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Sample records for otorhinolaryngology sirmione 3-5

  1. Otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Weir, N.

    2000-01-01

    Otorhinolaryngology, a product of the early 20th century, developed from the joining together of the separate departments of otology, whose practitioners were surgeons, and laryngology which was managed by physicians who also treated diseases of the nose and chest. The 20th century opened with brave attempts to perform skilful surgery under conditions of primitive anaesthesia and no antibiotics. The stimulus of two world wars led to significant advances in technology and greater opportunities to explore new and resurrect old surgical procedures. The discovery of antibiotics saw an end to acute mastoiditis and the complications of otitis media and sinusitis, as well as a decline in the number of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy operations.
Over the last 30 years the specialty has undergone dramatic development and has taken advantage of new advances in endoscopy, microsurgery, the use of lasers, cytotoxic drugs, flap reconstruction and microchip technology. During the same period, although still calling themselves otorinolaryngologists, individual surgeons have subspecialised in otology, otoneurosurgery and skull-base surgery, head and neck surgery, phonosurgery, rhinology and facioplastic surgery, and paediatric otothinolaryngology. Each of these subspecialties has its own societies and specialist journals.


Keywords: otorhinolaryngology; history of medicine PMID:10644381

  2. Lasers in otorhinolaryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais Clemente, Manuel P.

    1992-03-01

    Lasers are now commonly accepted and widely used surgical instruments in otorhinolaryngology. There have been a great number of technological advances with lasers that have contributed to the expansion of this new surgical modality with an increased number of medical applications. Surgical strategies have also changed and are more favorable toward conservative surgery in which less tissues is removed than with more radical resections. This combination of improving technology and medical attitudes has changed the field of otorhinolaryngology, and resulted in an expanding use of laser surgery. Since 1973 we have been using the carbon dioxide laser in the treatment of diseases of the upper aero digestive systems, learning this new surgical technique from the pioneer work of Strong, Jako, and Vaughan. It is our conviction that a laser surgeon must have a thorough knowledge of laser biophysics, instrumentation, safety protocols, and surgical indications, and have the technical skills to perform laser surgery. Laser technology continues to improve at an increased speed, and it is imperative to update knowledge of current and potential applications of lasers in our specialty. It is the purpose of this article to present our clinical experience of 18 years with the use of lasers in surgery of ORL, emphasizing the carbon dioxide laser.

  3. Writing otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery operative reports.

    PubMed

    Laccourreye, O; Rubin, F; Villeneuve, A; Bonfils, P

    2017-04-04

    Only about ten articles devoted to operative reports have been published in the medical literature, but this document is essential, both medically and legally, to ensure optimal management of operated patients. In this technical note, based on published studies on this subject, the authors describe the key features of operating reports after otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery and emphasize the need to write this document during the minutes after the end of the operation, the importance of standardization and its teaching role during surgical training.

  4. [The place of otorhinolaryngology in modern medicine].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T

    2016-01-01

    This publication is devoted to the peculiar features of the development of otorhinolaryngology as an integral component of modern medical science and practice and the place it now occupies among other disciplines. Much attention is given to the formation of the scientific views of focal infections with special reference to tonsillitis, the role of immune pathology an allergic reactions in etiology and pathogenesis of ENT diseases. Also considered is the problem of the elaboration of the new surgical methods and their application for the treatment of ENT pathology.

  5. Honey in otorhinolaryngology: when, why and how?

    PubMed

    Werner, A; Laccourreye, O

    2011-06-01

    In this review of the literature devoted to the use of honey, the authors analyse the composition, indications, benefits and adverse effects of this product in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery. Published data indicate that honey applied topically to skin and mucosal wounds and/or burns and administered orally as antitussive medication (after the first year of life) is highly effective with no adverse effects. The physiological action of honey is the result of various mechanisms (osmotic, detersion, bactericidal action). Various medicinal honeys are available worldwide, but only one has Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of wounds. After the first year of life, the use of food honey appears to be as effective as medicinal honey, while decreasing the overall cost of treatment.

  6. Otorhinolaryngology through the works of Hippocrates.

    PubMed

    Manolidis, L S

    2002-01-01

    This retrospective survey refers to the philosophers and first scientists of the pre-Hippocratic era, which included the foundation of schools in Greece at the time (e.g. Ionia, South Sicily, Kyrinia). During the ensuing Hippocratic era the foundations of medicine as a science were laid. The concepts developed by Hippocrates and his school are set out in the Corpus Hippocraticum. In many sections of this work reference is made to diseases of the ear, nose, larynx, head and neck. It is difficult no to be impressed by the fact that many of the diagnoses and therapies are not very dissimilar to contemporary approaches. The notion that Hippocrates, Father of Medicine, gave meaning to otorhinolaryngology is also discussed here.

  7. [Hygiene in otorhinolaryngology: Requirements and reality].

    PubMed

    Jager, E; Heudorf, U

    2015-12-01

    Considering the physiological contamination of skin and mucous membranes in the ear, nose, and throat region by facultative pathogen microorganisms, as well as the increase in multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO), it is mandatory that hygienic procedures be observed in ENT institutions, in order to prevent transmission of bacteria and infections in patients. General guidelines for hygiene in otorhinolaryngology are presented based on the recommendations published by the German Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO). These encompass hand hygiene, surface disinfection, and reprocessing of medical devices. The correct reprocessing of the various components of ENT treatment units (including endoscopes, water bearing systems) is reported. Although law requires and KRINKO recommends that manufacturers of medical devices publish instructions for reprocessing their products, these reprocessing recommendations are often insufficient. Manufacturers should thus be called upon to improve their recommendations. In this paper, the requirements for handling of ENT treatment units are compared with the observations made by the Public Health Department in 7 ENT clinics and 32 ENT practices in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in 2014.

  8. Historical Contribution of Otorhinolaryngology in Split Region till 1923.

    PubMed

    Ivanisević, Petar; Ivanisević, Milan; Kontić, Mirko; Klancnik, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    The beginnings of the modern otorhinolaryngology in Croatia started in the second half of the 19th century. Before that, there were only rare attempts of some doctors who published medical papers touching the frame of otorhinolaryngology. Mainly those were the PhD's disertations at Vienna, Budapest and Padua University. Among them there was dr Ivo Manola from Split, who in Padua in 1834 took a doctor's degree dealing with otologic diseases. Dr Nikola Fertilio (Nerezisća the island of Brac, 1861--Trieste, 1928) was the first otorhinolaryngologist out of a hospital in Split and Dalmatia. He studied medicine partly in Graz and Vienna, where he graduated in 1890. During 1903 he finished severeal otorhinolaryngological courses which were held by professors Viktor Urbantschitsch and Alfred Bing and by private doctor assistant professor Markus Hajek. During the winter 1903/04 he attended the "Semestralkurs über praktische Orhenheilkunde" at professor Adam Politzer, founder and managing director of the first Otology Clinic in Vienna and the world in 1873. He worked in Trieste, where he practiced otorhinolaryngology. Dr. Fertilio a specialist for diseases of nose, ear and throat, occasionally, usually during his holidays, came from Trieste to Dalmatia (Split, Zadar, Sibenik, Dubrovnik and Kotor) to treat and operate patients. He was comming to Split from 1904 till 1914. He published and announced his commings in the local newpapers. He used to come in summer, most often in August and stayed from several days till two weeks. He stayed and had a practice in Hotel Bellevue. As there wasn't an otorhinolaryngologist in the regional hospital of Split till 1923, otorhinolaryngological operations were occasionally performed by doctors of other surgical branches. Otorhinolaryngologist dr Aleksandar Dorsner came to Split hospital in 1923 and organized otorhinolaryngological service that he led till 1934.

  9. Prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses in the pediatric emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Signorelli, Luiz Gabriel; Mendes, Elaine de Abreu

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Fever and pain, which are very common in ear, nose, and throat pathologies, are among the most frequent complaints recorded during emergency room pediatric patient treatment. Most of time, the pediatricians are called on to evaluate otorhinolaryngology disorders that requires specialist assessment. Aim: To determine the prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses in a pediatric population in a reference hospital in the city of Itatiba, São Paulo. Methods: We evaluated 2,054 pediatric patients (age range, 0–12 years, 11 months) in this descriptive, transversal observational (survey) study. Data collection was performed by a single observer during 103 night shifts (07:00 p.m. to 07:00 a.m.) between January and December 2011, and included documentation of the main diagnosis, and patient age and sex. The ethics committee and research institution approved study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on diagnosis: Group A otorhinolaryngology disease and Group B included diagnoses not contained in Group A. Results: Of the total enrolled patients, 52.2% corresponded to Group A and 47.8% to Group B; 51.9% were male and 48.1% were female. The average age was 4.5 years (Group A, 3.93 years; Group B, 5.03 years). We compared the prevalence of the diagnostic hypotheses of the 2 groups. Conclusion: A large number of patients sought treatment at pediatric emergency rooms for otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses. PMID:25991987

  10. Therapeutic methods for psychosomatic disorders in oto-rhino-laryngology

    PubMed Central

    Decot, Elke

    2005-01-01

    Psychosomatic disorders such as tinnitus, acute hearing loss, attacks of dizziness, globus syndrome, dysphagias, voice disorders and many more are quite common in ear, nose and throat medicine. They are mostly caused by a number of factors, although the bio-psycho-social model does play an important role. Initial contact with a psychosomatically ill patient and compiling a first case history are important steps to psychosomatic oriented therapy. This contribution will sum up the most important otorhinolaryngological diseases with psychosomatic comorbidity and scientifically evaluated methods of treatment. The contribution will also introduce the reader to important psychosomatic treatment methods from psychotherapeutic relaxation techniques to talk therapy. To conclude, the contribution will discuss the criteria for outpatient as well as inpatient treatment and look at the advantages of psychosomatically oriented therapy, both for the patient and for the doctor. PMID:22073069

  11. Phytomedicine in Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology: Clinical Trials with Herbal Remedies

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Koosha Ghazi; Inançlı, Hasan Mete; Bazazy, Nazanin; Plinkert, Peter K.; Efferth, Thomas; Sertel, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    Phytomedicine has become an important alternative treatment option for patients in the Western world, as they seek to be treated in a holistic and natural way after an unsatisfactory response to conventional drugs. Ever since herbal remedies have been introduced in the Western world, clinicians have raised concerns over their efficacy and possible side-effects. A PubMed (Medline) search was performed covering the last five years (01/07–04/12) and including 55 prospective clinical randomized control trials in the medical specialities Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology. In this review, we present evidence-based clinical data with herbal remedies and try to enlighten the question of efficacy and reliability of phytomedicine. PMID:24280678

  12. The Surgical Safety Checklist: Results of Implementation in Otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of implementing the surgical safety checklist (SSCL) on the outcome of patient safety in otorhinolaryngology (ENT) surgical procedures in two hospitals in Saudi Arabia: Aseer Central and Abha Private Hospitals. Methods This retrospective study conducted over seven years (1 July 2008 to 30 June 2015) followed a staff educational and training program for the implementation of the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist (WHO SSCL). The program included the use of audiovisual aids and practical demonstrations. Incidents of non-compliance were treated as sentinel events and were audited by the process of root cause analysis. Results There were 5 144 elective ENT surgical cases in both hospitals in which the SSCL was utilized over the seven-year study period. The average compliance rate was 96.5%. Reasons for non-compliance included staff shortage, fast staff turnover, excessive workload, communication problems, and presence of existing processes. Conclusions The implementation of the SSCL was a substantial leap in efforts towards ensuring surgical patients’ safety. It is compulsory in the healthcare system in many countries. Such progress in healthcare improvement can be accomplished with the commitment of the operating suite staff by spending few moments checking facts and establishing an environment of teamwork for the benefit of the surgical patient. PMID:28042399

  13. Influence of laser light on bioimplants used in otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Siedek, Vanessa; Nehls, Kristina; Zur Nieden, Katrin; Leunig, Andreas; Sroka, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    In otorhinolaryngology, dermatology and reconstructive surgery biomaterials as implants and a variety of lasers are used. Laser light applied near to an implant could have the risk to damage these materials. Therefore, their resistance exposed to laser light is of interest. A diode laser emitting at 940 nm and a CO2 laser were used to investigate its effects to the biomaterials Bioverit®, Medpor® and Palacos®, and in addition, an excised implant containing Medpor® and nasal turbinate tissue, excised and fixed in formalin. The macro- and microscopic changes of the material, temperature development during laser energy application in dependency to distance of fibre and material, time of exposure and applied power were investigated. Interaction of diode laser light with Bioverit® (0 mm distance, 360 s, 10 W, 3,600 J) resulted in minimal microscopic effects in direct contact of with the fibre. Using Medpor® (1 mm, 10s, 10 W, 100 J) resulted in melting and perforation. In the case of Palacos® (0.6 mm, 10s, 10 W, 100 J), melting occurred creating a flat excavation. The effect to Medpor® in nasal turbinate (1-2 mm, 10s, 10 W, 100 J) showed tissue denaturation and carbonisation and creation of a hole. The interaction of the CO2 laser with Bioverit® (3 cm, 0.5, 1 and 5 s, 2, 10 or 20 W) induced melting and discolouring resulting finally in a perforating hole. Depending on the material, first damage starts 10 s after an impact of 100 J (threshold value). So interaction between laser energy and biomaterials occurs. This should be carefully considered during clinical laser treatments especially nearby implants.

  14. [Safe patient care: safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    St Pierre, M

    2013-04-01

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organisation's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organizations maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organisation's "safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality.Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate simulation based team trainings into their curriculum.

  15. [Role of cone-beam computed tomography in diagnostic otorhinolaryngological imaging].

    PubMed

    Perényi, Ádám; Bella, Zsolt; Baráth, Zoltán; Magyar, Péter; Nagy, Katalin; Rovó, László

    2016-01-10

    Accurate diagnosis and preoperative planning in modern otorhinolaryngology is strongly supported by imaging with enhanced visualization. Computed tomography is often used to examine structures within bone frameworks. Given the hazards of ionizing radiation, repetitive imaging studies exponentially increase the risk of damages to radiosensitive tissues. The authors compare multislice and cone-beam computed tomography and determine the role, advantages and disadvantages of cone-beam computed tomography in otorhinolaryngological imaging. They summarize the knowledge from the international literature and their individual imaging studies. They conclude that cone-beam computed tomography enables high-resolution imaging and reconstruction in any optional plane and in space with considerably lower effective radiation dose. Cone-beam computed tomography with appropriate indications proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool in otorhinolaryngological imaging. It makes an alternative to multislice computed tomography and it is an effective tool in perioperative and postoperative follow-up, especially in those cases which necessitate repetitive imaging with computed tomography.

  16. The value of the otorhinolaryngologic exam in correct mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, Viviane S; de Oliveira, Jene G S; Costa, Jackson M L; Novais, Fernanda O; de Oliveira, Camila I; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2009-09-01

    An increase in mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) cases in northern (Brazil) motivated this study. In 44 ML patients with clinical diagnosis, only 13 parasitologically confirmed cases exhibited mucosal lesion suggestive of ML. Other conditions involving nasal manifestations are frequently confounded with ML. Therefore, otorhinolaryngologic examination is important in the clinical management of ML.

  17. Evaluation of the Quality of Reporting of Observational Studies in Otorhinolaryngology - Based on the STROBE Statement

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jeroen P. M.; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Background Observational studies are the most frequently published studies in literature. When randomized controlled trials cannot be conducted because of ethical or practical considerations, an observational study design is the first choice. The STROBE Statement (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) was developed to provide guidance on how to adequately report observational studies. Objectives The objectives were 1) to evaluate the quality of reporting of observational studies of otorhinolaryngologic literature using the STROBE Statement checklist, 2) to compare the quality of reporting of observational studies in the top 5 Ear, Nose, Throat (ENT) journals versus the top 5 general medical journals and 3) to formulate recommendations to improve adequate reporting of observational research in otorhinolaryngologic literature. Methods The top 5 general medical journals and top 5 otorhinolaryngologic journals were selected based on their ISI Web of Knowledge impact factors. On August 3rd, 2015, we performed a PubMed search using different filters to retrieve observational articles from these journals. Studies were selected from 2010 to 2014 for the general medical journals and from 2015 for the ENT journals. We assessed all STROBE items to examine how many items were reported adequately for each journal type. Results The articles in the top 5 general medical journals (n = 11) reported a mean of 69.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 65.8%–72.7%; median 70.6%), whereas the top 5 ENT journals (n = 29) reported a mean of 51.4% (95% CI: 47.7%–55.0%; median 50.0%). The two journal types reported STROBE items significantly different (p < .001). Conclusion Quality of reporting of observational studies in otorhinolaryngologic articles can considerably enhance. The quality of reporting was better in general medical journals compared to ENT journals. To improve the quality of reporting of observational studies, we recommend authors and editors

  18. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  19. [Mutant prevention concentrations of garenoxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from otorhinolaryngological infections].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kurono, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Nishimura, Tadao; Baba, Shunkichi; Harabuchi, Yasuaki; Fujisawa, Toshiyuki; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ubukata, Kimiko; Ikeda, Fumiaki

    2010-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) of garenoxacin (GRNX), were compared to those of levofloxacin (LVFX), and moxifloxacin (MFLX) against 78 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from otorhinolaryngological infections in Japan during the period January 2007 to June 2007. The MIC and MPC for 90% of the isolates (MIC90 and MPC90) of GRNX were 0.06 and 0.12 microg/mL, respectively, and were the lower values than LVFX and MFLX MIC90s and MPC90s. The ratios of MPC/MIC of GRNX were the lower values than those of LVFX and MFLX.

  20. Acquired factor V inhibitor after exposure to topical human thrombin related to an otorhinolaryngological procedure.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, K; Levine, R

    2015-10-01

    Acquired factor V (FV) inhibitors occur rarely and classically develop after exposure to bovine thrombin. The clinical presentation is variable, ranging from asymptomatic with incidental laboratory abnormalities to significant bleeding. With the development of human-derived thrombin agents, bovine thrombin is less frequently used. We report a case of an acquired FV inhibitor that developed in a patient after exposure to human thrombin used as a hemostatic agent during an otorhinolaryngology surgical procedure. Our review of the literature revealed only one prior reported case of FV inhibitor after exposure to human thrombin. Hematologists and surgeons should be aware of this rare, but potentially life-threatening, complication in the postprocedural setting.

  1. Assessment of the Quality of Reporting of Randomised Controlled Trials in Otorhinolaryngologic Literature – Adherence to the CONSORT Statement

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jeroen P. M.; Hooft, Lotty; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) are the preferred study design when comparing therapeutical interventions in medicine. To improve clarity, consistency and transparency of reporting RCTs, the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement was developed. Objectives (1) To assess the quality of reports and abstracts of RCTs in otorhinolaryngologic literature by using CONSORT checklists, (2) to compare the quality of reports and abstracts of otorhinolaryngologic RCTs between the top 5 general medical journals and top 5 otorhinolaryngologic journals, and (3) to formulate recommendations for authors and editors of otorhinolaryngologic (‘ENT’) journals. Methods Based on 2012 ISI Web of Knowledge impact factors, the top 5 general medical and ENT journals were selected. On 25 June 2014, using a highly sensitive Cochrane RCT filter and ENT filter, possibly relevant articles since January 1st, 2010 were retrieved and relevant RCTs were selected. We assessed how many CONSORT items were reported adequately in reports and abstracts and compared the two journal types. Results Otorhinolaryngologic RCTs (n = 15) published in general medical journals reported a mean of 92.1% (95% confidence interval: 89.5%–94.7%) of CONSORT items adequately, whereas RCTs (n = 18) published in ENT journals reported a mean of 71.8% (66.7%–76.8%) adequately (p < 0.001). For abstracts, means of 70.0% (63.7%–76.3%) and 32.3% (26.6–38.0%) were found respectively (p < 0.001). Large differences for specific items exist between the two journal types. Conclusion The quality of reporting of RCTs in otorhinolaryngologic journals is suboptimal. RCTs published in general medical journals have a higher quality of reporting than RCTs published in ENT journals. We recommend authors to report their trial according to the CONSORT Statement and advise editors to endorse the CONSORT Statement and implement the CONSORT Statement in the editorial process to ensure more adequate

  2. [Unknown pathogens from the human oral microflora of interest for otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Tets, V V; Tets, G V; Vikina, D S; Vecherovskaia, M F; Kharlamova, V V

    2014-01-01

    The identification of microorganisms from the human oral cavity is a topical problem in many clinical disciplines including otorhinolaryngology. Many bacterial species of oral microbiota are causative agents of ENT diseases, and poor conditions of the oral cavity, unhealthy teeth and gums increase the risk of the spread of infection. The objective of the present study was to distinguish and identify poorly explored and previously unknown aerobic opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms responsible for various ENT disorders. The normal microflora remains to be thoroughly studied with the use of the new culturing techniques that ensure the isolation of pure microbial cultures. The present publication reports for the first time isolation of the stable mixed microbial biofilms formed by unrelated bacterial species and containing the yet unknown microorganisms. The isolated bacteria were identified as previously unknown or poorly unexplored anaerobic opportunistic species capable of inducing ENT pathology; their sensitivity to antibiotics was evaluated.

  3. The Rate of Epistaxis Incidence in New-Generation Anticoagulants and Perioperative Approach in Otorhinolaryngological Practices.

    PubMed

    Gökdoğan, Ozan; Akyildiz, Ilker; Sayin, Begum Yetis; Okutucu, Sercan; Tanalp, Ali Cevat; Arslan, Necmi

    2017-03-01

    Nose bleeding is a common situation seen in otorhinolaryngological practices. One of the greatest risk factors in nose bleeding is the use of anticoagulant medicine. With the medicine developed in recent years, the risk of nose bleeding due to the frequent use of anticoagulant and antiagregant is gradually increasing.The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of especially new-generation anticoagulants on nose bleeding. In addition, the use and complications of new-generation anticoagulants and antiagregants have been compiled in light of information obtained from the literature.Three hundred forty patients whose follow-up is conducted by the cardiology department and who use oral antithrombocytic medicine have been included in the study. It has been determined that 15% of these patients use new-generation oral anticoagulants (Rivaroksaban, apiksaban, dabigatran, danaparoid) and the other patients are treated with conventional antithrombocytic treatment (Aspirin, Warfarin, Enoksaparin sodium). The rate of nose bleeding in patients who use classical anticoagulants has been observed to be 28%. In 30 of these patients who had nose bleeding, while cauterization and buffering by otorhinolaryngology specialists, major intervention has not been necessary for any of the patients. While bleeding has been observed in 26% of the patients who use new-generation anticoagulants, bleeding that required operational intervention has taken place in 2 patients. Bleedings have been stopped surgically through a large number of cauterization and buffering.While the new-generation anticoagulants cause lower rate of bleeding, it has been observed that controlling these bleedings is more difficult.

  4. [Peripheral vertigo classification. Consensus document. Otoneurology committee of the Spanish otorhinolaryngology society (2003-2006)].

    PubMed

    Morera, Constantino; Pérez, Herminio; Pérez, Nicolás; Soto, Andrés

    2008-02-01

    There are many different vertigo classifications and different denominations are frequently used for the same clinical processes. The Otoneurology Committee of the Spanish Society for Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Pathology proposes an eminently practical classification of peripheral vertigo to facilitate a common terminology that can be easily used by the general ENT practitioners. The methodology used has been by consensus within our Society and especially among the most outstanding work groups in the area of otoneurology in Spain. Initially vertigo is divided into single-episode vertigo and recurring attacks of vertigo, and these are then sub-divided into 2 groups, depending on whether or not hearing loss is present. Acute vertigo without hearing loss corresponds to vestibular neuritis and if it is associated with hearing loss, it is due to labyrinthitis of different aetiologies and cochleo-vestibular neuritis. Recurrent vertigos without hearing loss are classified as induced, either by posture (BPPV) or pressure (perilymphatic fistula), or as spontaneous, including migraine-associated vertigo, metabolic vertigo, childhood paroxysmal vertigo and vertigo of vascular causes (AITs, vertebral-basilar failure). Finally, recurrent vertigo with hearing loss includes Ménière's disease and others such as vertigo-migraine (with hearing loss), autoimmune pathology of the inner ear, syphilitic infection, and perilymphatic fistula (with hearing loss).

  5. Pattern of Otorhinolaryngological Admissions via Emergency Unit in a Suburban Tertiary Center

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, Taiwo O.; Sogebi, Olusola A.; Tobih, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with ORL lesions sometimes present to the general emergency room. This study reviews the common ENT admissions via emergency room in a sub-urban town in Nigeria Methods: A retrospective study spanning five years from January 2009 to December 2013 Results: A total of 211 cases consisting of 131 (62.1%) males with male: female ratio 1.6: 1 and a mean age of 32.8 ± 22.4 years. About a quarter of the patients were children, the peak age was 21-40 years (in 37%). The common indications for emergency otorhinolaryngological admissions were Epistaxis (16.1%), Nasal/facial trauma (14.7%), pharyngo-esophageal foreign bodies (13.3%) and upper airway obstruction (8.1%). Majority 16 (57.1%) of the Pharyngo-esophageal FBs occurred in children. Most of the airway obstructions in children were due to juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis while laryngeal cancer was the major cause among the adult. Sixty percent had surgical procedures, 86.7% had satisfactory outcome and mortalities were recorded in 1.4%. Conclusion: Majority of causes for ORL admissions via emergency unit are of pharyngo-esophageal origin. There is apparent reversal of the otological origin trend in ENT admissions via A&E unit. PMID:26508908

  6. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... written agreement or a temporary or final order pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1818 (b) or (c), or as a condition... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability. 3.5 Section 3.5 Banks and... Office determines, pursuant to the procedures set forth in subpart C, that different minimum...

  7. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... written agreement or a temporary or final order pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1818 (b) or (c), or as a condition... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability. 3.5 Section 3.5 Banks and... Office determines, pursuant to the procedures set forth in subpart C, that different minimum...

  8. Your Child's Development: 3-5 Days

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days A A A Though only ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  9. Your Child's Development: 3-5 Days

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days Print A A A en ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  10. Comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the Practice of Otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Heloisa Sobreira; Pinto, José Antonio; Zavanela, Adma Roberta; Cavallini, André Freitas; Freitas, Gabriel Santos; Garcia, Fabiola Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease has a prevalence of ∼12% of the urban population in Brazil. Koufman proposed the term to designate Laryngeal Pharyngeal Reflux (LPR) symptoms, signs or tissue damage resulting from aggression of the gastrointestinal contents in the upper aerodigestive tract. Belafsky et al proposed a score that points to inflammatory laryngeal signs through videolaryngoscopic findings, the Reflux Finding Score (RFS). Moreover, in 2002, they published the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). Objective  The objective of this study is to provide a comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the practice of Otorhinolaryngology. Methods  Our study involved a total of 135 patients who visited the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) clinic Núcleo de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço de São Paulo between April 2014 and May 2015 with suspected LPR. We excluded nine patients and the study group was 126 patients. All patients were ranked by their RSI and RFS scores. Results  The study group consisted of 126 patients (88 women and 38 men). Their main complaints were cough (40.4%), globus (21.4%), dysphonia (19.8%), throat clearing (15.8%), postnasal drip (3.17%), snoring (1.5%), dysphagia (1.5%), cacosmia (0.7%), and regurgitation (1.5%). The RSI ranges from 13 to 42 with a mean of 20.7 (SD = 6.67). The RFS ranged from 3 to 19 with a mean of 9.53 (SD = 2.64). Conclusion  The RSI and RFS can easily be included in ENT routines as objective parameters, with low cost and high practicality. Based on the clinical index, the specialist can evaluate the need for further tests. PMID:27413402

  11. Safe patient care – safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    St. Pierre, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organization’s vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture (“top-down process”). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organization’s maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization’s general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed “informed culture”. An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. “Incident reporting systems” are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organization’s safe surgery checklist” is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality. Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate stimulation based team

  12. Potential impact of the financial crisis on outpatient hospital visits due to otorhinolaryngologic disorders in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Karatzanis, Alexander D; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Nikolaou, Vasilios; Velegrakis, George A

    2012-01-01

    The public health effect of financial crises has been emphasized in previous studies. In addition, a series of otorhinolaryngologic disorders and manifestations has been related to psychological factors in the literature. Such conditions include temporomandibular joint disorders, laryngopharyngeal reflux, chronic tinnitus, and vertigo. Focusing on the outpatient database records of a large hospital in Crete, Greece, the objective of this retrospective study was to explore possible occurrence variations within the prementioned otorhinolaryngologic morbidity which may be potentially attributed to increased levels of socioeconomic stress. Results revealed that although the total number of visits between two periods - before and after the beginning of the financial crisis in Greece - was comparable, a significant increase in the diagnosis of two disorders, namely vertigo and tinnitus was found. In addition, a trend toward increased rate of diagnosis for reflux and temporomandibular joint disorders was noted. Potential implications of these findings are discussed. In conclusion, health care providers in this as well as in other countries facing similar socio-economic conditions should be aware of potential changes in the epidemiologic figures regarding specific medical conditions.

  13. Synthesis of deoxyribonucleotidyl(3'5')arabinonucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, S.H.; Ainsworth, C.F.; Bell, C.L.; Danyluk, S.S.; MacCoss, M.

    1983-01-01

    Two different synthetic routes using phosphotriester methodology have been utilized to prepare deoxyribonucleotidyl(3'-5)arabinonucleosides containing 9-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A vidarabine) and 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C, cytarabine) at the 3'-terminus in amounts and purity (greater than 95%) suitable for NMR analysis.

  14. Water Sourcebook. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville.

    The goal of this supplemental activity guide for elementary students in grades 3-5 is to develop awareness, knowledge, and skills for sound water use decisions. Materials developed for the program are compatible with existing curriculum standards established by State Boards of Education throughout the United States and teach concepts included in…

  15. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.5 Applicability. This subpart is applicable to all banks unless the... ratios are appropriate for an individual bank based upon its particular circumstances, or...

  16. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.5 Applicability. This subpart is applicable to all banks unless the... ratios are appropriate for an individual bank based upon its particular circumstances, or...

  17. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexahydro - 1,3,5 - trinitro - 1,3,5 - triazine ( RDX ) ; CASRN 121 - 82 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  18. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - tetr . . . ( HMX ) ; CASRN 2691 - 41 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I

  19. Dermal Sensitization of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-08

    tetrazocine (SEX) in guinea pigs MATERIALS Test Substance Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-I,3,5,7- Tetrazocine (SEX) Chemical Abstract Service...exist as a contaminant in P.DX/HMX manufacturing process. The characteristics of SEX are as follows: Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 13980-00-2

  20. Biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, N.G.; Cornell, J.H.; Kaplan, A.M.

    1981-11-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is poposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed.

  1. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, N. G.; Cornell, J. H.; Kaplan, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethyl-hydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is proposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed. PMID:16345884

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the RDX assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  3. Biodegradation of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yih; Brodman, Bruce W

    2004-01-01

    Two bacteria were isolated from 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated soil at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. These organisms were subsequently identified as Rhiziobium rhizogenes BL and Burkholderia sp.BL by the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures). In addition a fungus, identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides by DSMZ, was found to be growing on water wet RDX. All of these organisms were found to degrade RDX. The two bacteria were found to represent new species that have not been reported before. It was found that these organisms along with an added carbon source could degrade RDX to simple gaseous products. Data are presented that elucidate the mechanisms of RDX biodegradation for these organisms.

  4. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Etnier, E L

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.

  5. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  6. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloranisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Donald G.; Benziger, Theodore M.

    1990-01-01

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB.

  7. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Donald G.; Benziger, Theodore M.

    1991-01-01

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB.

  8. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, D.G.; Benziger, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole is described. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB. 8 figures.

  9. Separation of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazacyclohexane by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Meng, Zi-Hui; Xue, Min; Qiu, Li-Li; Zhang, Chen-Fan

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by the Bachmann process leads to a mixture of both. The separation of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane from their mixture is difficult because the sizes and physical properties of these homologous compounds are similar. For this purpose, seven molecularly imprinted polymers have been synthesized for each explosive, and a selective solid-phase extraction procedure has been developed. A molecularly imprinted polymer, synthesized with 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane as the template, methacrylic acid as the monomer and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as the cross-linking agent in a molar ratio of 1:8:8 showed the best separation capability. A packed cartridge containing this polymer can be reused for 23 solid-phase extraction cycles without repacking, and the total separation capability toward 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane reached 6.81 mg per gram of polymer. 1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane was not detected in the separated 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane by high-performance liquid chromatography and vice versa. This newly developed method had the advantages of high recovery (100%) and purity, environmental friendliness, and room temperature operability. This study showed that some molecularly imprinted polymers that cannot absorb target analytes well in the solvent in which the polymers were polymerized might have high-binding capacity for the analytes and show imprinting effects in other solvents.

  10. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  11. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  12. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  13. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for...

  14. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues.

    PubMed

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-06-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration.

  15. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  16. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  17. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  18. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  19. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  20. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  1. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  2. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  3. [Headache: Otorhinolaryngological aspects].

    PubMed

    Michel, O

    2016-01-01

    Headache is the main symptom in a wide variety of diseases of which ear, nose and throat (ENT) entities are only a small fraction but are not reflected in the number of patients. Comprehensive knowledge of the clinical signs of the most common primary headaches, e. g. migraine, is therefore essential for the ENT specialist because the few patients with secondary headache from ENT-related causes must be identified. Reasons for confusing primary headache with e. g. sinusitis are mostly symptoms mediated by the trigeminal nerve, such as nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea because branches of the trigeminal nerve also innervate the meninges. The ENT-specific origin of headaches is characterized by clinical findings of physical organ disease; therefore, from an ENT perspective imaging should be part of the diagnostic procedure as normal imaging findings are indicative of primary headache, which would not normally be treated by an ENT specialist.

  4. Halitosis in Otorhinolaryngology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gokdogan, Ozan; Catli, Tolgahan; Ileri, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    Halitosis is a common and devastating condition, which may affect up to 1/3 of the population. It can be classified either as genuine halitosis, pseudohalitosis, or halitophobia. Genuine halitosis is more common and usually related to an organic pathology such as periodontitis. Malodour molecules such as sulfur compounds that arise from bacterial interactions generate the basis of oral malodour. Pathologies of the tongue, poor oral hygiene, deep caries, cryptic tonsillary hypertrophia, and postnasal drainage are also associated with halitosis. Gastro-esophageal pathologies and systemic problems are accepted as extra-oral sources of halitosis. There are various methods for the diagnosis of halitosis including objective and subjective methods. General oral hygiene recommendations and specific interventions for the related etiological factors have to be addressed in order to achieve satisfactory results after the treatment. Clinicians have to be aware of these aspects regarding this unfavorable condition to achieve the best results. PMID:25938086

  5. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. PMID:24692290

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis suppor...

  8. Identification of ovine ruminal microbes capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor tha...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  10. Primary Dermal Irritation of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Tetrazine Chemical Abstract 3ervice F ;istry V" 139800-00-2 Lewis--2 Structural formula: C-CH3 H C N-NO2 02 N-N H2 H4X-N Empirical formula: C6H11N7...CHEMICAL DATA Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazine Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 139800-00-2 Structural formula

  11. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  12. Non-Enzymatic Oligomerization of 3', 5' Cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Giovanna; Pino, Samanta; Timperio, Anna Maria; Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Nováková, Olga; Šedo, Ondrej; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies illustrate that short oligonucleotide sequences can be easily produced from nucleotide precursors in a template-free non-enzymatic way under dehydrating conditions, i.e. using essentially dry materials. Here we report that 3',5' cyclic AMP may also serve as a substrate of the reaction, which proceeds under moderate conditions yet with a lower efficiency than the previously reported oligomerization of 3',5' cyclic GMP. Optimally the oligomerization requires (i) a temperature of 80°C, (ii) a neutral to alkaline environment and (iii) a time on the order of weeks. Differences in the yield and required reaction conditions of the oligomerizations utilizing 3',5' cGMP and cAMP are discussed in terms of the crystal structures of the compounds. Polymerization of 3',5' cyclic nucleotides, whose paramount relevance in a prebiotic chemistry context has been widely accepted for decades, supports the possibility that the origin of extant genetic materials might have followed a direct uninterrupted path since its very beginning, starting from non-elaborately pre-activated monomer compounds and simple reactions.

  13. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  14. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  15. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  16. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  17. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt 3/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 3/5 ) tells us more about the plane. How much will it cost to run, and how will we learn to fly?

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,5-dimethoxystilbene analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our continuing effort to discover natural product-based pest management agents, derivatives of 3,5-dimethoxystilbene were synthesized yielding 27 new and 6 known compounds. Of these, compounds 11 and 12 showed strong Aedes aegypti larvicidal activity (LC50 14.7 and 16.2 ppm, respectively). In fur...

  19. [3,5-dimethoxyfenol--marker intoxication with Taxus baccata].

    PubMed

    Stríbrný, J; Dogosi, M; Snupárek, Z; Toupalík, P; Baláz, P; Bartos, P

    2010-07-01

    Autopsy findings of fatal intoxication with yew (Taxus baccata) are nonspecific. A presence of plant residues in the digestive tract can signalize yew intoxication. If yew decoction is consumed, plant residues are not found. In such a case the intoxication can be signalized by the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in biological material. Authors of this article describe the proof and quantification of the 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in two cases of fatal intoxication with yew. In both cases the liquid/liquid extraction and solid phase extraction was used. Extracts obtained from the acidic and basic environment were analysed. Extracts from the acidic environment were methylated and the extracts from the basic environment were acetylated. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the blood of both intoxicated persons the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol was proved and its concentration 82 ng/ml and 417 ng/ml was quantificated. In both cases the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol was also proved in the gastric contents and urine.

  20. Examining Core Curricula in Writing for Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtz, Jill; McCurdy, Merilee; Roehling, Julia V.

    2015-01-01

    Within a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, Tier 1 instruction requires the selection of research-based core curricula. However, many educators and administrators are not aware of high-quality core writing curricula. The authors assembled a rubric to assist schools in evaluating core writing curricula for Grades 3-5. Rubric components…

  1. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  2. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  3. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  4. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  5. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  6. Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways that…

  7. The Geometry of Almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagerschnig, Katja; Willse, Travis

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the classic problem of existence of Einstein metrics in a given conformal structure for the class of conformal structures inducedf Nurowski's construction by (oriented) (2, 3, 5) distributions. We characterize in two ways such conformal structures that admit an almost Einstein scale: First, they are precisely the oriented conformal structures c that are induced by at least two distinct oriented (2, 3, 5) distributions; in this case there is a 1-parameter family of such distributions that induce c. Second, they are characterized by the existence of a holonomy reduction to SU(1, 2), SL(3, R), or a particular semidirect product SL(2, R) ltimes Q_+, according to the sign of the Einstein constant of the corresponding metric. Via the curved orbit decomposition formalism such a reduction partitions the underlying manifold into several submanifolds and endows each ith a geometric structure. This establishes novel links between (2, 3, 5) distributions and many other geometries - several classical geometries among them - including: Sasaki-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues in dimension 5; Kähler-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues, Fefferman Lorentzian conformal structures, and para-Fefferman neutral conformal structures in dimension 4; CR geometry and the point geometry of second-order ordinary differential equations in dimension 3; and projective geometry in dimension 2. We describe a generalized Fefferman construction that builds from a 4-dimensional Kähler-Einstein or para-Kähler-Einstein structure a family of (2, 3, 5) distributions that induce the same (Einstein) conformal structure. We exploit some of these links to construct new examples, establishing the existence of nonflat almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) conformal structures for which the Einstein constant is positive and negative.

  8. Superselective microcoil embolization in severe intractable epistaxis: an analysis of 12 consecutive cases from an otorhinolaryngologic and an interventional neuroradiologic point of view.

    PubMed

    Seidel, D U; Remmert, S; Brassel, F; Schlunz-Hendann, M; Meila, D

    2015-11-01

    From 2006 to 2013, 12 patients with severe epistaxis refractory to prior conservative and surgical therapy were treated by superselective embolization of nasal arteries. Supersoft platinum microcoils with smallest diameters were used as the sole embolic agent in all cases. Coils were applied far distally in a stretched position for obtaining ideal target vessel superselectivity. The objective of this study is to evaluate efficacy and complications of superselective coil embolization for treatment of severe intractable epistaxis and to discuss results from an otorhinolaryngologic and an interventional neuroradiologic point of view. Retrospectively, all epistaxis inpatients between 2006 and 2013 were identified and subdivided by form of treatment: conservative, surgical and interventional therapy. Medical records of interventionally treated patients were reviewed for demographics, medical history, risk factors, clinical data, complications and short-term success, and patients were followed up for long-term success. Mean follow-up was 37 months. In 12 patients, 14 embolizations were carried out, with short-term success in 9 patients (75%), while early post-interventional rebleeding occurred in 3 patients (25%). Of 9 patients with short-term success, 1 died during stay, 1 was lost to follow-up and 1 had minor re-bleeding after 30 months. Six patients had short-term and long-term success. Before the first embolization, 3 ± 1 conservative and/or surgical procedures had been undertaken. Length of stay was 12.8 ± 3.6 days. 8 patients (67%) received red cell concentrates. Most frequent complications were mucosal damage and nasal pain, but these were related to repeated packing and surgery. Typical embolic complications as neurological or visual impairment or soft tissue necrosis were not observed in any patient. From the otorhinolaryngologic point of view, surgery is the treatment of choice in severe refractory epistaxis, but in case of repeated failure, superselective

  9. Biodegradation of the nitramine explosives hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in cold marine sediment under anaerobic and oligotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Greer, Charles W; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-02-01

    The in situ degradation of the two nitramine explosives, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), was evaluated using a mixture of RDX and HMX, incubated anaerobically at 10 degrees C with marine sediment from a previous military dumping site of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia, Canada. The RDX concentration (14.7 mg.L-1) in the aqueous phase was reduced by half in 4 days, while reduction of HMX concentration (1.2 mg.L-1) by half required 50 days. Supplementation with the carbon sources glucose, acetate, or citrate did not affect the removal rate of RDX but improved removal of HMX. Optimal mineralization of RDX and HMX was obtained in the presence of glucose. Using universally labeled (UL)-[14C]RDX, we obtained a carbon mass balance distributed as follows: CO2, 48%-58%; water soluble products, 27%-31%; acetonitrile extractable products, 2.0%-3.4%; and products covalently bound to the sediments and biomass, 8.9% (in the presence of glucose). The disappearance of RDX was accompanied by the formation of the mononitroso derivative hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and formaldehyde (HCHO) that subsequently disappeared. In the case of HMX, mineralization reached only 13%-27% after 115 days of incubation in the presence or absence of the carbon sources. The disappearance of HMX was also accompanied by the formation of the mononitroso derivative. The total population of psychrotrophic anaerobes that grew at 10 degrees C was 2.6 x 10(3) colony-forming units.(g sediment dry mass)-1, and some psychrotrophic sediment isolates were capable of degrading RDX under conditions similar to those used for sediments. Based on the distribution of products, we suggest that the sediment microorganisms degrade RDX and HMX via an initial reduction to the corresponding mononitroso derivative, followed by denitration and ring cleavage.

  10. Synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulioukina, N. S.; Makukhin, N. N.; Beletskaya, I. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers the currently available synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles. There are demonstrated significant advances in this field over the last 10-15 years caused by the use of the Bestmann-Ohira reagent [as well as (diazomethyl)phosphonates and phosphonylated hydrazonoyl halides] in reactions with diverse dipolarophiles. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of diazo compounds to α,β-unsaturated phosphonates as well as intramolecular heterocyclization of (1-diazoallyl)phosphonates and (3--diazo-1-propenyl)phosphonates are discussed. Synthetic potential of cyclocondensation of organophosphorus 1,3-dielectrophilic compounds with hydrazines is shown. Ways to introduce a phosphonate group into the pyrazole ring are considered. Examples of chemical transformations of 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles are reported. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  11. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector}′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector} ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ{sub SL}(ρ(r{sup -vector}),∇ρ(r{sup -vector}),r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′). γ{sub SL} depends on the electron density ρ(r{sup -vector}) at reference point r{sup -vector}, and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′ dependence of γ{sub SL} in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ{sub SL} yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms.

  12. Dendrimers Based on [1,3,5]-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    STEFFENSEN, MACKAY B.; HOLLINK, EMILY; KUSCHEL, FRANK; BAUER, MONIKA; SIMANEK, ERIC E.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive and chronological account of dendrimers based on [1,3,5]-triazines is provided. Synthetic strategies to install the triazine through cycloaddition, cyclotrimerization, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution of cyanuric chloride are discussed. Motivations and applications of these architectures are surveyed, including the preparation of supra-molecular assemblies in the solution and solid states and their use in medicines, advanced materials, and separations when anchored to solid supports. PMID:19953202

  13. Seeing experiments with the WIYN 3.5-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Daniel R.; Corson, Charles; Sawyer, David G.

    2000-08-01

    The WIYN 3.5 meter telescope uses active thermal control of the primary mirror and both active and passive ventilation of the observatory enclosure. These features have proven effective for delivering consistently excellent images, and make the WIYN facility an ideal test bed for quantitative measurements of the effects of temperature and ventilation on mirror and dome seeing. We describe the results of seeing experiments conducted over the first four years of operations at the WIYN Observatory.

  14. Intractable depression successfully treated with a combination of autogenic training and high-dose antidepressant in department of otorhinolaryngology: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Patients suffering from ear discomfort are commonly encountered in the department of otolaryngology. If various clinical examinations do not reveal any objective findings, then the patients are referred to the department of internal medicine or psychiatry. Psychotherapy is recommended in some cases. This paper describes the successful administration of autogenic training in a patient suffering from ear discomfort due to major depression. Case presentation We present a case of intractable depression that was successfully treated with a combination of psychotherapy, administered by a clinical psychologist, and high-dose antidepressant. The patient was a 36-year-old female with hearing discomfort in her left ear. In 2003, she experienced insomnia and an appetite loss, and her condition was diagnosed as major depression along with an avoidant personality disorder. Her depression has not been improved with antidepressant treatment for 3 years in department of psychosomatic medicine. She was referred to our department because of ear discomfort in her left ear. There was no abnormality in her physical examinations. She wanted to be treated in department of otorhinolaryngology. We increased the dose of fluvoxamine maleate up to 200 mg/day, and introduced cognitive therapy and autogenic training by a clinical psychologist. Eventually, her depressive state as well as the hearing complaint was markedly alleviated. Conclusion Autogenic training can be a viable and acceptable treatment option for patients who fail to respond to other therapies. This case emphasizes the importance of autogenic training as a method to control physical symptom of depression. PMID:20184684

  15. The longstanding challenge of the nanocrystallization of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Research efforts for realizing safer and higher performance energetic materials are continuing unabated all over the globe. While the thermites – pyrotechnic compositions of an oxide and a metal – have been finely tailored thanks to progress in other sectors, organic high explosives are still stagnating. The most symptomatic example is the longstanding challenge of the nanocrystallization of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Recent advances in crystallization processes and milling technology mark the beginning of a new area which will hopefully lead the pyroelectric industry to finally embrace nanotechnology. This work reviews the previous and current techniques used to crystallize RDX at a submicrometer scale or smaller. Several key points are highlighted then discussed, such as the smallest particle size and its morphology, and the scale-up capacity and the versatility of the process. PMID:28326236

  16. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S.; Perkins, Edward J.; Meyer, Sharon A.

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  17. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  18. 3.5 D temperature model of a coal stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Corumluoglu, O.; Kalayci, I.; Sensogut, C.

    2008-07-01

    Overproduced coal mines that are not sold should remain in coal stock sites. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stock yards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research, a coal stock which was 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m in height, with a weight of 120 tons, was monitored to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over the two layers in the stockpile. Temperatures measured by a specially designed mechanism were then stored into a computer every 3 h for a period of 3 months. Afterward, this dataset was used to delineate 3.5 D temporal temperature distribution models for these two levels, and they were used to analyze and interpret what was seen in these models to derive some conclusions. It was openly seen, followed, and analyzed that internal temperature changes in the stockpile went up to 31{sup o}C by 3.5 D models created for this research.

  19. Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus encodes a functional 3'-5' exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan-Hui; de Jong, Jondavid G; Makhmoudova, Amina; Arif, Basil M; Krell, Peter J

    2004-12-01

    The Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) encodes an ORF homologous to type III 3'-5' exonucleases. The CfMNPV v-trex ORF was cloned into the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression-vector system, expressed in insect Sf21 cells with an N-terminal His tag and purified to homogeneity by using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Biochemical characterization of the purified V-TREX confirmed that this viral protein is a functional 3'-5' exonuclease that cleaves oligonucleotides from the 3' end in a stepwise, distributive manner, suggesting a role in proofreading during viral DNA replication and DNA repair. Enhanced degradation of a 5'-digoxigenin- or 5'-(32)P-labelled oligo(dT)(30) substrate was observed at increasing incubation times or increased amounts of V-TREX. The 3'-excision activity of V-TREX was maximal at alkaline pH (9.5) in the presence of 5 mM MgCl(2), 2 mM dithiothreitol and 0.1 mg BSA ml(-1).

  20. ANIMO 3.5: User`s guide for the ANIMO version 3.5 nutrient leaching model

    SciTech Connect

    Kroes, J.; Roelsma, J.

    1998-12-31

    This document presents a description of the use of the nutrient leaching model ANIMO (Agricultural Nutrient Model) version 3.5 with special emphasis for input instructions. Each input parameter is characterized by its unit, range, data type, variable name in computer code and symbol in theoretical description, Program outputs and program execution are briefly given. An example is presented with values of input parameters and model results. A technical program description is given as a brief description of program structure, nomenclature, and source code.

  1. 3'-5' tRNAHis Guanylyltransferase in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Ilka; Randau, Lennart; Tomko, Robert J.; Söll, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The identity of the histidine specific transfer RNA (tRNAHis) is largely determined by a unique guanosine residue at position −1. In eukaryotes and archaea, the tRNAHis guanylyltransferase (Thg1) catalyzes 3'-5' addition of G to the 5'-terminus of tRNAHis. Here, we show that Thg1 also occurs in bacteria. We demonstrate in vitro Thg1 activity for recombinant enzymes from the two bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Myxococcus xanthus and provide a closer investigation of several archaeal Thg1. The reaction mechanism of prokaryotic Thg1 differs from eukaryotic enzymes, as it does not require ATP. Complementation of a yeast thg1 knockout strain with bacterial Thg1 verified in vivo activity and suggests a relaxed recognition of the discriminator base in bacteria. PMID:20650272

  2. Alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine: M06-2X investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of possible environmental contaminant RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was investigated computationally at the PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Results obtained show that the initial deprotonation of RDX by hydroxide leads to nitrite elimination and formation of a denitrated cyclohexene intermediate. Further nucleophilic attack by hydroxide onto cyclic CN double bond results in ring opening. It was shown that the presence of hydroxide is crucial for this stage of the reaction. The dominant decomposition pathway leading to a ring-opened intermediate was found to be formation of 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal. Hydrolytic transformation of its byproduct (methylene nitramine) leads to end products such as formaldehyde and nitrous oxide. Computational results are in a good agreement with experimental data on hydrolysis of RDX, suggesting that 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, nitrite, formaldehyde, and nitrous oxide are main products for early stages of RDX decomposition under alkaline conditions.

  3. Microbially Mediated Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5- Triazine by Extracellular Electron Shuttling Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Man Jae; Finneran, Kevin T.

    2006-01-01

    The potential for humic substances to stimulate the reduction of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was investigated. This study describes a novel approach for the remediation of RDX-contaminated environments using microbially mediated electron shuttling. Incubations without cells demonstrated that reduced AQDS transfers electrons directly to RDX, which was reduced without significant accumulation of the nitroso intermediates. Three times as much reduced AQDS (molar basis) was needed to completely reduce RDX. The rate and extent of RDX reduction differed greatly among electron shuttle/acceptor amendments for resting cell suspensions of Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor. AQDS and purified humic substances stimulated the fastest rate of RDX reduction. The nitroso metabolites did not significantly accumulate in the presence of AQDS or humic substances. RDX reduction in the presence of poorly crystalline Fe(III) was relatively slow and metabolites transiently accumulated. However, adding humic substances or AQDS to Fe(III)-containing incubations increased the reduction rates. Cells of G. metallireducens alone reduced RDX; however, the rate of RDX reduction was slow relative to AQDS-amended incubations. These data suggest that extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX transformation is not organism specific but rather is catalyzed by multiple Fe(III)- and humic-reducing species. Electron shuttle-mediated RDX reduction may eventually become a rapid and effective cleanup strategy in both Fe(III)-rich and Fe(III)-poor environments. PMID:16957213

  4. Treatment of otorhinolaryngological manifestations of three rare genetic syndromes: Branchio-Oculo-Facial (BOF), Ectrodactyly Ectodermal dysplasia Clefting (EEC) and focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome).

    PubMed

    Skarzynski, Henryk; Podskarbi-Fayette, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Genetic background and characteristic symptoms of three children with rare genetic syndromes: Ectrodactyly Ectodermal dysplasia Clefting (EEC), Branchio-Oculo-Facial (BOF) and focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) were outlined. All patients presented common otorhinolaryngological features of bilateral hearing impairment and dermal problems. Diagnostic protocol and treatment strategies for all three syndromes were presented and discussed. Skin lesions of the head and neck and degree of hearing loss were identified in clinical examination and by audiological methods. Treatment of hypoacousis and skin disorders were the primary issues in presented cases. In both the EEC syndrome and FDH our priority was to achieve and maintain hearing at the level of social efficiency. Patient with the Branchio-Oculo-Facial syndrome received a cochlear implant at the age of 12 months and was surgically treated for bilateral retroauricular fistulas. In both cases of dysplasia conservative treatment and otosurgery were applied. Results of treatment after 12 months are presented. In all patients hearing result provided good social skills in communication and a good local condition was achieved. Possibilities for future interventions were mentioned and necessity for medical follow-up and rehabilitation were stressed as key issues in maintaining results achieved with treatment presented in this study. Patient with FDH underwent CO(2) laser treatment for papillomatous lesions on her face and neck. Good aesthetic result without recurrence in follow-up examinations was achieved. Baby with the Branchio-Oculo-Facial syndrome is rehabilitated in our Cochlear Implant Center and the fistulas have healed without complications. Due to the rarity and multiplicity of symptoms in presented syndromes a standard therapy has not been established yet. However, it is of crucial importance in such cases to focus on hearing improvement in order to reach and maintain hearing at the level of social

  5. [Interaction of adenosin-3',5'-cyclosulfate with adenosine-3'5'-cyclophosphate dependent protein kinase and phosphodiesterase].

    PubMed

    Severin, E S; Tkachuk, V A; Guliaev, N N

    1976-02-01

    Interaction of adenosine-3',5'-cyclosulphate (cAMS) cAMP analogue, having sulphur atom instead of phosphorus in a six-term cyclic system with pig brain proteinkinase and rabbit skeletal muscle phosphodiesterase is studied. The affinity of proteinkinase to cAMS was found to be in 25000 times lower than the affinity of cAMP, the affinity of cAMS to the active site of phosphodiesterase being high enough. It is suggested that in the regulatory subunit of proteinkinase positive kationic group participates in nucleotide binding by interacting with negative oxygen atom of six-term cyclophosphate system. There is no such a group in the active site of phospodiesterase, because the absence of negative charge in case of cAMS only slightly affects the constant of cAMS binding by phosphodiesterase.

  6. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electron attachment to hydrated oligonucleotide dimers: guanylyl-3',5'-cytidine and cytidylyl-3',5'-guanosine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2010-05-03

    The dinucleoside phosphate deoxycytidylyl-3',5'-deoxyguanosine (dCpdG) and deoxyguanylyl-3',5'-deoxycytidine (dGpdC) systems are among the largest to be studied by reliable theoretical methods. Exploring electron attachment to these subunits of DNA single strands provides significant progress toward definitive predictions of the electron affinities of DNA single strands. The adiabatic electron affinities of the oligonucleotides are found to be sequence dependent. Deoxycytidine (dC) on the 5' end, dCpdG, has larger adiabatic electron affinity (AEA, 0.90 eV) than dC on the 3' end of the oligomer (dGpdC, 0.66 eV). The geometric features, molecular orbital analyses, and charge distribution studies for the radical anions of the cytidine-containing oligonucleotides demonstrate that the excess electron in these anionic systems is dominantly located on the cytosine nucleobase moiety. The pi-stacking interaction between nucleobases G and C seems unlikely to improve the electron-capturing ability of the oligonucleotide dimers. The influence of the neighboring base on the electron-capturing ability of cytosine should be attributed to the intensified proton accepting-donating interaction between the bases. The present investigation demonstrates that the vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of the radical anions of the oligonucleotides dGpdC and dCpdG are significantly larger than those of the corresponding nucleotides. Consequently, reactions with low activation barriers, such as those for O-C sigma bond and N-glycosidic bond breakage, might be expected for the radical anions of the guanosine-cytosine mixed oligonucleotides.

  8. Generating technique for U(1){sup 3} 5D supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Scherbluk, Nikolai G.

    2008-09-15

    We develop a generating technique for solutions of U(1){sup 3} 5D supergravity via dimensional reduction to three dimensions. This theory, which recently attracted attention in connection with black rings, can be viewed as a consistent truncation of the T{sup 6} compactification of the 11-dimensional supergravity. Its further reduction to three dimensions accompanied by dualization of the vector fields leads to a 3D gravity coupled sigma model on the homogeneous space SO(4,4)/SO(4)xSO(4) or SO(4,4)/SO(2,2)xSO(2,2) depending on the signature of the three-space. We construct a 8x8 matrix representation of these cosets in terms of lower-dimensional blocks. Using it we express a solution generating transformations in terms of potentials and identify those preserving asymptotic conditions relevant to black holes and black rings. As an application we derive the doubly rotating black hole solution with three independent charges. A suitable contraction of the above cosets is used to construct a new representation of the coset G{sub 2(2)}/(SL(2,R)xSL(2,R)) relevant for minimal five-dimensional supergravity.

  9. Staphylococcus epidermidis Csm1 is a 3'-5' exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Ramia, Nancy F; Tang, Li; Cocozaki, Alexis I; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) offer an adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from nucleic acid invaders through an RNA-mediated nucleic acid cleavage mechanism. Our knowledge of nucleic acid cleavage mechanisms is limited to three examples of widely different ribonucleoprotein particles that target either DNA or RNA. Staphylococcus epidermidis belongs to the Type III-A CRISPR system and has been shown to interfere with invading DNA in vivo. The Type III-A CRISPR system is characterized by the presence of Csm1, a member of Cas10 family of proteins, that has a permuted histidine-aspartate domain and a nucleotidyl cyclase-like domain, both of which contain sequence features characteristic of nucleases. In this work, we show in vitro that a recombinant S. epidermidis Csm1 cleaves single-stranded DNA and RNA exonucleolytically in the 3'-5' direction. We further showed that both cleavage activities are divalent-metal-dependent and reside in the GGDD motif of the cyclase-like domain. Our data suggest that Csm1 may work in the context of an effector complex to degrade invading DNA and participate in CRISPR RNA maturation.

  10. Bioavailability of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) to the Praire Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Driver, Crystal J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Harvey, Scott D.

    2006-07-01

    Estimating risk to wildlife requires that measures of exposure be equivalent to that of the laboratory studies from which toxic responses were observed. Exposure measures are often based on modeled estimates of uptake through the food web. These modeled estimates use largely untested assumptions that can lead to inaccurate, uncertain, and unreliable estimates of exposure. Recently, concerns have been raised over the potential bioavailability and biotransfer of munitions or energetics materials such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). RDX is more recalcitrant in the soil, may remain as the parent compound for extended periods of time, and is rapidly taken up by the roots of higher plants and partitioned predominantly into the above ground, herbivore-accessible tissues. This study assessed plant incorporated [14C]-RDX and plant derived [14C]-RDX-metabolites ingestion by a representative hindgut herbivore, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The animals were fed the labeled chow (≤10 g/ day max) for five or seven days followed by a six or four day chase period with the control chow prior to final weighing and sacrifice. Animal excreta including feces, urine, and respired CO2 were collected and measured. Greater than 95% of all label presented to the voles was recovered in the summed excreta. Seventy-four percent of the label in the total excreta was found in the fecal non-absorbed bulk. This means that greater than 20% of the presented 14C-RDX and plant-derived 14C-RDX-metabolites were absorbed by the animal’s digestive tracts over the time course of the experiment and modified prior to release. These materials were either metabolized to 14CO2 (8 to 10% of the total label) or removed as nitrogenous waste through the kidneys (10 to 14%). The feeding regimes were followed by a rapid, 2 to 3 day, clearing of label from the bulk feces with the cessation of exposure. Both 14C-urine and 14CO2 excretion continued after the feces cleared indicating

  11. Vibrational spectra of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole and deuterated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Orza, J M; García, M V; Alkorta, I; Elguero, J

    2000-07-01

    The infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole have been recorded in the vapor, liquid (melt and solution) and solid states. Two deuterated derivatives, C5H7N-ND and C5D7N-NH, were also studied in solid state and in solutions. Instrumental resolution was relatively low, 2.0 cm(-1) in the IR and approximately 2.7 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. The solids are made of cyclic hydrogen-bonded trimers. These trimers, present also in chloroform and acetone solutions, give rise to characteristic high absorption IR spectra in the 3200-2500 cm(-1) region, related to Fermi resonance involving nu(NH) vibrations. Bands from trimers are not present in water solutions but these solutions show spectral features similar in several ways to those of the trimer, attributable to solvent-bonded complexes. Evidence of H-bonding interactions with the other solvents is also visible in the high-frequency region. The two very intense bands in the Raman spectra of the solids appearing at 115 and 82 cm(-1) in the parent compound are also connected with a trimer formation. To interpret the experimental data, ab initio computations of the harmonic vibrational frequencies and IR and Raman intensities were carried out using the Gaussian 94 program package after full optimization at the RHF/6-31G* level for the three monomeric compounds as well as for three models of the trimer, with C3h, C3 and C1 symmetry. The combined use of experiments and computations allow a firm assignment of most of the observed bands for all the systems. In general, the agreement between theory and experiment is very good, with the exception of the IR and Raman intensities of some transitions. Particularly noticeable is the failure of the theoretical calculation in accounting for the high intensity of the Raman bands of the solid about 115 and 82 cm(-1).

  12. 0.4-3.5-micrometer Observations of 4179 Toutatis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, E. S.; Britt, D. T.; Bell, J. F.; Binzel, R. P.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    1993-07-01

    We obtained nearly simultaneous observations of 4179 Toutatis over a 0.3-3.5 micrometer wavelength range on 4 January 1993 UT. Howell obtained a 1.2-2.5 micrometer spectrophotometry using the Multiple Mirror Telescope in Arizona. Britt and Bell obtained narrowband photometry in the 3-micrometer region as well as broadband JHK photometry from the Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii. Binzel measured the visible spectrum using a CCD spectrograph at the McGraw-Hill Observatory in Arizona. Using V photometry reported by Pravec in the Czech Republic on adjacent nights [1], we were able to combine all these spectral regions. The rotation period of this object is approximately 10 days, so the time differences between the measurements of different spectral regions are negligible. Tholen has classified 4179 Toutatis as an S-type asteroid based on visible photometry. We measure a pyroxene absorption band near 2 micrometers, present in most S-type asteroid spectra. Unfortunately, a gap in spectral coverage prevents us from determining the characteristics of the 1-micrometer absorption band accurately. The spectral slope as measured from 1.25 to 2.2 micrometers is 6-10%, which is modest compared to other S-type asteroids. The spectrum of this asteroid is similar to other near-Earth S-type asteroids that have been observed in the near-infrared wavelength region. On 4 January 1993, 4179 Toutatis was 0.182 AU from the Earth, and 1.158 AU from the Sun. At this solar distance, the thermal emission contributes substantially to the flux at 3 micrometers. The determination of thermal emission is complicated by the slow rotation rate and the irregular shape of this object that was revealed by radar observations [2]. Preliminary results suggest that no 3-micrometer absorption feature is present, indicating that this object is anhydrous. Using these spectral data, we will compare 4179 Toutatis to other S-type asteroids, both in the main belt and the near-Earth environment. References

  13. The Role of Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress in 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) Induced Nephrotoxicity in Isolated Renal Cortical Cells from Male Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Christopher R.; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Debbie; Ward, Dakota; Ball, John; Anestis, Dianne; Valentovic, Monica; Rankin, Gary O.

    2016-01-01

    Among the mono- and dichloroanilines, 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of renal biotransformation in 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity is unknown. The current study was designed to determine the in vitro nephrotoxic potential of 3,5-DCA in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) obtained from male Fischer 344 rats, and the role of renal bioactivation and oxidative stress in 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity. IRCC (~4 million cells/ml) from male rats were exposed to 3,5-DCA (0-1.0 mM) for up to 120 min. In IRCC, 3,5-DCA was cytotoxic at 1.0 mM by 60 min as evidenced by the increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but 120 min was required for 3,5-DCA 0.5 mM to increase LDH release. In subsequent studies, IRCC were exposed to a pretreatment (antioxidant or enzyme inhibitor) prior to exposure to 3,5-DCA (1.0 mM) for 90 min. Cytotoxicity induced by 3,5-DCA was attenuated by pretreatment with inhibitors of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; methimazole, N-octylamine), cytochrome P450 (CYP; piperonyl butoxide, metyrapone), or peroxidase (indomethacin, mercaptosuccinate) enzymes. Use of more selective CYP inhibitors suggested that the CYP 2C family contributed to 3,5-DCA bioactivation. Antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, pyruvate) also attenuated 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity, but oxidized glutathione levels and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratios were not increased. These results indicate that 3,5-DCA may be activated via several renal enzyme systems to toxic metabolites, and that free radicals, but not oxidative stress, contribute to 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. PMID:26808022

  14. Novel dinuclear dimethylamido-3,5-dimethylpyrazolato and tetranuclear dimethylamido-3,5-dimethylpyrazolato-polyoxo zirconium(IV) complexes. Synthesis and structural characterisation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Martial; Mosquera, Marta E G; Cuenca, Tomás

    2009-04-14

    The dinuclear dimethylamido-tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolato)-zirconium(IV) complex [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)3(NMe2)]2 1 is prepared by treatment of [Zr(NMe2)4] with 3 equivalents of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (3,5-Me2PzH) with elimination of dimethylamine. When [Zr(NMe2)4] reacted with 2 equivalents of 3,5-Me2PzH, the bis(dimethylamido)-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolato)zirconium(IV) compound [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)2(NMe2)2]2 2 is obtained. Hydrolysis of [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)3(NMe2)]2 in wet toluene affords the tetranuclear oxo compound [Zr4(eta2-3,5-Me2Pz)4(NMe2)2(mu3-O)2(mu2-3,5-Me2Pz)4(mu2-NMe2)2] . All synthesised compounds are characterised by NMR spectroscopic and analytical methods. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis has established the molecular structures of 1 and 4.

  15. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave.

    PubMed

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M

    1977-07-01

    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed.

  16. 75 FR 55327 - Tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione (Dazomet); Notice of Receipt of Request to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... withdraws its request. If this request is granted, any sale, distribution, or use of products listed in this... voluntarily amend two tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione product registrations to terminate...- thione products registered for use in the United States. EPA intends to grant this request at the...

  17. Trinuclear rare earth metal complexes based on 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis inositol as catalysts for the hydrolysis of phosphodiesters.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ahmed M; Calatayud Sala, José Miguel; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2011-02-14

    Trinuclear rare-earth metal complexes [M₃(taciH₋₃)₂](3+) (M = La(3+), Y(3+)), based on a rigid polyamino-polyalcohol ligand 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol (taci), are proven to be efficient catalysts for the hydrolysis of 2-hydroxypropyl-4-nitrophenyl phophate (HPNP), a commonly used RNA model system.

  18. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  19. Acute Oral Toxicity of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine (Sex) in Male and Female Rats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    flame proof cabinet at room temperature. %.. White--2 Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine Chemical Abstract Service...Trinitrocyclotetramethylenetetramine Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 13980-00-2 Structural formula: 0 11 C-CH 0 2 N-N CH2 HC-N NO 2 , Empirical formula: C6H1

  20. Aromatic fluorine compounds. I. The synthesis of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluorides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.

    1944-01-01

    The preparation of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluoride and some of their intermediates is described. 3,5-Dinitrobenzotrifluoride was prepared from 3-nitrobenzotrifluoride with a fuming nitric-sulfuric acid mixture.

  1. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5): interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Guillet, E.G.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C/sub 3/-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C/sub 3/-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending in the degree of polarization. The results show that a mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biologicl membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C/sub 3/-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  2. DiO-C3-(5) and DiS-C3-(5): Interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Guillet, E G; Kimmich, G A

    1981-03-15

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C3-(5) and diS-C3-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C3-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C3-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C3-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending on the degree of polarization. The results show that mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biological membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C3-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C3-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  3. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  4. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  5. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  6. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  7. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  8. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  9. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  10. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  11. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  12. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  13. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  19. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  20. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  1. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  3. Excited State Processes for Aqueous Rh(NH3)5Cl(2+) and Rh(NH3)5Br(2+).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-10

    white precipitate of Rh(NH3)5(H20)) Br3 was collected and dried overnight at 110-0 C. The resulting yellow product was recrystallized from water/HClO4 to...aquation. In all cases, product concentrations were corrected for the usually small degree of dark or thermal reaction. Pulsed Laser Experiments. The...direct photochemical production . According to Palmer and Harris [16] the reaction Rh(NH 3)5(OH) 2+ + C02(aq) = Rh(NH 3)5(Co3) + + H+ occurs with a rate

  4. Vibrational properties, phonon spectrum and related thermal parameters of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wen; Zhang, Weibin; Zong, Hehou; Gao, Guofang; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational spectrum, phonon dispersion curve, and phonon density of states (DOS) of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (β-HMX) crystal were obtained by molecular simulation and calculations. As results, it was found that the peaks at low frequency (0-2.5 THz) are comparable with the experimental Terahertz absorption and the molecular vibrational modes are in agreement with previous reports. Thermodynamic properties including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity as functions of temperature were obtained based on the calculated phonon spectrum. The heat capacity at normal temperature was calculated using linear fitting method, with a result consistent with experiments. Graphical Abstract Phonon spectrum and heat capacity of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine from DFT calculation.

  5. Characterization of Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) with Municipal Anaerobic Sludge†

    PubMed Central

    Hawari, Jalal; Halasz, Annamaria; Sheremata, Tamara; Beaudet, Sylvie; Groom, Carl; Paquet, Louise; Rhofir, Chakib; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in liquid cultures with municipal anaerobic sludge showed that at least two degradation routes were involved in the disappearance of the cyclic nitramine. In one route, RDX was reduced to give the familiar nitroso derivatives hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX). In the second route, two novel metabolites, methylenedinitramine [(O2NNH)2CH2] and bis(hydroxymethyl)nitramine [(HOCH2)2NNO2], formed and were presumed to be ring cleavage products produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of the inner C—N bonds of RDX. None of the above metabolites accumulated in the system, and they disappeared to produce nitrous oxide (N2O) as a nitrogen-containing end product and formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (MeOH), and formic acid (HCOOH) that in turn disappeared to produce CH4 and CO2 as carbon-containing end products. PMID:10831452

  6. Untemplated nonenzymatic polymerization of 3',5'cGMP: a plausible route to 3',5'-linked oligonucleotides in primordia.

    PubMed

    Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Giorgi, Alessandra; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Pino, Samanta; Costanzo, Giovanna

    2015-02-19

    The high-energy 3',5' phosphodiester linkages conserved in 3',5' cyclic GMPs offer a genuine solution for monomer activation required by the transphosphorylation reactions that could lead to the emergence of the first simple oligonucleotide sequences on the early Earth. In this work we provide an in-depth characterization of the effect of the reaction conditions on the yield of the polymerization reaction of 3',5' cyclic GMPs both in aqueous environment as well as under dehydrating conditions. We show that the threshold temperature of the polymerization is about 30 °C lower under dehydrating conditions than in solution. In addition, we present a plausible exergonic reaction pathway for the polymerization reaction, which involves transient formation of anionic centers at the O3' positions of the participating riboses. We suggest that excess Na(+) cations inhibit the polymerization reaction because they block the anionic mechanism via neutralizing the negatively charged O3'. Our experimental findings are compatible with a prebiotic scenario, where gradual desiccation of the environment could induce polymerization of 3',5' cyclic GMPs synthesized in liquid.

  7. Intramolecular C-arylation of 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-pentofuranose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Martin, O R

    1987-12-31

    Upon treatment with tin(IV) chloride, 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)pentofuranose (D-ribo, L-arabino) undergo intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the aromatic substituent at O-2 to give unusual internal C-glycosyl compounds (isochroman derivatives) in high yield. The final products are also partially debenzylated at O-3 or O-5 (up to 25%) under these conditions. By contrast, the corresponding methyl glycosides are poor substrates for the intramolecular C-arylation reaction, as methyl 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-beta-D-ribofuranoside was found to give preponderantly methyl 3,5-di-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-alpha-D-ribofuranoside (11) (49%), and the C-arylation product in 30% yield only in the presence of the same Lewis acid. The competitive formation of 11 is thought to be due to the anomerization of the substrate leading to a tin(IV) complex coordinated with O-1 and O-2, which promoted the cleavage of the benzyl group at O-2. These reactions provide a novel and efficient C-arylation method and suggest a new approach to selectively protected D-ribofuranose derivatives. Evidence for the uncommon C-arylated structure of the new products was gained from their 1H- and 13C(APT)-n.m.r. spectra.

  8. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  9. AquaSMART: Water & Boating Safety, Grades 3-5. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a program designed to teach water and boating safety to students in grades 3-5. The written curriculum accompanies a video, AquaSMART 3-5. The theme of the curriculum is AquaSMART. To become AquaSMART, students must learn 10 basic lessons for water and boating safety. The written curriculum begins with an overview…

  10. The 3.5 micron light curves of long period variable stars. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Infrared observations at an effective wavelength of 3.5 microns of a selected group of long period variable (LPV) stars are presented. Mira type and semiregular stars of M, S, and C spectral classifications were monitored throughout the full cycle of variability. Although the variable infrared radiation does not exactly repeat in intensity or time, the regularity is sufficient to produce mean 3.5 micron light curves. The 3.5 micron maximum radiation lags the visual maximum by about one-seventh of a cycle, while the minimum 3.5 micron intensity occurs nearly one-half cycle after infrared maximum. In some stars, there are inflections or humps on the ascending portion of the 3.5 micron light curve which may also be seen in the visual variations.

  11. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  12. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-21

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s.

  13. Ab initio study of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abdelsalam; Ågren, Hans; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) C 3H 6N 6O 6 molecule is studied by ab initio methods. The results are compared to available experimental observations and against calculations and experimental observations of the conventional non-resonant Raman spectrum for RDX. It is found that all intense bands in the observed CARS spectrum and all Raman differential cross sections are well reproduced by the calculations. The features of the resonant CARS signal vary strongly from the corresponding Raman signal, and are obtained with a considerably larger cross section, a fact that could further facilitate the use of CARS spectroscopy in applications of stand-off detection of gaseous samples at ultra-low concentrations.

  14. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s.

  15. Cosubstrate independent mineralization of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a Desulfovibrio species under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Clint M; Adrian, Neal R

    2009-02-01

    Past handling practices associated with the manufacturing and processing of the high explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has resulted in extensive environmental contamination. In-situ biodegradation is a promising technology for remediating RDX contaminated sites but often relies on the addition of a cosubstrate. A sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from an RDX-degrading enrichment culture was studied for its ability to grow on RDX as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen and for its ability to mineralize RDX in the absence of a cosubstrate. The results showed the isolate degraded 140 muM RDX in 63 days when grown on RDX as a carbon source. Biomass within the carbon limited culture increased 9-fold compared to the RDX unamended controls. When the isolate was incubated with RDX as sole source of nitrogen it degraded 160 muM RDX in 41 days and exhibited a 4-fold increase in biomass compared to RDX unamended controls. Radiolabeled studies under carbon limiting conditions with (14)C-hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine confirmed mineralization of the cyclic nitramine. After 60 days incubation 26% of the radiolabel was recovered as (14)CO(2), while in the control bottles less than 1% of the radiolabel was recovered as (14)CO(2). Additionally, approximately 2% of the radiolabeled carbon was found to be associated with the biomass. The 16S rDNA gene was sequenced and identified the isolate as a novel species of Desulfovibrio, having a 95.1% sequence similarity to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. This is the first known anaerobic bacterium capable of mineralizing RDX when using it as a carbon and energy source for growth.

  16. A Microring Resonator Sensor for Sensitive Detection of 1,3,5-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    PubMed Central

    Orghici, Rozalia; Lützow, Peter; Burgmeier, Jörg; Koch, Jan; Heidrich, Helmut; Schade, Wolfgang; Welschoff, Nina; Waldvogel, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    A microring resonator sensor device for sensitive detection of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is presented. It is based on the combination of a silicon microring resonator and tailored receptor molecules. PMID:22163576

  17. Photochemical carbonylation of adamantanes; simple synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitroadamantane

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.; Li, J.; Gelber, N.

    1995-12-01

    1,3,5,7-Tetranitroadamantane (2) was obtained from the irradiation of a mixture of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (1) and oxalylchloride followed by conversion of chlorocarbonyl functions to nitro groups using the method of Eaton et. al.

  18. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Operational Requirements of the Air Force Otorhinolaryngology Augmentation Team (FFENT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-11

    CRUSH INJURY OF NECK 4 461.0 AC MAXILLARY SINUSITIS 1 11 910.8 SUPERFIC INJ HEAD NEC 14 14 527.9 SALIVARY GLAND DIS NOS 1 3 528.9 UNSPECIFIED...NASAL SOL .25% 15ML BT BT 1 0 0.11 0.008 3.5 0 0 0 D 6505007540374 POVIDONE-IODINE TOP SOL 1% 1GL BT 3 0 30 0.9 24.54 0 0 0 B 6505003685867 POVIDONE...IODINE TOP SOL 32 OZ BT 6S BT 1 5 2 0.27 24.78 10 1.35 123.9 D 6505002999672 SILVER NITRATE APPLICATORS 6 INCH 100S CO 1 0 0.1279 0.15 19.28 0 0 0

  19. G3.5 PAMAM Dendrimers Enhance Transepithelial Transport of SN38 while minimizing Gastrointestinal Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Deborah S.; Vijayalakshmi, Nirmalkumar; Swaan, Peter W.; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2011-01-01

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown promise in oral drug delivery. Conjugation of SN38 to PAMAM dendrimers has the potential to improve its oral absorption while minimizing gastrointestinal toxicity. In this work we evaluated G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer-SN38 conjugates with ester-linked glycine and β-alanine spacers for their suitability in oral therapy of hepatic colorectal cancer metastases. G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was mostly stable while G3.5-Glycine-SN38 showed 10%, 20%, and 56% SN38 release in simulated gastric, intestinal and liver environments for up to 6, 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Short-term treatment of Caco-2 cells with G3.5-SN38 conjugates did not reduce cell viability, while comparable concentrations of SN38 caused significant cytotoxicity. G3.5-Glycine-SN38 and G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 showed IC50 values of 0.60 and 3.59 μM, respectively, in HT-29 cells treated for 48 hours, indicating the efficacy of the drug delivery system in colorectal cancer cells with longer incubation time. Both conjugates increased SN38 transepithelial transport compared to the free drug. Transport of G3.5-Glycine-SN38 was highly concentration-dependent whereas transport of G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was concentration-independent, highlighting the influence of drug loading and spacer chemistry on transport mechanism. Together these results show that PAMAM dendrimers have the potential to improve the oral bioavailability of potent anti-cancer drugs. PMID:21115079

  20. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  1. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-01-01

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1+ and Rab7+ vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1+perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13023.001 PMID:27008179

  2. Reversal of Trimethyltin-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits by 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin Yong; Park, Seon Kyeong; Guo, Tian Jiao; Ha, Jeong Su; Lee, Du Sang; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Uk; Kim, Dae Ok

    2016-01-01

    The antiamnesic effect of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA) as the main phenolic compound in Artemisia argyi H. extract on cognitive dysfunction induced by trimethyltin (TMT) (7.1 μg/kg of body weight; intraperitoneal injection) was investigated in order to assess its ameliorating function in mice. In several behavioral tests, namely, the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze (MWM) test, 3,5-diCQA significantly ameliorated learning and memory deficits. After the behavioral tests, brain tissues from the mice were analyzed to characterize the basis of the neuroprotective effect. Acetylcholine (ACh) levels increased, whereas the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased upon administration of 3,5-diCQA. In addition, 3,5-diCQA effectively protected against an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, an increase in the oxidized glutathione (GSH) ratio, and a decline of total superoxide dismutase (SOD) level. 3,5-diCQA may prevent neuronal apoptosis through the protection of mitochondrial activities and the repression of apoptotic signaling molecules such as p-Akt, BAX, and p-tau (Ser 404). PMID:28105250

  3. The phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2)-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC) regulates metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Bong-Kwan; Emr, Scott D

    2013-07-12

    Glucose/carbon metabolism is a fundamental cellular process in living cells. In response to varying environments, eukaryotic cells reprogram their glucose/carbon metabolism between aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and/or gluconeogenesis. The distinct type of glucose/carbon metabolism that a cell carries out has significant effects on the cell's proliferation and differentiation. However, it is poorly understood how the reprogramming of glucose/carbon metabolism is regulated. Here, we report a novel endosomal PI(3,5)P2 lipid-dependent regulatory mechanism that is required for metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Certain gluconeogenesis genes, such as FBP1 (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1) and ICL1 (encoding isocitrate lyase 1) are under control of the Mig1 repressor and Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex. We previously identified the PI(3,5)P2-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC), a mechanism to convert Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor to Cti6-Cyc8-Tup1 coactivator. We demonstrate that the PIPTC plays a critical role for transcriptional activation of FBP1 and ICL1. Furthermore, without the PIPTC, the Cat8 and Sip4 transcriptional activators cannot be efficiently recruited to the promoters of FBP1 and ICL1, suggesting a key role for the PIPTC in remodulating the chromatin architecture at the promoters. Our findings expand our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for metabolic reprogramming in eukaryotes to include key regulation steps outside the nucleus. Given that Tup1 and the metabolic enzymes that control PI(3,5)P2 are highly conserved among eukaryotes, our findings may provide important insights toward understanding glucose/carbon metabolic reprogramming in other eukaryotes, including humans.

  4. Cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bond in 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by copper(I) bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatua, Suman; Majumdar, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Reactions of CuCl, CuCl2 and CuBr2 with 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (tBu3tach) resulted in the formation of [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuCl2)] (1), [(tBu3tach)(CuCl2)] (2) and [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuBr2)] (3) respectively. Interestingly, CuBr was found to mediate the cleavage of the C-N bonds of tBu3tach in a vast range of solvents, namely, chloroform, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile and methanol to yield [Cu4Br4(tBuNCH2)4] (4) and stands as an example of C-N bond cleavage of 1,3,5-triazacyclohexane rings by copper salts. Compounds 1 and 3 contains amidinium cations and are unstable in solution towards the release of copper. The release of copper from 3 in solution was confirmed by the isolation of the compound, [CuBr(MeCN)] (5). Formation of the amidinium cations [(tBu3tach-H)+] in 1 and 3 may be avoided by the use of PPh3 to yield [(tBu3tach)Cu(PPh3)](PF6) (6), while the coordinated N-tert-butylmethanimine (tBuNCH2) in 4 could be replaced by PPh3 to yield [Cu4Br4(PPh3)4] (7). Complexes 1-7 are characterized by a combination of single crystal X-ray structure determination and/or elemental analysis, NMR, IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Mass spectrometry.

  5. Growth changes of eighteen herbaceous angiosperms induced by Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Frank L; Koeser, Andrew K; Dawson, Jeffrey O

    2016-01-01

    Study objectives were to describe and quantify growth responses (tolerance as shoot and root biomass accumulation) to soil-applied Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) treatments of eighteen terrestrial, herbaceous, angiospermous species and also; to determine how much of RDX, RDX transformation products, total N and RDX-derived N accumulated in the foliage. RDX altered growth of eighteen plant species or cultivars at levels of 100, 500, and 1,000 mg kg(-1)dry soil in a 75-d greenhouse study. Sixteen species or cultivars exhibited growth inhibition while two were stimulated in growth by RDX. A maximum amount of foliar RDX in a subset of three plant species was 36.0 mg per plant in Coronilla varia. Foliar concentrations of transformation products of RDX were low relative to RDX in the subset of three species. The proportion of RDX-N with respect to total N was constant, suggesting that foliar RDX transformation did not explain differences in tolerance. There was a δ (15)N shift towards that of synthetic RDX in foliage of the three species at a level of 1,000 mg kg(-1) RDX, proportional in magnitude to uptake of N from RDX and tolerance ranking.Reddened leaf margins for treated Sida spinosa indicate the potential of this species as a biosensor for RDX.

  6. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  7. In Silico Alkaline Hydrolysis of Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: Density Functional Theory Investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Shukla, Manoj K; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Hovorun, Dmytro; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-09-20

    HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), an energetic material used in military applications, may be released to the environment during manufacturing, transportation, storage, training, and disposal. A detailed investigation of a possible mechanism of alkaline hydrolysis, as one of the most promising methods for HMX remediation, was performed by computational study at PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level. Obtained results suggest that HMX hydrolysis at pH 10 represents a highly exothermic multistep process involving initial deprotonation and nitrite elimination, hydroxide attachment accompanied by cycle cleavage, and further decomposition of cycle-opened intermediate to the products caused by a series of C-N bond ruptures, hydroxide attachments, and proton transfers. Computationally predicted products of HMX hydrolysis such as nitrite, 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, formaldehyde, nitrous oxide, formate, and ammonia correspond to experimentally observed species. Based on computed reaction pathways for HMX decomposition by alkaline hydrolysis, the kinetics of the entire process was modeled. Very low efficiency of this reaction at pH 10 was observed. Computations predict significant increases (orders of magnitude) of the hydrolysis rate for hydrolysis reactions undertaken at pH 11, 12, and 13.

  8. Evaluation of the Community Land Model 3.5 with carbon and nitrogen cycles (CLM3.5CN) at a Tibetan grassland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Lim, Hee-Jeong; Ichii, Kazuhito; Li, Yingnian

    2013-11-01

    The Tibetan plateau plays an important role in energy and carbon cycles by providing an elevated heat source and by storing a large amount of soil carbon due to low temperature. The main vegetation of the plateau is alpine grassland. This study evaluates performance of Community Land Model 3.5 with carbon and nitrogen cycles (CLM3.5CN) over a alpine grassland in the Tibetan plateau in terms of energy and carbon fluxes in conditions of reasonable phenology and initial carbon pool comparable to observations. Comparison between model and observation shows following features. The model captures the magnitude of maximum leaf area index (LAI) but underestimats leaf mass. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is significantly underestimated during the growing season and soil temperature is also underestimated throughout a year with higher negative bias in winter than in other seasons. In order to examine the cause of the model deficiencies, we design four sensitivity tests: seasonal mulch; shallow rooting depth; reduction of critical soil moisture to limit the decomposition rate; smaller specific leaf area (SLA). Considering seasonal mulch improves the negative bias of soil temperature during dormant season has little effect on the NEE during the growing seasson. Underestimation of NEE during the growing season is partly due to underestimated decomposition rate which results from underestimated soil temperature and deep root placement in the soil column. Underestimation of latent heat flux during summer is partly due to use of large SLA in the model. Other deficiencies are also discussed.

  9. Dissolution and sorption of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) residues from detonated mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Ashley M; Douglas, Thomas A; Walsh, Marianne E; Trainor, Thomas P

    2011-08-01

    Composition B (Comp B) is a commonly used military formulation composed of the toxic explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Numerous studies of the temporal fate of explosive compounds in soils, surface water and laboratory batch reactors have been conducted. However, most of these investigations relied on the application of explosive compounds to the media via aqueous addition and thus these studies do not provide information on the real world loading of explosive residues during detonation events. To address this we investigated the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX from Comp B residues loaded to pure mineral phases through controlled detonation. Mineral phases included nontronite, vermiculite, biotite and Ottawa sand (quartz with minor calcite). High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX residues loaded onto the mineral surfaces. Detonation resulted in heterogeneous loading of TNT and RDX onto the mineral surfaces. Explosive compound residues dissolved rapidly (within 9 h) in all samples but maximum concentrations for TNT and RDX were not consistent over time due to precipitation from solution, sorption onto mineral surfaces, and/or chemical reactions between explosive compounds and mineral surfaces. We provide a conceptual model of the physical and chemical processes governing the fate of explosive compound residues in soil minerals controlled by sorption-desorption processes.

  10. Structure and mechanical properties of thin films deposited from 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkey, Daniel D.; Gleason, Karen K.

    2003-05-01

    Pulsed-plasma chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane (V3D3) and water produced thin films with significant Si-OH content. Subsequent annealing of the films resulted in condensation of proximal Si-OH groups, further generating a Si-O-Si network and strengthening the film. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed increasing OH content with increasing plasma duty cycle, and nanoindentation results confirmed increasing hardness with duty cycle, with the 10-40 duty cycle annealed sample having a hardness value of 0.527 GPa. These results were explained within the context of the continuous random network theory and percolation of rigidity arguments. Thermal stability was excellent, with a best-case thickness retention of 99.25% after a 2 h anneal at 400 °C under N2. Dielectric constants for the annealed films ranged between 2.55 and 2.9. The moderate power involved (200 W peak) is amenable to inclusion of a porogen species, opening the possibility of using this methodology to generate a porous thin film with adequate mechanical properties via chemical vapor deposition.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX) using a combined Sorescu-Rice-Thompson AMBER force field.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Paras M; Rice, Betsy M; Zheng, Lianqing; Thompson, Donald L

    2006-12-28

    We present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX) using the SRT-AMBER force field (P. M. Agrawal et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 5721), which combines the rigid-molecule force field developed by Sorescu-Rice-Thompson (D. C. Sorescu, B. M. Rice, and D. L. Thompson, J. Phys. Chem. B 1997, 101, 798) with the intramolecular interactions obtained from the Generalized AMBER Force Field (Wang et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2004, 25, 1157). The calculated crystal density at room conditions is about 10% lower than the measured value, while the lattice parameters and thermodynamic melting point are within about 5% at ambient pressure. The chair and inverted chair conformation, bond lengths, and bond angles of the RDX molecule are accurately predicted; however, there are some inaccuracies in the calculated orientations of the NO2 groups. The SRT-AMBER force field predicts overall reasonable results, but modifications, probably in the torsional parameters, are needed for a more accurate force field.

  12. Electron shuttle-mediated biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine adsorbed to granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Millerick, Kayleigh; Drew, Scott R; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-08-06

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) effectively removes hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from groundwater but generates RDX-laden GAC that must be disposed of or regenerated. Batch reactors containing GAC to which RDX was preadsorbed were used in experiments to test the potential for adsorbed RDX reduction and daughter product formation using (i) chemically reduced anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2QDS), (ii) resting Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and (iii) a combined system containing AQDS and GS-15. Approximately 97.0% of the adsorbed RDX was transformed in each of these experimental systems by 90 h. Chemically reduced AQDS (AH2QDS) transformed 99.2% of adsorbed RDX; formaldehyde was produced rapidly and was stoichiometric (3 mol HCHO per mol RDX). Geobacter metallireducens also reduced RDX with and without AQDS present. This is the first study to demonstrate biological transformation of RDX adsorbed to GAC. Formaldehyde increased and then decreased in biological systems, suggesting a previously unreported capacity for G. metallireducens to oxidize formaldehyde, which was confirmed with resting cell suspensions. These data suggest the masses of GAC waste currently produced by activated carbon at RDX remediation sites can be minimized, decreasing the carbon footprint of the treatment technology. Alternatively, this strategy may be used to develop a Bio-GAC system for ex situ RDX treatment.

  13. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels and activities of adenylate cyclase and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase in Pseudomonas and Bacteroides.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, L S; Hylemon, P B; Phibbs, P V

    1977-01-01

    A modified Gilman assay was used to determine the concentrations of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in rapidly filtered cells and in the culture filtrates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli K-12, and Bacteroides fragilis. In P. aeruginosa cultures, levels of cAMP in the filtrate increased with the culture absorbance (3.5 to 19.8 X 10(-9) M) but did not vary significantly with the carbon source used to support growth. Intracellular concentrations (0.8 to 3.2 X 10(-5) M) were substantially higher and did not vary appreciably during growth or with carbon source. Sodium cAMP (5 mM) failed to reverse the catabolite repression of inducible glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) synthesis caused by the addition of 10 mM succinate. Exogenous cAMP also had no discernible effect on the catabolite repression control of inducible mannitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.67). P. aeruginosa was found to contain both soluble cAMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.17) and membrane-associated adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) activity, and these were compared to the activities detected in crude extracts of E. coli. B. fragilis crude cell extracts contain neither of these enzyme activities, and little or no cAMP was detected in cells or culture filtrates of this anaerobic bacterium. PMID:187575

  14. Towards ten-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gongwen; Geng, Lixiang; Zhu, Xiushan; Li, Li; Chen, Qian; Norwood, R A; Manzur, T; Peyghambarian, N

    2015-03-23

    Raman lasers based on mid-infrared fibers operating at 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window are attractive sources for several applications. Compared to fluoride and chalcogenide fibers, tellurite fibers are more advantageous for high power Raman fiber laser sources at 3-5 µm because of their broader Raman gain bandwidth, much larger Raman shift and better physical and chemical properties. Here we report on our simulations for the development of 10-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fibers as the nonlinear gain medium and readily available continuous-wave (cw) and Q-switched erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.8 µm as the pump sources. Our results show that a watt-level or even ten-watt-level fiber laser source in the 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window can be achieved by utilizing the 1st- and 2nd-order Raman scattering in the tellurite fiber. The presented numerical study provides valuable guidance for future 3-5 um Raman fiber laser development.

  15. Solvent induced reactivity of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole towards zinc (II) carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Rupam; Kalita, Dipjyoti; Baruah, Jubaraj B

    2009-09-28

    The reactions of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole with zinc(II)acetate dihydrate and varieties of aromatic carboxylic acids led to formation of mono-nuclear zinc complexes of composition [Zn(HDMP)2(RCO2)2] (R = C6H5, p-CH3-C6H4, p-NO2-C6H4 etc. HDMP = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole) in methanol, whereas the same reactants in dimethylformamide (DMF) gave binuclear 3,5-dimethylpyrazolato bridged zinc carboxylate complexes containing monodentate 3,5-dimethylpyraozole ligands with composition [Zn2(mu-DMP)2(HDMP)2(RCO2)2]. The mononuclear complexes can be converted to the corresponding binuclear complexes by simply dissolving in DMF. The reaction of zinc(II)acetate dihydrate with p-nitrobenzoic acid and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole in different solvents gave solvated mononuclear complexes of the corresponding solvent. All these solvated complexes having the core [Zn(HDMP)2(p-NO2-C6H4CO2)2] contain two structurally independent molecules in the asymmetric unit (Z' = 2).

  16. Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of the Energetic Compound 3,5-Dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiao-Qin; Cao, Duan-Lin; Cui, Jian-Lan

    2016-07-01

    A novel energetic material, 3,5-dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole (DNNP), was synthesized via nitration and nucleophilic substitution reaction using 4-chloropyrazole as raw material. The structure of DNNP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and elemental analysis. Its detonation properties were calculated and compared with those of other commonly used energetic compounds. The thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was studied by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry coupled with a mass spectrometry (DSC-MS). The results show that the detonation properties of DNNP were better than those of TNT and comparable to those of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). In addition, the thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was supposed. Initially, the O-NO2 bond was broken, thereby producing a nitropyrazole oxygen radical. Subsequently, the nitropyrazole oxygen radical was decomposed by free radical cleavage of nitro or isomerized to nitritepyrazole and subsequently decomposed by free radical cleavage of the nitroso group. Finally, pyrazole ring fission occurred and produced N2, NO, N2O, and CO2.

  17. Sensitivity of 2,6-Diamino-3, 5-Dinitropyrazine-1-Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Tran, T D

    2005-01-20

    The thermal and shock sensitivities of plastic bonded explosive formations based on 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (commonly called LLM-105 for Lawrence Livermore Molecule No.105) are reported. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) apparatus was used to generate times to thermal explosion at various initial temperatures. A four-reaction chemical decomposition model was developed to calculate the time to thermal explosion versus inverse temperature curve. Three embedded manganin pressure gauge experiments were fired at different initial pressures to measure the pressure buildup and the distance required for transition to detonation. An Ignition and Growth reactive model was calibrated to this shock initiation data. LLM-105 exhibited thermal and shock sensitivities intermediate between those of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazine (HMX).

  18. On the kinetics and energetics of one-electron oxidation of 1,3,5-triazines.

    PubMed

    Azenha, M E D G; Burrows, H D; Canle, M; Coimbra, R; Fernández, M I; García, M V; Rodrigues, A E; Santaballa, J A; Steenken, S

    2003-01-07

    One-electron oxidation of 1,3,5-triazines is observed with both excited uranyl ion (*UO2(2+)) and sulfate radical anion (SO4.-) in aqueous solution, but not with Tl2+, indicating that the standard reduction potentials E degree of 1,3,5-triazine radical cations are = 2.3 +/- 0.1 V vs. NHE, consistent with theoretical calculations; this suggests that if triazines inhibit electron transfer during photosynthesis, they would need to act on the reductive part of the electron transport chain.

  19. Access to Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones through Anodic N-N Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Gieshoff, Tile; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2016-08-01

    Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones are important motifs in heterocyclic chemistry and are of high interest for pharmaceutical applications. In classic organic synthesis, the hydrazinic moiety is installed through condensation using the corresponding hydrazine building blocks. However, most N,N'-diaryl hydrazines are toxic and require upstream preparation owing to their low commercial availability. We present an alternative and sustainable synthetic approach to pyrazolidin-3,5-diones that employs readily accessible dianilides as precursors, which are anodically converted to furnish the N-N bond. The electroconversion is conducted in a simple undivided cell under constant-current conditions.

  20. Bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazole-kappaN2)silver(I) nitrate.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Fackler, John P

    2002-04-01

    The two independent bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazole)silver(I) cations in crystalline [Ag(C(5)H(7)N(2))(2)]NO(3) display N-Ag-N angles of 175.51 (14) and 174.44 (13) degrees, and an average Ag-N distance of 2.124 (5) A. The nitrate anion is situated between [Ag(C(5)H(7)N(2))(2)]+ units and interacts via hydrogen bonds with the NH groups. The two 3,5-dimethylpyrazole ligands are trans about the silver center. Only a small deviation from linearity is observed in the coordination around silver.

  1. Adsorption-desorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, S.K.; Selim, H.M.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1995-11-01

    This study studied the adsorption-desorption behavior of TNT (2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in a bentonite/sand reference material (Swy-1 montmorillonite clay mixed with acid-washed sand) and two selected soils (Norwood and Kolin). Release of TNT,RDX, and other compounds from a contaminated soil obtained from the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) site was also investigated. The kinetics of TNT and RDX retention were measured using batch methods for a range of input concentrations. For RDX, the adsorption isotherms were distinctly linear. The TNT adsorption isotherm for bentonite/sand mixture appeared linear and was described equally well using linear, Freundlich, Langmuir, and a modified Langmuir model. For the Norwood and Kolin soils, TNT adsorption isotherms exhibited distinct nonlinearity and the Freundlich model provided the best fit. As indicated by the K{sub d} values, TNT exhibited stronger retention or affinity to all soils and the bentonite/sand mixture than for RDX. The RDX retention data indicated little time-dependent behavior. The TNT retention data indicated a continued decrease in TNT concentration with time in the Norwood and Kolin soils. This was possibly caused by the formation and subsequent adsorption of transformation products because transformation products, such as amino nitro toluene compounds, were identified during batch experiments. For the bentonite/sand mixture, TNT retention was rapid initially and reached apparent equilibrium within 1 day. Unlike Kolin and Norwood soils, there was no hysteretic behavior of TNT adsorption-desorption by the bentonite/sand mixture and a mass balance suggested fully reversible retention mechanisms. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Accumulation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine by the earthworm Eisenia andrei in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Savard, Kathleen; Lachance, Bernard; Robidoux, Pierre Y; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2009-10-01

    The heterocyclic polynitramine hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a highly energetic compound found as a soil contaminant at some defense installations. Although RDX is not lethal to soil invertebrates at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg, it decreases earthworm cocoon formation and juvenile production at environmentally relevant concentrations found at contaminated sites. Very little is known about the uptake of RDX in earthworms and the potential risks for food-chain transfer of RDX in the environment. Toxicokinetic studies were conducted to quantify the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) using adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed for up to 14 d to sublethal concentrations of nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX in a Sassafras sandy loam soil. High-performance liquid chromatography of acetonitrile extracts of tissue and soil samples indicated that nonlabeled RDX can be accumulated by the earthworm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The BAF, expressed as the earthworm tissue to soil concentration ratio, decreased from 6.7 to 0.1 when the nominal soil RDX concentrations were increased from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. Tissue concentrations were comparable in earthworms exposed to nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX. The RDX bioaccumulation also was estimated using the kinetically derived model (BAFK), based on the ratio of the uptake to elimination rate constants. The established BAFK of 3.6 for [14C]RDX uptake was consistent with the results for nonlabeled RDX. Radioactivity also was present in the tissue residues of [14C]RDX-exposed earthworms following acetonitrile extraction, suggesting the formation of nonextractable [14C]RDX metabolites associated with tissue macromolecules. These findings demonstrated a net accumulation of RDX in the earthworm and the potential for food-chain transfer of RDX to higher-trophic-level receptors.

  3. Overestimation of nitrate and nitrite concentrations in water samples due to the presence of nitroglycerin or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Lévesque, Richard; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Marois, André

    2012-08-24

    A large number of laboratory studies have reported nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) to be among the most common degradation products of the high explosives nitroglycerin (NG) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Additionally, several field studies have reported the presence of RDX or NG along with NO(3)(-) in groundwater near production plants. Most studies, however, did not specify whether their NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) analyses were performed on samples which also contained RDX or NG. Inconsistent NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) results obtained in our laboratory suggested that the presence of RDX or NG in water samples caused an overestimation of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) concentrations when using two of the most common analytical methods, namely ionic chromatography and automated colorimetry. This could have important implications for mass balance calculations and for environmental decisions. This paper focused on quantifying the overestimation of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) due to the presence of RDX and NG, and finding a method for extracting RDX and NG from water samples without affecting NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). Results showed that the overestimation can be predicted using regression coefficients; however the margin of error at the 95% confidence level was between 5 and 15%. Alternatively, a cartridge was found which retains both RDX and NG without affecting NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). The cartridge can be used for concentrating the RDX or NG in dilute environmental samples, while removing RDX/NG from solution to allow the interference-free analysis of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). Additionally, if recovery of RDX/NG from the cartridges is not desired, the cartridges could be used for the extraction of more than one sample, thus reducing the costs.

  4. Validation of a novel extraction method for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation by ruminal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Giarrizzo, J G; Murty, L; Tanaree, D; Walker, K; Craig, A M

    2013-04-15

    A simple, fast liquid-liquid extraction method was developed for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation using small sample volumes. The method was tested in vitro with anaerobic incubations of RDX with whole rumen fluid (WRF) and a commercial Sporanaerobacter acetigenes strain in methanogenic media for RDX. Additionally, validation experiments were conducted in deionized water in order to show applicability toward various aqueous matrices. Conditions for extraction were as follows: 300 μL of sample were mixed with an equal volume of a 0.34 M ammonium hydroxide solution to reach a basic pH, extracted with a hexane/ethyl acetate 1:1 (v/v) solution (1 mL) and shaken vigorously for 10 s. The resulting organic phase was transferred, then dried under a constant flow of N2 and reconstituted with acetonitrile (300 μL) for HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS analysis. Percent recovery values were obtained (83-101%) in all matrices for RDX. In WRF (n=3 animals), RDX degradation was observed with almost 100% elimination of RDX after 4 h. The five nitroso and ring cleavage metabolites were observed by mass spectrometry. Liquid cultures of S. acetigenes did not show significant RDX biodegradation activity. RDX extractions from deionized water samples indicated acceptable recoveries with low variability, suggesting suitability of the method for aqueous matrices. Overall, the new method demonstrated acceptable efficiency and reproducibility across three matrices, providing an advantageous alternative for studies where complex matrices and small volume samples are in use.

  5. Toxic effects of oral hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    McFarland, Craig A; Quinn, Michael J; Bazar, Matthew A; Talent, Larry G; Johnson, Mark S

    2009-05-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has been widely used as an explosive in munition formulations, resulting in contamination of wildlife habitat on military installations. To estimate health effects for reptilian species, acute, subacute, and subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted using the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Estimated oral median lethal doses were 72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 49-106) mg/kg body weight (slope, 3.754) for males and 88 (95% CI, 65-119) mg/kg (slope, 4.525) for females. Toxicity from RDX suggested the neurological system as the critical target tissue. A 14-d subacute study followed with males dosed orally with RDX (corn oil) at 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg/d. Signs of toxicity frequently included a characteristic body posture. A significant dose-survival relationship was seen over the range of doses, with a significant decrease in survival at 20 mg/kg/d. Males in the 60-d subchronic study were dosed at 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 8, and 11 mg/kg/d, and signs of toxicity included lethargy, cachexia, and anorexia. Survival was decreased at 8 and 11 mg/kg/d. Reduced growth rate and food consumption occurred at 5 mg/kg/d. Brain tissue was assayed for RDX when seizures were observed at a residue concentration of at least 18 microg/g. No abnormalities were observed in the hematologic indices, whereas plasma proteins were reduced. Hepatic enlargement and decreased testes mass occurred at 8 and 11 mg/kg/d. Plasma testosterone concentrations, sperm counts, and motility measures were variable for all treatment levels. Based on survival, growth rate, food intake, and testes to brain weight ratios, these data suggest a lowest-observed-adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg/d and a no-observed-adverse effect level of 2.5 mg/kg/d.

  6. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (<1 mM fructose) into site wells. Biostimulation (no added cells) was performed by injecting groundwater amended with low (<1 mM fructose) or high (>15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation.

  7. 3,5,3′-Triiodo-L-Thyronine- and 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine- Affected Metabolic Pathways in Liver of LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Maria; Silvestri, Elena; Coppola, Maria; Goldberg, Ira J.; Huang, Li-Shin; Salzano, Anna M.; D'Angelo, Fulvio; Ehrenkranz, Joel R.; Goglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), when administered to a model of familial hypercholesterolemia, i.e., low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-knockout (Ldlr−/−) mice fed with a Western type diet (WTD), dramatically reduce circulating total and very low-density lipoprotein/LDL cholesterol with decreased liver apolipoprotein B (ApoB) production. The aim of the study was to highlight putative molecular mechanisms to manage cholesterol levels in the absence of LDLr. A comprehensive comparative profiling of changes in expression of soluble proteins in livers from Ldlr−/− mice treated with either T3 or T2 was performed. From a total proteome of 450 liver proteins, 25 identified proteins were affected by both T2 and T3, 18 only by T3 and 9 only by T2. Using in silico analyses, an overlap was observed with 11/14 pathways common to both iodothyronines, with T2 and T3 preferentially altering sub-networks centered around hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), respectively. Both T2 and T3 administration significantly reduced nuclear HNF4α protein content, while T2, but not T3, decreased the expression levels of the HNFα transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α. Lower PPARα levels were found only following T3 treatment while both T3 and T2 lowered liver X receptor α (LXRα) nuclear content. Overall, this study, although it was not meant to investigate the use of T2 and T3 as a therapeutic agent, provides novel insights into the regulation of hepatic metabolic pathways involved in T3- and T2-driven cholesterol reduction in Ldlr−/− mice. PMID:27909409

  8. Analysis of the xplAB-Containing Gene Cluster Involved in the Bacterial Degradation of the Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Chun Shiong; Sabir, Dana Khdr; Lorenz, Astrid; Bontemps, Cyril; Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A.; Strand, Stuart E.; Rylott, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated use of the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on military land has resulted in significant soil and groundwater pollution. Rates of degradation of RDX in the environment are low, and accumulated RDX, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined is a possible human carcinogen, is now threatening drinking water supplies. RDX-degrading microorganisms have been isolated from RDX-contaminated land; however, despite the presence of these species in contaminated soils, RDX pollution persists. To further understand this problem, we studied RDX-degrading species belonging to four different genera (Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Gordonia, and Williamsia) isolated from geographically distinct locations and established that the xplA and xplB (xplAB) genes, which encode a cytochrome P450 and a flavodoxin redox partner, respectively, are nearly identical in all these species. Together, the xplAB system catalyzes the reductive denitration of RDX and subsequent ring cleavage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to xplAB, the Rhodococcus species studied here share a 14-kb region flanking xplAB; thus, it appears likely that the RDX-metabolizing ability was transferred as a genomic island within a transposable element. The conservation and transfer of xplAB-flanking genes suggest a role in RDX metabolism. We therefore independently knocked out genes within this cluster in the RDX-degrading species Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Analysis of the resulting mutants revealed that XplA is essential for RDX degradation and that XplB is not the sole contributor of reducing equivalents to XplA. While XplA expression is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions and further enhanced by the presence of RDX, MarR is not regulated by RDX. PMID:25128343

  9. Accumulation of hexahydro- 1,3,5-trinitro- 1,3,5-triazine in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Belden, Jason B; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Lydy, Michael J

    2005-08-01

    The extensively used military explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has been widely released to the environment during production, usage, and disposal operations. Toxic effects of RDX have been reported in terrestrial and aquatic receptors, but investigations regarding the bioaccumulation potential of RDX in aquatic systems are scarce. The objective of the present study was to describe the toxicokinetics of RDX during aqueous exposure for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) and to compare the amount of RDX accumulation in juvenile catfish following aqueous exposure only, dietary exposure only, and a combination of dietary and aqueous exposure. The toxicokinetics measurements included bioconcentration factors (BCFs), uptake rates, elimination rates, and biological half-lives. First-order, single-compartment models described the toxicokinetics for both species. Uptake of RDX into oligochaetes was relatively rapid (uptake clearance constant [k(u)] of 5.17 ml/g/h) compared to that in catfish (k(u) = 1.28 ml/g/h). However, elimination also was more rapid in oligochaetes, with biological half-lives of 0.28 and 1.09 h for oligochaetes and catfish, respectively. Thus, both species had very similar estimated BCFs of 2.1 ml/g for oligochaetes and 2.0 ml/g for catfish. Accumulation of RDX in fish that were fed oligochaetes exposed to an exceedingly high water concentration of RDX was minimal. The present investigation indicates that RDX uptake via the aqueous route is the expected dominant uptake pathway, with dietary uptake contributing minimally to the overall body burden in fish inhabiting RDX-contaminated sites. Because of the exceedingly low bioaccumulative potential and low reported toxicity of RDX, the presence of this explosive in aquatic systems is unlikely to pose unacceptable risks to invertebrates and fish.

  10. Developing Essential Understanding of Multiplication and Division for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Albert; Caldwell, Janet; Hancock, Sarah Wallus; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2011-01-01

    This book identifies and examines two big ideas and related essential understandings for teaching multiplication and division in grades 3-5. Big Idea 1 captures the notion that multiplication is usefully defined as a scalar operation. Problem situations modeled by multiplication have an element that represents the scalar and an element that…

  11. DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL (TCP) BY ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3,5,6-trichloro-2pyridinol (TCP) has been developed to quantitate parts per billion (ppb) amounts of the analyte in urine. TCP is a major metabolite and environmental degradation product of the insecticide c...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No. 58371...), (g)(3)(i), (g)(3)(ii), (g)(4) (resulting in receiving stream levels exceeding 0.1 parts per billion... in § 721.125 (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No. 58371...), (g)(3)(i), (g)(3)(ii), (g)(4) (resulting in receiving stream levels exceeding 0.1 parts per billion... in § 721.125 (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to...

  14. The Self-Assembly Properties of a Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide Derivative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stals, Patrick J. M.; Haveman, Jan F.; Palmans, Anja R. A.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments involving the synthesis and characterization of a benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide derivative and its self-assembly properties are reported. These laboratory experiments combine organic synthesis, self-assembly, and physical characterization and are designed for upper-level undergraduate students to introduce the topic of…

  15. FOURTEEN-DAY TOXICITY STUDY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic effects of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female rats were evaluated by feeding powdered certified laboratory chow diet supplemented with varied concentrations of TNB (0,50,200,400,800 and 1200 mg kg-1 diet) for 14 days. Food intake by female rats in 400,800 and 12...

  16. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamo-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-05-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  17. Regioselective Glycosylation of 3-, 5-, 6-, and 7-Hydroxyflavones by Cultured Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Uesugi, Daisuke; Fujitaka, Yuuya; Okada, Shouta; Tanigawa, Masato; Hamada, Hiroki

    2015-06-01

    Regioselective glycosylation of 3-, 5-, 6-, and 7-hydroxyflavones was investigated using cultured plant cells of Eucalyptus perriniana and Phytolacca americana as biocatalysts. 3- and 7-Hydroxyflavones were practically glycosylated into the corresponding β-D-glucosides by E. perriniana and P. americana.

  18. Investigation of Unexpected Reaction Intermediates in the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Methyl 3,5-Dinitrobenzoate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Clesia C.; Silva, Ricardo O.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Navarro, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    An experimental project aimed at identifying stable reaction intermediates is described. Initially, the studied reaction appears to involve the simple hydrolysis, by aqueous sodium hydroxide, of methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. On mixing the substrates, however, the reaction mixture unexpectedly turns an intense red in…

  19. No Time for Tea (Grade Level: Elementary Grades, 3-5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Designed for Grades 3-5, this lesson plan aims to let the students learn how the Constitution of the United States provided the framework for the country's democratic form of government. Students will learn how the Constitution provided for representation within the government. A short story about the Boston Tea Party gives the background related…

  20. Enhanced extraction of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate and its application to environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Guarav; Malik, Ashok Kumar; Rai, Pramod Kumar

    2008-08-01

    A method for enhanced extraction of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from environmental samples is developed with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactant. In this study, the concentration of SDS surfactant and other analytical parameters are optimized on a high-performance liquid chromatography-UV system. An isocratic flow of 1.0 mL/min with mobile phase acetonitrile-water; 70:30 (v/v) at 230 nm wavelength on a reverse-phase amide column is used for baseline separation of explosives and making calibration curves. The amount of recovered explosives from spiked soil and water samples are calculated. The limits of detection obtained for HMX and RDX standards are 1.5 and 3.8 ppb (S/N=3), respectively, which are much better than obtained by the Environmental Protection Agency method 8330. The recoveries are found to be enhanced by 1.7 and 1.6-fold with SDS solution as compared to water for HMX and RDX, respectively, from soil samples.

  1. The intensities of methane in the 3-5 mu m region revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejard, L.; Champion, J.; Jouvard, J.; Brown, L.; Pine, A.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the linestrengths of the infrared spectrum of methane (12 and 13) in the 3-5 mu m region has been revisited onthe basis of new measurements from Fourier transform spectra recorded at Kitt Peak under various optical densities.

  2. Evaluation of GALAXY Classroom Science for Grades 3-5. Final Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Gloria J. A.; Austin, Susan; DeLong, Bo; Pasta, David J.; Block, Clifford

    The GALAXY Classroom is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches, supported by the first U.S. interactive satellite communications network designed to facilitate the introduction of innovative curricula to improve student learning in elementary schools. GALAXY Classroom Science for grades 3-5 features the organization of…

  3. 3-Chlorotyrosine and 3,5-Dichlorotyrosine as biomarkers of respiratory tract exposure to chlorine gas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modification of tyrosine by reactive chlorine can produce both 3-chlorotyrosine (CY) and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine (dCY). Both of these amino acids have proven to be promising biomarkers for assessing the extent of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed chlorine stress in a number of adverse physi...

  4. CHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats was evaluated by feeding a diet containing 0, 5, 60 and 300 ppm of TNB for 2 years. The calculated average TNB intake over 2 years for males and females was 0.22, 2.64, 13.44 and 0.23,...

  5. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subchronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 rats was evaluated by feeding a powdered certified laboratory diet containing 0, 66.7, 400 and 800 mg TNB/kg diet for 90 days. The calculated average TNB intake was 4.29, 24.70, and 49.28 mg/kg...

  6. Russian/English Interdisciplinary Lessons for General Education and Special Education Students. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    The materials consist of four lessons each at grade levels 3-5, designed for use by both Russian bilingual and English-monolingual teachers in general and special education. The lessons are cross-referenced to learning and performance standards established for New York City (New York) public schools. Each unit (group of grade-level lessons)…

  7. Controlling Costs: The 6-3-5 Method - Case Studies at NAVSEA and NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    Nagy, President/CEO, Catalyst Technologies Morgan Ames, Senior Advisor, Catalyst Technologies Published April 30, 2016 Approved for public...Controlling Costs: The 6-3-5 Method—Case Studies at NAVSEA and NATO Bruce Nagy, President/CEO, Catalyst Technologies Morgan Ames, Senior Advisor... Catalyst Technologies Costing for the Future: Exploring Cost Estimation With Unmanned Autonomous Systems Ricardo Valerdi, Professor, University of

  8. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  9. Smart Spending and Saving: Personal Finance Economics 3-5. Teacher Resource Manual. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Diana C.; Haskell, Douglas A.

    This book is designed to help students in grades 3-5 make better decisions as spenders, savers, borrowers, and managers of money. The learning experiences focus on personal finance and money management. The 10 lessons are divided into 4 units focusing on children making spending decisions, saving decisions, borrowing decisions, and money…

  10. Synthesis of 14C-Labelled Octahydor-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine (HMx0 and 15N-Isotopic Hexahyrro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) for use in Microcosm Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    bioremediation process. To synthesize C(14)HMX, acetylation of labelled hexamethylenetetramine (C(14)HMTA) was done yielding 3,7-diacetyl-1,3,5,7... hexamethylenetetramine (N(15)HMTA) was done according to the Hale Process. N(15)HMTA was prepared by reaching cold formaldehyde with isotopic nitrogen-15 ammonium hydroxide.

  11. Nitro Derivatives of 1,3,5-Triazepine as Potential High-Energy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hari Ji; Upadhyay, Manish Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Structure optimization and frequency calculation of six nitro derivatives of 1,3,5-triazepine were performed using a MP2(FULL)/6-311G(d,p) method. In order to obtain reliable energy data, single-point energy and subsequently thermodynamic properties of the species considered were calculated at a fairly high level of theory, CCSD(T)/6-311G(d,p). Solid-phase heats of formation and crystal density were determined using an electrostatic potential (ESP) method utilizing wave function analysis-surface analysis suite (WFA-SAS) code. The result shows that all nitro derivatives possess high positive heats of formation that increase with an increase in the number of nitro groups attached to the ring moiety. The crystal density was found to be in the range of 1.67-1.90 g/cm3. Detonation properties of the compounds were estimated using the Kamlet-Jacobs equation. The results showed that detonation velocity (D) and detonation pressure (P) increased with an increase in the number of nitro groups attached at the ring moiety. It was found that all six nitro derivatives of the title compound had better or comparable performance characteristics than the most widely used commercial explosives, such as TNT, research and development explosives (RDX), and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX). The trinitro derivative (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazepine, F) yielded detonation pressure (P) and detonation velocity (D) of 45.5 GPa and 9.23 km/s, respectively, at a loading density of 1.90 g/cm3, which are superior to the most powerful available explosive HMX (P = 39.00 GPa and D = 9.11 km/s). The results obtained during the present study show that the title compounds can be used as promising futuristic high-energy-density materials (HEDMs).

  12. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. Objectives In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient’s final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. Results The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. Conclusions In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures. PMID:27626010

  13. Computational prediction of probabilistic ignition threshold of pressed granular Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) under shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seokpum; Miller, Christopher; Horie, Yasuyuki; Molek, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Zhou, Min

    2016-09-01

    The probabilistic ignition thresholds of pressed granular Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine explosives with average grain sizes between 70 μm and 220 μm are computationally predicted. The prediction uses material microstructure and basic constituent properties and does not involve curve fitting with respect to or prior knowledge of the attributes being predicted. The specific thresholds predicted are James-type relations between the energy flux and energy fluence for given probabilities of ignition. Statistically similar microstructure sample sets are computationally generated and used based on the features of micrographs of materials used in actual experiments. The predicted thresholds are in general agreement with measurements from shock experiments in terms of trends. In particular, it is found that grain size significantly affects the ignition sensitivity of the materials, with smaller sizes leading to lower energy thresholds required for ignition. For example, 50% ignition threshold of the material with an average grain size of 220 μm is approximately 1.4-1.6 times that of the material with an average grain size of 70 μm in terms of energy fluence. The simulations account for the controlled loading of thin-flyer shock experiments with flyer velocities between 1.5 and 4.0 km/s, constituent elasto-viscoplasticity, fracture, post-fracture contact and friction along interfaces, bulk inelastic heating, interfacial frictional heating, and heat conduction. The constitutive behavior of the materials is described using a finite deformation elasto-viscoplastic formulation and the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The ignition thresholds are determined via an explicit analysis of the size and temperature states of hotspots in the materials and a hotspot-based ignition criterion. The overall ignition threshold analysis and the microstructure-level hotspot analysis also lead to the definition of a macroscopic ignition parameter (J) and a microscopic

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of melting of perfect crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lianqing; Thompson, Donald L.

    2006-08-01

    The melting mechanism of superheated perfect crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (α-RDX) has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations with the fully flexible force field developed by Smith and Bharadwaj [J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3570 (1999)]. Sequential 50ps equilibration simulations of the constant stress-constant temperature ensemble were performed at 10K intervals over the range of 300-650K, corresponding to a heating rate of 2.0×1011K/s. A solid-solid phase transition is observed between 480 and 490K, followed by melting, which occurs between 500 and 510K. The solid-solid phase transition, both displacive and rotational, is characterized by an abrupt decrease in the lengths of the unit cell edges a and b and an increase of the length of edge c. The molecular conformation in the new phase is AAE, although the axial nitro groups have different changes: one shift is more axial and the other is more equatorial. Phases other than α-RDX have been observed experimentally, however, there are insufficient data for comparisons to ascertain that the new phase observed here corresponds to a real phase. At the high heating rate (2.0×1011K /s) used in the simulations, the melted RDX reaches full orientational disorder at about 540K and translational freedom at around 580K. If the simulation at the melting temperature (510K) is run sufficiently long complete rotational freedom is achieved in a few hundreds of picoseconds, while complete translational freedom requires much longer. These results show that given a sufficiently high heating rate, the system can exist for significant periods of time in a near-liquid state in which the molecules are not as free to rotate and diffuse as in the true liquid state. The bond lengths and bond angles undergo little change upon melting, while there are significant changes in the dihedral angles. The molecular conformation of RDX changes from AAE to EEE upon melting. The ramification of this for formulating

  15. Zonal Wave Number 2 Rossby Wave (3.5-day oscillation) Over The Martian Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.; Thokuluwa, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Over the Mars, height (800-50 Pascal pressure coordinate) profiles of temperature (K), measured by radio occultation technique during the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor) mission, obtained for the period of 1-10 January 2006 at the Martian latitude of ~63N in almost all the longitudes are analyzed to study the characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. To avoid significant data gaps in a particular longitude sector, we selected a set of 7 Mars longitude regions with ranges of 0-30E, 35-60E, 65-95E, 190-230E, 250-280E, 290-320E, and 325-360E to study the global characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. The 3.5-day oscillation is not selected as a-priori but observed as a most significant oscillation during this period of 1-10 January 2006. It is observed that in the longitude of 0-30E, the 3.5-day oscillation shows statistically significant power (above the 95% confidence level white noise) from the lowest height (800 Pascal, 8 hPa) itself and up to the height of 450 Pascal level with the maximum power of ~130 K^2 at the 600 & 650 Pascal levels. It started to grow from the power of ~ 50 K^2 at the lowest height of 800 Pascal level and reached the maximum power in the height of 600-650 Pascal level and then it started to get lessened monotonously up to the height of 450 Pascal level where its power is ~ 20 K^2. Beyond this height and up to the height of 50 Pascal level, the wave amplitude is below the white noise level. As the phase of the wave is almost constant at all the height levels, it seems that the observed 3.5-day oscillation is a stationary wave with respect to the height. In the 35-60 E longitude sector, the vertical structure of the 3.5-day oscillation is similar to what observed for the 0-30 E longitude region but the power is statistically insignificant at all the heights. However in the 65-95E longitude sector, the wave grows from the lowest level (70 K^2) of 800 Pascal to its maximum power of 280 K^2 in the height of 700 Pascal level and then it started

  16. Crystal structure of [UO2(NH3)5]NO3·NH3

    PubMed Central

    Woidy, Patrick; Kraus, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Penta­ammine dioxide uranium(V) nitrate ammonia (1/1), [UO2(NH3)5]NO3·NH3, was obtained in the form of yellow crystals from the reaction of caesium uranyl nitrate, Cs[UO2(NO3)3], and uranium tetra­fluoride, UF4, in dry liquid ammonia. The [UO2]+ cation is coordinated by five ammine ligands. The resulting [UO2(NH3)5] coordination polyhedron is best described as a penta­gonal bipyramid with the O atoms forming the apices. In the crystal, numerous N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present between the cation, anion and solvent mol­ecules, leading to a three-dimensional network. PMID:27980813

  17. Characterization of 3'----5' exonuclease associated with DNA polymerase of silkworm nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailov, V S; Marlyev, K A; Ataeva, J O; Kullyev, P K; Atrazhev, A M

    1986-01-01

    3'----5' Exonuclease specific for single-stranded DNA copurified with DNA polymerase of nuclear polyhedrosis virus of silkworm Bombyx mori (BmNPV Pol). BmNPV Pol has no detectable 5'----3' exonuclease activity on single-stranded or duplex DNA. Analysis of the products of 3'----5' exonucleolytic reaction showed that deoxynucleoside monophosphates were released during the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA. The exonuclease activity cosedimented with the polymerase activity during ultracentrifugation of BmNPV Pol in glycerol gradient. The polymerase and the exonuclease activities of BmNPV Pol were inactivated by heat with nearly identical kinetics. The mode of the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA by BmNPV Pol-associated exonuclease was strictly distributive. The enzyme dissociated from single-stranded DNA after the release of a single dNMP and then reassociated with a next polynucleotide being degradated. Images PMID:3012482

  18. Crystal structure of 3,5-di­methyl­pyridine N-oxide dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Merino García, Rosario; Ríos-Merino, Francisco Javier; Bernès, Sylvain; Reyes-Ortega, Yasmi

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, also known as 3,5-lutidine N-oxide dihydrate, C7H9NO·2H2O, the N—O bond is weakened due to the involvement of the O atom as an acceptor of hydrogen bonds from the two water mol­ecules of crystallization present in the asymmetric unit. Fused R 3 5(10) ring motifs based on O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds form chains in the [010] direction, which are further connected by weak C—H⋯O inter­molecular contacts. As a result, the lutidine mol­ecules are stacked in an efficient manner, with π–π contacts characterized by a short separation of 3.569 (1) Å between the benzene rings. PMID:27980810

  19. High-Pressure Studies of 1,3,5,7-Cyclooctatetraene: Experiment and Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachev, Sergey N.; Pravica, Michael; Kim, Eunja; Romano, Edward; Weck, Philippe F.

    2008-11-12

    High-pressure studies of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene have been performed by using Raman spectroscopy up to 16 GPa and compared with complementary density functional calculations. Angular-dispersive X-ray diffraction studies were also performed in the solid state at elevated pressure. The lattice constants of solid 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene obtained from the X-ray diffraction pattern taken at 3.8 GPa and room temperature are in good agreement with theoretical results. At least two phase transitions were observed during pressure increase followed by the loss of long-range crystallographic order, which was also associated with a strong pressure-induced luminescence that allowed estimation of band gap alterations with pressure.

  20. Current and Emerging Materials for 3-5 Micron IR Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentilman, Richard L.

    1986-12-01

    New, more durable windows and domes will be required for future 3-5 micron IR systems. Various oxide and oxynitride crystalline materials are candidates for these new requirements, including sapphire, spinel, ALON, yttria, and MgO. These materials are compared with respect to optical properties, durability, and fabrication costs. Two extrinsic properties, thermal conductivity and fracture strength, have strong effects on thermal shock resistance. Birefringent polycrystalline materials will not have adequate optical resolution for future systems.

  1. Solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatographic determination of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ashok Kumar; Rai, Parmod Kumar

    2008-07-01

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed using preconcentration technique solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analytical technique HPLC-UV for the determination of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from the environmental samples. Aqueous solution of anionic surfactant SDS was used for the extraction of both nitramine high explosives, viz., HMX and RDX from soil samples which were subsequently sorbed on SPME fiber. The static desorption was carried out in the desorption chamber of the SPME-HPLC interface in the presence of mobile phase ACN/methanol/water (30:35:35) and the subsequent chromatographic analysis at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min and detection at 230 nm. For this purpose, a C(18), 5 microm RP analytical column was used as a separation medium in this method. Several parameters relating to SPME, e.g., adsorption/desorption time, concentration of salt, stirring rate, etc., were optimized. The method was linear over the range of 20-400 ng/mL for HMX and RDX standards in the presence of surfactant in aqueous phase, respectively. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) for HMX and RDX are 0.9998 and 0.9982, respectively. With SPME, the detection limits (S/N = 3) in ng/mL are 0.05 and 0.1 for HMX and RDX, respectively in the presence of the SDS surfactant. The developed method has been applied successfully to the analysis of real environmental samples like bore well water, river water, and ground alluvial soil.

  2. Purification and characterization of DNase VII, a 3'. -->. 5'-directed exonuclease from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, G.F.; Grossman, L.

    1981-01-01

    An exonuclease, DNase VII, has been purified 6000-fold from human placenta. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 43,000, requires Mg/sup 2 +/ for activity, and has a pH optimum of 7.8. The enzyme hydrolyzes single-stranded and nicked duplex DNA at the same rate proceeding in a 3' ..-->.. 5' direction liberating 5'-mononucleotides. It does not measurably hydrolyze polyribonucleotides.

  3. Proton Relaxation in 1, 3, 5-Triamino-2, 4, 6-Trinitrobenzene (TATB).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-16

    AD-AO? 209 NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC F/G 7/4 PROTON RELAXATION IN 1. 3, 5-TRIAMINO-2, 4. 6-TRINITROBENZENE C-ETC(Ul~JUN A0 A N GARROWAY , H A...TATB) 1 April - 31 September 1979 S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(@) A.N. Garroway and H.A. Resing DE-AP-03

  4. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Betty W.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the present invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve much of the TATB, but readily dissolves these explosives.

  5. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, B.W.

    1984-11-29

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

  6. Synthesis and dynamic stereochemistry of 4-aryl-thiomorpholine-3,5-dione derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szawkało, Joanna; Maurin, Jan K.; Pluciński, Franciszek; Czarnocki, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    A series of new N-aryl-substituted thiomorpholine-3,5-diones were synthesized. Crystal structures of seven compounds were established on the basis of X-ray crystallography. Stable at room temperature diastereomers were detected for (2-phenyl)-substituted derivatives using 1H NMR. The dynamic stereochemistry of compound 36 was studied with variable-temperature 1H NMR and the mechanism of diastereomers interconversion was proposed on the basis of quantum chemical calculations.

  7. A 3.5 to 12 Micron "Dualband" Spectrometer for Generic UAVs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    response, and transmission of the Fresnel lens used for this test in place of the F/2.3 fore-optics. A 3.5 to 12 Micron “Dualband” Spectrometer for... Fresnel lens had been used. As described previously, the camera lens images onto the (cooled) spectrometer slit. The long focal length (400 mm) of the...Measured ** ** Based on DRS Modeling Results ** 28 Initial data collect with Prototype Sensor– Test FPA & Fresnel Lens • Used Fresnel lens (awaiting

  8. 22 CFR 3.5 - Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. 3.5 Section 3.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL GIFTS AND DECORATIONS FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 3.5 Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. (a) The Act effects a...

  9. 22 CFR 3.5 - Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. 3.5 Section 3.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL GIFTS AND DECORATIONS FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 3.5 Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. (a) The Act effects a...

  10. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  11. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  12. 78 FR 1855 - 1-Methyl-3,5,7-Triaza-1-Azoniatricyclodecane Chloride (Busan1024); Amendment To Terminate Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... AGENCY 1-Methyl-3,5,7-Triaza-1-Azoniatricyclodecane Chloride (Busan1024); Amendment To Terminate Uses... unit. Table 1--1-Methyl-3,5,7-Triaza-1-Azoniatricyclodecane Chloride (Busan1024) Product Cancellation... amendment to terminate uses of 1-Methyl-3,5,7-Triaza-1- Azoniatricyclodecane Chloride (Busan...

  13. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  14. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  15. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  16. A new type of two-dimensional carbon crystal prepared from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qi-Shi; Tang, Pei-Duo; Huang, Hua-Lin; Du, Fang-Li; Huang, Kai; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Long, Si-Yu; Li, Yan-Ming; Qiu, Jie-Shan; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2017-01-01

    A new two-dimensional (2D) carbon crystal, different from graphene, has been prepared from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene, consisting of 4-carbon and 6-carbon rings in 1:1 ratio, named 4–6 carbophene by authors, in which all carbon atoms possess sp2 hybrid orbitals with some distortion, forming an extensive conjugated π-bonding planar structure. The angles between the three σ-bonds of the carbon sp2 orbitals are roughly 120°, 90°, and 150°. Each of the three non-adjacent sides of a 6C-ring is shared with a 4C-ring; and each of the two opposite sides of a 4C-ring is shared with a 6C-ring. Dodecagonal holes with a diameter of approximate 5.8 Å are regularly located throughout the 2D carbon crystal. Even though the bond energies in 4–6 carbophene are weaker than those in the graphene, the new planar crystal is quite stable in ambient conditions. The 4–6 carbophene can be synthetized from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene or other benzene derivatives through dehydration and polymerization reactions, and may possess several possible patterns that form a family of 2D carbon crystals. A possible side reaction involving 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene is also discussed, which may produce a carbon-oxygen two dimensional crystal. PMID:28094298

  17. Reliability of Sn-3.5Ag Solder Joints in High Temperature Packaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Kurumaddali, Nalini Kanth; Kercher, Andrew K; Leslie, Dr Scott

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant need for next generation, high performance power electronic packages and systems with wide band gap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electricity transmission applications. Sn-3.5Ag solder is a candidate for use in such packages with potential operating temperatures up to 200oC. However, there is a need to understand thermal cycling reliability of Sn-3.5Ag solders subject to such operating conditions. The results of a study on the damage evolution occurring in large area Sn-3.5Ag solders joints between silicon dies and DBC substrates subject to thermal cycling between 200oC and 5oC is presented in this paper. Damage accumulation was followed using high resolution X-ray radiography techniques while nonlinear finite element models were developed based on the mechanical property data available in literature to understand the relationship between the stress state within the solder joint and the damage evolution occurring under thermal cycling conditions. It was observed that regions of damage observed in the experiments do not correspond to the finite element predictions of the location of regions of maximum plastic work.

  18. A new type of two-dimensional carbon crystal prepared from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qi-Shi; Tang, Pei-Duo; Huang, Hua-Lin; Du, Fang-Li; Huang, Kai; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Long, Si-Yu; Li, Yan-Ming; Qiu, Jie-Shan; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2017-01-01

    A new two-dimensional (2D) carbon crystal, different from graphene, has been prepared from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene, consisting of 4-carbon and 6-carbon rings in 1:1 ratio, named 4–6 carbophene by authors, in which all carbon atoms possess sp2 hybrid orbitals with some distortion, forming an extensive conjugated π-bonding planar structure. The angles between the three σ-bonds of the carbon sp2 orbitals are roughly 120°, 90°, and 150°. Each of the three non-adjacent sides of a 6C-ring is shared with a 4C-ring; and each of the two opposite sides of a 4C-ring is shared with a 6C-ring. Dodecagonal holes with a diameter of approximate 5.8 Å are regularly located throughout the 2D carbon crystal. Even though the bond energies in 4–6 carbophene are weaker than those in the graphene, the new planar crystal is quite stable in ambient conditions. The 4–6 carbophene can be synthetized from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene or other benzene derivatives through dehydration and polymerization reactions, and may possess several possible patterns that form a family of 2D carbon crystals. A possible side reaction involving 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene is also discussed, which may produce a carbon-oxygen two dimensional crystal.

  19. Electromigration Behaviors of Cu Reinforced Sn-3.5Ag Composite Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Han, Jing; Ma, Limin; Zuo, Yong; Guo, Fu

    2016-12-01

    The composite approach, by incorporating small amounts of reinforcement particles in the solder matrix, has proven to be one of the effective ways to improve the reliability of solder joints. The effects of Cu addition on electromigration were investigated in this study by incorporating 2% volume fraction Cu particles into Sn-3.5Ag eutectic solder paste by the in situ process. The one-dimensional solder joints, designed to prevent the current crowding effect, were stressed under a constant current density of 104 A/cm2 at room temperature, and the temperature of the sample could reach 105 ± 5°C due to the Joule heating effect. Doping 2 vol.% Cu was found to retard the electromigration phenomenon effectively. After electric current stressing for 528 h, the growth rate of an interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at the anode decreased 73% in contrast to that of Sn-3.5Ag solder joints, and the IMC layer at the cathode was almost unchanged. The polarization effect of Cu reinforced composite solder joints was also apparently mitigated. In addition, the surface damage of the composite solder joints was relieved by incorporating 2 vol.% Cu particles. Compared to Sn-3.5Ag solder joints, which had protruded Cu6Sn5 and wrinkles of Sn-solder matrix on the surface, the solder joints with Cu addition had a more even surface.

  20. Structure and applications of metal-organic framework based on cyanide and 3,5-dichloropyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; El-bendary, Mohamed M.

    2013-06-01

    The reaction of the aqueous/acetonitrile solutions of K3[Cu(CN)4] and 3,5-dichloropyridine (3,5-dClpy), in the presence of Me3SnCl affords a new metal-organic framework (MOF), 3∞[(CuCN)2·(3,5-dClpy)2], 1. The structure of the MOF 1 was characterized by IR, UV-visible, TGA and X-ray single crystal analysis. The structure of MOF 1 consists of CuCN building blocks which are connected by CN group forming 1D-zig-zag chains. Each chain is bridged to another chain by hydrogen bonding organizing 2D-sheets. The structure of 1 is further close packed by hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking and lp-π interactions creating 3D-network. The emission spectra and the thermodynamic parameters from TGA of the MOF 1 were discussed. The MOF 1 was used as heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidative discoloration of methylene blue dye (MB) by dilute solution of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The in vitro cytotoxic activity has been evaluated against the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. The cytotoxic effect of the MOF 1 on the viability of MCF-7 cells was determined by MTT assay.

  1. Testing the Axion-Conversion Hypothesis of 3.5 keV Emission with Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yan; Chen, Xuelei; Feng, Hua

    2017-02-01

    The recently measured 3.5 keV line in a number of galaxy clusters, the Andromeda galaxy (M31), and the Milky Way (MW) center can be well accounted for by a scenario in which dark matter decays to axionlike particles (ALPs) and subsequently convert to 3.5 keV photons in magnetic fields of galaxy clusters or galaxies. We propose to test this hypothesis by performing x-ray polarization measurements. Since ALPs can only couple to photons with a polarization orientation parallel to the magnetic field, we can confirm or reject this model by measuring the polarization of the 3.5 keV line and compare it to the orientation of the magnetic field. We discuss luminosity and polarization measurements for both a galaxy cluster and spiral galaxy, and provide a general relation between the polarization and galaxy inclination angle. This effect is marginally detectable with x-ray polarimetry detectors currently under development, such as the enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarization satellite, the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer and the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer. The sensitivity can be further improved in the future with detectors of a larger effective area or better energy resolutions.

  2. Ambient Temperature Ultrasonic Bonding of Si-Dice Using Sn-3.5wt.%Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Mo; Jung, Jae-Pil; Zhou, Y. Norman; Kim, Jong-Young

    2008-03-01

    Ultrasonic bonding of Si-dice to type FR-4 printed circuit boards (PCB) with Sn-3.5wt.%Ag solder at ambient temperature was investigated. The under-bump metallization (UBM) on the Si-dice comprised Cu/Ni/Al from top to bottom with thicknesses of 0.4 μm, 0.4 μm, and 0.3 μm, respectively. The pads on the PCBs consisted of Au/Ni/Cu with thicknesses of 0.05/5/18 μm, sequentially from top to bottom. Solder was supplied as Sn-3.5wt.%Ag foil rolled to 100 μm thickness, and inserted in the joints. The ultrasonic bonding time was varied from 0.5 s to 3.0 s, and the ultrasonic power was 1400 W. The experimental results showed that reliable joints could be produced between the Si-dice and the PCBs with Sn-3.5wt.%Ag solder. The joint breaking force of “Si-die/solder/FR-4” increased with bonding times up to 2.5 s with a maximum value of 65 N. A bonding time of 3.0 s proved to be excessive, and resulted in cracks along the intermetallic compound between the UBM and solder, which caused a decrease in the bond strength. The intermetallic compound produced by ultrasonic bonding between the UBM and solder was confirmed to be (Cu, Ni)6Sn5.

  3. Performance Evaluation of an Enhanced Uplink 3.5G System for Mobile Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Komnakos, Dimitris; Vouyioukas, Demosthenes; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Constantinou, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The present paper studies the prospective and the performance of a forthcoming high-speed third generation (3.5G) networking technology, called enhanced uplink, for delivering mobile health (m-health) applications. The performance of 3.5G networks is a critical factor for successful development of m-health services perceived by end users. In this paper, we propose a methodology for performance assessment based on the joint uplink transmission of voice, real-time video, biological data (such as electrocardiogram, vital signals, and heart sounds), and healthcare records file transfer. Various scenarios were concerned in terms of real-time, nonreal-time, and emergency applications in random locations, where no other system but 3.5G is available. The accomplishment of quality of service (QoS) was explored through a step-by-step improvement of enhanced uplink system's parameters, attributing the network system for the best performance in the context of the desired m-health services. PMID:19132096

  4. Degradation kinetics of malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside exposed to microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengyao; Li, Yuan; Xu, Xiayang; Wu, Jihong; Liao, Xiaojun; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-16

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the degradation of bioactive compounds during microwave treatment is meaningful for the practical application of this novel technology. The influence of microwave power, energy density, temperature, pH value, and initial concentration of anthocyanins (Acys) on the degradation behavior of malvidin-3-glucoside (Mv-3-glu) and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside (Mv-3,5-diglu) was investigated in this study. Results showed that the degradation of both Acys was accelerated with the increase of microwave power, energy density, temperature, pH value, and initial concentration of Acys. The degradation process of both Acys followed the first-order kinetics model (R² > 0.94), whereas the relationship between Acys degradation and energy density fitted to the logistic model well (R² > 0.98). In addition, Mv-3-glu was more susceptible to the microwave treatment than Mv-3,5-diglu. Compared with heating in a 98 ± 2 °C water bath, both Acys degraded more rapidly under microwave treatment at 100 °C, indicating the occurrence of microwave effect. The results provide a guide for the scientific application of microwave treatment.

  5. Hitomi Constraints on the 3.5 keV Line in the Perseus Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F. A.; Akamatsu, H.; Akimoto, F.; Allen, S. W.; Angelini, L.; Arnaud, K. A.; Audard, M.; Awaki, H.; Axelsson, M.; Bamba, A.; Bautz, M. W.; Blandford, R. D.; Bulbul, E.; Brenneman, L. W.; Brown, G. V.; Cackett, E. M.; Chernyakova, M.; Chiao, M. P.; Coppi, P.; Costantini, E.; de Plaa, J.; den Herder, J.-W.; Done, C.; Dotani, T.; Ebisawa, K.; Eckart, M. E.; Enoto, T.; Ezoe, Y.; Fabian, A. C.; Ferrigno, C.; Foster, A. R.; Fujimoto, R.; Fukazawa, Y.; Furuzawa, A.; Galeazzi, M.; Gallo, L. C.; Gandhi, P.; Giustini, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Gu, L.; Guainazzi, M.; Haba, Y.; Hagino, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Harrus, I.; Hatsukade, I.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Hayashida, K.; Hiraga, J.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Hoshino, A.; Hughes, J. P.; Ichinohe, Y.; Iizuka, R.; Inoue, H.; Inoue, S.; Inoue, Y.; Ishibashi, K.; Ishida, M.; Ishikawa, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Itoh, M.; Iwai, M.; Iyomoto, N.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kallman, T.; Kamae, T.; Kara, E.; Kataoka, J.; Katsuda, S.; Katsuta, J.; Kawaharada, M.; Kawai, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Khangulyan, D.; Kilbourne, C. A.; King, A. L.; Kitaguchi, T.; Kitamoto, S.; Kitayama, T.; Kohmura, T.; Kokubun, M.; Koyama, S.; Koyama, K.; Kretschmar, P.; Krimm, H. A.; Kubota, A.; Kunieda, H.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Lee, S.-H.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Limousin, O.; Loewenstein, M.; Long, K. S.; Lumb, D. H.; Madejski, G. M.; Maeda, Y.; Maier, D.; Makishima, K.; Markevitch, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsushita, K.; McCammon, D.; McNamara, B. R.; Mehdipour, M.; Miller, E. D.; Miller, J. M.; Mineshige, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Mitsuishi, I.; Miyazawa, T.; Mizuno, T.; Mori, H.; Mori, K.; Moseley, H.; Mukai, K.; Murakami, H.; Murakami, T.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Nakagawa, T.; Nakajima, H.; Nakamori, T.; Nakano, T.; Nakashima, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Nobukawa, K.; Nobukawa, M.; Noda, H.; Nomachi, M.; O’ Dell, S. L.; Odaka, H.; Ohashi, T.; Ohno, M.; Okajima, T.; Ota, N.; Ozaki, M.; Paerels, F.; Paltani, S.; Parmar, A.; Petre, R.; Pinto, C.; Pohl, M.; Porter, F. S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Ramsey, B. D.; Reynolds, C. S.; Russell, H. R.; Safi-Harb, S.; Saito, S.; Sakai, K.; Sameshima, H.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, G.; Sato, K.; Sato, R.; Sawada, M.; Schartel, N.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Seta, H.; Shidatsu, M.; Simionescu, A.; Smith, R. K.; Soong, Y.; Stawarz, Ł.; Sugawara, Y.; Sugita, S.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Takeda, S.; Takei, Y.; Tamagawa, T.; Tamura, K.; Tamura, T.; Tanaka, T.; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Tashiro, M.; Tawara, Y.; Terada, Y.; Terashima, Y.; Tombesi, F.; Tomida, H.; Tsuboi, Y.; Tsujimoto, M.; Tsunemi, H.; Tsuru, T.; Uchida, H.; Uchiyama, H.; Uchiyama, Y.; Ueda, S.; Ueda, Y.; Ueno, S.; Uno, S.; Urry, C. M.; Ursino, E.; de Vries, C. P.; Watanabe, S.; Werner, N.; Wik, D. R.; Wilkins, D. R.; Williams, B. J.; Yamada, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaoka, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yamauchi, S.; Yaqoob, T.; Yatsu, Y.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, A.; Zhuravleva, I.; Zoghbi, A.; Hitomi Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with Hitomi was expected to resolve the origin of the faint unidentified E≈ 3.5 {keV} emission line reported in several low-resolution studies of various massive systems, such as galaxies and clusters, including the Perseus cluster. We have analyzed the Hitomi first-light observation of the Perseus cluster. The emission line expected for Perseus based on the XMM-Newton signal from the large cluster sample under the dark matter decay scenario is too faint to be detectable in the Hitomi data. However, the previously reported 3.5 keV flux from Perseus was anomalously high compared to the sample-based prediction. We find no unidentified line at the reported high flux level. Taking into account the XMM measurement uncertainties for this region, the inconsistency with Hitomi is at a 99% significance for a broad dark matter line and at 99.7% for a narrow line from the gas. We do not find anomalously high fluxes of the nearby faint K line or the Ar satellite line that were proposed as explanations for the earlier 3.5 keV detections. We do find a hint of a broad excess near the energies of high-n transitions of S xvi (E≃ 3.44 {keV} rest-frame)—a possible signature of charge exchange in the molecular nebula and another proposed explanation for the unidentified line. While its energy is consistent with XMM pn detections, it is unlikely to explain the MOS signal. A confirmation of this interesting feature has to wait for a more sensitive observation with a future calorimeter experiment.

  6. Oxidation of hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone by human myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Burner, U; Krapfenbauer, G; Furtmüller, P G; Regelsberger, G; Obinger, C

    2000-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is very susceptible to reducing radicals because the reduction potential of the ferric/ferrous redox couple is much higher compared with other peroxidases. Semiquinone radicals are known to reduce heme proteins. Therefore, the kinetics and spectra of the reactions of p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone with compounds I and II were investigated using both sequential-mixing stopped-flow techniques and conventional spectrophotometric measurements. At pH 7 and 15 degrees C the rate constants for compound I reacting with p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone were determined to be 5.6+/-0.4 x 10(7) M(-1)s(-1), 1.3+/-0.1 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1) and 3.1+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. The corresponding reaction rates for compound II reduction were calculated to be 4.5+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), 1.9+/-0.1 x 10(5) M(-1)s(-1) and 4.5+/-0.2 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. Semiquinone radicals, produced by compounds I and II in the classical peroxidation cycle, promote compound III (oxymyeloperoxidase) formation. We could monitor formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase as well as its direct transition to compound II by addition of molecular oxygen. Formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase is shown to depend strongly on the reduction potential of the corresponding redox couple benzoquinone/semiquinone. With 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone as substrate, myeloperoxidase is extremely quickly trapped as compound III. These MPO-typical features could have potential in designing specific drugs which inhibit the production of hypochlorous acid and consequently attenuate inflammatory tissue damage.

  7. Sequential Injection/Electrochemical Immunoassay for Quantifying the Pesticide Metabolite 3, 5, 6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Riechers, Shawn L.; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-12-04

    An automated and sensitive sequential injection electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor a potential insecticide biomarker, 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. The current method involved a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system equipped with a thin-layer electrochemical flow cell and permanent magnet, which was used to fix 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) antibody coated magnetic beads (TCP-Ab-MBs) in the reaction zone. After competitive immunoreactions among TCP-Ab-MBs, TCP analyte, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled TCP, a 3, 3?, 5, 5?-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride and hydrogen peroxide (TMB-H2O2) substrate solution was injected to produce an electroactive enzymatic product. The activity of HRP tracers was monitored by a square wave voltammetric scanning electroactive enzymatic product in the thin-layer flow cell. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate and the enzymatic product were investigated under batch conditions, and the parameters of the immunoassay were optimized in the SIA system. Under the optimal conditions, the system was used to measure as low as 6 ng L-1 (ppt) TCP, which is around 50-fold lower than the value indicated by the manufacturer of the TCP RaPID Assay? kit (0.25 ug/L, colorimetric detection). The performance of the developed immunoassay system was successfully evaluated on tap water and river water samples spiked with TCP. This technique could be readily used for detecting other environmental contaminants by developing specific antibodies against contaminants and is expected to open new opportunities for environmental and biological monitoring.

  8. Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3-5 Years, United States 2012.

    PubMed

    Kit, Brian K; Akinbami, Lara J; Isfahani, Neda Sarafrazi; Ulrich, Dale A

    2017-02-14

    Objective Gross motor development in early childhood is important in fostering greater interaction with the environment. The purpose of this study is to describe gross motor skills among US children aged 3-5 years using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Methods We used 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) data, which included TGMD-2 scores obtained according to an established protocol. Outcome measures included locomotor and object control raw and age-standardized scores. Means and standard errors were calculated for demographic and weight status with SUDAAN using sample weights to calculate nationally representative estimates, and survey design variables to account for the complex sampling methods. Results The sample included 339 children aged 3-5 years. As expected, locomotor and object control raw scores increased with age. Overall mean standardized scores for locomotor and object control were similar to the mean value previously determined using a normative sample. Girls had a higher mean locomotor, but not mean object control, standardized score than boys (p < 0.05). However, the mean locomotor standardized scores for both boys and girls fell into the range categorized as "average." There were no other differences by age, race/Hispanic origin, weight status, or income in either of the subtest standardized scores (p > 0.05). Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of US children aged 3-5 years, TGMD-2 mean locomotor and object control standardized scores were similar to the established mean. These results suggest that standardized gross motor development among young children generally did not differ by demographic or weight status.

  9. STAT3/5-Dependent IL9 Overexpression Contributes to Neoplastic Cell Survival in Mycosis Fungoides

    PubMed Central

    Vieyra-Garcia, Pablo A.; Wei, Tianling; Naym, David Gram; Fredholm, Simon; Fink-Puches, Regina; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Odum, Niels; O'Malley, John T.; Gniadecki, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sustained inflammation is a key feature of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Resident IL9–producing T cells have been found in skin infections and certain inflammatory skin diseases, but their role in MF is currently unknown. Experimental Design We analyzed lesional skin from patients with MF for the expression of IL9 and its regulators. To determine which cells were producing IL9, high-throughput sequencing was used to identify malignant clones and Vb-specific antibodies were employed to visualize malignant cells in histologic preparations. To explore the mechanism of IL9 secretion, we knocked down STAT3/5 and IRF4 by siRNA transfection in CTCL cell lines receiving psoralen+UVA (PUVA) ± anti-IL9 antibody. To further examine the role of IL9 in tumor development, the EL-4 T-cell lymphoma model was used in C57BL/6 mice. Results Malignant and reactive T cells produce IL9 in lesional skin. Expression of the Th9 transcription factor IRF4 in malignant cells was heterogeneous, whereas reactive T cells expressed it uniformly. PUVA or UVB phototherapy diminished the frequencies of IL9- and IL9r-positive cells, as well as STAT3/5a and IRF4 expression in lesional skin. IL9 production was regulated by STAT3/5 and silencing of STAT5 or blockade of IL9 with neutralizing antibodies potentiated cell death after PUVA treatment in vitro. IL9-depleted mice exhibited a reduction of tumor growth, higher frequencies of regulatory T cells, and activated CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that IL9 and its regulators are promising new targets for therapy development in mycosis fungoides. PMID:26851186

  10. Syntheses, Structural Characterization and Thermoanalysis of Transition-Metal Compounds Derived from 3,5-Dinitropyridone

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Zhou, Qiu-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Cai, Mei-Yu; Li, Ping; Gan, Li-Hua; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Li, Ji-Zhen; Fan, Xue-Zhong; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    Nine metal compounds of Mn(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) derived from dinitropyridone ligands (3,5-dinitro-pyrid-2-one, 2HDNP; 3,5-dinitropyrid-4-one, 4HDNP and 3,5-dinitropyrid-4-one-N- hydroxide, 4HDNPO) were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and partly by TG-DSC. Three of which were further structurally characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis. The structures of the three compounds, Mn(4DNP)2(H2O)4, 4, Zn(4DNPO)2(H2O)4, 8, and Cd(4DNPO)2(H2O)4, 9, crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n and Z = 2, with a = 8.9281(9), b = 9.1053(9), c = 10.6881(11) Å, β = 97.9840(10)° for 4; a = 8.4154(7), b = 9.9806(8), c = 10.5695(8) Å, β = 97.3500(10)° for 8; a = 8.5072(7), b = 10.2254(8), c = 10.5075(8) Å, β 96.6500(10)° for 9. All three complexes are octahedral consisting of four equatorial water molecules, and two nitrogen or oxygen donor ligands (DNP or DNPO). The abundant hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking interactions seem to contribute to stabilization of the crystal structures of the compounds. The TG-DTG results revealed that the complexes showed a weight loss sequence corresponding to all coordinated water molecules, nitro groups, the breaking of the pyridine rings and finally the formation of metal oxides. PMID:20526459

  11. Commissioning Results of the 2nd 3.5 Cell SRF Gun for ELBE

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, A; Freitag, M; Murcek, Petr; Teichert, Jochen; Vennekate, H; Xiang, R; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Turlington, Larry D,

    2014-12-01

    As in 2007 the first 3.5 cell superconducting radio frequency (SRF) gun was taken into operation, it turned out that the specified performance has not been achieved. However, to demonstrate the full potential of this new type of electron source, a second and slightly modified SRF gun II was built in collaboration with Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). We will report on commissioning and first results of the new gun, which includes in particular the characterization of the most important RF properties as well as their comparison with previous vertical test results.

  12. Dielectric characteristics of LiCo 3/5Cu 2/5VO 4 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Moti

    2010-08-01

    The LiCo 3/5Cu 2/5VO 4 ceramics was produced by the solution-based chemical method and its dielectric and electrical modulus properties were investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant ( εr) at some selected temperatures shows low-frequency dispersion. Temperature dependence of εr at 1, 100, 200, 500 kHz and 1 MHz exhibits same value of transition temperature ( Tc=300 °C) with ( εr) max. ∼5147, 396, 270, 162 and 111, respectively. Complex electrical modulus study describes the presence of non- Debye type conductivity relaxation in the material.

  13. Experimental study of free-shear layer transition above a cavity at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Rudolph A.; Creel, Theodore R., Jr.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1989-01-01

    The transition behavior of a free-shear layer above a cavity with high and low levels of freestream acoustic disturbances has been studied at Mach 3.5. Optical techniques, mean pitot pressure measurements, and hot-wire measurements were employed to detect transition locations. Transition Reynolds numbers of between 363,000 and 530,000 were found, in agreement with previous results. It is suggested that upstream convected disturbances may be at least partially responsible for the insensitivity of transition Reynolds numbers to the freestream acoustic disturbance field.

  14. Synthesis of diversely 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazoles via 5-exo-dig cyclization.

    PubMed

    Borkin, Dmitry A; Puscau, Mirela; Carlson, Alena; Solan, Agnes; Wheeler, Kraig A; Török, Béla; Dembinski, Roman

    2012-06-21

    5-Exo-dig cyclocondensation of alk-3-yn-1-ones with hydrazines, in the presence of montmorillonite K-10, provides an effective method with a high atom economy for the synthesis of diversely 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazoles. The microwave-accelerated reaction proceeds in the absence of solvent and leads to 5-benzyl substituted pyrazoles with good yields (72-91%). The regiochemistry of the process was confirmed by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of 1-(2-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-methylbenzyl)-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole.

  15. The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex, Barberton mountain belt - A section through 3.5 Ga oceanic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.; Hart, Rodger J.

    1987-01-01

    The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, is investigated, and the intrusive nature of mafic-ultramafic units from the Komati and Kromberg formations into overlying pillow lavas and sediments is documented. Evidence is presented for multiple intrusive events within the igneous sections, including crosscutting intrusives, multiple injection of magma in the Komati section, and sheeted intrusions in the Kromberg section. The thinness of the Jamestown complex suggests that, locally at least, the ca 3.5 Ga oceanic crust was also thin, consistent with the regionally extensive metasomatic alteration.

  16. Synthesis, antimalarial activity and molecular docking of hybrid 4-aminoquinoline-1,3,5-triazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Hans Raj; Singh, Udaya Pratap; Thakur, Anjali; Kumar Ghosh, Surajit; Gogoi, Kabita; Prakash, Anil; Singh, Ramendra K

    2015-10-01

    A series of novel hybrid 4-aminoquinoline 1,3,5-triazine derivatives was synthesized in a five-steps reaction and evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (RKL-2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Entire synthetic derivatives showed higher antimalarial activity on the sensitive strain while two compounds, viz., 9a and 9c displayed good activity against both the strains of P. falciparum. The observed activity was further substantiated by docking study on both wild and qradruple mutant type P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (pf-DHFR-TS).

  17. Joining C/C composite to copper using active Cu-3.5Si braze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuanxun; Li, Zhenglin; Hao, Chuanyong; Zhang, Jinsong

    2012-02-01

    A simple technique was developed to join C/C composite to Cu using active Cu-3.5Si braze for nuclear thermal applications. The brazing alloy exhibited good wettability on C/C substrate due to the reaction layer formed at the interface. A strong interfacial bond of the brazing alloy on C/C with the formation of TiC + SiC + Ti 5Si 3 reaction layer was obtained. The produced CC/Cu/CuCrZr joint exhibited shear strength as high as 79 MPa and excellent thermal resistance during the thermal shock tests.

  18. Dibromidobis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-κN 2)cobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Tomyn, Stefania; Pavlenko, Vadim A.; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elżbieta; Penkova, Larysa; Kotova, Natalia V.

    2011-01-01

    In the mononuclear title complex, [CoBr2(C5H8N2)2], the CoII atom is coordinated by two N atoms from two monodentate 3,5-dimethyl­pyrazole ligands and two Br atoms in a highly distorted tetra­hedral geometry. In the crystal, the complex mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular N—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds into chains along [101]. An intra­molecular N—H⋯Br hydrogen bond is also present. PMID:22219744

  19. The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex, Barberton mountain belt - A section through 3.5 Ga oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.; Hart, Rodger J.

    The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, is investigated, and the intrusive nature of mafic-ultramafic units from the Komati and Kromberg formations into overlying pillow lavas and sediments is documented. Evidence is presented for multiple intrusive events within the igneous sections, including crosscutting intrusives, multiple injection of magma in the Komati section, and sheeted intrusions in the Kromberg section. The thinness of the Jamestown complex suggests that, locally at least, the ca 3.5 Ga oceanic crust was also thin, consistent with the regionally extensive metasomatic alteration.

  20. Meeting report:Iraq oil ministry needs assessment workshop.3-5 Septemner 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2006-11-01

    Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and Sandia National Laboratories met with mid-level representatives from Iraq's oil and gas companies and with former employees and senior managers of Iraq's Ministry of Oil September 3-5 in Amman, Jordan. The goals of the workshop were to assess the needs of the Iraqi Oil Ministry and industry, to provide information about capabilities at DOE and the national laboratories relevant to Iraq, and to develop ideas for potential projects.

  1. Formal synthesis of (+)-3-epi-eupomatilone-6 and the 3,5-bis-epimer.

    PubMed

    Yodwaree, Sariya; Soorukram, Darunee; Kuhakarn, Chutima; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Reutrakul, Vichai; Pohmakotr, Manat

    2014-09-21

    The formal synthesis of (+)-3-epi-eupomatilone-6 () and the 3,5-bis-epimer () has been accomplished. The key synthetic strategy involved the stereoselective construction of (3R,4S,5R)- and (3R,4S,5S)-trisubstituted γ-butyrolactones and from (2R,3R)-2,3-dimethyl-4-pentenoic acid derivative , which was readily obtained via stereoselective conjugate addition of vinylmagnesium chloride to a chiral α,β-unsaturated N-acyl oxazolidinone (Evans' auxiliary) followed by α-methylation.

  2. An explanation for the universal 3.5 power-law observed in currency markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas A.; Johnson, Neil F.

    We present a mathematical theory to explain a recent empirical finding in the Physics literature (Zhao et al., 2013) in which the distributions of waiting-times between discrete events were found to exhibit power-law tails with an apparent universal exponent: α ∼ 3.5 . This new theory provides the first ever qualitative and quantitative explanation of Zhao et al.'s surprising finding. It also provides a mechanistic description of the origin of the observed universality, assigning its cause to the emergence of dynamical feedback processes between evolving clusters of like-minded agents.

  3. Intracellular Generation of ROS by 3,5-Dimethylaminophenol: Persistence, Cellular Response, and Impact of Molecular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming-Wei; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Tseng, Chia-Yi; Ye, Wenjie; Trudel, Laura J.; Skipper, Paul L.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated extensive human exposure to the monocyclic aromatic amines, particularly to 3,5-dimethylaniline, and found an association between exposure to these compounds and risk for bladder cancer. Little is known about molecular mechanisms that might lead to the observed risk. We previously suggested that the hydroxylated 3,5-dimethylaniline metabolite, 3,5-dimethylaminophenol (3,5-DMAP), played a central role in effecting genetic change through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a redox cycle with 3,5-dimethylquinoneimine. Experiments here characterize ROS generation by 3,5-DMAP exposure in nucleotide repair-proficient and -deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells as a function of time. Besides, various cellular responses discussed herein indicate that ROS production is the principal cause of cytotoxicity. Fluorescence microscopy of cells exposed to 3,5-DMAP confirmed that ROS production occurs in the nuclear compartment, as suggested by a previous study demonstrating covalent linkage between 3,5-DMAP and histones. 3,5-DMAP was also compared with 3,5-dimethylhydroquinone to determine whether substitution of one of the phenolic hydroxyl groups by an amino group had a significant effect on some of the investigated parameters. The comparatively much longer duration of observable ROS produced by 3,5-DMAP (7 vs. 1 day) provides further evidence that 3,5-DMAP becomes embedded in the cellular matrix in a form capable of continued redox cycling. 3,5-DMAP also induced dose-dependent increase of H2O2 and ·OH, which were determined as the major free radicals contributing to the cytotoxicity and apoptosis mediated via caspase-3 activation. Overall, this study provides insight into the progression of alkylaniline-induced toxicity. PMID:24973092

  4. Interdiffusion analysis of the soldering reactions in Sn-3.5Ag/Cu couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, K. S.; Kim, S. J.

    2001-11-01

    Extensive microstructural and kinetic studies on the formation and growth of the intermetallics of Sn-rich solder/Cu couples have been reported. However, experimental data on the interdiffusion mechanisms during soldering reactions are limited and in conflict. The interdiffusion processes for soldering of Sn-3.5Ag alloy/Cu couples were investigated by using the Cr-evaporated surface as a reference line. At the beginning of soldering, Cu was observed to outdiffuse to the molten Sn-3.5Ag alloy until saturation, and the Sn-Ag solder dissolved with Cu collapsed below the reference line. As a result, the scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound was formed at the newly-formed Sn-Ag-Cu solder/Cu interface below the original Cu surface. When the soldered joint was reflowed at the lower temperature to suppress the Cu dissolution, the Cu6Sn5/Cu interface moved into the Cu substrate. Therefore, Sn is the dominant diffusing species for the intermetallic formation during the soldering process, although the extensive Cu dissolution occurs at the early stage of soldering.

  5. Stability and Uncertainty of Full Moment Tensor Solutions for M < 3.5 Induced Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, O. S.; Dreger, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in earthquakes associated with industrial activities has created a need to investigate and characterize the source physics of induced seismicity. Many techniques and approaches are available to determine representative source parameters of these events. For M > 3.5 events, high quality seismic data from regional networks can be used to provide reasonable estimates of moment tensor solutions. In this investigation we explore various techniques and datasets to constrain full moment tensor solutions of M < 3.5 induced events, expanding upon the approach developed by Guilhem et al., 2014. Small magnitude events recorded by local seismic networks can yield good quality data with distinct body wave and converted phases depending upon the velocity structure and frequency range. Generating synthetic seismograms or Green's functions to accurately model these high frequency phases can be challenging. To investigate the variability associated with the choice of Green's functions, we test available codes to see how well they capture body wave phases. Other stability and uncertainty measures include the F-test, Jackknife test, residual bootstrap, and Network Sensitivity Solution, (Ford et al., 2009; Ford et al., 2010). Additional datasets to constrain the full moment tensor solution include P-wave first motions and amplitude ratios.

  6. Unidirectional growth and characterization of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindan, V.; Dhatchayani, S.; Sarala, N.; Sankaranarayanan, K.

    2016-05-01

    1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene single crystals has been grown by both conventional slow evaporation and Unidirectional Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method. Colourless, highly transparent crystal of size 20 mm × 10 mm × 3mm with well defined morphology was grown from slow evaporation solution method and <111>-oriented unidirectional bulk single crystal of size 23 mm length and 23 mm diameter was grown by the SR method. From the PXRD measurement the material has been crystallized in orthorhombic crystal system. The functional groups were assessed by the use of FTIR analysis. The optical parameter of the grown crystal was obtained from UV-visible spectral analysis and the cutoff wavelength was observed at 247 nm. Mechanical and thermal properties of the grown crystals were carried out from Vicker's hardness test method and TG-DSC analysis respectively. From the TG-DSC studies, the melting points were confirmed at 172°C and no decompose or dissociation was observed. The powder Kurtz method confirms that 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene has second harmonic generation (SHG) and the SHG efficiency was found to be 0.7 times that of KDP.

  7. 3,5-Dimethylisoxazoles Act As Acetyl-lysine-mimetic Bromodomain Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Histone–lysine acetylation is a vital chromatin post-translational modification involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. Bromodomains bind acetylated lysines, acting as readers of the histone-acetylation code. Competitive inhibitors of this interaction have antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties. With 57 distinct bromodomains known, the discovery of subtype-selective inhibitors of the histone–bromodomain interaction is of great importance. We have identified the 3,5-dimethylisoxazole moiety as a novel acetyl-lysine bioisostere, which displaces acetylated histone-mimicking peptides from bromodomains. Using X-ray crystallographic analysis, we have determined the interactions responsible for the activity and selectivity of 4-substituted 3,5-dimethylisoxazoles against a selection of phylogenetically diverse bromodomains. By exploiting these interactions, we have developed compound 4d, which has IC50 values of <5 μM for the bromodomain-containing proteins BRD2(1) and BRD4(1). These compounds are promising leads for the further development of selective probes for the bromodomain and extra C-terminal domain (BET) family and CREBBP bromodomains. PMID:21851057

  8. Design and realization of a planar ultrawideband antenna with notch band at 3.5 GHz.

    PubMed

    Azim, Rezaul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Misran, Norbahiah; Yatim, Baharudin; Arshad, Haslina

    2014-01-01

    A small antenna with single notch band at 3.5 GHz is designed for ultrawideband (UWB) communication applications. The fabricated antenna comprises a radiating monopole element and a perfectly conducting ground plane with a wide slot. To achieve a notch band at 3.5 GHz, a parasitic element has been inserted in the same plane of the substrate along with the radiating patch. Experimental results shows that, by properly adjusting the position of the parasitic element, the designed antenna can achieve an ultrawide operating band of 3.04 to 11 GHz with a notched band operating at 3.31-3.84 GHz. Moreover, the proposed antenna achieved a good gain except at the notched band and exhibits symmetric radiation patterns throughout the operating band. The prototype of the proposed antenna possesses a very compact size and uses simple structures to attain the stop band characteristic with an aim to lessen the interference between UWB and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) band.

  9. The Intrinsic Shape of Sagittarius A* at 3.5 mm Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Blackburn, Lindy; Fish, Vincent L.; Loinard, Laurent; Reid, Mark J.; Castillo, Edgar; Chael, Andrew A.; Hernández-Gómez, Antonio; Hughes, David H.; León-Tavares, Jonathan; Lu, Ru-Sen; Montaña, Alfredo; Narayanan, Gopal; Rosenfeld, Katherine; Sánchez, David; Schloerb, F. Peter; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Shiokawa, Hotaka; SooHoo, Jason; Vertatschitsch, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The radio emission from Sgr A{}\\ast is thought to be powered by accretion onto a supermassive black hole of ˜ 4× {10}6 {M}⊙ at the Galactic Center. At millimeter wavelengths, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations can directly resolve the bright innermost accretion region of Sgr A{}\\ast . Motivated by the addition of many sensitive long baselines in the north-south direction, we developed a full VLBI capability at the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano (LMT). We successfully detected Sgr A{}\\ast at 3.5 mm with an array consisting of six Very Long Baseline Array telescopes and the LMT. We model the source as an elliptical Gaussian brightness distribution and estimate the scattered size and orientation of the source from closure amplitude and self-calibration analysis, obtaining consistent results between methods and epochs. We then use the known scattering kernel to determine the intrinsic two-dimensional source size at 3.5 mm: (147+/- 7 μ {{as}})× (120+/- 12 μ {{as}}), at position angle 88^\\circ +/- 7^\\circ east of north. Finally, we detect non-zero closure phases on some baseline triangles, but we show that these are consistent with being introduced by refractive scattering in the interstellar medium and do not require intrinsic source asymmetry to explain.

  10. Immunogenicity of Infanrix™ hexa administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age.

    PubMed

    Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Kolhe, Devayani; Hardt, Karin

    2012-04-05

    A pooled analysis of data from four vaccination studies conducted in Europe was undertaken to assess the immunogenicity of Infanrix™ hexa (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) when administered in a total of 702 healthy infants at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. One month after dose 2, between 96.3% and 100% of subjects had seroprotective antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B and poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3; 91.7% against Hib and ≥99.0% were seropositive for each pertussis antigen. One month after the third dose, 98.9-100% of subjects were seroprotected/seropositive for all vaccine antigens. Geometric mean antibody concentrations/titres for each vaccine antigen increased by 6.7-52.9 fold after the third vaccine dose. No serious adverse events in DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib recipients were vaccine related. Infanrix™ hexa induces an adequate immune response after 2-dose primary plus booster doses when administered according to a 3, 5 and 11 months schedule.

  11. Inositol lipids: from an archaeal origin to phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate faults in human disease.

    PubMed

    Michell, Robert H

    2013-12-01

    The last couple of decades have seen an extraordinary transformation in our knowledge and understanding of the multifarious biological roles of inositol phospholipids. Herein, I briefly consider two topics. The first is the role that recently acquired biochemical and genomic information - especially from archaeons - has played in illuminating the possible evolutionary origins of the biological employment of inositol in lipids, and some questions that these studies raise about the 'classical' biosynthetic route to phosphatidylinositol. The second is the growing recognition of the importance in eukaryotic cells of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate only entered our phosphoinositide consciousness quite recently, but it is speedily gathering a plethora of roles in diverse cellular processes and diseases thereof. These include: control of endolysosomal vesicular trafficking and of the activity of ion channels and pumps in the endolysosomal compartment; control of constitutive and stimulated protein traffic to and from plasma membrane subdomains; control of the nutrient and stress-sensing target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway (TORC1); and regulation of key genes in some central metabolic pathways.

  12. [Interaction of 8-substituted derivatives and adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate esters with protein kinase from pig brain].

    PubMed

    Guliaev, N N; Tunitskaia, V L; Nesterova, M V; Mazurova, L A; Murtuzaev, I M

    1977-11-01

    A synthesis of previously unknown 8-substituted derivatives and alkyl esters of cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate, containing reactive groups, was carried out. The interaction of the compounds obtained with a homogeneous preparation of protein kinase from pig brain was studied. It was found that all compounds, with the exception of neutral esters of 3',5'-AMP, activate the enzyme and competitively inhibit 3H-labelled 3',5'-cAMP binding by the regulatory subunit of protein kinase. The activating effect and affinity of 8-(beta-aminoethylamino)-3',5'-cAMP for protein kinase was 10 times lower than that for 3',5'-cAMP and other 8-substituted derivatives of the cyclic nucleotide. It was found that 8-(N-chloroacetylaminoethylamino)-3',5'-cAMP interaction with the enzyme is of irreversible type, which suggest covalent blocking of the nucleophilic group of the 3',5'-cAMP binding site of protein kinase. The data obtained indicate that the 3',5'-cAMP molecule is bound to the regulatory site of protein kinase in the syn-conformation. The previously made assumption on the crucial importance of the negative charge in the 3',5'-cyclophosphate system for the interaction of cyclic AMP with the regulatory subunit of protein kinase has been thus confirmed.

  13. Speaking a tone language enhances musical pitch perception in 3-5-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Creel, Sarah C; Weng, Mengxing; Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D; Lee, Kang

    2017-01-16

    Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared the pitch perception of Chinese children who spoke a tone language (i.e., Mandarin) with English-speaking American children. We found that Mandarin-speaking children were more advanced at pitch processing than English-speaking children but both groups performed similarly on a control music task (timbre discrimination). The findings support the Pitch Generalization Hypothesis that tone languages drive attention to pitch in nonlinguistic contexts, and suggest that language learning benefits aspects of music perception in early development. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/UY0kpGpPNA0.

  14. A Versatile Synthesis of 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A R; Pagoria, P F; Schmidt, R D; Coburn, M D; Lee, G S; Hsu, P C

    2006-04-06

    A safe and versatile synthesis of high-purity 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) based on vicarious nucleophilic substitution (VNS) chemistry has now been achieved. The starting material can be selected from a variety of inexpensive nitroarenes obtained from commercial suppliers (4-nitroaniline, picric acid) or U.S. stockpiles (ammonium picrate, TNT). The use of picric acid and ammonium picrate (Explosive D) is preferred as both compounds are directly converted to picramide in the presence of ammonium salts (diammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium carbamate) in sulfolane at elevated temperature. The picramide resulting from this process is directly converted to TATB using an optimized VNS reaction employing inexpensive hydroxylamine as the nucleophilic aminating reagent. A crucial element in our synthesis is a novel and efficient purification of TATB.

  15. DFT STUDY OF CO AND NO ADSORPTION ON BORON NITRIDE (BN)n = 3 - 5 NANOCLUSTERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Ehsan; Pangh, Abdolhakim; Ghorbanpour, Hamed

    2015-11-01

    Interaction of CO and NO molecules by different orientations on (BN)n=3-5 clusters have been studied at the B3LYP/6-311+G* level of theory. Total electronic energies have been corrected for geometrical counterpoise (gCP) and dispersion (D3) energies at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. Formation of a new sigma bond between the gas and (BN)3 cluster, atom in molecules (AIM) results, density of states spectrums (DOS), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces, and visualization of wave function of molecular orbitals in the nearest bonding regions to the Fermi level have confirmed that adsorption of CO by carbon end atom, and NO by nitrogen end atom is covalent in nature, so that the charge transfer is occurred from gas molecule to the cluster.

  16. Colorimetric determination of catecholamines by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride.

    PubMed

    el-Rabbat, N A; Omar, N M

    1978-06-01

    A convenient spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of epinephrine, levarterenol, isoproterenol, and methyldopa by reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and subsequent measurement of the formazan at 485 nm. With absolute alcohol as the solvent, maximum color absorption was attained in 30 min at 25 degrees in the presence of 0.1 N KOH. Evidence is provided to account for the reduction of the tetrazolium salt at the expense of the epinephrine catechol moiety. In addition to the considerably high values of the molar absorptivities of the chromogen formed, ideal adherence of the color absorption to the Beer-Lambert law permitted a sensitive microdetermination of these catecholamines in both pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations. The tetrazolium interaction was selective. No interference was encountered from common catecholamine antioxidants, adjuvants, or noncatechol degradation products.

  17. [(Sp)-8-chloroadenosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate induced differentiation on human leukemia HL-60 cells].

    PubMed

    Su, J; Yang, X B; Wang, L X; Xu, B; Zhang, L H

    1996-01-01

    (Sp)-octyl 8-chloroadenosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate(OCC), a newly synthesized cAMP analog, strongly induced growth inhibition and differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells. The effects were dose- and time-dependent and irreversible. In flow cytometry, OCC brought about a block at the G1 phase of HL-60 cell cycle. Determined by incorporation assay, OCC was shown to strongly inhibit DNA synthesis without affecting the synthesis of RNA and protein in HL-60 cells. OCC activated the protein kinase A(PKA) in the cytosol of HL-60 cells and inhibited its binding to cAMP. The activities of PKA in the cytosol of HL-60 cells treated with OCC were more significantly increased than those in control cells. It can be concluded that OCC binds itself to PKA in competition with cAMP and, as a result, activates PKA.

  18. Characterization of Hydrazinium 3,5-Dinitroamine-1,2,4-triazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kejian; Meng, Zihui; Xu, Zhibin; Xue, Min; Lin, Zhihui; Wang, Bozhou; Ge, Zhongxue; Qin, Guangmin

    2014-05-01

    The structure of hydrazinium 3,5-dinitroamine-1,2,4-triazole (HDNAT) was investigated with infrared (IR), mass spectrometry, 13C-NMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray crystallography. The crystal density of HDNAT was determined as 1.91 g/cm3 using X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to a monoclinic system with the space group P2(1). The thermal decomposition process of HDNAT was investigated via thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) at a heating rate of 10 K/min and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under nonisothermal conditions. The decomposition kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were obtained by the Kissinger and Ozawa method. HDNAT can be analyzed by using a C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column with water : acetonitrile : trifluoroacetic acid (97/3/0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase and a capacity factor of 1.33.

  19. The structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus at 3.5 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, James William; Maghlaoui, Karim; Barber, James

    2007-12-01

    The crystal structure of a light-harvesting protein that interacts with photosystem II is reported. Cyanobacteria and red algae use light-harvesting pigments bound by proteins to capture solar radiation and to channel excitation energy into their reaction centres. In most cyanobacteria, a multi-megadalton soluble structure known as the phycobilisome is a major light-harvesting system. Allophycocyanin is the main component of the phycobilisome core, forming a link between the rest of the phycobilisome and the reaction-centre core. The crystal structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (TeAPC) has been determined and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a crystallographic R value of 26.0% (R{sub free} = 28.5%). The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the allophycocyanin structure from Spirulina platensis as the search model. The asymmetric unit contains an (αβ) monomer which is expanded by symmetry to a crystallographic trimer.

  20. Subthreshold Ξ- Production in Collisions of p (3.5 GeV )+Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A. V.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O. V.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Müntzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y. V.; Hades Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    Results on the production of the double strange cascade hyperon Ξ- are reported for collisions of p (3.5 GeV )+Nb , studied with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at SIS18 at GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy-Ion Research, Darmstadt. For the first time, subthreshold Ξ- production is observed in proton-nucleus interactions. Assuming a Ξ- phase-space distribution similar to that of Λ hyperons, the production probability amounts to PΞ-=[2.0 ±0.4 (stat)±0.3 (norm)±0.6 (syst)]×1 0-4 resulting in a Ξ-/(Λ +Σ0) ratio of PΞ-/PΛ +Σ0=[1.2 ±0.3 (stat)±0.4 (syst)]×1 0-2 . Available model predictions are significantly lower than the measured Ξ- yield.

  1. Medium effects in proton-induced K0 production at 3.5 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Gaitanos, T.; Weil, J.; Hades Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present the analysis of the inclusive K0 production in p +p and p +Nb collisions measured with the HADES detector (GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy-Ion Research, Darmstadt) at a beam kinetic energy of 3.5 GeV. Data are compared to the Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport model. The data suggest the presence of a repulsive momentum-dependent kaon potential as predicted by the chiral perturbation theory (ChPT). For the kaon at rest and at normal nuclear density, the ChPT potential amounts to ≈35 MeV. A detailed tuning of the kaon production cross sections implemented in the model has been carried out to reproduce the experimental data measured in p +p collisions. The uncertainties in the parameters of the model were examined with respect to the sensitivity of the experimental results from p +Nb collisions to the in-medium kaon potential.

  2. Subthreshold Ξ^{-} production in collisions of p(3.5  GeV)+Nb.

    PubMed

    Agakishiev, G; Arnold, O; Balanda, A; Belver, D; Belyaev, A V; Berger-Chen, J C; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Chernenko, S; Dybczak, A; Epple, E; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O V; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Göbel, K; Golubeva, M; González-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kornakov, G; Kotte, R; Krása, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kuc, H; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Ladygin, V; Lalik, R; Lang, S; Lapidus, K; Lebedev, A; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Müntz, C; Müntzer, R; Naumann, L; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Schwab, E; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Vasiliev, T; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y V

    2015-05-29

    Results on the production of the double strange cascade hyperon Ξ^{-} are reported for collisions of p(3.5  GeV)+Nb, studied with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at SIS18 at GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy-Ion Research, Darmstadt. For the first time, subthreshold Ξ^{-} production is observed in proton-nucleus interactions. Assuming a Ξ^{-} phase-space distribution similar to that of Λ hyperons, the production probability amounts to P_{Ξ^{-}}=[2.0±0.4(stat)±0.3(norm)±0.6(syst)]×10^{-4} resulting in a Ξ^{-}/(Λ+Σ^{0}) ratio of P_{Ξ^{-}}/P_{Λ+Σ^{0}}=[1.2±0.3(stat)±0.4(syst)]×10^{-2}. Available model predictions are significantly lower than the measured Ξ^{-} yield.

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations on 1-substituted phenyl-3,5-diphenylformazans.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Habibe; Tokay, Nesrin

    2010-01-01

    In this study 1-substituted phenyl-3,5-diphenylformazans were synthesized from benzaldehyde-N-phenylhydrazone and appropriate phenyldiazonium salts having CH(3), Br, and Cl at the o-, m-, and p-positions of 1-phenyl ring. Their structures were determined by infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectra. Bathochromic effect in accordance with the electron-donating effect of CH(3), Br, and Cl group and its magnitude were dependent upon type and position of substituent on the ring. The ground-state geometries and absorption wavelengths for 1-phenyl substituted formazans were studied with density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. The calculations were carried out by using PBE1PBE functional with 6-311G(2d,2p) basis set for lambda(max) of the UV-vis spectra for the studied formazans. A good agreement was obtained between the experimental and computed values.

  4. Dichlorobis(3,5-dimethylpyrazole-N2)methylphenyltin(IV)

    PubMed

    Casas; Garcia-Martinez; Garcia-Tasende; Sanchez; Sordo; Vazquez-Lopez; Vidarte

    2000-08-01

    The title compound, [SnCl(2)(CH(3))(C(6)H(5))(C(5)H(8)N(2))(2)], was obtained by reaction of dichloromethylphenyltin(IV) and 3, 5-dimethylpyrazole (dmpz) in chloroform, and was recrystallized from acetone. The structure consists of octahedral all-trans [SnMePhCl(2)(dmpz)(2)] molecules, with the Sn atom coordinated to two C [Sn-C 2.127 (5) and 2.135 (4) A], two Cl [Sn-Cl 2.5753 (8) A] and two N atoms [Sn-N 2.357 (3) A]. The dmpz ligands, bound to the metal through their unprotonated N atoms, form weak intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the Cl ligands via their NH groups, giving rise to a polymeric chain along the c axis.

  5. New lithium iron pyrophosphate as 3.5 V class cathode material for lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Natsui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2010-10-06

    A new pyrophosphate compound Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction, and its crystal structure was determined. Its reversible electrode operation at ca. 3.5 V vs Li was identified with the capacity of a one-electron theoretical value of 110 mAh g(-1) even for ca. 1 μm particles without any special efforts such as nanosizing or carbon coating. Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) and its derivatives should provide a new platform for related lithium battery electrode research and could be potential competitors to commercial olivine LiFePO(4), which has been recognized as the most promising positive cathode for a lithium-ion battery system for large-scale applications, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  6. Effects of wind-tunnel noise on swept-cylinder transition at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creel, T. R., Jr.; Beckwith, I. E.; Chen, F.-J.

    1986-01-01

    Transition data are reported for circular cylinders at swept angles of 45 and 60 degrees in the Mach 3.5 pilot-low-disturbance tunnel where free-stream noise levels are varied from approximately .05-0.5 percent in terms of the rms fluctuating pressure normalized by the mean static pressure. Results indicate that end plate or boundary layer trip disturbances at the upstream end of the cylinders cause turbulent flow along the entire test Reynolds number range of 10-170 thousand per inch. With all end plate and trip disturbances removed, transition at the attachment lines occurred at free-stream Reynolds numbers based on diameters of about 70-80 thousand, independent of stream noise levels. The installation of small trips on the attachement lines caused transition at lower Reynolds numbers, depending on both the roughness height and the wind tunnel noise level.

  7. Optimization of 3,5-dimethylisoxazole derivatives as potent bromodomain ligands.

    PubMed

    Hewings, David S; Fedorov, Oleg; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Martin, Sarah; Picaud, Sarah; Tumber, Anthony; Wells, Christopher; Olcina, Monica M; Freeman, Katherine; Gill, Andrew; Ritchie, Alison J; Sheppard, David W; Russell, Angela J; Hammond, Ester M; Knapp, Stefan; Brennan, Paul E; Conway, Stuart J

    2013-04-25

    The bromodomain protein module, which binds to acetylated lysine, is emerging as an important epigenetic therapeutic target. We report the structure-guided optimization of 3,5-dimethylisoxazole derivatives to develop potent inhibitors of the BET (bromodomain and extra terminal domain) bromodomain family with good ligand efficiency. X-ray crystal structures of the most potent compounds reveal key interactions required for high affinity at BRD4(1). Cellular studies demonstrate that the phenol and acetate derivatives of the lead compounds showed strong antiproliferative effects on MV4;11 acute myeloid leukemia cells, as shown for other BET bromodomain inhibitors and genetic BRD4 knockdown, whereas the reported compounds showed no general cytotoxicity in other cancer cell lines tested.

  8. Optimization of 3,5-Dimethylisoxazole Derivatives as Potent Bromodomain Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The bromodomain protein module, which binds to acetylated lysine, is emerging as an important epigenetic therapeutic target. We report the structure-guided optimization of 3,5-dimethylisoxazole derivatives to develop potent inhibitors of the BET (bromodomain and extra terminal domain) bromodomain family with good ligand efficiency. X-ray crystal structures of the most potent compounds reveal key interactions required for high affinity at BRD4(1). Cellular studies demonstrate that the phenol and acetate derivatives of the lead compounds showed strong antiproliferative effects on MV4;11 acute myeloid leukemia cells, as shown for other BET bromodomain inhibitors and genetic BRD4 knockdown, whereas the reported compounds showed no general cytotoxicity in other cancer cell lines tested. PMID:23517011

  9. Sodium 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol poisoning: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying-Mei; Hao, Feng-Tong; Xia, Yu-Jing

    2014-06-01

    Sodium 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol (STCP) is an important intermediate for synthesizing organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos. At present, chlorpyrifos is one of the world's largest species of pesticide products. Many studies have focused on the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, but few reports have looked at the toxicity mechanism of STCP. Even fewer studies have looked at STCP poisoning. With increasing production and usage of STCP, the chances of such poisoning will increase. In this study, we present a report on four workers who helped in the industrial manufacture of STCP and who were affected by exposure to it. We hope that these case studies will provide a foundation for further research into STCP.

  10. Crystal structure of ammonium (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetate hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham

    2015-10-01

    In the structure of the title hydrated salt, NH4 (+)·C8H5Cl2O3 (-)·0.5H2O, where the anion derives from (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid, the ammonium cation is involved in extensive N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding with both carboxyl-ate and ether O-atom acceptors giving sheet structures lying parallel to (100). The water mol-ecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and is involved in intra-sheet O-H⋯Ocarboxyl-ate hydrogen-bonding inter-actions. In the anion, the oxoacetate side chain assumes an antiperiplanar conformation with the defining C-O-C-C torsion angle = -171.33 (15)°.

  11. Theoretical Studies on 4-amino-3,5-dinitropyrazole and Its Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guozheng, Zhao; Ming, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Seven analogues of a new high-energetic material, 4-amino-3,5-dinitropyrazole (LLM-116), were designed through changing NH2 or NO2 groups on the pyrazole ring of LLM-116. Density functional theory studies on LLM-116 and its analogues were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The geometric and electronic structures, natural bond orbital, charge on the nitro group (-QNO2 ), density, detonation properties, and bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of these molecules were investigated and compared with LLM-116. The results showed that molecules E , F , and G had comparable performance with better insensitivity characteristics and might be potential candidates of powerful energetic materials.

  12. Heat transfer in a compact tubular heat exchanger with helium gas at 3.5 MPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Douglas A.; Glover, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    A compact heat exchanger was constructed consisting of circular tubes in parallel brazed to a grooved base plate. This tube specimen heat exchanger was tested in an apparatus which radiatively heated the specimen on one side at a heat flux of up to 54 W/sq cm, and cooled the specimen with helium gas at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 3000 to 35,000. The measured friction factor of the tube specimen was lower than that of a circular tube with fully developed turbulent flow, although the uncertainty was high due to entrance and exit losses. The measured Nusselt number, when modified to account for differences in fluid properties between the wall and the cooling fluid, agreed with past correlations for fully developed turbulent flow in circular tubes.

  13. Widespread effusive volcanism on Mercury likely ended by about 3.5 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Paul K.; Ostrach, Lillian R.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Chapman, Clark R.; Denevi, Brett W.; Evans, Alexander J.; Klimczak, Christian; Banks, Maria E.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-07-01

    Crater size-frequency analyses have shown that the largest volcanic plains deposits on Mercury were emplaced around 3.7 Ga, as determined with recent model production function chronologies for impact crater formation on that planet. To test the hypothesis that all major smooth plains on Mercury were emplaced by about that time, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for the nine next-largest deposits, which we interpret also as volcanic. Our crater density measurements are consistent with those of the largest areas of smooth plains on the planet. Model ages based on recent crater production rate estimates for Mercury imply that the main phase of plains volcanism on Mercury had ended by ~3.5 Ga, with only small-scale volcanism enduring beyond that time. Cessation of widespread effusive volcanism is attributable to interior cooling and contraction of the innermost planet.

  14. [In vitro synthesis of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Deme, D; Gavaret, J M; Pommier, J; Nunez, J

    1978-01-01

    3,5,3'-triiodotyronine formation was studied in vitro after iodination of goiter thyroglobulin catalyzed by purified thyroid peroxidase. A fractionnal number of T3 is always obtained per mole of thyroglobulin in both in vitro and in vivo. This result cannot be explained by a heterogeneity in thyroglobulin iodination or in a partial conversion of T3 to T4. It is suggested that thyroglobulin is heterogenous either in its primary sequence or in its teritiary configuration. Thyroglobulin contains tyrosine residues which are specific for the T3 formation and moreover T3 is not the precursor of T4. The efficiency of T3 formation was studied: the maximal number of T3 molecules is obtained with 30 iodine atoms per mole of thyroglobulin. In addition the results suggest that the tyrosines which are coupled with a high efficiency are iodinated sequentially.

  15. Coral reefs in Saudi Arabia: 3.5 years after the Gulf War oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, I. P.

    1995-11-01

    As a consequence of the 1991 Gulf War, 6-8 million barrels of oil were released into the marine environment and a total of 1.12 billion barrels were burned in the Kuwaiti oil fields. In order to detect delayed effects of the Gulf War pollution, six permanent transect lines were placed on Saudi Arabian offshore and inshore reefs. A comparison of three sets of video recordings taken between 1992 and 1994 indicated a significant increase in live coral cover. Therefore, it has been concluded that corals in Saudi Arabia survived the largest oil spill on record remarkably unscathed, with no visible signs of immediate or late effects up to 3.5 years after the Gulf War.

  16. Crossflow Instability on a Wedge-Cone at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeler, George B.; Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Balakumar, P.; McDaniel, Keith S.

    2012-01-01

    As a follow-on activity to the HyBoLT flight experiment, a six degree half angle wedge-cone model at zero angle of attack has been employed to experimentally and computationally study the boundary layer crossflow instability at Mach 3.5 under low disturbance freestream conditions. Computed meanflow and linear stability analysis results are presented along with corresponding experimental Pitot probe data. Using a model-mounted probe survey apparatus, data acquired to date show a well defined stationary crossflow vortex pattern on the flat wedge surface. This effort paves the way for additional detailed, calibrated flow field measurements of the crossflow instability, both stationary and traveling modes, and transition-to-turbulence under quiet flow conditions as a means of validating existing stability theory and providing a foundation for dynamic flight instrumentation development.

  17. Hydrothermal alteration in the 3.5 b.y. old Onverwacht Group of South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, R.; Dewit, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    K-Ar studies of authigenic and alteration phases from the 3.5 b.y. old Onverwacht group of South Africa delineate hydrothermal metamorphism that ended 3.3 b.y. years ago. A whole rock K-Ar errochron from analysis of barite, dolomite, chert, and serpentinite (komatiite) gives an age of 3.3 b.y. with an intercept of 1,678 + or - 103. The 3.3. b.y. age for the metamorphism in the Onverwacht was confirmed by the Argon isotopes stepwise heating experiments of komatiites and basaltic komatiites from the Onverwacht Group. In addition, the errochron suggests all the phase studied equilibrated with a reservoir of hydrothermal argon with relatively uniform isotopic composition. The concept of hydrothermal activity in the Onverwacht Group is discussed and illustrated with photographs.

  18. Early detection of allergic diseases in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Ludger; Schendzielorz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Asthmatic diseases have been reported since the ancient world. Hay fever for instance, was described for the first time in the late 18th century, and the term “allergy” was introduced about 100 years ago. Today the incidence of allergies is rising; almost one third of the Western population suffers from its side effects. Allergies are some of the most chronic medical complaints, which results in high health expenditures. Therefore, they have a large health and political relevance. Caused by genetic and environmental factors, the group of IgE mediated allergies is large. It consists of e.g. atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis. This paper aims to emphasize the ways of early diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) as AR represents the most important representative of allergic diseases in ENT. PMID:22073091

  19. The clinical application of laser in otorhinolaryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Guo Zhen; Meng, Zhao-He; Zhang, Zhi Hua

    2005-07-01

    Objective: The paper presented the current application of laser in Otolaryngology in our hospital. Methods: We have applied the carbon dioxide, the YAG, the He-Ne and the Ho:YAG lasers to coagulate or vaporize treated Otolaryngology disease. Results: After treatment, we have a satisfying result. Conclusion: The paper presented the current application of laser respectively in otology, rhinology and pharynolaryngology and some representative of the treated diseases. It also demonstrated that long-term effectiveness of some diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and laryngeal stenosis treated by laser was not satisfying and further studies were expected, laser excision of tonsile was only used in the cases which traditional tonsillectomy was not available. Therefore, to improve clinical laser application greatly, further more research works and cooprations between investors of laser instrument and surgeons of oto-laryngology were necessary. Theory and Clinics of laser application should be improved also.

  20. Short Term Clinical Outcome after Laparoscopic Cryoablation of the Renal Tumor < or = 3.5 cm.

    PubMed

    Polascik, T J; Nosnik, I; Mayes, J M; Mouraviev, V

    2007-12-01

    Between September 2000 and September 2006, 26 patients underwent primary laparoscopic cryosurgical procedures (28) for an organ-confined renal tumor(s). In one case, cryosurgery was done sequentially on both kidneys. All patients had been carefully selected based on the following criteria: tumor size < or = 3.5 cm, the absence of local and systemic spread on cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the ability to tolerate general anesthesia. A pure laparoscopic approach was employed using third generation cryotechnology (Galil Medical Inc., Plymouth Meeting, USA). Patients were followed by serial CT or MRI scan, creatinine level, and physical examination at least every six months after cryotherapy. The mean patient age was 64 years (range: 44-79) and the mean follow-up was 20.9 +/- 17.2 months. The median tumor size was 2.0 cm (range: 1-3.5 cm). Only one patient required a blood transfusion and one patient developed a transient ileus. The median length of stay was 2.0 days (range: 0-9 days). The median change in creatinine was 0.1 mg/dl (range:-0.4 to 1.8). No patient was converted to open surgery. No evidence of recurrence or progression was found in all patients, and overall survival rate was 100%. Laparoscopic renal cryoablation of the small renal tumor is a safe procedure with minimal complications. Although there were no recurrences with short term follow-up, further long term study is needed to verify its efficacy.

  1. Atmospheric Correction of Satellite Imagery Using Modtran 3.5 Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Fabian O.; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

    1997-01-01

    When performing satellite remote sensing of the earth in the solar spectrum, atmospheric scattering and absorption effects provide the sensors corrupted information about the target's radiance characteristics. We are faced with the problem of reconstructing the signal that was reflected from the target, from the data sensed by the remote sensing instrument. This article presents a method for simulating radiance characteristic curves of satellite images using a MODTRAN 3.5 band model (BM) code to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE), and proposes a method for the implementation of an adaptive system for automated atmospheric corrections. The simulation procedure is carried out as follows: (1) for each satellite digital image a radiance characteristic curve is obtained by performing a digital number (DN) to radiance conversion, (2) using MODTRAN 3.5 a simulation of the images characteristic curves is generated, (3) the output of the code is processed to generate radiance characteristic curves for the simulated cases. The simulation algorithm was used to simulate Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images for two types of locations: the ocean surface, and a forest surface. The simulation procedure was validated by computing the error between the empirical and simulated radiance curves. While results in the visible region of the spectrum where not very accurate, those for the infrared region of the spectrum were encouraging. This information can be used for correction of the atmospheric effects. For the simulation over ocean, the lowest error produced in this region was of the order of 105 and up to 14 times smaller than errors in the visible region. For the same spectral region on the forest case, the lowest error produced was of the order of 10-4, and up to 41 times smaller than errors in the visible region,

  2. Surfactant media to grow new crystalline cobalt 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Sheng; Bai, Linlu; Xiong, Wei-Wei; Li, Peizhou; Ding, Junfeng; Zhang, Guodong; Wu, Tom; Zhao, Yanli; Lee, Jong-Min; Yang, Yanhui; Geng, Baoyou; Zhang, Qichun

    2014-08-18

    In this report, three new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Co3(μ3-OH)(HBTC)(BTC)2Co(HBTC)]·(HTEA)3·H2O (NTU-Z30), [Co(BTC)]·HTEA·H2O (NTU-Z31), [Co3(BTC)4]·(HTEA)4 (NTU-Z32), where H3BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, TEA = triethylamine, and NTU = Nanyang Technological University, have been successfully synthesized under surfactant media and have been carefully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and IR spectromtry. NTU-Z30 has an unusual trimeric [Co3(μ3-OH)(COO)7] secondary building unit (SBU), which is different from the well-known trimeric [Co3O(COO)6] SBU. The topology studies indicate that NTU-Z30 and NTU-Z32 possess two new topologies, 3,3,6,7-c net and 2,8-c net, respectively, while NTU-Z31 has a known topology rtl type (3,6-c net). Magnetic analyses show that all three materials have weak antiferromagnetic behavior. Furthermore, NTU-Z30 has been selected as the heterogeneous catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of alkene, and our results show that this material exhibits excellent catalytic activity as well as good stability. Our success in growing new crystalline cobalt 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate MOFs under surfactant media could pave a new road to preparing new diverse crystalline inorganic materials through a surfactant-thermal method.

  3. APE2 Zf-GRF facilitates 3'-5' resection of DNA damage following oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Bret D.; Berman, Zachary; Mueller, Geoffrey A.; Lin, Yunfeng; Chang, Timothy; Andres, Sara N.; Wojtaszek, Jessica L.; DeRose, Eugene F.; Appel, C. Denise; London, Robert E.; Yan, Shan; Williams, R. Scott

    2016-12-27

    The Xenopus laevis APE2 (apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2) nuclease participates in 3'-5' nucleolytic resection of oxidative DNA damage and activation of the ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response (DDR) pathway via ill-defined mechanisms. Here we report that APE2 resection activity is regulated by DNA interactions in its Zf-GRF domain, a region sharing high homology with DDR proteins Topoisomerase 3α (TOP3α) and NEIL3 (Nei-like DNA glycosylase 3), as well as transcription and RNA regulatory proteins, such as TTF2 (transcription termination factor 2), TFIIS, and RPB9. Biochemical and NMR results establish the nucleic acid-binding activity of the Zf-GRF domain. Moreover, an APE2 Zf-GRF X-ray structure and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses show that the Zf-GRF fold is typified by a crescent-shaped ssDNA binding claw that is flexibly appended to an APE2 endonuclease/exonuclease/phosphatase (EEP) catalytic core. Structure-guided Zf-GRF mutations impact APE2 DNA binding and 3'-5' exonuclease processing, and also prevent efficient APE2-dependent RPA recruitment to damaged chromatin and activation of the ATR-Chk1 DDR pathway in response to oxidative stress in Xenopus egg extracts. Collectively, our data unveil the APE2 Zf-GRF domain as a nucleic acid interaction module in the regulation of a key single-strand break resection function of APE2, and also reveal topologic similarity of the Zf-GRF to the zinc ribbon domains of TFIIS and RPB9.

  4. Microscopic Haematuria and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Stage 3-5 Nondiabetic Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    You-Hsien Lin, Hugo; Yen, Chun-Yu; Lim, Lee-Moay; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Hung, Chi-Chih; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2015-10-16

    Microscopic haematuria is proposed as a prognostic factor for renal outcomes in patients with glomerulonephritis. However, the role of haematuria in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) or heavy proteinuria has not been investigated. We divided 1799 patients with stage 3-5 nondiabetic CKD into 3 groups according to the results from 3 urinalyses: no haematuria (0-2 red blood cells [RBCs]/hpf ≥2 times), mild haematuria (2-5 RBCs/hpf ≥2 times) and moderate haematuria (≥5-10 RBCs/hpf ≥2 times). The estimated glomerular filtration rate was 25.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), with a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR) of 881 mg/g. The hazard ratios (HRs) of mild and moderate haematuria for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.56, P = 0.024) and 1.34 (95% CI: 1.03-1.74, P = 0.030), respectively. The HR of moderate haematuria for mortality was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.11-2.20, P = 0.011). According to subgroup analysis, the HR of moderate haematuria for ESRD in patients with a UPCR of <500 mg/g was more prominent than that in patients with a UPCR of ≥500 mg/g. Microscopic haematuria in patients with stage 3-5 nondiabetic CKD is associated with increased risks of ESRD and mortality.

  5. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

  6. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  7. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  8. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  9. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  10. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  11. PI(3,5)P2 controls endosomal branched actin dynamics by regulating cortactin–actin interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nan Hyung; Qi, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    Branched actin critically contributes to membrane trafficking by regulating membrane curvature, dynamics, fission, and transport. However, how actin dynamics are controlled at membranes is poorly understood. Here, we identify the branched actin regulator cortactin as a direct binding partner of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) and demonstrate that their interaction promotes turnover of late endosomal actin. In vitro biochemical studies indicated that cortactin binds PI(3,5)P2 via its actin filament-binding region. Furthermore, PI(3,5)P2 competed with actin filaments for binding to cortactin, thereby antagonizing cortactin activity. These findings suggest that PI(3,5)P2 formation on endosomes may remove cortactin from endosome-associated branched actin. Indeed, inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 production led to cortactin accumulation and actin stabilization on Rab7+ endosomes. Conversely, inhibition of Arp2/3 complex activity greatly reduced cortactin localization to late endosomes. Knockdown of cortactin reversed PI(3,5)P2-inhibitor–induced actin accumulation and stabilization on endosomes. These data suggest a model in which PI(3,5)P2 binding removes cortactin from late endosomal branched actin networks and thereby promotes net actin turnover. PMID:26323691

  12. An intramolecular interaction within the lipid kinase Fab1 regulates cellular phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; Strunk, Bethany S; Azad, Nadia; Petersen, Jason L; Weisman, Lois S

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylated phosphoinositide lipids (PPIs) are low-abundance signaling molecules that control signal transduction pathways and are necessary for cellular homeostasis. The PPI phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) is essential in multiple organ systems. PI(3,5)P2 is generated from PI3P by the conserved lipid kinase Fab1/PIKfyve. Defects in the dynamic regulation of PI(3,5)P2 are linked to human diseases. However, few mechanisms that regulate PI(3,5)P2 have been identified. Here we report an intramolecular interaction between the yeast Fab1 kinase region and an upstream conserved cysteine-rich (CCR) domain. We identify mutations in the kinase domain that lead to elevated levels of PI(3,5)P2 and impair the interaction between the kinase and CCR domain. We also identify mutations in the CCR domain that lead to elevated levels of PI(3,5)P2 Together these findings reveal a regulatory mechanism that involves the CCR domain of Fab1 and contributes to dynamic control of cellular PI(3,5)P2 synthesis.

  13. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON PUBLIC BUILDING OR PUBLIC WORK FINANCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY LOANS OR GRANTS FROM THE...

  14. A 3.5 mm POLARIMETRIC SURVEY OF RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Agudo, I.; Thum, C.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Krichbaum, T. P. E-mail: thum@iram.f E-mail: tkrichbaum@mpifr-bonn.mpg.d

    2010-07-15

    We present the results from the first large (>100 sources) 3.5 mm polarimetric survey of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This wavelength is favorable within the radio-millimeter range for measuring the intrinsic linearly polarized emission from AGNs, since in general it is only marginally affected by Faraday rotation of the electric vector position angle and depolarization. The I, Q, U, and V Stokes parameter observations were performed with the XPOL polarimeter at the IRAM 30 m Telescope on different observing epochs from 2005 July (when most of the measurements were made) to 2009 October. Our sample consists of 145 flat-radio-spectrum AGNs with declination >-30{sup 0} (J2000.0) and flux density {approx}>1 Jy at {approx}86 GHz, as measured at the IRAM 30 m Telescope from 1978 to 1994. This constraint on the radio spectrum causes our sample to be dominated by blazars, which allows us to conduct new statistical studies on this class of high-luminosity, relativistically beamed emitters. We detect linear and circular polarization (above minimum 3{sigma} levels of {approx}1.5% and {approx}0.3%) for 76% and 6% of the sample, respectively. We find a clear excess in degree of linear polarization detected at 86 GHz with regard to that at 15 GHz by a factor of {approx}2. Over our entire source sample, the luminosity of the jets is anticorrelated with the degree of linear polarization. Consistent with previous findings claiming larger Doppler factors for brighter {gamma}-ray blazars, quasars listed in our sample, and in the Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Source Catalog (LBAS), show larger luminosities than non-LBAS ones, but our data do not allow us to confirm the same for BL Lac objects. We do not find a clear relation between the linear polarization angle and the jet structural position angle for any source class in our sample. We interpret this as the consequence of a markedly non-axisymmetric character of the 3 mm emitting region in the jets. We find that

  15. Evidence for Early Life in ˜3.5 Billion-Year-Old Pillow Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, N. R.; Furnes, H.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Staudigel, H.; de Wit, M.

    2004-12-01

    Recently discovered biosignatures in the formerly glassy rims of ˜3.5 billion-year-old pillow lavas from the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) in South Africa suggest they were colonized by microbes early in Earth's history. These subaqueous volcanic rocks represent a new geological setting in the search for early life on Earth. This is not entirely surprising since microbial alteration of basaltic glass in pillow lavas and volcaniclastic rocks has been well documented from recent oceanic crust and well-preserved ophiolites. The BGB magmatic sequence contains exceptionally well-preserved mafic to ultramafic pillow lavas, sheet flows, and intrusions interpreted to represent 3.48 to 3.22 billion-year-old oceanic crust and island arc assemblages. We observed micron-sized tubular structures mineralized by titanite in the formerly glassy rims of the BGB pillow lavas. Based on their similarity to textures observed in recent glassy pillow basalts we interpret these structures to represent ancient traces of microbial activity formed during biogenic etching of the originally glassy pillow rims as microbes colonized the glass surface. Petrographic observations coupled with overlapping metamorphic and magmatic dates indicate this process occurred soon after eruption of the pillow lavas. Subsequent greenschist facies seafloor hydrothermal alteration caused the structures to be mineralized by titanite; a process also observed in ophiolitic pillow lavas of much younger age. X-ray mapping reveals the presence of carbon along the margins of the tubular structures interpreted as residual organic material. Disseminated carbonates within the microbially-altered BGB pillow rims have low carbon isotope values consistent with microbial oxidation of organic matter. In contrast, disseminated carbonate in the crystalline pillow interiors have carbon isotope values bracketed between Archean marine carbonate and mantle carbon dioxide. It remains to be seen how deep into the Archean oceanic

  16. Central Tropical Pacific Corals Reveal Reduced ENSO Variability 3-5kyBP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothe, P. R.; Cobb, K. M.; Liguori, G.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.; Deocampo, D.; Southon, J. R.; Santos, G.; Lu, Y.; Capotondi, A.; Di Lorenzo, E.

    2015-12-01

    Future projections of the strength of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the largest source of year-to-year global climate extremes, are highly uncertain. Potential shifts towards stronger and more frequent ENSO extremes (Cai et al., 2014; Kim et al., 2015) would have a profound effect on climate globally. However, the instrumental record of ENSO activity is too short in time to resolve potential anthropogenic trends in ENSO properties, and limits our understanding of the ENSO phenomenon. Thus, we must rely on high-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions of ENSO that extend through the last centuries to millennia to provide a comprehensive view of ENSO variability. Coral δ18O records from the heart of the ENSO region, in the central tropical Pacific, provide monthly-resolved reconstructions of ENSO activity over the last 7000 years. Here, we quantify ENSO variability in 10 new monthly-resolved fossil coral δ18O records from Kiritimati Island (2°N, 157°W) that are U/Th-dated to the 2-6kyBP interval. When combined with previously published coral δ18O records from Cobb et al., 2013, the new coral δ18O records support a prolonged reduction of ~60% in ENSO variability during the 3-5kyBP interval, as compared to the late 20th century. In comparison, ENSO variability during the last millennium was ~30% reduced compared to the late 20th century. These results are consistent with foraminifera and mollusk records from the eastern tropical Pacific (Koutavas and Joanides, 2012; Carre et al., 2014), implying that the observed 3-5kyBP reduction in ENSO variability was not confined to the central Pacific. Taken together, these new records represent a new target - both in terms of amplitude and timing - for modeling efforts designed to uncover the mechanisms governing past ENSO variability. Such data-model comparisons are critical to refining the simulation of ENSO in simulations of future climate change.

  17. APO 3.5-meter remote observing program--2002 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Bruce

    2002-12-01

    The Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope is a working model of a modern mid-sized telescope used primarily on a shared-night, remote-observing basis. After a decade of successful remote operation and scientific accomplishments, the Astrophysical Research Consortium, builder and owner of the telescope, is examining the role by which this university-owned instrument can best serve its constituency and astronomy at large in the coming years. Various "niche" scientific capabilities are described for the telescope, including fast-response observations of transient phenomena, synoptic observing programs, reactive queue-scheduled observations, temporal study programs, plus being a capable test bed for new instruments. While specialized uses of the telescope offer potential for major scientific discoveries, traditional observing capabilities need to be sustained for the ongoing and future research programs for the majority of the consortium astronomers and students, a large and diverse community. Finding an appropriate balance between the "unique and specialized" versus the "bread-and-butter" observing models is discussed, as is the role hands-on remote observing can serve to support the various operational models.

  18. Impact ionization of molecular oxygen by 3.5-MeV/u bare carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Saikat; Agnihotri, Aditya N.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Kumar, Ajay; Tachino, Carmen A.; Rivarola, Roberto D.; Martín, F.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2012-06-01

    We have measured the absolute double-differential cross sections (DDCSs) for electron emission in ionization of O2 molecules under the impact of 3.5-MeV/u C6+ ions. The data were collected between 10 and 600 eV, in an angular range of 30∘ to 150∘. The single-differential cross sections (SDCSs) in emission angle and electron energy are deduced from the electron DDCS spectra. Also, the total cross section has been obtained from the SDCS spectra. The DDCS spectra as well as the SDCS spectra are compared with continuum distorted-wave eikonal initial-state calculations which employ molecular wave functions built as linear combinations of atomic orbitals. The DDCS ratio i.e. σO2/2σO, derived by dividing the experimental DDCS for molecular oxygen with the theoretical DDCS for atomic oxygen, does not show any primary or secondary oscillations arising from Young-type interference, which is apparently in contrast to what has been observed earlier for H2 and in agreement with the model calculation. Similarly, the forward-backward angular asymmetry increases monotonically with the velocity of the emitted electrons. However, the results on the DDCSs, SDCSs, the asymmetry parameter, and the nonexistence of oscillations are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the model used.

  19. Structural, antimicrobial and computational characterization of 1-benzoyl-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)thiourea.

    PubMed

    Atiş, Murat; Karipcin, Fatma; Sarıboğa, Bahtiyar; Taş, Murat; Çelik, Hasan

    2012-12-01

    A new thiourea derivative, 1-benzoyl-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)thiourea (bcht) has been synthesized from the reaction of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol with benzoyl isothiocyanate. The title compound has been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, (13)C, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure of bcht derived from X-ray diffraction of a single crystal has been presented. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated by using density functional method using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The complete assignments of all vibrational modes were performed on the basis of the total energy distributions (TED). Isotropic chemical shifts ((13)C NMR and (1)H NMR) were calculated using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Theoretical calculations of bond parameters, harmonic vibration frequencies and nuclear magnetic resonance are in good agreement with experimental results. The UV absorption spectra of the compound that dissolved in ACN and MeOH were recorded. Bcht was also screened for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  20. Free stream noise and transition measurements in a Mach 3.5 pilot quiet tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, I. E.; Creel, T. R., Jr.; Chen, F.-J.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Free stream fluctuating pressures are determined from hot-wire measurements in a Mach 3.5 pilot quiet nozzle over a unit Reynolds number range from 10-60 million per meter. Further, the transition Reynolds numbers on a sharp tip 5 degree half-angle cone at zero angle of attack are obtained over the same range of unit Reynolds numbers from equilibrium temperature measurements on the cone. Results show that the nozzle provides noise levels in the upstream regions of the test rhombus that are substantially lower than in conventional nozzles. The normalized rms levels of the fluctuating static pressures are found to vary from extremely low values of less than 0.03% up to about 0.8% depending on the unit Reynolds number, the axial location in the test rhombus, and the bleed slot flow. By opening the boundary-layer bleed flow, the wall boundary layers over upstream regions of the nozzle become laminar and the absence of high frequency radiated noise then results in cone transition Reynolds numbers that are in the range of free-flight data. As the unit Reynolds numbers are increased, the nozzle wall boundary layers become transitional and turbulent, and the noise increases to peak levels of about 0.5% with significant energy up to 150 KHz. The cone transition Reynolds numbers then decrease to values that are in the range of those measured in conventional wind tunnels.

  1. Structure of Sputnik, a virophage, at 3.5-Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Sun, Siyang; Xiang, Ye; Wong, Jimson; Klose, Thomas; Raoult, Didier; Rossmann, Michael G

    2012-11-06

    "Sputnik" is a dsDNA virus, referred to as a virophage, that is coassembled with Mimivirus in the host amoeba. We have used cryo-EM to produce an electron density map of the icosahedral Sputnik virus at 3.5-Å resolution, sufficient to verify the identity of most amino acids in the capsid proteins and to establish the identity of the pentameric protein forming the fivefold vertices. It was also shown that the virus lacks an internal membrane. The capsid is organized into a T = 27 lattice in which there are 260 trimeric capsomers and 12 pentameric capsomers. The trimeric capsomers consist of three double "jelly-roll" major capsid proteins creating pseudohexameric capsomer symmetry. The pentameric capsomers consist of five single jelly-roll proteins. The release of the genome by displacing one or more of the pentameric capsomers may be the result of a low-pH environment. These results suggest a mechanism of Sputnik DNA ejection that probably also occurs in other big icosahedral double jelly-roll viruses such as Adenovirus. In this study, the near-atomic resolution structure of a virus has been established where crystallization for X-ray crystallography was not feasible.

  2. Backscatter from a limestone seafloor at 2-3.5 kHz: measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Raymond J; Gragg, Robert F

    2003-05-01

    Physics-based interface scattering models for the seafloor [H.-H. Essen, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 1299-1310 (1994); Gragg et al., ibid. 110, 2878-2901 (2001)] exhibit features in their predicted grazing angle dependence. These features have a strong dependence on the assumed composition and roughness of the bottom. Verifying such predictions requires data that cover a wide range of grazing angles and involve minimal sub-bottom penetration. Such measurements were performed in the frequency band 2-3.5 kHz over an exposed limestone bottom off the Carolina coast during the second Littoral Warfare Advanced Development Focused Technology Experiment of 1996 (LWAD FTE 96-2). Direct-path bottom scattering strengths were obtained in shallow water (198-310 m deep) for grazing angles from 8 degrees to 75 degrees using data fusion from multiple experimental geometries coupled with careful signal processing. The processing included corrections for the surface-reflected path, other multipaths, and characteristics of the reverberation decay observed over the pulse duration at higher grazing angles. The resulting frequency and grazing-angle dependences exhibit trends consistent with theoretical predictions, and geoacoustic parameters obtained by inversion are consistent with values expected for limestone.

  3. Deoxythymidine 3', 5'-di-p-nitrophenyl phosphate as a synthetic substrate for bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Liao, T

    1975-05-25

    Bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease liberates p-nitrophenol from the 3'-group of deoxythymidine 3', 5'-di-p-nitrophenyl phosphate. A similar hydrolysis occurs with deoxythymidine 3'-p-nitrophenyl phosphate 5'-phsophate, but the rate is less than 2% of that with the di-p-nitrophenyl ester. The rate of formation of the p-nitrophenol, measured spectrophotometrically at 400 nm, varies linearly with DNase concentration. The binding of the substrate is not strong (K-m(app) in the 10 mM range), but the hydrolysis is rapid; 1 mug of DNase (free from other phosphodiesterases) can be assayed in 3 min after addition to a 10 mM substrate solution at pH 7.2, 10mM in MnCl2, and 1mM in CaCl2. All four bovine pancreatic DNases (A,B,C, and D) show the same relative activities toward DNA and toward the di-p-nitrophenyl ester; both activities are lost when DNase is inactivated by iodoacetate or by trypsin. The specificity of DNase toward the di-p-nitrophenyl substrate is different from that which has been established for the enzyme's predominant action on DNA or synthetic oligonucleotides, where a monoesterified phosphate group is formed at the 5'-position.

  4. Global search for minimum energy (H2O)n clusters, n = 3-5.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Beth; Kirschner, Karl N; Shields, George C

    2005-08-04

    The Gaussian-3 (G3) model chemistry method has been used to calculate the relative deltaG(o) values for all possible conformers of neutral clusters of water, (H2O)n, where n = 3-5. A complete 12-fold conformational search around each hydrogen bond produced 144, 1728, and 20,736 initial starting structures of the water trimer, tetramer, and pentamer. These structures were optimized with PM3, followed by HF/6-31G* optimization, and then with the G3 model chemistry. Only two trimers are present on the G3 potential energy hypersurface. We identified 5 tetramers and 10 pentamers on the potential energy and free-energy hypersurfaces at 298 K. None of these 17 structures were linear; all linear starting models folded into cyclic or three-dimensional structures. The cyclic pentamer is the most stable isomer at 298 K. On the basis of this and previous studies, we expect the cyclic tetramers and pentamers to be the most significant cyclic water clusters in the atmosphere.

  5. [Effects of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPZP) on soil nitrification].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun-feng; Wu, Zhi-jie; Chen, Li-jun; Sun, Zhi-mei

    2007-05-01

    With aerobic incubation test, this paper studied the effects of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPZP) on soil nitrification, taking dicyandiamide (DCD) as reference. The results indicated that when the dosage was 1.0% of applied N, DMPZP could significantly inhibit the oxidation of soil ammonium, increase soil NH4+ -N concentration, and decrease soil NO3- -N concentration. The inhibitory effect of DMPZP increased with its increasing dosage. DCD showed a higher efficacy when its dosage was the same with DMPZP, but a lower efficacy when the DMPZP was applied two-fold. However, the efficacy of equimolar DMPZP was significantly higher than that of DCD, because of the smaller molecular weight of DCD. The highest inhibitory effect of DMPZP was observed during the period of 7-14 days after its application, with an inhibition rate higher than 30%. Compared with the control, the apparent inhibition rate was decreased by 29.3% and 41.7% on the 7th day, and by 18.6% and 34.3% on the 14th day when the application rate of DMPZP was 1.0% and 2.0% of applied N, respectively. DMPZP could also slow down the falling rate of soil pH, but no significant difference was observed between the treatments of applying DMPZP and DCD.

  6. Floating Pressure Conversion and Equipment Upgrades of Two 3.5kw, 20k, Helium Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Jonathan; Linza, Robert; Garcia, Sam; Vargas, Gerardo; Lauterbach, John; Ganni, Venkatarao (Rao); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Creel, Jonathan; Norton, Robert; Urbin, John; Howe, Don

    2008-01-01

    Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5KW at 20K, are used at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryo-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. Equipment refurbishment and upgrades to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the mechanical and control issues that necessitated the equipment refurbishment and controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle "floating pressure" control technology. The upgrades -- the controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology and the newly refurbished equipment -- have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e.: at various loads in the vacuum chambers). Capabilities, configuration, and performance data pre, and post, upgrading will be presented.

  7. Determination of azide as the 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl derivative by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Masataka; Kitada, Yoshimi; Imai, Shunsuke

    2004-08-06

    A simple, rapid and reliable capillary electrophoresis method with a photodiode array detector was developed for determination of azide as the 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl derivative in drink samples fortified with sodium azide. Sample preparation was simple and rapid because no more than a simple dilution of samples is needed after quick derivatization. Separation was carried out using a buffer system comprising 25 mM phosphate buffer and 4 mM cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide at pH 3.0. Methyl benzoate was selected as the internal standard (IS). This study investigated the influence of the concentration of phosphate buffer and electroosmotic flow (EOF) modifier, and the buffer pH on migration time and signal response. The optimized method made it possible to determine azide within 5 min. The limit of detection was determined to be 1.9 microg/ml with SIN > 3. The quantitation range was 6.5-323 microg/ml. By the method recoveries of azide in drink samples fortified with sodium azide were investigated. Mean recovery values ranged from 93.6 to 105.8% and results were satisfactory. In addition, no interference was observed in electropherograms of drink samples fortified with sodium azide. Thus, by this method, azide in drink samples can be determined rapidly with high recoveries and good selectivity despite extremely simple sample preparation.

  8. NMR and computational studies of chiral discrimination by amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate).

    PubMed

    Ye, Yun K; Bai, Shi; Vyas, Shyam; Wirth, Mary J

    2007-02-08

    Proton NMR and simulations were combined to study the origin of chiral selectivity by a polysaccharide used in a commercial chromatographic stationary phase: amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate). This material has unusually high enantioselectivity for p-O-tert-butyltyrosine allyl ester, which is activated by the presence of an acid. Proton NMR spectra agreed with the HPLC in showing that the l-enantiomer interacts much more strongly with the polysaccharide and that acidity switches on the selectivity. 2D NOESY spectra revealed which protons of each enantiomer and the polysaccharide were in proximity, and these spectra revealed folding of the l-enantiomer. Computations generated energy-minimized structures for the polysaccharide-enantiomer complexes, independently predicting folding of the l-enantiomer. Molecular dynamics simulations 2 ns in duration, repeated for three different energy-minimized structures, generated pair distribution functions that are in excellent agreement with the 2D NOESY spectra. The modeling studies revealed why acidity switches on chiral selectivity and minimally affects the chromatographic retention time of the unfavored d-enantiomer. The results comprise the first case of a chiral separation by a commercial polysaccharide stationary phase being explained using a combination of 2D NOESY and simulations, providing excellent agreement between experiment and computation and lending detailed molecular insight into enantioselectivity for this system.

  9. Electromigration induced Kirkendall void growth in Sn-3.5Ag/Cu solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yong; Yu, Jin

    2014-02-28

    Effects of electric current flow on the Kirkendall void formation at solder joints were investigated using Sn-3.5Ag/Cu joints specially designed to have localized nucleation of Kirkendall voids at the Cu{sub 3}Sn/Cu interface. Under the current density of 1 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}, kinetics of Kirkendall void growth and intermetallic compound thickening were affected by the electromigration (EM), and both showed the polarity effect. Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} showed a strong susceptibility to the polarity effect, while Cu{sub 3}Sn did not. The electromigration force induced additional tensile (or compressive) stress at the cathode (or anode), which accelerated (or decelerated) the void growth. From the measurements of the fraction of void at the Cu{sub 3}Sn/Cu interface on SEM micrographs and analysis of the kinetics of void growth, the magnitude of the local stress induced by EM was estimated to be 9 MPa at the anode and −7 MPa at the cathode.

  10. Doping of Cn (N = 1, 3, 5, 8) cluster ion tracks in polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D.; Klett, R.; Chung, W. H.; Grünwald, R.; Döbeli, M.; Ames, F.; Chadderton, L. T.; Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.

    Cn+ cluster ions (n = 1, 3, 5, and 8) are implanted at 1 MeV/carbon atom and at fluences of 1010 to 1014 cluster ions/cm2 into thin polyimide foils. The ion-induced radiochemical changes are examined by infrared spectroscopy. The samples are then doped with either aqueous LiCl, or methylene blue dye solutions. The dopant uptake is determined by UV-Vis spectrometry in the first, and by NDP (neutron depth profiling) in the latter case. NDP examinations additionally give information about the depth distributions of the incorporated Li+ ions. Remarkable changes in the infrared signals and in the dopant uptake are found only at fluences when ion track overlapping sets in. For the same fluence, clusters with larger size show more efficient destruction than smaller ones. Also the dopant uptake capability is higher in cluster-irradiated polymers than in single-atomic C+ ion irradiated samples. The depth distribution of the incorporated dopant usually consists of both a pronounced surface-near, and a bulk dopant-enriched region. The surface-near dopant profile increases in height and width with increasing cluster size and fluence. The depth profile shape of the bulk component follows the one of the ion's energy transfer to the target via nuclear collisions. A rule of thumb to describe the action of such a cluster ion onto polymers is given.

  11. Nanocellulose 3, 5-Dimethylphenylcarbamate Derivative Coated Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Dong, Shuqing; Zhang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yanping

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) with high surface area and high ordered crystalline structure was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) under the hydrolysis of sodium hypochlorite. NCC was further reacted with 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate to obtain the nanocellulose derivative, and then coated successfully on the surface of silica gel to a prepared NCC-coated chiral stationary phase (CSP) as a new kind of chiral separation material. Similarly, MCC derivative-coated CSP was also prepared as contrast. The chiral separation performance of NCC-based CSP was evaluated and compared with MCC-based CSP by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, the effects of the alcohol modifiers, mobile phase additives, and flow rates on chiral separations were investigated in detail. The results showed that 10 chiral compounds were separated on NCC-based CSP with better peak shape and higher column efficiency than MCC-based CSP, which confirmed that NCC-based CSP was a promising packing material for the resolution of chiral compounds.Chirality 28:376-381, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. DNA binding studies of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol pesticide metabolite.

    PubMed

    Kashanian, Soheila; Shariati, Zohreh; Roshanfekr, Hamideh; Ghobadi, Sirous

    2012-07-01

    3, 5, 6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) is a stable metabolite of two major pesticides, Chlopyrifos insecticide and Triclopyr herbicide, which are widely used in the world. The potential health hazard associated with TCP is identified due to its high affinity to the DNA molecule. Therefore, in this study, the interaction of native calf thymus DNA with TCP has been investigated using spectrophotometric, circular dichroism (CD), spectrofluorometric, viscometric and voltametric techniques. It was found that TCP molecules could interact with DNA via a groove-binding mode, as evidenced by hyperchromism, with no red shift in the UV absorption band of TCP, no changes in K(b) values in the presence of salt, no significant changes in the specific viscosity and CD spectra of DNA, and a decrease in peak currents with no shift in the voltamogram. In addition, TCP is able to release Hoechst 33258, a strong groove binder, in the DNA solutions. The results are indicative of the groove-binding mode of TCP to DNA.

  13. Molecular structure and spectral investigations of 3,5-Di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, M.; Aydin, B.; Dogan, O.; Dereli, O.

    2017-01-01

    Conformational analysis of 3,5-Di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone molecule was performed and two stable conformers were determined by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p). Using the most stable one, molecular structural parameters, vibrational frequencies were calculated by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31G(d) and BLYP/6-31G(d,p) levels of theory. The FT-IR spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 4000-550 cm-1. The Raman spectrum was also recorded in the region 3500-100 cm-1. Calculated results were compared with experimental counterparts. The best results were obtained from B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations. Experimental 13C and 1H NMR data of tittle compound were taken from literature and the calculated results compared with these data. Vibrational and NMR band assignments were performed. HOMO-LUMO energies, molecular electrostatic potentials and thermodynamic properties were also given for further investigations of our structure.

  14. Stacking-unstacking of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine studied with molecular dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, J; Nilsson, L

    1994-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on two conformations of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine (GpU) in aqueous solution with one sodium counterion. One stacked conformation and one with the C3'-O3'-P-O5' backbone torsion angle twisted 180 degrees to create an unstacked conformation. We observed a relatively stable behavior of the stacked conformation, which remained stacked throughout the simulation, whereas the unstacked conformation showed major changes in the backbone torsion and glycosidic angles. During the simulation the unstacked conformation transformed into a more stacked form and then back again to an unstacked one. The calculated correlation times for rotational diffusion from the molecular dynamics simulations are in agreement with fluorescence anisotropy and nuclear magnetic resonance data. As expected, the correlation times for rotational diffusion of the unstacked conformation were observed to be longer than for the stacked conformation. The 2'OH group may contribute in stabilizing the stacked conformation, where the O2'-H...O4' hydrogen bond occurred in 82.7% of the simulation. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 PMID:7948694

  15. Structural, antimicrobial and computational characterization of 1-benzoyl-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)thiourea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atiş, Murat; Karipcin, Fatma; Sarıboğa, Bahtiyar; Taş, Murat; Çelik, Hasan

    2012-12-01

    A new thiourea derivative, 1-benzoyl-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)thiourea (bcht) has been synthesized from the reaction of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol with benzoyl isothiocyanate. The title compound has been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, 13C, 1H NMR spectroscopy and the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure of bcht derived from X-ray diffraction of a single crystal has been presented. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated by using density functional method using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The complete assignments of all vibrational modes were performed on the basis of the total energy distributions (TED). Isotropic chemical shifts (13C NMR and 1H NMR) were calculated using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Theoretical calculations of bond parameters, harmonic vibration frequencies and nuclear magnetic resonance are in good agreement with experimental results. The UV absorption spectra of the compound that dissolved in ACN and MeOH were recorded. Bcht was also screened for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  16. A Pharmacokinetic Study of Antimalarial 3,5-Diaryl-2-aminopyridine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Dambuza, Ntokozo; Smith, Peter; Evans, Alicia; Taylor, Dale; Chibale, Kelly; Wiesner, Lubbe

    2015-01-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for approximately 80% of the incidence and 90% of deaths which occur in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region, with children and pregnant women having the highest incidence. P. falciparum has developed resistance, and therefore new effective candidate antimalarial drugs need to be developed. Previous studies identified 3,5-diaryl-2-aminopyridines as potential antimalarial drug candidates; therefore, derivatives of these compounds were synthesized in order to improve their desired properties and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of the derivatives were investigated in a mouse model which was dosed orally and intravenously. Collected blood samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). The mean peak plasma level of 1.9 μM was obtained at 1 hour for compound 1 and 3.3 μM at 0.5 hours for compound 2. A decline in concentration was observed with a half-life of 2.53 and 0.87 hours for compound 1 in mice dosed orally and intravenously, respectively. For compound 2 a half-life of 2.96 and 0.68 hours was recorded. The bioavailability was 69% and 59.7% for compound 1 and compound 2, respectively. PMID:25893131

  17. Complex brecciation and shock effects in the Buck Mountain Wash (H3-5) chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, Melinda; Ruzicka, Alex; Pugh, Richard; Sloan, Larry; Thompson, Edwin

    2007-06-01

    Buck Mountain Wash (BMW) is a new genomict breccia (H3-5) found in the Franconia (H5) strewn field in Arizona that shows complex brecciation and shock effects. It contains three distinct chondritic lithologies in sharp contact: a) a main lithology that consists primarily of petrographic type 5 material but which has finely intermixed type 3 and 4 material, b) a shock-blackened (shock stage S5) type 3 lithology (lithology A), and c) a shock-blackened type 3/4 lithology (lithology B). Buck Mountain Wash was lithified after impact-mixing and impact-melting of weakly and strongly metamorphosed materials, possibly at depth in the regolith of the parent body. Shock effects included brecciation on a fine scale, localized impact-melting of silicates, partial melting, and mobilization of metal-sulfide, and chemical fractionations that produced non-H-group composition kamacite by two disequilibrium mechanisms. Shock heating did not cause significant thermal metamorphism in the shock-blackened lithologies of BMW, except possibly in areas adjacent to whole-rock shock melt. During lithification, cooling must have been rapid at high temperatures to preserve glass and inhomogeneous silicate compositions, but not so fast at lower temperatures as to produce dendritic metal-sulfide globules or martensite.

  18. Metabolism of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and induction of tryptophanase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Botsford, J L

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) metabolism and the induction of tryptophanase and beta-galactosidase was studied in several strains of Escherichia coli grown with succinate, acetate, glycerol, or glucose as the carbon source. No consistent relationship between the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP in the several strains cultured and the various carbon sources was discerned. In E. coli K-12-1 the induction of tryptophanase was found to vary in the order: succinate greater than acetate greater than glycerol greater than glucose, and that of beta-galactosidase was found in the order: glycerol greater than acetate greater than succinate greater than glucose. Rate of accumulation of cyclic AMP in the culture filtrate was in the order: succinate greater than acetate greater than glycerol greater than glucose. The addition of glycerol to E. coli K-12-1 grown in acetate caused inhibition of tryptophanase and slight inhibition of accumulation of extracellular cyclic AMP. These same conditions caused beta-galactosidase induction to be stimulated. The addition of exogenous cyclic AMP to cultures grown with four different carbon sources had an effect characteristic for each of the two enzymes studied as well as each individual carbon source. The results suggest that there are control elements distinct from cyclic AMP and its receptor protein which respond to the catabolic situation of the cell. PMID:170248

  19. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during and after normal pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    von Mandach, U.; Gubler, H. P.; Engel, G.; Huch, R.; Huch, A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The beta 2-sympathomimetics, used to inhibit preterm labour, bind predominantly to beta 2-adrenoceptors, activating adenylate cyclase to form adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a messenger substance which inhibits the enzyme cascade triggering smooth muscle contraction. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP formation can be used as markers of beta 2-adrenergic effect. 2. The present study addresses the influence of pregnancy on the beta-adrenoceptor system. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) in circulating lymphocytes were determined at three points in gestation (16, 29 and 37 weeks) and 9 weeks post partum in 22 normal pregnancies. (-)-[125Iodo]-cyanopindolol was used as the ligand to identify a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. B- and T-cell fractions were estimated from the same samples. 3. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density decreased significantly during gestation until week 37 (P < 0.01), then increased post partum (P < 0.005). Cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) were significantly lower after 16 weeks of gestation than post partum (P < 0.05). 4. The results, which cannot be explained in terms of a shift in the lymphocyte (B- and T-cell) ratio, indicate that beta-adrenoceptor density and function are reduced in normal pregnancy and only return to normal post partum. These findings may be of significance in devising future tocolytic therapy with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists. PMID:8383562

  20. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during and after normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U; Gubler, H P; Engel, G; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1993-02-01

    1. The beta 2-sympathomimetics, used to inhibit preterm labour, bind predominantly to beta 2-adrenoceptors, activating adenylate cyclase to form adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a messenger substance which inhibits the enzyme cascade triggering smooth muscle contraction. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP formation can be used as markers of beta 2-adrenergic effect. 2. The present study addresses the influence of pregnancy on the beta-adrenoceptor system. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) in circulating lymphocytes were determined at three points in gestation (16, 29 and 37 weeks) and 9 weeks post partum in 22 normal pregnancies. (-)-[125Iodo]-cyanopindolol was used as the ligand to identify a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. B- and T-cell fractions were estimated from the same samples. 3. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density decreased significantly during gestation until week 37 (P < 0.01), then increased post partum (P < 0.005). Cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) were significantly lower after 16 weeks of gestation than post partum (P < 0.05). 4. The results, which cannot be explained in terms of a shift in the lymphocyte (B- and T-cell) ratio, indicate that beta-adrenoceptor density and function are reduced in normal pregnancy and only return to normal post partum. These findings may be of significance in devising future tocolytic therapy with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists.

  1. Evaluation of diazotized 4-amino-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (ADBA) as a new derivatizing reagent.

    PubMed

    Idowu, S O; Olaniyi, A A

    2001-09-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the reactivity of diazotized 4-amino-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (ADBA) towards selected aromatic compounds has been described. Successful diazo coupling of pharmaceuticals possessing aromatic rings of varying reactivities was achieved with the arenediazonium ion of ADBA at room (30 degrees C) or elevated temperature (80 degrees C). The adducts formed in spot-test reactions were coloured for some compounds (e.g, cloxacillin and chloroxylenol), others showed colour at elevated temperature of reaction (e.g., salicylic acid and aspirin), while others showed no detectable change in colour of reaction mixture, even at elevated temperature (e.g., imidazole and tinidazole). The coloured product formed at room temperature decomposed and the colour discharged at elevated temperature in some cases (e.g., beta-naphthol). However, thin layer chromatographic analysis suggested that a more lipophilic derivative, relative to the original compound was formed for some of the compounds studied which did not show any detectable colour change in the spot test reactions. The diazotized ADBA is thus shown to be a reactive coupling reagent with which a suitable derivatization methodology could be developed for a wide range of pharmaceuticals in ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis.

  2. Corrosion inhibition properties of graphene oxide on mild steel in 3.5% NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandh Senthilvasan, Prem; Rangarajan, Murali

    2016-09-01

    In this work the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 3.5% Sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at ambient conditions by Graphene Oxide (GO) has been studied. Graphene oxide was prepared by Modified Hummers Method and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The electrochemical corrosion behaviour of mild steel has been studied in the absence and presence of GO coatings by Tafel polarization and impedance analyses. The modified electrode has 44.8mV potential shift in the cathodic direction and reduction in current by 41.9 μA (61%). This indicates the strong protection offered by graphene oxide film. The obtained impedance spectra also clearly show that the charge transfer resistance of graphene oxide film is much higher than that of the uncoated steel electrode, demonstrating the strong protection offered by graphene oxide films for mild steel.

  3. Theoretical study of the electronic states of small cationic niobium clusters, Nbn+ (n=3-5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, D.; Balasubramanian, K.

    2001-07-01

    Geometries and energy separations of the various low-lying electronic states of Nbn+ (n=3-5) clusters with different structural arrangements have been investigated. The complete active space multiconfiguration self-consistent field (CASMCSCF) method followed by the multireference singles plus doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) that included up to 13 million configuration spin functions have been used to compute several electronic states of these clusters. A 5A2 isosceles triangle geometry in C2v symmetry and a 2A' pyramid structure in Cs symmetry are computed as the ground states of Nb3+ and Nb4+ clusters, respectively. In the case of Nb5+, a 1A' state of distorted edge-capped tetrahedral structure (in Cs symmetry) was found to be the ground state. We also compared our MRSDCI results with density functional calculations. The dissociation and atomization energies have been calculated at the MRSDCI level and the results have been found to be in agreement with experimental findings.

  4. Sonochemical synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kien-Yin

    1996-05-01

    The synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from trichlorotrinitrobenzene (TCTNB) in toluene and ammonium hydroxide solution under the influence of ultrasonic waves was investigated. When the two-phase reaction mixture was irradiated with high intensity ultrasound at ambient temperature, fine-particle TATB (FP-TATB) was produced. This sonochemically produced TATB powder is lemon color in appearance and was analyzed to have the same explosive properties as reported in the literature. That is, it is insensitive to impact stimuli, and thermally stable. The median particle diameter of FP-TATB was calculated to be around 14 {mu}m, and the powder can be pressed to a density of 1.82 g/cm{sup 3} without a binder. The amination process is simple and requires neither the monitoring of the ammonia gas pressure nor the controlling of the reaction temperature during amination reaction, and we anticipate no problem in large scale production of FP-TATB.

  5. Modification of amino acids at shock pressures of 3.5 to 32 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Etta; Horz, Friedrich; Chang, Sherwood

    1997-09-01

    Amino acids were subjected to shock impact over a pressure range of 3.5 to 32 GPa both within and without meteoritic mineral matrices. The extent of amino acid destruction, racemization, and conversion to secondary amino acids was examined. Abundances of parent compounds decreased by a factor of 10 3 over this pressure range. Racemization also occurred, but some residual optical activity remained in the amino acids surviving shocks up to 32 GPa. Secondary amino acids formed in the high peak pressure range; those identified were β-alanine, glycine, alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and β-aminoisobutyric acid. At 30 GPa, the abundances of these daughter compounds exceeded those of the remaining initial amino acids. As the concomitant effects of high mechanical stress and temperature accompanying shocks cannot be separated in this work, their relative contribution to the observed transformations cannot be estimated. The survival of amino acids in shock experiments suggests that, after formation or emplacement of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies, these objects never experienced impact velocities greater than 5 km/s, which suffices to generate 30 GPa for typical silicate/silicate impacts. These results also provide guidelines for choosing appropriate capture media for interplanetary dust particles on Earth-orbiting platforms.

  6. Latino Children's Body Mass Index at 2–3.5 Years Predicts Sympathetic Nervous System Activity at 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Tambellini, Katelyn; Lustig, Robert H.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: To understand whether the relationship between young children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses predicted their BMI, or vice versa, the association between standardized BMI (zBMI) at 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age and ANS reactivity at 3.5–5 years of age, and whether zBMI predicts later ANS reactivity or whether early ANS reactivity predicts later zBMI, was studied. Methods: Low-income, primarily Latino children (n=112) were part of a larger cohort study of mothers recruited during early pregnancy. Study measures included maternal prenatal weight, children's health behaviors (i.e., time watching television, fast food consumption, and time playing outdoors), children's height and weight at 2, 3.5, and 5 years, and children's ANS reactivity at 3.5 and 5 years. ANS measures of sympathetic nervous system (i.e., pre-ejection period) and parasympathetic nervous system (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) activity were monitored during rest and four challenges. Reactivity was calculated as the difference between mean challenge response and rest. Structural equation models analyzed the relationship between children's zBMI at 2, 3.5, and 5 years and ANS reactivity at 3.5 and 5 years, adjusting for mother's BMI, children's behaviors, and changes in height. Results: There was no association between zBMI and ANS cross-sectionally. Children with high zBMI at 2 or 3.5 years or large zBMI increases from 2 to 3.5 years of age had decreased sympathetic activity at 5 years. Neither sympathetic nor parasympathetic reactivity at 3.5 years predicted later zBMI. Conclusions: Increased zBMI early in childhood may dampen young children's SNS responses later in life. PMID:24745554

  7. Enhanced luminescence of novel rare earth complexes Eu(3,5-DNBA)3Phen in nano-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuguang; Zhang, Jingchang; Cao, Weiliang; Fu, Yali

    2009-02-01

    Eu(3+) (or Tb(3+)) of 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline ternary rare earth complexes were synthesized and characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and fluorescence spectroscopy. In this study an organic-inorganic combined device indium tin oxide/poly(N-vinylcar-bazole):RE(3,5-DNBA)(3)Phen:TiO(2)/Al was fabricated. The nano-TiO(2) has been used in the luminescence layer to change the electroluminescence property of RE(3,5-DNBA)(3) Phen (RE=Eu(3+)or Tb(3+)).

  8. GPM/DPR precipitation compared with 3.5-km-resolution NICAM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsuki, S.; Terasaki, K.; Miyoshi, T.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to compare the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)-derived precipitation data with other precipitation products and numerical model simulations as the first step toward the possible use of GPM-derived precipitation data in numerical weather prediction through data assimilation. In February 2014, the GPM satellite was launched successfully and started observing global precipitation between 65S and 65N using the new DPR (Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar) sensor. The GPM/DPR observes three-dimensional meteorological echoes with Ku-band and Ka-band radars. It is among our interests how the precipitation data from GPM/DPR compare with other precipitation data. In this study, we compare the GPM/DPR precipitation data with simulated precipitation from the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) at a 3.5-km horizontal resolution. Precipitation products derived from GPM/GMI (GPM Microwave Imager) and GSMaP/NRT are also compared. We focus on two precipitation types from May to July, 2014: frontal precipitation cases and tropical cyclone cases. The spatial pattern of the frontal precipitation measured by GPM/DPR agrees generally well with those of the other precipitation data. However, GPM/GMI-derived precipitation is systematically less than that of the NICAM simulation. By contrast, the vertical structures are considerably different between GPM/DPR and the NICAM simulation. The simulated mixing ratios indicate snow and graupel at upper levels, but these are not captured by GPM/DPR. The tropical cyclones captured by GPM/DPR are simulated reasonably well by NICAM. Further investigations will be made and will be included in this presentation.

  9. Characterizing K2 Exoplanets with NIR Transit Photometry from the 3.5m WIYN Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Knicole D.; Barclay, Thomas; Thompson, Susan E.; Coughlin, Jeffrey; Barentsen, Geert; Quintana, Elisa V.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA K2 mission has discovered over 400 transiting exoplanets as of October 2016 and continues to produce new discoveries on a regular basis. Expected to launch in late 2017, the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will continue the era of exoplanet discovery by performing an all-sky search for transiting exoplanets. Given the ever increasing number of known exoplanets, it is critical that we optimize follow-up observations now in order to characterize the many interesting systems discovered by these missions. For example, K2 is finding (and TESS will find even more) small, super-Earth-size planets around cool, nearby stars. I will present results from our program for near-infrared (NIR) transit photometry of K2 exoplanet candidates conducted using the 3.5m WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. NIR transit photometry with the high spatial resolution WHIRC imager installed on the WIYN telescope allows us to confirm the transit host, to verify that the transit is achromatic, and to constrain the planet radius by minimizing effects of stellar limb darkening. Furthermore, the high-precision and high-cadence photometry from WIYN+WHIRC allows us to track and constrain the transit ephemeris, which is crucial for future follow-up efforts with other facilities like the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Ultimately, this program will vet K2 exoplanet candidates and identify prime targets for detailed characterization with JWST. This program complements K2 follow-up being done with the Spitzer Space Telescope and demonstrates the capabilities of a ground-based facility that can be used to characterize small planets from K2 and TESS for years to come.This work was supported by the NASA-NSF Exoplanet Observational Research (NN-EXPLORE) program.

  10. Lambda hyperon production and polarization in collisions of p(3.5 GeV)+Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A. V.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O. V.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y. V.

    2014-05-01

    Results on hyperon production are reported for collisions of p(3.5 GeV) + Nb , studied with the High-Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at SIS18 at GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy-Ion Research, Darmstadt. The transverse mass distributions in rapidity bins are well described by Boltzmann shapes with a maximum inverse slope parameter of about 90 MeV at a rapidity of y = 1.0, i.e. slightly below the center-of-mass rapidity for nucleon-nucleon collisions, . The rapidity density decreases monotonically with increasing rapidity within a rapidity window ranging from 0.3 to 1.3. The phase-space distribution is compared with results of other experiments and with predictions of two transport approaches which are available publicly. None of the present versions of the employed models is able to fully reproduce the experimental distributions, i.e. in absolute yield and in shape. Presumably, this finding results from an insufficient modelling in the transport models of the elementary processes being relevant for production, rescattering and absorption. The present high-statistics data allow for a genuine two-dimensional investigation as a function of phase space of the self-analyzing polarization in the weak decay . Finite negative values of the polarization in the order of 5-20% are observed over the entire phase space studied. The absolute value of the polarization increases almost linearly with increasing transverse momentum for p t > 300 MeV/c and increases with decreasing rapidity for y < 0.8.

  11. The effects of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and other adenine nucleotides on body temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Dascombe, M J; Milton, A S

    1975-01-01

    1. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), its dibutyryl derivative (Db-cAMP) and other adenine nucleotides have been micro-injected into the hypothalamic region of the unanaesthetized cat and the effects on body temperature, and on behavioural and autonomic thermoregulatory activities observed. 2. Db-cAMP and cAMP both produced hypothermia when applied to the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. With Db-cAMP the hypothermia was shown to be dose dependent between 50 and 500 mug (0-096-0-96 mumole). 3. AMP, ADP and ATP also produced hypothermia when injected into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. 4. The order of relative potencies of the adenine nucleotides with respect both to the hypothermia produced and to the autonomic thermoregulatory effects observed were similar. Db-cAMP was most potent and cAMP least. 5. Micro-injection into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus of many substances including saline produced in most cats a non-specific rise in body temperature apparently the result of tissue damage. Intraperitoneal injection of 4-acetamidophenol (paracetamol 50 mg/kg) reduced or abolished this febrile response. 6. The hypothermic effect of the adenine nucleotides has been compared with the effects produced in these same cats by micro-injections of noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, a mixture of acetylcholine and physostigmine (1:1), EDTA and excess Ca2+ ions. 7. It is concluded that as Db-cAMP and cAMP both produce hypothermia, it is unlikely that endogenous cAMP in the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus mediates the hyperthermic responses to pyrogens and prostaglandins. PMID:170396

  12. An updated set of nutations derived from the reanalysis of 3.5 decades VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Koot, Laurence; Rivoldini, Attilio; Dehant, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    The global VLBI observation started in the 1979. After that the qualities of the measurements are continuously improving by taking into account various instrumental and environmental effects. The MHB2000 models was introduced in 2002 (Mathews, et.al. 2002, [1]) and it has a good agreement (5 μas) on the short period nutation series (<400 days) with the values derived from 2 decades (1979-2000) VLBI data while a higher uncertainties up to 56 μas for those longer periods (>400 days) nutation series (Herring et.al. 2002). In MHB2000, the forcing frequencies of the nutation series are solved by least-squares fitting to the VLBI data in frequency domain. Koot et al. (2008), have processed another similar set of nutation series by inversing the time series of VLBI data (1984-2005) using a Bayesian approach. In the present work, we will repeat both approaches using the up-to-date 3.5 decades VLBI observations (1980-2014) meanwhile paying more attention on the results of longer period (>400 days). Finally some features of Earth's interior structure will be discussed based on the determined nutation series. [1] Mathews, P.M., Herring, T.A. & Buffett, B.A., 2002. Modeling of nutation and precession: new nutation series for nonrigid Earth and insights into the Earth's interior, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 2068, doi: 10.1029/2001JB000390. [2] Herring, T. A., P. M. Mathews, and B. A. Buffett, Modeling of nutation and precession: Very long baseline interferometry results, J. Geophys. Res., 107, B4, 2069, doi: 10.1029/2001JB000165, 2002 [3] Koot, L., Rivoldini, A., de Viron, O. & Dehant, V., 2008. Estimation of Earth interior parameters from a Bayesian inversion of very long baseline interferometry nutation time series, J. Geophys. Res., 113, 8414, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005409.

  13. Thermal Considerations of Space Solar Power Concepts with 3.5 GW RF Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the thermal challenge of the Space Solar Power (SSP) design concepts with a 3.5 GW radio-frequency (RF) output. High efficiency klystrons are thermally more favored than solid state (butterstick) to convert direct current (DC) electricity to radio-frequency (RF) energy at the transmitters in these concepts. Using klystrons, the heat dissipation is 0.72 GW. Using solid state, the heat dissipation is 2.33 GW. The heat dissipation of the klystrons is 85% at 500C, 10% at 300C, and 5% at 125C. All the heat dissipation of the solid state is at 100C. Using klystrons, the radiator area is 74,500 square m Using solid state, the radiator area is 2,362,200 square m Space constructable heat pipe radiators are assumed in the thermal analysis. Also, to make the SSP concepts feasible, the mass of the heat transport system must be minimized. The heat transport distance from the transmitters to the radiators must be minimized. It can be accomplished by dividing the radiator into a cluster of small radiators, so that the heat transport distances between the klystrons and radiators can be minimized. The area of each small radiator is on the order of 1 square m. Two concepts for accommodating a cluster of small radiators are presented. If the distance between the transmitters and radiators is 1.5 m or less, constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) are acceptable for heat transport. If the distance exceeds 1.5 m, loop heat pipes (LHPs) are needed.

  14. Pulse radiolysis studies of 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole derivatives of selenoethers.

    PubMed

    Barik, Atanu; Singh, Beena G; Sharma, Asmita; Jain, Vimal K; Priyadarsini, K Indira

    2014-11-06

    One electron redox reaction of two asymmetric 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole derivatives of selenoethers attached to ethanoic acid (DPSeEA) and propionic acid (DPSePA) were studied by pulse radiolysis technique using transient absorption detection. The reaction of the hydroxyl ((•)OH) radical with DPSeEA or DPSePA at pH 7 produced transients absorbing at 500 nm and at 300 nm, respectively. The absorbance at 500 nm increased with increasing parent concentration indicating formation of dimer radical cations. From the absorbance changes, the equilibrium constants for the formation of dimer radical cation of DPSeEA and DPSePA were estimated as 2020 and 1608 M(-1), respectively. The rate constants at pH 7 for the reaction of the (•)OH radical with DPSeEA and DPSePA were determined to be 9.6 × 10(9) and 1.4 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The dimer radical cation of DPSeEA and DPSePA decayed by first order kinetics with a rate constant of 2.8 × 10(4) and 5.5 × 10(3) s(-1), respectively. The yield of radical cations of DPSeEA and DPSePA were estimated from the secondary electron transfer reaction, which corresponds to 38% and 48% of (•)OH radical yield, respectively. Some fraction of monomer radical cation undergoes decarboxylation reaction, and the yield of decarboxylation was 25% and 20% for DPSeEA and DPSePA, respectively. These results have implication in understanding their antioxidant activity. The reaction of trichloromethyl peroxyl radical, glutathione, and ascorbic acid further support their antioxidant behavior.

  15. Barium aluminides BaxAl5(x=3,3.5,4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehle, Michael; Scherer, Harald; Wendorff, Marco; Röhr, Caroline

    2009-05-01

    Three aluminides of the series BaxAl5(x=3,3.5,4) were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. The crystal structure of the new compound Ba7Al10 was determined using single crystal X-ray data (space group R3¯m, a=604.23(9), c=4879.0(12) pm, Z=3, R1=0.0325). The compound exhibits Al Kagomé (3.6.3.6.) nets in which half of the triangles form the basis of trigonal bipyramids Al5. The apical Al are thus three-bonded assuming a charge of -2 ( 27Al-NMR chemical shift δ=660 pm), whereas the Al atoms of the basal triangle (i.e. of the Kagomé net) are four-bonded and thus of formal charge -1(δ=490 ppm). The total charge of the anion is thus exactly compensated by the Ba cations, i.e. the compound can be interpreted as an electron precise Zintl phase, exhibiting a distinct pseudo-band gap at the Fermi level of the calculated tDOS. According to the total formula, the structure displays a combination the stacking sequences of Ba3Al5 and Ba4Al5, the structures of which have been redetermined with current methods (both hexagonal with space group P63/mmc; Ba3Al5: a=606.55(7), c=1461.8(2) pm, Z=2, R1=0.0239; Ba4Al5: a=609.21(7), c=1775.8(3) pm, Z=2, R1=0.0300). These three compounds with slightly different electron counts but similar polyanions allow to compare the bond lengths, the electronic structures and the overall bonding situation in dependence of positive or negative deviation of the electron count in relation to the novel formally electron precise Zintl compound Ba7Al10.

  16. Validation of ACE-FTS version 3.5 NOy species profiles using correlative satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; McLinden, Chris A.; Bernath, Peter F.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Burrows, John P.; Degenstein, Doug A.; Funke, Bernd; Fussen, Didier; Manney, Gloria L.; McElroy, C. Thomas; Murtagh, Donal; Randall, Cora E.; Raspollini, Piera; Rozanov, Alexei; Russell, James M., III; Suzuki, Makoto; Shiotani, Masato; Urban, Joachim; von Clarmann, Thomas; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2016-12-01

    The ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer) instrument on the Canadian SCISAT satellite, which has been in operation for over 12 years, has the capability of deriving stratospheric profiles of many of the NOy (N + NO + NO2+ NO3+ 2 × N2O5+ HNO3+ HNO4+ ClONO2+ BrONO2) species. Version 2.2 of ACE-FTS NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 has previously been validated, and this study compares the most recent version (v3.5) of these five ACE-FTS products to spatially and temporally coincident measurements from other satellite instruments - GOMOS, HALOE, MAESTRO, MIPAS, MLS, OSIRIS, POAM III, SAGE III, SCIAMACHY, SMILES, and SMR. For each ACE-FTS measurement, a photochemical box model was used to simulate the diurnal variations of the NOy species and the ACE-FTS measurements were scaled to the local times of the coincident measurements. The comparisons for all five species show good agreement with correlative satellite measurements. For NO in the altitude range of 25-50 km, ACE-FTS typically agrees with correlative data to within -10 %. Instrument-averaged mean relative differences are approximately -10 % at 30-40 km for NO2, within ±7 % at 8-30 km for HNO3, better than -7 % at 21-34 km for local morning N2O5, and better than -8 % at 21-34 km for ClONO2. Where possible, the variations in the mean differences due to changes in the comparison local time and latitude are also discussed.

  17. 3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: Volcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life?

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Furnes, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Banerjee, N.R.; Connell, L.B.; Templeton, A.

    2009-04-07

    Alteration textures in volcanic glass from the seafloor fall into two classes, one suggestive of abiotic/diffusive hydration and chemical exchange, and another likely to be caused by microbial, cavity-forming, congruent dissolution. Glass bioalteration is common in submarine lavas throughout the world's ocean, dominant in the upper 300 m of the oceanic crust, and found in all well-preserved ophiolites and greenstone belts dating back to 3.5 Ga. It may yield a significant fraction of the global biomass and geochemical fluxes and is relevant to the development of the earliest life on Earth. We present a critical review concerning these glass bioalteration textures and present new data on their microchemical environment. We explore arguments for their biogenicity and further develop the prevalent model for their formation by relating corrosion morphology to the mechanism of microbial dissolution. Biological alteration produces conspicuous micron-scale granular and tubular textures. Granular glass alteration is well explained by colonizing microbes that selectively dissolve the glass in their contact area, forming a sponge-like interconnected network of micron-sized cavities along glass surfaces. Tubular alteration meanwhile, is more likely to be caused by filamentous cell extensions in a process similar to fungal tunneling of soil feldspars and marine carbonates. While we see clear functional similarities to fungal dissolution behavior, we do not know whether fungal or prokaryotic organisms are involved. However, this functional constraint may eventually help to identify potential microbes responsible for these features, potentially including eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. Yet, we caution that these organisms may be difficult to identify and to study, because they are likely to be sparsely distributed, slow growing, and difficult to cultivate.

  18. Adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate levels in Thermomonospora curvata during cellulase biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fennington, G.; Neubauer, D.; Stutzenberger, F.

    1983-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of cellulose requires the synergistic activity of at least three enzymes: exo-beta-1,4-glucanase (EC3.2.1.91), endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (EC3.2.1.4), and beta-glucosidase (EC3.2.1.21). Despite extensive studies on a variety of cellulolytic bacteria and fungi, the mechanism(s) regulating the biosynthesis of this inducible catabolic enzyme complex remains unknown. The intracellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) have been shown to play a major role in mediating catabolite repression of enzyme biosynthesis. The cAMP acts through a cAMP receptor protein (termed CRP or CAP) which is a dimer having two identical subunits each capable of binding one molecule of cAMP. The N-terminal domain of the CRP binds the cAMP while the C-terminal domain binds to DNA at the promotor region of a cAMP-dependent operon and stimulates transcription by promoting the formation of a preinitiation complex between RNA polymerase and the DNA. Intracellular cAMP levels in E. coli (the prototype organism for such studies) are influenced by the type and availability of carbon source used for growth. High intracellular cAMP levels should lead to higher concentrations of cAMP-CRP complexes which should increase the transcription rates for cAMP-dependent operons (such as the lac operon of beta-galactosidase) and indeed the differential rate of beta-galactosidase biosynthesis correlates to intracellular cAMP levels. In the case of cellulase, catabolite repression by glucose or other readily metabolizable compounds closely controls production in an apparently similar manner and therefore a correlation may exist between enzyme biosynthesis and intracellular cAMP levels. This communication describes the fluctuation in cAMP levels during cellulase induction and repression in the thermophilic actinomycete, Thermomonospora curvata.

  19. Transfer and effects of 1,2,3,5,7-pentachloronaphthalene in an experimental food chain.

    PubMed

    Slootweg, Tineke; Segner, Helmut; Mayer, Philipp; Smith, Kilian; Igumnova, Elizaveta; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Dömötörová, Milena; Oehlmann, Jörg; Liebig, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes are environmentally relevant compounds that are measured in biota at concentrations in the μg/kg lipid range. Despite their widespread occurrence, literature data on the accumulation and effects of these compounds in aquatic ecosystems are sparsely available. The goal of this study was to gain insights into the biomagnification and effects of 1,2,3,5,7-pentachloronaphthalene (PeCN52) in an experimental food chain consisting of benthic worms and juvenile rainbow trout. Worms were contaminated with PeCN52 by passive dosing from polydimethylsiloxane silicone. The contaminated worms were then used to feed the juvenile rainbow trout at 0.12, 0.25 or 0.50 μg/g fish wet weight/day, and the resulting internal whole-body concentrations of the individual fish were linked to biological responses. A possible involvement of the cellular detoxification system was explored by measuring PeCN52-induced expression of the phase I biotransformation enzyme gene cyp1a1 and the ABC transporter gene abcb1a. At the end of the 28-day study, biomagnification factors were similar for all dietary intake levels with values between 0.5 and 0.7 kg lipid(fish)/kg lipid(worm). The average uptake efficiency of 60% indicated that a high amount of PeCN52 was transferred from the worms to the fish. Internal concentrations of up to 175 mg/kg fish lipid in the highest treatment level did not result in effects on survival, behavior, or growth of the juvenile trout, but were associated with the induction of phase I metabolism which was evident from the significant up-regulation of cyp1a1 expression in the liver. In contrast, no changes were seen in abcb1a transcript levels.

  20. Heterologous expression of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene of Vinca major alters flower color in transgenic Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Mori, S; Kobayashi, H; Hoshi, Y; Kondo, M; Nakano, M

    2004-01-01

    Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) is the key enzyme for the expression of blue or purple flower color. A full-length cDNA for the F3'5'H gene was cloned from petals of Vinca major, and its genomic clone, designated VmFH1 (accession number AB078781 in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ databases), was isolated from leaves by a PCR-based strategy. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that VmFH1 contains one intron and an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 506 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shows between 51% and 83% identity with those of previously reported F3'5'H genes. Southern blot analysis showed that there are 3-4 copies of the F3'5'H gene in the genome of V. major. Transcripts of the F3'5'H gene were detected in young flower petals but not in leaves as revealed by RT-PCR analysis. When VmFH1 was expressed in transgenic Petunia hybrida under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, some transgenic plants showed drastic flower color alteration from red to deep red with deep purple sectors. These transgenic plants accumulated 3',5'-hydroxylated anthocyanins in their petals, which were never detected in non-transgenic plants by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. These results indicate that VmFH1 isolated from V. major encodes F3'5'H and is active in a heterologous plant species.

  1. Effect of 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid in a broiler Clostridium perfringens infection model.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Mussarat; Rempel, Heidi; Kuang, Xiaomei Tallie; Allen, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M; Malouin, François; Diarra, Moussa S

    2013-10-01

    In an effort to explore strategies to control Clostridium perfringens, we investigated the synergistic effect of a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) with penicillin G in a broiler challenge model. All chicks were inoculated in the crop by gavage on d 14, 15, and 16 with a mixture of 4 C. perfringens strains. Birds were treated with saline (control group) or 20 nmol of c-di-GMP by gavage or intramuscularly (IM) on d 24, all in conjunction with penicillin G in water for 5 d. Weekly samplings of ceca and ileum were performed on d 21 to 35 for C. perfringens and Lactobacillus enumeration. On d 35 of age, the IM treatment significantly (P < 0.05) reduced C. perfringens in the ceca, suggesting possible synergistic activity between penicillin G and c-di-GMP against C. perfringens in broiler ceca. Moreover, analysis of ceca DNA for the presence of a series of C. perfringens virulence genes showed a prevalence of 30% for the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin gene (cpa) from d 21 to 35 in the IM-treated group, whereas the occurrence of the cpa gene increased from 10 to 60% in the other 2 groups (control and gavage) from d 21 to 35. Detection of β-lactamase genes (blaCMY-2, blaSHV, and blaTEM) indicative of gram-negative bacteria in the same samples from d 21 to 35 did not show significant treatment effects. Amplified fragment-length polymorphism showed a predominant 92% similarity between the ceca of 21-d-old control birds and the 35-d-old IM-treated c-di-GMP group. This suggests that c-di-GMP IM treatment might be effective at restoring the normal microflora of the host on d 35 after being challenged by C. perfringens. Our results suggest that c-di-GMP can reduce the colonization of C. perfringens in the gut without increasing the selection pressure for some β-lactamase genes or altering the commensal bacterial population.

  2. 3.5D dynamic PET image reconstruction incorporating kinetics-based clusters

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lijun; Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Tang, Jing; Chen, Wufan; Rahmim, Arman

    2012-01-01

    Standard 3D dynamic PET imaging consists of independent image reconstructions of individual frames followed by application of appropriate kinetic model to the time activity curves (TACs) at the voxel or region-of-interest. The emerging field of 4D PET reconstruction, by contrast, seeks to move beyond this scheme and incorporate information from multiple frames within the image reconstruction task. Here we propose a novel reconstruction framework aiming to enhance quantitative accuracy of parametric images via introduction of priors based on voxel kinetics, as generated via clustering of preliminary reconstructed dynamic images to define clustered neighborhoods of voxels with similar kinetics. This is then followed by straightforward maximum a posterior (MAP) 3D PET reconstruction as applied to individual frames; and as such the method is labeled “3.5D” image reconstruction. The use of cluster-based priors has the advantage of further enhancing quantitative performance in dynamic PET imaging, because: (a) there are typically more voxels in clusters than in conventional local neighborhoods, and (b) neighboring voxels with distinct kinetics are less likely to be clustered together. Using realistic simulated 11C-raclopride dynamic PET data, the quantitative performance of the proposed method was investigated. Parametric distribution-volume (DV) and DV ratio (DVR) images were estimated from dynamic image reconstructions using (a) MLEM, and MAP reconstructions using (b) the quadratic prior (QP-MAP), (c) the Green prior (GP-MAP) and (d, e) two proposed cluster-based priors (CP-U-MAP and CP-W-MAP), followed by graphical modeling, and were qualitatively and quantitatively compared for 11 regions-of-interest (ROIs). Overall, the proposed dynamic PET reconstruction methodology resulted in substantial visual as well as quantitative accuracy improvements (in terms of noise vs. bias performance) for parametric DV and DVR images. The method was also tested on a 90 min 11C

  3. Electron attachment to a hydrated DNA duplex: the dinucleoside phosphate deoxyguanylyl-3',5'-deoxycytidine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Wong, Ning-Bew; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, F Henry

    2010-11-22

    The minimal essential section of DNA helices, the dinucleoside phosphate deoxyguanylyl-3',5'-deoxycytidine dimer octahydrate, [dGpdC](2), has been constructed, fully optimized, and analyzed by using quantum chemical methods at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Study of the electrons attached to [dGpdC](2) reveals that DNA double strands are capable of capturing low-energy electrons and forming electronically stable radical anions. The relatively large vertical electron affinity (VEA) predicted for [dGpdC](2) (0.38 eV) indicates that the cytosine bases are good electron captors in DNA double strands. The structure, charge distribution, and molecular orbital analysis for the fully optimized radical anion [dGpdC](2)(·-) suggest that the extra electron tends to be redistributed to one of the cytosine base moieties, in an electronically stable structure (with adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) 1.14 eV and vertical detachment energy (VDE) 2.20 eV). The structural features of the optimized radical anion [dGpdC](2)(·-) also suggest the probability of interstrand proton transfer. The interstrand proton transfer leads to a distonic radical anion [d(G-H)pdC:d(C+H)pdG](·-), which contains one deprotonated guanine anion and one protonated cytosine radical. This distonic radical anion is predicted to be more stable than [dGpdC](2)(·-). Therefore, experimental evidence for electron attachment to the DNA double helices should be related to [d(G-H)pdC:d(C+H)pdG](·-) complexes, for which the VDE might be as high as 2.7 eV (in dry conditions) to 3.3 eV (in fully hydrated conditions). Effects of the polarizable medium have been found to be important for increasing the electron capture ability of the dGpdC dimer. The ultimate AEA value for cytosine in DNA duplexes is predicted to be 2.03 eV in aqueous solution.

  4. CARMENES: First Results from the CAHA 3.5m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, Andreas; Consortium, CARMENES

    2015-12-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument currently undergoing commissioning at the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. It has been developed by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions (see also Quirrenbach et al. 2010; 2012; 2014). CARMENES will conduct a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~300 M dwarfs. An important and unique feature of the CARMENES instrument is that it consists of two separate échelle spectrographs, which together cover the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000. The spectrographs are fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope.The main scientific objective of the CARMENES project is to carry out a survey of late-type main sequence stars with the goal of detecting low-mass planets in their habitable zones (HZs). In the focus of the project are very cool stars later than spectral type M4 and moderately active stars. We aim at being able to detect a 2M⊕ planet in the HZ of an M5 star. A long-term radial velocity precision of 1ms-1 per measurement will permit to attain such goals. For stars later than M4 (M < 0.25M⊙), such precision will yield detections of super-Earths of 5M⊕ and smaller inside the entire width of the HZ. The CARMENES survey will thus provide a comprehensive overview of planetary systems around nearby Northern M dwarfs. By reaching into the realm of Earth-like planets, it will provide a treasure trove for follow-up studies probing their habitability.Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Mandel, H., et al. (2010). CARMENES: Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs. In Ground-based and airborne instrumentation for astronomy III. Eds. McLean, I.S., Ramsay, S.K., & Takami, H., SPIE 773513Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Seifert, W., et al. (2012). CARMENES. I: Instrument

  5. 3.5 Year Monitoring of 225 GHz Opacity at the Summit of Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Asada, Keiichi; Martin-Cocher, Pierre L.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto; Koch, Patrick M.; Paine, Scott N.; Turner, David D.

    2017-02-01

    We present the 3.5 years monitoring results of 225 GHz opacity at the summit of the Greenland ice sheet (Greenland Summit Camp) at an altitude of 3200 m using a tipping radiometer. We chose this site as our submillimeter telescope (Greenland Telescope) site, because conditions are expected to have low submillimeter opacity and because its location offers favorable baselines to existing submillimeter telescopes for global-scale Very Long Baseline Interferometry. The site shows a clear seasonal variation with the average opacity lower by a factor of two during winter. The 25%, 50%, and 75% quartiles of the 225 GHz opacity during the winter months of November through April are 0.046, 0.060, and 0.080, respectively. For the winter quartiles of 25% and 50%, the Greenland site is about 10%-30% worse than the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) or the South Pole sites. Estimated atmospheric transmission spectra in winter season are similar to the ALMA site at lower frequencies (\\lt 450 GHz), which are transparent enough to perform astronomical observations almost all of the winter time with opacities \\lt 0.5, but 10%-25% higher opacities at higher frequencies (\\gt 450 GHz) than those at the ALMA site. This is due to the lower altitude of the Greenland site and the resulting higher line wing opacity from pressure-broadened saturated water lines in addition to higher dry air continuum absorption at higher frequencies. Nevertheless, half of the winter time at the Greenland Summit Camp can be used for astronomical observations at frequencies between 450 GHz and 1000 GHz with opacities \\lt 1.2, and 10% of the time show \\gt 10 % transmittance in the THz (1035 GHz, 1350 GHz, and 1500 GHz) windows. Summer season is good for observations at frequencies lower than 380 GHz. One major advantage of the Greenland Summit Camp site in winter is that there is no diurnal variation due to the polar night condition, and therefore the durations of low-opacity conditions

  6. Correlation between bio-hydrogen production and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis by Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5.

    PubMed

    Wu, Siang Chen; Liou, Syuan Zih; Lee, Chi Mei

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the competition between H(2) production and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation of Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 when grown on six different substrates. From the results, strain WP3-5 can utilize acetate, propionate, malate, and lactate to produce H(2) but can only synthesize PHB on acetate and propionate. The substrate conversion efficiency (SCE) on acetate and propionate increased significantly after the maximum PHB content was achieved, illustrating a competition for reducing power when PHB synthesis occurred. However, when strain WP3-5 was cultivated at suboptimal pH values on acetate, the synthesized PHB prevented strain WP3-5 from the stress of the inappropriate pH and retained H(2) producing efficiency as at optimal pH value. Consequently, although PHB synthesis does compete with H(2) production in R. palustris WP3-5, it is still conducive to H(2) production when strain WP3-5 is in a stressful condition.

  7. Generation and intermolecular trapping of 1,2-diaza-4-silacyclopentane-3,5-diyls in the denitrogenation of 2,3,5,6-tetraaza-7-silabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene: an experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Takegami, Akinobu; Abe, Manabu

    2010-03-19

    In our previous computational study, we found that silicon and nitrogen atoms have a notable effect on the reactivity of 1,2-diaza-4-silacyclopentane-3,5-diyls. Thus, the singlet state of the diradical was calculated to be much more stable than the corresponding ring-closing product, i.e., 2,3-diaza-5-silabicyclo[2.1.0]pentane, and the triplet state of the diradical. In the present study, derivatives of the diradical were generated experimentally in the denitrogenation of precursor azoalkanes, i.e., 2,3,5,6-tetraaza-7-silabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-enes, which can be prepared by cycloaddition of a diazasilole with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-dione (PTAD) or 4-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-dione (MTAD). The diradicals were trapped intermolecularly to afford polycyclic compounds. The computational studies (UB3LYP/6-31G*) of the denitrogenation of a model azoalkane suggested that stepwise denitrogenation with an activation energy of ca. 22 kcal/mol is the thermodynamically favored pathway for generation of the singlet diradical 1,2-diaza-4-silacyclopentane-3,5-diyl derivative via a 1,4-diazenyldiradical intermediate. The low activation energy of the denitrogenation reaction was consistent with the experimental observation that the azoalkane was labile under the preparation conditions used in this study.

  8. Sources and quantity of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in several tissues of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    van Doorn, J; van der Heide, D; Roelfsema, F

    1983-01-01

    The local conversion of thyroxine (T4), which is an important source of intracellular 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in several rat tissues, has been subject of recent investigations. In the present study the regulation of this phenomenon in vivo was investigated in various peripheral tissues of the rat. Intact euthyroid and radiothyroidectomized (Tx) rats received a continuous intravenous infusion of [125I]T4 and [131I]T3 until isotope equilibrium was attained. In addition to the labeled iodothyronines, Tx rats received a continuous intravenous infusion of 0.2 or 1.0 microgram carrier T4/100 g body wt per d, to create hypothyroid or slightly hypothyroid conditions, respectively. After the animals were bled and perfused the contribution of T3 derived from local conversion of T4 to T3 [Lc T3(T4)] to the total T3 in homogenates from several tissues and subcellular fractions from the liver, kidney, and anterior pituitary gland could be calculated. In all experiments T3 in muscle was derived exclusively from the plasma. In the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, however, most of the intracellular T3 was derived from the intracellular conversion of T4 to T3. It is demonstrated that for hypothyroid rats an increased relative contribution of Lc T3(T4) reduced the loss of total T3 in the brain. This phenomenon was also encountered for the anterior pituitary gland, although in this tissue the proportion of the total tissue T3, contributed by locally produced T3 was considerably lower than the values found for the cerebral cortex and cerebellum in all experiments. The present findings, regarding the source and quantity of pituitary nuclear T3 strongly suggest that both plasma T3 and T4 (through its local conversion into T3) play a role in the regulation of thyrotropin secretion. The contribution of Lc T3(T4) to the total pituitary nuclear T3 was of minor importance in euthyroid rats (approximately 20%), compared with that found for both groups in T4-supplemented athyreotic rats

  9. Energetics and chemical bonding of the 1,3,5-tridehydrobenzene triradical and its protonated form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hue Minh Thi; Höltzl, Tibor; Gopakumar, G.; Veszprémi, Tamás; Peeters, Jozef; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2005-09-01

    Quantum chemical calculations were applied to investigate the electronic structure of the parent 1,3,5-tridehydrobenzene triradical (C 6H 3, TDB) and its anion (C6H3-), cation (C6H3+) and protonated form (C6H4+). Our results obtained using the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by second-order multi-state multi-configuration perturbation theory, MS-CASPT2, and MRMP2 in conjunction with the large ANO-L and 6-311++G(3df,2p) basis set, confirm and reveal the followings: (i) TDB has a doublet 2A 1 ground state with a 4B 2- 2A 1 energy gap of 29 kcal/mol, (ii) the ground state of the C6H3- anion in the triplet 3B 2 being 4 kcal/mol below the 1A 1 state. (iii) the electron affinity (EA), ionization energy (IE) and proton affinity (PA) are computed to be: EA = 1.6 eV, IE = 7.2 eV, PA = 227 kcal/mol using UB3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) + ZPE; standard heat of formation Δ Hf(298 K, 1 atm) (TDB) = 179 ± 2 kcal/mol was calculated with CBS-QB3 method. An atoms-in-molecules (AIM) analysis of the structure reveals that the topology of the electron density is similar in all compounds: hydrogens connect to a six-membered ring, except for the case of the 2A 2 state of C6H4+ (MBZ +) which is bicyclic with fused five- and three-membered rings. Properties of the chemical bonds were characterized with Electron Localization Function (ELF) analysis, as well as Wiberg indices, Laplacian and spin density maps. We found that the radicals form separate monosynaptic basins on the ELF space, however its pair character remains high. In the 2A 1 state of TDB, the radical center is mainly localized on the C1 atom, while in the 2B 2 state it is equally distributed between the C3 and C5 atoms and, due to the symmetry, in the 4B 2 state the C1, C2 and C3 atoms have the same radical character. There is no C3-C5 bond in the 2A 1 state of TDB, but the interaction between these atoms is strong. The ground state of cation C6H3+ (DHP), 1A 1, is not a diradical and has

  10. The effect of strain rate and temperature on the tensile properties of Sn-3.5Ag solder

    SciTech Connect

    Lang Fengqun . E-mail: fqlang325@yahoo.co.jp; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Munegata, Osamu; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Narita, Toshio

    2005-03-15

    The tensile response of Sn-3.5% Ag solder was investigated and compared with that of a Sn-37% Pb eutectic solder at various strain rates from 2.38x10{sup -6} s{sup -1} to 2.38x10{sup -3} s{sup -1} over the temperature range from -50 deg. C to 150 deg. C. The relationship between tensile strength, {sigma} {sub UTS}, and strain rate, {epsilon}', for Sn-3.5Ag can be expressed by the equation {sigma} {sub UTS}=A{epsilon}' {sup m}. The influence of temperature on the strain rate sensitivity index m was very slight for Sn-3.5Ag, whereas the m values of Sn-37Pb increased strongly with increasing temperature. The relationship between the tensile strength of the Sn-3.5Ag alloy and temperature follows an Arrhenius law, and the activation energy for creep was found to be 78 kJ/mol, close to that for the pipe diffusion controlled creep of tin. The microstructure and fracture morphologies of both solders were observed with a scanning electron microscope. Ag{sub 3}Sn particles were observed in the primary {beta}-Sn in the Sn-3.5Ag solder by transmission electron microscope.

  11. High-quality draft genome sequence of a new phytase-producing microorganism Pantoea sp. 3.5.1.

    PubMed

    Suleimanova, Aliya D; Toymentseva, Anna A; Boulygina, Eugenia A; Kazakov, Sergey V; Mardanova, Ayslu M; Balaban, Nelly P; Sharipova, Margarita R

    2015-01-01

    Strain 3.5.1 was isolated from soils of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, on the basis of presence of a high phytate-degrading activity. Strains with such activities attract special interest because of its potential use as feed additives and natural manures. Strain 3.5.1 harbors a 99 % 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence similarity to different Pantoea species (P. vagans, P. ananatis, P. agglomerans, P. anthophila and Pantoea sp.) and exhibits unique biochemical properties that do not allow strain identification up to species. Moreover, the strain 3.5.1 shows a low ANI and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry scores. Thus, it is likely that the strain 3.5.1 represents a new Pantoea species. Here, we present the genome sequence of Pantoea sp. strain 3.5.1. The 4,964,649 bp draft genome consists of 23 contigs with 4,556 protein-coding and 143 RNA genes. Genome sequencing and annotation revealed two phytase genes and putative regulatory genes controlling its activity.

  12. In vivo metabolism of N-phenyl-N'-(3,5-dimethylpyrazole-4-yl) thiourea in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaymakcioğlu, Bedia Koçyiğit; Rollas, Sevim; Kartal-Aricioğlu, Feyza

    2003-01-01

    Thiourea derivatives have been shown to posses several biological activities. Therefore a series of N-substituted -N'-(3,5-di/1,3,5trimethylpyrazole-4-yl)thioureas were synthesized and the antitubercular and anticonvulsant activities were studied. Among the new compounds, N-phenyl-N'-(3,5-dimethylpyrazole4-yl)thiourea (S) was demonstrated to have remarkable anticonvulsant activity. In this study, S was selected as a model compound and the in vivo metabolic pathway in rats was investigated. The substrate was given intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg) and blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. The substrate and its potential metabolites were separated using HPLC on reverse phase system. The substrate was detected at all times with small quantity of metabolites.

  13. 2,4,6-Tris(2,2,2-trinitroethylamino)-1,3,5-triazine: Synthesis, Characterization, and Energetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shenghua; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Yuan; Zhao, Xiuxiu; Zhang, Lubo; Pang, Siping

    2014-05-01

    A simple and straightforward route for the synthesis of 2,4,6-tris(2,2,2-trinitroethylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (TTET) has been developed. The compound was fully characterized by multinuclear (1H, 13C) magnetic resonance and infrared (IR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, electron ionization-mass spectrometry, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TTET was found to have good physical properties, such as good thermal stability (Td = 186°C), reasonable impact sensitivity (21.5 J), and high density (1.88 g . cm-3). Additionally, the detonation properties of TTET obtained with the empirical Kamlet-Jacobs equations identify it as a competitively energetic compound, which in some cases is superior to 1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine.

  14. Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome in Cardiac Illness Involves Elevated Concentrations of 3,5-Diiodothyronine and Correlates with Atrial Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Johannes W.; Müller, Patrick; Schiedat, Fabian; Schlömicher, Markus; Strauch, Justus; Chatzitomaris, Apostolos; Klein, Harald H.; Mügge, Andreas; Köhrle, Josef; Rijntjes, Eddy; Lehmphul, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Background Although hyperthyroidism predisposes to atrial fibrillation, previous trials have suggested decreased triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations to be associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). Therapy with thyroid hormones (TH), however, did not reduce the risk of POAF. This study reevaluates the relation between thyroid hormone status, atrial electromechanical function and POAF. Methods Thirty-nine patients with sinus rhythm and no history of atrial fibrillation or thyroid disease undergoing cardiac surgery were prospectively enrolled. Serum concentrations of thyrotropin, free (F) and total (T) thyroxine (T4) and T3, reverse (r)T3, 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) and 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) were measured preoperatively, complemented by evaluation of echocardiographic and electrophysiological parameters of cardiac function. Holter-ECG and telemetry were used to screen for POAF for 10 days following cardiac surgery. Results Seven of 17 patients who developed POAF demonstrated nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS; defined as low T3 and/or low T4 syndrome), compared to 2 of 22 (p < 0.05) patients who maintained sinus rhythm. In patients with POAF, serum FT3 concentrations were significantly decreased, but still within their reference ranges. 3,5-T2 concentrations directly correlated with rT3 concentrations and inversely correlated with FT3 concentrations. Furthermore, 3,5-T2 concentrations were significantly elevated in patients with NTIS and in subjects who eventually developed POAF. In multivariable logistic regression FT3, 3,5-T2, total atrial conduction time, left atrial volume index and Fas ligand were independent predictors of POAF. Conclusion This study confirms reduced FT3 concentrations in patients with POAF and is the first to report on elevated 3,5-T2 concentrations in cardiac NTIS. The pathogenesis of NTIS therefore seems to involve more differentiated allostatic mechanisms. PMID:26279999

  15. Production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien Y.; Ott, Donald G.

    1980-01-01

    The ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole has utility as a chemical explosive. In accordance with the present invention, it may readily be produced by solvent extraction using high-molecular weight, water-insoluble amines followed by amination with anhydrous ammonia gas. The aqueous reaction mixture produced in the synthesis of the parent compound, 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole, is quite suitable--and indeed is preferred--for use as the feed material in the process of the invention.

  16. Production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.Y.; Ott, D.G.

    1979-11-07

    The ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole has utility as a chemical explosive. In accordance with the present invention, it may readily be produced by solvent extraction using high-molecular weight, water-insoluble amines, followed by amination with anhydrous ammonia gas. The aqueous reaction mixture produced in the synthesis of the parent compound, 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole, is quite suitable - and indeed is preferred - for use as the feed material in the process of the invention.

  17. [Acceptor activity of 4-N-acetylcytidine in the synthesis of (3'-5')-internucleotide bond catalyzed by pancreatic nuclease].

    PubMed

    Kavunenko, A P; Piaĭvinen, E A; Tikhomirova-Sidorova, N S

    1976-04-01

    Cytidine and 4-N-acetylcytidine were compared as phosphate acceptors in dinucleoside monophosphate synthesis catalyzed by pancreatic ribonuclease with uridine-2',3'-cyclophosphate and cytidine-2',3'-cyclo phosphate as phosphate donors. Because of low solubility of 4-N-acetylcytidine in water, the synthesis was carried out in aqueus-organic media. The results obtained indicate that acetylation of the exoaminogroup of cytidine decreases its acceptor activity. For the first time uridilyl-(3'-5')-4-N-acetylcytidine and cytidilyl-(3'-5')-4-N-acetylcytidine are prepared enzymatically by pancreatic ribonuclease.

  18. Problem Definition Study on 1,3-Dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene and Di-n-Propyl Adipate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    velocity in rats were studied by Pankow et ai. (1974) and Pankow et aZ. (1975). Male outbred albino rats, about 70 days old and weighing approximately...investigated the toxicity of 1,3,5- trinitrobenzene to rats. For the study, male albino rats, weighing between 100 and 170 grams, received 5% w/v 1,3,5...nitroaromatic compounds ’ teas ted, t*h..s, -,d iic a rir tha ,, -initro’enzene was i--ore readily reduced than other nitroaromatic compounds. Chambers

  19. Searching for a 3.5-keV line in the spectrum of the deepest Chandra blank fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Cappelluti, Nico; Bulbul, Esra

    2017-01-01

    We report results of our spectral analysis of ~10 Ms of data in the deep Chandra COSMOS Legacy and CDFS surveys. We discuss a possible emission feature at 3.5 keV, which has been reported in other XMM-Newton, Chandra and NuSTAR X-ray data. If due to dark matter decay, the 3.5-keV feature, together with the result from the DAMA dark matter detection experiment, is to date the only positive dark matter signature surviving experimental tests. We discuss possible instrumental contaminations, proper statistical treatment and interpretation in terms of dark matter decay or S XVII charge exchange.

  20. (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol inhibits growth of colon tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Park, Mi Hee; Son, Dong Ju; Choi, Min Gi; Choi, Jeong Soon; Nam, Kyung Tak; Kim, Hae Deun; Rodriguez, Kevin; Gann, Benjamin; Ham, Young Wan; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-12-08

    In our previous study, we found that (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal showed anti-cancer effect, but it showed lack of stability and drug likeness. We have prepared several (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal analogues by Heck reaction. We selected two compounds which showed significant inhibitory effect of colon cancer cell growth. Thus, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects and possible mechanisms of one compound (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol induced apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner (0-15 μg/ml) through activation of Fas and death receptor (DR) 3 in HCT116 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, the combination treatment with (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, phenylarsine oxide (0.1 μM) or signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor, Stattic (50 μM) increased the expression of Fas and DR3 more significantly. In addition, (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol suppressed the DNA binding activity of both STAT3 and NF-κB. Knock down of STAT3 or NF-κB p50 subunit by STAT3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or p50 siRNA magnified (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol-induced inhibitory effect on colon cancer cell growth. Besides, the expression of Fas and DR3 was increased in STAT3 siRNA or p50 siRNA transfected cells. Moreover, docking model and pull-down assay showed that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol directly bound to STAT3 and NF-κB p50 subunit. Furthermore, (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol inhibited colon tumor growth in a dose dependent manner (2.5 mg/kg-5 mg/kg) in mice. Therefore, these findings indicated that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol may be a promising anti-cancer agent for colon cancer with more advanced research.

  1. (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol inhibits growth of colon tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Choi, Min Gi; Choi, Jeong Soon; Nam, Kyung Tak; Kim, Hae Deun; Rodriguez, Kevin; Gann, Benjamin; Ham, Young Wan; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we found that (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal showed anti-cancer effect, but it showed lack of stability and drug likeness. We have prepared several (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal analogues by Heck reaction. We selected two compounds which showed significant inhibitory effect of colon cancer cell growth. Thus, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects and possible mechanisms of one compound (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol induced apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner (0-15 μg/ml) through activation of Fas and death receptor (DR) 3 in HCT116 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, the combination treatment with (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, phenylarsine oxide (0.1 μM) or signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor, Stattic (50 μM) increased the expression of Fas and DR3 more significantly. In addition, (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol suppressed the DNA binding activity of both STAT3 and NF-κB. Knock down of STAT3 or NF-κB p50 subunit by STAT3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or p50 siRNA magnified (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol-induced inhibitory effect on colon cancer cell growth. Besides, the expression of Fas and DR3 was increased in STAT3 siRNA or p50 siRNA transfected cells. Moreover, docking model and pull-down assay showed that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol directly bound to STAT3 and NF-κB p50 subunit. Furthermore, (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol inhibited colon tumor growth in a dose dependent manner (2.5 mg/kg-5 mg/kg) in mice. Therefore, these findings indicated that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol may be a promising anti-cancer agent for colon cancer with more advanced research. PMID

  2. Stepwise Polychlorination of 8-Chloro-BODIPY and Regioselective Functionalization of 2,3,5,6,8-Pentachloro-BODIPY

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ning; Xuan, Sunting; Fronczek, Frank R.; Smith, Kevin M.; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2016-01-01

    An effective, stepwise methodology for polychlorination of BODIPY using trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in acetic acid was developed. In this way, selectively substituted di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentachloro-BODIPYs 2–5 were prepared. The pentachloro-BODIPY is shown to undergo regioselective Pd(0)-catalyzed Stille and Suzuki coupling reactions, first at the 8-position followed by the 3,5- and then the 2,6-positions; nucleophilic substitution reactions occur first at the 8-followed by the 3,5-positions, while the 2,6 are unreactive. PMID:26186141

  3. Friends and Relations: Using Literature with Social Themes, Grades 3-5. The Responsive Classroom Series #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Carol Otis; Otis, Rebecca

    This book contains eight selections of literature for children in Grades 3-5, books which focus on themes of friendship and family. Ranging from picture books to novels, these selections are rich with possibilities for exploring topics such as loyalty, empathy, conflict, courage, fairness, responsibility, and diversity. Each selection features the…

  4. Ilex kaushue and Its Bioactive Component 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid Protected Mice from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Li; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Yu, Huang-Ping; Fang, Jia-You; Chong, Kowit Yu; Chang, Yao-Wen; Chen, Chun-Yu; Yang, Hsuan-Wu; Chang, Wen-Yi; Hsieh, Pei-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe respiratory disease with high mortality rates worldwide. Recent reports suggest that human neutrophil elastase (HNE) plays a key role in the inflammatory response that is characteristic of ALI, which indicates that the development of HNE inhibitors could be an efficient treatment strategy. In the current study, an enzyme-based screening assay was used to identify effective HNE inhibitors from a number of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Among them, a water extract of Ilex kaushue (IKWE) effectively inhibited HNE activity (IC50, 11.37 ± 1.59 μg/mL). Using bioactivity-guided fractionation, one new compound and 23 known compounds were identified. Compound 6 (identified as 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid; 3,5-DCQA) exerted the most potent and selective inhibitory effect on HNE activity (IC50, 1.86 ± 0.06 μM). In a cell-based assay, 3,5-DCQA not only directly reduced superoxide generation and elastase activity but also attenuated the Src family kinase (SRKs)/Vav signaling pathway in N-formyl-L-Met-L-Leu-L-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated human neutrophils. In an animal disease model, both 3,5-DCQA and standardized IKWE protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI in mice, which provides support for their potential as candidates in the development of new therapeutic agents for neutrophilic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27681838

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  6. Nanoscale characterization of 1D Sn-3.5Ag nanosolders and their application into nanowelding at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Junwei; Lan, Qianqian; Ma, Hongbin; Qu, Ke; Inkson, Beverley J.; Mellors, Nigel J.; Xue, Desheng; Peng, Yong

    2014-10-01

    One-dimensional Sn-3.5Ag alloy nanosolders have been successfully fabricated by a dc electrodeposition technique into nanoporous templates, and their soldering quality has been demonstrated in nanoscale electrical welding for the first time, which indicates that they can easily form remarkably reliable conductive joints. The electrical measurement shows that individual 1D Sn-3.5Ag nanosolders have a resistivity of 28.9 μΩ·cm. The morphology, crystal structure and chemistry of these nanosolders have been characterized at the nanoscale. It is found that individual 1D Sn-3.5Ag alloy nanosolders have a continuous morphology and smooth surface. XPS confirms the presence of tin and silver with a mass ratio of 96.54:3.46, and EDX elemental mappings clearly reveal that the Sn and Ag elements have a uniform distribution. Coveragent beam electron diffractions verify that the crystal phases of individual 1D Sn-3.5Ag alloy nanosolders consist of matrix β-Sn and the intermetallic compound Ag3Sn. The reflow experiments reveal that the eutectic composition of the 1D Sn-Ag alloy nanowire is shifted to the Sn rich corner. This work may contribute one of the most important tin-based alloy nanosolders for future nanoscale welding techniques, which are believed to have broad applications in nanotechnology and the future nano-industry.

  7. Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, Albuquerque Public Schools, Fall 1987: District Report. Grades 3, 5, and 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Sandra

    Each spring the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) battery is administered to students throughout New Mexico as part of the State Department of Education mandated assessment program. This report contains information regarding 1987 test results for Albuquerque Public School (APS) students in grades 3, 5, and 8 on the CTBS, a standardized,…

  8. Host PI(3,5)P2 activity is required for Plasmodium berghei growth during liver stage infection

    PubMed Central

    Thieleke-Matos, Carolina; da Silva, Mafalda Lopes; Cabrita-Santos, Laura; Pires, Cristiana F.; Ramalho, José S.; Ikonomov, Ognian; Seixas, Elsa; Shisheva, Assia; Seabra, Miguel C.; Barral, Duarte C.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria parasites go through an obligatory liver stage before they infect erythrocytes and cause disease symptoms. In the host hepatocytes, the parasite is enclosed by a parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). Here, we dissected the interaction between the Plasmodium parasite and the host cell late endocytic pathway and show that parasite growth is dependent on the phosphoinositide 5-kinase (PIKfyve), which converts phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] into phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] in the endosomal system. We found that inhibition of PIKfyve either by pharmacological or non-pharmacological means causes a delay in parasite growth. Moreover, we show that the PI(3,5)P2 effector protein TRPML1 that is involved in late endocytic membrane fusion, is present in vesicles closely contacting the PVM and is necessary for parasite growth. Thus, our studies suggest that the parasite PVM is able to fuse with host late endocytic vesicles in a PI(3,5)P2-dependent manner, allowing the exchange of material between the host and the parasite, which is essential for successful infection. PMID:24992508

  9. Hydrazino-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine Derivatives' Excellent Corrosion Organic Inhibitors of Steel in Acidic Chloride Solution.

    PubMed

    El-Faham, Ayman; Osman, Sameh M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Mahdy, Gamal A

    2016-06-01

    The corrosion inhibition performance of 2-hydrazino-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-tirazine (DMeHT), 2,4-dihydrazino-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triaizine (DHMeT), and 2,4,6-tridydrazino-1,3,5-triaizne (TH₃) on steel corrosion in acidic media was examined using electrochemical techniques. The results showed 2,4-Ddihydrazino-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triaizine (DHMeT) gave the best corrosion protection performance among the other hydrazino derivatives even at a low concentration of 25 ppm (95%). The number of hydrazino groups play an important role in the corrosion inhibition, where the two hydrazine groups increased the electrostatic interactions between the protonated tested compounds, the negatively charged steel surface resulted from the adsorption of the chloride anions, and the presence of the methoxy group made the compound more reliable for formation of film protection on the surface of steel through the lone pair of oxygen atoms. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements suggested that the corrosion process of steel in presence of the hydrazino-s-triazine derivatives (TH₃, DMeHT and DHMeT) were being controlled by the charge transfer reaction. Polarization curves indicated that the examined TH₃, DMeHT and DHMeT behaved as mixed type inhibitors.

  10. Reaction of 6H-6-oxo-3(5)-halogenoanthra(1,9-cd)isoxazoles with inorganic nucleophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Gornostaev, L.M.; Zeibert, G.F.

    1986-11-20

    The reaction of 6H-6-oxo-3(5)-halogenoanthral(1,9-cd)isoxazoles with sodium azide in DMFA and also the potassium fluoride in acetonitrile in the presence of crown ethers leads to nucleophilic substitution of the halogen by the azide and fluoride ion respectively.

  11. Theoretical studies on the formation mechanism and explosive performance of nitro-substituted 1,3,5-triazines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kiyull; Park, Young Hee; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Lee, Hai Whang; Kim, Chan Kyung; Koo, Hyun-Joo

    2010-10-01

    To develop new highly energetic materials, we have considered the design of molecules with high nitrogen content. Possible candidates include 1,3,5-triazine derivatives. In this work, we studied potential synthetic routes for melamine using the MP2/6-31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The mechanisms studied here are stepwise mechanism beginning with the dimerization of cyanamide and one-step termolecular mechanism. The same type of mechanism is also applied to nitro-substituted 1,3,5-triazines. Values for the heat of formation in the solid phase were predicted from density functional theory calculations. Densities were estimated from a regression equation obtained by molecular surface electrostatic potentials. The Cheetah program was used to study the explosive performance of these compounds. In this study, we found that the explosive properties of 2-amino-4, 6-dinitro-1, 3,5-triazine (ADNTA), and 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (TNTA) are similar to those of RDX and HMX, respectively.

  12. Proceedings of the 1998 Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Workshop; Cocoa Beach, Florida; November 3-5, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.

    1998-12-17

    This proceedings is the compilation of all papers presented at the 11th PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Doubletree Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida, on November 3-5, 1998. The workshop was hosted by the Florida Solar Energy Center. This year's workshop included presentations from 29 speakers and had 110 attendees.

  13. A 3.5 year diary study: Remembering and life story importance are predicted by different event characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Jensen, Thomas; Holm, Tine; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Forty-five participants described and rated two events each week during their first term at university. After 3.5 years, we examined whether event characteristics rated in the diary predicted remembering, reliving, and life story importance at the follow-up. In addition, we examined whether ratings of life story importance were consistent across a three year interval. Approximately 60% of events were remembered, but only 20% of these were considered above medium importance to life stories. Higher unusualness, rehearsal, and planning predicted whether an event was remembered 3.5 years later. Higher goal-relevance, importance, emotional intensity, and planning predicted life story importance 3.5 years later. There was a moderate correlation between life story importance rated three months after the diary and rated at the 3.5 year follow-up. The results suggest that autobiographical memory and life stories are governed by different mechanisms and that life story memories are characterized by some degree of stability.

  14. Steps to Financial Fitness, Grades 3-5. Teacher Guide [and] Student Workouts. Financial Fitness for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suiter, Mary C.

    Developing financial fitness requires developing a knowledge base and then applying it. This teacher guide and student workouts package contains 15 lessons from students at grades 3-5, divided into 4 theme areas of earning and income, saving, spending and borrowing, and managing money. The development of knowledge for use in the everyday life of…

  15. Radial Profile of the 3.5 keV Line Out to R200 in the Perseus Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franse, Jeroen; Bulbul, Esra; Foster, Adam; Boyarsky, Alexey; Markevitch, Maxim; Bautz, Mark; Iakubovskyi, Dmytro; Loewenstein, Mike; McDonald, Michael; Miller, Eric; Randall, Scott W.; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Smith, Randall K.

    2016-10-01

    The recent discovery of the unidentified emission line at 3.5 keV in galaxies and clusters has attracted great interest from the community. As the origin of the line remains uncertain, we study the surface brightness distribution of the line in the Perseus cluster since that information can be used to identify its origin. We examine the flux distribution of the 3.5 keV line in the deep Suzaku observations of the Perseus cluster in detail. The 3.5 keV line is observed in three concentric annuli in the central observations, although the observations of the outskirts of the cluster did not reveal such a signal. We establish that these detections and the upper limits from the non-detections are consistent with a dark matter decay origin. However, absence of positive detection in the outskirts is also consistent with some unknown astrophysical origin of the line in the dense gas of the Perseus core, as well as with a dark matter origin with a steeper dependence on mass than the dark matter decay. We also comment on several recently published analyses of the 3.5 keV line.

  16. Rotary-Percussive Drill for Planetary Exploration and a 3.5 m Vacuum Chamber Enabling Full Scale Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Szczesiak, M.; Glass, B.; McKay, C.; Santoro, C.; Wilson, J.; Craft, J.

    2010-03-01

    We present a 1-meter-class rotary-percussive drill and test results comparing rotary and rotary-percussive drilling in various formations. A 3.5-m large vacuum chamber build for testing drill systems to a depth of >1 m is also presented.

  17. 1,3,5-Triazine-based analogues of purine: from isosteres to privileged scaffolds in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lim, Felicia Phei Lin; Dolzhenko, Anton V

    2014-10-06

    Purines can be considered as the most ubiquitous and functional N-heterocyclic compounds in nature. Structural modifications of natural purines, particularly using isosteric ring systems, have been in the focus of many drug discovery programs. Fusion of 1,3,5-triazine ring with pyrrole, pyrazole, imidazole, 1,2,3-triazole or 1,2,4-triazole results in seven bicyclic heterocyclic systems isosteric to purine. Application of the isosterism concept for the development of new compounds with therapeutic potential in areas involving purinergic regulation or purine metabolism led to significant advances in medicinal chemistry of the azolo[1,3,5]triazines. These 1,3,5-triazine-based purine-like scaffolds significantly increase level of molecular diversity and allow covering chemical space in the important areas of medicinal chemistry. Some of these azolo[1,3,5]triazine systems have become privileged scaffolds in the development of inhibitors of various kinases, phosphodiesterase, xanthine oxidase, and thymidine phosphorylase, antagonists of adenosine and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors, anticancer and antiviral agents.

  18. Observational consistency and future predictions for a 3.5 keV ALP to photon line

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Pedro D.; Conlon, Joseph P.; Day, Francesca V.; Marsh, M.C. David; Rummel, Markus

    2015-04-09

    Motivated by the possibility of explaining the 3.5 keV line through dark matter decaying to axion-like particles that subsequently convert to photons, we study ALP-photon conversion for sightlines passing within 50 pc of the galactic centre. Conversion depends on the galactic centre magnetic field which is highly uncertain. For fields at low or mid-range of observational estimates (10–100 μG), no observable signal is possible. For fields at the high range of observational estimates (a pervasive poloidal mG field over the central 150 pc) it is possible to generate sufficient signal to explain recent observations of a 3.5 keV line in the galactic centre. In this scenario, the galactic centre line signal comes predominantly from the region with z>20pc, reconciling the results from the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray telescopes. The dark matter to ALP to photon scenario also naturally predicts the non-observation of the 3.5 keV line in stacked galaxy spectra. We further explore predictions for the line flux in galaxies and suggest a set of galaxies that is optimised for observing the 3.5 keV line in this model.

  19. Nonenzymatic, template-directed ligation of oligoribonucleotides is highly regioselective for the formation of 3'-5' phosphodiester bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, R.; Bartel, D. P.; Szostak, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    We have found that nonenzymatic, template-directed ligation reactions of oligoribonucleotides display high selectivity for the formation of 3'-5' rather than 2'-5' phosphodiester bonds. Formation of the 3'-5'-linked product is favored regardless of the metal ion catalyst or the leaving group, and for several different ligation junction sequences. The degree of selectivity depends on the leaving group: the ratio of 3'-5'- to 2'-5'-linked products was 10-15:1 when the 5'-phosphate was activated as the imidazolide, and 60-80:1 when the 5'-phosphate was activated by the formation of a 5'-triphosphate. Comparison of oligonucleotide ligation reactions with previously characterized single nucleotide primer extension reactions suggests that the strong preference for 3'-5'-linkages in oligonucleotide ligation is primarily due to occurence of ligation within the context of an extended Watston-Crick duplex. The ability of RNA to correctly self-assemble by template-directed ligation is an intrinsic consequence of its chemical structure and need not be imposed by an external catalyst (i.e., an enzyme polymerase); RNA therefore provides a reasonable structural basis for a self-replicating system in a prebiological world.

  20. The B gene of pea encodes a defective flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase, and confers pink flower color.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Carol; Ambrose, Mike J; Turner, Lynda; Hill, Lionel; Ellis, T H Noel; Hofer, Julie M I

    2012-06-01

    The inheritance of flower color in pea (Pisum sativum) has been studied for more than a century, but many of the genes corresponding to these classical loci remain unidentified. Anthocyanins are the main flower pigments in pea. These are generated via the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, which has been studied in detail and is well conserved among higher plants. A previous proposal that the Clariroseus (B) gene of pea controls hydroxylation at the 5' position of the B ring of flavonoid precursors of the anthocyanins suggested to us that the gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), the enzyme that hydroxylates the 5' position of the B ring, was a good candidate for B. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined mutants generated by fast neutron bombardment. We found allelic pink-flowered b mutant lines that carried a variety of lesions in an F3'5'H gene, including complete gene deletions. The b mutants lacked glycosylated delphinidin and petunidin, the major pigments present in the progenitor purple-flowered wild-type pea. These results, combined with the finding that the F3'5'H gene cosegregates with b in a genetic mapping population, strongly support our hypothesis that the B gene of pea corresponds to a F3'5'H gene. The molecular characterization of genes involved in pigmentation in pea provides valuable anchor markers for comparative legume genomics and will help to identify differences in anthocyanin biosynthesis that lead to variation in pigmentation among legume species.

  1. Purification and characterization of UDP-glucose: anthocyanin 3',5'-O-glucosyltransferase from Clitoria ternatea.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Koichiro; Kato, Naoki; Kazuma, Kohei; Noda, Naonobu; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2007-11-01

    A UDP-glucose: anthocyanin 3',5'-O-glucosyltransferase (UA3'5'GT) (EC 2.4.1.-) was purified from the petals of Clitoria ternatea L. (Phaseoleae), which accumulate polyacylated anthocyanins named ternatins. In the biosynthesis of ternatins, delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside (1) is first converted to delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3'-O-beta-glucoside (2). Then 2 is converted to ternatin C5 (3), which is delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3',5'-di-O-beta-glucoside. UA3'5'GT is responsible for these two steps by transferring two glucosyl groups in a stepwise manner. Its substrate specificity revealed the regioselectivity to the anthocyanin's 3'- or 5'-OH groups. Its kinetic properties showed comparable k (cat) values for 1 and 2, suggesting the subequality of these anthocyanins as substrates. However, the apparent Km value for 1 (3.89 x 10(-5) M), which is lower than that for 2 (1.38 x 10(-4) M), renders the k(cat)/Km value for 1 smaller, making 1 catalytically more efficient than 2. Although the apparent Km value for UDP-glucose (6.18 x 10(-3) M) with saturated 2 is larger than that for UDP-glucose (1.49 x 10(-3) M) with saturated 1, the k(cat) values are almost the same, suggesting the UDP-glucose binding inhibition by 2 as a product. UA3'5'GT turns the product 2 into a substrate possibly by reversing the B-ring of 2 along the C2-C1' single bond axis so that the 5'-OH group of 2 can point toward the catalytic center.

  2. Repressible extracellular phosphodiesterases showing cyclic 2',3'- and cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activities in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, K

    1983-01-01

    Two molecular species of repressible extracellular phosphodiesterases showing cyclic 2',3'- and cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activities were detected in mycelial culture media of wild-type Neurospora crassa and purified. The two molecular species were found to be monomeric and polymeric forms of an enzyme constituted of identical subunits having molecular weights of 50,000. This enzyme had the same electrophoretic mobility as repressible acid phosphatase. The enzyme designated repressible cyclic phosphodiesterase showed pH optima of 3.2 to 4.0 with a cyclic 3',5'-AMP substrate and 5.0 to 5.6 with a cyclic 2',3'-AMP substrate. Repressible cyclic phosphodiesterase was activated by MnCl2 and CoCl2 with cyclic 2',3'-AMP as substrate and was slightly activated by MnCl2 with cyclic 3',5'-AMP. The enzyme hydrolyzed cyclic 3',5'- and cyclic 2',3'-nucleotides, in addition to bis-rho-nitrophenyl phosphate, but not certain 5' -and 3'-nucleotides. 3'-GMP and 3'-CMP were hydrolyzed less efficiently. Mutant strains A1 (nuc-1) and B1 (nuc-2), which cannot utilize RNA or DNA as a sole source of phosphorus, were unable to produce repressible cyclic phosphodiesterase. The wild type (74A) and a heterocaryon between strains A1 and B1 produced the enzyme and showed growth on orthophosphate-free media containing cyclic 2',3'-AMP or cyclic 3',5'-AMP, whereas both mutants showed little or no growth on these media. Images PMID:6311798

  3. A co-crystal of 3-(3,5-dinitro­benzo­yl)-1,1-dimethyl­thio­urea and N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dinitro­benzamide

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Sohail; Rashid, Naghmana; Butcher, Ray J.; Öztürk Yildirim, Sema; Hussain, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C10H10N4O5S·C9H9N3O5, the amide groups of 3-(3,5-dinitro-benzo­yl)-1,1-dimethyl-thio­urea and N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dinitro-benzamide mol­ecules are oriented at dihedral angles of 39.13 (8) and 55.97 (11)°, respectively, to the attached benzene rings. In the crystal, the two mol­ecules are linked by an N—H⋯O hydrogen bond. Weak C—H⋯O link the mol­ecules into a sheet parallel to the bc plane. C—H⋯S inter­actions also occur. PMID:23284434

  4. Supramolecular hydrogen-bonded 1D arrangement in the crystals of 2,4-diamino-6-benzyl-1,3,5-triazine and 2,4-diamino-6-(4‧-methylbenzyl)-1,3,5-triazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janczak, Jan; Kubiak, Ryszard

    2009-02-01

    Two crystals of triazine derivatives, 2,4-diamino-6-benzyl-1,3,5-triazine ( 1) and 2,4-diamino-6-(4'-methylbenzyl)-1,3,5-triazine ( 2), are synthesised by a direct reaction of cyanoguanidine with the respective cyanocompounds. The IR spectra of the compounds are very similar. In the crystals the molecules are interconnected by N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds forming one-dimensional hydrogen bonded polymer in 1 and three-dimensional hydrogen bonded network in 2. The arrangement of molecules in the crystal of 1 is denser than in 2 due to the π-π interactions between the π-clouds of the aromatic triazine rings that are absent in the crystal of 2. The geometries of the molecules in the crystals have been compared with those obtained by ab-initio molecular orbital calculated results that represent the geometries of molecules in the gas-phase.

  5. In vivo stimulation of sugar uptake in rat thymocytes. An extranuclear action of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, J; Ingbar, S H

    1985-01-01

    In previous studies we have demonstrated that 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in vitro produces a prompt increase in the uptake of the sugar analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) by freshly isolated rat thymocytes. This effect is prompt, being evident at 20 min after addition of T3, is independent of new protein synthesis, and can be elicited by physiologic concentrations of the hormone. In the present studies, we have sought to determine whether physiologic doses of T3 are capable of inducing an increase in 2-DG uptake in the thymocytes of the living animal. Therefore, 26-28-d-old female rats were injected with increasing doses of i.v. T3, followed 60 min later by 3H-labeled 2-DG. 30 min later, animals were killed, thymocytes were isolated, and their 3H content determined. Uptake of [3H]2-DG was increased by T3 in a dose-dependent manner. The lowest effective dose was 10 ng/100 g of body weight (30% above control) and the maximally effective dose 1 microgram/100 g of body weight (116% above control). The effect of T3 was independent of new protein synthesis in that it was not blocked by a dose of cycloheximide that inhibited the incorporation of [3H]leucine into thymocyte protein by 92-95%. Comparable studies with various thyronine analogues revealed the following rank order of potency: L-T3 greater than L-3,5,3'5'-tetraiodothyronine (L-T4) greater than D-T3 greater than or equal to D-T4 greater than L-3,3'5'-triiodothyronine greater than 3'-isopropyl-3,5-L-diiodothyronine (T2) = 3,5-L-T2. DL-thyronine was without effect. These studies indicate that T3 in physiologic doses acts in vivo to increase the uptake of sugar by rat thymocytes by a mechanism that is extranuclear in origin, in that it is independent of new protein synthesis. The findings support the conclusion that the previously demonstrated effects of T3 on thymocyte sugar uptake in vitro, which seem clearly to be mediated at the level of the plasma membrane, have physiologic relevance. PMID:4056041

  6. Synthesis of N-unsubstituted and N-methyl derivatives of 4-aryl-2,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles

    SciTech Connect

    Zandersons, A.Z.; Lusis, V.K.; Mutsenietse, D.Kh.; Dubur, G.Ya.

    1987-07-01

    In the reduction of 2,6-dimethyl-4-arylpyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles or their N-oxides by sodium borohydride, a mixture of 1,2- and 1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles is formed. 1,2,6-Trimethyl-4-aryl-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles were obtained by reducing the corresponding pyridinium perchlorates or by alkylating 4-acryl-2,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile derivatives by methyl iodide.

  7. High-resolution IRCCD images of the Galactic center at 2.2 and 3.5 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollestrup, Eric V.; Becklin, E. E.; Capps, Richard W.

    1989-01-01

    An IRCCD camera was used to obtain high-resolution images at 2.2 and 3.5 microns of the Galactic center at subarcsecond resolution. These images show that the compact nonthermal radio source Sgr A-asterisk is not coincident with any part of IRS 16; Sgr A-asterisk is found to be 1.1 + or - 0.3 arcsec west of IRS 16C. At 3.5 microns, IRS 16 is a complex object. IRS 16SW is resolved into two sources, and IRS 16C may be double or extended. From the colors and sizes of the various components, it is difficult to explain these objects as stellar clusters; the required stellar density would be too high. Finally, there is evidence that there is a blue and a red source, separated by about 1 arcsec, for each of the northern arm sources, IRS 1W, IRS 5, and IRS 10.

  8. Corrosion Behavior of Novel Al-Al2O3 Composites in Aerated 3.5% Chloride Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo-Hurtado, P. O.; Sundaram, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of novel Al-Al2O3 MMCs was evaluated in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution through potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These materials corrode almost spontaneously by pitting in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution. Observations indicate that intermetallic particles in these composites appear to play an important role in this pitting corrosion behavior. Addition of Al2O3 particles to the base alloys did not appear to increase their corrosion resistance significantly, although corrosion rate was affected by these reinforcement particles. In cyclic polarization experiments, the small difference between the pitting potentials and the repassivation potentials for these MMCs indicated their low resistance to pitting corrosion. EIS measurements indicate adsorption/diffusion phenomena at the interface of the composites. Electrically equivalent circuits are proposed to describe and substantiate the corrosion processes occurring in these materials.

  9. 3,5-Dimethyl-1-thiocarbamoylpyrazole and its Pd(II) complexes: synthesis, spectral studies and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Rocha, F V; Barra, C V; Netto, A V G; Mauro, A E; Carlos, I Z; Frem, R C G; Ananias, S R; Quilles, M B; Stevanato, A; da Rocha, M C

    2010-05-01

    Complexes of the type [PdX2(tdmPz)] {X=Cl-(1), Br-(2); I-(3); SCN-(4); tdmPz=1-thiocarbamoyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazole} have been synthesized and characterized. Compound 1 was formed from the reaction between [PdCl2(CH3CN)2] and 1-thiocarbamoyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazole. Complexes 2, 3 and 4 were obtained by metathesis of the chloro groups from 1 by bromide, iodide and thiocyanate ions, respectively. All the compounds and cisplatin have been tested in vitro by MTT assay for their cytotoxicity against three murine cancer cell lines: mammary adenocarcinoma (LM3 and LMM3) and lung adenocarcinoma (LP07) as well towards normal murine peritoneal exudate cells (PEC). Promising cytotoxic effect against LM3 has been found for 3 showing IC50 equal to 24.5 microM which is comparable to the value obtained for cisplatin (30.3 microM).

  10. The effect of bending and twisting on the stiffness and strength of the 3.5 SOP implant.

    PubMed

    Ness, M G

    2009-01-01

    Locking plates are becoming increasingly popular in veterinary orthopaedics. The SOP is a novel locking plate system, which can be contoured with 6 degrees of freedom and which utilises standard bone screws. The purpose of this work was to investigate the mechanical consequences of contouring the 3.5 SOP plate to support the formulation of clinical guidelines. The implants were loaded in four point bending using an industry standard protocol. The uncontoured SOP was found to be significantly stiffer and stronger than the uncontoured 3.5 DCP. Bending, and to a lesser extent, twisting, diminished the SOP's stiffness and strength but the contoured SOP remained at least as stiff and strong as the untouched DCP.

  11. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  12. Effect of phosphate activating group on oligonucleotide formation on montmorillonite: the regioselective formation of 3',5'-linked oligoadenylates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabahar, K. J.; Cole, T. D.; Ferris, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of amine structure on the montmorillonite-catalyzed oligomerization of the 5'-phosphoramidates of adenosine are investigated. 4-Aminopyridine derivatives yielded oligoadenylates as long as dodecamers with a regioselectivity for 3',5'-phosphodiester bond formation averaging 88%. Linear and cyclic oligomers are obtained and no A5'ppA-containing products are detected. Oligomers as long as the hexanucleotide are obtained using 2-aminobenzimidazole as the activating group. A predominance of pA2'pA is detected in the dimer fraction along with cyclic 3',5'-trimer; no A5'ppA-containing oligomers were detected. Little or no oligomer formation was observed when morpholine, piperidine, pyrazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and 2-pyridone are used as phosphate-activating groups. The effects of the structure of the phosphate activating group on the oligomer structure and chain lengths are discussed.

  13. Recyclization of 1-amino-3,5-diaryl-2,6,6-tricyanocyclohexa-1,3-dienes to pyridine derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Yu.T.; Ivashchenko, A.V.; Nogaeva, K.A.; Sharanin, Yu.A.

    1986-11-01

    The base-catalyzed recyclization of 1-amino-3,5-diaryl-2,6,6-tricyanocyclohexa-1,3-dienes to 2,4-diaryl-5-cyano-6-dicyanomethylene-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridines, 4,6-diaryl-3-cyano-2-dicyanomethylene-1,2-dihydropyridines, and 4,6-diaryl-3-cyano-2-dicyanomethylpyridines has been investigated. The intermediate products of this reaction - cis,trans-2-amino,4,6-diaryl-1,1,3-tricyanohexa-1,3,5-trienes - have been isolated; on heating these are transformed reversibly into the initial cyclohexadienes or they isomerize irreversibly into trans,trans-hexatrienes, while in the presence of a base (piperidine, diethylamine, triethylamine, KOH), they cyclize to form the above-mentioned pyridine derivatives.

  14. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Functionalized 1,3,5-Triarylpyrrolidin-2-ones via an Aza-Michael/Aldol Domino Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Joie, Céline; Deckers, Kristina; Enders, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    The organocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of functionalized 1,3,5-triarylpyrrolidin-2-ones bearing three contiguous stereocenters through an aza-Michael/aldol domino reaction of α-ketoamides with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes is described. The domino products were further derivatized by aldehyde olefination under one-pot conditions. The reaction proceeds with excellent diastereoselectivities (>20:1) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (60–96% ee). PMID:25278634

  15. Heteroepitaxial growth of 3-5 semiconductor compounds by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition for device applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collis, Ward J.; Abul-Fadl, Ali

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design, install and operate a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system which is to be used for the epitaxial growth of 3-5 semiconductor binary compounds, and ternary and quaternary alloys. The long-term goal is to utilize this vapor phase deposition in conjunction with existing current controlled liquid phase epitaxy facilities to perform hybrid growth sequences for fabricating integrated optoelectronic devices.

  16. Fabrication and shear strength analysis of Sn-3.5Ag/Cu-filled TSV for 3D microelectronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Jung, Do-Hyun; Roh, Myong-Hoon; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-09-01

    In this study, lead free Sn-3.5Ag solder bumps have been deposited on Cu-filled through-silicon via (TSV) by electroplating method. The solder bumps are plated using an acidic solution composed of SnSO4, H2SO4, Ag2SO4, thiourea and an additive. The current density is varied from -30 to -60 mA/cm2 to obtain the eutectic Sn-3.5Ag solder. The copper is electroplated in TSV using an acidic solution of CuSO4·5H2O, H2SO4, HCl, and an inhibitor. The bottom-up Cu-filling in TSV is achieved by a 3-step pulse periodic reverse (PPR) electroplating. It has been observed that the eutectic Sn-3.5Ag solder is achieved at a current density of -55 mA/cm2. The solder bumps are further reflowed onto TSV at 260 °C for 20 seconds, and shear strength of the formed Sn-3.5Ag/Cu-filled TSV joint is investigated. The results indicate the formation of Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the joint interface. It is found that with an increase of shear speed from 0.5-10 mm/s, the shear stress initially increases to a maximum, and then decreases beyond shear speed of 10 mm/s through 500 mm/s. It is shown that the ductile fracture mode gradually decreases beyond shear speed of 10 mm/s and disappears completely at 500 mm/s.

  17. Site Investigation Report Fort Devens Groups 3,5, and 6. Volume 1 of 2: Report Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Department of the Army and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed a Federal Facility Agreement under Section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental...Health Risk-Based Guidelines for Organic Compounds 3-4 Health Risk-Based Guidelines for Inorganic Compounds 3-5 Surface Soil Ecological Protective ...Master Environmental Plan and are included as part of the Federal Facility Agreement between U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the U.S

  18. Tuning the formations of metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate frameworks via the assistance of amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Xiao-Ping; Lian, Ting-Ting; Chen, Shu-Mei; Zhang, Jian

    2015-03-15

    Seven new metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate coordination polymers have been synthesized by modification of auxiliary components during the assembly reactions. Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by XRD and TGA. Interestingly, they show fascinating topological structures. Compounds 1 and 2 possess the undulating layer structure with 3-connected hcb network and (3,6)-connected kgd network. Compound 3 possesses three-dimensional (3D) pillared-layer structure with 3-connected 2-fold interpenetrating srs net. Compound 4 also has the 3D 2-fold interpenetrating pillared-layer structure; however, it has (3,5)-connected hms topology because the Cd(II) center is 5-connected. Compound 5 possess 3D structure through hydrogen bonding interactions between ladder-like layers. Compounds 6 and 7 have the similar 3D frameworks with 4-connected umc net and (3,7)-connected (3.4.5)(3{sup 2}.4{sup 6}.5{sup 5}.6{sup 8}) topology, respectively. The photoluminescent properties of compounds 2–7 were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Presented here are seven new metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate coordination polymers with diverse structures from 2D layers to 3D open frameworks. The synthesis and structural diversity of these compounds are determined by the additional amino acids as unusual buffering agents. - Highlights: • Structural diversity of metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate frameworks. • Tuning structural topologies of MOFs via the assistance of amino acids. • Amino acids as unusual buffering agents for the synthesis of MOFs.

  19. Chromic anhydride-3, 5-dimethylpyrazole complex: an efficient reagent for oxidation of steroidal estrogens to 6-oxo-derivatives.

    PubMed

    Garza, G A; Rao, P N

    1983-10-01

    An efficient procedure for the oxidation of steroidal estrogens to the corresponding 6-oxo-derivatives is described. The oxidative process involves the use of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole-chromium trioxide complex at low temperature (-20 degrees). Under these conditions, only the 6-oxo-derivative and the unreacted starting material were obtained and the latter could be subjected to oxidation once again to obtain additional amount of 6-oxo-derivative.

  20. XRCC3 5'-UTR and IVS5-14 polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Li-Xin; Mao, Chen; Yao, Lei; Yu, Ke-Da; Zhan, Ping; Chen, Bo; Liu, Hai-Guang; Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Jian; Xue, Kai; Hu, Xi-Chun

    2010-07-01

    Published data on the association between XRCC3 5'-UTR and IVS5-14 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Crude ORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of association between these polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. The pooled ORs were performed for codominant model, dominant model, and recessive model, respectively. A total of four studies were involved in the meta-analysis with 6,303 cases and 6,563 controls for XRCC3 5'-UTR polymorphism and with 6,270 cases and 6,682 controls for XRCC3 IVS5-14 polymorphism. For XRCC3 5'-UTR A/G polymorphism, significantly elevated breast cancer risk was associated with variant genotype when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (AG vs. AA: OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.03-1.19; dominant model: OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01-1.17). For XRCC3 IVS5-14 A/G polymorphism, significantly decreased breast cancer risk was associated with variant genotype (GG vs. AA: OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.96). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the variant G allele of XRCC3 5'-UTR polymorphism is a low-penetrant risk factor for developing breast cancer, while the variant G allele of XRCC3 IVS5-14 polymorphism has a protective effect on breast cancer development.

  1. Bleaching effect of a 405-nm diode laser irradiation used with titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Kato, J.; Nakazawa, T.; Hirai, Y.

    2007-09-01

    A 405-nm diode laser has recently been developed for soft tissue problems in dentistry. A new in-office bleaching agent consisting of a titanium dioxide photocatalyst and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide has proven to react well with light irradiated at a wavelength of around 400 nm. In this study, we evaluated the bleaching efficacy of a newly developed 405-nm diode laser on bovine teeth treated with a bleaching agent composed of titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide. Sixteen bovine incisors were randomly divided into two groups: Group A, irradiated by the 405-nm diode laser at 200 mW; Group B, irradiated by the 405-nm diode laser at 400 mW. The bleaching agent with titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide was applied to bovine enamel and irradiated for 1 min. The specimens were then washed and dried, and the same procedure was repeated nine more times. After irradiation, we assessed the effects of bleaching on the enamel by measuring the color of the specimens with a spectrophotometer and examining the enamel surfaces with a scanning electron microscope. L* rose to a high score, reaching a significantly higher post-treatment level in comparison to pretreatment. In a comparison of the color difference (Δ E) between Group A and Group B, the specimens in Group B showed significantly higher values after 10 min of irradiation for the post-treatment. No remarkable differences in the enamel surface morphology were found between the unbleached and bleached enamel. The use of a 405-nm diode laser in combination with a bleaching agent of titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide may be an effective method for bleaching teeth without the risk of tooth damage.

  2. Shock resistance of metal-organic framework Cu-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate with and without ferrocene inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Q.; Xu, H. W.; Yu, X. H.; Shimada, T.; Rearick, M. S.; Hickmott, D. D.; Zhao, Y. S.; Luo, S. N.

    2011-09-01

    A first-of-its-kind study on the shock response of a metal-organic framework (MOF) material to planar impact is reported. MOF Cu-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (Cu-BTC) without and with ferrocene inclusion show anisotropic structural collapse under shock loading. The shock resistance of the Cu-BTC framework is enhanced drastically (by a factor of six) via molecular-level inclusion of ferrocene into the pore structures.

  3. Shock Resistance of Metal-Organic Framework Cu-1,3,5-Benzenetricarboxylate with and without Ferrocene Inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Q.; Xu, H. W.; Luo, S. N.

    2011-06-01

    A first-of-the-kind study on the dynamic response of a metal-organic framework (MOF) material to impulsive shock wave loading is reported. MOF Cu-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (Cu-BTC) without and with ferrocene inclusion show anisotropic structural collapse under shock loading, likely due to the elastic anisotropy of the network structure. The shock resistance of Cu-BTC framework is enhanced drastically (by a factor of six) via including ferrocene into the pore structures.

  4. Theoretical and experimental study of twisted and cambered delta wings designed for a Mach number of 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorrells, R. B., III; Landrum, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Data are provided for the evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of a series of twisted and cambered delta wings designed for a Mach number of 3.5. Systematic force and pressure data are also presented for comparison with theory. Force tests were made at Mach numbers of 2.3, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.6. Design lift coefficients of 0.0 and 0.1 were employed on the 55 deg and 68 deg sweep wings, and design lift coefficients of 0.0, 0.05, and 0.1 were employed on the 76 deg sweep wings. Pressure tests were conducted on the 55 deg and 76 deg sweep flat wings and on the 0.1 design lift coefficient 76 deg sweep wing. The results indicate that for the sweep angles tested, an increase in the zero-lift pitching-moment coefficient is the primary benefit of twist and camber at a Mach number of 3.5. Comparison of the experimental results with results obtained from several lift theories indicates that the Carlson-Middleton linear theory method gave the best overall agreement. The pressure data indicate, however, that there is a cancellation of error at high angle of attack where the lower surface pressures are significantly underpredicted over the inboard region of the wing and where the upper and lower surface pressures are overpredicted over the outboard region of the wing.

  5. Initiation of GnRH agonist treatment on 3-5 days postoperatively in endometriosis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lili; Zhang, Shaofen; Han, Yi; Long, Qiqi; Zou, Shien; Cao, Yuankui

    2015-08-01

    Seventy patients with stage III or IV endometriosis were randomly assigned to 2 groups after conservative surgery. Group O (n = 35) received 3 cycles of a 28-day gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) treatment (goserelin, 3.6 mg) starting 3-5 days postoperatively. Group M (n = 35) received the same treatment starting on days 1-5 of menstruation. Groups were further subdivided according to add-back treatment. Pre- and posttreated levels of estradiol (E2 ), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) and visual analog scale (VAS), Kupperman menopausal index (KMI), and bone mineral density (BMD) scores were recorded. The incidence of uterine bleeding was assessed. In both groups, serum levels of E2 , FSH, and LH and VAS scores decreased significantly after treatment. Spotting was the most frequent bleeding pattern. During cycle 1, the bleeding time in group M was much longer that than that in group O (P =.001), and the bleeding rate in group M was significantly higher than that in group O (P =.024, RR = 1.185). In patients with stage III or IV endometriosis, the efficacy of GnRH-a initiated 3-5 days postoperatively was equivalent to that of GnRH-a initiated on days 1-5 of menstruation. Female patients who initiated GnRH-a treatment 3-5 days postoperatively experienced less uterine bleeding during the first cycle of treatment.

  6. Study on the Complex Equilibria of Molybdenum(VI) with 3,5-Dinitrocatechol and Ditetrazolium Salt.

    PubMed

    Stojnova, Kirila; Racheva, Petya; Divarova, Vidka; Bozhinova, Kristina; Lekova, Vanya

    2016-01-01

    The complex formed between an anionic chelate of Mo(VI)-3,5-dinitrocatechol (3,5-DNC) with the cation of 3,3'-(3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4'-biphenylene)bis(2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride) (Blue Tetrazolium Chloride, BTC) in the liquid-liquid extraction system Mo(VI)-3,5-DNC-BTC-H2O-CHCl3 was studied. The optimum conditions for the complex formation and extraction of the ion-associated complex were established by spectrophotometry. The molar ratio of the reagents was determined by independent methods. The validity of Beer's law was checked and some analytical characteristics were calculated. The association process in aqueous phase and the extraction equilibria were investigated and quantitatively characterized. The following key constants of the processes were calculated: association constant, distribution constant, extraction constant and recovery factor. Based on this, a reaction scheme, a general formula and a structure of the complex were suggested.

  7. Searching for the 3.5 keV Line in the Stacked Suzaku Observations of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulbul, Esra; Markevitch, Maxim; Foster, Adam; Miller, Eric; Bautz, Mark; Loewenstein, Mike; Randall, Scott W.; Smith, Randall K.

    2016-11-01

    We perform a detailed study of the stacked Suzaku observations of 47 galaxy clusters, spanning a redshift range of 0.01-0.45, to search for the unidentified 3.5 keV line. This sample provides an independent test for the previously detected line. We detect a 2σ -significant spectral feature at 3.5 keV in the spectrum of the full sample. When the sample is divided into two subsamples (cool-core and non-cool core clusters), the cool-core subsample shows no statistically significant positive residuals at the line energy. A very weak (˜ 2σ confidence) spectral feature at 3.5 keV is permitted by the data from the non-cool-core clusters sample. The upper limit on a neutrino decay mixing angle of {\\sin }2(2θ )=6.1× {10}-11 from the full Suzaku sample is consistent with the previous detections in the stacked XMM-Newton sample of galaxy clusters (which had a higher statistical sensitivity to faint lines), M31, and Galactic center, at a 90% confidence level. However, the constraint from the present sample, which does not include the Perseus cluster, is in tension with previously reported line flux observed in the core of the Perseus cluster with XMM-Newton and Suzaku.

  8. THE X-RAY LINE FEATURE AT 3.5 KeV IN GALAXY CLUSTER SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Sylwester, B.; Sylwester, J. E-mail: bs@cbk.pan.wroc.pl

    2015-08-10

    Recent work by Bulbul et al. and Boyarsky et al. has suggested that a line feature at ∼3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxy clusters and individual galaxies seen with XMM-Newton is due to the decay of sterile neutrinos, a dark matter candidate. This identification has been criticized by Jeltema and Profumo on the grounds that model spectra suggest that atomic transitions in helium-like potassium (K xviii) and chlorine (Cl xvi) are more likely to be the emitters. Here it is pointed out that the K xviii lines have been observed in numerous solar flare spectra at high spectral resolution with the RESIK crystal spectrometer and also appear in Chandra HETG spectra of the coronally active star σ Gem. In addition, the solar flare spectra at least indicate a mean coronal potassium abundance, which is a factor between 9 and 11 higher than the solar photospheric abundance. This fact, together with the low statistical quality of the XMM-Newton spectra, completely account for the ∼3.5 keV feature and there is therefore no need to invoke a sterile neutrino interpretation of the observed line feature at ∼3.5 keV.

  9. Desorption of 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene from Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Impact of Solution Chemistry and Surface Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xingmao; Uddin, Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    The strong affinity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to environmental contaminants has raised serious concern that CNTs may function as a carrier of environmental pollutants and lead to contamination in places where the environmental pollutants are not expected. However, this concern will not be realized until the contaminants are desorbed from CNTs. It is well recognized that the desorption of environmental pollutants from pre-laden CNTs varies with the environmental conditions, such as the solution pH and ionic strength. However, comprehensive investigation on the influence of solution chemistry on the desorption process has not been carried out, even though numerous investigations have been conducted to investigate the impact of solution chemistry on the adsorption of environmental pollutants on CNTs. The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of solution chemistry (e.g., pH, ionic strength) and surface functionalization on the desorption of preloaded 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB) from multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The results suggested that higher pH, ionic strength and natural organic matter in solution generally led to higher desorption of 1,3,5-TCB from MWNTs. However, the extent of change varied at different values of the tested parameters (e.g., pH < 7 vs. pH > 7). In addition, the impact of these parameters varied with MWNTs possessing different surface functional groups, suggesting that surface functionalization could considerably alter the environmental behaviors and impact of MWNTs.

  10. Rapid structural changes and acidification of guard cell vacuoles during stomatal closure require phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Bak, Gwangbae; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yuree; Kato, Mariko; Segami, Shoji; Sze, Heven; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Lee, Youngsook

    2013-06-01

    Rapid stomatal closure is essential for water conservation in plants and is thus critical for survival under water deficiency. To close stomata rapidly, guard cells reduce their volume by converting a large central vacuole into a highly convoluted structure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this change are poorly understood. In this study, we used pH-indicator dyes to demonstrate that vacuolar convolution is accompanied by acidification of the vacuole in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells during abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. Vacuolar acidification is necessary for the rapid stomatal closure induced by ABA, since a double mutant of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase vha-a2 vha-a3 and vacuolar H(+)-PPase mutant vhp1 showed delayed stomatal closure. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the critical role of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] in changes in pH and morphology of the vacuole. Single and double Arabidopsis thaliana null mutants of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinases (PI3P5Ks) exhibited slow stomatal closure upon ABA treatment compared with the wild type. Moreover, an inhibitor of PI3P5K reduced vacuolar acidification and convolution and delayed stomatal closure in response to ABA. Taken together, these results suggest that rapid ABA-induced stomatal closure requires PtdIns(3,5)P2, which is essential for vacuolar acidification and convolution.

  11. sym-Trisubstituted 1,3,5-Triazine Derivatives as Promising Organic Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel in Acidic Solution.

    PubMed

    El-Faham, Ayman; Dahlous, Kholood A; Al Othman, Zeid A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Mahdy, Gamal A

    2016-03-31

    Triazine derivatives, namely, 2,4,6-tris(quinolin-8-yloxy)-1,3,5-triazine (T3Q), N²,N⁴,N⁶-tris(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (T3AMPy) and 2,2',2''-[(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(azanediyl)] tris(ethan-1-ol) (T3EA) were synthesized and their inhibition of steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion protection of the prepared compounds increased with increasing concentration and reached up to 98% at 250 ppm. The adsorption of T3Q, T3AMPy, and T3EA on the steel surface was in accordance with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The electrochemical results revealed that T3Q, T3AMPy and T3EA act as excellent organic inhibitors and can labeled as mixed type inhibitors. The efficiencies of the tested compounds were affected by the nature of the side chain present in the triazine ring, where T3EA gave the least inhibition while T3Q and T3AMPy gave higher and almost the same inhibition effects. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from the different electrochemical techniques were in good agreement.

  12. 3,5-di-iodothyronine stimulates tilapia growth through an alternate isoform of thyroid hormone receptor β1.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Ramírez, Pamela; Luna, Maricela; Valverde-R, Carlos; Orozco, Aurea

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies in our laboratory have shown that in some teleosts, 3,5-di-iodothyronine (T2 or 3,5-T2) is as bioactive as 3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine (T3) and that its effects are in part mediated by a TRβ1 (THRB) isoform that contains a 9-amino acid insert in its ligand-binding domain (long TRβ1 (L-TRβ1)), whereas T3 binds preferentially to a short TRβ1 (S-TRβ1) isoform that lacks this insert. To further understand the functional relevance of T2 bioactivity and its mechanism of action, we used in vivo and ex vivo (organotypic liver cultures) approaches and analyzed whether T3 and T2 differentially regulate the S-TRβ1 and L-TRβ1s during a physiological demand such as growth. In vivo, T3 and T2 treatment induced body weight gain in tilapia. The expression of L-TRβ1 and S-TRβ1 was specifically regulated by T2 and T3 respectively both in vivo and ex vivo. The TR antagonist 1-850 effectively blocked thyroid hormone-dependent gene expression; however, T3 or T2 reversed 1-850 effects only on S-TRβ1 or L-TRβ1 expression, respectively. Together, our results support the notion that both T3 and T2 participate in the growth process; however, their effects are mediated by different, specific TRβ1 isoforms.

  13. Decaying vector dark matter as an explanation for the 3.5 keV line from galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, Yasaman; Akbarieh, Amin Rezaei E-mail: am_rezaei@physics.sharif.ir

    2014-11-01

    We present a Vector Dark Matter (VDM) model that explains the 3.5 keV line recently observed in the XMM-Newton observatory data from galaxy clusters. In this model, dark matter is composed of two vector bosons, V and V', which couple to the photon through an effective generalized Chern-Simons coupling, g{sub V}. V' is slightly heavier than V with a mass splitting m{sub V'} – m{sub V} ≅ 3.5 keV. The decay of V' to V and a photon gives rise to the 3.5 keV line. The production of V and V' takes place in the early universe within the freeze-in framework through the effective g{sub V} coupling when m{sub V'} < T < Λ, Λ being the cut-off above which the effective g{sub V} coupling is not valid. We introduce a high energy model that gives rise to the g{sub V} coupling at low energies. To do this, V and V' are promoted to gauge bosons of spontaneously broken new U(1){sub V} and U(1){sub V'} gauge symmetries, respectively. The high energy sector includes milli-charged chiral fermions that lead to the g{sub V} coupling at low energy via triangle diagrams.

  14. Accelerators (3/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  15. Quantitation of N-(3,5-dichloropyrid-4-yl)-3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxybenzamide and 4-amino-3,5-dichloropyridine in rat and mouse plasma by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, K C; Muc, M; Hsu, R; Jayyosi, Z; Marietta, M P

    2000-06-01

    The metabolism of N-(3,5-dichloropyrid-4-yl)-3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxybenzamide (RP73401), a phosphodiesterase IV (PDE IV) inhibitor is extensive (unpublished); however, until recently, studies for this compound did not report 4-amino-3,5-dichloropyridine (ADCP) as a metabolite either in vitro or in vivo. This prompted a reinvestigation into the metabolism of RP73401 in rats and mice using mass spectrometry. The results of the reinvestigation confirmed that 4-amino-3,5-dichloropyridine was formed via the metabolism of RP73401 both in vitro and in vivo. In order to further investigate RP73401 hydrolysis in vivo, a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of RP73401 and ADCP in rat and mouse plasma. The method used Waters Oasis HLB brand solid phase extraction cartridges to isolate the analytes (RP73401 and ADCP) and internal standard from the plasma. HPLC chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax SB C18 HPLC column and detection was accomplished using positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectroscopy in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The assay was developed and validated over the range of 0.5-100 ng ml(-1) for RP73401 and 5-500 ng ml(-1) for ADCP using 0.050 ml of plasma. The assay proved to be sensitive, accurate, precise and specific for RP73401 and ADCP. Intraday and interday quality control results routinely showed accuracy and precision to be within +/- 20%. This LC/MS/MS method was subsequently employed to investigate the hydrolysis of RP73401 in the rat and mouse, and determine the effects of tri-o-tolyl phosphate (TOTP, a carboxylesterase inhibitor) preadministration on the hydrolysis reaction in the rat.

  16. [Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the conformation in nucleotides, oligonucleotides, and their analogs. I. Conformation of adenosine-3',5'-cyclic phosphate and its analogs in aqueous solutions].

    PubMed

    Bobruskin, I D; Guliaev, N N; Kirpichnikov, M P; Severin, E S; Tunitskaia, V A

    1979-01-01

    Conformation in aqueous solution of adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate, 8-(beta-aminoethylamino) adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate, 8-(beta-oxiethylamino) adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate, 8-(carboxymethylamino) adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate and their non-cyclic analogs has been studied by NMR spectroscopy. The conformational situation in the model of dynamic equilibrium of sin- and anti-states has been described on the basis of spinlattice relaxation times and temperature dependences of chemical shifts. Adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate has been demonstrated to exist mainly in anti-conformation while 8-substituted analogs -- in sin-conformation. Equilibrium constants have been calculated for the compounds under study.

  17. Small Scale Characterization of the Presence of the Explosive Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro- 1,3,5,7 tetrazocine (HMX) Near Former Naval Sites on Vieques Island, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, C. C.; Carvalho-Knighton, K. M.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetrazocine (HMX) is a synthetic energetic compounds that has been commonly used in military munitions. The presence and movement of HMX through the environment is of growing concern because of potential civilian exposure and impacts on human health. HMX remains in the environment unreactive with little degradation. It can be transported great distances in water thus having the possibility for migrating into groundwater. The former naval sites in Vieques were used for weapons training and housed several disposal sites. Previous studies around these sites indicate the presence of radioactive materials produced through thermal fission, such as Cs-137. Since HMX was primarily used to implode fissionable materials in nuclear devices, evaluating the release of HMX and consequent movement through the environment at these sites is essential. Surface water and soil samples as well as core and pore water samples were collected from two sites in Vieques; Kiani Lagoon and Mosquito Bay. All samples were extracted using EPA method 8330 and analyzed using RP-HPLC analysis with a C-18 column. HMX was undetected in samples collected from both Kiani Lagoon and Mosquito Bay. The development of a model that studies the flow rates and fate of water runoff in these areas of interest, coupled with data on groundwater testing inside the actual former naval facilities, is being explored for further sample collection and analysis.

  18. Soil properties affect the toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to the enchytraeid worm Enchytraeus crypticus.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Kolakowski, Jan E; Lanno, Roman

    2013-11-01

    The authors investigated individual toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to the potworm Enchytraeus crypticus using the enchytraeid reproduction test. Studies were designed to generate ecotoxicological benchmarks that can be used for developing ecological soil-screening levels for ecological risk assessments of contaminated soils and to identify and characterize the predominant soil physicochemical parameters that can affect the toxicities of TNT and RDX to E. crypticus. Soils, which had a wide range of physicochemical parameters, included Teller sandy loam, Sassafras sandy loam, Richfield clay loam, Kirkland clay loam, and Webster clay loam. Analyses of quantitative relationships between the toxicological benchmarks for TNT and soil property measurements identified soil organic matter content as the dominant property mitigating TNT toxicity for juvenile production by E. crypticus in freshly amended soil. Both the clay and organic matter contents of the soil modulated reproduction toxicity of TNT that was weathered and aged in soil for 3 mo. Toxicity of RDX for E. crypticus was greater in the coarse-textured sandy loam soils compared with the fine-textured clay loam soils. The present studies revealed alterations in toxicity to E. crypticus after weathering and aging TNT in soil, and these alterations were soil- and endpoint-specific.

  19. Mononuclear copper(II) complexes with 3,5-substituted-4-salicylidene-amino-3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazole: synthesis, structure and potent inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ling; Lu, Liping; Zhu, Miaoli; Wang, Qingming; Li, Ying; Xing, Shu; Fu, Xueqi; Gao, Zengqiang; Dong, Yuhui

    2011-06-28

    Six copper complexes of Schiff base ligands containing 3,5-substituted-4-salicylideneamino-3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazole have been synthesized and well characterized. The structures of complexes 1 and 2 were determined by X-ray crystal analysis. Fluorescence and potentiometric study indicated that in the physiological pH range, one ligand was dissociated from the complexes to form 1:1 mononucleus copper complexes. The complexes potently inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), megakaryocyte protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (PTP-MEG2) and Src homology phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) with 3-4 fold selectivity against PTP1B over TCPTP and PTP-MEG2, and 3-9 fold over SHP-1, but display almost no inhibition against Src homology phosphatase 2 (SHP-2). Complex 1 inhibits PTP1B with a competitive model with K(i) of 30 nM. Substitution with small groups at the phenyl of the ligand does not obviously influence the inhibitory ability of the complexes.

  20. Stir-bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-ion mobility spectrometry for the determination of trinitrotoluene and l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine in water samples.

    PubMed

    Lokhnauth, John K; Snow, Nicholas H

    2006-02-10

    Stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is interfaced to ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) for the rapid detection of trace analytes, with the explosives, trinitrotoluene (TNT) and l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine (RDX) shown as examples. SBSE retains its inherent advantages as a sensitive, straightforward, solventless, and inexpensive method. Additionally, the new SBSE-IMS technique exhibits excellent sensitivity, has onsite field analysis capabilities and provides the potential to detect and quantitate analytes that are difficult to accomplish using gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The SBSE-IMS technique is shown to be an effective method for the low-level detection of TNT and RDX from water with method standard deviation of 8.6% for TNT and 6.6% for RDX. The short desorption time of 60 s and analysis time of less than 20 ms along with limits of detection of 0.1 ng/mL for TNT and 1.5 ng/mL for RDX and render the method potentially useful for trace analysis. Desorption profiles showing the kinetics of analyte transfer from the stir-bar into the IMS are shown and discussed; the SBSE-IMS configuration shows very rapid desorption from the stir-bar, with the analytes completely transferred in most cases, in under 1 min.

  1. Trace level analysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and its biodegradation intermediates in liquid media by solid-phase extraction and high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Chow, Teresa M; Wilcoxon, Monte R; Piwoni, Marvin D; Adrian, Neal R

    2004-10-01

    The use of solid-phase extraction for the analysis of liquid media containing low microg/L levels of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), mononitroso-RDX (MNX), dinitroso-RDX (DNX), and trinitroso-RDX (TNX) is examined. Aqueous samples (100 mL) consisting of water and a microbiological basal medium are spiked with known concentrations of RDX, MNX, DNX, and TNX. The compounds are extracted from the liquid media using a Porapak RDX cartridge and then eluted from the cartridge with 5 mL of acetonitrile. The eluent is concentrated to 1 mL before analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The method detection limits for RDX are 0.1 microg/L in water and 0.5 microg/L in the basal medium after a 100-fold concentration. For MNX, DNX, and TNX, the method detection limits are approximately 0.5 microg/L in water and approximately 1 microg/L in the basal medium after a 100-fold concentration. Interferences in the basal medium and a contaminant in the standard made quantitation for MNX and TNX, respectively, is less accurate below the 1 microg/L level. Solid-phase extraction of the liquid media gave good recoveries of nitramines and nitroso intermediates from a microbiological basal medium, allowing HPLC detection of RDX and the nitroso intermediates in the low microg/L (ppb) range.

  2. Phase Transition in Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) under Static Compression: An Application of the First-Principles Method Specialized for CHNO Solid Explosives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Sheng-Li; Yu, Yi; Long, Yao; Zhao, Han-Yue; Peng, Li-Juan; Chen, Jun

    2016-11-10

    The first-principles method is challenged by accurate prediction of van der Waals interactions, which are ubiquitous in nature and crucial for determining the structure of molecules and condensed matter. We have contributed to this by constructing a set of pseudopotentials and pseudoatomic orbital basis specialized for molecular systems consisting of C/H/N/O elements. The reliability of the present method is verified from the interaction energies of 45 kinds of complexes (comparing with CCSD(T)) and the crystalline structures of 23 kinds of typical explosive solids (comparing with experiments). Using this method, we have studied the phase transition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) under static compression up to 50 GPa. Kinetically, intramolecular deformation has priority in the competition with intermolecular packing deformation by ∼87%. A possible γ → β phase transition is found at around 2.10 GPa, and the migration of H2O has an effect of kinetically pushing this process. We make it clear that no β → δ/ε → δ phase transition occurs at 27 GPa, which has long been a hot debate in experiments. In addition, the P-V relation, bulk modulus, and acoustic velocity are also predicted for α-, δ-, and γ-HMX, which are experimentally unavailable.

  3. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of a solid dispersion of (3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methoxy] benzoate (VA-T) and polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sa-Li; Hou, Peng; Li, Bin; Fu, Jing; Yin, Xing-Bin; Dang, Xiao-Fang; Yang, Chun-Jing; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Hui; Lei, Hai-Min; Ni, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Ischemic brain injury is a major disease which threatens human health and safety. (3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methoxy] benzoate (VA-T), a newly discovered lead compound, is effective for the treatment of ischemic brain injury and its sequelae. But the poor solubility of VA-T leads to poor dissolution and limited clinical application. In order to improve the dissolution of VA-T, the pharmaceutical technology of solid dispersions was used in the present study. VA-T/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solid dispersion was prepared by the solvent method. The dissolution studies were carried out and solid state characterization was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dissolution rate of VA-T was significantly improved by solid dispersion compared to that of the pure drug and physical mixture. The results of DSC and XRD indicated that the VA-T solid dispersion was amorphous. The IR spectra showed the possible interaction between VA-T and PVP was the formulation of hydrogen bonding. The SEM analysis demonstrated that there was no VA-T crystal observed in the solid dispersions. The ideal drug-to-PVP ratio was 1:5. In conclusion, the solid dispersion technique can be successfully used for the improvement of the dissolution profile of VA-T.

  4. Effect of adsorption to elemental iron on the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in solution.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seok-Young; Cha, Daniel K; Kim, Byung J; Chiu, Peic

    2002-07-01

    The effect of adsorption to elemental iron on the reductive transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (royal demolition explosive [RDX]) in aqueous solution was studied with scrap iron and high-purity iron. In batch experiments with the same total iron surface area and a mixing rate of 100 rpm, TNT and RDX were removed from the solution within 30 min. With high-purity iron, adsorbed TNT was reduced to 2,4,6-triaminotoluene (TAT) rapidly, with little accumulation of intermediates at the surface. With scrap iron, the extent of adsorption of TNT and its daughter products was more significant and reduction of these adsorbed molecules to TAT was slower. Distribution of the intermediates indicated that the reaction with scrap iron occurred primarily through reduction of the ortho nitro group. Kinetic analysis suggests that mass transfer or adsorption of TNT controlled the overall rate of TNT reduction to TAT with pure iron, whereas with scrap iron, the rate of TAT formation was probably limited by other processes. Compared to TNT, transformation of adsorbed RDX was more rapid and less affected by iron type. The RDX was reduced to an unidentified, water-soluble intermediate and NH4+, which accounted for approximately 50% of the RDX nitrogen. No total organic carbon reduction was observed before and after RDX transformation with scrap iron.

  5. Convenient synthesis of a propargylated cyclic (3'-5') diguanylic acid and its "click" conjugation to a biotinylated azide.

    PubMed

    Grajkowski, Andrzej; Cieślak, Jacek; Gapeev, Alexei; Schindler, Christian; Beaucage, Serge L

    2010-11-17

    The ribonucleoside building block, N²-isobutyryl-2'-O-propargyl-3'-O-levulinyl guanosine, was prepared from commercial N²-isobutyryl-5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)-2'-O-propargyl guanosine in a yield of 91%. The propargylated guanylyl(3'-5')guanosine phosphotriester was synthesized from the reaction of N²-isobutyryl-2'-O-propargyl-3'-O-levulinyl guanosine with N²-isobutyryl-5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)-2'-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-3'-O-[(2-cyanoethyl)-N,N-diisopropylaminophosphinyl] guanosine and isolated in a yield of 88% after P(III) oxidation, 3'-/5'-deprotection, and purification. The propargylated guanylyl(3'-5')guanosine phosphotriester was phosphitylated using 2-cyanoethyl tetraisopropylphosphordiamidite and 1H-tetrazole and was followed by an in situ intramolecular cyclization to give a propargylated c-di-GMP triester, which was isolated in a yield of 40% after P(III) oxidation and purification. Complete N-deacylation of the guanine bases and removal of the 2-cyanoethyl phosphate protecting groups from the propargylated c-di-GMP triester were performed by treatment with aqueous ammonia at ambient temperature. The final 2'-desilylation reaction was effected by exposure to triethylammonium trihydrofluoride affording the desired propargylated c-di-GMP diester, the purity of which exceeded 95%. Biotinylation of the propargylated c-di-GMP diester was easily accomplished through its cycloaddition reaction with a biotinylated azide derivative under click conditions to produce the biotinylated c-di-GMP conjugate of interest in an isolated yield of 62%.

  6. Ultraviolet relaxation dynamics of aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline at 250 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, James O. F.; Saalbach, Lisa; Crane, Stuart W.; Paterson, Martin J.; Townsend, Dave

    2015-03-21

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the electronic relaxation dynamics of gas-phase aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline, and 3,5-dimethylaniline following ultraviolet excitation at 250 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio coupled-cluster calculations evaluating excited state energies and (in aniline) the evolution of a range of excited state physical properties as a function of N–H bond extension. Due to a lack of consistency between several earlier studies undertaken in aniline, the specific aim of this present work was to gain new insight into the previously proposed non-adiabatic coupling interaction between the two lowest lying singlet excited states S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) and S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}). The methyl-substituted systems N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline were included in order to obtain more detailed dynamical information about the key internal molecular coordinates that drive the S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗})/S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) coupling mechanism. Our findings suggest that in all three systems, both electronic states are directly populated during the initial excitation, with the S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) state then potentially decaying via either direct dissociation along the N–X stretching coordinate (X = H or CH{sub 3}) or internal conversion to the S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) state. In aniline and N, N-dimethylaniline, both pathways most likely compete in the depletion of S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) state population. However, in 3,5-dimethylaniline, only the direct dissociation mechanism appears to be active. This is rationalized in terms of changes in the relative rates of the two decay pathways upon methylation of the aromatic ring system.

  7. CHRNA3/5, IREB2, and ADCY2 Are Associated with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Jan; Wan, Emily S.; Hersh, Craig P.; Castaldi, Peter J.; Schwinder, Eric; Hawrylkiewicz, Iwona; Sliwinski, Pawel; Cho, Michael H.; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or lung function with COPD and COPD-related phenotypes in a novel cohort of patients with severe to very severe COPD. We examined 315 cases of COPD and 330 Caucasian control smokers from Poland. We included three SNPs previously associated with COPD: rs7671167 (FAM13A), rs13180 (IREB2), and rs8034191 (CHRNA 3/5), and four SNPs associated with lung function in a genome-wide association study of general population samples: rs2070600 (AGER), rs11134242 (ADCY2), rs4316710 (THSD4), and rs17096090 (INTS12). We tested for associations with severe COPD and COPD-related phenotypes, including lung function, smoking behavior, and body mass index. Subjects with COPD were older (average age 62 versus 58 years, P < 0.01), with more pack-years of smoking (45 versus 33 pack-years, P < 0.01). CHRNA3/5 (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–2.4; P = 7.4 × 10−7), IREB2 (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.5–0.9; P = 3.4 × 10−3), and ADCY2 (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.1–1.7; P = 0.01) demonstrated significant associations with COPD. FAM13A (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7–1.0; P = 0.11) approached statistical significance. FAM13A and ADCY2 also demonstrated a significant association with lung function. Thus, in severe to very severe COPD, we demonstrate a replication of association between two SNPs previously associated with COPD (CHRNA3/5 and IREB2), as well as an association with COPD of one locus initially associated with lung function (ADCY2). PMID:22461431

  8. [Conformation study of cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate and some of its derivatives by means of circular dichroism].

    PubMed

    Tunitskaia, V L; Guliaev, N N; Poletaev, A I; Severin, E S

    1977-04-01

    Circular dichroism spectra of adenosine and cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and their derivatives, having different substituents in 8-position of heterocycle, are studied, cAMP is suggested to have preferable anti-conformation in the solution, while its derivatives with substituents in 8-position of purine base are preferable in sin-conformation. An exception is 8-(beta aminoethylamine-)cAMP, which has an anti-conformation within pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. This is probably due to the formation of intra-molecular ionic bond between cyclophosphate group and aliphatic amino group of 8-position substituent.

  9. Radiation-chemical reaction of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride in liquid and solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, A.; Wojnárovits, L.; McLaughlin, W. L.; Eid, S. E. Ebrahim; Miller, A.

    1996-03-01

    In pulse radiolysis of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) at around 360 nm fast formation of intermediate tetrazolium radical was observed under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. In the latter case bimolecular formation of formazan, absorbing at around 480 nm, was observed. This reaction is accompanied by combination to the diformazan dimer, absorbing over the spectral range 500-550 nm. A polyvinyl-alcohol-based TTC film was produced and tested for dosimetry purposes: it gave a measurable response in the 1-100 kGy dose range by evaluating the 50 μm thick TTC films at the absorption maximum of 493 nm.

  10. Synthesis and Pharmacology of a Novel κ Opioid Receptor (KOR) Agonist with a 1,3,5-Trioxazatriquinane Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We designed and synthesized the 1,3,5-trioxazatriquinane derivatives with m-hydroxyphenyl groups. These compounds include the phenethylamine structure within them, which is a common structure observed in morphinan derivatives like morphine. Among the synthesized compounds, (−)-8c with two m-hydroxyphenyl groups selectively bound and exerted full agonist activity toward the κ opioid receptor (KOR). Subcutaneously administered (−)-8c exhibited significant antinociceptive effects via the KOR in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest the emergence of a novel class of KOR agonist. PMID:25147605

  11. Microstructural examination of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-09-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for four heats of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}200 and 300 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment or composition.

  12. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  13. Ullmann diaryl ether synthesis: rate acceleration by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dione.

    PubMed

    Buck, Elizabeth; Song, Zhiguo Jake; Tschaen, David; Dormer, Peter G; Volante, R P; Reider, Paul J

    2002-05-02

    [reaction: see text]. In the copper salt catalyzed ether formation from aryl bromides or iodides and phenols, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dione (TMHD) was found to greatly accelerate the ordinarily difficult reaction, making it occur under more moderate temperatures and reaction times. A series of aryl halides and phenols were shown to form ethers in NMP as the solvent, cesium carbonate as the base, and CuCl and TMHD as the catalysts. The reaction was shown to tolerate electron-rich aryl bromides and electron-neutral phenols.

  14. Synthesis and Properties of a New Explosive, 4-Amino-3,5-Dinitro-lH-Pyrazole (LLM-116)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R D; Lee, G S; Pagoria, P F; Mitchell, A R; Gilardi, R

    2001-05-22

    A novel synthesis of the title compound was achieved by direct amination using Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution (VNS) methodology. Reaction of 1,1,1-trimethylhydrazinium iodide with 3,5-dinitropyrazole in DMSO produces 4-amino-3,s-dinitro-1H-pyrazole as a 1:1 crystal solvate with DMSO. Recrystallization from water yields the monohydrated crystal. Recrystallization of the monohydrate from butyl acetate yields the compound in pure form. Crystallographic data and results of small-scale safety tests are reported. These data indicate that LLM-116 is a promising candidate as an insensitive high explosive.

  15. High band gap 2-6 and 3-5 tunneling junctions for silicon multijunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, Taher (Inventor); Kachare, Akaram H. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multijunction silicon solar cell of high efficiency is provided by providing a tunnel junction between the solar cell junctions to connect them in series. The tunnel junction is comprised of p+ and n+ layers of high band gap 3-5 or 2-6 semiconductor materials that match the lattice structure of silicon, such as GaP (band gap 2.24 eV) or ZnS (band gap 3.6 eV). Each of which has a perfect lattice match with silicon to avoid defects normally associated with lattice mismatch.

  16. Synthesis of Substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Mahmoud; Auping, Judith V.; Meador, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A series of substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(l,2-b:5,4-b')difurans 1 was synthesized. This synthesis is based upon the photocyclization of 2,5-dibenzoylresorcinol dibenzyl ethers to the corresponding tetrahydrobenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans. Treatment of the photoproducts with methanesulfonyl chloride in pyridine afforded 1 in overall yields ranging from 30-72%. A number of these compounds have high fluorescence quantum yields (of phi(sub f) = 0.76-0.90), and their fluorescence spectra exhibit large solvatochromic shifts. These compounds may be suitable for use as fluorescent probes.

  17. cis-trans photoisomerization of 1,3,5,7-octatetraene in n-hexane at 4.2 K

    PubMed Central

    Granville, Mark F.; Holtom, Gary R.; Kohler, Bryan E.

    1980-01-01

    Photoisomerization of the linear polyene 1,3,5,7-octatetraene has been observed in an n-hexane matrix maintained at the boiling point of helium. To a good approximation, only the trans,trans and cis,trans isomers participate in the photochemistry. These compounds have been unambiguously identified by comparing the observed high-resolution fluorescence spectra to those of chromatographically purified reference compounds. Although the quantum yield of this process is probably low, its microscopic rate seems to compete favorably with vibrational deactivation. PMID:16592751

  18. Evolution of specific 3'-5'-linkages in RNA in pre-biotic soup: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vaijayanti A

    2016-11-02

    This article reviews the different possibilities towards progression of the formation of DNA/RNA in the chemical world, before life, in enzyme-free conditions. The advent of deoxyribo- and ribopentose-sugars, nucleosides, nucleotides and oligonucleotides in the prebiotic soup is briefly discussed. Further, the formation of early single stranded oligomers, base-pairing possibilities and information transfer based on the stability parameters of the derived duplexes is reviewed. Each theory has its own merits and demerits which we have elaborated upon. Lastly, using clues from this literature, a possible explanation for the specific 3'-5'-linkages in RNA is proposed.

  19. Effects of nozzle design parameters on the extent of quiet test flow at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, I. E.; Bushnell, D. M.; Malik, M. R.; Chen, F.-J.

    1984-01-01

    Tests results at the NASA Langley Research Center, involving a Mach 3.5 pilot quiet tunnel, have shown that laminar-layered nozzle walls improve boundary layer stability and reduce stream disturbance levels caused by eddy Mach wave radiation. This type of wall design is required to obtain transition Reynolds numbers on tests models as high as those previously observed in supersonic flight vehicles. The Mach 3.5 pilot nozzle wall boundary layers were tested for Tollmein-Schlichting and Goertler linear amplification, and, in an analysis of Goertler vortices in two axisymmetric Mach 5 nozzles, transition values were found to vary. These values were applied to several nozzles with similar throat heights but different expansion rates. Among the nozzles included in the study, a flat-wall radial flow nozzle and a proposed rod-wall nozzle were tested. For the highest test unit Reynolds number, it was determined that the nozzle wall surface finish should not exceed 0.3 micron. Oil flow studies have indicated that Goertler vortex disturbances were the dominant mechanism causing transition on the walls of the pilot nozzle.

  20. Crystal growth, vibrational, optical, thermal and theoretical studies of a nonlinear optical material: 2-Methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, K.; Guru Prasad, L.; Mathammal, R.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystals of 2-methyl 3,5-dinitro benzoic acid with reasonable size have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth method using ethanol as solvent. Quantum chemical calculation of 2-methyl 3,5-Dinitro benzoic acid was carried out by using DFT/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) method. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded and indexed. Both the experimental and theoretical vibrational spectrum validates the presence of functional groups. Polarizability, first order hyperpolarizability and the electric dipole moment values have been computed theoretically. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift of the molecule was calculated and compared with experimental results. TG/DSC analysis has been employed to understand the thermal and physio-chemical stability of the title compound. Frequency conversion property of the crystal was tested by Kurtz and Perry method. Optical absorption behavior of the grown crystal was examined by recording the optical spectrum and band gap energy was also estimated. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energy shows the charge transfer nature of the molecule.

  1. Non-canonical 3'-5' extension of RNA with prebiotically plausible ribonucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates.

    PubMed

    Mutschler, Hannes; Holliger, Philipp

    2014-04-09

    Ribonucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates (N>p's) are generated by multiple prebiotically plausible processes and are credible building blocks for the assembly of early RNA oligomers. While N>p's can be polymerized into short RNAs by non-enzymatic processes with variable efficiency and regioselectivity, no enzymatic route for RNA synthesis had been described. Here we report such a non-canonical 3'-5' nucleotidyl transferase activity. We engineered a variant of the hairpin ribozyme to catalyze addition of all four N>p's (2',3'-cyclic A-, G-, U-, and CMP) to the 5'-hydroxyl termini of RNA strands with 5' nucleotide addition enhanced in all cases by eutectic ice phase formation at -7 °C. We also observed 5' addition of 2',3'-cyclic phosphate-activated β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD>p) and ACA>p RNA trinucleotide, and multiple additions of GUCCA>p RNA pentamers. Our results establish a new mode of RNA 3'-5' extension with implications for RNA oligomer synthesis from prebiotic nucleotide pools.

  2. Discovery of Extreme [OIII]+Hβ Emission Line Galaxies Tracing an Overdensity at z~3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Ben; Tran, Kim-Vy; Broussard, Adam; ZFOURGE Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Using deep multi-wavelength photometry of galaxies with excess emission in the Ks-band from ZFOURGE, we build composite SEDs to analyze the continuum properties and equivalent widths of a population of Extreme [OIII]+Hβ Emission Line Galaxies at z~3.5.In particular, we find 49 galaxies with a characteristic [OIII]+Hβ rest-frame equivalent width of ~300 Å, and another 216 galaxies with rest-frame equivalent widths of ~100 Å as measured from the composite SEDs.These galaxies are analogous to the `green peas' found in the SDSS, and are thought to be undergoing their first burst of star formation due to their blue colors, young ages, and low dust attenuation values.They also exhibit Lyman-α emission, strong nebular emission features, and compact sizes, consistent with the properties of the early star-forming galaxies possibly responsible for re-ionizing the Universe.Many of these sources are clustered around z~3.5 and trace out an overdensity in CDFS, and we explore this very distant example of large scale structure.

  3. Prenatal anxiety, maternal stroking in infancy, and symptoms of emotional and behavioral disorders at 3.5 years.

    PubMed

    Pickles, Andrew; Sharp, Helen; Hellier, Jennifer; Hill, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Animal findings of long-term effects of maternal behaviors mediated via altered GR gene expression will, if translated into humans, have far reaching implications for our understanding of child and adolescent psychopathology. We have previously shown that mothers' self-reported stroking of their infants modifies associations between prenatal depression and anxiety and child outcomes at 29 weeks and 2.5 years. Here, we examine whether the effect of early maternal stroking is evident at 3.5 years, and in a much larger sample than in previous publications. A general population sample of 1233 first-time mothers completed anxiety measures at 20 weeks gestation, 865 reported on infant stroking at 9 weeks, and 813 on child symptoms at 3.5 years. Maternal stroking moderated the association between pregnancy-specific anxiety and internalizing (p = 0.010) and externalizing (p = 0.004) scores, such that an effect of PSA to increase symptoms was markedly reduced for mothers who reported high levels of stroking. There was no effect of maternal stroking on general anxiety. The findings confirm the previously reported effect of maternal stroking, and in a much larger sample. They indicate that there are long-term effects of early maternal stroking, modifying associations between prenatal anxiety and child emotional and behavioral symptoms.

  4. Nitric oxide binding and photodelivery based on ruthenium(II) complexes of 4-arylazo-3,5-dimethylpyrazole.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Mayreli; Torréns, Mabel; Mola, José L; Ortiz, Pedro J; Fragoso, Alex; Díaz, Alicia; Cao, Roberto; Prados, Pilar; de Mendoza, Javier; Otero, Antonio; Antiñolo, Antonio; Lara, Agustin

    2008-07-21

    Two fluorescent ligands, 3,5-dimethyl-4-(6'-sulfonylammonium-1'-azonaphthyl)pyrazole (dmpzn, 1) and 3,5-dimethyl-4-(4'-N,N'-dimethylaminoazophenyl)pyrazole (dmpza, 2) were obtained by condensation of ketoenolic derivatives with hydrazine. 1 and 2 formed the novel dinuclear complexes [(H(2)O)(3)ClRu(micro-L)(2)RuCl(H(2)O)(3)] (3 or 4) and [(H(2)O)(NO)Cl(2)Ru(micro-L)(2)RuCl(2)(NO)(H(2)O)] (6 or 7) (where L 1 = 2 or , respectively) which were characterized by IR, NMR and elemental analysis. The nitrosyl complexes were prepared by bubbling purified nitric oxide through methanol solutions of the corresponding ruthenium(II) chloroderivative or by reaction of the appropriate ligands with Ru(NO)Cl(3). Complexes 3 and 4 were found to bind NO, resulting in an increase in fluorescence. Ligand 1 also formed the mononuclear nitrosyl complex [Ru(NO)(bpy)(2)(dmpzn)]Cl(2) (8) which released NO in water at physiological pH and in the solid state as revealed by fluorescence and IR measurements, respectively.

  5. Computational, spectral and structural studies of a new non linear optical crystal: 2-hydroxy pyridinium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathya, K.; Dhamodharan, P.; Dhandapani, M.

    2017-02-01

    An organic proton transfer compound, 2-hydroxy pyridinium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate (HPDA) was synthesized from 3,5-dinitro benzoic acid and 2 -hydroxy pyridine using methanol:acetone solvent mixture at room temperature and crystallized by solvent evaporation. UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C and DEPT-135 NMR spectroscopic techniques, CHN analysis and TG-DTA were used for characterization. Single crystal XRD analysis was carried out to ascertain the molecular structure. Computational studies that include optimization of molecular geometry, natural bond analysis (NBO), Mulliken population analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis were performed using Gaussian 09 software by B3LYP method at 6-31g basis set level. Hirshfeld analysis indicate O⋯H/H⋯O interactions are the prominent interactions confirming the presence of Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding.The second-order NLO property was assessed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. Theoretical calculations indicate that hyperpolarizability of the crystal is 38 times greater than urea. The results show that the HPDA may be used for opto-electronic applications.

  6. Design and Realization of a Planar Ultrawideband Antenna with Notch Band at 3.5 GHz

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A small antenna with single notch band at 3.5 GHz is designed for ultrawideband (UWB) communication applications. The fabricated antenna comprises a radiating monopole element and a perfectly conducting ground plane with a wide slot. To achieve a notch band at 3.5 GHz, a parasitic element has been inserted in the same plane of the substrate along with the radiating patch. Experimental results shows that, by properly adjusting the position of the parasitic element, the designed antenna can achieve an ultrawide operating band of 3.04 to 11 GHz with a notched band operating at 3.31–3.84 GHz. Moreover, the proposed antenna achieved a good gain except at the notched band and exhibits symmetric radiation patterns throughout the operating band. The prototype of the proposed antenna possesses a very compact size and uses simple structures to attain the stop band characteristic with an aim to lessen the interference between UWB and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) band. PMID:25133245

  7. Room temperature multiplexed gas sensing using chemical-sensitive 3.5-nm-thin silicon transistors

    PubMed Central

    Fahad, Hossain Mohammad; Shiraki, Hiroshi; Amani, Matin; Zhang, Chuchu; Hebbar, Vivek Srinivas; Gao, Wei; Ota, Hiroki; Hettick, Mark; Kiriya, Daisuke; Chen, Yu-Ze; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Javey, Ali

    2017-01-01

    There is great interest in developing a low-power gas sensing technology that can sensitively and selectively quantify the chemical composition of a target atmosphere. Nanomaterials have emerged as extremely promising candidates for this technology due to their inherent low-dimensional nature and high surface-to-volume ratio. Among these, nanoscale silicon is of great interest because pristine silicon is largely inert on its own in the context of gas sensing, unless functionalized with an appropriate gas-sensitive material. We report a chemical-sensitive field-effect transistor (CS-FET) platform based on 3.5-nm-thin silicon channel transistors. Using industry-compatible processing techniques, the conventional electrically active gate stack is replaced by an ultrathin chemical-sensitive layer that is electrically nonconducting and coupled to the 3.5-nm-thin silicon channel. We demonstrate a low-power, sensitive, and selective multiplexed gas sensing technology using this platform by detecting H2S, H2, and NO2 at room temperature for environment, health, and safety in the oil and gas industry, offering significant advantages over existing technology. Moreover, the system described here can be readily integrated with mobile electronics for distributed sensor networks in environmental pollution mapping and personal air-quality monitors. PMID:28378017

  8. Construction of two novel indium phosphites with (3,6)- and (3,5)-connected frameworks: Synthesis, structure and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Li Huiduan; Zhang Lirong; Huo Qisheng; Liu Yunling

    2013-01-15

    Two novel anionic indium phosphites, formulated as [H{sub 3}O][In(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}] (1) and [C{sub 4}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 3}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})] (2), were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by using piperazine (PIP) as a structure-directing agent (SDA). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}mc (No. 186) and orthorhombic space group Cmcm (No. 63), respectively. Compound 1, constructed from InO{sub 6} octahedra and HPO{sub 3} pseudo-pyramids, exhibits a rare (3,6)-connected layer structure with kgd (Kagome dual) topology. Compound 2, on the other hand, features a 3D phosphite-oxalate hybrid structure with intersecting 8- and 12-MRs channels. From a topological perspective 2 can be regarded as a (3, 5)-connected binodal net with the Schlaefli symbol (4{sup 2}.6)(4{sup 2}.6{sup 5}.8{sup 3}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two novel indium phosphite and indium phosphite-oxalate hybrid compounds are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (3, 6)-connected layer structure with kgd topology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (3,5)-connected binodal net with the Schlaefli symbol (4{sup 2}.6)(4{sup 2}.6{sup 5}.8{sup 3}).

  9. Face Gender Influences the Looking Preference for Smiling Expressions in 3.5-Month-Old Human Infants.

    PubMed

    Bayet, Laurie; Quinn, Paul C; Tanaka, James W; Lee, Kang; Gentaz, Édouard; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Young infants are typically thought to prefer looking at smiling expressions. Although some accounts suggest that the preference is automatic and universal, we hypothesized that it is not rigid and may be influenced by other face dimensions, most notably the face's gender. Infants are sensitive to the gender of faces; for example, 3-month-olds raised by female caregivers typically prefer female over male faces. We presented neutral versus smiling pairs of faces from the same female or male individuals to 3.5-month-old infants (n = 25), controlling for low-level cues. Infants looked longer to the smiling face when faces were female but longer to the neutral face when faces were male, i.e., there was an effect of face gender on the looking preference for smiling. The results indicate that a preference for smiling in 3.5-month-olds is limited to female faces, possibly reflective of differential experience with male and female faces.

  10. Evaluation of molecularly imprinted polymers using 2',3',5'-tri-O-acyluridines as templates for pyrimidine nucleoside recognition.

    PubMed

    Krstulja, Aleksandra; Lettieri, Stefania; Hall, Andrew J; Delépée, Raphael; Favetta, Patrick; Agrofoglio, Luigi A

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis and evaluation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), prepared using 2',3',5'-tri-O-acyluridines as 'dummy' templates, for the selective recognition of uridine nucleosides. The MIPs were synthesised using a non-covalent approach with 2,6-bis-acrylamidopyridine (BAAPy) acting as the binding monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linking agent. The MIPs were evaluated in terms of capacity, selectivity and specificity by analytical and frontal liquid chromatography measurements. The results obtained in organic mobile phases suggest that the nucleosides are specifically bound to the polymer by the complementary hydrogen bonding motifs of the binding monomer and the nucleoside bases. The MIPs exhibited relatively high imprinting factors for 2',3',5'-tri-O-acyluridines, while they did not show any binding capacity for other nucleosides lacking the imide moiety on their base. Moreover, the presence of ester-COO groups in the EGDMA cross-linker may lead to the formation of additional hydrogen bonds with the 2',3' and/or 5'-OH of sugar part, allowing enhancement of the recognition of the uridine nucleosides. In aqueous media, results show that the binding is driven by hydrophobic interactions.

  11. Interspecific effects of 4A-DNT (4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene) and RDX (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in Japanese quail, Northern bobwhite, and Zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael J; Hanna, Terry L; Shiflett, Alicia A; McFarland, Craig A; Cook, Michelle E; Johnson, Mark S; Gust, Kurt A; Perkins, Edward J

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the toxicological effects of two munition compounds, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4A-DNT) and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), on three different bird species: two common toxicological model species-the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and the Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica), and a representative passerine-the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Bobwhite were exposed to 4A-DNT at 0, 8, 15, 30, 60, or 150 mg/kg body weight (bw) d by oral gavage for seven days; because the high dose of 4A-DNT was lethal to bobwhite, the maximum dose was changed to 100 mg/kg bw d for Japanese quail and finches to ensure tissue could be used for future toxicogenomic work. RDX was similarly administered at 0, 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, or 12 mg/kg bw d. Blood was drawn prior to euthanasia for blood cellularity and chemistry analyses. Finches were clearly least affected by 4A-DNT as evidenced by a lack of observable effects. Bobwhite appeared to be the most sensitive species to 4A-DNT as observed through changes in blood cellularity and plasma chemistry effects. Bobwhite appeared to be more sensitive to RDX than Japanese Quail due to increased effects on measures of plasma chemistries. Finches exhibited the greatest sensitivity to RDX through increased mortality and seizure activity. This study suggests that sensitivity among species is chemical-specific and provides data that could be used to refine current avian sensitivity models used in ecological risk assessments.

  12. Structural studies of the superconducting La 3.5- x- yY yCa 2 xBa 3.5- xCu 7O z system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbarao, M. V.; Rajagopal, H.; Sequeira, A.; Kulkarni, R. G.

    1999-06-01

    We have investigated the influence of incorporation of Ca and Y ions on the structural and superconducting properties of La 3.5- x- yY yCa 2 xBa 3.5- xCu 7O z (0.0≤ x= y≤0.7) system by Rietveld refinement using the neutron diffraction data on five samples viz. x= y=0.0 (#1), 0.20 (#2), 0.40 (#3), 0.50 (#4) and 0.70 (#5) along with X-ray diffraction (XRD), resistivity, AC susceptibility and oxygen-content measurements. Samples with 0.20≤ x= y≤0.70 are superconducting and TcR=0 is between 56 and 79 K. Neutron data confirms (i) the occurrence of a single phase tetragonal structure with space group P4/ mmm for all the five samples, (ii) Ca and Y ions substitute onto the La sites, with concomitant displacement of La on to Ba sites, and (iii) increasing x= y from 0.0 to 0.50 decreases La-O(3) bond length from 2.516 to 2.446 Å and increases Cu(2)-O(2) bond length from 2.200 to 2.292 Å with corresponding increase in Tc from 0 to 79 K due to increasing occupancy of Y/Ca at La site. A correlation exists between the Cu(2)-O(2) and La-O(3) bond lengths and the measured Tc values of five samples. Rietveld analysis of XRD data for x= y=0.50 (#4) sample clearly shows the occupancy of Ca ions in the La sites and to small extent 0.03 in Ba sites. Such cation disordering between Ca and La,Ba may give different oxygen contents obtained from neutron data and iodometry.

  13. The responses of selected terrestrial plants to short (<12 days) and long term (2, 4 and 6 weeks) hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) exposure. Part I: Growth and developmental effects.

    PubMed

    Winfield, Linda E; Rodgers, John H; D'Surney, Stephen J

    2004-05-01

    Soils contaminated with explosive materials like hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a concern nation-wide on military installations and sites where explosives are manufactured, stored, or disposed. Terrestrial plants are a vital group of receptor organism, yet limited published information is available on the potential impacts of RDX exposure in terrestrial plants. This research comprised the initial phases in the development of a short-term (<12 days) screening experiment for assessing the environmental impacts of RDX exposure in terrestrial plants. Fifteen plants (dicots and monocots) were exposed to three soils amended with 0-4000 microg g(-1) of RDX during the short-term screening experiments. Growth responses (maximum root and shoot lengths, percent emergence) and adverse developmental effects were the assessment endpoints. Sunflower was identified as the most RDX sensitive plant and selected for evaluation during the long-term (2, 4, and 6 weeks) experiments. Two life stages of sunflower (embryos and 2-week old seedlings) were exposed to Grenada soil amended with 0-100 microg g(-1) of RDX. The assessment endpoints during the long-term experiments included: biomass, maximum shoot and root length, root bio-volume, maximum stem diameter, number of leaves, and adverse developmental effects. Statistically significant differences were measured in several of the growth parameters following the short and long term exposure studies, however there were no consistent patterns. The consistent indicators of detrimental impacts from RDX exposure were the adverse developmental effects observed, regardless of life stage, soil type, or exposure duration. Typically, more adverse developmental effects were observed in dicots than monocots. The efficacy of the short-term screening experiments for estimating the impacts of long-term RDX exposure was validated.

  14. 40 CFR 721.9730 - 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9730 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6... substances generically identified as 1,3,5-triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted- (PMN Nos....

  15. 40 CFR 721.9730 - 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9730 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6... substances generically identified as 1,3,5-triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted- (PMN Nos....

  16. 40 CFR 721.9730 - 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9730 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6... substances generically identified as 1,3,5-triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted- (PMN Nos....

  17. 40 CFR 721.9730 - 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9730 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6... substances generically identified as 1,3,5-triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted- (PMN Nos....

  18. 40 CFR 721.5262 - 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5-[[4-chloro-6-[substituted] amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3- -, trisodium salt...-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3- -, trisodium salt (PMN P-00-0803) is...-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- ethyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3- -, sodium salt (1:3) (PMN......

  19. Computational study on C-H...π interactions of acetylene with benzene, 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene and coronene.

    PubMed

    Dinadayalane, Tandabany C; Paytakov, Guvanchmyrat; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2013-07-01

    Meta-hybrid density functional theory calculations using M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) and M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) levels of theory have been performed to understand the strength of C-H(…)π interactions of two possible types for benzene-acetylene, 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene-acetylene and coronene-acetylene complexes. Our study reveals that the C-H(...)π interaction complex where acetylene located above to the center of benzene ring (classical T-shaped) is the lowest energy structure. This structure is twice more stable than the configuration characterized by H atom of benzene interacting with the π-cloud of acetylene. The binding energy of 2.91 kcal/mol calculated at the M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) level for the lowest energy configuration (1A) is in very good agreement with the experimental binding energy of 2.7 ± 0.2 kcal/mol for benzene-acetylene complex. Interestingly, the C-H(...)π interaction of acetylene above to the center of the aromatic ring is not the lowest energy configuration for 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene-acetylene and coronene-acetylene complexes. The lowest energy configuration (2A) for the former complex possesses both C-H(...)π interaction and C-H(...)F hydrogen bond, while the lowest energy structure for the coronene-acetylene complex involves both π-π and C-H(...)π interactions. C-H stretching vibrational frequencies and the frequency shifts are reported and analyzed for all of the configurations. We observed red-shift of the vibrational frequency for the stretching mode of the C-H bond that interacts with the π-cloud. Acetylene in the lowest-energy structures of the complexes exhibits significant red-shift of the C-H stretching frequency and change in intensity of the corresponding vibrational frequency, compared to bare acetylene. We have examined the molecular electrostatic potential on the surfaces of benzene, 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene, coronene and acetylene to explain the binding strengths of various complexes studied here.

  20. The effect of chemical structure on the stability of physical vapor deposited glasses of 1,3,5-triarylbenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianyi; Cheng, Kevin; Salami-Ranjbaran, Elmira; Gao, Feng; Li, Chen; Tong, Xiao; Lin, Yi-Chih; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, William; Klinge, Lindsey; Walsh, Patrick J.; Fakhraai, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    We detail the formation and properties associated with stable glasses (SG) formed by a series of structural analogues of 1,3-bis(1-naphthyl)-5-(2-naphthyl)benzene (α,α,β-TNB), a well-studied SG former. Five compounds with similar structural properties were synthesized and physical vapor-deposited with a constant deposition rate at various substrate temperatures (Tdep) in the range between 0.73 Tg and 0.96 Tg. These molecules include α,α,β-TNB, 3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-phenylbenzene (α,α-P), 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene (α,α-A), 9,9'-(5-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)dianthracene (β-AA), and 3,3',5,5'-tetra(naphthalen-1-yl)-1,1'-biphenyl (α,α,α,α-TNBP). Ellipsometry was used to study the transformations from the as-deposited glasses into ordinary glasses (OG). The stability of each film was evaluated by measuring the fictive temperature (Tf) and density difference between the as-deposited glass and OG. It is demonstrated that all five molecules can form SGs upon vapor deposition in this temperature range. In-depth studies on the dependence of the stability of as-deposited glasses upon Tdep were performed with three molecules, α,α,β-TNB, α,α-P, and α,α-A. The general trends of stability were comparable at the same Tdep/Tg for these three compounds. Similar to previous studies on α,α,β-TNB, vapor-deposited glasses of α,α-P and α,α-A formed the most stable structures around Tdep = 0.8-0.85 Tg. The most stable glass of each molecule showed the lowest thermal expansion coefficient compared to OG and a positive optical birefringence. However, the SGs of α,α-A were less stable compared to α,α-P and α,α,β-TNB at the relative Tdep/Tg. Based on Arrhenius extrapolation of the aging time, as a measure of stability, the most stable α,α-A glass was only aged for a few years as opposed to hundreds or thousands of years for other glasses. We hypothesize that the reduced stability is due to slower mobility at the free surface of

  1. Synthesis of novel triplets with a 1,3,5-trioxazatriquinane skeleton and their pharmacologies for opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Hiroshi; Kutsumura, Noriki

    2015-06-01

    We designed and synthesized novel triplet molecules with 1,3,5-trioxazatriquinane skeletons. One class comprises double-capped triplets with a morphinan skeleton; the other class comprises simple phenol derivatives with phenethylamine moieties. One compound with m-phenolic hydroxyl group, called SYK-146, is a highly selective, potent agonist for the κ receptor, with activity nearly equivalent to that of U-50488H. The o-phenolic isomer of SYK-146, called SYK-524, showed potent but non-selective agonistic activity for the opioid receptors. We also added several simple phenol derivatives to a library of compounds that target opioid receptors, and they showed high hit rates for the receptor. This library might also be expected to show high hit rates for other receptors.

  2. Mechanical and thermomechanical stability issues of 96.5SN-3.5AG solder joints in microelectronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong

    Flip chip technology is the ultimate solution for high performance and high density chip level interconnection. This thesis describes the investigation of using eutectic 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder for flip chip applications. The principal components of the research include mechanical characterization, bumping process development, and finite element simulation for solder joint reliability. A novel solder bumping process was developed for wafer level fabrication of 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder bumps. As a baseline process, an electroplating method was applied to fabricate the micro-scale solder bumps with 125-mum diameter, 250-mum pitch and approximately 80-mum height. Pre-deposition of solder bumps was carried out by electroplating over a fine-pattern photoresist mask. Rapid dissolution of Ag into Sn was accomplished during reflow and chip joining process. Nickel was selected as the diffusion barrier and wetting layer in the under-the-bump metallurgy (UBM). Microstructural and compositional analyses were performed using SEM and EDS. Three different mechanical testing techniques including tensile creep, lap shear creep, and automated ball indentation tests were used to characterize the mechanical deformation behavior of 96.5Sn-3.5Ag solder and solder joints. Constant-load creep tests on bulk specimens revealed a dislocation climb mechanism with a relatively large stress exponent of n = 10 for creep strain rates ranging from 10sp{-9} to 10sp{-3} and at temperatures ranging from 298K to 453K. The apparent activation energy for creep was found to be 0.57 ev. Lap shear creep tests on 96.5Sn-7.5Ag solder bumps also revealed a dislocation climb mechanism with a stress exponent of n = 10 for creep strain rates ranging from 10sp{-7} to 10sp{-4} at room temperature. In general, the solder joints are more creep resistant than the bulk specimen due to the inclusion of solder/base metal intermetallics. The intermetallic compounds may form precipitates or dispersoids in the solder matrix and

  3. Identification of the emission features near 3.5 microns in the pre main sequence star HD 97048

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baas, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Geballe, T. R.; Persson, S. E.; Lacy, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The spectrum of HD97048 was measured with a resolving power of 450 between 3.37 and 3.64 microns. The prominent feature near 3.5 microns is well resolved, with a peak at 3.53 microns and a wing extending to a shorter wavelength. The weaker feature near 3.4 microns is found to peak at 3.43 microns, in contrast to the 3.40 micron feature seen in other astronomical objects. The observed spectrum strongly resembles laboratory spectra of mixtures of monomeric and dimeric formaldehyde embedded in low temperature solids. Of various possible excitation mechanisms, ultraviolet pumped infrared fluorescence of formaldehyde in interstellar grains provides the best explanation for the observed spectrum of HD 97048.

  4. Monolithic silica capillary columns with immobilized cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) for enantiomer separations in CEC.

    PubMed

    He, Chiyang; Hendrickx, Ans; Mangelings, Debby; Smeyers-Verbeke, Johanna; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2009-11-01

    Two types of monolithic silica capillary columns with an immobilized cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (CDMPC) selector were prepared for enantiomer separations in CEC. The monolithic columns were prepared by a sol-gel process in fused-silica capillaries. CDMPC was then either immobilized on a silica monolith through an intermolecular polycondensation of the cellulose derivative containing a triethoxysilyl group, or on a vinylized silica monolith through radical copolymerization of the cellulose derivative, which also contained a vinyl group. IR spectra confirmed the successful immobilization of CDMPC on both columns. Eleven chiral compounds were used to evaluate the enantioselectivity on both column types. Results indicated that the columns obtained via polycondensation had higher separation ability than those obtained via radical polymerization, and that they showed satisfactory run-to-run repeatability and stability. These new techniques thus provide strategies for preparing immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral silica monolithic capillary columns for chiral separations by means of CEC.

  5. The South Carolina Amazing Coast Program: Using Ocean Sciences to Address Next Generation Science Standards in Grades 3-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E. V.; Thomas, C.; Weiss, B.; Bliss, A.; Spence, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are more inclusive of ocean sciences than the National Science Standards and respective state science standards. In response, the Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-SouthEast (COSEE SE) is piloting the South Carolina's Amazing Coast (SCAC) program: a three-year initiative that incorporates ocean science concepts in grades 3-5 with the goals of addressing NGSS, STEM (science-technology-engineering-math) disciplines, and inquiry skills. The SCAC program targeted two Charleston County, South Carolina elementary schools that were demographically similar: Title 1 status (75% free or reduced lunch), > 90% African American student population, grade level size <55, and proximity to tidal salt marsh or barrier islands (< 2 miles). Fourteen teachers and approximately 240 students participated in the SCAC program between 2010 and 2013. The SCAC framework uses a scaffolding and multi-pronged approach for teacher professional development and student engagement. The scaffolding approach to curriculum implementation focuses on one grade level per year (Year 1 = 3rd; Year 2 = 4th, and Year 3 = 5th), thus building student and teacher literacy in ocean sciences. The coach-mentor model of teacher professional development was also used for the implementation of the program which differs from the traditional 'train the trainer' method in allowing for more frequent and consistent interaction by COSEE SE staff with the students and teachers during the school year. The coach mentor model enabled the creation of a community of practice where teachers served as both learners and practitioners of student learning. Methods for student engagement aligned with the NGSS and included hands-on classroom activities, use of 'hook' species such as loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) and smooth cord grass (Spartina alterniflora), field experiences to explore local ecosystems, interactions with

  6. Investigation on the occurrence and significance of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in phytoplankton and natural aquatic communities

    SciTech Connect

    Francko, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study demonstrates, on the basis of several analyanalytical criteria, that the production and extracellular release of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is widespread among phytoplankton species. The production and release of CAMP varied markedly among different species grown under similar environmental conditions, and intraspecifically during the life cycle of a given algal species. This investigation marks the first time cAMP has been investigated in natural aquatic systems. An examination of epilimnetic lakewater samples from Lawrence Lake, a hardwater oligotrophic lake, and Wintergreen Lake, a hardwater hypereutrophic lake, both in southwestern Michigan, demonstrated that cAMP existed in both particulate-associated and dissolved forms in these systems.

  7. Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Behaviors of 1-(o-, m-, p- Cl, or Br) Substituted Phenyl-3, 5-diphenylformazans in Dimethyl Sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Habibe; Ekmekci, Güler

    2010-03-01

    1-(o-, m-, p-Cl, -Br) substituted phenyl-3, 5-diphenylformazans were synthesized. Their structures were elucidated and spectral behaviours were investigated by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-vis spectral data. The electrochemical properties such as number of electrons transferred (n), diffusion coefficient (D) and heterogeneous rate constant (ks) were determined and possible mechanisms were proposed using platinum and ultramicro platinum electrodes, cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The oxidations were carried out at different electrochemical steps that were dependent upon the structure of formazans. The relation between their absorption properties with electrochemical properties was investigated. A suitable correlation was obtained between the absorption λmax with electrochemical properties, and between the oxidation peak potentials Eox1 with ks values of formazans.

  8. Synthesis of Methyl 2,3,5-Tri-O-benzoyl-a-D-arabinofuranoside in the Organic Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callam, Christopher S.; Lowary, Todd L.

    2001-01-01

    We report an organic chemistry laboratory experiment in which methyl 2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-a-D-arabinofuranoside is synthesized. The product is obtained in two steps from commercially available D-arabinose, via Fischer glycosylation and benzoylation. The product is easily purified by crystallization. The primary purpose in implementing this experiment was to give students additional exposure to carbohydrate chemistry. In addition, the experiment provides an opportunity to discuss a number of other topics including kinetic vs thermodynamic control of reactions, mutarotation, the synthesis of esters, recrystallization, the separation of diastereomers, and optical activity. It is also possible to incorporate 2-D NMR spectroscopy into this experiment.

    See Correction to this article.

  9. Bis(quinolin-8-ol)silver(I) 2-hydr-oxy-3,5-dinitro-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Lan; Jian, Fang-Fang

    2009-11-07

    The title compound, [Ag(C(9)H(7)NO)(2)](C(7)H(3)N(2)O(7)), was prepared from 3,5-dinitro-salicylic acid (DNS), quinolin-8-ol and AgNO(3). The Ag(I) atom is coordinated by two N atoms and two O atoms from two quinolin-8-ols in a roughly planar [maximum deviation = 0.223 (2) Å] environment. The two quinolin-8-ol ligands are bent slightly with respect to each other, making a dihedral angle of 9.55 (9)°. The DNS anion inter-acts with the silver complex through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  10. Composition of chondrule silicates in LL3-5 chondrites and implications for their nebular history and parent body metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, Timothy J.; Scott, Edward R. D.; Keil, Klaus; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Jones, Rhian H.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of 75 type-IA and type-II porphyritic olivine chondrules from nine LL type 3 to type 5 chondrites was determined and was compared with that of chondrules from the Semarkona type 3.0 meteorite. Chemical data for silicates in the LL3.3-5 chondrites indicated that porphyritic olivine chondrules in these chondrites could be derived from chondrules similar to those from the Semarkona LL3.0, the least metamorphosed one of the known LL chondrites. It is shown that the chemical trends defined by the minerals of type-IA and type-II chondrules can be satisfactorily accounted for by the process of solid-state diffusive equilibration between minerals in chondrules and the opaque matrix rather than by changes in conditions during chondrule crystallization.

  11. High-Pressure Far- and Mid-Infrared Study of 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Pravica, M.; Yulga, B; Tkachev, S; Liu, Z

    2009-01-01

    Synchrotron infrared measurements of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) have been performed in the far-IR and mid-IR spectral regions up to {approx}30 and {approx}40 GPa, respectively. For the far-IR experiment, no pressurizing medium was used, whereas KBr was utilized as a pressurizing medium for the mid-IR experiment. For both experiments, pressure was cycled and IR spectra were recorded at various pressures to ascertain sample survival. In the high frequency region ({approx}3000 cm{sup -1}) of the mid-IR spectra, the peak frequencies of the NH{sub 2} symmetric and antisymmetric vibrational modes steadily decrease with increasing pressure, indicating strengthening of intermolecular hydrogen bonding with pressure. In both experiments, no apparent phase transition was observed to the highest pressures studied.

  12. Cholest-3,5-dien-7-one formation in peroxidized human plasma as an indicator of lipoprotein cholesterol peroxidation potential.

    PubMed

    Hahn, M; Tang, M; Subbiah, M T

    1995-04-06

    Lipoprotein peroxidation susceptibility is routinely evaluated using products of unsaturated fatty acids as markers (e.g., malonaldehyde). The significance and factors influencing peroxidation of cholesterol moiety of lipoproteins are relatively unknown due to lack of a reliable marker product which can be measured easily. Under the influence of Cu2+ ions, the major product of lipoprotein cholesterol peroxidation (isolated after saponification) was cholest-3-5-dien-7-one (CSD). Apart from gas-liquid chromatography, this compound lends itself for measurement by alternative methods. Due to lack of the 3 beta-hydroxyl group, CSD was separated from the rest of the oxysterols and cholesterol by passing through digitonin-coated silica-gel G and its concentration was determined by absorption at 283 nm. The recovery of CSD by this method exceeded by 87%. The formation of CSD was also sensitive to vitamin E and therefore could be used as an index of lipoprotein cholesterol susceptibility to peroxidation.

  13. Synthesis, structural, optical and thermal studies on 3, 5-diethyl-2, 6-di (4-fluorophenyl)-4-oxopiperidinium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvaraj, V.; NizamMohideen, M.; Arockia doss, M.; Rajarajan, G.; Savithiri, S.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2017-02-01

    A new organic compound 3, 5-diethyl-2, 6-di (4-fluorophenyl)-4-oxopiperidinium chloride (DFOC) was synthesized and its crystal was grown from ethanolic solution adopting the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The structure of the grown crystal was analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with space group Pnma. 1H and 13C Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of DFOC were recorded to elucidate its molecular structure. UV-vis-NIR spectral study showed that the grown crystal is transparent in the entire visible region with the lower cut-off wavelength of 269 nm. The thermal stability of DFOC was studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal (TG-DTA) analyses.

  14. Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using 2,3,5,6-tetrakis-(morpholinomethyl) hydroquinone as reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Manivel, P; Balamurugan, A; Ponpandian, N; Mangalaraj, D; Viswanathan, C

    2012-09-01

    2,3,5,6-Tetrakis-(morpholinomethyl) hydroquinone (TMMH) was used as a reducing agent to synthesize spherical shaped silver nanoparticles in water-ethanol medium without using any stabilizing and capping agents. The reducing agent TMMH is prepared by Mannich-type reaction method and (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the compound (TMMH). The nature of bonding, structural and optical properties of the final product were analyzed using different techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The interaction between silver and reducing agent was confirmed by using FTIR analysis. The final product obtained showed higher crystallinity with cubic structure and an average crystalline size of about 20 nm. The results revealed that it is possible to synthesize crystalline Ag nanoparticles using organic compound as reducing agent.

  15. Preliminary gas chromatography with mass spectrometry determination of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in biological specimens as evidence of taxus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Froldi, R; Croci, P F; Dell'Acqua, L; Farè, F; Tassoni, G; Gambaro, V

    2010-01-01

    Taxus baccata is a widely distributed yew often associated with cases of fatal intoxication, which is related to the high amounts of cardiotoxic alkaloids, taxine A and taxine B, contained in its leaves. In this paper, a case of Taxus fatal poisoning, hypothesized by the forensic autopsy, has been confirmed by the application of both gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) techniques. A GC-MS method was used for the determination of the derivatized 3,5-dimethoxyphenol, a cyanogenic aglylactone considered as a marker of Taxus poisoning, being present in all species of Taxus. The detection by LC-MS-MS of taxine B and isotaxine B in the biological specimens confirmed the absorption of cardiotoxic alkaloids and allowed to established the cause of death as the ingestion of Taxus baccata leaves.

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Wujcik, C.E.; Seiber, J.N.

    1996-07-01

    Optimization of a methanol-modified supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique using carbon dioxide has resulted in the effective recovery of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) from spiked and native soils. Several parameters, including modifier concentration, temperature, density, and static and dynamic extraction time were varied independently to determine the effect of each on analyte recovery. The optimal SFE conditions are: 5% methanol, 150{degree}C, 7500 PSI, 5 minutes static extraction and 15 minutes dynamic extraction. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography using electron-capture detection (ECD). SFE quantitatively recovered both TNT and TNB from the soil matrix in considerably less time than conventional Soxhlet extraction with ethyl acetate and sonication with acetonitrile. 12 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Synthesis, structure characterization and antimicrobial evaluation of 4-(substituted phenylazo)-3,5-diacetamido-1H-pyrazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinali-Demirci, Selin; Demirci, Serkan; Kurt, Mustafa

    2013-04-01

    The present article deals with the synthesis, spectral characterization and antimicrobial activity of phenylazo dyes. All of the synthesized phenylazo dyes were characterized using ATR-FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectroscopic techniques. Solvent effects on the UV-Vis absorption spectra of these phenylazo dyes were studied. Acid and base effects on the visible absorption maxima of the phenylazo dyes were also reported. The structural and spectroscopic analysis of the molecules were carried out using Density Functional Theory (DFT) employing the standard 6-31G(d) basis set, and the optimized geometries and calculated vibrational frequencies were evaluated via comparison with experimental values. The antimicrobial activity of 4-(substituted phenylazo)-3,5-diacetamido-1H-pyrazoles was reported against bacteria, including B. cereus (RSKK 863), S. aureus (ATCC 259231), M. luteus (NRRL B-4375), E. coli (ATCC 11230) and the yeast C. albicans (ATCC 10239).

  18. Vibrational analysis of trans, Trans, trans-2,3,4,5-tetrachlorohexa-1,3,5-trienes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szakacs, L.; Csakvari, B.; Panchenko, Yu. N.; Pentin, Yu. A.; Aroca, R.

    Infrared and Raman spectra of t, T, t-2,3,4,5-tetrachlorohexa-1,3,5-triene were measured in liquid and crystalline phases. It is suggested that the non-planar structure of this compound may be due to the 1-3 effect. In the liquid state a mixture of rotational isomers, of C2 and Ci symmetry, was confirmed by the freezing-out of some characteristic bands in the 1600 cm -1 region in the IR and Raman spectra of the t, T, t-compound. Normal coordinate analysis was carried out using force constant values from the force field previously determined for chloroderivatives of buta-1,3-diene. A complete assignment of observed frequencies is proposed.

  19. Influence of structure 3,5,7,3‧,4‧-Pentahydroxyflavone-based polymer films on their optical transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishurov, Dmytro; Voronkin, Andrii; Roshal, Alexander; Bogatyrenko, Sergey

    2017-02-01

    Optical properties and morphology of polymer films based on diglycidyl ether of bis-phenol A and on natural compound 3,5,7,3‧,4‧-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin) using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction methods have been investigated. The influence of ordering degree of the polymers, flexibility of their chains, intensity of intermolecular interaction between the quercetine moieties on the polymers' morphology was discussed. It is shown that all the quercetine-based polymer films are transparent at visible and near infrared regions beginning from 420 to 450 nm. Low optical transparency in the short-wavelength region can be explained the self-absorption of quercetin moieties in the polymer chains.

  20. 3.5-Ga hydrothermal fields and diamictites in the Barberton Greenstone Belt—Paleoarchean crust in cold environments

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Maarten J.; Furnes, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of ocean temperatures on Earth 3.5 billion years ago (Ga) range between 26° and 85°C. We present new data from 3.47- to 3.43-Ga volcanic rocks and cherts in South Africa suggesting that these temperatures reflect mixing of hot hydrothermal fluids with cold marine and terrestrial waters. We describe fossil hydrothermal pipes that formed at ~200°C on the sea floor >2 km below sea level. This ocean floor was uplifted tectonically to sea level where a subaerial hydrothermal system was active at 30° to 270°C. We also describe shallow-water glacial diamictites and diagenetic sulfate mineral growth in abyssal muds. These new observations reveal that both hydrothermal systems operated in relatively cold environments and that Earth’s surface temperatures in the early Archean were similar to those in more recent times. PMID:26933677