles that characterize many terrestrial and aquatic taxa. Different life stages often interact with the physical environment in distinct ways, and a growing body of work suggests that stresses experienced during one life stage can "carry over" to influence subsequent stages. Assessments of population responses to environmental perturbation must therefore consider how effects might propagate across life-history transitions. We investigated consequences of ocean acidification (decreased pH and carbonate saturation) for early life stages of the Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida), a foundation species in estuaries along the Pacific coast of North America. We reared oysters at three levels of seawater pH, including a control (8.0) and two additional levels (7.9 and 7.8). Oysters were cultured through their planktonic larval period to metamorphosis and into early juvenile life. Larvae reared under pH 7.8 exhibited a 15% decrease in larval shell growth rate, and a 7% decrease in shell area at settlement, compared to larvae reared under control conditions. Impacts were even more pronounced a week after settlement, with juveniles that had been reared as larvae under reduced pH exhibiting a 41% decrease in shell growth rate. Importantly, the latter effect arose regardless of the pH level the oysters experienced as juveniles, indicating a strong carry-over effect from the larval phase. Adverse impacts of early exposure to low pH persisted for at least 1.5 months after juveniles were transferred to a common environment. Overall, our results suggest that a stringent focus on a single phase of the life cycle (e.g., one perceived as the "weakest link") may neglect critical impacts that can be transferred across life stages in taxa with complex life histories.

  1. Detection of the oyster herpesvirus in commercial bivalve in northern California, USA: conventional and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Burge, Colleen A; Strenge, Robyn E; Friedman, Carolyn S

    2011-04-06

    The ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1) and related oyster herpesviruses (OsHV) are associated with world-wide mortalities of larval and juvenile bivalves. To quantify OsHV viral loads in mollusc tissues, we developed a SYBR Green quantitative PCR (qPCR) based on the A-region of the OsHV-1 genome. Reaction efficiency and precision were demonstrated using a plasmid standard curve. The analytical sensitivity is 1 copy per reaction. We collected Crassostrea gigas, C. sikamea, C. virginica, Ostrea edulis, O. lurida, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Venerupis phillipinarum from Tomales Bay (TB), and C. gigas from Drakes Estero (DE), California, U.S.A., and initially used conventional PCR (cPCR) to test for presence of OsHV DNA. Subsequently, viral loads were quantified in selected samples of all tested bivalves except O. lurida. Copy numbers were low in each species tested but were significantly greater in C. gigas (p < 0.0001) compared to all other species, suggesting a higher level of infection. OsHV DNA was detected with cPCR and/or qPCR and confirmed by sequencing in C. gigas, C. sikamea, C. virginica, O. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and V phillipinarum from TB and C. gigas from DE. These data indicate that multiple bivalve species may act as reservoirs for OsHV in TB. A lack of histological abnormalities in potential reservoirs requires alternative methods for their identification. Further investigation is needed to determine the host-parasite relationship for each potential reservoir, including characterization of viral loads and their relationship with infection (via in situ hybridization), assessments of mortality, and host responses.

  2. Oceanisphaera aquimarina sp. nov., Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Sediment of Ocean Coastal Area from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seonghyeon; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2016-11-01

    Strain S33(T) was isolated from oil-contaminated sediment of Tae-an coastal region of South Korea. Cells are aerobic, motile, Gram staining-negative, and coccoid shaped. Strain S33(T) grew optimally at the temperature of 25 °C (range of 4-40 °C), pH 6.0 (range of pH 6.0-10.0), and in the presence of 1 % (w/v) NaCl (range of 0-10 %). Ubiquinone-8 was the predominant respiratory quinone. C16:0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c) and C18:1ω7c were the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol. Strain S33(T) showed the ability to degrade benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene after 3 days incubation. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain S33(T) was most closely related to Oceanisphaera sediminis TW92(T) (97.3 %), Oceanisphaera profunda SM1222(T) (97.2 %), and Oceanisphaera ostreae T-w6(T) (97.1 %) and <97 % with other members of the genus Oceanisphaera. The genomic DNA G+C mol% content of strain S33(T) was 51.0 mol%. Based on distinct phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic analysis, strain S33(T) was proposed to represent a novel species in the genus Oceanisphaera as Oceanisphaera aquimarina sp. nov. (= KEMB 1002-058(T) = JCM 30 794(T)).

  3. The long-term impacts of fisheries on epifaunal assemblage function and structure, in a Special Area of Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strain, E. M. A.; Allcock, A. L.; Goodwin, C. E.; Maggs, C. A.; Picton, B. E.; Roberts, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries can have profound effects on epifaunal community function and structure. We analysed the results from five dive surveys (1975-1976, 1980, 1983, 2003 and 2007), taken in a Special Area of Conservation, Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland before and after a ten year period of increased trawling activity between 1985 and 1995. There were no detectable differences in the species richness or taxonomic distinctiveness before (1975-1983) and after (2003-2007) this period. However, there was a shift in the epifaunal assemblage between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In general, the slow-moving, or sessile, erect, filter-feeders were replaced by highly mobile, swimming, scavengers and predators. There were declines in the frequency of the fished bivalve Aequipecten opercularis and the non-fished bivalves Modiolus modiolus and Chlamys varia and some erect sessile invertebrates between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In contrast, there were increases in the frequency of the fished and reseeded bivalves Pecten maximus and Ostrea edulis, the fished crabs Cancer pagurus and Necora puber and the non-fished sea stars Asterias rubens, Crossaster papposus and Henricia oculata between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. We suggest that these shifts could be directly and indirectly attributed to the long-term impacts of trawl fishing gear, although increases in the supply of discarded bait and influxes of sediment may also have contributed to changes in the frequency of some taxa. These results suggest that despite their limitations, historical surveys and repeat sampling over long periods can help to elucidate the inferred patterns in the epifaunal community. The use of commercial fishing gear was banned from two areas in Strangford Lough in 2011, making it a model ecosystem for assessing the long-term recovery of the epifaunal community from the impacts of mobile and pot fishing gear.

  4. Eocene marine to nonmarine (deltaic) deposits, Lower Piru Creek, Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashiro, D.A.; Squires, R.L.

    1986-04-01

    A 790-m thick vertical section of lower middle Eocene sandstone represents a regressive deltaic sequence that grades upward from delta front through lower delta plain into upper delta plain. The sandstone crops out as a narrow strip of overturned east-west strata and south-plunging open folds within the Topatopa Mountains, 16 km north of the town of Piru, California. The sandstone gradationally overlies prodelta/transition-zone siltstone of uppermost Capay stage (early Eocene) and underlies, with a 15/sup 0/ angular unconformity, Eocene to Oligocene nonmarine boulder conglomerate of the Sespe Formation. The lower 95 m of the sandstone is characterized by an upward-coarsening sequence, fine at the base to medium at the top, laminated to bioturbated sandstone. Bioturbation is as high as 75% with Ophiomorpha burrows common. Shallow marine mollusks diagnostic of the Domengine stage (late early through early middle Eocene) occur within lenses of medium sandstone. These rocks were deposited in a shoreface environment on a delta front. Above the delta-front deposits are about 100 m of coarse sandstone. Structureless and bioturbated sandstone is dominant, but herringbone cross-bedding, planar cross-bedding 10-150 cm high, planar lamination, and scour-and-fill structures are common. Structures are interpreted as megaripples, sand waves, and channels in a tidal sand-flat environment. Coal lenses higher in the section are interpreted to be marsh deposits. Bioturbation can be up to 80% and Ostrea occurs locally. This tidal flat differs from most cited modern examples because it lacks a mud component or associated mud-flat deposits. The tidal sand-flat and marsh deposits were formed within a lower delta plain. Overlying these rocks is a 205-m interval of interfingering tidal-flat and braided-river deposits.

  5. Molecular Phylogenetics and Systematics of the Bivalve Family Ostreidae Based on rRNA Sequence-Structure Models and Multilocus Species Tree

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Daniele; Macali, Armando; Mariottini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The bivalve family Ostreidae has a worldwide distribution and includes species of high economic importance. Phylogenetics and systematic of oysters based on morphology have proved difficult because of their high phenotypic plasticity. In this study we explore the phylogenetic information of the DNA sequence and secondary structure of the nuclear, fast-evolving, ITS2 rRNA and the mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes from the Ostreidae and we implemented a multi-locus framework based on four loci for oyster phylogenetics and systematics. Sequence-structure rRNA models aid sequence alignment and improved accuracy and nodal support of phylogenetic trees. In agreement with previous molecular studies, our phylogenetic results indicate that none of the currently recognized subfamilies, Crassostreinae, Ostreinae, and Lophinae, is monophyletic. Single gene trees based on Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BA) methods and on sequence-structure ML were congruent with multilocus trees based on a concatenated (ML and BA) and coalescent based (BA) approaches and consistently supported three main clades: (i) Crassostrea, (ii) Saccostrea, and (iii) an Ostreinae-Lophinae lineage. Therefore, the subfamily Crassotreinae (including Crassostrea), Saccostreinae subfam. nov. (including Saccostrea and tentatively Striostrea) and Ostreinae (including Ostreinae and Lophinae taxa) are recognized. Based on phylogenetic and biogeographical evidence the Asian species of Crassostrea from the Pacific Ocean are assigned to Magallana gen. nov., whereas an integrative taxonomic revision is required for the genera Ostrea and Dendostrea. This study pointed out the suitability of the ITS2 marker for DNA barcoding of oyster and the relevance of using sequence-structure rRNA models and features of the ITS2 folding in molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy. The multilocus approach allowed inferring a robust phylogeny of Ostreidae providing a broad molecular perspective on their systematics. PMID:25250663

  6. Keeping Pace with Climate Change: Habitat Protection in the Face of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flitcroft, R. L.; Burnett, K.; Giannico, G.

    2014-12-01

    Estuaries provide critical habitat for many economically and culturally important species. In the Pacific Northwest, intertidal and subtidal areas provide critical habitat for production of native and commercial oysters (Olympia oyster Ostrea lurida and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, respectively) that in turn provide refuge and rearing habitat for Dungeness Crab, Metacarcinus magister. Environments ranging from subtidal through freshwater zones provide nursery areas for juvenile salmonids at different development stages in their life history. Most Oregon estuaries have been significantly altered by humans over the past century, reducing the quantity and diversity of available habitats. Management agencies have responded with projects to restore and enhance estuarine habitats. Unfortunately, future climate change and sea-level rise could render many current restoration projects ineffective over time. Planning for habitat restoration that keeps pace with climate change will be critical to the sustainable production of seafood and maintenance of ecosystem function. However, land managers and citizens lack the spatially-explicit data needed to incorporate the potential effects of climate change and sea-level rise into planning for habitat improvement projects in estuarine areas. To meet this need, we developed simple models using LiDAR to characterize the geomorphologies of multiple Oregon estuaries. We were able to map the margin of current mean high tide, and contour intervals associated with different potential increases in mean high tide. Because our analysis relied on digital data, we compared three types of digital data in one estuary to assess the utility of different data sets in predicting changes in estuary shape. For each estuary, we assessed changes in the amount and complexity of edge habitats. The simple modeling approach we applied can also be used to identify areas that may be most amenable to pre-emptive restoration actions to mitigate or enhance

  7. Spatial and temporal variability of contaminants within estuarine sediments and native Olympia oysters: A contrast between a developed and an undeveloped estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granek, Elise F.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Pillsbury, Lori; Strecker, Angela; Rumrill, Steve; Fish, William

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contaminants can be introduced into estuarine and marine ecosystems from a variety of sources including wastewater, agriculture and forestry practices, point and non-point discharges, runoff from industrial, municipal, and urban lands, accidental spills, and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of potential sources contributes to the likelihood of contaminated marine waters and sediments and increases the probability of uptake by marine organisms. Despite widespread recognition of direct and indirect pathways for contaminant deposition and organismal exposure in coastal systems, spatial and temporal variability in contaminant composition, deposition, and uptake patterns are still poorly known. We investigated these patterns for a suite of persistent legacy contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and chemicals of emerging concern including pharmaceuticals within two Oregon coastal estuaries (Coos and Netarts Bays). In the more urbanized Coos Bay, native Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) tissue had approximately twice the number of PCB congeners at over seven times the total concentration, yet fewer PBDEs at one-tenth the concentration as compared to the more rural Netarts Bay. Different pharmaceutical suites were detected during each sampling season. Variability in contaminant types and concentrations across seasons and between species and media (organisms versus sediment) indicates the limitation of using indicator species and/or sampling annually to determine contaminant loads at a site or for specific species. The results indicate the prevalence of legacy contaminants and CECs in relatively undeveloped coastal environments highlighting the need to improve policy and management actions to reduce contaminant releases into estuarine and marine waters and to deal with legacy compounds that remain long after prohibition of use. Our results point to the need for better understanding of the ecological and

  8. Introductions and developments of oysters in the North Sea area: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwaard, A. C.

    1998-09-01

    To replenish the exploited native stocks of Ostrea edulis, imports from almost all European coasts have arrived in the North Sea, particularly in the Dutch Oosterschelde estuary. The American oyster Crassostrea virginica and the Portuguese oyster C. angulata have also been imported into the North Sea several times. However, only the introductions of various genetic strains of the Pacific oyster C. gigas have been of lasting success. Spat from British Columbia (Canada) was first imported to the Oosterschelde in 1964. First spatfalls in this area took place in the warm summers of 1975 and 1976. Further larval outbursts occurred in 1982 and 1989, and good settlements took place on culture plots as well as along the dikes of the Oosterschelde. Since 1977 no more cupped oysters have been imported from overseas. The population maintained itself and was able to spread in a northern direction along the Dutch North Sea coast. In Britain, hatchery-produced C. gigas were transferred to several sites, in the 1970s including the British North Sea coast. Here, occurrence in the wild seems to be rather limited up to now. Into the German Wadden Sea, C. gigas larvae and spat from a Scottish hatchery have been introduced since 1971, as were medium-sized oysters from a variety of European sources in the 1980s. Strong spatfalls on intertidal mussel beds in the northern German Wadden Sea occured in 1991 and 1994. For the introductions of C. gigas along the west European coasts, precautionary measures to minimize unintentional transfers of associated organisms, as recommended by the ICES Code of Practice in 1994, came too late.

  9. Mortality, behavior and the effects of predators on the intertidal distribution of littorinid gastropods.

    PubMed

    Rochette; Dill

    2000-10-25

    Predators can affect the vertical distribution of mobile intertidal invertebrates in two ways: they can (1) cause greater mortality of prey at certain intertidal levels, and (2) induce prey to seek safer intertidal areas. In this study, we investigate whether low-intertidal and subtidal predators affect the intertidal distribution of two congeneric species of small herbivorous gastropods of northeastern Pacific shores, Littorina sitkana Philippi 1846, and L. scutulata Gould 1849. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that predators affect the distribution of these snails by inducing them to seek higher and safer intertidal areas. On a wave-sheltered shore in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, L. sitkana and L. scutulata were both killed by predatory crabs (e.g., Cancer productus) more frequently when tethered near the lower limit of their intertidal distribution ( approximately 1 m) than when tethered where they were most common ( approximately 2.5 m), suggesting that high mortality rates are partly responsible for the lower-limit of these snails' intertidal distribution. However, two field mark-recapture experiments indicated that the snails' behavioral response to predation risk also influences their distribution. In the first experiment, snails from the 2.5-m level (low risk) transplanted to the 1.0-m level (high risk) displayed a strong and consistent tendency to move shoreward, especially L. sitkana, some traveling 10-15 m in 2-3 days to regain their original level. These shoreward movements were especially precise in the northern part of the study area, where predation rates on tethered snails were greatest. Furthermore, larger more vulnerable snails were more strongly oriented shoreward than smaller individuals, indicating that antipredator behavior might also contribute to intertidal size gradients in these species. In the second mark-recapture experiment, we manipulated predation risk using small cages and found that snails exposed to the odors of C

  10. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus) gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837. The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus) caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston

  11. World reclassification of the Cardiophorinae (Coleoptera, Elateridae), based on phylogenetic analyses of morphological characters

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Hume B.

    2017-01-01

    Fleutiaux, 1892 (Physodactylinae) is syn. n. of Globothorax Fleutiaux, 1891. The following new genera are described: Austrocardiophorus (type species: Cardiophorus humeralis Fairmaire and Germain, 1860); Chileaphricus (type species: Aphricus chilensis Fleutiaux, 1940); Floridelater (type species: Coptostethus americanus Horn, 1871, transferred from Negastriinae to Cardiophorinae). Paradicronychus (nomen nudum), is syn. n. of Cardiophorus Eschscholtz, 1829. Generic reassignments to make Cardiodontulus, Cardiophorus, Cardiotarsus, Paracardiophorus consistent with phylogenetically revised genus concepts resulted in 84 new combinations. Lectotypes are designated for 29 type species to fix generic concepts: Anelastes femoralis Lucas, 1857; Aphricus chilensis Fleutiaux, 1940; Athous argentatus Abeille de Perrin, 1894; Cardiophorus adjutor Candèze, 1875; Cardiophorus florentini Fleutiaux, 1895; Cardiophorus inflatus Candèze, 1882; Cardiophorus luridipes Candèze, 1860; Cardiophorus mirabilis Candèze, 1860; Cardiophorus musculus Erichson, 1840; Cardiotarsus capensis Candèze, 1860; Cardiotarsus vitalisi Fleutiaux, 1918; Craspedostethus rufiventris Schwarz, 1898; Elater cinereus Herbst, 1784; Elater minutissimus Germar, 1817; Elater sputator Linnaeus, 1758; Elater thoracicus Fabricius, 1801; Eniconyx pullatus Horn, 1884; Esthesopus castaneus Eschscholtz, 1829; Gastrimargus schneideri Schwarz, 1902; Globothorax chevrolati Fleutiaux, 1891; Horistonotus flavidus Candèze, 1860; Horistonotus simplex LeConte, 1863; Lesnelater madagascariensis Fleutiaux, 1935; Oedostethus femoralis LeConte, 1853; Phorocardius solitarius Fleutiaux, 1931; Platynychus indicus Motschulsky, 1858; Platynychus mixtus Fleutiaux, 1931; Triplonychus acuminatus Candèze, 1860; Tropidiplus tellinii Fleutiaux, 1903. A key to genera and diagnoses are provided for all genera and subgenera. A bibliographic synonymy includes references for all taxonomic changes to genera and new species through 2015. PMID:28331397

  12. Saxitoxins and okadaic acid group: accumulation and distribution in invertebrate marine vectors from Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; Pérez, Francisco; Contreras, Cristóbal; Figueroa, Diego; Barriga, Andrés; López-Rivera, Américo; Araneda, Oscar F; Contreras, Héctor R

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs) are the main source of marine toxins in the aquatic environment surrounding the austral fjords in Chile. Huichas Island (Aysén) has an history of HABs spanning more than 30 years, but there is limited investigation of the bioaccumulation of marine toxins in the bivalves and gastropods from the Region of Aysén. In this study, bivalves (Mytilus chilenses, Choromytilus chorus, Aulacomya ater, Gari solida, Tagelus dombeii and Venus antiqua) and carnivorous gastropods (Argobuccinum ranelliformes and Concholepas concholepas) were collected from 28 sites. Researchers analysed the accumulation of STX-group toxins using a LC with a derivatisation post column (LC-PCOX), while lipophilic toxins (OA-group, azapiracids, pectenotoxins and yessotoxins) were analysed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionisation (+/-) in visceral (hepatopancreas) and non-visceral tissues (mantle, adductor muscle, gills and foot). Levels of STX-group and OA-group toxins varied among individuals from the same site. Among all tissue samples, the highest concentrations of STX-group toxins were noted in the hepatopancreas in V. antiqua (95 ± 0.1 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)), T. dombeii (148 ± 1.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and G. solida (3232 ± 5.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p < 0.05); in the adductor muscle in M. chilensis (2495 ± 6.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p < 0.05) and in the foot in C. concholepas (81 ± 0.7 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and T. dombeii (114 ± 1.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)). The highest variability of toxins was detected in G. solida, where high levels of carbamate derivatives were identified (GTXs, neoSTX and STX). In addition to the detected hydrophilic toxins, OA-group toxins were detected (OA and DTX-1) with an average ratio of ≈1:1. The highest levels of OA-group toxins were in the foot of C. concholepas, with levels of 400.3 ± 3.6 μg OA eq kg(-1) (p < 0.05) and with a toxic profile composed of 90% OA. A wide range of OA-group toxins was detected in M. chilensis with a

  13. The amoeba-to-flagellate transformation test is not reliable for the diagnosis of the genus Naegleria. Description of three new Naegleria spp.

    PubMed

    De Jonckheere, J F; Brown, S; Dobson, P J; Robinson, B S; Pernin, P

    2001-07-01

    Trophozoites of several isolates from one location in Australia have failed consistently to transform into flagellates, although they display all other characteristics of the genus Naegleria. When changing the standard transformation test, flagellates were produced. In phylogenetic trees derived from partial small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSUrDNA) sequences, one of these strains branches close to a cluster comprising N. clarki, N. australiensis, N. italica and N. jadini. It is proposed that these Australian isolates represent a new species, named N. fultoni (strain NG885). Failing to form flagellates since their isolation, even when different transformation procedures are used, are two Naegleria strains from Chile and Indonesia. In SSUrDNA-based phylogenetic trees the Chilean strain clusters with N. pussardi and the Indonesian strain clusters with N. galeacystis, but the degree of sequence difference from these described species (3.5% and 2.2%, respectively) is sufficient to propose that both of the strains represent new species, named N. chilensis (strain NG946) and N. indonesiensis (strain NG945), respectively. The close relationships between each of the new species and the Naegleria species with which they cluster in SSUrDNA-based trees were confirmed by ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence comparisons. In France, several non-flagellating N. fowleri strains were isolated from one location. ITS rDNA sequence comparisons indicated that they correspond to a 'type' of N. fowleri found in both Europe and the USA. A redefinition of the genus Naegleria is proposed as a consequence of these and previous findings.

  14. Chilean native fruit extracts inhibit inflammation linked to the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 μg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 μM [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24 h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (-12.2%, -45.6%, and -14.7%, respectively) and calafate (-27.6%, -43.9%, and -11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development.

  15. THE RELATIONS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FLORA TO THAT OF SOUTH AMERICA.

    PubMed

    Bray, W L

    1900-11-09

    Reviewing the floral relations of North and South America as illustrated in the foregoing instances, we may say that the phenomena of distribution agree fairly with the record of physical conditions which have succeeded each other and those which still exist, and upon which we might almost a priori have predicted an analogous set of distribution phenomena. In this relationship we may distinguish three categories of distribution: (1) Those due to the conditions of human civilization, commerce, etc. This has resulted in placing the same species in similar regions of both continents, as, for example, Fagonia cretica in Lower California and Chile; Munroa squarrosa, western plains of North America, plains of Argentine and high plateaus of Chile and Bolivia; Frankenia grandiflora, Southern California and Arizona, coast lands of Chile; Oxytheca dendroidea, Lastarricea chilensis, and Chorizanthe comrnmissuralis, all in Southern California and Western Chile. (2) Those due to the operation of natural causes acting unde present conditions of climate, geology, etc. Under this head may be cited such species as sida leprosa, hastata, anomala, Cienfugosia sulphurea, Spergulariaplattensis and, in general, elements of Gulf zone distribution; also certain elements which still find a pathway along the continental axis, including some alpine and mountain xerophilous genera. (3) The third category of distribution would include those phenomena due to geological and climatic changes acting through long periods. Under this head are included the elements of greatest significance in the relationsip of the North and South America floras. The endemic boreal flora of the Andes, the equally endemic boreal flora of the Mexican Cordilleras, and genera with sharply distinct species or sub-genera in the arid extra-tropical regions of both continents, which may be called remnant elements.

  16. Understanding litter decomposition in semiarid ecosystems: linking leaf traits, UV exposure and rainfall variability.

    PubMed

    Gaxiola, Aurora; Armesto, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Differences in litter quality, microbial activity or abiotic conditions cannot fully account for the variability in decomposition rates observed in semiarid ecosystems. Here we tested the role of variation in litter quality, water supply, and UV radiation as drivers of litter decomposition in arid lands. And show that carry-over effects of litter photodegradation during dry periods can regulate decomposition during subsequent wet periods. We present data from a two-phase experiment, where we first exposed litter from a drought-deciduous and an evergreen shrub to natural UV levels during five, rainless summer months and, subsequently, in the laboratory, we assessed the carry-over effects of photodegradation on biomass loss under different irrigation treatments representing the observed range of local rainfall variation among years (15-240 mm). Photodegradation of litter in the field produced average carbon losses of 12%, but deciduous Proustia pungens lost >25%, while evergreen Porlieria chilensis less than 5%. Natural exposure to UV significantly reduced carbon-to-nitrogen and lignin:N ratios in Proustia litter but not in Porlieria. During the subsequent wet phase, remaining litter biomass was lower in Proustia than in Porlieria. Indeed UV exposure increased litter decomposition of Proustia under low and medium rainfall treatments, whereas no carry-over effects were detected under high rainfall treatment. Consequently, for deciduous Proustia carry-over effects of UV exposure were negligible under high irrigation. Litter decomposition of the evergreen Porlieria depended solely on levels of rainfall that promote microbial decomposers. Our two-phase experiment revealed that both the carry-over effects of photodegradation and litter quality, modulated by inter-annual variability in rainfall, can explain the marked differences in decomposition rates and the frequent decoupling between rainfall and litter decomposition observed in semiarid ecosystems.

  17. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  18. The phylogenetic position of poroid Hymenochaetaceae (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) from Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rajchenberg, Mario; Pildain, María Belén; Bianchinotti, María V; Barroetaveña, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Six poroid Hymenochaetaceae from Patagonia, Argentina, were studied phylogenetically with nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S rDNA sequences, together with morphological data. Two new genera and a new species are introduced as well as two new combinations proposed. Arambarria destruens gen. et sp. nov. is proposed for a taxon fruiting on fallen or standing, dead Diostea juncea and Lomatia hirsuta and previously recorded erroneously as Inocutis jamaicensis; it is distinguished by annual, effused to effused-reflexed basidiomes forming pilei, a monomitic hyphal system, thick-walled and yellowish basidiospores (brownish chestnut in potassium hydroxide solution), lack of a granular core in the context and lack of setoid elements. Nothophellinus gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate Phellinus andinopatagonicus, the main white wood-rotting polypore of standing Nothofagus pumilio and also an important wood-decayer of other Nothofagus species from southern Argentina and Chile. It is morphologically similar to Phellopilus (type species P. nigrolimitatus) but differs by lacking setae. The new combinations Pseudoinonotus crustosus and Phellinopsis andina are proposed for Inonotus crustosus and Phellinus andinus, respectively. Phellinus livescens, which decays the sapwood of several standing Nothofagus species, is closely related to Phellinus uncisetus, a Neotropical species related to Fomitiporia; for the time being P. livescens is retained in Phellinus sensu lato. An unidentified taxon responsible for a white heart-rot in living Austrocedrus chilensis grouped with Phellinus caryophyllii and Fulvifomes inermis, but its generic affinities remain ambiguous. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm this unidentified taxon has an imperforate parenthesome, which is typical of the Hymenochaetaceae.

  19. Biogeographic patterns in the cartilaginous fauna (Pisces: Elasmobranchii and Holocephali) in the southeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Carlos; Vargas-Caro, Carolina; Bennett, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    The abundance and species richness of the cartilaginous fish community of the continental shelf and slope off central Chile is described, based on fishery-independent trawl tows made in 2006 and 2007. A total of 194,705 specimens comprising 20 species (9 sharks, 10 skates, 1 chimaera) were caught at depths of 100-500 m along a 1,000 km transect between 29.5°S and 39°S. Sample site locations were grouped to represent eight geographical zones within this latitudinal range. Species richness fluctuated from 1 to 6 species per zone. There was no significant latitudinal trend for sharks, but skates showed an increased species richness with latitude. Standardised catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased with increasing depth for sharks, but not for skates, but the observed trend for increasing CPUE with latitude was not significant for either sharks or skates. A change in community composition occurred along the depth gradient with the skates, Psammobatis rudis, Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma dominating communities between 100 and 300 m, but small-sized, deep-water dogfishes, such as Centroscyllium spp. dominated the catch between 300 and 500 m. Cluster and ordination analysis identified one widespread assemblage, grouping 58% of sites, and three shallow-water assemblages. Assemblages with low diversity (coldspots) coincided with highly productive fishing grounds for demersal crustaceans and bony fishes. The community distribution suggested that the differences between assemblages may be due to compensatory changes in mesopredator species abundance, as a consequence of continuous and unselective species removal. Distribution patterns and the quantitative assessment of sharks, skates and chimaeras presented here complement extant biogeographic knowledge and further the understanding of deep-water ecosystem dynamics in relation to fishing activity in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

  20. Revision of Ephydrini Zetterstedt (Diptera: Ephydridae) from the Americas south of the United States.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Wayne N; Marinoni, Luciane

    2016-05-27

    The Neotropical genera and species of the tribe Ephydrini are revised and include nine genera and 33 species. Of the nine genera, Setacera Cresson, Cirrula Cresson, Dimecoenia Cresson, Paracoenia Cresson and Ephydra Fallén are mostly temperate in distribution, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. The other four genera, which are exclusively Neotropical, include two, Austrocoenia and Notiocoenia, that were treated previously in the tribe Scatellini, and two recently described genera: Paraephydra (type species: Paraephydra freitasi (Oliveira)) and Neoephydra (type species: Neoephydra araucaria Mathis). New species described herein are: Neoephydra neotropica (Chile), N. dasycephala (Argentina and Peru), N. mallonota (Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile), N. shewelli (Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile), N. inca (Argentina, Bolivia, Peru), N. penai (Chile) and N. trichina (Argentina and Chile). New synonyms are (cited in their original combinations): Ephydra densepilosa Hendel = E. ciligena Rondani, Dimecoenia grumanni Oliveira = E. ciligena Rondani, D. coltaensis Cresson = D. zurcheri Hendel, D. carrerai Oliveira = D. zurcheri Hendel, D. lopesi = E. ciligena Rondani, D. travassosi Mello and Oliveira = E. prionoptera Thomson. A neotype is designated for E. caesia Wulp, and the following lectotype designations have also been made to better stabilize nomenclature (here cited in their original combination): Ephydra chilensis Macquart, Ephydra densepilosa Hendel, Ephydra pravoneura Hendel, Ephydra prionoptera Thomson, and Dimecoenia zurcheri Hendel. Dimecoenia venteli Oliveira is listed as a species inquirenda, as the type series includes only female specimens that we cannot presently recognize. Although the genera and subgenera are fairly easily distinguished, the included species are frequently difficult to separate, and we have generally relied on characters of the male terminalia to determine a species identity. Illustrations of male terminalia and distribution maps are

  1. Chilean Native Fruit Extracts Inhibit Inflammation Linked to the Pathogenic Interaction Between Adipocytes and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 μg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 μM [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24 h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (−12.2%, −45.6%, and −14.7%, respectively) and calafate (−27.6%, −43.9%, and −11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development. PMID:25302660

  2. Understanding litter decomposition in semiarid ecosystems: linking leaf traits, UV exposure and rainfall variability

    PubMed Central

    Gaxiola, Aurora; Armesto, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in litter quality, microbial activity or abiotic conditions cannot fully account for the variability in decomposition rates observed in semiarid ecosystems. Here we tested the role of variation in litter quality, water supply, and UV radiation as drivers of litter decomposition in arid lands. And show that carry-over effects of litter photodegradation during dry periods can regulate decomposition during subsequent wet periods. We present data from a two-phase experiment, where we first exposed litter from a drought-deciduous and an evergreen shrub to natural UV levels during five, rainless summer months and, subsequently, in the laboratory, we assessed the carry-over effects of photodegradation on biomass loss under different irrigation treatments representing the observed range of local rainfall variation among years (15–240 mm). Photodegradation of litter in the field produced average carbon losses of 12%, but deciduous Proustia pungens lost >25%, while evergreen Porlieria chilensis less than 5%. Natural exposure to UV significantly reduced carbon-to-nitrogen and lignin:N ratios in Proustia litter but not in Porlieria. During the subsequent wet phase, remaining litter biomass was lower in Proustia than in Porlieria. Indeed UV exposure increased litter decomposition of Proustia under low and medium rainfall treatments, whereas no carry-over effects were detected under high rainfall treatment. Consequently, for deciduous Proustia carry-over effects of UV exposure were negligible under high irrigation. Litter decomposition of the evergreen Porlieria depended solely on levels of rainfall that promote microbial decomposers. Our two-phase experiment revealed that both the carry-over effects of photodegradation and litter quality, modulated by inter-annual variability in rainfall, can explain the marked differences in decomposition rates and the frequent decoupling between rainfall and litter decomposition observed in semiarid ecosystems. PMID:25852705

  3. Trophic modelling of the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem: Towards reconciliation of multiple datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guénette, Sylvie; Christensen, Villy; Pauly, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    In the 1980s, personnel from the Instituto del Mar del Peru collaborated with foreign experts to reconstruct time series of (1) catch and biomass of the Peruvian anchovy Engraulis ringens back to 1953, along with parallel time series of (2) abundance of anchovy predators and competitors, and (3) abiotic parameters indicative of the dynamics of the Peruvian upwelling system. This contribution documents an attempt to build an ecosystem model of the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem and recreate the observed biomass trends through the period 1953-1984, using the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) software. The time series of biomass, particularly of Peruvian anchovy and its various predators, are not reproduced by the EwE model based solely on the original parameters. Instead, to model the anchovy abundance fluctuations caused by El Niño and other oceanographic events, it is necessary to include mechanisms that were not part of the original description of the ecosystem, which focused on mass-balance. For example, a switch between large and small phytoplankton appears to be required to induce the observed abundance shifts between sardine and anchovy. Similarly, a ‘mitigating’ relationship must be assumed between bonito ( Sarda chilensis) and seabirds for the 1965 collapse of seabirds to be reproduced by the model. Mechanisms of this sort, here proposed in a very tentative fashion, will have to be firmly established and quantified before a model can successfully explain both the older data series (1953-1984) as done here, and eventually the new series on the Peruvian upwelling system that became available only recently. With a total of now over 50 years of data, this would represent one of the best documented marine ecosystems in the world, matching its status as one of the most productive.

  4. Two new and two redescribed species of Anonchotaenia (Cestoda: Paruterinidae) from South American birds.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anna J; Georgiev, Boyko B; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Mariaux, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Morphological examination of novel specimens of paruterinid cestodes from passerine birds from Brazil and Chile and of museum specimens from Paraguay revealed two new species: Anonchotaenia prolixa sp. n. from Elaenia albiceps chilensis Hellmayr from Chile, and Anonchotaenia vaslata sp. n. from Tyrannus melancholicus (Vieillot) (type host) and Myiodynastes maculatus (Statius Muller) from Paraguay. The generic diagnosis of Anonchotaenia Conn, 1900 is amended, prompted by the presence of the armed cirrus and the elongated cirrus sac of A. prolixa. Two species were redescribed: Anonchotaenia brasiliensis Fuhrmann, 1908 from Tachyphonus coronatus (Vieillot) and Thraupis cyanoptera (Vieillot) (new host records) from Brazil, and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus) and Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus) from Paraguay (new host and geographic records); and Anonchotaenia macrocephala Fuhrmann, 1908 from Tachycineta leucorrhoa (Vieillot) (new host record) from Brazil, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis) from Chile (new host and geographic record) and Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Vieillot) from Paraguay (new host and geographic record). Scanning electron microscopy of A. brasiliensis and A. macrocephala revealed less microthrix variation than has been reported for other cyclophyllidean taxa. Sequence data were generated for nuclear ssr- and lsr-DNA and mitochondrial rrnL and cox1 for A. prolixa, A. brasiliensis, and A. macrocephala. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses supported each species as distinct, but revealed cryptic diversity among A. brasiliensis specimens from different host families. New host records of A. brasiliensis and A. macrocephala prompted a formal assessment of host specificity. Anonchotaenia prolixa was found to be oioxenous (HS(S) = 0), A. vaslata and A. macrocephala were found to be metastenoxenous (HS(S) = 3.000 and 3.302, respectively), whereas A. brasiliensis was found to be euryxenous (HS(S) = 5.876). Anonchotaenia brasiliensis has been found parasitising

  5. Nutraceutical and antioxidant effects of a delphinidin-rich maqui berry extract Delphinol®: a review.

    PubMed

    Watson, R R; Schönlau, F

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanins represent water-soluble flavonoid species, commonly found in higher plants, the richest plant source representing berries. While all anthocyanins present with antioxidant activity, the delphinidins represent the most potent antioxidant anthocyanin species owed to largest number of hydroxyl groups in the B-ring. The richest known natural source of delphinidins is the maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) from which an extract Delphinol®, standardized to 25% delphinidin, is commercially available. Delphinol® significantly reduces oxidative stress (oxidized LDL and F2-isoprostane) and blood glucose in controlled clinical trials. In human umbilical vein endothelium delphinidins concentration-dependently decrease intracellular oxygen radicals. Furthermore, delphinidins increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and decreases expression of vaso-constrictory endothelin-1. Delphinidins inhibit the expression of cell adhesion molecules ICAM and VCAM, thus counteracting vascular inflammatory situations. Furthermore, delphinidins decrease platelet activity and may contribute to thrombosis prevention. Research on delphinidins showed improved endothelial function with elevated endothelial NO generation, lowered platelet aggregability and anti-inflammatory vascular effects. Delphinidins dose-dependently inhibit NF-κB-, activator protein-1- as well as COX-2 expression in UV-exposed epidermis. Delphinidins are found to be internalized into keratinocytes and pre-clinical investigations show significant UV-photo-protective 1effects with topical application of 40 nM delphinidin, both when applied prior to UV exposure as well as after exposure. Delphinidins may counteract skin-aging due to inhibition of UV-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase in fibroblasts. In a rodent osteoporosis model delphinidin was found to inhibit differentiation of osteoclasts, resulting in an inhibited bone demineralization, while other anthocyanins were ineffective. Future

  6. Biogeographic patterns in the cartilaginous fauna (Pisces: Elasmobranchii and Holocephali) in the southeast Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Caro, Carolina; Bennett, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    The abundance and species richness of the cartilaginous fish community of the continental shelf and slope off central Chile is described, based on fishery-independent trawl tows made in 2006 and 2007. A total of 194,705 specimens comprising 20 species (9 sharks, 10 skates, 1 chimaera) were caught at depths of 100–500 m along a 1,000 km transect between 29.5°S and 39°S. Sample site locations were grouped to represent eight geographical zones within this latitudinal range. Species richness fluctuated from 1 to 6 species per zone. There was no significant latitudinal trend for sharks, but skates showed an increased species richness with latitude. Standardised catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased with increasing depth for sharks, but not for skates, but the observed trend for increasing CPUE with latitude was not significant for either sharks or skates. A change in community composition occurred along the depth gradient with the skates, Psammobatis rudis, Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma dominating communities between 100 and 300 m, but small-sized, deep-water dogfishes, such as Centroscyllium spp. dominated the catch between 300 and 500 m. Cluster and ordination analysis identified one widespread assemblage, grouping 58% of sites, and three shallow-water assemblages. Assemblages with low diversity (coldspots) coincided with highly productive fishing grounds for demersal crustaceans and bony fishes. The community distribution suggested that the differences between assemblages may be due to compensatory changes in mesopredator species abundance, as a consequence of continuous and unselective species removal. Distribution patterns and the quantitative assessment of sharks, skates and chimaeras presented here complement extant biogeographic knowledge and further the understanding of deep-water ecosystem dynamics in relation to fishing activity in the south-east Pacific Ocean. PMID:24918036

  7. Seasonal and inter-annual variation of mesozooplankton in the coastal upwelling zone off central-southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, Ruben; Hidalgo, Pamela; González, Humberto; Giesecke, Ricardo; Riquelme-Bugueño, Ramiro; Manríquez, Karen

    2007-11-01

    Zooplankton sampling at Station 18 off Concepción (36°30‧S and 73°07‧W), on an average frequency of 30 days (August 2002 to December 2005), allowed the assessment of seasonal and inter-annual variation in zooplankton biomass, its C and N content, and the community structure in relation to upwelling variability. Copepods contributed 79% of the total zooplankton community and were mostly represented by Paracalanus parvus, Oithona similis, Oithona nana, Calanus chilensis, and Rhincalanus nasutus. Other copepod species, euphausiids (mainly Euphausia mucronata), gelatinous zooplankton, and crustacean larvae comprised the rest of the community. Changes in the depth of the upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone indicated the strongly seasonal upwelling pattern. The bulk of zooplankton biomass and total copepod abundance were both strongly and positively associated with a shallow (<20 m) oxygen minimum zone; these values increased in spring/summer, when upwelling prevailed. Gelatinous zooplankton showed positive abundance anomalies in the spring and winter, whereas euphausiids had no seasonal pattern and a positive anomaly in the fall. The C content and the C/N ratio of zooplankton biomass significantly increased during the spring when chlorophyll- a was high (>5 mg m -3). No major changes in zooplankton biomass and species were found from one year to the next. We concluded that upwelling is the key process modulating variability in zooplankton biomass and its community structure in this zone. The spring/summer increase in zooplankton may be largely the result of the aggregation of dominant copepods within the upwelling region; these may reproduce throughout the year, increasing their C content and C/N ratios given high diatom concentrations.

  8. Sphingopyxis italica sp. nov., isolated from Roman catacombs.

    PubMed

    Alias-Villegas, Cynthia; Jurado, Valme; Laiz, Leonila; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, strain SC13E-S71(T), was isolated from tuff, volcanic rock, where the Roman catacombs of Saint Callixtus in Rome, Italy, was excavated. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SC13E-S71(T) belongs to the genus Sphingopyxis, and that it shows the greatest sequence similarity with Sphingopyxis chilensis DSM 14889(T) (98.72 %), Sphingopyxis taejonensis DSM 15583(T) (98.65 %), Sphingopyxis ginsengisoli LMG 23390(T) (98.16 %), Sphingopyxis panaciterrae KCTC 12580(T) (98.09 %), Sphingopyxis alaskensis DSM 13593(T) (98.09 %), Sphingopyxis witflariensis DSM 14551(T) (98.09 %), Sphingopyxis bauzanensis DSM 22271(T) (98.02 %), Sphingopyxis granuli KCTC 12209(T) (97.73 %), Sphingopyxis macrogoltabida KACC 10927(T) (97.49 %), Sphingopyxis ummariensis DSM 24316(T) (97.37 %) and Sphingopyxis panaciterrulae KCTC 22112(T) (97.09 %). The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c), C14 : 0 2-OH and C16 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-10. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and sphingoglycolipid. These chemotaxonomic data are common to members of the genus Sphingopyxis. However, a polyphasic approach using physiological tests, DNA base ratios, DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the isolate SC13E-S71(T) belongs to a novel species within the genus Sphingopyxis, for which the name Sphingopyxis italica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SC13E-S71(T) ( = DSM 25229(T) = CECT 8016(T)).

  9. Seed-associated subspecies of the genus Clavibacter are clearly distinguishable from Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Alvarez, Anne M

    2015-03-01

    The genus Clavibacter contains one recognized species, Clavibacter michiganensis. Clavibacter michiganensis is subdivided into subspecies based on host specificity and bacteriological characteristics, with Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis causing bacterial canker of tomato. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is often spread through contaminated seed leading to outbreaks of bacterial canker in tomato production areas worldwide. The frequent occurrence of non-pathogenic Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-like bacteria (CMB) is a concern for seed producers because Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a quarantine organism and detection of a non-pathogenic variant may result in destruction of an otherwise healthy seed lot. A thorough biological and genetic characterization of these seed-associated CMB strains was performed using standard biochemical tests, cell wall analyses, metabolic profiling using Biolog, and single-gene and multilocus sequence analyses. Combined, these tests revealed two distinct populations of seed-associated members of the genus Clavibacter that differed from each other, as well as from all other described subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis. DNA-DNA hybridization values are 70 % or higher, justifying placement into the single recognized species, C. michiganensis, but other analyses justify separate subspecies designations. Additionally, strains belonging to the genus Clavibacter isolated from pepper also represent a distinct population and warrant separate subspecies designation. On the basis of these data we propose subspecies designations for separate non-pathogenic subpopulations of Clavibacter michiganensis: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. californiensis subsp. nov. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. chilensis subsp. nov. for seed-associated strains represented by C55(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2691(T) = CFBP 8216(T)) and ZUM3936(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2690(T) = CFBP 8217(T

  10. Non-limiting food conditions for growth and production of the copepod community in a highly productive upwelling zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano, Rubén; Bustos-Ríos, Evelyn; Hidalgo, Pamela; Morales, Carmen E.

    2016-09-01

    Zooplankton production is critical for understanding marine ecosystem dynamics. This work estimates copepod growth and production in the coastal upwelling and coastal transition zones off central-southern Chile (~35 to 37°S) during a 3-year time series (2004, 2005, and 2006) at a fixed shelf station, and from spring-summer spatial surveys during the same period. To estimate copepod production (CP), we used species-biomasses and associated C-specific growth rates from temperature dependent equations (food-saturated) for the dominant species, which we assumed were maximal growth rates (gmax). Using chlorophyll-a concentrations as a proxy for food conditions, we determined a size-dependent half-saturation constant with the Michaelis-Menten equation to derive growth rates (g) under the effect of food limitation. These food-dependent C-specific growth rates were much lower (<0.1 d-1) than those observed in the field for the dominant species, while gmax for same species, in the range of 0.19-0.23 d-1 better represented the necessary growth to attain observed adult sizes of at least two copepods, Paracalanus cf. indicus and Calanus chilensis. Copepod biomass (CB) and rates of maximal copepod production (CPmax) obtained with gmax were higher in the coastal upwelling zone (<50 km from shore), and correlated significantly to oceanographic variables associated with upwelling conditions. Both CPmax and gmax exhibited negative trends at the fixed station from 2004 to 2006 in association with increased duration of upwelling in the latter year. Annual CPmax ranged between 24 and 52 g C m-2 y-1 with a mean annual P/B ratio of 7.3. We concluded that interannual variation in copepod production resulted from factors and processes regulating copepod abundance and biomass in the absence of bottom-up control, allowing copepods to grow without limitation due to food resources.

  11. Succession of Ground-Dwelling Beetle Assemblages After Fire in Three Habitat Types in the Andean Forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.

    2010-01-01

    Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this

  12. Coast-wide recruitment dynamics of Olympia oysters reveal limited synchrony and multiple predictors of failure.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Kerstin; Hughes, Brent B; Berriman, John S; Chang, Andrew L; Deck, Anna K; Dinnel, Paul A; Endris, Charlie; Espinoza, Michael; Dudas, Sarah; Ferner, Matthew C; Grosholz, Edwin D; Kimbro, David; Ruesink, Jennifer L; Trimble, Alan C; Vander Schaaf, Dick; Zabin, Chela J; Zacherl, Danielle C

    2016-12-01

    Recruitment of new propagules into a population can be a critical determinant of adult density. We examined recruitment dynamics in the Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida), a species occurring almost entirely in estuaries. We investigated spatial scales of interannual synchrony across 37 sites in eight estuaries along 2,500 km of Pacific North American coastline, predicting that high vs. low recruitment years would coincide among neighboring estuaries due to shared exposure to regional oceanographic factors. Such synchrony in recruitment has been found for many marine species and some migratory estuarine species, but has never been examined across estuaries in a species that can complete its entire life cycle within the same estuary. To inform ongoing restoration efforts for Olympia oysters, which have declined in abundance in many estuaries, we also investigated predictors of recruitment failure. We found striking contrasts in absolute recruitment rate and frequency of recruitment failure among sites, estuaries, and years. Although we found a positive relationship between upwelling and recruitment, there was little evidence of synchrony in recruitment among estuaries along the coast, and only limited synchrony of sites within estuaries, suggesting recruitment rates are affected more strongly by local dynamics within estuaries than by regional oceanographic factors operating at scales encompassing multiple estuaries. This highlights the importance of local wetland and watershed management for the demography of oysters, and perhaps other species that can complete their entire life cycle within estuaries. Estuaries with more homogeneous environmental conditions had greater synchrony among sites, and this led to the potential for estuary-wide failure when all sites had no recruitment in the same year. Environmental heterogeneity within estuaries may thus buffer against estuary-wide recruitment failure, analogous to the portfolio effect for diversity. Recruitment failure

  13. Liquid Chromatography with a Fluorimetric Detection Method for Analysis of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Tetrodotoxin Based on a Porous Graphitic Carbon Column

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Veronica; Botana, Ana M.; Alvarez, Mercedes; Antelo, Alvaro; Botana, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) traditionally have been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization and always with a silica-based stationary phase. This technique resulted in different methods that need more than one run to analyze the toxins. Furthermore, tetrodotoxin (TTX) was recently found in bivalves of northward locations in Europe due to climate change, so it is important to analyze it along with PST because their signs of toxicity are similar in the bioassay. The methods described here detail a new approach to eliminate different runs, by using a new porous graphitic carbon stationary phase. Firstly we describe the separation of 13 PST that belong to different groups, taking into account the side-chains of substituents, in one single run of less than 30 min with good reproducibility. The method was assayed in four shellfish matrices: mussel (Mytillus galloprovincialis), clam (Pecten maximus), scallop (Ruditapes decussatus) and oyster (Ostrea edulis). The results for all of the parameters studied are provided, and the detection limits for the majority of toxins were improved with regard to previous liquid chromatography methods: the lowest values were those for decarbamoyl-gonyautoxin 2 (dcGTX2) and gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2) in mussel (0.0001 mg saxitoxin (STX)·diHCl kg−1 for each toxin), decarbamoyl-saxitoxin (dcSTX) in clam (0.0003 mg STX·diHCl kg−1), N-sulfocarbamoyl-gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (C1 and C2) in scallop (0.0001 mg STX·diHCl kg−1 for each toxin) and dcSTX (0.0003 mg STX·diHCl kg−1 ) in oyster; gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2) showed the highest limit of detection in oyster (0.0366 mg STX·diHCl kg−1). Secondly, we propose a modification of the method for the simultaneous analysis of PST and TTX, with some minor changes in the solvent gradient, although the detection limit for TTX does not allow its use nowadays for regulatory purposes. PMID:27367728

  14. Geometry of the Paleo-Nueces River Incised-Valley, Corpus Christi Bay, Texas as it Relates to Quaternary Sea Level History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugrin, L.; Gulick, S. S.; Goff, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    CHIRP subbottom seismic data were collected on the 2009 and 2011 Marine Geophysics Field courses at the University of Texas at Austin within the Corpus Christi Bay along the central Texas coast in order to study the geometry of the ancestral Nueces River incised valley and its evolution over Quaternary sea level history. Since the late Pleistocene, the Nueces River valley experienced a gradual infill due to sea level rise, interrupted by two major flooding events that represent periods of rapid sediment influx. These flooding events are recognizable based on abrupt changes in seismic facies. Discontinuous, chaotic fluvial lag deposits present underneath a fairly continuous, stratified, sub-horizontal estuarine coastal plain facies mark what is interpreted to be the Pleistocene/Holocene unconformity. Above the P/H boundary, oyster reefs thrive within the estuary until capped by a strong reflector, marking the second flooding surface that allowed enough incoming sediment to discontinue oyster reef growth. The estuarine deposits within the paleo-Nueces river valley exhibit a landward migration as the Holocene transgression proceeded. As infill continued, the bay-head delta prograded seaward and the flood-tidal delta extended progressively further up the estuary until the central estuarine basin was capped. The earlier flooding events provide strong reflectors that can be linked to the draining of Lake Agassiz around 8.2 k.a.. This event flooded the Gulf of Mexico with freshwater, and interrupted the estuarine infilling of the Nueces paleo-channel. Cores from previous studies have found at least two species of oyster reefs in Corpus Christi Bay: euryhaline species Crassostrea virginica, and Ostrea equestris, a species known to thrive in higher salinity waters. The presence of both species at the flooding boundary suggests the sudden pulse of freshwater mixed with higher salinity oceanic water. The second flooding surface is interpreted to be associated with an increase

  15. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachhara, R. P.; Jodhawat, R. L.; Devi, K. Bigyapati

    2012-04-01

    Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions - the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina ( Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten ( Amussiopecten) labadyei d'Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne') var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23°50'N; 68°47'E

  16. PCR survey of 50 introns in animals: cross-amplification of homologous EPIC loci in eight non-bilaterian, protostome and deuterostome phyla.

    PubMed

    Gérard, K; Guilloton, E; Arnaud-Haond, S; Aurelle, D; Bastrop, R; Chevaldonné, P; Derycke, S; Hanel, R; Lapègue, S; Lejeusne, C; Mousset, S; Ramšak, A; Remerie, T; Viard, F; Féral, J-P; Chenuil, A

    2013-12-01

    , Aurelia, Crepidula, Eunicella, Hediste, Hemimysis, Litoditis, Lophelia, Mesopodopsis, Mya, Ophiocten, Ophioderma, Ostrea, Pelagia, Platynereis, Rhizostoma, Rimicaris), two of them, belonging to the family Vesicomydae and Eunicidae, could not be determined at the genus level.

  17. Investigating the use of oil platform marine fouling invertebrates as monitors of oil exposure in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pie, Hannah V; Heyes, Andrew; Mitchelmore, Carys L

    2015-03-01

    The concentration of 51 parent and alkylated PAHs was examined in oysters, Ostrea equestris, and corals, Tubastrea coccinea, collected from oil-rig structures off the coast of Louisiana during April and May 2011 to investigate their potential use as monitors for offshore contamination events. Corals and oysters collected from both sampling trips had lower PAH accumulation than most bivalves collected in previous studies near the shoreline of Louisiana and elsewhere in the Gulf of Mexico. In April, total PAH (TPAH) concentrations ranged from 8.73 to 15.17 ng g(-1) in corals and 2.52 to 22.04 ng g(-1) in oysters. In May, corals and oysters had elevated concentrations of TPAH ranging from 24.28 to 79.23 ng g(-1) and 7.18 to 95.55 ng g(-1), respectively. This increase could be a result of Mississippi River flooding that occurred during that time, as evidenced by the high perylene concentrations (3.92-41.49 ng g(-1)) measured in May oysters. Oysters and corals collected in May from MC21B, the closest rig to the Mississippi River Delta, had the highest TPAH concentrations observed among all locations and the only rig to have predominantly petrogenic source inputs. Overall, given the low baseline of PAHs demonstrated in this study and the rapid accumulation of diagnostic chemicals in response to a possible contamination event (i.e. sediment plume from May flooding), oil-rig invertebrates could make excellent monitoring tools to examine the exposure to and recovery from oil (and oil-spill response options) in the offshore Northern Gulf of Mexico. Pre-spill baseline data of chemical and biological biomarkers of contamination is key to better estimating the impacts and recovery of oil exposure. Therefore, this screen of PAH accumulation represents a crucial first step in determining baseline contaminant levels in order to utilize these unique resources as monitors for offshore oil exposure in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

  18. The effects of extracellular sugar extraction on the 3D-structure of biological soil crusts from different ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felde, Vincent; Rossi, Federico; Colesie, Claudia; Uteau-Puschmann, Daniel; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Peth, Stephan; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    tortuosity or the relationship of tortuosity vs. length of the pores. Although most of the variables we investigated showed a high variation, some of which likely due to slight changes in orientation of the scanned crust piece between the two scans (or the loss of large grains or micro-aggregates), our method was able to detect differences between the four different crusts, proving that it is suited for the investigation of the structure. Also the visual comparison of the crust before and after the treatment revealed no distinct patterns of change in the structure of the crusts. This leads us to conclude that the change in sorptivity is related more to a change of the physico-chemical properties (namely the hydrophobicity) of the very surface of the crust, rather than a change of the inner structure. References: Rossi, F., Potrafka, R.M., Garcia-Pichel, F., Philippis, R. de, 2012. The role of the exopolysaccharides in enhancing hydraulic conductivity of biological soil crusts. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 46, 33-40.

  19. CRISTISPIRA IN NORTH AMERICAN SHELLFISH. A NOTE ON A SPIRILLUM FOUND IN OYSTERS.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H

    1921-08-31

    Ten varieties of North American shellfish were examined for the occurrence of Cristispira in their styles. A cristispira was found in various numbers in Ostrea virginiana, Venus mercenaria, and Modiola modiolus, but none in Ensis americana, Mya arenaria, Mactra solidissima, Pecten irradians, Mytilus edulis, Fulgur canaliculatus, or Nassa obsoleta. Of 298 oysters, only 128 showed the crystalline styles, in which cristispiras were present in 99. Active cristispiras were found in 59 styles only and degenerated forms in the remaining 40. In 110 clams (Venus mercenaria) 70 styles were found, and only 8 of these contained cristispiras; 5 yielded active and the other 3 degenerated cristispiras. In 97 modiolas there were 73 styles, only 4 of which contained cristispiras. The physical properties of the crystalline styles of these shellfish varied considerably. The styles of the oysters were moderately soft, and when exposed to the air or mixed with sea water they underwent liquefaction, forming a clear, viscid material. The styles from clams and modiolas were opaque and were more firm, not easily crushed even in a mortar. The styles of the scallops were the most solid of all the styles examined. It happened that the softer the styles, the more frequent was the occurrence of the cristispira; in fact, no cristispira was detected in styles other than those of oysters, clams, and modiolas, of which oysters had the softest styles and the largest percentage of cristispira invasion. The following observations were made regarding the structure of the cristispira found in oysters. The body is a long, flexible cylinder, with blunt extremities, towards which the diameter gradually diminishes. In motion the body rapidly stretches and contracts, forming in the contracted state several serpentine undulations. A membranous appendage (Gross' crista) winds about the body throughout its entire length. The inner margin is in connection with the body, the outer margin is free and is distinctly

  20. Five new species of Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1849 (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) in stingrays from 1he Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Marques, F; Brooks, D R; Monks, S

    1995-12-01

    aporal lobes reaching the middle of the cirrus sac. Acanthobothrium campbelli n. sp. in Urotrygon chilensis, most similar to a A. brevissime, A. Vargasi, A. lineatum, A. himanturi, and A. urotrygoni, has bothridial hooks averaging 108 microns (lateral) and 111 microns (medial) long, an average of 19 tester per proglottis arranged in 2 nearly linear rows, cirrus sacs averaging 74 microns long, and asymmetrical ovarian lobes with the poral lobe reaching the posterior margin of the cirrus sac, and the aporal lobes reaching the middle of the cirrus sac.

  1. Generic classification of the Archiborborinae (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae), with a revision of Antrops Enderlein, Coloantrops gen. nov., Maculantrops gen. nov., Photoantrops gen. nov., and Poecilantrops gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Kits, Joel H; Marshall, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    , Poecilantrops crocidosternum, Poecilantrops dominicus, Poecilantrops flavifemur, Poecilantrops marensis, Poecilantrops plaumanni, Poecilantrops psilosternum, Poecilantrops stellans, Poecilantrops vittifrons, all sp. nov.). Six additional species of Antrops and two of Poecilantrops known from females only are diagnosed but not described. The genus Boreantrops is described for two species (Boreantrops mexicanus (Steyskal) comb. nov., and Boreantrops calceatus (Duda) comb. nov.). Boreantrops includes a number of new species but is not fully revised here. New synonyms at the species level are: Antrops femoralis (Blanchard 1852) = Archiborborus argentinensis Papp 1977, and Archiborborus submaculatus Duda 1921, both syn. nov.; Antrops hirtus (Bigot 1888) = Archiborborus edwardsi Richards 1931, syn. nov.; Antrops quadrinotus (Bigot 1888) = Archiborborus albicans Richards 1931, Archiborborus chilensis Richards 1931, Archiborbo-rus koenigi Duda 1932, all syn. nov.; Maculantrops hirtipes (Macquart 1844) = Copromyza alternata Rondani 1868, syn. nov.

  2. Determination of the variability of both hydrophilic and lipophilic toxins in endemic wild bivalves and carnivorous gastropods from the southern part of Chile.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, Ruben; Marín, Michelle; Cabrera, Fabiola; Figueroa, Diego; Contreras, Cristóbal; Barriga, Andrés; Lagos, Néstor; García, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and determine the composition of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and lipophilic toxins in the Region of Aysén, Chile, in wild endemic mussels (Mytilus chilensis, Venus antiqua, Aulacomya ater, Choromytilus chorus, Tagelus dombeii and Gari solida) and in two endemic carnivorous molluscs species (Concholepas concholepas and Argobuccinum ranelliforme). PSP-toxin contents were determined by using HPLC with fluorescence detection, while lipophilic toxins were determined by using LC-MS/MS. Mean concentrations for the total of PSP toxins were in the range 55-2505 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g. The two most contaminated samples for PSP toxicity were bivalve Gari solida and carnivorous Argobuccinum ranelliforme with 2505 ± 101 and 1850 ± 137 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g, respectively (p < 0.05). The lipophilic toxins identified were okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxins (YTX). All analysed molluscs contained lipophilic toxins at levels ranging from 56 ± 4.8 to 156.1 ± 8.2 μg of okadaic acid-equivalent/kg shellfish together with YTX at levels ranging from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 18 ± 0.9 μg of YTX-equivalent/kg shellfish and AZA at levels ranging from 3.6 ± 0.2 to 31 ± 2.1 μg of AZA-equivalent/kg shellfish. Furthermore, different bivalves and gastropods differ in their capacity of retention of lipophilic toxins, as shown by the determination of their respective lipophilic toxins levels. In all the evaluated species, the presence of lipophilic toxins associated with biotransformation in molluscs and carnivorous gastropods was not identified, in contrast to the identification of PSP toxins, where the profiles identified in the different species are directly related to biotransformation processes. Thus, this study provides evidence that the concentration of toxins in the food intake of the evaluated species (Bivalvia and Gastropoda class) determines the degree of

  3. Trace elements in bivalves from the Rio Cruces, Chile, trace watershed evolution after a major earthquake and challenge a postulated chemical spill from a pulp plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risk, M.; Burchell, M.; Nairn, R.; Tubrett, M.; Forsterra, G.

    2009-05-01

    In May, 1960, the largest recorded earthquake in the history of the planet hit southern Chile, dropping part of the course of the Rio Cruces by 2m and creating an extensive wetland. The Brazilian Waterweed Egeria densa colonised the area, and became a primary food source for large populations of the Black-necked Swan, Cygnus melancoryphus. In 2004, a large pulp mill commenced operations upstream on the river. According to local reports, immediately after the opening of the plant, the weed died and the swans left. There was public outcry, and a search for a cause or a culprit. It was postulated that some sort of chemical spill from the plant caused the weed to die, resulting in departure of the swans. In 2008, we collected specimens of the bivalve Diplodon chilensis from several locations downstream from the Plant and towards the wetland to see if there was evidence of a chemical spill recorded in the shells. We prepared thin-sections of the shells to observe growth line development and patterns. Additionally, shell samples were analysed for stable oxygen isotopes and trace elements, using LA-ICP/MS. Based on annual growth lines, some of the bivalves were long-lived, with an age of more than 50 years. These individuals settled in the river shortly after the earthquake, and have lived there continuously ever since. Annual and sub-annual banding was clear, and the annual cyclicity of the major bands was verified with oxygen isotope analysis. There are no changes in growth corresponding to 2004. Trace element scans provided a wealth of information on the evolution of this earthquake-impacted wetland. Barium, Strontium and Manganese all showed strong annual cyclicity. From the analysis of older specimens, we interpret the high peaks of the Ba signal as reflecting soil erosion-Ba peaks are large immediately after the earthquake, then they diminish through time. Sr is likely a temperature signal, and Mn reflects runoff. Minor peaks in Cu, As and Pb probably reflect

  4. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780–1857), Turin

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-fu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera), belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis comparata Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis dives Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis pumila Klug, 1845; Chrysis succincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrum bidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysis aequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis analis Spinola, 1808; Chrysis assimilis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis bihamata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis chilensis Spinola, 1851; Chrysis dichroa Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis distinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis episcopalis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis grohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis incrassata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pallidicornis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pulchella Spinola, 1808; Chrysis ramburi Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis refulgens Spinola, 1806; Chrysis splendens Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis versicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampus gayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum caerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; Hedychrum difficile Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum virens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga janthina Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga luzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984); Chrysis calimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965); Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991)); Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986); Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984). Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrum intermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopyga fervida (Fabricius, 1781); Chrysis sicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis germari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysis

  5. Revision of Pherusa Oken, 1807(Polychaeta: Flabelligeridae).

    PubMed

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2014-11-20

    Pherusa Oken, 1807 was the first genus of flabelligerids to be described and was regarded as having over 40 species. Following revision of all available material two morphological patterns are recognized: Pherusa is restricted to those species with eight branchial filaments of similar width, and anchylosed falcate neurohooks, shorter than body width. Species with the same number of branchial filaments but with neurochaetae mostly straight, distally foliose and often as long as body width are transferred to a new genus: Lamispina n. gen. Pherusa contains 14 species, including six newly described: P. plumosa (Müller, 1776), type-species, restricted, from Greenland, P. affinis (Leidy, 1855) from the NW Atlantic, P. andersonorum n. sp. from the NE Pacific (California), P. aspera (Stimpson, 1854) from the NW Atlantic, P. hobsonae n. sp. from the NE Pacific (Washington), P. incrustata Quatrefages, 1866, reinstated from the Mediterranean Sea, P. mikacae n. sp. from the Adriatic Sea, P. moorei n. sp. from the NW Pacific (Japan), P. neopapillata Hartman, 1961 from the NE Pacific (California), P. nipponica n. sp. from the NW Pacific (Japan), P. obscura Quatrefages, 1866 reinstated from the NE Atlantic (France), P. papillata (Johnson, 1901) from the NE Pacific (Washington), P. rullieri n. sp. from the Eastern tropical Atlantic (Benin), and Pherusa sibogae (Caullery, 1944) n. comb. from Western Timor, Indonesia. Lamispina n. gen. has 10 species with five newly described: L. schmidtii (Annenkova-Chlopina, 1924) n. comb., type-species from the Japan Sea (incl. P. negligens (Berkeley & Berkeley, 1950)), L. amoureuxi n. sp. from the NE Atlantic (off SW Ireland), L. carrerai n. sp. from the NE Pacific (Mexico), L. chilensis n. sp. from the SE Pacific (Chile), L. falcata (Støp-Bowitz, 1948) n. comb. from the Norwegian Sea, L. gymnopapillata (Hartmann-Schröder, 1965) n. comb. from the SE Pacific (Chile), L. horsti (Haswell, 1892) n. comb. from Southern Australia, L. keeli n. sp

  6. Arsenic, cobalt and chromium food web biodilution in a Patagonia mountain lake.

    PubMed

    Revenga, J E; Campbell, L M; Arribére, M A; Ribeiro Guevara, S

    2012-07-01

    Mussels, Diplon chilensis, from Lake Moreno, a double-basined mountain lake in southern Argentina, is known to have elevated concentrations of chromium (Cr, > 25 μg g⁻¹ dry weight DW) and arsenic (As, 35 μg g⁻¹ DW), attributed to untreated sewage. To further understand the trophodynamics of Cr, As and cobalt (Co), we investigated concentrations and transfer throughout the food web in each basin of Lake Moreno. Each basin differs in morphology in that the gently-sloping Lake Moreno West has more littoral habitat than deeper Lake Moreno East with its higher proportion of pelagic habitat. Despite the morphological differences, both basins share similar water quality parameters and species assemblages. As a result, Lake Moreno provides an exceptional opportunity to compare trophodynamics of elements that enable us to hypothesize pelagic-littoral habitat coupling in response to lake morphology as the underlying factor influencing both Cr pathway and Co and As trophodynamic modeling. Using stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ¹⁵N) and carbon (δ¹³C) to characterize metals trophodynamics in each basin, biodilution of As, Cr and Co were indicated by negative regressions. This is confirmed by elevated As, Co and Cr concentrations in phytoplankton (11.3±5.7, 7.4±4.9, 44.5±40.7 μg g⁻¹ DW respectively), while zooplankton and biofilm had the next elevated concentrations. Those elevated concentrations are in contrast with lower concentrations in sport fish such as rainbow trout (0.5±0.5, 0.2±0.3, 1.8±1.2 μg g⁻¹ DW). Higher concentrations of Cr in fish were associated with higher proportion of benthic/littoral prey items in western basin, and were confirmed by significant correlation with δ¹³C values. Arsenic, Co and Cr concentrations in fish, while elevated, do not post health risks to human or wildlife consumers.

  7. Effects of water stress and high temperature on photosynthetic rates of two species of Prosopis.

    PubMed

    Delatorre, Jose; Pinto, Manuel; Cardemil, Liliana

    2008-08-21

    The main aim of this research was to compare the photosynthetic responses of two species of Prosopis, Prosopis chilensis (algarrobo) and Prosopis tamarugo (tamarugo) subjected to heat and water stress, to determine how heat shock or water deficit, either individually or combined, affect the photosynthesis of these two species. The photosynthetic rates expressed as a function of photon flow density (PFD) were determined by the O(2) liberated, in seedlings of tamarugo and algarrobo subjected to two water potentials: -0.3 MPa and -2.5 MPa and to three temperatures: 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Light response curves were constructed to obtain light compensation and light saturation points, maximum photosynthetic rates, quantum yields and dark respiration rates. The photochemical efficiency as the F(v)/F(m) ratio and the amount of RUBISCO were also determined under heat shock, water deficit, and under the combined action of both stress. Photosynthetic rates at a light intensity higher than 500 micromole photons m(-2)s(-1) were not significantly different (P>0.05) between species when measured at 25 degrees C under the same water potential. The maximum photosynthetic rates decreased with temperature in both species and with water deficit in algarrobo. At 40 degrees C and -2.5 MPa, the photosynthetic rate of algarrobo fell to 72% of that of tamarugo. The quantum yield decreased in algarrobo with temperature and water deficit and it was reduced by 50% when the conditions were 40 degrees C and -2.5 MPa. Dark respiration increased by 62% respect to the control at 40 degrees C in tamarugo while remained unchanged in algarrobo. The photochemical efficiency decreased with both, high temperature and water deficit, without differences between species. RUBISCO content increased in algarrobo 35 degrees C. Water deficit reduced the amount of RUBISCO in both species. The results of this work support the conclusion that in both Prosopis species, the interaction between

  8. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) species for biofuel production on semi-arid lands. Final report, April 1, 1978-March 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P; Cannell, G H; Clark, P R; Osborn, J F; Nash, P

    1985-01-01

    Arid adapted nitrogen fixing trees and shrubs of the genus Prosopis (mesquite) have been examined for woody biomass production on semi-arid lands of southwestern United States. A germ-plasm collection of 900 accessions from North and South America and Africa was assembled. Field studies screening for biomass production, frost tolerance, response to irrigation, pod production and heat/drought tolerance involved a total of 80 accessions. Selections made from survivors of coal/frost screening trial had more frost tolerance and biomass productivity than prostrate selections from the ranges of Arizona, New Mexico and west Texas. Thirteen Prosopis species were found to nodulate, reduce acetylene to ethylene, and grow on a nitrogen free media in greenhouse experiments. The salinity tolerance of six Prosopis species was examined on a nitrogen free media in greenhouse experiments. No reduction in growth occurred for any species tested at a salinity of 6000 mg NaC1/L which is considered too saline for normal agricultural crops. Individual trees have grown 5 to 7 cm in basal diameter, and 2.0 to 3.7 meters in height per year and have achieved 50 kg oven dry weight per tree in 2 years with 600 mm water application per year. Vegetative propagation techniques have been developed and clones of these highly productive trees have been made. Small pilots on 1.5 x 1.5 m spacing in the California Imperial Valley had a first and second season dry matter production of 11.7 and 16.9 T/ha for P. chilensis (0009), 7.1 and 6.9 T/ha for P. glandulosa var. torreyana (0001), 9.8 and 19.2 T/ha for P. alba (0039) and 7.9 and 14.5 T/ha for progency of a California ornamental (0163). The projected harvested costs of $25.00 per oven dry ton or $1.50 per million Btu's compare favorable with coal and other alternative fuel sources in South Texas.

  9. Historic (1900) seafloor composition in the Belgian-Dutch part of the North Sea: A reconstruction based on calibrated visual sediment descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houziaux, Jean-Sébastien; Fettweis, Michael; Francken, Frederic; Van Lancker, Vera

    2011-07-01

    , at disposal sites and around port areas. Offshore, richly colonized biogenic reefs of native flat oyster ( Ostrea edulis) were destroyed by targeted oyster fishery as early as in the 1860s. Since the 1920s, seabed disturbance caused by trawling activities steadily increased. We thereby demonstrate a degradation path from richly colonized biogenic reefs toward continuously disturbed sandy gravel grounds in the present day. Our conclusion is likely valid for many such grounds in the English Channel and southern North Sea. Major long-term changes observed thus far are clearly related to specific human activities. This reconstruction work will enable to better define the amplitude of human-induced changes in this portion of the North Sea, a necessary pre-requisite to the definition of meaningful environmental health targets.

  10. Monitoring tectonic uplift and paleoenvironmental reconstruction for marine terraces near Maǧaracik and Samandaǧ, Hatay Province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Florentin, Jonathan A; Blackwell, Bonnie A B; Tüysüz, Okan; Tarı, Ufuk; Can Genç, Ş; İmren, Caner; Mo, Shirley; Huang, Yiwen E W; Blickstein, Joel I B; Skinner, Anne R; Kim, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Near Hatay, the Antakya-Samandağ-Cyprus Fault (ASCF), East Anatolian and Dead Sea Fault Zones, the large faults that form the edges of the African, Anatolian, Cyprus and Arabian Plates, all produce large earthquakes, which have decimated Hatay repeatedly. Near Samandağ, Hatay, differential vertical displacement on the ASCF has uplifted the southeastern side relative to northwestern side, producing large fault scarps that parallel the Asi (Orontes) River. Tectonic uplift coupled with Quaternary sealevel fluctuations has produced several stacked marine terraces stranded above current sealevel. This study dated 24 mollusc samples from 10 outcrops on six marine terraces near Samandağ electron spin resonance (ESR). Ages were calculated using time-averaged and volumetrically averaged external dose rates, modelled by assuming typical water depths for the individual species and sediment thicknesses estimated from geological criteria. Uplift rates were then calculated for each fault block. At all the Mağaracık terraces, the dates suggest that many shells were likely reworked. On the 30 m terrace at Mağaracık IV (UTM 766588-3999880), Lithophagus burrows with in situ shells cross the unconformity. One such shell dated to 62 ± 6 ka, setting the minimum possible age for the terrace. For all the Mağaracık terraces at ∼30 m above mean sealevel (amsl), the youngest ages for the reworked shells, which averaged 60 ± 3 ka for six separate analyses, sets the maximum possible age for this unit. Thus, the terrace must date to 60-62 ± 3 ka, at the MIS 3/4 boundary when temperatures and sealevels were fluctuating rapidly. Older units dating to MIS 7, 6, and 5 likely were being eroded to supply some fossils found in this terrace. At Mağaracık Dump (UTM 765391-4001048), ∼103 m amsl, Ostrea and other shells were found cemented in growth position to the limestone boulders outcropping there <2.0 m above a wave-eroded notch. If the oysters grew at the same time as the wave

  11. Evidence for variable crystallinity in bivalve shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Wehrmeister, U.

    2012-04-01

    Bivalve shells are used as important palaeoclimate proxy archives and monitor regional climate variations. The shells mostly exist of two crystalline polymorphic phases of calcium carbonate calcite (rombohedric) and aragonite (orthorhombic). Calcite is the most stable polymorph at standard conditions, whereas vaterite (hexagonal) is the least stable and only rarely found in these structures. Shells are characterized by organized structures and several micro architectures of mollusc shell structures have been identified: Nacre shows different types: columnar and bricked forms and consists of composite inorganic- organic at the nano-scale. They are well known to display a "brick and mortar" structure. By AFM and FIB/TEM methods it could be shown, that its nanostructure consists of the structures in the range of 50 - 100 nm [1, 2]. These structures are vesicles, consisting of CaCO3 and are individually coated by a membrane. Most probably, the mantle epithelian cells of the bivalve extrude CaCO3 vesicles. By Raman spectroscopic investigations the crystalline CaCO3 polymorphs calcite, aragonite and vaterite, as well as ACC were determined. For some species (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, Hyriopsis cumingii) pure ACC (i.e. not intermingled with a crystalline phase) could be identified. The presence of an amorphous phase is generally deduced from the lack of definite lattice modes, whereas a broad Raman band in this region is to observe. In most of the cultured pearls (Pinctada maxima and genus Hyriopsis) the ν1-Raman band of ACC clearly displays an asymmetric shape and splits into two different bands according to a nanocrystalline and an amorphous fraction. The FWHMs of most of the crystalline fractions are too high for well crystallized materials and support the assumption of nanocrystalline calcium carbonate polymorph clusters in ACC. They are primarily composed of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) which is later transformed into a crystalline modification [3

  12. Agrotis Ochsenheimer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae): a systematic analysis of South American species.

    PubMed

    San Blas, Germán

    2014-03-03

    The genus Agrotis Ochsenheimer, 1816 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) contains about 300 described species distributed worldwide, excepting the Poles. For South America 93 species have been described. Different diagnostic characters have been proposed for species from the northern Hemisphere, mostly from male genitalia. Recently, numerous South American species of the genus have been transferred to other genera. In this work, a systematic revision was undertaken of the South American species of Agrotis, restricting to 20 the number of species of this genus for the region and transferring the other species to different genera and/or synonymizing with other species.Based on a detailed study of the external morphology and genitalia of both sexes, several nomen clatural changes are proposed. New generic synonymy: Mesembreuxoa Hampson = Feltia Walker. New Agrotis synonymies include: Scotia forsteri Köhler = A. propriens (Dyar); Agrotis peruviana hampsoni Draudt, Rhizagrotis triclava Draudt, and Euxoa andina Köhler = A. peruviana (Hampson); Lycophotia achromatica Hampson, Feltia malefida patagiata Aurivillius, Prout and Meyrick, Agrotis psammophila Köhler, and Scotia (Feltia) canietensis Köhler = A. malefida Guenée; Chorizagrotis benefida Draudt = A. experta (Walker); Agrotis livens Köhler and Agrotis capayana Köhler = A. araucaria (Hampson). Species transferred to Feltia Walker tent. include: Scotia aspersula Köhler, n. comb.; Porosagrotis brachystria Hampson, n. comb.; Agrotis carrascoi Köhler, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa chilensis Hampson, n. comb.; Euxoa clavisigna Dognin, n. comb.; Euxoa conifrons Draudt, n. comb.; Agrotis consternans Hayes, n. comb.; Euxoa coquimbensis Hampson, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa fasicola Dyar, n. comb.; Chorizagrotis forasmicans Köhler, n. comb.; Agrotis giselae León, n. comb.; Agrotis gypaetina Guenée, n. comb.; Agrotis hispidula Guenée, n. comb.; Euxoa incarum Cockerell, n. comb.; Agrotis india Köhler, n. comb.; Scotia mansa Köhler, n

  13. First report of the land planarian Diversibipalium multilineatum (Makino & Shirasawa, 1983) (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Continenticola) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Giuseppe; Menchetti, Mattia; Sluys, Ronald; Solà, Eduard; Riutort, Marta; Tricarico, Elena; Justine, Jean-Lou; Cavigioli, Luca; Mori, Emiliano

    2016-01-26

    availability are considered to be the main factors determining the presence of terrestrial planarians (Boag et al. 1998); the microclimatic conditions of the Italian garden were similar to plant nurseries and greenhouses, while an abundance of food was available, such as isopods [Porcellionides pruinosus (Brandt, 1833)], oligochaetes [Dendrobaena attemsi (Michaelsen, 1902) and several juveniles of Lumbricus spp.] and gastropods [Cernuella cisalpina (Rossmassler, 1837), Cornu aspersum (O.F. Müller 1774), Deroceras reticulatum (O.F. Müller, 1774), Discus rotundatus (O.F. Müller, 1774), Limacus flavus (Linnaeus, 1758), Milax nigricans (Philippi, 1836), Papillifera papillaris (Linnaeus, 1758), Pomatias elegans (O.F. Müller, 1774)]. Moreover, winter 2014 reached the highest temperatures and rainfall of the last two decades (source: CNR-ISAC, Bologna), thus favouring establishment and spread of D. multilineatum. The potential environmental impacts of some invasive flatworms are well documented (Álvarez-Presas et al. 2014; Justine et al. 2014) and, even if these effects have not yet been assessed for D. multilineatum, the adoption of precautionary measures and of early intervention is here strongly recommended (Genovesi & Shine 2004). Finally, knowledge of the introduction pathway(s), together with the analysis of prey preference and possible impact on the invertebrate fauna, will be essential to halt or at least to limit the spread of this introduced land flatworm.

  14. Tectonically controlled fan delta and submarine fan sedimentation of late Miocene age, southern Temblor Range, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T; Thomson, Alan

    1989-01-01

    The Santa Margarita Formation in the southern Temblor Range, composed of conglomerate and subordinate sandstone, evolved as a large complex of fan deltas and submarine fans in late Miocene time. An 80 to 90-m.y.-old granitic basement of the Salinian block and an accompanying 23.5-m.y.-old volcanic field now located in the northern Gabilan Range and the Pinnacles area, respectively, were the primary source terranes. In general, the fan deltas crop out along the west side of the southern Temblor Range, whereas the proximal parts of the submarine fans crop out along the east side of the range. The fan deltas consist of subaerial topset beds and low-angle basinward-dipping subaqueous foreset beds. Strata interpreted to be topset beds are composed largely of conglomerate with thick to very thick horizontal beds and matrix-supported clasts. Most of the thick to very thick conglomerate beds are internally massive and disorganized. Strata interpreted as foreset beds are composed of thick-bedded, large-scale, low-angle, cross-stratified conglomerate and sandstone units which commonly are internally massive. Abundant molluskan macrofossils such as Ostrea and Pecten are present in the subaqueous foreset beds; many have been displaced downslope from their original site of deposition. Conglomerate- and sandstone-filled submarine canyons, through which coarse-grained detritus was transported to the adjacent submarine fans, locally have cut into the foreset beds of the fan deltas. These submarine canyon deposits are generally better stratified than adjacent foreset-bed deposits, and they consist of thick horizontal beds, internally massive or normally graded, arranged in fining- and thinning-upward sequences. Isolated and composite conglomerate- and sandstone-filled channels, which crop out on the east flank of the southern Temblor Range, are interpreted as proximal submarine-fan channel deposits. These channel-form conglomerate and sandstone deposits are characterized by thick

  15. Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)

    SciTech Connect

    Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica

    2009-01-01

    sized Mountain Lion. By comparison, a 2 year old male Mountain Lion salvaged on NTS had an upper intercanine bite width of 45 mm, and a 6 month old kitten measured 35mm respectively. The Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) is the only predator that exists in southern Nevada that could possibly have a bite with a gap between its upper canine teeth that large (Murmann et al. 2006. J. Forensic Sci. 51:846-860). The appearance of the shell remains in Figure 1A is similar to that depicting Jaguar (Panthera onca) predation, on the Amazonian Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) as illustrated by Emmons (1989. J. Herpetol. 23:311-314) with the majority of the carapace broken open and the plastron still intact. Predation of Desert Tortoises by Mountain Lions was also documented in 1993 in southern Arizona (Little Shipp Wash Plot), where 7 of 8 carcasses found were attributed to Mountain Lion predation (Averill-Murray et al. 2002. In. T.R.Van Devender [ed.], The Sonoran Desert Tortoise: Natural History, Biology, and Conservation, pp.109-134. University of Arizona Press and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona). Similarly, predation by a Mountain Lion has been reported on the Argentine Tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis) in Argentina (Acosta et al. 2004. Herpetol. Review 35:53-54), and a Mountain Lion kitten was observed to kill and consume a portion of the carapace of a Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) in west Texas (Adams et al. 2006. Southwestern Nat. 51:581-581). Over the past 45 years this Desert Tortoise population has been monitored yearly, with no prior evidence of predation to tortoises within the fenced enclosures. On several occasions other predators such as Bobcats (Lynx rufus) have been observed within the study enclosures for as long as a week. Evidence of Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotus) sign has been observed on numerous occasions, and a Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius) and Longtail Weasels (Mustela frenata) have been captured and released (B.G. Maza, pers. comm