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Sample records for otorhinolaryngology sirmione 3-5

  1. Otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Weir, N.

    2000-01-01

    Otorhinolaryngology, a product of the early 20th century, developed from the joining together of the separate departments of otology, whose practitioners were surgeons, and laryngology which was managed by physicians who also treated diseases of the nose and chest. The 20th century opened with brave attempts to perform skilful surgery under conditions of primitive anaesthesia and no antibiotics. The stimulus of two world wars led to significant advances in technology and greater opportunities to explore new and resurrect old surgical procedures. The discovery of antibiotics saw an end to acute mastoiditis and the complications of otitis media and sinusitis, as well as a decline in the number of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy operations.
Over the last 30 years the specialty has undergone dramatic development and has taken advantage of new advances in endoscopy, microsurgery, the use of lasers, cytotoxic drugs, flap reconstruction and microchip technology. During the same period, although still calling themselves otorinolaryngologists, individual surgeons have subspecialised in otology, otoneurosurgery and skull-base surgery, head and neck surgery, phonosurgery, rhinology and facioplastic surgery, and paediatric otothinolaryngology. Each of these subspecialties has its own societies and specialist journals.


Keywords: otorhinolaryngology; history of medicine PMID:10644381

  2. Lasers in otorhinolaryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais Clemente, Manuel P.

    1992-03-01

    Lasers are now commonly accepted and widely used surgical instruments in otorhinolaryngology. There have been a great number of technological advances with lasers that have contributed to the expansion of this new surgical modality with an increased number of medical applications. Surgical strategies have also changed and are more favorable toward conservative surgery in which less tissues is removed than with more radical resections. This combination of improving technology and medical attitudes has changed the field of otorhinolaryngology, and resulted in an expanding use of laser surgery. Since 1973 we have been using the carbon dioxide laser in the treatment of diseases of the upper aero digestive systems, learning this new surgical technique from the pioneer work of Strong, Jako, and Vaughan. It is our conviction that a laser surgeon must have a thorough knowledge of laser biophysics, instrumentation, safety protocols, and surgical indications, and have the technical skills to perform laser surgery. Laser technology continues to improve at an increased speed, and it is imperative to update knowledge of current and potential applications of lasers in our specialty. It is the purpose of this article to present our clinical experience of 18 years with the use of lasers in surgery of ORL, emphasizing the carbon dioxide laser.

  3. [Otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Lendoiro, Celia; Souvirón, Rosalía; Aránguez, Gracia; Scola, Bartolomé

    2005-03-01

    The terrorist attack on 11 March caused a high percentage of patients with ear injuries. Shock waves provoke alterations to the external ear as well as to the middle and inner ear. The most frequent lesion is tympanic membrane perforation. Initial evaluation with otoscopy, acoumetry, tonal audiometry and vestibular examination was performed and was repeated after 2 and 3 months. In most patients there was a correlation between the grade of middle ear lesion and auditory damage. In most patients with tympanic rupture, the perforation was total or subtotal. Spontaneous closure can occur in some patients but is usually related to the size of the initial lesion. Thus in tympanic perforations of more than 50%, spontaneous closure is unlikely. PMID:15771843

  4. [Magnetic resonance--personal experience with its use in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Skerík, P; Belán, A; Lízler, J; Dolejs, Z

    1989-07-01

    The authors present their initial experience with the visualization by magnetic resonance (MR) in otorhinolaryngology in the CSR. Due to multidimensional and high contrast visualization, MR facilitates greatly spatial orientation as regards localization and size of the pathological process. Its importance otorhinolaryngology is in particular in the diagnosis of neoplastic diseases. For some localizations of tumours MR is the method of choice. PMID:2791047

  5. [The place of otorhinolaryngology in modern medicine].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T

    2016-01-01

    This publication is devoted to the peculiar features of the development of otorhinolaryngology as an integral component of modern medical science and practice and the place it now occupies among other disciplines. Much attention is given to the formation of the scientific views of focal infections with special reference to tonsillitis, the role of immune pathology an allergic reactions in etiology and pathogenesis of ENT diseases. Also considered is the problem of the elaboration of the new surgical methods and their application for the treatment of ENT pathology.

  6. [The place of otorhinolaryngology in modern medicine].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T

    2016-01-01

    This publication is devoted to the peculiar features of the development of otorhinolaryngology as an integral component of modern medical science and practice and the place it now occupies among other disciplines. Much attention is given to the formation of the scientific views of focal infections with special reference to tonsillitis, the role of immune pathology an allergic reactions in etiology and pathogenesis of ENT diseases. Also considered is the problem of the elaboration of the new surgical methods and their application for the treatment of ENT pathology. PMID:27351043

  7. Relationship Between Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Kang, Ho Min; Oh, In-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Obesity rates have been increasing for all population groups worldwide, leading to the increased development of various diseases. This study was designed is to identify the relationships between obesity and several important otorhinolaryngologic diseases, including chronic otitis media (COM), chronic rhinosinusitis, and chronic tonsillitis. Methods Mean body mass index (BMI) was compared in patients with COM, rhinosinusitis, and tonsillitis and in a control group. The relationships among the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity, morbidity period, and BMI were assessed in each group. Results Mean BMIs in the COM, rhinosinusitis, and tonsillitis groups were 24.45±2.72 kg/m2, 24.68±3.25 kg/m2, and 24.67±3.82 kg/m2, respectively, with each significantly higher than in the control group (23.22±3.01 kg/m2, P<0.05). The rates of obesity in the COM, rhinosinusitis, and tonsillitis groups were 37.5%, 42.9%, and 40.1%, respectively, each significantly higher than in the control group (24.3%, P<0.05). However, the rates of overweight did not differ significantly in the COM, rhinosinusitis, and tonsillitis compared with the control group (P>0.05 each). Conclusion Mean BMI and the prevalence of obesity were elevated in the three groups of patients with representative otorhinolaryngologic inflammatory diseases, including COM, chronic rhinosinusitis, and chronic tonsillitis. PMID:26330910

  8. Historical Contribution of Otorhinolaryngology in Split Region till 1923.

    PubMed

    Ivanisević, Petar; Ivanisević, Milan; Kontić, Mirko; Klancnik, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    The beginnings of the modern otorhinolaryngology in Croatia started in the second half of the 19th century. Before that, there were only rare attempts of some doctors who published medical papers touching the frame of otorhinolaryngology. Mainly those were the PhD's disertations at Vienna, Budapest and Padua University. Among them there was dr Ivo Manola from Split, who in Padua in 1834 took a doctor's degree dealing with otologic diseases. Dr Nikola Fertilio (Nerezisća the island of Brac, 1861--Trieste, 1928) was the first otorhinolaryngologist out of a hospital in Split and Dalmatia. He studied medicine partly in Graz and Vienna, where he graduated in 1890. During 1903 he finished severeal otorhinolaryngological courses which were held by professors Viktor Urbantschitsch and Alfred Bing and by private doctor assistant professor Markus Hajek. During the winter 1903/04 he attended the "Semestralkurs über praktische Orhenheilkunde" at professor Adam Politzer, founder and managing director of the first Otology Clinic in Vienna and the world in 1873. He worked in Trieste, where he practiced otorhinolaryngology. Dr. Fertilio a specialist for diseases of nose, ear and throat, occasionally, usually during his holidays, came from Trieste to Dalmatia (Split, Zadar, Sibenik, Dubrovnik and Kotor) to treat and operate patients. He was comming to Split from 1904 till 1914. He published and announced his commings in the local newpapers. He used to come in summer, most often in August and stayed from several days till two weeks. He stayed and had a practice in Hotel Bellevue. As there wasn't an otorhinolaryngologist in the regional hospital of Split till 1923, otorhinolaryngological operations were occasionally performed by doctors of other surgical branches. Otorhinolaryngologist dr Aleksandar Dorsner came to Split hospital in 1923 and organized otorhinolaryngological service that he led till 1934. PMID:27301241

  9. Historical Contribution of Otorhinolaryngology in Split Region till 1923.

    PubMed

    Ivanisević, Petar; Ivanisević, Milan; Kontić, Mirko; Klancnik, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    The beginnings of the modern otorhinolaryngology in Croatia started in the second half of the 19th century. Before that, there were only rare attempts of some doctors who published medical papers touching the frame of otorhinolaryngology. Mainly those were the PhD's disertations at Vienna, Budapest and Padua University. Among them there was dr Ivo Manola from Split, who in Padua in 1834 took a doctor's degree dealing with otologic diseases. Dr Nikola Fertilio (Nerezisća the island of Brac, 1861--Trieste, 1928) was the first otorhinolaryngologist out of a hospital in Split and Dalmatia. He studied medicine partly in Graz and Vienna, where he graduated in 1890. During 1903 he finished severeal otorhinolaryngological courses which were held by professors Viktor Urbantschitsch and Alfred Bing and by private doctor assistant professor Markus Hajek. During the winter 1903/04 he attended the "Semestralkurs über praktische Orhenheilkunde" at professor Adam Politzer, founder and managing director of the first Otology Clinic in Vienna and the world in 1873. He worked in Trieste, where he practiced otorhinolaryngology. Dr. Fertilio a specialist for diseases of nose, ear and throat, occasionally, usually during his holidays, came from Trieste to Dalmatia (Split, Zadar, Sibenik, Dubrovnik and Kotor) to treat and operate patients. He was comming to Split from 1904 till 1914. He published and announced his commings in the local newpapers. He used to come in summer, most often in August and stayed from several days till two weeks. He stayed and had a practice in Hotel Bellevue. As there wasn't an otorhinolaryngologist in the regional hospital of Split till 1923, otorhinolaryngological operations were occasionally performed by doctors of other surgical branches. Otorhinolaryngologist dr Aleksandar Dorsner came to Split hospital in 1923 and organized otorhinolaryngological service that he led till 1934.

  10. Prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses in the pediatric emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Signorelli, Luiz Gabriel; Mendes, Elaine de Abreu

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Fever and pain, which are very common in ear, nose, and throat pathologies, are among the most frequent complaints recorded during emergency room pediatric patient treatment. Most of time, the pediatricians are called on to evaluate otorhinolaryngology disorders that requires specialist assessment. Aim: To determine the prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses in a pediatric population in a reference hospital in the city of Itatiba, São Paulo. Methods: We evaluated 2,054 pediatric patients (age range, 0–12 years, 11 months) in this descriptive, transversal observational (survey) study. Data collection was performed by a single observer during 103 night shifts (07:00 p.m. to 07:00 a.m.) between January and December 2011, and included documentation of the main diagnosis, and patient age and sex. The ethics committee and research institution approved study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on diagnosis: Group A otorhinolaryngology disease and Group B included diagnoses not contained in Group A. Results: Of the total enrolled patients, 52.2% corresponded to Group A and 47.8% to Group B; 51.9% were male and 48.1% were female. The average age was 4.5 years (Group A, 3.93 years; Group B, 5.03 years). We compared the prevalence of the diagnostic hypotheses of the 2 groups. Conclusion: A large number of patients sought treatment at pediatric emergency rooms for otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses. PMID:25991987

  11. Phytomedicine in Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology: Clinical Trials with Herbal Remedies

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Koosha Ghazi; Inançlı, Hasan Mete; Bazazy, Nazanin; Plinkert, Peter K.; Efferth, Thomas; Sertel, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    Phytomedicine has become an important alternative treatment option for patients in the Western world, as they seek to be treated in a holistic and natural way after an unsatisfactory response to conventional drugs. Ever since herbal remedies have been introduced in the Western world, clinicians have raised concerns over their efficacy and possible side-effects. A PubMed (Medline) search was performed covering the last five years (01/07–04/12) and including 55 prospective clinical randomized control trials in the medical specialities Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology. In this review, we present evidence-based clinical data with herbal remedies and try to enlighten the question of efficacy and reliability of phytomedicine. PMID:24280678

  12. [Specific aspects of anesthesiological management of laser surgery in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Wetsch, W A; Beutner, D; Stuermer, K J; Padosch, S A

    2014-03-01

    Transoral laser surgery has become a standard procedure in the treatment of benign and malignant neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract. As the laser cuts and coagulates simultaneously, intraoperative bleeding is reduced, thus improving visualization of the operative field. However, the specific risks for patients and personnel that are associated with this technique necessitate strict compliance with safety regulations and precautions. The safe anesthesiological and surgical management of such procedures requires explicit knowledge of the risks inherent to laser use, as well as close communication between surgeon and anesthesiologist throughout all operative and perioperative procedures. Although potentially fatal complications are rare, surgeon and anesthesiologist need to be aware of the dangers at all times and have exact knowledge of emergency measures. The use of suitable laser-resistant endotracheal tubes, total intravenous anesthesia and an optimized breathing gas mixture can contribute to minimize the occurrence of complications in otorhinolaryngology laser surgery.

  13. [Specific aspects of anesthesiological management of laser surgery in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Wetsch, W A; Beutner, D; Stuermer, K J; Padosch, S A

    2014-06-01

    Transoral laser surgery has become a standard procedure in the treatment of benign and malignant neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract. As the laser cuts and coagulates simultaneously, intraoperative bleeding is reduced, thus improving visualization of the operative field. However, the specific risks for patients and personnel that are associated with this technique necessitate strict compliance with safety regulations and precautions. The safe anesthesiological and surgical management of such procedures requires explicit knowledge of the risks inherent to laser use, as well as close communication between surgeon and anesthesiologist throughout all operative and perioperative procedures. Although potentially fatal complications are rare, surgeon and anesthesiologist need to be aware of the dangers at all times and have exact knowledge of emergency measures. The use of suitable laser-resistant endotracheal tubes, total intravenous anesthesia and an optimized breathing gas mixture can contribute to minimize the occurrence of complications in otorhinolaryngology laser surgery.

  14. [Digital subtraction angiography in otorhinolaryngology--preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Wang, J; Bi, S

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the preliminary experience with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in otorhinolaryngology. This series included racemose hemangioma of the auricle in 3 cases, juvenile angiofibroma of nasopharynx in 4 cases, angioma in the retropharyngeal space in 1 case, tympanic body tumor in 1 case, traumatic epistaxis in 1 case, traumatic pseudoaneurysm in 1 case. The site, supply arteries, drainage veins of vascular tumors were shown with DSA. The intraoperative bleeding was reduced significantly by preoperative embolization of supply arteries to vascular tumors. The broken arteries of the traumatic epistaxis and the traumatic pseudoaneurysm were not only discovered but embolized. The indications and complications of DSA and measures for preventing and reducing complications were discussed.

  15. Therapeutic methods for psychosomatic disorders in oto-rhino-laryngology

    PubMed Central

    Decot, Elke

    2005-01-01

    Psychosomatic disorders such as tinnitus, acute hearing loss, attacks of dizziness, globus syndrome, dysphagias, voice disorders and many more are quite common in ear, nose and throat medicine. They are mostly caused by a number of factors, although the bio-psycho-social model does play an important role. Initial contact with a psychosomatically ill patient and compiling a first case history are important steps to psychosomatic oriented therapy. This contribution will sum up the most important otorhinolaryngological diseases with psychosomatic comorbidity and scientifically evaluated methods of treatment. The contribution will also introduce the reader to important psychosomatic treatment methods from psychotherapeutic relaxation techniques to talk therapy. To conclude, the contribution will discuss the criteria for outpatient as well as inpatient treatment and look at the advantages of psychosomatically oriented therapy, both for the patient and for the doctor. PMID:22073069

  16. [Role of cone-beam computed tomography in diagnostic otorhinolaryngological imaging].

    PubMed

    Perényi, Ádám; Bella, Zsolt; Baráth, Zoltán; Magyar, Péter; Nagy, Katalin; Rovó, László

    2016-01-10

    Accurate diagnosis and preoperative planning in modern otorhinolaryngology is strongly supported by imaging with enhanced visualization. Computed tomography is often used to examine structures within bone frameworks. Given the hazards of ionizing radiation, repetitive imaging studies exponentially increase the risk of damages to radiosensitive tissues. The authors compare multislice and cone-beam computed tomography and determine the role, advantages and disadvantages of cone-beam computed tomography in otorhinolaryngological imaging. They summarize the knowledge from the international literature and their individual imaging studies. They conclude that cone-beam computed tomography enables high-resolution imaging and reconstruction in any optional plane and in space with considerably lower effective radiation dose. Cone-beam computed tomography with appropriate indications proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool in otorhinolaryngological imaging. It makes an alternative to multislice computed tomography and it is an effective tool in perioperative and postoperative follow-up, especially in those cases which necessitate repetitive imaging with computed tomography.

  17. [Use of the Nd:YAG laser in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Werner, J A; Rudert, H

    1992-07-01

    The Nd:YAG laser is suitable for the treatment of various otorhinolaryngological clinical disorders. These include the palliative reduction of tumor size in sites with difficult access, treatment of hemangiomas and reduction of hyperplastic turbinates. Within certain limits, other indications are treatment of recurrent epistaxis and recurrent polyposis. Palliative reduction of malignancies in the nasopharynx, esophagus, and bronchial system (laser power density: 1500-8000 W/cm2) must sometimes be carried out in several sessions in order to avoid complications due to the laser (i.e., perforation of the bronchial or esophageal wall, lesions of adjacent vessels or nerves). Nd:YAG laser treatment of hemangiomas (500-3000 W/cm2) can lead to excellent results. To avoid excessive thermal lesions, vascular tissue is cooled with ice cubes or with an ice-cold Ringer's solution. The laser process is continued until the onset of tissue blanching. Carbonizations of the tissue are to be avoided. In Nd:YAG laser therapy of hyperplastic lower nasal conchae (approx. 1000 W/cm2), results are based on submucous scarring in which the covering epithelium is maintained. The objective of Nd:YAG laser treatment of recurrent epistaxis in patients with Osler's disease (500 W/cm2) is to reduce the incidence of hemorrhage. Use of the laser in recurrent polyposis is best confined to patients who refuse conventional surgical revision operations. Laser light (500-3500 W/cm2) should only be applied for a short period of time (0.5 s) to avoid creating a rarefying osteitis. PMID:1500302

  18. [Safe patient care: safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    St Pierre, M

    2013-04-01

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organisation's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organizations maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organisation's "safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality.Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate simulation based team trainings into their curriculum.

  19. [Safe patient care: safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    St Pierre, M

    2013-04-01

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organisation's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organizations maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organisation's "safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality.Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate simulation based team trainings into their curriculum

  20. Safe patient care - safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    St Pierre, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organization's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organization's maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organization's safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality. Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate stimulation based team trainings into their

  1. Influence of laser light on bioimplants used in otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Siedek, Vanessa; Nehls, Kristina; Zur Nieden, Katrin; Leunig, Andreas; Sroka, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    In otorhinolaryngology, dermatology and reconstructive surgery biomaterials as implants and a variety of lasers are used. Laser light applied near to an implant could have the risk to damage these materials. Therefore, their resistance exposed to laser light is of interest. A diode laser emitting at 940 nm and a CO2 laser were used to investigate its effects to the biomaterials Bioverit®, Medpor® and Palacos®, and in addition, an excised implant containing Medpor® and nasal turbinate tissue, excised and fixed in formalin. The macro- and microscopic changes of the material, temperature development during laser energy application in dependency to distance of fibre and material, time of exposure and applied power were investigated. Interaction of diode laser light with Bioverit® (0 mm distance, 360 s, 10 W, 3,600 J) resulted in minimal microscopic effects in direct contact of with the fibre. Using Medpor® (1 mm, 10s, 10 W, 100 J) resulted in melting and perforation. In the case of Palacos® (0.6 mm, 10s, 10 W, 100 J), melting occurred creating a flat excavation. The effect to Medpor® in nasal turbinate (1-2 mm, 10s, 10 W, 100 J) showed tissue denaturation and carbonisation and creation of a hole. The interaction of the CO2 laser with Bioverit® (3 cm, 0.5, 1 and 5 s, 2, 10 or 20 W) induced melting and discolouring resulting finally in a perforating hole. Depending on the material, first damage starts 10 s after an impact of 100 J (threshold value). So interaction between laser energy and biomaterials occurs. This should be carefully considered during clinical laser treatments especially nearby implants.

  2. Writing an article for the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery: rights and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Laccourreye, O; Tran Ba Huy, P; Dubreuil, C; Blumen, M; Guerrier, B; Martin, C

    2010-06-01

    Based on a review of the literature published on medical writing, the authors discuss the rules to respect in terms of both structure and substance to facilitate publication of studies in the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. The main errors leading to an article's being rejected are detailed and analyzed.

  3. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  4. [Optimization of aerosol therapy in otorhinolaryngology: stability and granulometry of dexamethasone-gomenol-framycetin solution].

    PubMed

    Bellanger, A; Becquemin, M H; Feldman, D; Bertholon, J F; Tankere, F

    2001-02-01

    Nebulization of solutions associating gomenol, dexamethasone and framycetin is very widespread in otorhinolaryngology (particularly for the treatment of actue laryngitis and post-traumatic laryngitis and rhinitis and for the tracheotomy care). A rigorous clinical evaluation is however lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate use of such solutions in comparison with the recommendations issuing from the National Session in April 1997 on good practices for aerosol therapeutics. Stability and granulometry were studied in order to optimize processing. A new formulation and new technical methods of administration are proposed in relation to the results of this study and the national recommendations.

  5. [The remote post-graduate education in otorhinolaryngology: the first results and further prospects].

    PubMed

    Nosulya, E V; Kosyakov, S Ya; Kim, I A; Piskunov, G Z

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was the retrospective analysis of the efficiency of two courses of remote education of otorhinolaryngologists in the real-time mode based on the results of the on-line questionnaire study. We analyzed the data obtained during the implementation of the pilot project of the remote post-graduate education at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology,Russian Medical Academy of Post-Graduate Education making use of the independent Internet resource for the professional training of otorhinolaryngologists. The two programs of remote education realized in 2012 and 2013 involved 7.9% of all otorhinolaryngologists practicing in the Russian Federation. The fraction of those who passed through all stages of the learning process increased almost two-fold, that is from 10% in 2012 up to 19% in 2013. About 14% of the participants made themselves familiar with all program modules; this result is in agreement with the data obtained in mass on-line remote teaching of the non-medical audience. It is concluded that the results of the present study provide a basis for the elaboration of the remote education programs for the training of specialists not only in otorhinolaryngology but also in other fields of medicine.

  6. [Treatment of otorhinolaryngologic diseases of deficient heat type with Professor XIE Qiang's Tihu Guanding needling method].

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Xie, Qiange; Huang, Bing-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Professor XIE Qiang's Tihu Guanding needling method, a kind of acupuncture method which takes acupoints of the Conception Vessel as the primary and acupoints of the Governor Vessel as the secondary. Acupoints Lianquan (CV 23), Tiantu (CV 22), Qihai (CV 6), Zhongwan (CV 12), Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14) are adopted as the basic ones. Other points can be added according to various symptoms, for instance, Yingxiang (LI 20) and Yintang (GV 29) for rhinopathy, Tinggong (SI 19) and Yifeng (TE 17) for otopathy, Yan'an (Professor XIE's experience) and Shanglianquan (EX-HN 21) for pharyngopathy and Kaiyin 1 (Professor XIE's experience) and Kaiyin 2 (Professor XIE's experience) for laryngopathy. During the needle retention, rotation manipulation should be done every 5 min at Lianquan (CV 23). And the patient should be told to put the tip of one's tongue at the the palate as well as to do deep breathing to communicate the Conception Vessel and the Governor Vessel. Moxibustion is adopted at Yongquan (KI 1) to induce the up floating fire to mingmen (where the primary yang is stored). The therapeutic effect on treatment of persistent otorhinolaryngologic diseases with the above mentioned method is approve to be good. PMID:24673067

  7. [Peripheral vertigo classification. Consensus document. Otoneurology committee of the Spanish otorhinolaryngology society (2003-2006)].

    PubMed

    Morera, Constantino; Pérez, Herminio; Pérez, Nicolás; Soto, Andrés

    2008-02-01

    There are many different vertigo classifications and different denominations are frequently used for the same clinical processes. The Otoneurology Committee of the Spanish Society for Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Pathology proposes an eminently practical classification of peripheral vertigo to facilitate a common terminology that can be easily used by the general ENT practitioners. The methodology used has been by consensus within our Society and especially among the most outstanding work groups in the area of otoneurology in Spain. Initially vertigo is divided into single-episode vertigo and recurring attacks of vertigo, and these are then sub-divided into 2 groups, depending on whether or not hearing loss is present. Acute vertigo without hearing loss corresponds to vestibular neuritis and if it is associated with hearing loss, it is due to labyrinthitis of different aetiologies and cochleo-vestibular neuritis. Recurrent vertigos without hearing loss are classified as induced, either by posture (BPPV) or pressure (perilymphatic fistula), or as spontaneous, including migraine-associated vertigo, metabolic vertigo, childhood paroxysmal vertigo and vertigo of vascular causes (AITs, vertebral-basilar failure). Finally, recurrent vertigo with hearing loss includes Ménière's disease and others such as vertigo-migraine (with hearing loss), autoimmune pathology of the inner ear, syphilitic infection, and perilymphatic fistula (with hearing loss).

  8. [Expert-assessment of suitability for a driving license in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Waldfahrer, F; Wagner, H J; Iro, H

    1999-11-01

    An absolute requirement for acquiring a driving license according to German law consists in the suitability for driving a motor vehicle. The "driving license decree" defines these requirements; in case of doubt the administrative authority may demand a medical certificate. According to law (enactment: 1.1.99) these medical certificates must be refunded by either appropriate medical specialists, company doctors or public health officers. The criterions for appraisal are set down in the guidelines for driving ability which are edited by the advisory board for traffic medicine; a new edition will be published soon. Concerning otorhinolaryngology hearing impairment and dizziness are the most relevant diseases. Bilateral deafness is no general exception for conferring a driving license for the classes A and B; for classes C and DE hearing loss, established from the pure tone audiogram must not exceed 60%; an exceptional case is a three year demonstration of reliability in class B. Permanent dizziness or vertigo attacks are in most cases incompatible with conferring driving licenses. The most important issue for medical appraisal is to determine the amount of compensation of the impaired sense organ. Therefore in cases of multiple disabilities more stringent criterions must be established.

  9. Comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the Practice of Otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Heloisa Sobreira; Pinto, José Antonio; Zavanela, Adma Roberta; Cavallini, André Freitas; Freitas, Gabriel Santos; Garcia, Fabiola Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease has a prevalence of ∼12% of the urban population in Brazil. Koufman proposed the term to designate Laryngeal Pharyngeal Reflux (LPR) symptoms, signs or tissue damage resulting from aggression of the gastrointestinal contents in the upper aerodigestive tract. Belafsky et al proposed a score that points to inflammatory laryngeal signs through videolaryngoscopic findings, the Reflux Finding Score (RFS). Moreover, in 2002, they published the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). Objective  The objective of this study is to provide a comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the practice of Otorhinolaryngology. Methods  Our study involved a total of 135 patients who visited the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) clinic Núcleo de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço de São Paulo between April 2014 and May 2015 with suspected LPR. We excluded nine patients and the study group was 126 patients. All patients were ranked by their RSI and RFS scores. Results  The study group consisted of 126 patients (88 women and 38 men). Their main complaints were cough (40.4%), globus (21.4%), dysphonia (19.8%), throat clearing (15.8%), postnasal drip (3.17%), snoring (1.5%), dysphagia (1.5%), cacosmia (0.7%), and regurgitation (1.5%). The RSI ranges from 13 to 42 with a mean of 20.7 (SD = 6.67). The RFS ranged from 3 to 19 with a mean of 9.53 (SD = 2.64). Conclusion  The RSI and RFS can easily be included in ENT routines as objective parameters, with low cost and high practicality. Based on the clinical index, the specialist can evaluate the need for further tests. PMID:27413402

  10. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional Defense contractor is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project, but at least one of...

  11. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional Defense contractor is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project, but at least one of...

  12. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional Defense contractor is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project, but at least one of...

  13. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional Defense contractor is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project, but at least one of...

  14. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional Defense contractor is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project, but at least one of...

  15. Water Sourcebook. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville.

    The goal of this supplemental activity guide for elementary students in grades 3-5 is to develop awareness, knowledge, and skills for sound water use decisions. Materials developed for the program are compatible with existing curriculum standards established by State Boards of Education throughout the United States and teach concepts included in…

  16. Potential impact of the financial crisis on outpatient hospital visits due to otorhinolaryngologic disorders in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Karatzanis, Alexander D; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Nikolaou, Vasilios; Velegrakis, George A

    2012-01-01

    The public health effect of financial crises has been emphasized in previous studies. In addition, a series of otorhinolaryngologic disorders and manifestations has been related to psychological factors in the literature. Such conditions include temporomandibular joint disorders, laryngopharyngeal reflux, chronic tinnitus, and vertigo. Focusing on the outpatient database records of a large hospital in Crete, Greece, the objective of this retrospective study was to explore possible occurrence variations within the prementioned otorhinolaryngologic morbidity which may be potentially attributed to increased levels of socioeconomic stress. Results revealed that although the total number of visits between two periods - before and after the beginning of the financial crisis in Greece - was comparable, a significant increase in the diagnosis of two disorders, namely vertigo and tinnitus was found. In addition, a trend toward increased rate of diagnosis for reflux and temporomandibular joint disorders was noted. Potential implications of these findings are discussed. In conclusion, health care providers in this as well as in other countries facing similar socio-economic conditions should be aware of potential changes in the epidemiologic figures regarding specific medical conditions.

  17. Determination of the biofilm formation capacity of bacterial pathogens associated with otorhinolaryngologic diseases in the Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Yalda; Ling, Lina Chooi; Loke, Mun Fai; Shailendra, Sivalingam; Prepageran, Narayanan; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to assess the association between microbial composition, biofilm formation and chronic otorhinolaryngologic disorders in Malaysia. A total of 45 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic tonsillitis and chronic suppurative otitis media and 15 asymptomatic control patients were studied. Swab samples were obtained from these subjects. Samples were studied by conventional microbiological culturing, PCR-based microbial detection and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and other Streptococcus species were detected in subjects of both patient and control groups. Biofilm was observed in approximately half of the smear prepared from swab samples obtained from subjects of the patient group. Most of these were polymicrobial biofilms. S. aureus biofilm was most prevalent among nasal samples while H. influenzae biofilm was more common among ear and throat samples. Results from this study supported the hypothesis that chronic otorhinolaryngologic diseases may be biofilm related. Due to the presence of unculturable bacteria in biofilms present in specimens from ear, nose and throat, the use of molecular methods in combination with conventional microbiological culturing has demonstrated an improvement in the detection of bacteria from such specimens in this study.

  18. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexahydro - 1,3,5 - trinitro - 1,3,5 - triazine ( RDX ) ; CASRN 121 - 82 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  19. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - tetr . . . ( HMX ) ; CASRN 2691 - 41 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I

  20. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, N. G.; Cornell, J. H.; Kaplan, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethyl-hydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is proposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed. PMID:16345884

  1. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine translocation in poplar trees

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.L.; Ramer, L.A.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1999-02-01

    This article evaluates the translocation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in hybrid poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) grown in hydroponic solutions. Mass balances with [U-{sup 14}C]RDX were used to assess RDX translocation. Up to 60% of the RDX uptaken by the tree accumulated in leaf tissues. Analysis of plant extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with radiochemical detection indicated that RDX was not significantly transformed during exposure periods of up to 7 d. The bioaccumulation of RDX may be an important concern for phytoremediation efforts.

  2. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Etnier, E L

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.

  3. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  4. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Donald G.; Benziger, Theodore M.

    1991-01-01

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB.

  5. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, D.G.; Benziger, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole is described. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB. 8 figures.

  6. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloranisole

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Donald G.; Benziger, Theodore M.

    1990-01-01

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB.

  7. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloranisole

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, D.G.; Benziger, T.M.

    1990-08-28

    This patent describes the preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6- trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 2,5-dichloroanisole. Nitration of 3,5- dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6- trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6- trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB.

  8. 39 CFR 3.5 - Delegation of authority by Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Delegation of authority by Board. 3.5 Section 3.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.5 Delegation of authority by Board. As authorized by 39 U.S.C. 402, these bylaws delegate to the Postmaster General...

  9. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues.

    PubMed

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-06-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration.

  10. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  11. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  12. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1055 - Benzeneamine, 3,5-difluoro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1055 Benzeneamine, 3,5-difluoro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneamine, 3,5-difluoro- (PMN P-97-648; CAS No....

  14. Identification of ovine ruminal microbes capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor tha...

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis suppor...

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate: metabolism and cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Michell, Robert H; Heath, Victoria L; Lemmon, Mark A; Dove, Stephen K

    2006-01-01

    Polyphosphoinositides (PPIn) are low-abundance membrane phospholipids that each bind to a distinctive set of effector proteins and, thereby, regulate a characteristic suite of cellular processes. Major functions of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P(2)] are in membrane and protein trafficking, and in pH control in the endosome-lysosome axis. Recently identified PtdIns(3,5)P(2) effectors include a family of novel beta-propeller proteins, for which we propose the name PROPPINs [for beta-propeller(s) that binds PPIn], and possibly proteins of the epsin and CHMP (charged multi-vesicular body proteins) families. All eukaryotes, with the exception of some pathogenic protists and microsporidians, possess proteins needed for the formation, metabolism and functions of PtdIns(3,5)P(2). The importance of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) for normal cell function is underscored by recent evidence for its involvement in mammalian cell responses to insulin and for PtdIns(3,5)P(2) dysfunction in the human genetic conditions X-linked myotubular myopathy, Type-4B Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and fleck corneal dystrophy.

  19. Extraction, purification, identification and metabolism of 3',5'-cyclic UMP, 3',5'-cyclic IMP and 3',5'-cyclic dTMP from rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Newton, R P; Kingston, E E; Hakeem, N A; Salih, S G; Beynon, J H; Moyse, C D

    1986-01-01

    The large-scale extraction and partial purification of endogenous 3',5'-cyclic UMP, 3',5'-cyclic IMP and 3',5'-cyclic dTMP are described. Rat liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung tissues were subjected to a sequential purification procedure involving freeze-clamping, perchlorate extraction, alumina and Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The samples thus obtained co-chromatographed with authentic cyclic UMP, cyclic IMP and cyclic dTMP on t.l.c. and h.p.l.c. and the u.v. spectra of the extracted samples were identical with those of the standards. Fast atom bombardment of the three cyclic nucleotide standards yielded mass spectra containing a molecular protonated ion in each case; mass-analysed ion kinetic-energy spectrometry ('m.i.k.e.s') of these ions produced a spectrum unique to the parent cyclic nucleotide. The extracted putative cyclic UMP, cyclic IMP and cyclic dTMP each produced a m.i.k.e.s. identical with that obtained with the corresponding cyclic nucleotide standard. Rat liver, heart, kidney, brain, intestine, spleen, testis and lung protein preparations were each found capable of the synthesis of cyclic UMP, cyclic IMP and cyclic dTMP from the corresponding nucleoside triphosphate, of the hydrolysis of these cyclic nucleotides and of their binding, with the exception that cyclic dTMP was not synthesized by the kidney preparation. PMID:3019316

  20. Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1.

    PubMed Central

    Binks, P R; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    1995-01-01

    A mixed microbial culture capable of metabolizing the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was obtained from soil enrichments under aerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. A bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1, isolated from the culture used RDX as a sole source of nitrogen for growth. Three moles of nitrogen was used per mole of RDX, yielding a metabolite identified by mass spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis as methylene-N-(hydroxymethyl)-hydroxylamine-N'-(hydroxymethyl)nitroamin e. The bacterium also used s-triazine as a sole source of nitrogen but not the structurally similar compounds octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, cyanuric acid, and melamine. An inducible RDX-degrading activity was present in crude cell extracts. PMID:7747953

  1. Poly[(μ-3,5-dinitro-benzoato)(μ-3,5-dinitro-benzoic acid)rubidium].

    PubMed

    Miao, Yanqing; Fan, Tao

    2011-08-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Rb(C(7)H(3)N(2)O(6))(C(7)H(4)N(2)O(6))](n), comprises an Rb(+) cation, a 3,5-dinitro-benzoate anion and a 3,5-dinitro-benzoic acid ligand. The Rb(+) cation is nine-coordinated by O atoms from four 3,5-dinitro-benzoate anions and three neutral 3,5-dinitro-benzoic acid ligands. The metal atom is firstly linked by four bridging carboxyl groups, forming a binuclear motif, which is further linked by the nitro groups into a two-dimensional framework along the [110] direction. A short O-H⋯O hydrogen bond between two adjacent carboxy/carboxylate groups occurs. PMID:22090832

  2. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine mineralization by zerovalent iron and mixed anaerobic cultures.

    PubMed

    Oh, B T; Just, C L; Alvarez, P J

    2001-11-01

    Soil microcosms were used to evaluate the potential benefits of an integrated microbial-Fe0 system to treat groundwater contamination by RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine). Microcosms amended with both Fe0 filings and municipal anaerobic sludge mineralized RDX faster and to a greater extent than separate treatments, with up to 51% 14CO2 recovery after 77 d. The nitroso byproducts 1,3-dinitro-5-nitroso-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (MNX), 1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (DNX), and 1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (TNX) were detected in all microcosms, although these compounds never accumulated above 5% of the added RDX on a molar basis. A soluble intermediate that was tentatively identified as methylenedinitramine [(O2NNH)2CH2] was relatively persistent, although it accumulated to a much lower extent in combined-treatment reactors than in sets with Fe0 or sludge alone. Some of the radiolabel was bound to soil and Fe0 and could not be extracted with CH3CN. This fraction, which was recovered by combustion with a biological oxidizer, was also found at lower concentrations in combined-treatment reactors. This work suggests that permeable reactive Fe0 barriers might be an effective approach to intercept and degrade RDX plumes and that treatment efficiency might be enhanced by biogeochemical interactions through bioaugmentation.

  3. [Dementia and otorhinolaryngologic practice].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, S; Hesse, G; Laubert, A

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between sensorial registration of peripheral stimuli and their central cognitive processing is not yet understood. The role of sensory deficits such as olfactory deterioration or hearing loss in the development of dementia is currently a focus of concern, with hopes of finding new diagnostic aspects and therapeutic options for multimodal treatment concepts in patients with dementia. The expertise of ENT specialists in the diagnostic and therapeutic fields of dysphagia, vestibular dysfunction and olfactory or hearing loss could make an important contribution to the development of future strategies for dealing with dementia. In this report we present up-to-date basic knowledge and ENT-specific aspects relating to the diagnostics and treatment of dementia. PMID:25103990

  4. Halitosis in Otorhinolaryngology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gokdogan, Ozan; Catli, Tolgahan; Ileri, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    Halitosis is a common and devastating condition, which may affect up to 1/3 of the population. It can be classified either as genuine halitosis, pseudohalitosis, or halitophobia. Genuine halitosis is more common and usually related to an organic pathology such as periodontitis. Malodour molecules such as sulfur compounds that arise from bacterial interactions generate the basis of oral malodour. Pathologies of the tongue, poor oral hygiene, deep caries, cryptic tonsillary hypertrophia, and postnasal drainage are also associated with halitosis. Gastro-esophageal pathologies and systemic problems are accepted as extra-oral sources of halitosis. There are various methods for the diagnosis of halitosis including objective and subjective methods. General oral hygiene recommendations and specific interventions for the related etiological factors have to be addressed in order to achieve satisfactory results after the treatment. Clinicians have to be aware of these aspects regarding this unfavorable condition to achieve the best results. PMID:25938086

  5. [Focal infections in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T

    2016-01-01

    This publication is focused on the mechanisms underlying the clinical course of acute focal infections concomitant with ENT pathology, factors responsible for their chronization and the development of complications. Also discussed are the methods for the early adequate conservative and surgical treatment of these conditions. Special emphasis is placed on the principles of management of chronic tonsillitis. PMID:26977559

  6. Radioimmunoassay for 3,5-diiodothyronine and evidence for dependence on conversion from 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine

    SciTech Connect

    Pangaro, L.; Burman, K.D.; Wartofsky, L.; Cahnmann, H.J.; Smallridge, R.C.; O'Brian, J.T.; Wright, F.D.; Latham, K.

    1980-06-01

    The present report describes a RIA for 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5T/sub 2/) which uses inner ring-labeled 3,5-(/sup 125/I)T/sub 2/ as the ligand and has a lower limit of detectability of 0.5 ng/dl. Cross-reaction was 0.14% with T/sub 3/, less than 0.001% with T/sub 4/, 1.2% with 3,3',5-triiodothyroacetic acid, and 6.1% with 3,5-diiodothyroacetic acid. No cross-reaction was detectable for iodothyronines within their physiological ranges. Intraassay variation ranged from 2.2 to 7.8%, and interassay variation ranged from 12.7 to 14%. The mean (+-SE) serum 3.5T/sub 2/ concentration in 70 normal subjects was 4.3 +- 0.2 ng/dl. The mean (+-SE) 3.5T/sub 2/ in 14 hyperthyroid patients was increased to 18.4 +- 2.3 ng/dl (P < 0.001), and all but 1 patient had an elevated level. In 10 hypothyroid patients the mean (+-SE) 3,5T/sub 2/ level was decreased to 1.4 +- 0.3 ng/dl (P < 0.001). In 4 patients, levels overlapped with the normal range. In 4 hypothyroid subjects treated with L-T/sub 1/, 3,5T/sub 2/ levels were normal, suggesting that the majority of 3,5T/sub 2/ originates from extrathyroidal conversion from T/sub 3/. Studies in fasting obese subjects demonstrated that serum 3,5T/sub 2/ (mean +- SE) levels fell from 3.4 +- 0.3 to 2.5 +- 0.7 ng/dl during fasting. This fall was significant (P < 0.001) and in parallel with the fall in T/sub 3/ levels of 182 +- 20 to 126 +- 12 ng/dl. In fasting subjects given 100 ..mu..g oral L-T/sub 3//day T/sub 3/ levels rose from 138 +- 11 to 362 +- 26 ng/dl. 3,5T/sub 2/ levels (corrected for cross-reaction and for contamination of oral T/sub 3/ with 3,5T/sub 2/) rose from 2.2 +- 0.7 to 6.4 +- 1.0 ng/dl. In fasting subjects given 25 ..mu..g oral L-T/sub 3//day, T/sub 3/ levels fell from 165 +- 5.1 to 139 +- 6.9 ng/dl. Corrected 3,5T/sub 2/ levels changed from 3.7 +- 0.4 to 2.5 +- 0.3 ng/dl. Neither change were significant.

  7. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  8. Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways that…

  9. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  10. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  11. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  12. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be accompanied, represented and advised by a representative of the Volunteer's own choice at any stage of...

  13. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be accompanied, represented and advised by a representative of the Volunteer's own choice at any stage of...

  14. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be accompanied, represented and advised by a representative of the Volunteer's own choice at any stage of...

  15. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  16. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,5-dimethoxystilbene analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our continuing effort to discover natural product-based pest management agents, derivatives of 3,5-dimethoxystilbene were synthesized yielding 27 new and 6 known compounds. Of these, compounds 11 and 12 showed strong Aedes aegypti larvicidal activity (LC50 14.7 and 16.2 ppm, respectively). In fur...

  18. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt 3/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 3/5 ) tells us more about the plane. How much will it cost to run, and how will we learn to fly?

  19. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals; general—(1) Unauthorized cutting of timber-mineral and non-mineral lands. (i) The cutting or removing of the...

  20. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  1. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  2. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  3. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  4. Distonic biradical anions. Synthesis and characterization of the 3,5-dehydrophenyl and 1,3,5-trimethylenebenzene negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J.; Squires, R.R.

    1996-06-19

    We recently described a new method for producing intense beams of structurally-defined biradical negative ions (`distonic radical anions`) in the gas phase based on reactions between trimethylsilyl-substituted carbanions and molecular fluorine. We now wish to report the extension of this procedure to the rational synthesis of negative ions of triradicals, i.e., `distonic biradical anions.` The significance of these species is manifold. Polyradicals and their associated ions are the central focus of current efforts to produce synthetic organic ferromagnets. In this report, we describe the gas-phase synthesis and characterization of 3,5-dehydrophenyl anion, 1, and 1,3,5-trimethylenebenzene negative ion, 2. Ion 1 corresponds to the negative ion of the ({sigma},{sigma},{sigma}) triradical 1,3,5-benzenetriyl, and it can also be viewed as a deprotonated m-benzyne. 29 refs.

  5. Abiotic transformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by green rusts.

    PubMed

    Larese-Casanova, Philip; Scherer, Michelle M

    2008-06-01

    The rate and extent of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) transformation was measured in the presence of carbonate and sulfate green rust suspended in solutions containing common groundwater anions. Formaldehyde (HCHO), nitrous oxide gas (N2O(g)), and ammonium (NH4+) were the major end products, accounting for about 70% of the carbon mass balance and about half of the nitrogen mass balance. Results from experiments with both 14C-RDX and LC-MS analysis indicate that the remaining carbon products are soluble and most likely small (< 50 Da). The transient appearance of 1,3-dinitro-5-nitroso-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (MNX), 1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (DNX), and 1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (TNX) indicate that some nitro-group reduction occurred. The kinetics of RDX transformation was rapid with a half-life of less than an hour in a pH 7.0 KBr solution. Little difference in rates of RDX transformation or product distribution was observed between carbonate and sulfate green rust, and an apparent reaction order of 1.0 was measured with respect to Fe(II) in both green rusts. Phosphate anions completely inhibited RDX reduction, and carbonate and sulfate anions resulted in slower kinetics, and in some cases, an initial lag period, compared to bromide and chloride. Our results suggest that green rusts may contribute to abiotic natural attenuation of RDX in Fe-rich subsurface environments, but that it will be important to consider groundwater composition when assessing rates of attenuation.

  6. Synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulioukina, N. S.; Makukhin, N. N.; Beletskaya, I. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers the currently available synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles. There are demonstrated significant advances in this field over the last 10–15 years caused by the use of the Bestmann–Ohira reagent [as well as (diazomethyl)phosphonates and phosphonylated hydrazonoyl halides] in reactions with diverse dipolarophiles. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of diazo compounds to α,β-unsaturated phosphonates as well as intramolecular heterocyclization of (1-diazoallyl)phosphonates and (3--diazo-1-propenyl)phosphonates are discussed. Synthetic potential of cyclocondensation of organophosphorus 1,3-dielectrophilic compounds with hydrazines is shown. Ways to introduce a phosphonate group into the pyrazole ring are considered. Examples of chemical transformations of 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles are reported. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  7. Synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulioukina, N. S.; Makukhin, N. N.; Beletskaya, I. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers the currently available synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles. There are demonstrated significant advances in this field over the last 10-15 years caused by the use of the Bestmann-Ohira reagent [as well as (diazomethyl)phosphonates and phosphonylated hydrazonoyl halides] in reactions with diverse dipolarophiles. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of diazo compounds to α,β-unsaturated phosphonates as well as intramolecular heterocyclization of (1-diazoallyl)phosphonates and (3--diazo-1-propenyl)phosphonates are discussed. Synthetic potential of cyclocondensation of organophosphorus 1,3-dielectrophilic compounds with hydrazines is shown. Ways to introduce a phosphonate group into the pyrazole ring are considered. Examples of chemical transformations of 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles are reported. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  8. Dendrimers Based on [1,3,5]-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    STEFFENSEN, MACKAY B.; HOLLINK, EMILY; KUSCHEL, FRANK; BAUER, MONIKA; SIMANEK, ERIC E.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive and chronological account of dendrimers based on [1,3,5]-triazines is provided. Synthetic strategies to install the triazine through cycloaddition, cyclotrimerization, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution of cyanuric chloride are discussed. Motivations and applications of these architectures are surveyed, including the preparation of supra-molecular assemblies in the solution and solid states and their use in medicines, advanced materials, and separations when anchored to solid supports. PMID:19953202

  9. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector}′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector} ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ{sub SL}(ρ(r{sup -vector}),∇ρ(r{sup -vector}),r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′). γ{sub SL} depends on the electron density ρ(r{sup -vector}) at reference point r{sup -vector}, and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′ dependence of γ{sub SL} in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ{sub SL} yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms.

  10. Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Galbičková, Blanka; Ševčíková, Janka; Soldán, Maroš

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.

  11. Effect of mycorrhizal fungi on the phytoremediation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Phillip L; Polebitski, Austin S

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this research was to decrease the bioaccumulation of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in the leaves of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and hybrid poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) by exploiting the symbiotic relationship between these plants and mycorrhizal fungi. Prior to dosing with uniformly labeled (14)C-RDX, plants were grown for three months to establish the symbiosis. Results showed that the presence of mycorrhizal fungi does not significantly decrease the concentration of RDX in leaf tissues for experimental periods of 30 days. Results also indicated that a radiolabeled volatile organic compound was emitted by both plant species. This is the first evidence that a whole plant can facilitate the transformation of RDX to a volatile organic chemical.

  12. Electrochemical reduction of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Pascale M L; Bejan, Dorin; Schutt, Leah; Hawari, Jalal; Bunce, Nigel J

    2004-03-01

    Electrochemical reduction of RDX, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a commercial and military explosive, was examined as a possible remediation technology for treating RDX-contaminated groundwater. A cascade of divided flow-through cells was used, with reticulated vitreous carbon cathodes and IrO2/Ti dimensionally stable anodes, initially using acetonitrile/water solutions to increase the solubility of RDX. The major degradation pathway involved reduction of RDX to the corresponding mononitroso compound, followed by ring cleavage to yield formaldehyde and methylenedinitramine. The reaction intermediates underwent further reduction and/or hydrolysis, the net result being the complete transformation of RDX to small molecules. The rate of degradation increased with current density, but the current efficiency was highest at low current densities. The technique was extended successfully both to 100% aqueous solutions of RDX and to an undivided electrochemical cell.

  13. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  14. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S.; Perkins, Edward J.; Meyer, Sharon A.

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  15. The WIN 3.5 meter telescope project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Matt; Pilachowski, Caty

    1990-07-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Indiana University-National Optical Astronomy Observatories ('WIN') 3.5-m aperture telescope project's design concepts and development status are assessed. The WIN telescope employs a wide field of view in order to take advantage of recent advancements in multiobject fiber-optic spectroscopy. A novel support system is under development for the borosilicate honeycomb primary mirror blank which acts solely on the mirror's rear surface; mirror temperature will be actively controlled. The WIN telescope's control system will use a distributed, easily expanded and upgraded network of microprocessors connected to a master computer via serial bus.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acquisition in Cystic Fibrosis Patients in Context of Otorhinolaryngological Surgery or Dentist Attendance: Case Series and Discussion of Preventive Concepts.

    PubMed

    Mainz, Jochen G; Gerber, Andrea; Lorenz, Michael; Michl, Ruth; Hentschel, Julia; Nader, Anika; Beck, James F; Pletz, Mathias W; Mueller, Andreas H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. P. aeruginosa is the primary cause for pulmonary destruction and premature death in cystic fibrosis (CF). Therefore, prevention of airway colonization with the pathogen, ubiquitously present in water, is essential. Infection of CF patients with P. aeruginosa after dentist treatment was proven and dental unit waterlines were identified as source, suggesting prophylactic measures. For their almost regular sinonasal involvement, CF patients often require otorhinolaryngological (ORL) attendance. Despite some fields around ORL-procedures with comparable risk for acquisition of P. aeruginosa, such CF cases have not yet been reported. We present four CF patients, who primarily acquired P. aeruginosa around ORL surgery, and one around dentist treatment. Additionally, we discuss risks and preventive strategies for CF patients undergoing ORL-treatment. Perils include contact to pathogen-carriers in waiting rooms, instrumentation, suction, drilling, and flushing fluid, when droplets containing pathogens can be nebulized. Postsurgery mucosal damage and debridement impair sinonasal mucociliary clearance, facilitating pathogen proliferation and infestation. Therefore, sinonasal surgery and dentist treatment of CF patients without chronic P. aeruginosa colonization must be linked to repeated microbiological assessment. Further studies must elaborate whether all CF patients undergoing ORL-surgery require antipseudomonal prophylaxis, including nasal lavages containing antibiotics. Altogether, this underestimated risk requires structured prevention protocols. PMID:25866686

  17. Beam assisted fabrication of 3-5/Si monolithic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Gary Y.; Collins, George J.; Solanki, Raj

    1989-05-01

    The results of a two-year project to explore new methods for deposition of 3-5 semiconducting film on silicon substrates are summarized. Gas-source molecular beam epitaxy was used for the first time to achieve heteroepitaxy of InP on Si. The InP films contain low concentrations of impurities (less than 400 ppb), luminescence under optical excitation, and exhibit high structural quality. Laser-assisted epitaxy was used for selective area growth of GaP and InP on Si using a new phosphorous precursor, and in situ removal of oxide on Si was achieved photochemically. Plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of AlN films has been carried out at low substrate temperatures using an electron beam to excite a remote plasma.

  18. Molecular dynamics characterization of void defects in crystalline (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane).

    PubMed

    Boyd, Sylke; Murray, Jane S; Politzer, Peter

    2009-11-28

    In the context of a continuing investigation of factors that affect the sensitivities of energetic materials to detonation initiation, we have carried out a molecular dynamics characterization of void defects in crystalline (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclo-hexane). An empirical force field that is capable of handling flexible molecules in a pliable crystal was used. Voids ranging in size from 2 to 30 adjacent vacated sites were created in model lattices of 216 or 512 molecules. Energetic and geometric ground state properties were determined. The void formation energy per molecule removed was found to decrease from 50 kcal/mol for a single vacancy to about 23+/-2 kcal/mol for voids larger than one unit cell (8 molecules). Analysis of the local binding energies in the vicinity of a void reveals not only the expected decrease for molecules directly on the void surface but also a wide spread of values in the first 5-10 A away from the surface; this includes some molecules with local binding energies significantly higher than in the defect-free lattice. Molecular conformational changes and reorientations begin to be found in the vicinities of voids larger than one unit cell. Thermal behavior investigated includes void and molecular diffusion coefficients and fluctuations in void size. PMID:19947705

  19. Dissociative electron attachment to the nitroamine HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine).

    PubMed

    Postler, Johannes; Goulart, Marcelo M; Matias, Carolina; Mauracher, Andreas; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Scheier, Paul; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Denifl, Stephan

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, dissociative electron attachment (DEA) measurements with gas phase HMX, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, C4H8N8O8, have been performed by means of a crossed electron-molecular beam experiment. The most intense signals are observed at 46 and 176 u and assigned to NO2(-) and C3H6N5O4(-), respectively. Anion efficiency curves for 15 negatively charged fragments have been measured in the electron energy region from about 0-20 eV with an energy resolution of ~0.7 eV. Product anions are observed mainly in the low energy region, near 0 eV, arising from surprisingly complex reactions associated with multiple bond cleavages and structural and electronic rearrangement. The remarkable instability of HMX towards electron attachment with virtually zero kinetic energy reflects the highly explosive nature of this compound. Substantially different intensity ratios of resonances for common fragment anions allow distinguishing the nitroamines HMX and royal demolition explosive molecule (RDX) in negative ion mass spectrometry based on free electron capture.

  20. Microbially Mediated Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5- Triazine by Extracellular Electron Shuttling Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Man Jae; Finneran, Kevin T.

    2006-01-01

    The potential for humic substances to stimulate the reduction of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was investigated. This study describes a novel approach for the remediation of RDX-contaminated environments using microbially mediated electron shuttling. Incubations without cells demonstrated that reduced AQDS transfers electrons directly to RDX, which was reduced without significant accumulation of the nitroso intermediates. Three times as much reduced AQDS (molar basis) was needed to completely reduce RDX. The rate and extent of RDX reduction differed greatly among electron shuttle/acceptor amendments for resting cell suspensions of Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor. AQDS and purified humic substances stimulated the fastest rate of RDX reduction. The nitroso metabolites did not significantly accumulate in the presence of AQDS or humic substances. RDX reduction in the presence of poorly crystalline Fe(III) was relatively slow and metabolites transiently accumulated. However, adding humic substances or AQDS to Fe(III)-containing incubations increased the reduction rates. Cells of G. metallireducens alone reduced RDX; however, the rate of RDX reduction was slow relative to AQDS-amended incubations. These data suggest that extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX transformation is not organism specific but rather is catalyzed by multiple Fe(III)- and humic-reducing species. Electron shuttle-mediated RDX reduction may eventually become a rapid and effective cleanup strategy in both Fe(III)-rich and Fe(III)-poor environments. PMID:16957213

  1. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in three vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; McFarland, Craig A; Bazar, Matthew A; Quinn, Michael J; LaFiandra, Emily May; Talent, Larry G

    2010-04-01

    The explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine or high-melting explosive (HMX), has been found in soils in areas used for testing and training by the military. Many of these areas contain habitat for valued wildlife species. In an effort to better understand the environmental consequences from exposure, a reptilian (western fence lizard [Sceloporus occidentalis]), an amphibian (red-backed salamander [Plethodon cinereus]), and a mammalian species (rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus]) were exposed to HMX under controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards and rabbits were exposed to HMX by way of corn oil through gavage, and salamanders were exposed to HMX in soil. Two deaths occurred from acute oral exposures to lizards to 5000 mg HMX/kg BW. Histological and gross pathologic assessment suggested gut impaction as a possible cause of death. Salamanders exposed to concentrations of HMX in soil < or = 1970 mg HMX/kg soil for 10 days did not show adverse effects. Rabbits, however, showed neurologic effects manifested as hyperkinetic events with convulsions at > 24 h after oral exposures. An LD(50) for rabbits was calculated as 93 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 76-117). A subacute 14-day testing regime found a lowest observed effect level of 10 mg/kg-d and a no observed adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg-d based on hyperkinesia and seizure incidence, although changes suggesting functional hepatic alterations were also found. These data suggest that physiologic differences between species, particularly in gastrointestinal structure and function, can affect the absorption of HMX and hence lead to marked differences in toxicity from exposure to the same compound. PMID:20012743

  3. Toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in three vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; McFarland, Craig A; Bazar, Matthew A; Quinn, Michael J; LaFiandra, Emily May; Talent, Larry G

    2010-04-01

    The explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine or high-melting explosive (HMX), has been found in soils in areas used for testing and training by the military. Many of these areas contain habitat for valued wildlife species. In an effort to better understand the environmental consequences from exposure, a reptilian (western fence lizard [Sceloporus occidentalis]), an amphibian (red-backed salamander [Plethodon cinereus]), and a mammalian species (rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus]) were exposed to HMX under controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards and rabbits were exposed to HMX by way of corn oil through gavage, and salamanders were exposed to HMX in soil. Two deaths occurred from acute oral exposures to lizards to 5000 mg HMX/kg BW. Histological and gross pathologic assessment suggested gut impaction as a possible cause of death. Salamanders exposed to concentrations of HMX in soil < or = 1970 mg HMX/kg soil for 10 days did not show adverse effects. Rabbits, however, showed neurologic effects manifested as hyperkinetic events with convulsions at > 24 h after oral exposures. An LD(50) for rabbits was calculated as 93 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 76-117). A subacute 14-day testing regime found a lowest observed effect level of 10 mg/kg-d and a no observed adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg-d based on hyperkinesia and seizure incidence, although changes suggesting functional hepatic alterations were also found. These data suggest that physiologic differences between species, particularly in gastrointestinal structure and function, can affect the absorption of HMX and hence lead to marked differences in toxicity from exposure to the same compound.

  4. Elevated root retention of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in coniferous trees.

    PubMed

    Schoenmuth, Bernd; Mueller, Jakob O; Scharnhorst, Tanja; Schenke, Detlef; Büttner, Carmen; Pestemer, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    For decades, the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) has been used for military and industrial applications. Residues of RDX pollute soils in large areas globally and the persistence and high soil mobility of these residues can lead to leaching into groundwater. Dendroremediation, i.e. the long-term use of trees to clean up polluted soils, is gaining acceptance as a green and sustainable strategy. Although the coniferous tree species Norway spruce and Scots pine cover large areas of military land in Central Europe, the potential of any coniferous tree for dendroremediation of RDX is still unknown. In this study, uptake experiments with a (14)C-labelled RDX solution (30 mg L(-1)) revealed that RDX was predominantly retained in the roots of 6-year-old coniferous trees. Only 23 % (pine) to 34 % (spruce) of RDX equivalents (RDXeq) taken up by the roots were translocated to aboveground tree compartments. This finding contrasts with the high aerial accumulation of RDXeq (up to 95 %) in the mass balances of all other plant species. Belowground retention of RDXeq is relatively stable in fine root fractions, since water leaching from tissue homogenates was less than 5 %. However, remobilisation from milled coarse roots and tree stubs reached up to 53 %. Leaching from homogenised aerial tree material was found to reach 64 % for needles, 58 % for stems and twigs and 40 % for spring sprouts. Leaching of RDX by precipitation increases the risk for undesired re-entry into the soil. However, it also opens the opportunity for microbial mineralisation in the litter layer or in the rhizosphere of coniferous forests and offers a chance for repeated uptake of RDX by the tree roots. PMID:24281674

  5. Photosynthesis 3.5 thousand million years ago.

    PubMed

    Olson, J M; Pierson, B K

    1986-01-01

    The recent discovery of stromatolites and microfossils in 3.5-Ga-old sedimentary rock formations is evidence for the existence of phototrophic prokaryotes at that time. Values of δ(13)C for sedimentary organic carbon strongly suggest autotrophic CO2 fixation, and the existence of large deposits of sedimentary sulfate is consistent with a photosynthesis dependent on reduced sulfur compounds for reducing power. The ancient photoautotrophs are though to have contained only one kind of reaction center with either chlorophyll a or bacteriochlorophyll a as primary electron donor and with one or more iron-sulfur centers as secondary electron acceptors. Light-harvesting pigments might have been chlorophyll a, bacteriochlorophyll a, or possibly bacteriochlorophyll c.A new proposal is made to explain how these organisms could have survived an intense UV flux at the earth's surface in the absence of an ozone layer. Photochemically produced ferric iron was abundant in sediments, and the UV-absorption of this ferric iron would have been sufficient to shield those organisms living below the watersediment interface.

  6. Bioavailability of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) to the Praire Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Driver, Crystal J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Harvey, Scott D.

    2006-07-01

    Estimating risk to wildlife requires that measures of exposure be equivalent to that of the laboratory studies from which toxic responses were observed. Exposure measures are often based on modeled estimates of uptake through the food web. These modeled estimates use largely untested assumptions that can lead to inaccurate, uncertain, and unreliable estimates of exposure. Recently, concerns have been raised over the potential bioavailability and biotransfer of munitions or energetics materials such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). RDX is more recalcitrant in the soil, may remain as the parent compound for extended periods of time, and is rapidly taken up by the roots of higher plants and partitioned predominantly into the above ground, herbivore-accessible tissues. This study assessed plant incorporated [14C]-RDX and plant derived [14C]-RDX-metabolites ingestion by a representative hindgut herbivore, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The animals were fed the labeled chow (≤10 g/ day max) for five or seven days followed by a six or four day chase period with the control chow prior to final weighing and sacrifice. Animal excreta including feces, urine, and respired CO2 were collected and measured. Greater than 95% of all label presented to the voles was recovered in the summed excreta. Seventy-four percent of the label in the total excreta was found in the fecal non-absorbed bulk. This means that greater than 20% of the presented 14C-RDX and plant-derived 14C-RDX-metabolites were absorbed by the animal’s digestive tracts over the time course of the experiment and modified prior to release. These materials were either metabolized to 14CO2 (8 to 10% of the total label) or removed as nitrogenous waste through the kidneys (10 to 14%). The feeding regimes were followed by a rapid, 2 to 3 day, clearing of label from the bulk feces with the cessation of exposure. Both 14C-urine and 14CO2 excretion continued after the feces cleared indicating

  7. Thermal oxidation of 3-5 compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteironeto, Othon Derego

    1988-11-01

    Thermal oxidation of 3-5 compound semiconductors has been studied in the temperature range of 300 to 600 C. Two members of this class of materials, namely InP and GaAs, were the object of the experimental work carried out here. The main analytical tools used were transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). TEM was employed to access microstructural changes and SIMS to access the composition redistribution that takes place as a consequence of the oxidation reaction. Below 400 C oxidation of both materials led to the formation of amorphous scales, which consisted of a mixture of gallium and arsenic oxides in the case of GaAs, and indium phosphate and oxide in the case of InP. The oxidation kinetics of InP was found to be slower than that of GaAs. In the high temperature regime, i.e., above 400 C, the oxidation of both materials resulted in crystalline products. Precipitation of the group 5 element at the scale/semiconductor interface took place during oxidation. At the GaAs/Ga2O3interface, As precipitates were formed with a truncated square pyramid shape bound by (111) sub GaAs planes. The precipitates found at the InPO4/InP interface were either a phosphorus rich phase or red phosphorus. Strong vaporization under the electron beam prohibited a more accurate determination. The morphology of those precipitates were very similar to the As ones in GaAs.

  8. Polar switching in trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides.

    PubMed

    Fitié, Carel F C; Roelofs, W S Christian; Magusin, Pieter C M M; Wübbenhorst, Michael; Kemerink, Martijn; Sijbesma, Rint P

    2012-04-01

    The hydrogen-bonded hexagonal columnar LC (Col(hd)) phases formed by benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derivatives can be aligned uniformly by an electric field and display switching behavior with a high remnant polarization. The polar switching in three symmetrically substituted BTAs with alkyl chains varying in length between 6 and 18 carbon atoms (C6, C10, and C18) was investigated by electro-optical switching experiments, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), and solid-state NMR. The goal was to characterize ferroelectric properties of BTA-based columnar LCs, which display a macroscopic axial dipole moment due to the head-to-tail stacking of hydrogen-bonded amides. The Col(hd) phase of all three BTAs can be aligned uniformly by a dc field ∼30 V/μm. Moreover, C10 and C18 display extrinsic polar switching characterized by a remnant polarization and coercive field of 1-2 μC/cm(2) and 20-30 V/μm, respectively. In the absence of an external field, the polarization is lost in 1-1000 s, depending on device details and temperature. DRS revealed a columnar glass transition in the low-temperature region of the LC phase related to collective vibrations in the hydrogen-bonded columns that freeze out below 41-54 °C. At higher temperatures, a relaxation process is present originating from the collective reorientation of amide groups along the column axis (inversion of the macrodipole). Matching activation energies suggest that the molecular mechanism underlying the polar switching and the R-processes is identical. These results illustrate that LC phases based on BTAs offer the unique possibility to integrate polarization with other functionalities in a single nanostructured material.

  9. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave.

    PubMed

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M

    1977-07-01

    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed.

  10. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  11. 1H NMR for quantifying sulfide trapping efficiency by using 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazinane.

    PubMed

    Canuto, André V S; Echevarria, Aurea

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an extremely toxic colourless gas; it is corrosive and denser than air. It usually happens in oil and natural gas fields, refineries, coal mines, and in some industrial effluent treatment systems. This work presents an alternative method of monitoring and quantifying H2S trapping efficiency by using 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazinane as a sequestering agent, and sodium sulfide as a source of sulfide ion, through (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The results proved that the reaction occurs very quickly at 20 °C at pH 7 and 10. 3,5-di(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-thiodiazinane and 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-dithiozinane were observed and quantified; it was evidenced that (1)H NMR spectroscopy can be applied as a fast and effective method to quantify H2S trapping efficiency. PMID:24723368

  12. Aromatic fluorine compounds. I. The synthesis of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluorides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.

    1944-01-01

    The preparation of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluoride and some of their intermediates is described. 3,5-Dinitrobenzotrifluoride was prepared from 3-nitrobenzotrifluoride with a fuming nitric-sulfuric acid mixture.

  13. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  17. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  18. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  19. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  20. Isolation of three hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine-degrading species of the family Enterobacteriaceae from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil.

    PubMed Central

    Kitts, C L; Cunningham, D P; Unkefer, P J

    1994-01-01

    Three species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that biochemically reduced hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) were isolated from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil. Two isolates, identified as Morganella morganii and Providencia rettgeri, completely transformed both RDX and the nitroso-RDX reduction intermediates. The third isolate, identified as Citrobacter freundii, partially transformed RDX and generated high concentrations of nitroso-RDX intermediates. All three isolates produced 14CO2 from labeled RDX under O2-depleted culture conditions. While all three isolates transformed HMX, only M. morganii transformed HMX in the presence of RDX. PMID:7811097

  1. Isolation of three hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine-degrading species of the family Enterobacteriaceae from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kitts, C L; Cunningham, D P; Unkefer, P J

    1994-12-01

    Three species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that biochemically reduced hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) were isolated from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil. Two isolates, identified as Morganella morganii and Providencia rettgeri, completely transformed both RDX and the nitroso-RDX reduction intermediates. The third isolate, identified as Citrobacter freundii, partially transformed RDX and generated high concentrations of nitroso-RDX intermediates. All three isolates produced 14CO2 from labeled RDX under O2-depleted culture conditions. While all three isolates transformed HMX, only M. morganii transformed HMX in the presence of RDX.

  2. Role of nitrogen limitation in transformation of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) by Gordonia sp. strain KTR9.

    PubMed

    Indest, Karl J; Hancock, Dawn E; Jung, Carina M; Eberly, Jed O; Mohn, William W; Eltis, Lindsay D; Crocker, Fiona H

    2013-03-01

    The transcriptome of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)-degrading strain Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 and its glnR mutant were studied as a function of nitrogen availability to further investigate the observed ammonium-mediated inhibition of RDX degradation. The results indicate that nitrogen availability is a major determinant of RDX degradation and xplA gene expression in KTR9.

  3. [Whole organ plastination in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Sprinzl, G M; Eckel, H E; Sittel, C; Thumfart, W F; Koebke, J

    1995-05-01

    Total organ sections have proven to be useful in the evaluation of the clinical growth behavior of malignant tumors. However, histologic techniques using tissues embedded in celloidin or paraffin are difficult to produce and require extensive amounts of time. Total organ plastination is a method superior to the aforementioned techniques. The number of artefacts is also greatly reduced by avoiding the need for decalcification. After removal of fat and dehydration, specimens can be placed in epoxy resin. Following evacuation and hardening of specimens, parallel sections can be separated with a diamond wire saw for precision slicing, with section thicknesses ranging from several centimeters to as small as 40 microns. The loss in material caused by slicing is as little as 0.3 mm per section. A further benefit of this method is the relatively large amount of time saved. The entire procedure yielding complete plastinated specimens requires a time period of approximately 40 days. The plastinated specimens are transparent, odorless and fixed and are ideal for instructional and research purposes. Deplastination for the purpose of further diagnositic study is also achievable with a minimum of technical effort.

  4. [Psychopathological disorders in otorhinolaryngological neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Llorca, G; Derecho, J; Gómez del Castillo, M J; Martín, T; del Cañizo Fernández, A

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyze the psychopathologic disorders at the patients affected from O.R.L. cancers. They refer specially to larynx cancer, because of the significance on the loss in speech ability, if the treatment includes total laryngectomy, added to the fear characteristic of the patient with cancer. The highly incidence of alcoholism before diagnosis is also verified, what imply the addiction of psychopathologic disorders. It's estimated a well order to take part actively in their rehabilitation besides the lower incidence of alcoholism after surgery.

  5. [Otorhinolaryngologic aspects of diving sports].

    PubMed

    Strutz, J

    1993-08-01

    ENT disorders are the most common of all medical problems of diving. This review summarizes the specific conditions and ENT diseases in Scuba diving. During compression failure to equalize the pressure of air-filled cavities surrounded by bone deprives the middle ear or sinuses of aeration. Middle ear barotrauma is the most common barotrauma encountered in divers while sinus barotrauma and especially inner ear barotrauma (with rupture of the round or oval window) are less common. Decompression sickness in primarily the result of inert gas bubbles; deafness and vertigo may result if the inner ear is involved. The ENT examination necessary for assessment of diving fitness focuses on the middle and inner ear as well as the nose, sinuses and larynx. A list of ENT contra-indications is presented that mandate temporary or permanent disqualification from diving.

  6. Characterization of Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) with Municipal Anaerobic Sludge†

    PubMed Central

    Hawari, Jalal; Halasz, Annamaria; Sheremata, Tamara; Beaudet, Sylvie; Groom, Carl; Paquet, Louise; Rhofir, Chakib; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in liquid cultures with municipal anaerobic sludge showed that at least two degradation routes were involved in the disappearance of the cyclic nitramine. In one route, RDX was reduced to give the familiar nitroso derivatives hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX). In the second route, two novel metabolites, methylenedinitramine [(O2NNH)2CH2] and bis(hydroxymethyl)nitramine [(HOCH2)2NNO2], formed and were presumed to be ring cleavage products produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of the inner C—N bonds of RDX. None of the above metabolites accumulated in the system, and they disappeared to produce nitrous oxide (N2O) as a nitrogen-containing end product and formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (MeOH), and formic acid (HCOOH) that in turn disappeared to produce CH4 and CO2 as carbon-containing end products. PMID:10831452

  7. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate: regulation of cellular events in space and time.

    PubMed

    Jin, Natsuko; Lang, Michael J; Weisman, Lois S

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol lipids are crucial for most eukaryotes and have diverse cellular functions. The low-abundance signalling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is critical for cellular homoeostasis and adaptation to stimuli. A large complex of proteins that includes the lipid kinase Fab1-PIKfyve, dynamically regulates the levels of PI(3,5)P2. Deficiencies in PI(3,5)P2 are linked to some human diseases, especially those of the nervous system. Future studies will probably determine new, undiscovered regulatory roles of PI(3,5)P2, as well as uncover mechanistic insights into how PI(3,5)P2 contributes to normal human physiology.

  8. The first salen-type ligands derived from 3',5'-diamino-3',5'-dideoxythymidine and -dideoxyxylothymidine and their corresponding copper(II) complexes

    PubMed Central

    Koth, Daniel; Gottschaldt, Michael; Görls, Helmar; Pohle, Karolin

    2006-01-01

    Background There are many nucleoside metal complexes known. According to observations made, only very few of them reveal their central ion to be co-ordinated by the sugar part of their molecules. The regio- and stereospecific exchange of the hydroxyl groups at the sugar moiety by chelating units improves its complexation ability and should give access to a new class of chiral ligands. Results In this paper we present the synthesis of 3',5'-diamino substituted thymidines with ribo- as well as xylo-configuration and the preparation of copper(II) complexes derived from their corresponding Schiff bases. Starting from thymidine, the amino derivatives were prepared in a three and four step reaction sequence respectively. The absolute configuration of the ligands was proved by the three-bond 1H-1H spin spin coupling constants 3J obtained by NMR-studies. Condensation of the amino derivatives with salicylic aldehydes resulted in the corresponding diimines, which represent a new class of chiral salen-type ligands. All ligands formed uncharged stable copper(II) complexes. The structure of 3',5'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylaldiminato)-3',5'-dideoxyxylothymidine-copper(II) could be determined by single crystal X-ray structure analysis. The copper centre in this complex has distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry. Conclusion For the synthesis of 3',5'-diamino-3',5'-dideoxy thymidines with xylo- as well as ribo-configuration an effective synthesis pathway has been developed. Their corresponding salicylidene imines form stable coordination compounds with copper(II) ions. They represent the first salen type complexes of nucleosides with this substitution pattern. PMID:16934149

  9. Biotransformation of the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 1,3,5-triaza 1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane by Clostridium bifermentans

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, K.M.; Crawford, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    A strain of Clostridium bifermentans isolated from a munitions-supplemented enrichment was able to remove both TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (1,3,5-triaza 1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane) from its growth media. Biotransformations of TNT and RDX by cometabolism in a nutrient rich medium reduced the removal time from several days to a few hours, as compared to a nutrient limited medium. Redox potential (Eh) of the media had important effects on the biological and abiological transformations of the munition compounds.

  10. Method of refining 2,2-isopropylidenebis-3,5- dibromophenylene-4-oxydiethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Nawata, K.; Hiratsuka, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method of refining 2,2-isopropylidenebis-3,5-dibromophenylene-4-oxydiethanol is described which is characterized by recrystallization of 2,2-isopropylidenebis-3,5-dibromophenylene-4-oxydiethanol using one or more aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene or pseudocumene.

  11. AquaSMART: Water & Boating Safety, Grades 3-5. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a program designed to teach water and boating safety to students in grades 3-5. The written curriculum accompanies a video, AquaSMART 3-5. The theme of the curriculum is AquaSMART. To become AquaSMART, students must learn 10 basic lessons for water and boating safety. The written curriculum begins with an overview…

  12. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found, and... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and,...

  13. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found, and... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and,...

  14. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  15. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... and materials. (a) Definitions. The following terms will have the stated meanings when used in this.... Product means an aircraft, aircraft engine, or aircraft propeller. Record means any writing, drawing,...

  16. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... and materials. (a) Definitions. The following terms will have the stated meanings when used in this.... Product means an aircraft, aircraft engine, or aircraft propeller. Record means any writing, drawing,...

  17. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... and materials. (a) Definitions. The following terms will have the stated meanings when used in this.... Product means an aircraft, aircraft engine, or aircraft propeller. Record means any writing, drawing,...

  18. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... and materials. (a) Definitions. The following terms will have the stated meanings when used in this.... Product means an aircraft, aircraft engine, or aircraft propeller. Record means any writing, drawing,...

  19. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... and materials. (a) Definitions. The following terms will have the stated meanings when used in this.... Product means an aircraft, aircraft engine, or aircraft propeller. Record means any writing, drawing,...

  20. Effect of experimental contamination with the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine on soil bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Juck, D; Driscoll, B T; Charles, T C; Greer, C W

    2003-03-01

    The effect of contamination with the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on an indigenous soil bacterial community was examined in two uncontaminated loam soil columns possessing native grasses. One column was spiked twice with RDX crystals for a total RDX load of 1000 mg (kg soil)(-1). The reduced metabolite of RDX degradation, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, was observed in the column leachate, suggesting anaerobic degradation of RDX. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA from both contaminated and uncontaminated columns produced identical banding patterns which were stable over the course of the experimental period. The bacterial diversity remained high in the contaminated column, as determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism and rarefaction analyses of random 16S rDNA clones. These combined results suggested that long-term exposure to 1000 mg RDX (kg soil)(-1) did not produce an observable effect on bacterial diversity or the numerically dominant members of the indigenous soil bacterial community.

  1. The 3.5 micron light curves of long period variable stars. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Infrared observations at an effective wavelength of 3.5 microns of a selected group of long period variable (LPV) stars are presented. Mira type and semiregular stars of M, S, and C spectral classifications were monitored throughout the full cycle of variability. Although the variable infrared radiation does not exactly repeat in intensity or time, the regularity is sufficient to produce mean 3.5 micron light curves. The 3.5 micron maximum radiation lags the visual maximum by about one-seventh of a cycle, while the minimum 3.5 micron intensity occurs nearly one-half cycle after infrared maximum. In some stars, there are inflections or humps on the ascending portion of the 3.5 micron light curve which may also be seen in the visual variations.

  2. Hypocrellin B graft on activated carbon and photocatalytic oxidation of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Jucheng; Min, Yong; Yi, Zhongzhou; Zhang, Canbang; Wu, Mingzhu; Chen, Rui

    2008-12-01

    Hypocrellin B, a photosensitizer isolated from Hypocrella Bambuase sacc in Yunnan province, has significant anti-tumor and anti-virus character. In this article, hypocrellin B, which was grafted on activated carbon, was used as photocatalysts to catalytic oxidize 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone because of its high photons efficiency. This study realized nearly 100% selectivity for 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone under visible light irradiation (>400nm) at aerobic atmosphere. The photocatalytic oxidation process has been studied by different parameters like the pretreatment of activated carbon, synthetic mehtod of grafted hypocrellin, and photo-assisted oxidation catalysis of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhdrobenzoquinone. Compared to the conventional methods, this process could be more eco-friendly.

  3. SUZUKI-MIYAURA COUPLING REACTIONS OF 3,5-DICHLORO-1,2,4-THIADIAZOLE

    PubMed Central

    Farahat, Abdelbasset A.; Boykin, David W.

    2014-01-01

    3,5-Dichloro-1,2,4-thiadiazole was allowed to react with different arylboronic acids under different Suzuki-Miyaura coupling conditions: at room temperature 5-aryl-3-chloro-1,2,4-thiadiazoles were obtained and at toluene reflux temperature the products were 3,5-diaryl-1,2,4-thiadiazoles. Sequential coupling reactions lead to 3,5-diaryl-1,2,4-thiadiazoles with non-identical aryl groups. The structure of 3-methoxy-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-thiadiazole was established from X-ray crystallographic data. PMID:24644388

  4. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-21

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s.

  5. Ab initio study of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abdelsalam; Ågren, Hans; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) C 3H 6N 6O 6 molecule is studied by ab initio methods. The results are compared to available experimental observations and against calculations and experimental observations of the conventional non-resonant Raman spectrum for RDX. It is found that all intense bands in the observed CARS spectrum and all Raman differential cross sections are well reproduced by the calculations. The features of the resonant CARS signal vary strongly from the corresponding Raman signal, and are obtained with a considerably larger cross section, a fact that could further facilitate the use of CARS spectroscopy in applications of stand-off detection of gaseous samples at ultra-low concentrations.

  6. Kinetics of the {beta} {yields} {delta} Solid-Solid Transition of HMX, Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Weese, R K; Maienschein, J L; Perrino, C T

    2001-09-05

    We apply Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, to measure the kinetics of the {beta} {yields} {delta} solid-solid phase transition of Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocinet HMX. Integration of the DSC signal gives a direct measurement of degree of conversion. We apply 1st order kinetics, the Ozawa method, and isoconversional analysis to show that the phase transition is not a simple one-step reaction, but instead is a complex combination of steps. The range of activation energies found in this work, centering around 500 kJ/mol, is higher than previously reported values. We discuss possible reasons for the higher activation energies measured here.

  7. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Baohong; Tian, Kang; Jones, Lindsey E; Liu, Jun; Anderson, Todd A; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Cobb, George P

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of the explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). In negative ionization mode, HMX forms an acetate adduct ion [M + CH(3)COO](-), m/z 355, in the presence of a small amount of acetic acid in the mobile phase. The ESI collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectrum of m/z 355 was acquired and the transitions m/z 355 --> 147 and m/z 355 --> 174 were chosen for the determination of HMX in samples. Using this quantification technique, the method detection limit was 1.57 microg/L and good linearity was achieved in the range 5-500 microg/L. This method will help to unambiguously analyze environmentally relevant concentrations of HMX.

  8. Thermochemistry of uracils. Experimental and computational enthalpies of formation of 5,6-dimethyl-, 1,3,5-trimethyl-, and 1,3,5,6-tetramethyluracils.

    PubMed

    Notario, Rafael; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Roux, María Victoria; Ros, Francisco; Verevkin, Sergey P; Chickos, James S; Liebman, Joel F

    2013-01-10

    We describe in the current paper an experimental and computational study of three methylated uracils, in particular, the 5,6-dimethyl-, 1,3,5-trimethyl-, and 1,3,5,6-tetramethyl derivatives. The values of the standard (p(0) = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the gas phase at T = 298.15 K have been determined. The energies of combustion were measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry, and from the results obtained, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state at T = 298.15 K were calculated. The enthalpies of sublimation were determined using the transpiration method in a saturated N(2) stream. Values of -(376.2 ± 2.6), -(355.9 ± 3.0), and -(381.7 ± 2.8) kJ·mol(-1) for the gas-phase enthalpies of formation at T = 298.15 K of 5,6-dimethyluracil, 1,3,5-trimethyluracil, and 1,3,5,6-tetramethyluracil, respectively, were obtained from the experimental thermochemical study. An extended theoretical study with the G3 and the G4 quantum-chemical methods has been carried out for all the possible methylated uracils. There is a very good agreement between experimental and calculated enthalpies of formation for the three derivatives studied. A Free-Wilson analysis on G4-calculated enthalpies of formation has been carried out, and the contribution of methylation in the different positions of the uracil ring has been estimated. PMID:23215007

  9. Abundance and diversity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)-metabolizing bacteria in UXO-contaminated marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2007-03-01

    Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a toxic explosive known to be resistant to biodegradation. In this study, we found that sediment collected from two unexploded ordnance (UXO) disposal sites (UXO-3, UXO-5) and one nearby reference site (midref) in Hawaii contained anaerobic bacteria capable of removing HMX. Two groups of HMX-removing bacteria were found in UXO-5: group I contained aerotolerant anaerobes and microaerophiles, and group II contained facultative anaerobes. In UXO-3 and midref sediments, HMX-metabolizing bacteria were strictly anaerobic (group III and group IV). Using 16S rRNA sequencing, group I was assigned to a novel phylogenetic cluster of Clostridiales, and groups II and III were related to Paenibacillus and Tepidibacter of Firmicutes, respectively. Group IV bacteria were identified as Desulfovibrio of Deltaproteobacteria. Using [UL-(14)C]-HMX, group IV isolates were found to mineralize HMX (26.8% in 308 d) as determined by liberated (14)CO(2), but negligible mineralization was observed in groups I-III. Resting cells of isolates metabolized HMX to N(2)O and HCHO via the intermediary formation of 1-nitroso-octahydro-3,5,7-trinitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine together with methylenedinitramine. These experimental findings suggest that HMX biotransformation occurred either via initial denitration followed by ring cleavage or via reduction of one or more of the N-NO(2) group(s) to the corresponding N-NO bond(s) prior to ring cleavage.

  10. A microring resonator sensor for sensitive detection of 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT).

    PubMed

    Orghici, Rozalia; Lützow, Peter; Burgmeier, Jörg; Koch, Jan; Heidrich, Helmut; Schade, Wolfgang; Welschoff, Nina; Waldvogel, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    A microring resonator sensor device for sensitive detection of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is presented. It is based on the combination of a silicon microring resonator and tailored receptor molecules. PMID:22163576

  11. A microring resonator sensor for sensitive detection of 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT).

    PubMed

    Orghici, Rozalia; Lützow, Peter; Burgmeier, Jörg; Koch, Jan; Heidrich, Helmut; Schade, Wolfgang; Welschoff, Nina; Waldvogel, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    A microring resonator sensor device for sensitive detection of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is presented. It is based on the combination of a silicon microring resonator and tailored receptor molecules.

  12. A Microring Resonator Sensor for Sensitive Detection of 1,3,5-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    PubMed Central

    Orghici, Rozalia; Lützow, Peter; Burgmeier, Jörg; Koch, Jan; Heidrich, Helmut; Schade, Wolfgang; Welschoff, Nina; Waldvogel, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    A microring resonator sensor device for sensitive detection of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is presented. It is based on the combination of a silicon microring resonator and tailored receptor molecules. PMID:22163576

  13. [Results of treating forearm bone shaft fractures with a 3.5 mm self compressive plate].

    PubMed

    Małecki, P; Kaleta, M; Tokarowski, A; Kusz, D; Wójcik, B

    1997-01-01

    Results of 29 forearm bones shaft fracture treatment with 3.5mm self compressive plate in 26 patients aged 18-64 (mean 33) are presented. Open reduction with 3.5mm self compressive plate fixation has been performed in all cases. Anderson et al criteria were used to assess functional and radiological outcome. Excellent and good functional results were achieved in 25 cases, one was rated fair, no poor results were observed. PMID:9490253

  14. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-01-01

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1+ and Rab7+ vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1+perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13023.001 PMID:27008179

  15. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  16. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-01-01

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1(+) and Rab7(+) vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1(+)perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis. PMID:27008179

  17. Calibration and Validation of WRF 3.0-CLM3.5 in Snowpack Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, J.; Wen, L.; Subin, Z. M.; Miller, N. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Community Land Model version 3.5 (CLM3.5) developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) was coupled into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model version 3.0. The performance of WRF3.0-CLM3.5 in simulating snowpack was extensively evaluated with in-situ observations from a mountainous site called Col de Porte, located in northern Alps region of France, and the Columbia River Basin, located in the northwestern United States. CLM3.5 was configured with a five-layer snow scheme, and includes snow compaction and liquid water transfer processes, and a sophisticated snow albedo scheme. WRF3.0-CLM3.5 was forced with the National Center for Atmospheric Research/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis data to simulate for the 1988-1989 snow season for the Col de Porte site and the 2001-2002 season for the Columbia River Basin, with 60km-20km two-way nested domains. The initial simulations show that WRF3.0-CLM3.5 significantly improves snow simulations when compared to those produced with the WRF3.0 coupled to the Noah land surface scheme at the both study sites. However, WRF3.0-CLM3.5 still tends to underestimate the observed snowpack. Calibration with the observed data from the Col de Porte site indicates that the snow water content bias mainly results from stronger, high elevation incoming solar radiation. An adjustment for the radiation scheme in WRF3.0 was made to reduce the incoming radiation to better fit with the observations. This adjustment improves snow simulations at both Col de Porte site and the Columbia River Basin. Additional offline snow simulations with CLM3.5 driven with observed forcing data were performed at the Col de Porte site. These offline simulations are compared to the results produced with the coupled WRF3.0-CLM3.5. Through this comparison, snow-atmosphere interactions are quantitatively indentified. The improved snow simulations in WRF3.0-CLM3.5 will benefit regional hydro-climate research and

  18. The phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2)-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC) regulates metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Bong-Kwan; Emr, Scott D

    2013-07-12

    Glucose/carbon metabolism is a fundamental cellular process in living cells. In response to varying environments, eukaryotic cells reprogram their glucose/carbon metabolism between aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and/or gluconeogenesis. The distinct type of glucose/carbon metabolism that a cell carries out has significant effects on the cell's proliferation and differentiation. However, it is poorly understood how the reprogramming of glucose/carbon metabolism is regulated. Here, we report a novel endosomal PI(3,5)P2 lipid-dependent regulatory mechanism that is required for metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Certain gluconeogenesis genes, such as FBP1 (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1) and ICL1 (encoding isocitrate lyase 1) are under control of the Mig1 repressor and Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex. We previously identified the PI(3,5)P2-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC), a mechanism to convert Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor to Cti6-Cyc8-Tup1 coactivator. We demonstrate that the PIPTC plays a critical role for transcriptional activation of FBP1 and ICL1. Furthermore, without the PIPTC, the Cat8 and Sip4 transcriptional activators cannot be efficiently recruited to the promoters of FBP1 and ICL1, suggesting a key role for the PIPTC in remodulating the chromatin architecture at the promoters. Our findings expand our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for metabolic reprogramming in eukaryotes to include key regulation steps outside the nucleus. Given that Tup1 and the metabolic enzymes that control PI(3,5)P2 are highly conserved among eukaryotes, our findings may provide important insights toward understanding glucose/carbon metabolic reprogramming in other eukaryotes, including humans.

  19. Cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bond in 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by copper(I) bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatua, Suman; Majumdar, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Reactions of CuCl, CuCl2 and CuBr2 with 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (tBu3tach) resulted in the formation of [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuCl2)] (1), [(tBu3tach)(CuCl2)] (2) and [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuBr2)] (3) respectively. Interestingly, CuBr was found to mediate the cleavage of the C-N bonds of tBu3tach in a vast range of solvents, namely, chloroform, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile and methanol to yield [Cu4Br4(tBuNCH2)4] (4) and stands as an example of C-N bond cleavage of 1,3,5-triazacyclohexane rings by copper salts. Compounds 1 and 3 contains amidinium cations and are unstable in solution towards the release of copper. The release of copper from 3 in solution was confirmed by the isolation of the compound, [CuBr(MeCN)] (5). Formation of the amidinium cations [(tBu3tach-H)+] in 1 and 3 may be avoided by the use of PPh3 to yield [(tBu3tach)Cu(PPh3)](PF6) (6), while the coordinated N-tert-butylmethanimine (tBuNCH2) in 4 could be replaced by PPh3 to yield [Cu4Br4(PPh3)4] (7). Complexes 1-7 are characterized by a combination of single crystal X-ray structure determination and/or elemental analysis, NMR, IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Mass spectrometry.

  20. Electron shuttle-mediated biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine adsorbed to granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Millerick, Kayleigh; Drew, Scott R; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-08-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) effectively removes hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from groundwater but generates RDX-laden GAC that must be disposed of or regenerated. Batch reactors containing GAC to which RDX was preadsorbed were used in experiments to test the potential for adsorbed RDX reduction and daughter product formation using (i) chemically reduced anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2QDS), (ii) resting Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and (iii) a combined system containing AQDS and GS-15. Approximately 97.0% of the adsorbed RDX was transformed in each of these experimental systems by 90 h. Chemically reduced AQDS (AH2QDS) transformed 99.2% of adsorbed RDX; formaldehyde was produced rapidly and was stoichiometric (3 mol HCHO per mol RDX). Geobacter metallireducens also reduced RDX with and without AQDS present. This is the first study to demonstrate biological transformation of RDX adsorbed to GAC. Formaldehyde increased and then decreased in biological systems, suggesting a previously unreported capacity for G. metallireducens to oxidize formaldehyde, which was confirmed with resting cell suspensions. These data suggest the masses of GAC waste currently produced by activated carbon at RDX remediation sites can be minimized, decreasing the carbon footprint of the treatment technology. Alternatively, this strategy may be used to develop a Bio-GAC system for ex situ RDX treatment. PMID:23837558

  1. Fate of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil and bioaccumulation in bush bean hydroponic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Bean, R.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Soils amended with [[sup 14]C]hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) were sampled over 60 d and subjected to exhaustive Soxhlet extraction followed by HPLC analysis. RDX was the only radiolabeled compound observed in soil extracts. Emission of volatile organics and [sup 14]CO[sub 2] from soil accounted for only 0.31 % of the amended radiolabel. Mass balance for RDX-amended soil was better than 84% throughout the two-month study. The analytical method developed for plants involved acid hydrolysis, solvent extraction, fractionation on Florisil adsorbent and separation by HPLC. The described methodology allowed for RDX recovery of 86 [+-] 3% from fortified bush bean leaf tissue. Further experiments were conducted with bush bean plants maintained on RDX-containing hydroponic solutions. Hydroponic plants did not emit detectable amounts of [sup 14]CO[sub 2] or radiolabeled volatile organics. Analysis of the plant tissue indicated bioaccumulation of RDX in the aerial tissues of hydroponic plants exposed for either 1 or 7 d. Metabolism of RDX to polar metabolites was observed in plants exposed for 7 d.

  2. Growth changes of eighteen herbaceous angiosperms induced by Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Frank L; Koeser, Andrew K; Dawson, Jeffrey O

    2016-01-01

    Study objectives were to describe and quantify growth responses (tolerance as shoot and root biomass accumulation) to soil-applied Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) treatments of eighteen terrestrial, herbaceous, angiospermous species and also; to determine how much of RDX, RDX transformation products, total N and RDX-derived N accumulated in the foliage. RDX altered growth of eighteen plant species or cultivars at levels of 100, 500, and 1,000 mg kg(-1)dry soil in a 75-d greenhouse study. Sixteen species or cultivars exhibited growth inhibition while two were stimulated in growth by RDX. A maximum amount of foliar RDX in a subset of three plant species was 36.0 mg per plant in Coronilla varia. Foliar concentrations of transformation products of RDX were low relative to RDX in the subset of three species. The proportion of RDX-N with respect to total N was constant, suggesting that foliar RDX transformation did not explain differences in tolerance. There was a δ (15)N shift towards that of synthetic RDX in foliage of the three species at a level of 1,000 mg kg(-1) RDX, proportional in magnitude to uptake of N from RDX and tolerance ranking.Reddened leaf margins for treated Sida spinosa indicate the potential of this species as a biosensor for RDX.

  3. Toxicologic and histopathologic response of the terrestrial salamander Plethodon cinereus to soil exposures of 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M S; Paulus, H I; Salice, C J; Checkai, R T; Simini, M

    2004-11-01

    Red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) were exposed to four different concentrations of 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil under controlled laboratory conditions for 28 days. Wild-caught P. cinereus (N = 20/treatment) were exposed to target concentrations of 5,000, 1000, 100, 10, and 0 mg RDX/kg soil (dry wt) using a microcosm design. Animals were fed 5 to 10 uncontaminated mutant Drosophila flies every 3 days and monitored daily. Animals were weighed 1 day before being placed in treatment and weekly thereafter. RDX concentrations in soil were analytically determined after the compound was added and mixed at the beginning, the midpoint, and the end of exposure. RDX soil concentrations were relatively stable throughout the exposure period. Signs of overt toxicity were observed primarily in the highest exposure group. Salamanders exposed to 5,000 mg RDX/kg soil exhibited signs of neuromuscular effects (lethargy, gaping, hypersensitivity, tremors) and exhibited significant weight loss. A single moribund animal from this group lost >20% of its original body weight and was killed. Animals in this exposure group also lost weight relative to animals in other treatments. Histopathologic evaluations, including an evaluation of melanomacrophage parameters, indicated no strong treatment-related findings. This study provided information regarding the effects from subchronic dermal exposure of a terrestrial amphibian species to RDX in soil and provides a microcosm approach to the evaluation of toxicity of contaminants in soil to a terrestrial vertebrate.

  4. On the low pressure shock initiation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine based plastic bonded explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersall, Kevin S.; Tarver, Craig M.; Garcia, Frank; Chidester, Steven K.

    2010-05-01

    In large explosive and propellant charges, relatively low shock pressures on the order of 1-2 GPa impacting large volumes and lasting tens of microseconds can cause shock initiation of detonation. The pressure buildup process requires several centimeters of shock propagation before shock to detonation transition occurs. In this paper, experimentally measured run distances to detonation for lower input shock pressures are shown to be much longer than predicted by extrapolation of high shock pressure data. Run distance to detonation and embedded manganin gauge pressure histories are measured using large diameter charges of six octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) based plastic bonded explosives (PBX's): PBX 9404; LX-04; LX-07; LX-10; PBX 9501; and EDC37. The embedded gauge records show that the lower shock pressures create fewer and less energetic "hot spot" reaction sites, which consume the surrounding explosive particles at reduced reaction rates and cause longer distances to detonation. The experimental data is analyzed using the ignition and growth reactive flow model of shock initiation in solid explosives. Using minimum values of the degrees of compression required to ignite hot spot reactions, the previously determined high shock pressure ignition and growth model parameters for the six explosives accurately simulate the much longer run distances to detonation and much slower growths of pressure behind the shock fronts measured during the shock initiation of HMX PBX's at several low shock pressures.

  5. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  6. Anaerobic transformation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by ovine rumen microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Perumbakkam, Sudeep; Craig, A M

    2012-01-01

    Explosives such as octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) provide a challenge in terms of bioremediation. In the present study, sheep rumen was studied for its potential to detoxify HMX using analytical chemistry and molecular microbial ecology tools. Results indicated significant loss (p < 0.05) of HMX at 8 h post-incubation and complete disappearance of the parent molecule after 16 h. Qualitative LC-MS/MS analysis provided evidence for the formation of 1-NO-HMX and MEDINA metabolites. A total of 1006 16S rRNA-V3 clones were sequenced and the Classifier tool of the RDPII database was used to sort the sequences at their phylum level. Most sequences were associated with either the phylum Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes. Significant differences at the phylum level (p < 0.001) were found between 0 h and 8 h HMX treatments. Using LibCompare analysis, 8 h HMX treatment showed enrichment of clones (p < 0.01) belonging to the genus Prevotella. From these results, it could be concluded that members of the genus Prevotella are enriched in the rumen and are capable of detoxifying HMX.

  7. Synthesis, structural and computational characterization of 2-amino-3,5-diiodobenzoic acid and 2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, M. Hakkı; Paşaoğlu, Hümeyra; Odabaşoğlu, Hakkı Yasin; Odabaşoğlu, Mustafa; Yıldırım, Arzu Özek

    2015-07-01

    The benzoic acid compounds 2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzoic acid (2A35Br) and 2-amino-3,5-diiodobenzoic (2A35I) acid have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and computational methods. Molecular geometry, intra- and inter-molecular interactions have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction technique. Fundamental vibrational bands of the title compounds were founded by FT-IR and UV-Vis method was used to obtain electronic bands. Geometry optimizations and the calculation of IR frequencies were performed both Gaussian type orbitals at Gaussian 09W and Slater type orbitals at ADF2009.01 software. The calculations are compatible with the experiment results. In addition, geometrical parameters, energies, HOMO-LUMO gaps and electrophilicity indexes have been calculated for thirty possible positional isomers of 2A35Br and 2A35I. Calculations show that 2A35Br and 2A35I isomers have the lowest energy, the narrowest HOMO-LUMO gap and the highest electrophilicity index values. Molecular electrostatic potential maps, Fukui indices, natural bond orbital analysis, thermodynamic parameters and non-linear optical properties of the 2A35Br and 2A35I were also investigated by theoretical calculations.

  8. Comparative neurotoxicity of two energetic compounds, hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Inouye, Laura S; Perkins, Edward J

    2007-05-01

    Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), both energetic compounds, share some degree of structural similarity. A noninvasive electrophysiological technique was employed to assess the impacts of acute sublethal exposures on impulse conduction in medial (MGF) and lateral (LGF) giant nerve fiber pathways of the earthworm Eisenia fetida and to evaluate the reversibility of neurotoxic effects. Earthworms were exposed to either 0.02 to 2.15 microg/cm2 of CL-20 or 0.04 to 5.35 microg/cm2 of RDX, for 1 to 14 d, on moistened filter paper. Conduction velocities of MGF and LGF were recorded on a digital oscilloscope before and after exposure. Results indicate that at exposure levels as low as 0.02 microg/cm2 of CL-20 or 0.21 microg/cm2 of RDX, worms exhibited physiological impacts such as retardation, stiffness, and body shrink. Both MGF and LGF conduction velocities were negatively correlated with increasing doses of CL-20 or RDX. However, such neurotoxic effects were alleviated or even eliminated within a few days after exposed worms were transferred to an uncontaminated environment, indicating that the neurotoxicity is reversible even after 6-d exposure. The CL-20 is more potent than RDX, which is consistent with previous studies on lethality, growth, and reproduction endpoints in soil oligochaetes.

  9. Density functional study of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine molecular crystal with van der Waals interactions.

    PubMed

    Shimojo, Fuyuki; Wu, Zhongqing; Nakano, Aiichiro; Kalia, Rajiv K; Vashishta, Priya

    2010-03-01

    Volume dependence of the total energy and vibrational properties of crystalline l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine (RDX) are calculated using the density functional theory (DFT). For this molecular crystal, properties calculated with a generalized gradient approximation to the exchange-correlation energy differ drastically from experimental values. This discrepancy arises from the inadequacy in treating weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions between molecules in the crystal, and an empirical vdW correction to DFT (DFT-D approach by Grimme) is shown to account for the dispersion effects accurately for the RDX crystal, while incurring little computational overhead. The nonempirical van der Waals density-functional (vdW-DF) method also provides an accurate description of the vdW corrections but with orders-of-magnitude more computation. We find that the vibrational properties of RDX are affected in a nontrivial manner by the vdW correction due to its dual role--reduction of the equilibrium volume and additional atomic forces.

  10. In Silico Alkaline Hydrolysis of Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: Density Functional Theory Investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Shukla, Manoj K; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Hovorun, Dmytro; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-09-20

    HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), an energetic material used in military applications, may be released to the environment during manufacturing, transportation, storage, training, and disposal. A detailed investigation of a possible mechanism of alkaline hydrolysis, as one of the most promising methods for HMX remediation, was performed by computational study at PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level. Obtained results suggest that HMX hydrolysis at pH 10 represents a highly exothermic multistep process involving initial deprotonation and nitrite elimination, hydroxide attachment accompanied by cycle cleavage, and further decomposition of cycle-opened intermediate to the products caused by a series of C-N bond ruptures, hydroxide attachments, and proton transfers. Computationally predicted products of HMX hydrolysis such as nitrite, 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, formaldehyde, nitrous oxide, formate, and ammonia correspond to experimentally observed species. Based on computed reaction pathways for HMX decomposition by alkaline hydrolysis, the kinetics of the entire process was modeled. Very low efficiency of this reaction at pH 10 was observed. Computations predict significant increases (orders of magnitude) of the hydrolysis rate for hydrolysis reactions undertaken at pH 11, 12, and 13. PMID:27523798

  11. Dissolution and sorption of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) residues from detonated mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Ashley M; Douglas, Thomas A; Walsh, Marianne E; Trainor, Thomas P

    2011-08-01

    Composition B (Comp B) is a commonly used military formulation composed of the toxic explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Numerous studies of the temporal fate of explosive compounds in soils, surface water and laboratory batch reactors have been conducted. However, most of these investigations relied on the application of explosive compounds to the media via aqueous addition and thus these studies do not provide information on the real world loading of explosive residues during detonation events. To address this we investigated the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX from Comp B residues loaded to pure mineral phases through controlled detonation. Mineral phases included nontronite, vermiculite, biotite and Ottawa sand (quartz with minor calcite). High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX residues loaded onto the mineral surfaces. Detonation resulted in heterogeneous loading of TNT and RDX onto the mineral surfaces. Explosive compound residues dissolved rapidly (within 9 h) in all samples but maximum concentrations for TNT and RDX were not consistent over time due to precipitation from solution, sorption onto mineral surfaces, and/or chemical reactions between explosive compounds and mineral surfaces. We provide a conceptual model of the physical and chemical processes governing the fate of explosive compound residues in soil minerals controlled by sorption-desorption processes. PMID:21601233

  12. Biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a prospective consortium and its most effective isolate Serratia marcescens

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.M.; Ogden, K.L.; Unkefer, P.J.

    1997-03-05

    The biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) has been observed in liquid culture by a consortium of bacteria found in horse manure. Five types of bacteria were found to predominate in the consortium and were isolated. The most effective of these isolates at transforming RDX was Serratia marcescens. The biotransformation of RDX by all of these bacteria was found to occur only in the anoxic stationary phase. The process of bacterial growth and RDX biotransformation was quantified for the purpose of developing a predictive type model. Cell growth was assumed to follow Monod kinetics. All of the aerobic and anoxid growth parameters were determined: {mu}{sub max}, K{sub s}, and Y{sub x/s}. RDX was found to competitively inhibit cell growth in both atmospheres. Degradation of RDX by Serratia marcescens was found to proceed through the stepwise reduction of the three nitro groups to nitroso groups. Each of these reductions was found to be first order in both component and cell concentrations. The degradation rate constant for the first step in this reduction process by the consortium was 0.022 L/g cells {center_dot} h compared to 0.033 L/g cells {center_dot} h for the most efficient isolate.

  13. The effect of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane on levels of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in two species of insects.

    PubMed

    Bodnaryk, R P

    1976-11-01

    Within 1 h after topical application of a convulsive dose (4 mug per fly, 47 mg/kg) of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to the adult male of Sarcophaga bullata Parker, guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) levels rose by 71.5% (P less than 0.05) in the head, 159.5% (P less than 0.01) in the thorax, and 23.4% (P greater than 0.05) in the abdomen compared to controls. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels were not significantly affected by the DDT treatment. A convulsive dose (100 mug per larva, 250 mg/kg) of DDT applied to larvae of Mamestra configurata Wlk. caused the whole body level of cyclic GMP to rise by 81.6% (P less than 0.01) after 1 h, and by 95.9% (P less than 0.01) after 3 h. Levels of cyclic AMP were not affected. A hypothesis is advanced suggesting that an abnormally high rate of discharge of acetylcholine (and in the later stages of poisoning, its actual accumulation) at central cholinergic synapses causes cyclic GMP levels to rise, perhaps in post-synaptic cells. The elevated cyclic GMP-cyclic AMP ratio found in DDT-poisoned insects may be of fundamental importance in the complex sequence of events leading to tremor, hyperexcitability, paralysis, and death.

  14. Characterization of polymorphic states in energetic samples of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) fabricated using drop-on-demand inkjet technology.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Erik D; Farrell, Mikella E; Holthoff, Ellen L; Tripathi, Ashish; Green, Norman; Moon, Raphael P; Guicheteau, Jason A; Christesen, Steven D; Pellegrino, Paul M; Fountain, Augustus W

    2012-06-01

    The United States Army and the first responder community are evaluating optical detection systems for the trace detection of hazardous energetic materials. Fielded detection systems must be evaluated with the appropriate material concentrations to accurately identify the residue in theater. Trace levels of energetic materials have been observed in mutable polymorphic phases and, therefore, the systems being evaluated must be able to detect and accurately identify variant sample phases observed in spectral data. In this work, we report on the novel application of drop-on-demand technology for the fabrication of standardized trace 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) samples. The drop-on-demand sample fabrication technique is compared both visually and spectrally to the more commonly used drop-and-dry technique. As the drop-on-demand technique allows for the fabrication of trace level hazard materials, concerted efforts focused on characterization of the polymorphic phase changes observed with low concentrations of RDX commonly used in drop-on-demand processing. This information is important when evaluating optical detection technologies using samples prepared with a drop-on-demand inkjet system, as the technology may be "trained" to detect the common bulk α phase of the explosive based on its spectral features but fall short in positively detecting a trace quantity of RDX (β-phase). We report the polymorphic shifts observed between α- and β-phases of this energetic material and discuss the conditions leading to the favoring of one phase over the other.

  15. Effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) exposure on reproduction and hatchling development in Northern bobwhite quail.

    PubMed

    Brunjes, Kristina J; Severt, Scott A; Liu, Jun; Pan, Xiaoping; Brausch, John; Cox, Stephen A; Cobb, George P; McMurry, Scott T; Kendall, Ronald J; Smith, Philip N

    2007-04-15

    Adult Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were exposed via food to octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), an energetic compound found in soils at military training installations. Depuration of HMX into eggs was examined in an initial study, and effects on egg production, hatching, growth, development, and survival of chicks were examined in a follow-up study. HMX was readily and rapidly transferred from female quail into eggs. Marked weight loss was observed in quail exposed to 125 and 250 mg/kg HMX in food, likely due to reductions in food intake rather than a toxic mechanism. In the second study, significant alterations in body mass occurred among quail at concentrations >52.5 +/- 9.3 mg/kg but not at 12.3 +/- 1.1 mg/kg in food. Treatment-related reductions in food consumption and decreases in egg laying rates were observed. No HMX-related effects were found in chick growth or survival. Quail inhabiting HMX-contaminated sites could possibly be exposed to HMX and therefore deposition of HMX into eggs is also possible. However, results of these studies further suggest that the potential for reproductive toxicity of HMX to birds is low.

  16. Chronic toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in soil determined using the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) reproduction test.

    PubMed

    Robidoux, P Y; Hawari, J; Thiboutot, S; Ampleman, G; Sunahara, G I

    2001-01-01

    The sublethal and chronic effects of the environmental contaminant and explosive octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in artificial soil were assessed using the earthworm (Eisenia andrei). Based on various reproduction parameters (total and hatched number of cocoons, number of juveniles and their biomass), fecundity was reduced at the different concentrations of HMX tested (from 280.0 +/- 12.3 to 2502.9 +/- 230.0 mg kg-1 dry soil) in spiked artificial soil (LOEC: 280.0 +/- 12.3 mg kg-1 dry soil). The growth of adult E. andrei was also reduced at the different concentrations tested, though no mortality occurred, even at the highest tested concentrations. The number of juveniles produced was correlated with the number of total and hatched cocoons, and the biomass of juveniles was correlated with the number of cocoons. Pooled results of these and earlier studies on explosives (TNT, RDX) using the E. andrei reproduction test confirm that effects of HMX on cocoon production are indicative of some reproductive consequences (number of juvenile and their biomass), whereas adult growth, in general, does not correlate strongly with change in reproduction capacity.

  17. Performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules for removal of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    An, Chun-jiang; He, Yan-ling; Huang, Guo-he; Liu, Yong-hong

    2010-07-15

    The performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules to degrade octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) was investigated under various conditions. The results of batch experiments showed that anaerobic granules were capable of removing HMX from aqueous solution with high efficiency. Both biotic and abiotic mechanisms contributed to the removal of HMX by anaerobic granules under mesophilic conditions. Adsorption appeared to play a significant role in the abiotic process. Furthermore, HMX could be biodegraded by anaerobic granules as the sole substrate. After 16 days of incubation, 99.04% and 96.42% of total HMX could be removed by 1g VSS/L acclimated and unacclimated granules, respectively. Vancomycin, an inhibitor of acetogenic bacteria, caused a significant inhibition of HMX biotransformation, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, only resulted in a slight decrease of metabolic activity. The presence of the glucose, as a suitable electron donor and carbon source, was found to enhance the degradation of HMX by anaerobic granules. Our study showed that sulfate had little adverse effects on biotransformation of HMX by anaerobic granules. However, nitrate had significant inhibitory effect on the extent of HMX removal especially in the initial period. This study offered good prospects of using high-rate anaerobic technology in the treatment of munition wastewater.

  18. Food avoidance behavior to dietary octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) exposure in the northern bobwhite (Colinusvirginianus).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; Gogal, Robert M; Larsen, Calvert T

    2005-08-13

    High-melting explosive (HMX; octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) is a widely utilized explosive component of munitions used by the military. Consequently, production and use through testing and training at military installations has resulted in deposition of HMX in soil. Since these areas are often used by birds, the oral toxicity of HMX exposure to northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) was evaluated. Attempts to determine the acute lethal dose were unsuccessful. Initially, 8 birds (1 male/1 female per dose group) were orally dosed at levels ranging from 125 to 2125 mg HMX/kg body weight. A single death at the midrange resulted in subsequent trials of oral doses up to 10,760 mg/kg body weight. Only a single death occurred at 7173 mg/kg. A subsequent 28-d feeding study was then conducted to evaluate the potential for toxicity resulting from repetitive oral exposures. Northern bobwhite were exposed to concentrations of HMX in feed of either 10000, 1000, 100, or 0 mg/kg. These exposures resulted in a clear concentration-related reduction in feed consumption and body mass. Reductions in egg production in females were correlated with changes in body mass and feed consumption. Other physiological indicators were consistent with a considerable reduction in feed intake. These results suggest that HMX concentration is responsible for intense feed aversion behavior and thus not likely a factor that would appreciably contribute to risk for wild birds at military ranges.

  19. Cloning, Sequencing, and Characterization of the Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine Degradation Gene Cluster from Rhodococcus rhodochrous

    PubMed Central

    Seth-Smith, Helena M. B.; Rosser, Susan J.; Basran, Amrik; Travis, Emma R.; Dabbs, Eric R.; Nicklin, Steve; Bruce, Neil C.

    2002-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a high explosive which presents an environmental hazard as a major land and groundwater contaminant. Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain 11Y was isolated from explosive contaminated land and is capable of degrading RDX when provided as the sole source of nitrogen for growth. Products of RDX degradation in resting-cell incubations were analyzed and found to include nitrite, formaldehyde, and formate. No ammonium was excreted into the medium, and no dead-end metabolites were observed. The gene responsible for the degradation of RDX in strain 11Y is a constitutively expressed cytochrome P450-like gene, xplA, which is found in a gene cluster with an adrenodoxin reductase homologue, xplB. The cytochrome P450 also has a flavodoxin domain at the N terminus. This study is the first to present a gene which has been identified as being responsible for RDX biodegradation. The mechanism of action of XplA on RDX is thought to involve initial denitration followed by spontaneous ring cleavage and mineralization. PMID:12324318

  20. Electron shuttle-mediated biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine adsorbed to granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Millerick, Kayleigh; Drew, Scott R; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-08-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) effectively removes hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from groundwater but generates RDX-laden GAC that must be disposed of or regenerated. Batch reactors containing GAC to which RDX was preadsorbed were used in experiments to test the potential for adsorbed RDX reduction and daughter product formation using (i) chemically reduced anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2QDS), (ii) resting Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and (iii) a combined system containing AQDS and GS-15. Approximately 97.0% of the adsorbed RDX was transformed in each of these experimental systems by 90 h. Chemically reduced AQDS (AH2QDS) transformed 99.2% of adsorbed RDX; formaldehyde was produced rapidly and was stoichiometric (3 mol HCHO per mol RDX). Geobacter metallireducens also reduced RDX with and without AQDS present. This is the first study to demonstrate biological transformation of RDX adsorbed to GAC. Formaldehyde increased and then decreased in biological systems, suggesting a previously unreported capacity for G. metallireducens to oxidize formaldehyde, which was confirmed with resting cell suspensions. These data suggest the masses of GAC waste currently produced by activated carbon at RDX remediation sites can be minimized, decreasing the carbon footprint of the treatment technology. Alternatively, this strategy may be used to develop a Bio-GAC system for ex situ RDX treatment.

  1. Towards ten-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gongwen; Geng, Lixiang; Zhu, Xiushan; Li, Li; Chen, Qian; Norwood, R A; Manzur, T; Peyghambarian, N

    2015-03-23

    Raman lasers based on mid-infrared fibers operating at 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window are attractive sources for several applications. Compared to fluoride and chalcogenide fibers, tellurite fibers are more advantageous for high power Raman fiber laser sources at 3-5 µm because of their broader Raman gain bandwidth, much larger Raman shift and better physical and chemical properties. Here we report on our simulations for the development of 10-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fibers as the nonlinear gain medium and readily available continuous-wave (cw) and Q-switched erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.8 µm as the pump sources. Our results show that a watt-level or even ten-watt-level fiber laser source in the 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window can be achieved by utilizing the 1st- and 2nd-order Raman scattering in the tellurite fiber. The presented numerical study provides valuable guidance for future 3-5 um Raman fiber laser development. PMID:25837094

  2. Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of the Energetic Compound 3,5-Dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiao-Qin; Cao, Duan-Lin; Cui, Jian-Lan

    2016-07-01

    A novel energetic material, 3,5-dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole (DNNP), was synthesized via nitration and nucleophilic substitution reaction using 4-chloropyrazole as raw material. The structure of DNNP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and elemental analysis. Its detonation properties were calculated and compared with those of other commonly used energetic compounds. The thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was studied by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry coupled with a mass spectrometry (DSC-MS). The results show that the detonation properties of DNNP were better than those of TNT and comparable to those of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). In addition, the thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was supposed. Initially, the O-NO2 bond was broken, thereby producing a nitropyrazole oxygen radical. Subsequently, the nitropyrazole oxygen radical was decomposed by free radical cleavage of nitro or isomerized to nitritepyrazole and subsequently decomposed by free radical cleavage of the nitroso group. Finally, pyrazole ring fission occurred and produced N2, NO, N2O, and CO2.

  3. Induction of phosphodiesterase by cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in differentiating Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae.

    PubMed

    Klein, C

    1975-09-25

    Cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate added to the starvation media of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae induces both intracellular and extracellular phosphodiesterase activities of these cells. The induced enzyme activity appears several hours earlier than that in starved cells which have not been induced with cyclic nucleotide. In both cases, the appearance of enzyme is inhibited by cycloheximide, and actinomycin D, and daunomycin. The KmS for the extracellular enzyme(s) of nucleotide-induced and uninduced control cells are identical. The induction of enzyme activity seems specific for cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate since cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate, as well as other nucleotides, have no effect. No differences in the activity or excretion of either N-acetylglucosaminidase or the inhibitory of the extracellular phosphodiesterase are observed between cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-induced and control cells. A direct activation of phosphodiesterase by cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate can be excluded, since the addition of this nucleotide to cell lysates has no effect on the enzyme activity. PMID:170256

  4. Sensitivity of 2,6-Diamino-3, 5-Dinitropyrazine-1-Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Tran, T D

    2005-01-20

    The thermal and shock sensitivities of plastic bonded explosive formations based on 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (commonly called LLM-105 for Lawrence Livermore Molecule No.105) are reported. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) apparatus was used to generate times to thermal explosion at various initial temperatures. A four-reaction chemical decomposition model was developed to calculate the time to thermal explosion versus inverse temperature curve. Three embedded manganin pressure gauge experiments were fired at different initial pressures to measure the pressure buildup and the distance required for transition to detonation. An Ignition and Growth reactive model was calibrated to this shock initiation data. LLM-105 exhibited thermal and shock sensitivities intermediate between those of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazine (HMX).

  5. Poly[(μ(5)-3,5-dinitro-benzoato)rubidium].

    PubMed

    Miao, Yanqing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Chunye

    2011-07-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Rb(C(7)H(3)N(2)O(6))](n), comprises an Rb cation and a 3,5-dinitro-benzoate anion. The Rb cation is eight-coordinated by O atoms from five 3,5-dinitro-benzoate anions. On the other hand, each 3,5-dinitro-benzoate anion links five Rb cations with the carboxyl-ate groups as μ(3)-bridging. The metal atom is firstly linked by the carboxyl-ate groups into a chain along the c-axis direction, which is further linked by bonds between the Rb and nitro O atoms, giving a three-dimensional framework. PMID:21836829

  6. Synthesis and structural characterization of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazolates.

    PubMed

    Haiges, R; Bélanger-Chabot, G; Kaplan, S M; Christe, K O

    2015-02-21

    Salts of 3,5-dinitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole, a building block for energetic materials, have been prepared and fully characterized. Most of the studied salts exhibit high thermal stability and very low shock and friction sensitivities. 3,5-Dinitro-1,2,4-triazolates with the nitrogen-rich ammonium, guanidinium, aminoguanidinium, and aminotetrazolium cations are energetic and have potential for energetic material applications. Salts containing alkali, alkali earth metal, and silver cations exhibit coloured emissions upon combustion while salts with large organic cations such as PPh4(+) and (Ph3P)2N(+) are highly insensitive and can be easily crystallized.

  7. Access to Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones through Anodic N-N Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Gieshoff, Tile; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2016-08-01

    Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones are important motifs in heterocyclic chemistry and are of high interest for pharmaceutical applications. In classic organic synthesis, the hydrazinic moiety is installed through condensation using the corresponding hydrazine building blocks. However, most N,N'-diaryl hydrazines are toxic and require upstream preparation owing to their low commercial availability. We present an alternative and sustainable synthetic approach to pyrazolidin-3,5-diones that employs readily accessible dianilides as precursors, which are anodically converted to furnish the N-N bond. The electroconversion is conducted in a simple undivided cell under constant-current conditions. PMID:27392318

  8. Accumulation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine by the earthworm Eisenia andrei in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Savard, Kathleen; Lachance, Bernard; Robidoux, Pierre Y; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2009-10-01

    The heterocyclic polynitramine hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a highly energetic compound found as a soil contaminant at some defense installations. Although RDX is not lethal to soil invertebrates at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg, it decreases earthworm cocoon formation and juvenile production at environmentally relevant concentrations found at contaminated sites. Very little is known about the uptake of RDX in earthworms and the potential risks for food-chain transfer of RDX in the environment. Toxicokinetic studies were conducted to quantify the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) using adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed for up to 14 d to sublethal concentrations of nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX in a Sassafras sandy loam soil. High-performance liquid chromatography of acetonitrile extracts of tissue and soil samples indicated that nonlabeled RDX can be accumulated by the earthworm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The BAF, expressed as the earthworm tissue to soil concentration ratio, decreased from 6.7 to 0.1 when the nominal soil RDX concentrations were increased from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. Tissue concentrations were comparable in earthworms exposed to nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX. The RDX bioaccumulation also was estimated using the kinetically derived model (BAFK), based on the ratio of the uptake to elimination rate constants. The established BAFK of 3.6 for [14C]RDX uptake was consistent with the results for nonlabeled RDX. Radioactivity also was present in the tissue residues of [14C]RDX-exposed earthworms following acetonitrile extraction, suggesting the formation of nonextractable [14C]RDX metabolites associated with tissue macromolecules. These findings demonstrated a net accumulation of RDX in the earthworm and the potential for food-chain transfer of RDX to higher-trophic-level receptors.

  9. The little-studied cluster Berkeley 90. I. LS III +46 11: a very massive O3.5 If* + O3.5 If* binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Negueruela, I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Pellerin, A.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sota, A.; Marco, A.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; Sanchez Bermudez, J.; Gamen, R. C.; Lorenzo, J.

    2015-07-01

    Context. It appears that most (if not all) massive stars are born in multiple systems. At the same time, the most massive binaries are hard to find owing to their low numbers throughout the Galaxy and the implied large distances and extinctions. Aims: We want to study LS III +46 11, identified in this paper as a very massive binary; another nearby massive system, LS III +46 12; and the surrounding stellar cluster, Berkeley 90. Methods: Most of the data used in this paper are multi-epoch high S/N optical spectra, although we also use Lucky Imaging and archival photometry. The spectra are reduced with dedicated pipelines and processed with our own software, such as a spectroscopic-orbit code, CHORIZOS, and MGB. Results: LS III +46 11 is identified as a new very early O-type spectroscopic binary [O3.5 If* + O3.5 If*] and LS III +46 12 as another early O-type system [O4.5 V((f))]. We measure a 97.2-day period for LS III +46 11 and derive minimum masses of 38.80 ± 0.83 M⊙ and 35.60 ± 0.77 M⊙ for its two stars. We measure the extinction to both stars, estimate the distance, search for optical companions, and study the surrounding cluster. In doing so, a variable extinction is found as well as discrepant results for the distance. We discuss possible explanations and suggest that LS III +46 12 may be a hidden binary system where the companion is currently undetected.

  10. Toxic effects of oral hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    McFarland, Craig A; Quinn, Michael J; Bazar, Matthew A; Talent, Larry G; Johnson, Mark S

    2009-05-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has been widely used as an explosive in munition formulations, resulting in contamination of wildlife habitat on military installations. To estimate health effects for reptilian species, acute, subacute, and subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted using the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Estimated oral median lethal doses were 72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 49-106) mg/kg body weight (slope, 3.754) for males and 88 (95% CI, 65-119) mg/kg (slope, 4.525) for females. Toxicity from RDX suggested the neurological system as the critical target tissue. A 14-d subacute study followed with males dosed orally with RDX (corn oil) at 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg/d. Signs of toxicity frequently included a characteristic body posture. A significant dose-survival relationship was seen over the range of doses, with a significant decrease in survival at 20 mg/kg/d. Males in the 60-d subchronic study were dosed at 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 8, and 11 mg/kg/d, and signs of toxicity included lethargy, cachexia, and anorexia. Survival was decreased at 8 and 11 mg/kg/d. Reduced growth rate and food consumption occurred at 5 mg/kg/d. Brain tissue was assayed for RDX when seizures were observed at a residue concentration of at least 18 microg/g. No abnormalities were observed in the hematologic indices, whereas plasma proteins were reduced. Hepatic enlargement and decreased testes mass occurred at 8 and 11 mg/kg/d. Plasma testosterone concentrations, sperm counts, and motility measures were variable for all treatment levels. Based on survival, growth rate, food intake, and testes to brain weight ratios, these data suggest a lowest-observed-adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg/d and a no-observed-adverse effect level of 2.5 mg/kg/d. PMID:19102580

  11. Identification of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine-degrading microorganisms via 15N-stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Roh, Hyungkeun; Yu, Chang-Ping; Fuller, Mark E; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2009-04-01

    This study reported the application of 15N-stable isotope probing (SIP) to identify active hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-utilizing microorganisms in groundwater microcosms. Fifteen 16S rRNA gene sequences were derived from the 15N-DNA fraction (contributed from active microorganisms capable of using RDX as a nitrogen source) of microcosms receiving cheese whey. The 16S rRNA gene sequences belonged to Actinobacteria (two clones), alpha-Proteobacteria (seven clones), and gamma-Proteobacteria (six clones). Except for five sequences with high similarity to two known RDX degraders (Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C), our results suggested that phylogenetically diverse microorganisms were capable of using RDX as a nitrogen source. Six sequences of the xplA gene (a known RDX-degrading catabolic gene) were detected from the 15N-DNA fraction. The xplA gene sequences were 96-99% similar to the xplA gene of Rhodococcus sp. DN22(a known RDX utilizer), suggesting that other RDX utilizers might contain xplA-like genes. Twenty-five 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from the unenriched, RDX-contaminated groundwater clustered differently from those obtained from the 15N-DNA fraction of the cheese-whey-amended microcosm. Our results suggested that active RDX utilizers can be stimulated by nutrient source additions even if they are present at low densities, and that use of 15N-SIP can identifythese functional members of the microbial community.

  12. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (<1 mM fructose) into site wells. Biostimulation (no added cells) was performed by injecting groundwater amended with low (<1 mM fructose) or high (>15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation.

  13. Analysis of the xplAB-Containing Gene Cluster Involved in the Bacterial Degradation of the Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Chun Shiong; Sabir, Dana Khdr; Lorenz, Astrid; Bontemps, Cyril; Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A.; Strand, Stuart E.; Rylott, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated use of the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on military land has resulted in significant soil and groundwater pollution. Rates of degradation of RDX in the environment are low, and accumulated RDX, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined is a possible human carcinogen, is now threatening drinking water supplies. RDX-degrading microorganisms have been isolated from RDX-contaminated land; however, despite the presence of these species in contaminated soils, RDX pollution persists. To further understand this problem, we studied RDX-degrading species belonging to four different genera (Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Gordonia, and Williamsia) isolated from geographically distinct locations and established that the xplA and xplB (xplAB) genes, which encode a cytochrome P450 and a flavodoxin redox partner, respectively, are nearly identical in all these species. Together, the xplAB system catalyzes the reductive denitration of RDX and subsequent ring cleavage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to xplAB, the Rhodococcus species studied here share a 14-kb region flanking xplAB; thus, it appears likely that the RDX-metabolizing ability was transferred as a genomic island within a transposable element. The conservation and transfer of xplAB-flanking genes suggest a role in RDX metabolism. We therefore independently knocked out genes within this cluster in the RDX-degrading species Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Analysis of the resulting mutants revealed that XplA is essential for RDX degradation and that XplB is not the sole contributor of reducing equivalents to XplA. While XplA expression is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions and further enhanced by the presence of RDX, MarR is not regulated by RDX. PMID:25128343

  14. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (<1 mM fructose) into site wells. Biostimulation (no added cells) was performed by injecting groundwater amended with low (<1 mM fructose) or high (>15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation. PMID:27301804

  15. Analysis of the key intermediates of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in groundwater: occurrence, stability and preservation.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Louise; Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Hatzinger, Paul B; Fuller, Mark E; Hawari, Jalal

    2011-08-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a widely used explosive that is present in soils at a number of military sites, including training and testing ranges. Because of its relatively weak adsorption to soil, RDX frequently migrates through the unsaturated zone and causes groundwater contamination. In the environment, RDX can transform to produce mono-, di-, and tri-nitroso derivatives (MNX, DNX, and TNX) and the ring cleavage products methylenedinitramine (MEDINA) and 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB). The present study was undertaken to analyze RDX and its products in groundwater samples taken from various US military sites. The stability of some of the common transformation intermediates of RDX, including the nitroso derivatives, NDAB and MEDINA, under typical conditions in a groundwater aquifer is not well understood, and appropriate preservation methods for these compounds have not been established. Therefore, we studied the inherent stability of these compounds in deionized water and in groundwater, and evaluated various preservation techniques, including adjustment of pH, temperature, and salinity. NDAB and nitroso derivatives were stable under typical ambient environmental conditions, but MEDINA was highly unstable. The addition of sea salts (10% w/v) was found to stabilize MEDINA when the samples were stored at 4 °C. Using appropriate preservation techniques, we detected nitroso derivatives and NDAB, but no MEDINA, at some of the sites investigated. Stabilizing RDX intermediate products in field samples to allow detection is important because the presence of any of these chemicals can indicate past contamination by RDX and provide insight into the occurrence of in situ natural attenuation. PMID:21734991

  16. Analysis of the key intermediates of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in groundwater: occurrence, stability and preservation.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Louise; Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Hatzinger, Paul B; Fuller, Mark E; Hawari, Jalal

    2011-08-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a widely used explosive that is present in soils at a number of military sites, including training and testing ranges. Because of its relatively weak adsorption to soil, RDX frequently migrates through the unsaturated zone and causes groundwater contamination. In the environment, RDX can transform to produce mono-, di-, and tri-nitroso derivatives (MNX, DNX, and TNX) and the ring cleavage products methylenedinitramine (MEDINA) and 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB). The present study was undertaken to analyze RDX and its products in groundwater samples taken from various US military sites. The stability of some of the common transformation intermediates of RDX, including the nitroso derivatives, NDAB and MEDINA, under typical conditions in a groundwater aquifer is not well understood, and appropriate preservation methods for these compounds have not been established. Therefore, we studied the inherent stability of these compounds in deionized water and in groundwater, and evaluated various preservation techniques, including adjustment of pH, temperature, and salinity. NDAB and nitroso derivatives were stable under typical ambient environmental conditions, but MEDINA was highly unstable. The addition of sea salts (10% w/v) was found to stabilize MEDINA when the samples were stored at 4 °C. Using appropriate preservation techniques, we detected nitroso derivatives and NDAB, but no MEDINA, at some of the sites investigated. Stabilizing RDX intermediate products in field samples to allow detection is important because the presence of any of these chemicals can indicate past contamination by RDX and provide insight into the occurrence of in situ natural attenuation.

  17. Flame spread through cracks of PBX 9501 (a composite octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine-based explosive)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghout, H. Laine; Son, Steven F.; Hill, Larry G.; Asay, Blaine W.

    2006-06-01

    Recent experiments involving combustion of PBX 9501 [a plastic-bonded high explosive composed of 95% octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by weight in a plasticized, estane-based binder] under confined conditions underscore the importance of cracks and flaws in reaction violence. The presence of a small void space or alternative escape path for combustion gases at the closed end of a crack drastically alters combustion violence. In the case of a true closed-ended crack, where gases can only escape by exiting the open end of the crack, luminous combustion spreads through the closed crack at relatively low rates in the range of a few meters per second, regardless of the pressure external to the slot. Hence, external pressure determines whether reaction can progress into the restricted dimensions of the slot, but it does not necessarily determine the dynamics of the flame's progress in the slot. When an alternative combustion-gas escape path is available at the closed end of the slot, luminous combustion spreads through the crack at hundreds of meters per second. Additionally, combustion in cracks of confined PBX 9501 materials exhibits oscillatory behavior with a frequency of about 1000 Hz for the experimental configuration used. This oscillatory behavior resembles combustion instabilities observed in rocket motors and may arise from similar processes. We also report on preliminary experiments involving 19.1 cm long slots in confined PBX 9501, which have produced very high flame-propagation rates of 1500 m/s.

  18. Adsorption-desorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, S.K.; Selim, H.M.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1995-11-01

    This study studied the adsorption-desorption behavior of TNT (2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in a bentonite/sand reference material (Swy-1 montmorillonite clay mixed with acid-washed sand) and two selected soils (Norwood and Kolin). Release of TNT,RDX, and other compounds from a contaminated soil obtained from the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) site was also investigated. The kinetics of TNT and RDX retention were measured using batch methods for a range of input concentrations. For RDX, the adsorption isotherms were distinctly linear. The TNT adsorption isotherm for bentonite/sand mixture appeared linear and was described equally well using linear, Freundlich, Langmuir, and a modified Langmuir model. For the Norwood and Kolin soils, TNT adsorption isotherms exhibited distinct nonlinearity and the Freundlich model provided the best fit. As indicated by the K{sub d} values, TNT exhibited stronger retention or affinity to all soils and the bentonite/sand mixture than for RDX. The RDX retention data indicated little time-dependent behavior. The TNT retention data indicated a continued decrease in TNT concentration with time in the Norwood and Kolin soils. This was possibly caused by the formation and subsequent adsorption of transformation products because transformation products, such as amino nitro toluene compounds, were identified during batch experiments. For the bentonite/sand mixture, TNT retention was rapid initially and reached apparent equilibrium within 1 day. Unlike Kolin and Norwood soils, there was no hysteretic behavior of TNT adsorption-desorption by the bentonite/sand mixture and a mass balance suggested fully reversible retention mechanisms. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Transport of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Selim, H.M.; Xue, S.K.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1995-11-01

    This study investigated the fate and transport of explosives in soils. Transport experiments were conducted to describe the mobility of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in a SWy-1 reference clay (bentonite mixed with sand) and two selected soils (Norwood and Kolin). Miscible displacement experiments in packed soil columns under steady flow were used. For the bentonite/sand column, TNT was highly mobile and fully reversible when methanol was used as the background solution. In contrast the TNT pulse was strongly retarded with as much as 50% of that applied remaining within the bentonite/sand, Norwood, or Kolin columns. Products of the transformation of TNT to 4-Am-DNT and other compound were identified in the effluent solution. A 7-day flow interruption during the TNT pulse application resulted in decreased TNT levels in the effluent solution. This decrease corresponded to a sudden increase in the 4-Am-DNT concentration in the effluent. For RDX only limited retention was observed. These findings are consistent with results from adsorption-desorption batch experiments. The TNT and RDX transport results were successfully described by a nonlinear multireaction and transport model (MRTM), which accounted for equilibrium and kinetic (reversible and irreversible) retention mechanisms. However, efforts to describe RDX transport were more successful than efforts to describe TNT when independently determined (batch) parameters were used. The mobility of TNT, RDX, and other compounds from a contaminated soil obtained from a Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) site was also investigated. A gradual release and subsequent movement of various contaminants, including HMX, TNT, RDX, TNG, 2-Am-DNT, and 4-Am-DNT, was observed. The leaching patterns were consistent with results from uncontaminated Kolin soil columns and reflected the affinity of contaminants during leaching in the AAP soil. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Accumulation and effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) exposure in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis).

    PubMed

    McMurry, S T; Jones, L E; Smith, P N; Cobb, G P; Anderson, T A; Lovern, M B; Cox, S; Pan, X

    2012-03-01

    Environmental contamination by energetic compounds is an increasing international concern, although little is known of their accumulation in and affect on wildlife. Reptiles are often good models for contaminants studies due to natural history traits that increase their potential for exposure. We report a study to assess accumulation and effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX, High Melting Explosive) in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis). Acute oral toxicity (LD(50)) was estimated to exceed 2000 mg/kg body weight in adult male and female anoles using a standard up-and-down method. Accumulation of HMX was assessed in adult females via dietary exposure and into eggs by two routes (directly from the soil and via maternal transfer). HMX readily accumulated into adult females in a dose-dependent manner and into eggs following both exposure pathways. However, total HMX in soil-exposed eggs was up to 40-times greater than those exposed via maternal transfer. Although there was a suggestion of an HMX-induced reduction in body weight in adult females, overall there were no effects observed over the 12 week exposure period. The only significant effect on eggs was a 50% reduction in hatching success for eggs exposed to 2000 mg/kg HMX in the soil during incubation. Growth and survival of hatchlings was not affected by HMX exposure. Our results demonstrate that HMX accumulates through the food chain and into eggs from the soil, but likely poses minimal threat to lizards except to hatching success in eggs incubated in soils with HMX levels near maximum environmental concentrations.

  1. FOURTEEN-DAY TOXICITY STUDY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic effects of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female rats were evaluated by feeding powdered certified laboratory chow diet supplemented with varied concentrations of TNB (0,50,200,400,800 and 1200 mg kg-1 diet) for 14 days. Food intake by female rats in 400,800 and 12...

  2. DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL (TCP) BY ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3,5,6-trichloro-2pyridinol (TCP) has been developed to quantitate parts per billion (ppb) amounts of the analyte in urine. TCP is a major metabolite and environmental degradation product of the insecticide c...

  3. Evaluation of GALAXY Classroom Science for Grades 3-5. Final Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Gloria J. A.; Austin, Susan; DeLong, Bo; Pasta, David J.; Block, Clifford

    The GALAXY Classroom is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches, supported by the first U.S. interactive satellite communications network designed to facilitate the introduction of innovative curricula to improve student learning in elementary schools. GALAXY Classroom Science for grades 3-5 features the organization of…

  4. A Multiple-Data Analysis of the 3.5-Year Development of EFL Student Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the changes in Japanese students English writing behaviors over a 3.5-year period using multiple data sources including written texts, videotaped writing behaviors, and stimulated-recall protocols. Data from student interviews supplemented the analyses. Because 6 (henceforth, English as a second language [ESL]…

  5. Regioselective Glycosylation of 3-, 5-, 6-, and 7-Hydroxyflavones by Cultured Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Uesugi, Daisuke; Fujitaka, Yuuya; Okada, Shouta; Tanigawa, Masato; Hamada, Hiroki

    2015-06-01

    Regioselective glycosylation of 3-, 5-, 6-, and 7-hydroxyflavones was investigated using cultured plant cells of Eucalyptus perriniana and Phytolacca americana as biocatalysts. 3- and 7-Hydroxyflavones were practically glycosylated into the corresponding β-D-glucosides by E. perriniana and P. americana.

  6. No Time for Tea (Grade Level: Elementary Grades, 3-5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Designed for Grades 3-5, this lesson plan aims to let the students learn how the Constitution of the United States provided the framework for the country's democratic form of government. Students will learn how the Constitution provided for representation within the government. A short story about the Boston Tea Party gives the background related…

  7. Spectral Properties of Clouds from 2.5 microto 3.5 micro.

    PubMed

    Blau, H H; Espinola, R P

    1968-10-01

    On the basis of simple models, the observed spectral reflectance properties of sunlit high altitude clouds in the 2.5-3.5-micro region are related, in decreasing order of importance, to the scattering properties of water droplets and ice crystals, absorption by ir active gases entrained within the cloud, and atmospheric transmission over the sun-cloud path.

  8. Smart Spending and Saving: Personal Finance Economics 3-5. Teacher Resource Manual. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Diana C.; Haskell, Douglas A.

    This book is designed to help students in grades 3-5 make better decisions as spenders, savers, borrowers, and managers of money. The learning experiences focus on personal finance and money management. The 10 lessons are divided into 4 units focusing on children making spending decisions, saving decisions, borrowing decisions, and money…

  9. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresser, Rusty; Melanese, Kathy; Sphar, Christine

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 percent of the students in our nation's public schools are English language learners, and this number grows each year. Many of these students are falling behind in math. "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5" outlines the challenges ELL students face when learning math and provides a wealth of specific…

  10. A Fast Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometric Analysis of PETN (Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate), RDX (3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane) and HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) in Soil, Utilizing a Simple Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction with Minimum Solvent.

    PubMed

    Anilanmert, Beril; Aydin, Muhammet; Apak, Resat; Avci, Gülfidan Yenel; Cengiz, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Direct analyses of explosives in soil using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods are very limited in the literature and require complex procedures or relatively high amount of solvent. A simple and rapid method was developed for the determination of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), which are among the explosives used in terrorist attacks. A one-step extraction method for 1.00 g soil with 2.00 mL acetonitrile, and a 8-min LC-MS/MS method was developed. The detection limits for PETN, RDX and HMX were 5.2, 8.5 and 3.4 ng/g and quantitation limits were 10.0, 24.5, 6.0 ng/g. The intermediate precisions and Horwitz Ratio's were between 4.10 - 13.26% and 0.24 - 0.98, in order. This method was applied to a model post-blast debris collected from an artificial explosion and real samples collected after a terrorist attack in Istanbul. The method is easy and fast and requires less solvent use than other methods. PMID:27302580

  11. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subchronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 rats was evaluated by feeding a powdered certified laboratory diet containing 0, 66.7, 400 and 800 mg TNB/kg diet for 90 days. The calculated average TNB intake was 4.29, 24.70, and 49.28 mg/kg...

  12. Earthwatch: Designing Environmental Education into the Curriculum. Volume I, Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry, Ed.; Hungerford, Nancy, Ed.

    This environmental education activities package for grades 3-5 contains activities in the following curriculum areas: (1) social science; (2) science; (3) language arts; and (4) mathematics. The activities are divided into seven sections based on seven environmental topics: (1) ecosystems; (2) population; (3) energy and resources; (4) economics,…

  13. Algebraic Reasoning: Professor Arbegla Introduces Variables and Functions. GEMS Teacher's Guide for Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Jaine; Bergman, Lincoln

    This teacher guide helps build a solid foundation in algebra for students in grades 3-5 in which students gain essential understanding of properties of numbers, variables, functions, equations, and formulas. Throughout the problem solving activities, students use computational skills and gain a deeper understanding of the number system. Students…

  14. CHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats was evaluated by feeding a diet containing 0, 5, 60 and 300 ppm of TNB for 2 years. The calculated average TNB intake over 2 years for males and females was 0.22, 2.64, 13.44 and 0.23,...

  15. Identification of distinct biological functions for four 3'-5' RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Long, Yicheng; Abad, Maria G; Olson, Erik D; Carrillo, Elisabeth Y; Jackman, Jane E

    2016-09-30

    The superfamily of 3'-5' polymerases synthesize RNA in the opposite direction to all other DNA/RNA polymerases, and its members include eukaryotic tRNA(His) guanylyltransferase (Thg1), as well as Thg1-like proteins (TLPs) of unknown function that are broadly distributed, with family members in all three domains of life. Dictyostelium discoideum encodes one Thg1 and three TLPs (DdiTLP2, DdiTLP3 and DdiTLP4). Here, we demonstrate that depletion of each of the genes results in a significant growth defect, and that each protein catalyzes a unique biological reaction, taking advantage of specialized biochemical properties. DdiTLP2 catalyzes a mitochondria-specific tRNA(His) maturation reaction, which is distinct from the tRNA(His) maturation reaction typically catalyzed by Thg1 enzymes on cytosolic tRNA. DdiTLP3 catalyzes tRNA repair during mitochondrial tRNA 5'-editing in vivo and in vitro, establishing template-dependent 3'-5' polymerase activity of TLPs as a bona fide biological activity for the first time since its unexpected discovery more than a decade ago. DdiTLP4 is cytosolic and, surprisingly, catalyzes robust 3'-5' polymerase activity on non-tRNA substrates, strongly implying further roles for TLP 3'-5' polymerases in eukaryotes.

  16. 3-Chlorotyrosine and 3,5-Dichlorotyrosine as biomarkers of respiratory tract exposure to chlorine gas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modification of tyrosine by reactive chlorine can produce both 3-chlorotyrosine (CY) and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine (dCY). Both of these amino acids have proven to be promising biomarkers for assessing the extent of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed chlorine stress in a number of adverse physi...

  17. The Self-Assembly Properties of a Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide Derivative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stals, Patrick J. M.; Haveman, Jan F.; Palmans, Anja R. A.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments involving the synthesis and characterization of a benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide derivative and its self-assembly properties are reported. These laboratory experiments combine organic synthesis, self-assembly, and physical characterization and are designed for upper-level undergraduate students to introduce the topic of…

  18. Investigation of Unexpected Reaction Intermediates in the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Methyl 3,5-Dinitrobenzoate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Clesia C.; Silva, Ricardo O.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Navarro, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    An experimental project aimed at identifying stable reaction intermediates is described. Initially, the studied reaction appears to involve the simple hydrolysis, by aqueous sodium hydroxide, of methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. On mixing the substrates, however, the reaction mixture unexpectedly turns an intense red in…

  19. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamo-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-05-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  20. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  1. Teacher Implementation of Guided Reading and the Effect on Students in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Melissa S.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored implementing guided reading in grades 3-5 in a suburban school district located in Southeastern Pennsylvania. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how teachers implement guided reading in their classrooms and how the use of guided reading affects student achievement in Text Structure and Vocabulary, Reading…

  2. 3':5'-cyclic AMP and hormonal control of puparium formation in the fleshfly Sarcophaga bullata.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, G; Blechl, A; Blechl, J; Herman, P; Seligman, M I

    1977-05-01

    Injection of 3':5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) into larvae of the fly Sarcophaga bullata 3-4 hr before the beginning of puparium formation (red-spiracle stage) greatly accelerates the onset of tanning without affecting initiation of puparium formation (anterior retraction). Accelerated tanning resembles real tanning in two important respects: the solubility of cuticular proteins becomes reduced and [U-14C]tyrosine is incorporated into the cuticle. Of a number of cAMP analogues tested, 3':5'- cyclic GMP, 2':3'-cyclic AMP, and 5'-AMP were inactive, dibutyryl-3':5'-cAMP had only slight activity, and cyclic IMP and deoxy-3':5'-cAMP showed some activity. Theophylline enhanced the effect of small doses of cAMP or of blood, diluted 1:8, active in the puparium tanning factor. Injection of dopa, dopamine, acetyldopamine, or epinephrine, but not of tyrosine, had an accelerating effect similar to that of cAMP. The tanning-inhibiting effect of DL-alpha-methyl-alpha-hydrazino-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid monohydrate is reversed by dopamine or epinephrine, but not by tyrosine, dopa, or cAMP. Evidence is presented to indicate that the responses to cAMP are not artifacts but reflect actual biochemical events during tanning.

  3. Russian/English Interdisciplinary Lessons for General Education and Special Education Students. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    The materials consist of four lessons each at grade levels 3-5, designed for use by both Russian bilingual and English-monolingual teachers in general and special education. The lessons are cross-referenced to learning and performance standards established for New York City (New York) public schools. Each unit (group of grade-level lessons)…

  4. Fluorescent and nonfluorescent crystals of N-(3,5-dihalogenosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimoto, Masanobu; Yoshida, Narihiro; Sugimoto, Atsuki; Teramoto, Naozumi; Nakajima, Kiyohiko

    2016-02-01

    Crystals of N-(3,5-diXsalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline (X = fluoro, chloro, bromo, and iodo) were prepared, and their structural and luminescence properties in the solid state were investigated. Only fluorescent orange crystals were obtained for N-(3,5-difluorosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline (1). Both fluorescent orange crystals (2a) and nonfluorescent red-orange crystals (2b) were obtained for N-(3,5-dichlorosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline. Slightly fluorescent orange crystals were obtained for N-(3,5-dibromosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline (3) and N-(3,5-diiodosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline (4). Fluorescence spectra of 1, 2a, 3, and 4 in the solid state show a fluorescence band at around 600 nm by excitation at 480 nm. The fluorescence intensities were in the order 1 > 2a > 3 > 4. X-ray crystal-structure analyses of 1, 2a, and 2b were obtained. The N-salicylideneaniline molecules in all of the crystals have planar structures. The molecules in both 1 and 2b take the enol form, while the molecules in 2a take the cis-keto form. The crystals 2a include water of crystallization, which is hydrogen bonded to the adjacent N-salicylideneaniline molecules. Molecules in fluorescent 2a are arranged in stacks along the a-axis to form a columnar structure in the crystals. In contrast, molecules in nonfluorescent 2b are strongly π-π stacked to form dimers in crystals. The orange crystals 2a were transformed to the red-orange crystals 2b by removal of water of crystallization upon heating at 70 °C.

  5. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. Objectives In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient’s final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. Results The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. Conclusions In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures. PMID:27626010

  6. 3,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, a specific agonist for hydroxycarboxylic acid 1, inhibits lipolysis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changlu; Kuei, Chester; Zhu, Jessica; Yu, Jingxue; Zhang, Li; Shih, Amy; Mirzadegan, Taraneh; Shelton, Jonathan; Sutton, Steven; Connelly, Margery A; Lee, Grace; Carruthers, Nicholas; Wu, Jiejun; Lovenberg, Timothy W

    2012-06-01

    Niacin raises high-density lipoprotein and lowers low-density lipoprotein through the activation of the β-hydroxybutyrate receptor hydroxycarboxylic acid 2 (HCA2) (aka GPR109a) but with an unwanted side effect of cutaneous flushing caused by vascular dilation because of the stimulation of HCA2 receptors in Langerhans cells in skin. HCA1 (aka GPR81), predominantly expressed in adipocytes, was recently identified as a receptor for lactate. Activation of HCA1 in adipocytes by lactate results in the inhibition of lipolysis, suggesting that agonists for HCA1 may be useful for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Lactate is a metabolite of glucose, suggesting that HCA1 may also be involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. The low potency of lactate to activate HCA1, coupled with its fast turnover rate in vivo, render it an inadequate tool for studying the biological role of lactate/HCA1 in vivo. In this article, we demonstrate the identification of 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (3-HBA) as an agonist for both HCA2 and HCA1, whereas 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,5-DHBA) is a specific agonist for only HCA1 (EC(50) ∼150 μM). 3,5-DHBA inhibits lipolysis in wild-type mouse adipocytes but not in HCA1-deficient adipocytes. Therefore, 3,5-DHBA is a useful tool for the in vivo study of HCA1 function and offers a base for further HCA1 agonist design. Because 3-HBA and 3,5-DHBA are polyphenolic acids found in many natural products, such as fruits, berries, and coffee, it is intriguing to speculate that other heretofore undiscovered natural substances may have therapeutic benefits.

  7. Toxicity of the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in sediments to Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca: low-dose hormesis and high-dose mortality.

    PubMed

    Steevens, Jeffery A; Duke, B Maurice; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Bridges, Todd S

    2002-07-01

    The toxicity of the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT); hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (royal demolition explosive [RDX]); and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (high-melting explosive [HMX]), was evaluated in spiked sediment with two freshwater invertebrates. The midge Chironomus tentans and the amphipod Hyalella azteca demonstrated significant toxic effects after exposure to TNT and its degradation products, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT). Significant reductions in survival of C. tentans exposed to TNT, TNB, and 2,4-DANT were observed at nominal sediment concentrations as low as 200 mg/kg. Hyalella azteca was more sensitive to TNT, TNB, and 2,4-DANT than the midge, where significant reductions in survival were observed at nominal concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Survival of the midge and the amphipod was unaffected after exposure to RDX or HMX at the highest concentrations of 1,000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Growth of the midge, measured as total weight, was significantly reduced by 2,4-DANT. However, significantly increased growth was observed after exposure to sublethal concentrations of RDX and HMX. Although significant reductions in amphipod survival were observed at high concentrations of TNB, growth was significantly increased at sublethal concentrations. The results of the current investigation suggest that organisms exposed to explosives at contaminated sites may be affected at concentrations less than 25 mg/kg through hormetic growth enhancement and at higher concentrations through increased mortality.

  8. Nitro Derivatives of 1,3,5-Triazepine as Potential High-Energy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hari Ji; Upadhyay, Manish Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Structure optimization and frequency calculation of six nitro derivatives of 1,3,5-triazepine were performed using a MP2(FULL)/6-311G(d,p) method. In order to obtain reliable energy data, single-point energy and subsequently thermodynamic properties of the species considered were calculated at a fairly high level of theory, CCSD(T)/6-311G(d,p). Solid-phase heats of formation and crystal density were determined using an electrostatic potential (ESP) method utilizing wave function analysis-surface analysis suite (WFA-SAS) code. The result shows that all nitro derivatives possess high positive heats of formation that increase with an increase in the number of nitro groups attached to the ring moiety. The crystal density was found to be in the range of 1.67-1.90 g/cm3. Detonation properties of the compounds were estimated using the Kamlet-Jacobs equation. The results showed that detonation velocity (D) and detonation pressure (P) increased with an increase in the number of nitro groups attached at the ring moiety. It was found that all six nitro derivatives of the title compound had better or comparable performance characteristics than the most widely used commercial explosives, such as TNT, research and development explosives (RDX), and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX). The trinitro derivative (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazepine, F) yielded detonation pressure (P) and detonation velocity (D) of 45.5 GPa and 9.23 km/s, respectively, at a loading density of 1.90 g/cm3, which are superior to the most powerful available explosive HMX (P = 39.00 GPa and D = 9.11 km/s). The results obtained during the present study show that the title compounds can be used as promising futuristic high-energy-density materials (HEDMs).

  9. Computational prediction of probabilistic ignition threshold of pressed granular octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,2,3,5-tetrazocine (HMX) under shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seokpum; Miller, Christopher; Horie, Yasuyuki; Molek, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Zhou, Min

    2016-09-01

    The probabilistic ignition thresholds of pressed granular octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,2,3,5-tetrazocine explosives with average grain sizes between 70 μm and 220 μm are computationally predicted. The prediction uses material microstructure and basic constituent properties and does not involve curve fitting with respect to or prior knowledge of the attributes being predicted. The specific thresholds predicted are James-type relations between the energy flux and energy fluence for given probabilities of ignition. Statistically similar microstructure sample sets are computationally generated and used based on the features of micrographs of materials used in actual experiments. The predicted thresholds are in general agreement with measurements from shock experiments in terms of trends. In particular, it is found that grain size significantly affects the ignition sensitivity of the materials, with smaller sizes leading to lower energy thresholds required for ignition. For example, 50% ignition threshold of the material with an average grain size of 220 μm is approximately 1.4-1.6 times that of the material with an average grain size of 70 μm in terms of energy fluence. The simulations account for the controlled loading of thin-flyer shock experiments with flyer velocities between 1.5 and 4.0 km/s, constituent elasto-viscoplasticity, fracture, post-fracture contact and friction along interfaces, bulk inelastic heating, interfacial frictional heating, and heat conduction. The constitutive behavior of the materials is described using a finite deformation elasto-viscoplastic formulation and the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The ignition thresholds are determined via an explicit analysis of the size and temperature states of hotspots in the materials and a hotspot-based ignition criterion. The overall ignition threshold analysis and the microstructure-level hotspot analysis also lead to the definition of a macroscopic ignition parameter (J) and a microscopic

  10. Zonal Wave Number 2 Rossby Wave (3.5-day oscillation) Over The Martian Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.; Thokuluwa, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Over the Mars, height (800-50 Pascal pressure coordinate) profiles of temperature (K), measured by radio occultation technique during the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor) mission, obtained for the period of 1-10 January 2006 at the Martian latitude of ~63N in almost all the longitudes are analyzed to study the characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. To avoid significant data gaps in a particular longitude sector, we selected a set of 7 Mars longitude regions with ranges of 0-30E, 35-60E, 65-95E, 190-230E, 250-280E, 290-320E, and 325-360E to study the global characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. The 3.5-day oscillation is not selected as a-priori but observed as a most significant oscillation during this period of 1-10 January 2006. It is observed that in the longitude of 0-30E, the 3.5-day oscillation shows statistically significant power (above the 95% confidence level white noise) from the lowest height (800 Pascal, 8 hPa) itself and up to the height of 450 Pascal level with the maximum power of ~130 K^2 at the 600 & 650 Pascal levels. It started to grow from the power of ~ 50 K^2 at the lowest height of 800 Pascal level and reached the maximum power in the height of 600-650 Pascal level and then it started to get lessened monotonously up to the height of 450 Pascal level where its power is ~ 20 K^2. Beyond this height and up to the height of 50 Pascal level, the wave amplitude is below the white noise level. As the phase of the wave is almost constant at all the height levels, it seems that the observed 3.5-day oscillation is a stationary wave with respect to the height. In the 35-60 E longitude sector, the vertical structure of the 3.5-day oscillation is similar to what observed for the 0-30 E longitude region but the power is statistically insignificant at all the heights. However in the 65-95E longitude sector, the wave grows from the lowest level (70 K^2) of 800 Pascal to its maximum power of 280 K^2 in the height of 700 Pascal level and then it started

  11. Fragrance material review on 3,5,5-trimethyl-1-hexanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3,5,5-trimethyl-1-hexanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3,5,5-Trimethyl-1-hexanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4) to C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  12. 3.5-GHz intra-burst repetition rate ultrafast Yb-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerse, Can; Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Elahi, Parviz; Akçaalan, Önder; Ilday, F. Ömer

    2016-05-01

    We report on an all-fiber Yb laser amplifier system with an intra-burst repetition rate of 3.5 GHz. The system is able to produce minimum of 15-ns long bursts containing approximately 50 pulses with a total energy of 215 μJ at a burst repetition rate of 1 kHz. The individual pulses are compressed down to the subpicosecond level. The seed signal from a 108 MHz fiber oscillator is converted to approximately 3.5 GHz by a multiplier consisting of six cascaded 50/50 couplers, and then amplified in ten stages. The highly cascaded amplification suppresses amplified spontaneous emission at low repetition rates. Nonlinear interactions between overlapping pulses within a burst is also discussed.

  13. Design and synthesis of 3,5-diarylpiperidin-2,6-diones as anticonvulsant agents.

    PubMed

    Babu, Mariappan; Pitchumani, Kasi; Ramesh, Penugonda

    2012-01-15

    The present Letter describes a one-pot multi-component method that allows the efficient and mild preparation of 3,5-diphenylpiperidin-2,6-dione and a new series of 3,5-diarylpiperidin-2,6-dione derivatives from ethyl 2-arylacetates, formaldehyde and ammonia/aliphatic/aromatic amines. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by IR, NMR spectroscopic data and microanalyses. The anticonvulsant activities of these compounds were evaluated by maximal electroshock seizure test and were also evaluated for motor impairment. Among the synthesized compounds, 5a, 5b, 5d, and 5e could be considered potentially the most useful and safe therapeutic compound and 5g, 5i, 5j, 5m, and 5o exhibit potent activities. PMID:22189139

  14. The 3.5-m all-SiC telescope for HERSCHEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulemont, Yves; Passvogel, Thomas; Pilbratt, Goran L.; de Chambure, Daniel; Pierot, Dominique; Castel, Didier

    2004-10-01

    Placed on the L2 Lagrangian point, Herschel operates in the spectral range between 80 and 670 μm wavelength and is devoted to astronomical investigations in the far-infrared, sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths. The Herschel Telescope is an "all Silicon Carbide" Telescope, based on a 3.5-m-diameter Cassegrain design. The driving requirements are the large diameter (3;5m) which represents a manufacturing challenge, the WFE to be kept below 6μrms despite the operational temperature of 70K, and finally the mass to be kept below 300kg. The size of the Telescope has put some challenges in the manufacturing processes and the tests facilities installations. At this stage, the major critical phases which are the brazing and the grinding of the primary mirror have successfully been passed. The development and manufacturing of the Herschel Telescope is part of the Herschel Planck program funded by the European Space Agency (ESA).

  15. The 3.5m all SiC telescope for Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulemont, Y.; Passvogel, T.; Pillbrat, G.; de Chambure, D.; Pierot, D.; Castel, D.

    2004-06-01

    Placed on the L2 Lagrangian point, Herschel operates in the spectral range between 80 and 670 μm wavelength and is devoted to astronomical investigations in the far-infrared, sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths. The Herschel Telescope is an "all Silicon Carbide" Telescope, based on a 3.5-m-diameter Cassegrain design. The driving requirements are the large diameter (3.5 m), the WFE to be kept below 6μrms despite the operational temperature (70K), and finally the mass to be kept below 300kg. The size of the Telescope has put some challenges in the manufacturing and the tests facilities installations. At this stage, the major critical phase which is the brazing of the primary mirror has successfully been passed. The development and manufacturing of the Herschel Telescope is part of the Herschel Planck program funded by the European Space Agency (ESA).

  16. Chiral 2 + 3 Keto-Enamine Pseudocyclophanes Derived from 1,3,5-Triformylphloroglucinol.

    PubMed

    Kieryk, Przemysław; Janczak, Jan; Panek, Jarosław; Miklitz, Marcin; Lisowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The reactions of 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol with (1R,2R)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane, (1R,2R)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine, or (R)-2,2'-diamino-1,1'-binaphthyl result in the formation of enantiopure [2 + 3] keto-enamine condensation products, in contrast to analogous reactions of 1,3,5-triformylbenzene, where [4 + 6] Schiff base cages are formed. The X-ray crystal structure of the diaminocyclohexane 2 + 3 derivative as well as modeled structures of other compounds of this type show cyclophane-like molecules with close contact between the phloroglucinol rings. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations confirm that there is a sizable π-π interaction between these rings influencing the conformation of these molecules. PMID:26653342

  17. Poly[(μ-2-hy-droxy-3,5-dinitro-benzoato)rubidium].

    PubMed

    Meng, Yan

    2011-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Rb(C(7)H(3)N(2)O(7))](n), comprises an Rb(+) cation and a 3,5-dinitro-salicylate ligand. The Rb(+) cation is 10-coordinated by O atoms from eight 3,5-dinitro-salicylate anions and is linked by three μ(2)-O atoms, forming a zigzag chain along the b-axis direction, which is further linked by the phenyl groups, giving the three-dimensional framework. The crystal structure involves intra-anionic O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and strong π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.6755 (7) Å]. PMID:21753973

  18. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  19. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  20. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  1. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  2. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  3. [Concentration of prostaglandins and cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate in the tissues of rats].

    PubMed

    Komissarenko, V P; Slavnov, V N; Epsheĭn, E V; Malinkovich, V D

    1977-04-01

    The content of prostaglandines (PG) and cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monphosphate (cAMP) was investigated in rat tissues by the radioisotopic method of competitive binding. Maximum quantities of both PG and cAMP were revealed in the same most actively functioning organs: the brain, incretory glands, small intestine. Fatty tissue showed minimum quantities of these substances. Results indicate a close functional relationship between the PG synthesis and adenylatecyclase activity in the body tissues.

  4. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Betty W.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the present invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve much of the TATB, but readily dissolves these explosives.

  5. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, B.W.

    1984-11-29

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

  6. Biodegradation of Nitro-Substituted Explosives 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene, Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine, and Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5-Tetrazocine by a Phytosymbiotic Methylobacterium sp. Associated with Poplar Tissues (Populus deltoides × nigra DN34)

    PubMed Central

    Van Aken, Benoit; Yoon, Jong Moon; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2004-01-01

    A pink-pigmented symbiotic bacterium was isolated from hybrid poplar tissues (Populus deltoides × nigra DN34). The bacterium was identified by 16S and 16S-23S intergenic spacer ribosomal DNA analysis as a Methylobacterium sp. (strain BJ001). The isolated bacterium was able to use methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy, which is a specific attribute of the genus Methylobacterium. The bacterium in pure culture was shown to degrade the toxic explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazene (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5-tetrazocine (HMX). [U-ring-14C]TNT (25 mg liter−1) was fully transformed in less than 10 days. Metabolites included the reduction derivatives amino-dinitrotoluenes and diamino-nitrotoluenes. No significant release of 14CO2 was recorded from [14C]TNT. In addition, the isolated methylotroph was shown to transform [U-14C]RDX (20 mg liter−1) and [U-14C]HMX (2.5 mg liter−1) in less than 40 days. After 55 days of incubation, 58.0% of initial [14C]RDX and 61.4% of initial [14C]HMX were mineralized into 14CO2. The radioactivity remaining in solution accounted for 12.8 and 12.7% of initial [14C]RDX and [14C]HMX, respectively. Metabolites detected from RDX transformation included a mononitroso RDX derivative and a polar compound tentatively identified as methylenedinitramine. Since members of the genus Methylobacterium are distributed in a wide diversity of natural environments and are very often associated with plants, Methylobacterium sp. strain BJ001 may be involved in natural attenuation or in situ biodegradation (including phytoremediation) of explosive-contaminated sites. PMID:14711682

  7. Purification and characterization of DNase VII, a 3'. -->. 5'-directed exonuclease from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, G.F.; Grossman, L.

    1981-01-01

    An exonuclease, DNase VII, has been purified 6000-fold from human placenta. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 43,000, requires Mg/sup 2 +/ for activity, and has a pH optimum of 7.8. The enzyme hydrolyzes single-stranded and nicked duplex DNA at the same rate proceeding in a 3' ..-->.. 5' direction liberating 5'-mononucleotides. It does not measurably hydrolyze polyribonucleotides.

  8. Structure and applications of metal-organic framework based on cyanide and 3,5-dichloropyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; El-bendary, Mohamed M.

    2013-06-01

    The reaction of the aqueous/acetonitrile solutions of K3[Cu(CN)4] and 3,5-dichloropyridine (3,5-dClpy), in the presence of Me3SnCl affords a new metal-organic framework (MOF), 3∞[(CuCN)2·(3,5-dClpy)2], 1. The structure of the MOF 1 was characterized by IR, UV-visible, TGA and X-ray single crystal analysis. The structure of MOF 1 consists of CuCN building blocks which are connected by CN group forming 1D-zig-zag chains. Each chain is bridged to another chain by hydrogen bonding organizing 2D-sheets. The structure of 1 is further close packed by hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking and lp-π interactions creating 3D-network. The emission spectra and the thermodynamic parameters from TGA of the MOF 1 were discussed. The MOF 1 was used as heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidative discoloration of methylene blue dye (MB) by dilute solution of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The in vitro cytotoxic activity has been evaluated against the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. The cytotoxic effect of the MOF 1 on the viability of MCF-7 cells was determined by MTT assay.

  9. 3.5kHz Profiling with Vertically Separated Source and Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmer, S. T.; Hoskins, H.; Stephen, R. A.; Leg 200 Shipboard Scientific Party, .

    2003-12-01

    The spatial resolution of hull mounted 3.5kHz echo sounding systems is often limited in deep water by the large footptint (Fresnel zone) of the insonifying energy on the seafloor. On ODP Leg 200 at Site 1224, we tested a system that could be used from the drillship while on station to improve resolution. In 4970 m water depth, a 3.5 kHz pinger was mounted on the video camera frame and lowered down the drill string to a few meters above the seafloor. The ship's 3.5 kHz receiver recorded the returns. Having the source and receiver at differing distances above the seafloor provides two advantages: 1) the area returning reflections is greatly reduced, 2) the amplitudes of the sub-seafloor reflections are less affected by the spreading effect. Reflections were observed to 38 ms beneath the seafloor on lowerings at three closely spaced holes. The heave of the ship and camera frame shifted the travel times of the reflection sequences. A level-discriminator and correlation MatLab routine was used to align the traces and to stack them to enhance signal. The reflections showed good correlation with the limited geotechnical data obtained from the sediment cores. Although tested from the drill ship this system could be used to provide a low cost, shallow penetration profiling system from ROV's and AUV's. This work was supported by a grant from JOI-USSAC.

  10. Ethyl-2-(3,5-Dihidroxyfenol): Phloroglucinol derivatives as potential anticancer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumaningsih, Triana; Firdaus, Maulidan; Widyo Wartono, Muhammad; Nur Artanti, Anif; Suci Handayani, Desi; Eryanto Putro, Angga

    2016-02-01

    Ethyl-2-(3,5-dihidroxyfenol) based phloroglucinol compounds have been synthesized. Ethyl-2-(3,5-dihidroksifenol) were synthesized by reacting phloroglucinol with ethyl 2-chloro acetate in excess. Phloroglucinol reaction using 2-chloro ethyl acetate was carried out under reflux for 24 hours at a temperature of 56 oC. The reaction products were identified by a thin layer chromatography and were characterized by melting point test. Analysis of the structure of the products was obtained by FTIR spectrophotometer, H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The result of the reaction between phloroglucinol and 2-chloro ethyl acetate was brownish black solid, and has a melting point of 191 oC. Based on the structural analysis by FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR, the reaction product was a mixture of compounds which is ethyl 2- (3,5-dihidroksifenol) acetate, ethyl-2-(2,4,6-trioxocyclohexyl) acetate, and the rest of phloroglucinol which can not react.

  11. Reliability of Sn-3.5Ag Solder Joints in High Temperature Packaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Kurumaddali, Nalini Kanth; Kercher, Andrew K; Leslie, Dr Scott

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant need for next generation, high performance power electronic packages and systems with wide band gap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electricity transmission applications. Sn-3.5Ag solder is a candidate for use in such packages with potential operating temperatures up to 200oC. However, there is a need to understand thermal cycling reliability of Sn-3.5Ag solders subject to such operating conditions. The results of a study on the damage evolution occurring in large area Sn-3.5Ag solders joints between silicon dies and DBC substrates subject to thermal cycling between 200oC and 5oC is presented in this paper. Damage accumulation was followed using high resolution X-ray radiography techniques while nonlinear finite element models were developed based on the mechanical property data available in literature to understand the relationship between the stress state within the solder joint and the damage evolution occurring under thermal cycling conditions. It was observed that regions of damage observed in the experiments do not correspond to the finite element predictions of the location of regions of maximum plastic work.

  12. Electromigration Behaviors of Cu Reinforced Sn-3.5Ag Composite Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Han, Jing; Ma, Limin; Zuo, Yong; Guo, Fu

    2016-09-01

    The composite approach, by incorporating small amounts of reinforcement particles in the solder matrix, has proven to be one of the effective ways to improve the reliability of solder joints. The effects of Cu addition on electromigration were investigated in this study by incorporating 2% volume fraction Cu particles into Sn-3.5Ag eutectic solder paste by the in situ process. The one-dimensional solder joints, designed to prevent the current crowding effect, were stressed under a constant current density of 104 A/cm2 at room temperature, and the temperature of the sample could reach 105 ± 5°C due to the Joule heating effect. Doping 2 vol.% Cu was found to retard the electromigration phenomenon effectively. After electric current stressing for 528 h, the growth rate of an interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at the anode decreased 73% in contrast to that of Sn-3.5Ag solder joints, and the IMC layer at the cathode was almost unchanged. The polarization effect of Cu reinforced composite solder joints was also apparently mitigated. In addition, the surface damage of the composite solder joints was relieved by incorporating 2 vol.% Cu particles. Compared to Sn-3.5Ag solder joints, which had protruded Cu6Sn5 and wrinkles of Sn-solder matrix on the surface, the solder joints with Cu addition had a more even surface.

  13. Degradation kinetics of malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside exposed to microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengyao; Li, Yuan; Xu, Xiayang; Wu, Jihong; Liao, Xiaojun; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-16

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the degradation of bioactive compounds during microwave treatment is meaningful for the practical application of this novel technology. The influence of microwave power, energy density, temperature, pH value, and initial concentration of anthocyanins (Acys) on the degradation behavior of malvidin-3-glucoside (Mv-3-glu) and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside (Mv-3,5-diglu) was investigated in this study. Results showed that the degradation of both Acys was accelerated with the increase of microwave power, energy density, temperature, pH value, and initial concentration of Acys. The degradation process of both Acys followed the first-order kinetics model (R² > 0.94), whereas the relationship between Acys degradation and energy density fitted to the logistic model well (R² > 0.98). In addition, Mv-3-glu was more susceptible to the microwave treatment than Mv-3,5-diglu. Compared with heating in a 98 ± 2 °C water bath, both Acys degraded more rapidly under microwave treatment at 100 °C, indicating the occurrence of microwave effect. The results provide a guide for the scientific application of microwave treatment.

  14. Could organic matter have been preserved on Mars for 3.5 billion years?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    1990-01-01

    About 3.5 Gyr ago, when it is thought that Mars and earth had similar climates, biological evolution on earth had made considerable progress, such that life was abundant. It is therefore surmised that prior to this time period, the advent of chemical evolution and subsequent origin of life occurred on earth and may have occurred on Mars. Analysis for organic compounds in the soil buried beneath the Martian surface may yield useful information regarding the occurrence of chemical evolution and possibly biological evolution. Calculations based on the stability of amino acids lead to the conclusion that remnants of these compounds, if they existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, might have been preserved buried beneath the surface oxidizing layer. For example, if phenylalanine, an amino acid of average stability, existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, then 1.6 percent would remain buried today. Martian soil may exist from remnants of meteoritic and cometary bombardment, assuming that 1 percent of the organics survived impact.

  15. Performance Evaluation of an Enhanced Uplink 3.5G System for Mobile Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Komnakos, Dimitris; Vouyioukas, Demosthenes; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Constantinou, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The present paper studies the prospective and the performance of a forthcoming high-speed third generation (3.5G) networking technology, called enhanced uplink, for delivering mobile health (m-health) applications. The performance of 3.5G networks is a critical factor for successful development of m-health services perceived by end users. In this paper, we propose a methodology for performance assessment based on the joint uplink transmission of voice, real-time video, biological data (such as electrocardiogram, vital signals, and heart sounds), and healthcare records file transfer. Various scenarios were concerned in terms of real-time, nonreal-time, and emergency applications in random locations, where no other system but 3.5G is available. The accomplishment of quality of service (QoS) was explored through a step-by-step improvement of enhanced uplink system's parameters, attributing the network system for the best performance in the context of the desired m-health services. PMID:19132096

  16. Searching for massive galaxies at z ≥ 3.5 in GOODS-North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, C.; Matute, I.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Rodighiero, G.; Bolzonella, M.; Pozzetti, L.

    2009-06-01

    Aims: We constrain the space density and properties of massive galaxy candidates at redshifts of z≥3.5 in the Great Observatories Origin Deep Survey North (GOODS-N) field. By selecting sources in the Spitzer + IRAC bands, a sample highly complete in stellar-mass is assembled, including massive galaxies that are very faint in the optical/near-IR bands and would be missed by samples selected at shorter wavelengths. Methods: The z≥3.5 sample was selected to m_AB=23 mag at 4.5 μm using photometric redshifts obtained by fitting the galaxies spectral energy distribution at optical, near-IR bands, and IRAC bands. We also require that the brightest band (in AB scale) in which candidates are detected is the IRAC 8.0 μm band to ensure that the near-IR 1.6 μm (rest-frame) peak is falling in or beyond this band. Results: We found 53 z ≥3.5 candidates, of masses in the range Mstar˜1010{-}1011 M⊙. At least 81% of these galaxies are missed by traditional Lyman Break selection methods based on ultraviolet light. Spitzer + MIPS emission is detected for 60% of the sample of z≥3.5 galaxy candidates. Although in some cases this might suggest a residual contamination from lower redshift star-forming galaxies or Active Galactic Nuclei, 37% of these objects are also detected in the sub-mm/mm bands in SCUBA, AzTEC, and MAMBO surveys, and have properties fully consistent with vigorous starburst galaxies at z≥3.5. The comoving number density of galaxies with stellar masses of above 5 × 1010 M⊙ (a reasonable stellar-mass completeness limit for our sample) is 2.6 × 10-5 Mpc-3 (using the volume within 3.5

  17. Syntheses, Structural Characterization and Thermoanalysis of Transition-Metal Compounds Derived from 3,5-Dinitropyridone

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Zhou, Qiu-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Cai, Mei-Yu; Li, Ping; Gan, Li-Hua; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Li, Ji-Zhen; Fan, Xue-Zhong; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    Nine metal compounds of Mn(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) derived from dinitropyridone ligands (3,5-dinitro-pyrid-2-one, 2HDNP; 3,5-dinitropyrid-4-one, 4HDNP and 3,5-dinitropyrid-4-one-N- hydroxide, 4HDNPO) were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and partly by TG-DSC. Three of which were further structurally characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis. The structures of the three compounds, Mn(4DNP)2(H2O)4, 4, Zn(4DNPO)2(H2O)4, 8, and Cd(4DNPO)2(H2O)4, 9, crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n and Z = 2, with a = 8.9281(9), b = 9.1053(9), c = 10.6881(11) Å, β = 97.9840(10)° for 4; a = 8.4154(7), b = 9.9806(8), c = 10.5695(8) Å, β = 97.3500(10)° for 8; a = 8.5072(7), b = 10.2254(8), c = 10.5075(8) Å, β 96.6500(10)° for 9. All three complexes are octahedral consisting of four equatorial water molecules, and two nitrogen or oxygen donor ligands (DNP or DNPO). The abundant hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking interactions seem to contribute to stabilization of the crystal structures of the compounds. The TG-DTG results revealed that the complexes showed a weight loss sequence corresponding to all coordinated water molecules, nitro groups, the breaking of the pyridine rings and finally the formation of metal oxides. PMID:20526459

  18. Sequential Injection/Electrochemical Immunoassay for Quantifying the Pesticide Metabolite 3, 5, 6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Riechers, Shawn L.; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-12-04

    An automated and sensitive sequential injection electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor a potential insecticide biomarker, 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. The current method involved a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system equipped with a thin-layer electrochemical flow cell and permanent magnet, which was used to fix 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) antibody coated magnetic beads (TCP-Ab-MBs) in the reaction zone. After competitive immunoreactions among TCP-Ab-MBs, TCP analyte, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled TCP, a 3, 3?, 5, 5?-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride and hydrogen peroxide (TMB-H2O2) substrate solution was injected to produce an electroactive enzymatic product. The activity of HRP tracers was monitored by a square wave voltammetric scanning electroactive enzymatic product in the thin-layer flow cell. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate and the enzymatic product were investigated under batch conditions, and the parameters of the immunoassay were optimized in the SIA system. Under the optimal conditions, the system was used to measure as low as 6 ng L-1 (ppt) TCP, which is around 50-fold lower than the value indicated by the manufacturer of the TCP RaPID Assay? kit (0.25 ug/L, colorimetric detection). The performance of the developed immunoassay system was successfully evaluated on tap water and river water samples spiked with TCP. This technique could be readily used for detecting other environmental contaminants by developing specific antibodies against contaminants and is expected to open new opportunities for environmental and biological monitoring.

  19. A new 3,5-bisporphyrinylpyridine derivative as a fluorescent ratiometric probe for zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Moura, Nuno M M; Núñez, Cristina; Santos, Sérgio M; Faustino, M Amparo F; Cavaleiro, José A S; Almeida Paz, Filipe A; Neves, M Graça P M S; Capelo, José Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2014-05-26

    A new 3,5-disubstituted pyridine with two porphyrin moieties was prepared through an efficient synthetic approach involving 2-formyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (1), piperidine, and catalytic amounts of [La(OTf)3]. 3,5-Bis(5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin-2-ylmethyl)pyridine (2) was fully characterized and its sensing ability towards Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Cd(2+), and Ag(+) was evaluated in solution by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and in gas phase by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-TOF mass spectrometry. Strong changes in the ground and excited state were detected in the case of the soft metal ions Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+). A three-metal-per-ligand molar ratio was obtained in all cases and a significant ratiometric behavior was observed in the presence of Zn(2+) with the appearance of a new band at 608 nm, which can be assigned to a metal-to-ligand charge transfer. The system was able to quantify 79 ppb of Zn(2+) and the theoretical calculations are in accordance with the stoichiometry observed in solution. The gas-phase sensorial ability of compound 2 towards all metal ions was confirmed by using MALDI-TOF MS and in solid state by using polymeric films of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) doped with ligand 2. The results showed that compound 2 can be analytically used to develop new colorimetric molecular devices that are able to discriminate between Hg(2+) and Zn(2+) in solid phase. The crystal structure of Zn(II) complex of 3,5-bisporphyrinylpyridine was unequivocally elucidated by using single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. PMID:24782336

  20. STAT3/5-Dependent IL9 Overexpression Contributes to Neoplastic Cell Survival in Mycosis Fungoides

    PubMed Central

    Vieyra-Garcia, Pablo A.; Wei, Tianling; Naym, David Gram; Fredholm, Simon; Fink-Puches, Regina; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Odum, Niels; O'Malley, John T.; Gniadecki, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sustained inflammation is a key feature of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Resident IL9–producing T cells have been found in skin infections and certain inflammatory skin diseases, but their role in MF is currently unknown. Experimental Design We analyzed lesional skin from patients with MF for the expression of IL9 and its regulators. To determine which cells were producing IL9, high-throughput sequencing was used to identify malignant clones and Vb-specific antibodies were employed to visualize malignant cells in histologic preparations. To explore the mechanism of IL9 secretion, we knocked down STAT3/5 and IRF4 by siRNA transfection in CTCL cell lines receiving psoralen+UVA (PUVA) ± anti-IL9 antibody. To further examine the role of IL9 in tumor development, the EL-4 T-cell lymphoma model was used in C57BL/6 mice. Results Malignant and reactive T cells produce IL9 in lesional skin. Expression of the Th9 transcription factor IRF4 in malignant cells was heterogeneous, whereas reactive T cells expressed it uniformly. PUVA or UVB phototherapy diminished the frequencies of IL9- and IL9r-positive cells, as well as STAT3/5a and IRF4 expression in lesional skin. IL9 production was regulated by STAT3/5 and silencing of STAT5 or blockade of IL9 with neutralizing antibodies potentiated cell death after PUVA treatment in vitro. IL9-depleted mice exhibited a reduction of tumor growth, higher frequencies of regulatory T cells, and activated CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that IL9 and its regulators are promising new targets for therapy development in mycosis fungoides. PMID:26851186

  1. The Louvain-la-Neuve sea ice model LIM3.5: global and regional capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, C.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Madec, G.; Fichefet, T.; Flavoni, S.; Barthélemy, A.; Benshila, R.; Chanut, J.; Levy, C.; Masson, S.; Vivier, F.

    2015-04-01

    We present the new 3.5 version of the Louvain-la-Neuve sea ice model (LIM) integrated in NEMO 3.6. The main novelty is the improvement of model robustness and versatility for a wide range of applications, from global to regional scales. Several modifications to the code were required. First, the time stepping scheme of the model was changed from parallel to sequential (ice dynamics first, then thermodynamics). Such a scheme enables to diagnose the different physical processes responsible for exchanges through the air-ice-ocean interfaces, as well as the online inspection of mass, heat and salt conservation properties of the code. In the course of these developments, several minor conservation leaks were found and fixed, so that LIM3.5 is exactly conservative. Second, lateral boundary conditions for regional ice-covered configurations have been implemented. To illustrate the new capabilities, two simulations are performed. One is a global simulation at a nominal 2° resolution forced by atmospheric climatologies and is found reasonably realistic although no specific tuning was done. The other is a regional simulation at 2 km resolution around the Svalbard Archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, with prescribed conditions at the four boundaries including tides. The simulation is able to resolve small-scale features and transient events such as the opening and closing of coastal polynyas. The ice mass budgets for both simulations are illustrated and mostly differ by the strength of ice formation in open water. LIM3.5 now forms a solid base for future scientific studies and model developments.

  2. Geophysical detection of relict metasomatism from an Archean (approximately 3.5 Ga) subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Wu; Rondenay, Stéphane; Evans, Rob L; Snyder, David B

    2009-11-20

    When plate tectonics started on Earth has been uncertain, and its role in the assembly of early continents is not well understood. By synthesizing coincident seismic and electrical profiles, we show that subduction processes formed the Archean Slave craton in Canada. The spatial overlap between a seismic discontinuity and a conductive anomaly at approximately 100 kilometers depth, in conjunction with the occurrence of mantle xenoliths rich in secondary minerals representative of a metasomatic front, supports cratonic assembly by subduction and accretion of lithospheric fragments. Although evidence of cratonic assembly is rarely preserved, these results suggest that plate tectonics was operating as early as Paleoarchean times, approximately 3.5 billion years ago (Ga).

  3. Upbeat nystagmus in a 3.5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Matalia, Jyoti; Rajput, Vimal K; Chillal, Geetanjali J; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2016-02-01

    Upbeat nystagmus is usually a central vestibular nystagmus attributable to structural brainstem or cerebellar lesions. Adult-onset upbeat nystagmus calls for a thorough neurological evaluation. In children, however, it can occur as a transient phenomenon in healthy neonates or as a sensory form of nystagmus that usually transforms into horizontal nystagmus by 2 years of age. We report the case of 3.5-year-old boy with upbeat nystagmus. His ocular examination was within normal limits. Neurological evaluation was normal. Optical coherence tomography testing and Electroretinogram confirmed cone dysfunction. Over the next 6 months the upbeat nystagmus converted to horizontal nystagmus.

  4. Mature teratoma of the temporal bone in 3.5-month-old baby girl.

    PubMed

    Alqurashi, Alshema; Bakry, Essa; Straube, Marta; Rickert, Christian H; Mir-Salim, Parwis

    2015-01-01

    Mature teratoma is a benign germ cell tumor rarely located in the temporal bone. We are reporting a case of a mature teratoma of the temporal bone in a healthy borne 3.5-month-old baby girl with a 2-day suggestive history of otitis media and polypoidal mass expulsing from the external auditory canal of the left ear. A definitive diagnosis is made after complete excision and histological examination of the tissue. Total surgical excision of the tumor is the treatment of choice. PMID:25945275

  5. The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex, Barberton mountain belt - A section through 3.5 Ga oceanic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.; Hart, Rodger J.

    1987-01-01

    The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, is investigated, and the intrusive nature of mafic-ultramafic units from the Komati and Kromberg formations into overlying pillow lavas and sediments is documented. Evidence is presented for multiple intrusive events within the igneous sections, including crosscutting intrusives, multiple injection of magma in the Komati section, and sheeted intrusions in the Kromberg section. The thinness of the Jamestown complex suggests that, locally at least, the ca 3.5 Ga oceanic crust was also thin, consistent with the regionally extensive metasomatic alteration.

  6. 3,5-Pyridyne--a heterocyclic meta-benzyne derivative.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Michael; Cakir, Bayram; Sander, Wolfram

    2004-05-19

    3,5-Pyridyne (3) has been generated by flash vacuum pyrolysis of 3,5-diiodopyridine (20) and 3,5-dinitropyridine (21) and characterized by IR spectroscopy in cryogenic argon matrices. The aryne can clearly be distinguished from other side products by its photolability at 254 nm, inducing a rapid ring-opening presumably to (Z)-1-aza-hex-3-ene-1,5-diyne. As byproducts of the pyrolysis, HCN and butadiyne were identified, together with traces of acetylene, cyanoacetylene, (E)-1-aza-hex-3-ene-1,5-diyne, and the 3-iodo-5-pyridyl radical (from 20). Several pathways for rearrangements and fragmentations of 3 and of the parent meta-benzyne (1) have been explored computationally by density functional theory and ab initio quantum chemical methods. The lowest energy decomposition pathway of biradicals 1 and 3 is a ring-opening process accompanied by hydrogen migration, leading to (Z)-hex-3-ene-1,5-diyne [(Z)-10] and (Z)-3-aza-hex-3-ene-1,5-diyne [(Z)-24], respectively. Both reactions require activation energies of 45-50 kcal mol(-1). Mechanisms leading from (Z)-24 or directly from 3 to the experimentally observed byproducts are discussed. Upon replacement of the C(5)H moiety by N in meta-benzyne, high-level calculations predict a modest shortening of the interradical distance by 5-7 pm and a reduction of the singlet-triplet energy splitting by 3 kcal mol(-1), in good agreement with isodesmic equations, according to which the singlet ground state of 3 is destabilized relative to 1 by 3-4 kcal mol(-1). In contrast to 3,5-borabenzyne (2), which is found to be doubly aromatic, nucleus-independent chemical shifts of 3 are almost identical to that of pyridine, indicating the absence of paramagnetic ring current effects that may be associated with "in-plane antiaromaticity". As compared with 1, the overall perturbation caused by the nitrogen atom in 3 is weak, and four electron, three center interaction is of minor importance in this molecule.

  7. Commissioning Results of the 2nd 3.5 Cell SRF Gun for ELBE

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, A; Freitag, M; Murcek, Petr; Teichert, Jochen; Vennekate, H; Xiang, R; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Turlington, Larry D,

    2014-12-01

    As in 2007 the first 3.5 cell superconducting radio frequency (SRF) gun was taken into operation, it turned out that the specified performance has not been achieved. However, to demonstrate the full potential of this new type of electron source, a second and slightly modified SRF gun II was built in collaboration with Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). We will report on commissioning and first results of the new gun, which includes in particular the characterization of the most important RF properties as well as their comparison with previous vertical test results.

  8. Design of the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 M telescope. V - Telescope enclosure thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Walter A.

    1990-07-01

    A 3.5 m telescope is under construction at Apache Point near Alamogordo, New Mexico, at an elevation of 2800 m. A thermal model of a telescope enclosure is described. The model evaluates various strategies for minimizing local sources of image degradation (dome seeing). Direct and diffuse insolation, radiation to the sky, conduction, and the thermal inertia of the walls, interior air, roof, and structural steel are included. It is observed that highly reflective surface coatings reduce heat absorbed during the day, but are not very effective in reducing heat transfer in the telescope chamber at night, assuming that components with large heat capacities or thermal time constants are insulated.

  9. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR). Version 3.5, Quick Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, B.G.; Richards, R.E.; Reece, W.J.; Gertman, D.I.

    1992-10-01

    This Reference Guide contains instructions on how to install and use Version 3.5 of the NRC-sponsored Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR). The NUCLARR data management system is contained in compressed files on the floppy diskettes that accompany this Reference Guide. NUCLARR is comprised of hardware component failure data (HCFD) and human error probability (HEP) data, both of which are available via a user-friendly, menu driven retrieval system. The data may be saved to a file in a format compatible with IRRAS 3.0 and commercially available statistical packages, or used to formulate log-plots and reports of data retrieval and aggregation findings.

  10. Impact of Multipath on MFSK. A complement to FOA report C 30671-3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, G.

    1993-10-01

    The orthogonal and noncoherently detected multiple frequency shift keying (MFSK) system is rigorously analyzed concerning bit error rate for arbitrary M on KV 90 channel models in contrast to the conservative simplification made in FOA report C 30671-3.5 (PB93-162402). Numerical results are given for M = 8. The rigorous analysis gives lower nonreducible error rates than the conservative simplification, at most a factor of 1/2 with a maximum around the delays specified by the KV 90 channel modes. The deviations are completely negligible for delays greater than half the symbol time.

  11. Crystal assembly based on 3,5-bis(2'-benzimidazole) pyridine and its complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Shan Ling; Tian, Zhao Yong; Wu, Ya Hong; Yan, Yan; Hu, Sheng; Yu, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Imdazole, pyridine and their derivatives have been considered as excellent ligands in supramolecular self-assembly. In this paper, a ligand molecule 3,5-bis (2'-benzimidazole) pyridine (BBP) was prepared, and two different crystal architectures based on the ligand molecule were self-assembled by diffusion/solvothermal ways. Furthermore, several crystal architectures of several relative complexes were also successfully assembled. These crystal structures were well defined by X-ray diffractions. Structural resolutions indicated that, as building blocks, this bibenzimidazole pyridine molecules exhibited coordination varieties in constructing the crystal architectures based on its related complexes.

  12. 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine Oxidation on Paper Devices for Horseradish Peroxidase-based Assays.

    PubMed

    Busa, Lori Shayne Alamo; Komatsu, Takeshi; Mohammadi, Saeed; Maeki, Masatoshi; Ishida, Akihiko; Tani, Hirofumi; Tokeshi, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    We report on the colorimetric oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by hydrogen peroxide using horseradish peroxidase on photolithography-fabricated (P-PAD) and wax-printed (W-PAD) paper-based analytical devices. Fabricating PADs via photolithography exposes the hydrophilic areas to polymers (photoresists) and solvents, not only reducing the hydrophilicity, but also affecting the TMB-H2O2 assay system with an unavoidable incomplete elimination of photoresist during fabrication. Detection signals are then observed in the presence of photoresist residues on the P-PAD, even at a blank HRP concentration. PMID:27506705

  13. Formal synthesis of (+)-3-epi-eupomatilone-6 and the 3,5-bis-epimer.

    PubMed

    Yodwaree, Sariya; Soorukram, Darunee; Kuhakarn, Chutima; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Reutrakul, Vichai; Pohmakotr, Manat

    2014-09-21

    The formal synthesis of (+)-3-epi-eupomatilone-6 () and the 3,5-bis-epimer () has been accomplished. The key synthetic strategy involved the stereoselective construction of (3R,4S,5R)- and (3R,4S,5S)-trisubstituted γ-butyrolactones and from (2R,3R)-2,3-dimethyl-4-pentenoic acid derivative , which was readily obtained via stereoselective conjugate addition of vinylmagnesium chloride to a chiral α,β-unsaturated N-acyl oxazolidinone (Evans' auxiliary) followed by α-methylation.

  14. An explanation for the universal 3.5 power-law observed in currency markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas A.; Johnson, Neil F.

    We present a mathematical theory to explain a recent empirical finding in the Physics literature (Zhao et al., 2013) in which the distributions of waiting-times between discrete events were found to exhibit power-law tails with an apparent universal exponent: α ∼ 3.5 . This new theory provides the first ever qualitative and quantitative explanation of Zhao et al.'s surprising finding. It also provides a mechanistic description of the origin of the observed universality, assigning its cause to the emergence of dynamical feedback processes between evolving clusters of like-minded agents.

  15. Meeting report:Iraq oil ministry needs assessment workshop.3-5 Septemner 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2006-11-01

    Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and Sandia National Laboratories met with mid-level representatives from Iraq's oil and gas companies and with former employees and senior managers of Iraq's Ministry of Oil September 3-5 in Amman, Jordan. The goals of the workshop were to assess the needs of the Iraqi Oil Ministry and industry, to provide information about capabilities at DOE and the national laboratories relevant to Iraq, and to develop ideas for potential projects.

  16. Uridylate-specific 3' 5'-exoribonucleases involved in uridylate-deletion RNA editing in trypanosomatid mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kestrel; Gao, Guanghan; Simpson, Larry

    2007-10-01

    In kinetoplastid protists, maturation of mitochondrial pre-mRNAs involves the insertion and deletion of uridylates (Us) within coding regions, as specified by mitochondrial DNA-encoded guide RNAs. U-deletion editing involves endonucleolytic cleavage of the pre-mRNA at the editing site followed by U-specific 3'-5'-exonucleolytic removal of nonbase-paired Us prior to ligation of the two mRNA cleavage fragments. We showed previously that an exonuclease/endonuclease/phosphatase (EEP) motif protein from Leishmania major, designated RNA editing exonuclease 1 (REX1) (Kang, X., Rogers, K., Gao, G., Falick, A. M., Zhou, S.-L., and Simpson, L. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102, 1017-1022), exhibits 3'-5'-exonuclease activity. Two EEP motif proteins have also been identified in the Trypanosoma brucei editing complex. TbREX1 is a homologue of LmREX1, and TbREX2 shows homology to another editing protein in L. major, which lacks the EEP motif (LmREX2*). Here we have expressed the T. brucei EEP motif proteins in insect cells and purified them to homogeneity. We showed that these are U-specific 3'-5'-exonucleases that are inhibited by base pairing of 3' Us. The recombinant EEP motif alone also showed 3'-5' U-specific exonuclease activity, and mutations of the REX EEP motifs greatly reduced exonuclease activity. The absence of enzymatic activity in LmREX2* was confirmed with a purified recombinant protein. We showed that pre-cleaved U-deletion editing could be reconstituted with either TbREX1 or TbREX2 in combination with either RNA ligase, LmREL1, or LmREL2. Down-regulation of TbREX2 expression by conditional RNA interference had little effect on parasite viability or sedimentation of the L-complex, suggesting either that TbREX2 is inactive in vivo or that TbREX1 can compensate for the loss of TbREX2 function in down-regulated cells.

  17. Exploring the Galaxy Mass-metallicity Relation at z ~ 3-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, Tanmoy; Berger, Edo; Chary, Ranga-Ram

    2011-09-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) provide a premier tool for studying high-redshift star-forming galaxies thanks to their extreme brightness and association with massive stars. Here we use GRBs to study the galaxy stellar mass-metallicity (M *-Z) relation at z ~ 3-5, where conventional direct metallicity measurements are extremely challenging. We use the interstellar medium metallicities of long GRB hosts derived from afterglow absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with host galaxy stellar masses determined from deep Spitzer 3.6 μm observations of 20 GRB hosts. We detect about 1/4 of the hosts with M AB(I) ≈ -21.5 to -22.5 mag and place a limit of M AB(I) >~ -19 mag on the remaining hosts from a stacking analysis. Using these observations, we present the first rest-frame optical luminosity distribution of long GRB hosts at z >~ 3 and find that it is similar to the distribution of long GRB hosts at z ~ 1. In comparison to Lyman-break galaxies at the same redshift, GRB hosts are generally fainter, but the sample is too small to rule out an overall similar luminosity function. On the other hand, the GRB hosts appear to be more luminous than the population of Lyα emitters at z ~ 3-4. Using a conservative range of mass-to-light ratios for simple stellar populations (with ages of 70 Myr to ~2 Gyr), we infer the host stellar masses and present mass-metallicity measurements at z ~ 3-5 (langzrang ≈ 3.5). We find that the detected GRB hosts, with M * ≈ 2 × 1010 M sun, display a wide range of metallicities, but that the mean metallicity at this mass scale, Z ≈ 0.3 Z sun, is lower than measurements at z <~ 3. Combined with stacking of the non-detected hosts with M * <~ 3 × 109 M sun and Z <~ 0.1 Z sun, we find tentative evidence for the existence of an M *-Z relation at z ~ 3.5 and continued evolution of this relation to systematically lower metallicities from z ~ 2.

  18. Hyperpigmentation mechanism of methyl 3,5-di-caffeoylquinate through activation of p38 and MITF induction of tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jin Sook; Woo, Je-Tae; Lee, Ik-Soo; Cha, Byung-Yoon

    2015-07-01

    Methyl 3,5-di-caffeoylquinate (3,5-diCQM) has been used for the treatment of various diseases in oriental medicine, but its effect on melanogenesis has not been reported yet. In this study, the molecular mechanism of 3,5-diCQM-induced melanogenesis was investigated. It was found that 3,5-diCQM induced synthesis of melanin pigments in murine B16F10 melanoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with 3,5-diCQM for 48 h increased extracellular and intracellular melanin production and tyrosinase activity. The expressions of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and TRP2 were up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner 48 h after 3,5-diCQM treatment. Western blot analysis showed that 3,5-diCQM increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cAMP responsive element binding as well as the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. In addition, 3,5-diCQM-stimulated cAMP production, and 3,5-diCQM-induced tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis were attenuated by H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. These results suggested that 3,5-diCQM-mediated activation of the p38 pathway may represent a novel approach for an effective therapy for vitiligo and hair graying. PMID:26018825

  19. Intracellular Generation of ROS by 3,5-Dimethylaminophenol: Persistence, Cellular Response, and Impact of Molecular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming-Wei; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Tseng, Chia-Yi; Ye, Wenjie; Trudel, Laura J.; Skipper, Paul L.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated extensive human exposure to the monocyclic aromatic amines, particularly to 3,5-dimethylaniline, and found an association between exposure to these compounds and risk for bladder cancer. Little is known about molecular mechanisms that might lead to the observed risk. We previously suggested that the hydroxylated 3,5-dimethylaniline metabolite, 3,5-dimethylaminophenol (3,5-DMAP), played a central role in effecting genetic change through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a redox cycle with 3,5-dimethylquinoneimine. Experiments here characterize ROS generation by 3,5-DMAP exposure in nucleotide repair-proficient and -deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells as a function of time. Besides, various cellular responses discussed herein indicate that ROS production is the principal cause of cytotoxicity. Fluorescence microscopy of cells exposed to 3,5-DMAP confirmed that ROS production occurs in the nuclear compartment, as suggested by a previous study demonstrating covalent linkage between 3,5-DMAP and histones. 3,5-DMAP was also compared with 3,5-dimethylhydroquinone to determine whether substitution of one of the phenolic hydroxyl groups by an amino group had a significant effect on some of the investigated parameters. The comparatively much longer duration of observable ROS produced by 3,5-DMAP (7 vs. 1 day) provides further evidence that 3,5-DMAP becomes embedded in the cellular matrix in a form capable of continued redox cycling. 3,5-DMAP also induced dose-dependent increase of H2O2 and ·OH, which were determined as the major free radicals contributing to the cytotoxicity and apoptosis mediated via caspase-3 activation. Overall, this study provides insight into the progression of alkylaniline-induced toxicity. PMID:24973092

  20. Unidirectional growth and characterization of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindan, V.; Dhatchayani, S.; Sarala, N.; Sankaranarayanan, K.

    2016-05-01

    1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene single crystals has been grown by both conventional slow evaporation and Unidirectional Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method. Colourless, highly transparent crystal of size 20 mm × 10 mm × 3mm with well defined morphology was grown from slow evaporation solution method and <111>-oriented unidirectional bulk single crystal of size 23 mm length and 23 mm diameter was grown by the SR method. From the PXRD measurement the material has been crystallized in orthorhombic crystal system. The functional groups were assessed by the use of FTIR analysis. The optical parameter of the grown crystal was obtained from UV-visible spectral analysis and the cutoff wavelength was observed at 247 nm. Mechanical and thermal properties of the grown crystals were carried out from Vicker's hardness test method and TG-DSC analysis respectively. From the TG-DSC studies, the melting points were confirmed at 172°C and no decompose or dissociation was observed. The powder Kurtz method confirms that 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene has second harmonic generation (SHG) and the SHG efficiency was found to be 0.7 times that of KDP.

  1. Design and realization of a planar ultrawideband antenna with notch band at 3.5 GHz.

    PubMed

    Azim, Rezaul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Misran, Norbahiah; Yatim, Baharudin; Arshad, Haslina

    2014-01-01

    A small antenna with single notch band at 3.5 GHz is designed for ultrawideband (UWB) communication applications. The fabricated antenna comprises a radiating monopole element and a perfectly conducting ground plane with a wide slot. To achieve a notch band at 3.5 GHz, a parasitic element has been inserted in the same plane of the substrate along with the radiating patch. Experimental results shows that, by properly adjusting the position of the parasitic element, the designed antenna can achieve an ultrawide operating band of 3.04 to 11 GHz with a notched band operating at 3.31-3.84 GHz. Moreover, the proposed antenna achieved a good gain except at the notched band and exhibits symmetric radiation patterns throughout the operating band. The prototype of the proposed antenna possesses a very compact size and uses simple structures to attain the stop band characteristic with an aim to lessen the interference between UWB and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) band. PMID:25133245

  2. Synthesis and photo-physical properties of fluorescent 1,3,5-triazine styryl derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organic fluorophore contains well-defined D-π-A (Donor-π system-Acceptor) push-pull system have wide application in the field of NLO, OLED and high tech application. Electron donor diphenyl, triphenyl and carbazole conjugated with electron acceptor terminal through π-system were reported recently for high-tech applications. N,N-Dialkyl substituted 1,3,5-triazine also acts as donor keeping this idea in mind we developed D-π-A styryl dyes. Results Novel "Y"-shaped acceptor-π-donor-π-acceptor type of compounds were synthesized from 4,4'-((6-(4-(diethylamino)phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4diyl)bis(oxy)) dibenzaldehyde (DIPOD) as electron donors and different active methylene compounds as electron acceptors by conventional Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Their photophysical and thermal properties were investigated. Conclusion It was found that the strong electron acceptor-donor chromophoric system of these compounds showed high Stoke's shift and excellent thermal stability. Compounds showed positive solvatofluorism behavior from nonpolar to polar solvent. All compounds have good thermal stability. PMID:22142453

  3. A competition model of exogenous orienting in 3.5-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Dannemiller, J L

    1998-03-01

    Four experiments are reported on exogenous (stimulus-driven) orienting in 3.5-month-old infants. A small moving bar embedded in a field of static bars was used to draw the infant's attention to one side of the display or the other. The bars could be either red or green. In all four of these experiments sensitivity to this small moving bar was affected significantly by how unevenly the red and green bars were distributed across the visual field. Sensitivity to the moving bar was lower when most of the red bars were in the field contralateral to this probe suggesting competition between the motion stimulus and contralaterally placed red but not green bars on a small, but significant proportion of trials. This basic effect replicated in four separate experiments and depended coarsely on how unevenly the red and the green bars were distributed across the field. A competition model of exogenous orienting with a winner-take-all rule captured the most important features of the data. The distribution of color within the visual field can bias attention significantly at 3.5 months making it either more or less likely that an infant will detect a moving stimulus. PMID:9514768

  4. Acoustic characterization of liposome suspensions and Optison® at 3.5 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussios, Constantin-C.; Holland, Christy K.; Jakubowska, Ludwika; Huang, Shao-Ling; MacDonald, Robert C.; Nagaraj, Ashwin; McPherson, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Liposomes-phospholipid vesicles that can encapsulate both gas and fluid-are currently being developed as contrast agents and vehicles for targeted drug delivery. The backscattering coefficient and attenuation of liposome suspensions were measured at 3.5 MHz as a function of liposome concentration and compared to those of Optison®. The backscattering coefficient of liposomes at concentrations in excess of 1.15×108/ml exceeds that of Optison® at the clinical dose (5.0-8.0×104/ml). On the other hand, the attenuation of ultrasound through liposome suspensions is negligible relative to the attenuation through Optison® (0.25 dB/cm), suggesting that liposomes have a much higher scatter-to-attenuation ratio and could be more efficient as contrast agents. A theoretical model that treats the gas within the liposomes as a free air bubble was used to estimate the backscattering coefficient and correlated well with experimental results. Church's model [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 1510-1521 (1995)] for Albunex® was also found to provide an accurate estimate of the backscattering coefficient of Optison®. These models suggest that the marked difference in attenuation between the two agents can be attributed to the fact that liposomes are sub-resonant in size at 3.5 MHz, but Optison® microspheres act as resonant scatterers. a)Currently at Boston University.

  5. Proton dynamics in the hydrogen bonds of 4-amino-3,5-dihalogenobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaji, Tetsuo; Ueda, Kouhei; Oguni, Masaharu

    2015-08-01

    On the polycrystalline sample of 4-amino-3,5-dihalogenobenzoic acid, 4-NH2-3,5-X2C6H2COOH, which has a symmetric dimer structure in the crystal, the proton tunneling in the hydrogen bonds has been investigated by NQR and NMR spin-lattice relaxation times T1 measurements. Two 35Cl NQR lines of the X = Cl derivative show the existence of two crystallographically inequivalent chlorine atoms in the high-temperature phase, in consistency with the reported crystal structure. Below 138 K, each splits into a doublet indicating the symmetry breaking of the benzoic acid dimer. The proton dynamics was analyzed by a coherent and incoherent tunneling models, for the high- and low-temperature phases, respectively. The temperature dependence of the correlation time of proton translation was estimated. As for the X = I derivative, the proton dynamics was discussed similarly by 1H NMR T1 data by assuming occurrence of a phase transition at low-temperature.

  6. Design and realization of a planar ultrawideband antenna with notch band at 3.5 GHz.

    PubMed

    Azim, Rezaul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Misran, Norbahiah; Yatim, Baharudin; Arshad, Haslina

    2014-01-01

    A small antenna with single notch band at 3.5 GHz is designed for ultrawideband (UWB) communication applications. The fabricated antenna comprises a radiating monopole element and a perfectly conducting ground plane with a wide slot. To achieve a notch band at 3.5 GHz, a parasitic element has been inserted in the same plane of the substrate along with the radiating patch. Experimental results shows that, by properly adjusting the position of the parasitic element, the designed antenna can achieve an ultrawide operating band of 3.04 to 11 GHz with a notched band operating at 3.31-3.84 GHz. Moreover, the proposed antenna achieved a good gain except at the notched band and exhibits symmetric radiation patterns throughout the operating band. The prototype of the proposed antenna possesses a very compact size and uses simple structures to attain the stop band characteristic with an aim to lessen the interference between UWB and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) band.

  7. Formation of guanine ribonucleotidyl-(3'-5')-adenosine in a flavinogenic strain of Eremothecium ashbyii.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, H; Nishikawa, Y; Nakajima, K

    1976-01-01

    The addition of caffeine caused the accumulation of a new nucleotide compound simultaneously with the rigid inhibition of ribofalvin production in non-growing cells of Eremothecium ashbyii. In the present study we tried to identify the structure of the nucleotide compound using non-growing cells of the mold. 1) It became possible to obtain a large amount of mycelia by masscultivation in a reagent tank. 2) A new nucleotide compound, referred to as compound A in the paper, was extracted with perchloric acid solution and purified by the following subsequent procedures: 1) Dowex 1 x 2 (HCOO-) column, 2) charcoal treatment, 3) DEAE-Sephadex A25 (CI-) column, 4) Dowex 1 x 2 (C1-) column, and 5) DEAE-Sephadex A25 (HCO3-) column. 3) The structure of the new nucleotide compound was proved to be guanine ribonucleotidyl-(3'-5')-adenosine (GpA) from the results of the following analyses: 1) alkaline degradation, 2) UV-spectra, IR-spectra and NMR-spectra, and 3) enzymatic treatments with RNase T2 and phosphodiesterase. 4) The roles of caffeine and guanine ribonucleotidyl-(3'-5')-adenosine in connection with flavinogenesis of this mold were discussed. PMID:182940

  8. Stability and Uncertainty of Full Moment Tensor Solutions for M < 3.5 Induced Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, O. S.; Dreger, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in earthquakes associated with industrial activities has created a need to investigate and characterize the source physics of induced seismicity. Many techniques and approaches are available to determine representative source parameters of these events. For M > 3.5 events, high quality seismic data from regional networks can be used to provide reasonable estimates of moment tensor solutions. In this investigation we explore various techniques and datasets to constrain full moment tensor solutions of M < 3.5 induced events, expanding upon the approach developed by Guilhem et al., 2014. Small magnitude events recorded by local seismic networks can yield good quality data with distinct body wave and converted phases depending upon the velocity structure and frequency range. Generating synthetic seismograms or Green's functions to accurately model these high frequency phases can be challenging. To investigate the variability associated with the choice of Green's functions, we test available codes to see how well they capture body wave phases. Other stability and uncertainty measures include the F-test, Jackknife test, residual bootstrap, and Network Sensitivity Solution, (Ford et al., 2009; Ford et al., 2010). Additional datasets to constrain the full moment tensor solution include P-wave first motions and amplitude ratios.

  9. Properties of a cyclic 3'5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase from Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Abidin, U Z

    1989-10-01

    Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) partially purified from roots of Vigna mungo exhibited optimum activity at pH 5.5 to 6.0 and maximum enzyme activity at 50 degrees C. Levels of PDE activity in roots remained relatively constant from the first to the eleventh day after germination; on the twelfth day there was a 400% increase in PDE activity. The enzyme was stable for at least 48 hours at 28 degrees C, retaining 92% of its original activity. Plant growth hormones including gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid and kinetin at 1.0 and 10.0 microM concentrations did not have any significant effect on enzyme activity. Nucleotides tested including cyclic 2'3' AMP, cyclic 2'3' GMP completely abolished enzyme activity at 1.0mM while cyclic 3'5' GMP, cyclic 3'5' GMP, 2'deoxy 5' ATP, 2'deoxy 5'GTP and 5'ADP were also inhibitory to the enzyme. The enzyme was stimulated by Mg2+, Fe2+ and NH4+ while Cu2+ and Fe3+ were inhibitory. Theophylline, caffeine, phosphate, pyrophosphate and EDTA were inhibitory to the enzyme.

  10. Anti-biofilm mechanisms of 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol against clinically relevant fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rathna, Janarthanam; Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2016-10-01

    The methanolic extract (PFME) of Pleurotus florida was assessed for anti-biofilm activity against Candida species. 3,5-Di-tert-butylphenol (3,5-DTB) was identified as the major antifungal constituent in PFME. In its pure form 3,5-DTB inhibits, disrupts, and reduces the viability of biofilm cells as seen from scanning electron and confocal microscopy studies. Microscopic studies and propidium iodide uptake assays confirmed that 3,5-DTB damages the cell membrane of Candida cells. In addition, 3,5-DTB induces accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which contribute to its pronounced anti-biofilm activity. The results of the present study show that 3,5-DTB exhibits combined anti-biofilm and conventional fungicidal activity against Candida species and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27535698

  11. New lithium iron pyrophosphate as 3.5 V class cathode material for lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Natsui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2010-10-01

    A new pyrophosphate compound Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction, and its crystal structure was determined. Its reversible electrode operation at ca. 3.5 V vs Li was identified with the capacity of a one-electron theoretical value of 110 mAh g(-1) even for ca. 1 μm particles without any special efforts such as nanosizing or carbon coating. Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) and its derivatives should provide a new platform for related lithium battery electrode research and could be potential competitors to commercial olivine LiFePO(4), which has been recognized as the most promising positive cathode for a lithium-ion battery system for large-scale applications, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  12. True ferroelectric switching in thin films of trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA).

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, A V; Putzeys, T; Urbanavičiūtė, I; Janssen, R A J; Wübbenhorst, M; Sijbesma, R P; Kemerink, M

    2016-08-24

    We have investigated the ferroelectric polarization switching properties of trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA), which is a model system for a large class of novel organic ferroelectric materials. In the solid state BTAs form a liquid crystalline columnar hexagonal phase that provides long range order that was previously shown to give rise to hysteretic dipolar switching. In this work the nature of the polar switching process is investigated by a combination of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, depth-resolved pyroelectric response measurements, and classical frequency- and time-dependent electrical switching. We show that BTAs, when brought in a homeotropically aligned hexagonal liquid crystalline phase, are truly ferroelectric. Analysis of the transient switching behavior suggests that the ferroelectric switching is limited by a highly dispersive nucleation process, giving rise to a wide distribution of switching times.

  13. catena-Poly[[[diaqua-cadmium(II)]-bis-[μ-3,5-bis-(isonicotinamido)benzoato

    PubMed

    Chen, Man-Sheng; Deng, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Chun-Hua; Kuang, Dai-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, {[Cd(C(19)H(13)N(4)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·4H(2)O}(n) or {[Cd(BBA)(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·4H(2)O}(n), where BBA is 3,5-bis-(iso-nicotin-amido)-benzoate, is isotypic with its Mn isologue [Chen et al. (2009 ▶). J. Coord. Chem.62, 2421-2428]. The cation sits on a twofold axis and is six-coordinated in a slightly distorted octa-hedral geometry; the polyhedra are linked into zigzag chains, which are further connected by N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds as well as π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance of 3.639 (2) Å], giving a three-dimensional supra-molecular framework. PMID:21587402

  14. Radar observations at 3.5 and 12.6 cm wavelength of asteroid 433 Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R. F.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the asteroid 433 Eros using 3.5 and 12.6 cm radar waves indicates that the surface is very much rougher than any planetary or lunar surface observed by this method. A surface completely covered with sharp edges, pits, subsurface holes, or embedded chunks with scale sizes on the order of our wavelengths seems to be indicated. A model based on a rough rotating triaxial ellipsoid having radii in the rotation equator of 18.6 and 7.9 km agrees well with our data, although a strong wobble in the apparent center frequency of the spectra as rotation progresses indicates that one side may be more reflective than the other, or more likely, that the projected axis of rotation does not equally divide the projected area.

  15. Crossflow Instability on a Wedge-Cone at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeler, George B.; Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Balakumar, P.; McDaniel, Keith S.

    2012-01-01

    As a follow-on activity to the HyBoLT flight experiment, a six degree half angle wedge-cone model at zero angle of attack has been employed to experimentally and computationally study the boundary layer crossflow instability at Mach 3.5 under low disturbance freestream conditions. Computed meanflow and linear stability analysis results are presented along with corresponding experimental Pitot probe data. Using a model-mounted probe survey apparatus, data acquired to date show a well defined stationary crossflow vortex pattern on the flat wedge surface. This effort paves the way for additional detailed, calibrated flow field measurements of the crossflow instability, both stationary and traveling modes, and transition-to-turbulence under quiet flow conditions as a means of validating existing stability theory and providing a foundation for dynamic flight instrumentation development.

  16. Widespread effusive volcanism on Mercury likely ended by about 3.5 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Paul K.; Ostrach, Lillian R.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Chapman, Clark R.; Denevi, Brett W.; Evans, Alexander J.; Klimczak, Christian; Banks, Maria E.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-07-01

    Crater size-frequency analyses have shown that the largest volcanic plains deposits on Mercury were emplaced around 3.7 Ga, as determined with recent model production function chronologies for impact crater formation on that planet. To test the hypothesis that all major smooth plains on Mercury were emplaced by about that time, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for the nine next-largest deposits, which we interpret also as volcanic. Our crater density measurements are consistent with those of the largest areas of smooth plains on the planet. Model ages based on recent crater production rate estimates for Mercury imply that the main phase of plains volcanism on Mercury had ended by ~3.5 Ga, with only small-scale volcanism enduring beyond that time. Cessation of widespread effusive volcanism is attributable to interior cooling and contraction of the innermost planet.

  17. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate waves in dictyostelium discoideum: a demonstration by isotope dilution-fluorography

    SciTech Connect

    Tomchik, K.J.; Devreotes, P.N.

    1981-04-24

    The distribution of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in fields of aggregating amoebae of Dictyostelium discoidenum was examined by a novel isotope dilution-fluorographic technique. Cellular cyclic AMP was visualized by its competition with exogenous /sup 3/H-labeled cyclic AMP for high-affinity binding sites on protein kinase immobilized on a Millipore filter used to blot the monolayer. The cyclic AMP was distributed in spiral or concentric circular wave patterns which centered on the foci of the aggregations. These patterns were correlated with those of cell shape change that propagate through the monolayers. These observations support the hypothesis that the aggregation process in Dictyostelium is mediated by the periodic relay of cyclic AMP signals and suggest a simple scheme for the dynamics of the aggregation process.

  18. Hydrothermal alteration in the 3.5 b.y. old Onverwacht Group of South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, R.; Dewit, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    K-Ar studies of authigenic and alteration phases from the 3.5 b.y. old Onverwacht group of South Africa delineate hydrothermal metamorphism that ended 3.3 b.y. years ago. A whole rock K-Ar errochron from analysis of barite, dolomite, chert, and serpentinite (komatiite) gives an age of 3.3 b.y. with an intercept of 1,678 + or - 103. The 3.3. b.y. age for the metamorphism in the Onverwacht was confirmed by the Argon isotopes stepwise heating experiments of komatiites and basaltic komatiites from the Onverwacht Group. In addition, the errochron suggests all the phase studied equilibrated with a reservoir of hydrothermal argon with relatively uniform isotopic composition. The concept of hydrothermal activity in the Onverwacht Group is discussed and illustrated with photographs.

  19. Ordered microporous layered lanthanide 1,3,5-benzenetriphosphonates pillared with cationic organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Araki, Takahiro; Kondo, Atsushi; Maeda, Kazuyuki

    2015-04-13

    Novel isomorphous pillared-layer-type crystalline lanthanide 1,3,5-benzenetriphosphonates were prepared with bpy and dbo as organic pillars (LnBP-bpy and LnBP-dbo; Ln: Ce, Pr, and Nd). Ab initio crystal structure solution using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data revealed that the organic pillars do not exist as neutral coordinating ligands but as cationic molecules. Especially the LnBP-dbo phases have ordered interlayer space filled with water molecules between the dbo pillars, and the interlayer water is successfully removed by heating under vacuum with slightly distorted but basically retained pillared layer structures. Microporosity of the materials is confirmed by adsorption of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen gases. Such microporous layered metal phosphonates pillared with cationic molecules should be unprecedented and should offer new strategies to design ordered microporous materials.

  20. True ferroelectric switching in thin films of trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA).

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, A V; Putzeys, T; Urbanavičiūtė, I; Janssen, R A J; Wübbenhorst, M; Sijbesma, R P; Kemerink, M

    2016-08-24

    We have investigated the ferroelectric polarization switching properties of trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA), which is a model system for a large class of novel organic ferroelectric materials. In the solid state BTAs form a liquid crystalline columnar hexagonal phase that provides long range order that was previously shown to give rise to hysteretic dipolar switching. In this work the nature of the polar switching process is investigated by a combination of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, depth-resolved pyroelectric response measurements, and classical frequency- and time-dependent electrical switching. We show that BTAs, when brought in a homeotropically aligned hexagonal liquid crystalline phase, are truly ferroelectric. Analysis of the transient switching behavior suggests that the ferroelectric switching is limited by a highly dispersive nucleation process, giving rise to a wide distribution of switching times. PMID:27510767

  1. DFT STUDY OF CO AND NO ADSORPTION ON BORON NITRIDE (BN)n = 3 - 5 NANOCLUSTERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Ehsan; Pangh, Abdolhakim; Ghorbanpour, Hamed

    2015-11-01

    Interaction of CO and NO molecules by different orientations on (BN)n=3-5 clusters have been studied at the B3LYP/6-311+G* level of theory. Total electronic energies have been corrected for geometrical counterpoise (gCP) and dispersion (D3) energies at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. Formation of a new sigma bond between the gas and (BN)3 cluster, atom in molecules (AIM) results, density of states spectrums (DOS), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces, and visualization of wave function of molecular orbitals in the nearest bonding regions to the Fermi level have confirmed that adsorption of CO by carbon end atom, and NO by nitrogen end atom is covalent in nature, so that the charge transfer is occurred from gas molecule to the cluster.

  2. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O

    2001-12-01

    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).

  3. Geophysical detection of relict metasomatism from an Archean (approximately 3.5 Ga) subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Wu; Rondenay, Stéphane; Evans, Rob L; Snyder, David B

    2009-11-20

    When plate tectonics started on Earth has been uncertain, and its role in the assembly of early continents is not well understood. By synthesizing coincident seismic and electrical profiles, we show that subduction processes formed the Archean Slave craton in Canada. The spatial overlap between a seismic discontinuity and a conductive anomaly at approximately 100 kilometers depth, in conjunction with the occurrence of mantle xenoliths rich in secondary minerals representative of a metasomatic front, supports cratonic assembly by subduction and accretion of lithospheric fragments. Although evidence of cratonic assembly is rarely preserved, these results suggest that plate tectonics was operating as early as Paleoarchean times, approximately 3.5 billion years ago (Ga). PMID:19965424

  4. The preparation of 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene nanoemulsion and in vitro release

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Gao, Jungang; Zheng, Hetang; Zhang, Ran; Han, Yucui

    2011-01-01

    We have reported a novel procedure to prepare 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene (DHPS) nanoemulsion, using a low-energy emulsification method. Based on the phase diagram, the optimum prescription of nanoemulsion preparation was screened. With polyoxyethylenated castor oil (EL-40) as the surfactant, ethanol as the co-surfactant, and isopropyl myristate (IPM) as the oil phase, the DHPS nanoemulsion was obtained with a transparent appearance, little viscosity, and spherically uniform distribution verified by transmission electron microscopy and laser scattering analyzer. The nanoemulsion was also determined by FT-Raman spectroscopy. The DHPS nanoemulsion demonstrated good stability and stable physical and chemical properties. The nanoemulsion dramatically improved the transdermal release of DHPS (from 8.02 μg · cm−2 to 273.15 μg · cm−2) and could become a favorable new dosage form for DHPS. PMID:21674020

  5. Disruption of crystalline structure of Sn3.5Ag induced by electric current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Han-Chie; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Wu, Albert T.

    2016-03-01

    This study presented the disruption of the Sn and Ag3Sn lattice structures of Sn3.5Ag solder induced by electric current at 5-7 × 103 A/cm2 with a high resolution transmission electron microscope investigation and electron diffraction analysis. The electric current stressing induced a high degree of strain on the alloy, as estimated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak shift of the current stressed specimen. The XRD peak intensity of the Sn matrix and the Ag3Sn intermetallic compound diminished to nearly undetectable after 2 h of current stressing. The electric current stressing gave rise to a high dislocation density of up to 1017/m2. The grain morphology of the Sn matrix became invisible after prolonged current stressing as a result of the coalescence of dislocations.

  6. Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength. [of sun, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulich, B. L.; Rhodes, P. J.; Davis, J. H.; Hollis, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Careful observations have been made at 86.1 GHz to derive the absolute brightness temperatures of the sun (7914 + or - 192 K), Venus (357.5 + or - 13.1 K), Jupiter (179.4 + or - 4.7 K), and Saturn (153.4 + or - 4.8 K) with a standard error of about three percent. This is a significant improvement in accuracy over previous results at millimeter wavelengths. A stable transmitter and novel superheterodyne receiver were constructed and used to determine the effective collecting area of the Millimeter Wave Observatory (MWO) 4.9-m antenna relative to a previously calibrated standard gain horn. The thermal scale was set by calibrating the radiometer with carefully constructed and tested hot and cold loads. The brightness temperatures may be used to establish an absolute calibration scale and to determine the antenna aperture and beam efficiencies of other radio telescopes at 3.5-mm wavelength.

  7. A 3.5-cm Single-Incision VATS Anatomical Segmentectomy for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Igai, Hitoshi; Ibe, Takashi; Kawatani, Natsuko; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2014-01-01

    The results of several pulmonary resections using a uniportal approach have been published. However, there are no reports of uniportal thoracoscopic anatomic segmentectomy in Japan. We have a fundamental belief in “reduced-port surgery” and therefore routinely perform uniportal thoracoscopic surgery for patients with pneumothorax. This report describes a successful case of uniportal thoracoscopic anatomic segmentectomy through a 3.5-cm incision in a 76-year-old woman with primary lung cancer. The patient was pathologically diagnosed with multiple primary adenocarcinomas stage IA (T1aN0M0). Postoperatively, no analgesics were needed. The operative procedure is described in detail and includes technical tips such as the pulley method, extra-vessel exposure, the shaft-on-shaft technique, one-hand encircling, and one-hand exposure. The selection criteria for uniportal thoracoscopic segmentectomy limit its use. PMID:25224514

  8. A Versatile Synthesis of 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A R; Pagoria, P F; Schmidt, R D; Coburn, M D; Lee, G S; Hsu, P C

    2006-04-06

    A safe and versatile synthesis of high-purity 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) based on vicarious nucleophilic substitution (VNS) chemistry has now been achieved. The starting material can be selected from a variety of inexpensive nitroarenes obtained from commercial suppliers (4-nitroaniline, picric acid) or U.S. stockpiles (ammonium picrate, TNT). The use of picric acid and ammonium picrate (Explosive D) is preferred as both compounds are directly converted to picramide in the presence of ammonium salts (diammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium carbamate) in sulfolane at elevated temperature. The picramide resulting from this process is directly converted to TATB using an optimized VNS reaction employing inexpensive hydroxylamine as the nucleophilic aminating reagent. A crucial element in our synthesis is a novel and efficient purification of TATB.

  9. The structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus at 3.5 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, James William; Maghlaoui, Karim; Barber, James

    2007-12-01

    The crystal structure of a light-harvesting protein that interacts with photosystem II is reported. Cyanobacteria and red algae use light-harvesting pigments bound by proteins to capture solar radiation and to channel excitation energy into their reaction centres. In most cyanobacteria, a multi-megadalton soluble structure known as the phycobilisome is a major light-harvesting system. Allophycocyanin is the main component of the phycobilisome core, forming a link between the rest of the phycobilisome and the reaction-centre core. The crystal structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (TeAPC) has been determined and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a crystallographic R value of 26.0% (R{sub free} = 28.5%). The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the allophycocyanin structure from Spirulina platensis as the search model. The asymmetric unit contains an (αβ) monomer which is expanded by symmetry to a crystallographic trimer.

  10. Inhibition of pancreatic ribonuclease by 2'-5' and 3'-5' oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    White, M D; Bauer, S; Lapidot, Y

    1977-09-01

    Forty different oligonucleotides were investigated as possible inhibitors of the depolymerizing activity of RNase A. The strongest inhibitors among the diribonucleoside 2'-5' mono- phosphates were: G2'-5'G, C2'-5'G and U2'-5'G, and among the diribonucleoside 3'-5' monophosphates: ApU, ApC and GpU. Of the eight trinucleotides investigated, ApApUp, ApApCp and ApGpUp were the strongest inhibitors. All four dinucleotides studied (ApUp, ApCp, GpUp and GpCp) were very strong inhibitors, ApUp being the strongest one. The results show that the nature of the various bases in the oligonucleotide has an effect on the degree of inhibition, and that the 3' phosphomonoester group increases the binding of the oligonucleotide to RNase A. These inhibitors can be used in physicochemical and biochemical studies of ribonuclease.

  11. Heat transfer in a compact tubular heat exchanger with helium gas at 3.5 MPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Douglas A.; Glover, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    A compact heat exchanger was constructed consisting of circular tubes in parallel brazed to a grooved base plate. This tube specimen heat exchanger was tested in an apparatus which radiatively heated the specimen on one side at a heat flux of up to 54 W/sq cm, and cooled the specimen with helium gas at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 3000 to 35,000. The measured friction factor of the tube specimen was lower than that of a circular tube with fully developed turbulent flow, although the uncertainty was high due to entrance and exit losses. The measured Nusselt number, when modified to account for differences in fluid properties between the wall and the cooling fluid, agreed with past correlations for fully developed turbulent flow in circular tubes.

  12. Improvements to the Apache Point 3.5-m primary-mirror support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Yorke J.; Davis, Jon E.

    1998-05-01

    The primary mirror of the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope rests on an array of small pneumatic actuators distributed over the back plate of the mirror and within its honey comb cells. A control system constantly adjusts the pressure in the actuators so as to synthesize a perfectly rigid mounting, thus maintaining both the figure of the mirror and its orientation with respect to the mirror cell. In its original configuration, the APO 3.5 meter system exhibited a number of anomalous behaviors that detracted from the optical performance of the telescope. Analysis of the design indicated three basic problems: first that the pneumatic servovalves suffered from mechanical nonlinearities and an adverse dependence of their transfer function on operating pressure; second, that the air supply system could not exhaust air from the actuators rapidly enough near the horizon and zenith; and third, that the control system did not adequately account for the inertia of the mirror under dynamic conditions. Consequently, we have designed and installed a new control system which addresses these deficiencies. The new system employs high-bandwidth, flapper-type proportional valves that eliminate the mechanical problems and permit implementation of a high- performance controller. The new controller utilizes the existing hard points for mirror position sensing, but implements a pressure-feedback inner loop and a more sophisticated dynamic model. The air supply system now incorporates a sub-atmospheric return and operates closed- loop to minimize contamination problems. The new system exhibits substantial improvements over its previous performance, with positioning errors in the sub-micron range. The design has been selected for use on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey telescope.

  13. Polypropylene compositional evolution under 3.5 MeV He+ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdesselam, M.; Muller, D.; Djebara, M.; Chami, A. C.; Montgomery, P.

    2012-05-01

    A helium beam at 3.5 MeV was used to induce damage in thin polypropylene film of 5.1 μm in thickness. The fluence ranges from 2 × 1012 to 3.5 × 1015 cm-2. The evolution of the atomic composition (C and H) as a function of the fluence was investigated in situ by forward elastic scattering (C(α, α)C) and hydrogen elastic recoil detection (H(α, H)α), respectively. The helium beam was used at the same time for irradiation and analysis. In respect to the high sensitivity of the polypropylene to radiation damage, the beam current was kept at very low intensity of 0.5 nA. The mass loss becomes significant above a fluence of ˜5 × 1013 He+ cm-2. The carbon depletion levels off at a fluence of ˜5 × 1014 He+ cm-2 approximately while hydrogen loss continues to be present along the whole of the studied fluence range. The final carbon and hydrogen losses, at the highest fluence, are around 17% and 48% of their initial contents, respectively. Satisfactory fits to the release curves have been obtained in the framework of the bulk molecular recombination model (BMR). The deduced hydrogen and carbon release cross sections are 7.8 and 65.2 × 10-16 cm2, respectively. A comparison with our previous measurements of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film irradiated with 3.7 MeV He+ beam is made.

  14. Corrosion behavior of aluminum-alumina composites in aerated 3.5 percent chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo Hurtado, Paul Omar

    Aluminum based metal matrix composites are finding many applications in engineering. Of these Al-Al2O3 composites appear to have promise in a number of defense applications because of their mechanical properties. However, their corrosion behavior remains suspect, especially in marine environments. While efforts are being made to improve the corrosion resistance of Al-Al2O3 composites, the mechanism of corrosion is not well known. In this study, the corrosion behavior of powder metallurgy processed Al-Cu alloy reinforced with 10, 15, 20 and 25 vol. % Al2O3 particles (XT 1129, XT 2009, XT 2048, XT 2031) was evaluated in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution using microstructural and electrochemical measurements. AA1100-O and AA2024T4 monolithic alloys were also studied for comparison purposes. The composites and unreinforced alloys were subjected to potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) testing. Addition of 25 vol. % Al2O 3 to the base alloys was found to increase its corrosion resistance considerably. Microstructural studies revealed the presence of intermetallic Al2Cu particles in these composites that appeared to play an important role in the observations. Pitting potential for these composites was near corrosion potential values, and repassivation potential was below the corresponding corrosion potential, indicating that these materials begin to corrode spontaneously as soon as they come in contact with the 3.5 % NaCl solution. EIS measurements indicate the occurrence of adsorption/diffusion phenomena at the interface of the composites which ultimately initiate localized or pitting corrosion. Polarization resistance values were extracted from the EIS data for all the materials tested. Electrically equivalent circuits are proposed to describe and substantiate the corrosive processes occurring in these Al-Al2O 3 composite materials.

  15. Short Term Clinical Outcome after Laparoscopic Cryoablation of the Renal Tumor < or = 3.5 cm.

    PubMed

    Polascik, T J; Nosnik, I; Mayes, J M; Mouraviev, V

    2007-12-01

    Between September 2000 and September 2006, 26 patients underwent primary laparoscopic cryosurgical procedures (28) for an organ-confined renal tumor(s). In one case, cryosurgery was done sequentially on both kidneys. All patients had been carefully selected based on the following criteria: tumor size < or = 3.5 cm, the absence of local and systemic spread on cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the ability to tolerate general anesthesia. A pure laparoscopic approach was employed using third generation cryotechnology (Galil Medical Inc., Plymouth Meeting, USA). Patients were followed by serial CT or MRI scan, creatinine level, and physical examination at least every six months after cryotherapy. The mean patient age was 64 years (range: 44-79) and the mean follow-up was 20.9 +/- 17.2 months. The median tumor size was 2.0 cm (range: 1-3.5 cm). Only one patient required a blood transfusion and one patient developed a transient ileus. The median length of stay was 2.0 days (range: 0-9 days). The median change in creatinine was 0.1 mg/dl (range:-0.4 to 1.8). No patient was converted to open surgery. No evidence of recurrence or progression was found in all patients, and overall survival rate was 100%. Laparoscopic renal cryoablation of the small renal tumor is a safe procedure with minimal complications. Although there were no recurrences with short term follow-up, further long term study is needed to verify its efficacy.

  16. Stray light analysis of the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Pfisterer, Richard N.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.

    2003-02-01

    A stray light analysis of the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 meter telescope system was done to understand the performance for a variety of imaging modes. The telescope system consists of the 3.5-m telescope, its enclosure, and its associated imaging cameras. The purpose of the study was to assess the stray light performance of this system, identify where modification(s) would improve the system off-axis rejection characteristics, and assess the effectiveness of those modifications. A detailed telescope system geometry model was created, and scatter models were created for telescope and enclosure components. The computer model we created duplicated the pinhole stray light images taken with the telescope, thereby verifying the model. The Point Source Transmittance (PST), a commonly used metric for assessing stray light was used to evaluate the stray light performance of the system for a number of off-axis angles and to suggest modifications to enhance the system. The baseline PST of the existing system shows virtually no falloff with off-axis angle in the plane of the observatory slit. This is the result of (1) the focal plane having a large, unobstructed view of the Nasmyth mirror and cell, primary mirror cell, and baffles mounted on the Nasmyth cell, (2) relatively unobstructed illumination of telescope over a large range of angles in the plane of the slit, and (3) secondary and Nasmyth baffles that are not enclosed. These attributes create a series of first-level scatter paths that directly illuminate the focal plane. Our approach to stray light reduction was to address the light paths revealed by the various PST calculations. Our calculations have shown that significant gains can be realized with simple modifications to the telescope system.

  17. Assessment of CAPRI predictions in rounds 3-5 shows progress in docking procedures.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Raúl; Leplae, Raphaël; Lensink, Marc F; Wodak, Shoshana J

    2005-08-01

    The current status of docking procedures for predicting protein-protein interactions starting from their three-dimensional (3D) structure is reassessed by evaluating blind predictions, performed during 2003-2004 as part of Rounds 3-5 of the community-wide experiment on Critical Assessment of PRedicted Interactions (CAPRI). Ten newly determined structures of protein-protein complexes were used as targets for these rounds. They comprised 2 enzyme-inhibitor complexes, 2 antigen-antibody complexes, 2 complexes involved in cellular signaling, 2 homo-oligomers, and a complex between 2 components of the bacterial cellulosome. For most targets, the predictors were given the experimental structures of 1 unbound and 1 bound component, with the latter in a random orientation. For some, the structure of the free component was derived from that of a related protein, requiring the use of homology modeling. In some of the targets, significant differences in conformation were displayed between the bound and unbound components, representing a major challenge for the docking procedures. For 1 target, predictions could not go to completion. In total, 1866 predictions submitted by 30 groups were evaluated. Over one-third of these groups applied completely novel docking algorithms and scoring functions, with several of them specifically addressing the challenge of dealing with side-chain and backbone flexibility. The quality of the predicted interactions was evaluated by comparison to the experimental structures of the targets, made available for the evaluation, using the well-agreed-upon criteria used previously. Twenty-four groups, which for the first time included an automatic Web server, produced predictions ranking from acceptable to highly accurate for all targets, including those where the structures of the bound and unbound forms differed substantially. These results and a brief survey of the methods used by participants of CAPRI Rounds 3-5 suggest that genuine progress in the

  18. In Search of Enzymes with a Role in 3', 5'-Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Metabolism in Plants.

    PubMed

    Gross, Inonge; Durner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In plants, nitric oxide (NO)-mediated 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) synthesis plays an important role during pathogenic stress response, stomata closure upon osmotic stress, the development of adventitious roots and transcript regulation. The NO-cGMP dependent pathway is well characterized in mammals. The binding of NO to soluble guanylate cyclase enzymes (GCs) initiates the synthesis of cGMP from guanosine triphosphate. The produced cGMP alters various cellular responses, such as the function of protein kinase activity, cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels and cGMP-regulated phosphodiesterases. The signal generated by the second messenger is terminated by 3', 5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDEs) enzymes that hydrolyze cGMP to a non-cyclic 5'-guanosine monophosphate. To date, no homologues of mammalian cGMP-synthesizing and degrading enzymes have been found in higher plants. In the last decade, six receptor proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana have been reported to have guanylate cyclase activity in vitro. Of the six receptors, one was shown to be a NO dependent guanylate cyclase enzyme (NOGC1). However, the role of these proteins in planta remains to be elucidated. Enzymes involved in the degradation of cGMP remain elusive, albeit, PDE activity has been detected in crude protein extracts from various plants. Additionally, several research groups have partially purified and characterized PDE enzymatic activity from crude protein extracts. In this review, we focus on presenting advances toward the identification of enzymes involved in the cGMP metabolism pathway in higher plants. PMID:27200049

  19. 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine (3,5-T2) Exerts Thyromimetic Effects on Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis, Body Composition, and Energy Metabolism in Male Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lietzow, Julika; Wohlgemuth, Franziska; Hoefig, Carolin S.; Wiedmer, Petra; Schweizer, Ulrich; Köhrle, Josef; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Effective and safe antiobesity drugs are still needed in face of the obesity pandemic worldwide. Recent interventions in rodents revealed 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) as a metabolically active iodothyronine affecting energy and lipid metabolism without thyromimetic side effects typically associated with T3 administration. Accordingly, 3,5-T2 has been proposed as a potential hypolipidemic agent for treatment of obesity and hepatic steatosis. In contrast to other observations, our experiments revealed dose-dependent thyromimetic effects of 3,5-T2 akin to those of T3 in diet-induced obese male C57BL/6J mice. 3,5-T2 treatment exerted a negative feedback regulation on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, similar to T3. This is demonstrated by decreased expression of genes responsive to thyroid hormones (TH) in pituitary resulting in a suppressed thyroid function with lower T4 and T3 concentrations in serum and liver of 3,5-T2-treated mice. Analyses of hepatic TH target genes involved in lipid metabolism revealed T3-like changes in gene expression and increased type I-deiodinase activity after application of 3,5-T2 (2.5 μg/g body weight). Reduced hepatic triglyceride and serum cholesterol concentrations reflected enhanced lipid metabolism. Desired increased metabolic rate and reduction of different fat depots were, however, compromised by increased food intake preventing significant body weight loss. Moreover, enlarged heart weights indicate potential cardiac side effects of 3,5-T2 beyond hepatic thyromimetic actions. Altogether, the observed thyromimetic effects of 3,5-T2 in several mouse TH target tissues raise concern about indiscriminate administration of 3,5-T2 as powerful natural hormone for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and pandemic obesity. PMID:25322465

  20. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(3)-5 - Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... party network transactions. 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Section 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions. (a) Payment card and third party network transactions subject to backup withholding. The gross amount of a reportable transaction that...

  1. A novel imaging method revealed phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate-rich domains in the endosome/lysosome membrane

    PubMed Central

    Takatori, Sho; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We developed a new method to observe distribution of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] using electron microscopy. In freeze-fracture replicas of quick-frozen samples, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was labeled specifically using recombinant ATG18 tagged with glutathione S-transferase and 4×FLAG, which was mixed with an excess of recombinant PX domain to suppress binding of ATG18 to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Using this method, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was found to be enriched in limited domains in the yeast vacuole and mammalian endosomes. In the yeast vacuole exposed to hyperosmolar stress, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was distributed at a significantly higher density in the intramembrane particle (IMP)-deficient liquid-ordered domains than in the surrounding IMP-rich domains. In mammalian cells, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was observed in endosomes of tubulo-vesicular morphology labeled for RAB5 or RAB7. Notably, distribution density of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in the endosome was significantly higher in the vesicular portion than in the tubular portion. The nano-scale distribution of PtdIns(3,5)P2 revealed in the present study is important to understand its functional roles in the vacuole and endosomes. PMID:27195064

  2. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  3. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  4. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

  5. Barium aluminides Ba{sub x}Al{sub 5}(x=3,3.5,4)

    SciTech Connect

    Jehle, Michael; Scherer, Harald; Wendorff, Marco; Roehr, Caroline

    2009-05-15

    Three aluminides of the series Ba{sub x}Al{sub 5}(x=3,3.5,4) were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. The crystal structure of the new compound Ba{sub 7}Al{sub 10} was determined using single crystal X-ray data (space group R3-barm, a=604.23(9), c=4879.0(12)pm, Z=3, R1=0.0325). The compound exhibits Al Kagome (3.6.3.6.) nets in which half of the triangles form the basis of trigonal bipyramids Al{sub 5}. The apical Al are thus three-bonded assuming a charge of -2 ({sup 27}Al-NMR chemical shift delta=660pm), whereas the Al atoms of the basal triangle (i.e. of the Kagome net) are four-bonded and thus of formal charge -1(delta=490ppm). The total charge of the anion is thus exactly compensated by the Ba cations, i.e. the compound can be interpreted as an electron precise Zintl phase, exhibiting a distinct pseudo-band gap at the Fermi level of the calculated tDOS. According to the total formula, the structure displays a combination the stacking sequences of Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 5} and Ba{sub 4}Al{sub 5}, the structures of which have been redetermined with current methods (both hexagonal with space group P6{sub 3}/mmc; Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 5}: a=606.55(7), c=1461.8(2)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0239; Ba{sub 4}Al{sub 5}: a=609.21(7), c=1775.8(3)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0300). These three compounds with slightly different electron counts but similar polyanions allow to compare the bond lengths, the electronic structures and the overall bonding situation in dependence of positive or negative deviation of the electron count in relation to the novel formally electron precise Zintl compound Ba{sub 7}Al{sub 10}. - Al{sub 5} layers of Kagome nets in the new binary electron precise Zintl compound Ba{sub 3.5}Al{sub 5}, also found in Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 5} and Ba{sub 4}Al{sub 5}.

  6. K*(892) + production in proton-proton collisions at Ebeam=3.5 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Mihaylov, D.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Svoboda, O.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Hades Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    We present results on the K*(892) + production in proton-proton collisions at a beam energy of E =3.5 GeV, which is hitherto the lowest energy at which this mesonic resonance has been observed in nucleon-nucleon reactions. The data are interpreted within a two-channel model that includes the three-body production of K*(892) + associated with the Λ or Σ hyperon. The relative contributions of both channels are estimated. Besides the total cross section σ (p +p →K*(892) ++X ) =9.5 ±0 .9-0.9+1.1±0.7 μ b , which adds a new data point to the excitation function of the K*(892) + production in the region of low excess energy, transverse momenta and angular spectra are extracted and compared with the predictions of the two-channel model. The spin characteristics of K*(892) + are discussed as well in terms of the spin-alignment.

  7. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and germination of sporangiospores from the fungus Mucor.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, M

    1980-06-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) metabolism was examined in germinating sporangiospores of Mucor genevensis and Mucor mucedo. Exogenous cAMP prevented normal hyphal development from sporangiospores. Internal pools of cAMP fluctuated profoundly during development. Spherical growth of the spores was characterized by large pools of cAMP whereas germ tube emergence and hyphal elongation were characterized by small pools of cAMP. These observations suggest a possible role for cAMP in sporangiospore germination. Adenylate cyclase activities fluctuated significantly during germination with maximum values attained during spherical growth. In contrast, cAMP phosphodiesterase activities remained constant throughout germination. Internal cAMP levels may therefore be regulated by adjustment of adenylate cyclase activities. The binding of cAMP by soluble cell proteins was measured. cAMP-binding activity changed greatly during germination. Dormant and spherically growing spores possessed the highest activities. Developing hyphae contained the lowest activities. Use of the photoaffinity label, 8-azido-[32P]cAMP, in conjunction with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis allowed the identification of a small population of morphogenetic-stage-specific proteins which bind cAMP and may be of regulatory significance to development.

  8. Nanocellulose 3, 5-Dimethylphenylcarbamate Derivative Coated Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Dong, Shuqing; Zhang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yanping

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) with high surface area and high ordered crystalline structure was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) under the hydrolysis of sodium hypochlorite. NCC was further reacted with 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate to obtain the nanocellulose derivative, and then coated successfully on the surface of silica gel to a prepared NCC-coated chiral stationary phase (CSP) as a new kind of chiral separation material. Similarly, MCC derivative-coated CSP was also prepared as contrast. The chiral separation performance of NCC-based CSP was evaluated and compared with MCC-based CSP by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, the effects of the alcohol modifiers, mobile phase additives, and flow rates on chiral separations were investigated in detail. The results showed that 10 chiral compounds were separated on NCC-based CSP with better peak shape and higher column efficiency than MCC-based CSP, which confirmed that NCC-based CSP was a promising packing material for the resolution of chiral compounds.Chirality 28:376-381, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26949227

  9. Floating Pressure Conversion of Two 3.5 KW, 20 K, Helium Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, J.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Creel, J.; Norton, R.; Linza, R.; Vargas, G.; Lauterbach, J.; Urbin, J.; Howe, D.

    2010-04-01

    Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5 KW at 20 K, are used at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryogenic-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. New changes to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the control issues that necessitated the controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle "floating pressure" control technology. The controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology was the first application on a helium gas refrigeration system. Previous implementations of the floating pressure technology have been on 4 K liquefaction and refrigeration systems, which have stored liquid helium volumes that have level indications used for varying the pressure levels (charge) in the system for capacity modulation. The upgrades have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e. at various loads in the vacuum chambers). The performance data of the two systems, pre and post upgrading are presented.

  10. Stacking-unstacking of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine studied with molecular dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, J; Nilsson, L

    1994-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on two conformations of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine (GpU) in aqueous solution with one sodium counterion. One stacked conformation and one with the C3'-O3'-P-O5' backbone torsion angle twisted 180 degrees to create an unstacked conformation. We observed a relatively stable behavior of the stacked conformation, which remained stacked throughout the simulation, whereas the unstacked conformation showed major changes in the backbone torsion and glycosidic angles. During the simulation the unstacked conformation transformed into a more stacked form and then back again to an unstacked one. The calculated correlation times for rotational diffusion from the molecular dynamics simulations are in agreement with fluorescence anisotropy and nuclear magnetic resonance data. As expected, the correlation times for rotational diffusion of the unstacked conformation were observed to be longer than for the stacked conformation. The 2'OH group may contribute in stabilizing the stacked conformation, where the O2'-H...O4' hydrogen bond occurred in 82.7% of the simulation. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 PMID:7948694

  11. Electromigration induced Kirkendall void growth in Sn-3.5Ag/Cu solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yong; Yu, Jin

    2014-02-28

    Effects of electric current flow on the Kirkendall void formation at solder joints were investigated using Sn-3.5Ag/Cu joints specially designed to have localized nucleation of Kirkendall voids at the Cu{sub 3}Sn/Cu interface. Under the current density of 1 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}, kinetics of Kirkendall void growth and intermetallic compound thickening were affected by the electromigration (EM), and both showed the polarity effect. Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} showed a strong susceptibility to the polarity effect, while Cu{sub 3}Sn did not. The electromigration force induced additional tensile (or compressive) stress at the cathode (or anode), which accelerated (or decelerated) the void growth. From the measurements of the fraction of void at the Cu{sub 3}Sn/Cu interface on SEM micrographs and analysis of the kinetics of void growth, the magnitude of the local stress induced by EM was estimated to be 9 MPa at the anode and −7 MPa at the cathode.

  12. Nanocellulose 3, 5-Dimethylphenylcarbamate Derivative Coated Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Dong, Shuqing; Zhang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yanping

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) with high surface area and high ordered crystalline structure was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) under the hydrolysis of sodium hypochlorite. NCC was further reacted with 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate to obtain the nanocellulose derivative, and then coated successfully on the surface of silica gel to a prepared NCC-coated chiral stationary phase (CSP) as a new kind of chiral separation material. Similarly, MCC derivative-coated CSP was also prepared as contrast. The chiral separation performance of NCC-based CSP was evaluated and compared with MCC-based CSP by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, the effects of the alcohol modifiers, mobile phase additives, and flow rates on chiral separations were investigated in detail. The results showed that 10 chiral compounds were separated on NCC-based CSP with better peak shape and higher column efficiency than MCC-based CSP, which confirmed that NCC-based CSP was a promising packing material for the resolution of chiral compounds.Chirality 28:376-381, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Chromatographic separation of aminoglutethimide enantiomers on cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phase].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoiian; Gong, Rujin; Li, Ping; Yu, Jianguo

    2014-08-01

    Aminoglutethimide (AG) has been used clinically as a drug in the treatment of hormone-dependent metastatic breast cancer. It was reported that S-(-)-AG enantiomer had small activity and sometimes might cause side effects. Therefore, it was of great significance to obtain the high-purity R-(+)-AG by enantioseparation. In this work, aminoglutethimide enantiomers were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an analytical column which was packed with cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) stationary phase (Chiralcel OD-H). The solubilities of racemic AG in two different solvent compositions, n-hexane/ethanol and n-hexane/isopropanol, were measured, separately. The effects of alcohol content and monoethanolamine additive on the separation performance of racemic AG by HPLC were investigated. According to the experiments, n-hexane-ethanol (30:70, v/v) with 0.1% monoethanolamine additive was selected as the mobile phase. The separation factor, resolution, asymmetry factor, number of theoretical plates and maximum column capacity were measured and analyzed for the chromatographic separation of racemic AG at a flow-rate of 0. 6 mL/min and column temperature of 25-40 °C, with Chiralcel OD-H as stationary phase and n-hexane-ethanol (30:70, v/v) with 0. 1% monoethanolamine as mobile phase. This work provides the basic information of chromatographic separation for the batch and continuous production of aminoglutethimide enantiomers.

  14. 4-Nitro-3-(5-tetrazole)furoxan and its salts: synthesis, characterization, and energetic properties.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lixuan; Wang, Kai; Bian, Chengming; Ling, Liming; Zhou, Zhiming

    2013-10-25

    A series of new energetic salts based on 4-nitro-3-(5-tetrazole)furoxan (HTNF) has been synthesized. All of the salts have been fully characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystal structures of neutral HTNF (3) and its ammonium (4) and N-carbamoylguanidinium salts (9) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The densities of 3 and its nine salts were found to range from 1.63 to 1.84 g cm(-3). Impact sensitivities have been determined by hammer tests, and the results ranged from 2 J (very sensitive) to >40 J (insensitive). Theoretical performance calculations (Gaussian 03 and EXPLO 5.05) provided detonation pressures and velocities for the ionic compounds 4-12 in the ranges 25.5-36.2 GPa and 7934-8919 m s(-1), respectively, which make them competitive energetic materials.

  15. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during and after normal pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    von Mandach, U.; Gubler, H. P.; Engel, G.; Huch, R.; Huch, A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The beta 2-sympathomimetics, used to inhibit preterm labour, bind predominantly to beta 2-adrenoceptors, activating adenylate cyclase to form adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a messenger substance which inhibits the enzyme cascade triggering smooth muscle contraction. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP formation can be used as markers of beta 2-adrenergic effect. 2. The present study addresses the influence of pregnancy on the beta-adrenoceptor system. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) in circulating lymphocytes were determined at three points in gestation (16, 29 and 37 weeks) and 9 weeks post partum in 22 normal pregnancies. (-)-[125Iodo]-cyanopindolol was used as the ligand to identify a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. B- and T-cell fractions were estimated from the same samples. 3. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density decreased significantly during gestation until week 37 (P < 0.01), then increased post partum (P < 0.005). Cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) were significantly lower after 16 weeks of gestation than post partum (P < 0.05). 4. The results, which cannot be explained in terms of a shift in the lymphocyte (B- and T-cell) ratio, indicate that beta-adrenoceptor density and function are reduced in normal pregnancy and only return to normal post partum. These findings may be of significance in devising future tocolytic therapy with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists. PMID:8383562

  16. Corrosion inhibition properties of graphene oxide on mild steel in 3.5% NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandh Senthilvasan, Prem; Rangarajan, Murali

    2016-09-01

    In this work the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 3.5% Sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at ambient conditions by Graphene Oxide (GO) has been studied. Graphene oxide was prepared by Modified Hummers Method and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The electrochemical corrosion behaviour of mild steel has been studied in the absence and presence of GO coatings by Tafel polarization and impedance analyses. The modified electrode has 44.8mV potential shift in the cathodic direction and reduction in current by 41.9 μA (61%). This indicates the strong protection offered by graphene oxide film. The obtained impedance spectra also clearly show that the charge transfer resistance of graphene oxide film is much higher than that of the uncoated steel electrode, demonstrating the strong protection offered by graphene oxide films for mild steel.

  17. A Φ 3.5m diameter Sic telescope for Herschel mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sein, Emmanuel; Toulemont, Yves; Safa, Frederic; Duran, Michel; Deny, Pierre; de Chambure, Daniel; Passvogel, Thomas; Pilbratt, Goeran L.

    2003-03-01

    Since ten years ASTRIUM has developed sintered Silicon Carbide (SiC) technology for space applications. Its unique thermo-mechanical properties, associated with its polishing capability, make SiC an ideal material for building ultra-stable lightweight space based telescopes or mirrors. SiC is a cost effective alternative to Beryllium and the ultra-lighweighted ULE. In Complememt to the material manufacturing process, ASTRIUM has developed several assembly techniques (bolting, brazing, bonding) for manufacturing large and complex SiC assemblies. This technology is now perfectly mature and mastered. SiC is baselined for most of the telescopes that are developed by ASTRIUM. SiC has been identified as the most suitable material for manufacturing very large crygenic telescopes. In this paper we present the development of Φ 3.5 m telescope for Herschel Mission. Herschel main goal is to study how the first stars and galaxies were formed and evolved. The Herschel Space telescope, using silicon carbide technology will be the largest space imagery telescope ever launched. The Herschel telescope will weight 300 kg rather than the 1.5 tons required with standard technology. The Herschel telescope is to be delivered in 2005 for a launch planned for 2007.

  18. Structure of Sputnik, a virophage, at 3.5-Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Sun, Siyang; Xiang, Ye; Wong, Jimson; Klose, Thomas; Raoult, Didier; Rossmann, Michael G

    2012-11-01

    "Sputnik" is a dsDNA virus, referred to as a virophage, that is coassembled with Mimivirus in the host amoeba. We have used cryo-EM to produce an electron density map of the icosahedral Sputnik virus at 3.5-Å resolution, sufficient to verify the identity of most amino acids in the capsid proteins and to establish the identity of the pentameric protein forming the fivefold vertices. It was also shown that the virus lacks an internal membrane. The capsid is organized into a T = 27 lattice in which there are 260 trimeric capsomers and 12 pentameric capsomers. The trimeric capsomers consist of three double "jelly-roll" major capsid proteins creating pseudohexameric capsomer symmetry. The pentameric capsomers consist of five single jelly-roll proteins. The release of the genome by displacing one or more of the pentameric capsomers may be the result of a low-pH environment. These results suggest a mechanism of Sputnik DNA ejection that probably also occurs in other big icosahedral double jelly-roll viruses such as Adenovirus. In this study, the near-atomic resolution structure of a virus has been established where crystallization for X-ray crystallography was not feasible. PMID:23091035

  19. FLOATING PRESSURE CONVERSION AND EQUIPMENT UPGRADES OF TWO 3.5KW, 20K, HELIUM REFRIGERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Homan, V. Ganni, A. Sidi-Yekhlef, J. Creel, R. Norton, R. Linza, G. Vargas, J. Lauterbach, J. Urbin, D. Howe

    2010-04-01

    Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5 KW at 20 K, are used at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryogenic-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. New changes to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the control issues that necessitated the controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle “floating pressure” control technology. The controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology was the first application on a helium gas refrigeration system. Previous implementations of the floating pressure technology have been on 4 K liquefaction and refrigeration systems, which have stored liquid helium volumes that have level indications used for varying the pressure levels (charge) in the system for capacity modulation. The upgrades have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e. at various loads in the vacuum chambers). The performance data of the two systems, pre and post upgrading are presented.

  20. In vitro synthesis and characterization of guanosine 3',5'-bis(diphosphate).

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Timo; Windeisen, Volker; Ewald, Jennifer C; Zibek, Susanne; Schlack, Petra; Rebell, Jochen; Reuss, Matthias; Siemann-Herzberg, Martin

    2008-12-15

    The intracellular alarmone guanosine 3',5'-bis(diphosphate) (ppGpp) has been thoroughly investigated over the past 40 years and has become one of the best-known effectors in bacterial physiology. ppGpp is also of great importance for biotechnological applications. Systems biology research, involving experimental and mathematical approaches, has contributed a great deal to uncovering the alarmone's complex regulatory effects. HPLC analysis and UV detection are used to quantify intracellular ppGpp. The samples analyzed also contain other phosphorylated guanine nucleotides and, therefore, are spiked with a standard ppGpp solution. A rapidly growing number of laboratories are turning to synthesizing the nucleotide in vitro involving time-consuming protocols and yielding only low amounts of ppGpp. The current article provides a protocol for the preparation of large quantities of a ribosome extract that contains high ppGpp synthesis activity. The demonstrated upscaling from shaking flask to bioreactor cultivation involves the continuous and refrigerated harvest of the biomass. (13)C NMR analysis enabled the structural characterization of the synthesis product and was complemented by mass spectrometry and methods that are commonly used to identify ppGpp.

  1. Sonochemical synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kien-Yin

    1996-05-01

    The synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from trichlorotrinitrobenzene (TCTNB) in toluene and ammonium hydroxide solution under the influence of ultrasonic waves was investigated. When the two-phase reaction mixture was irradiated with high intensity ultrasound at ambient temperature, fine-particle TATB (FP-TATB) was produced. This sonochemically produced TATB powder is lemon color in appearance and was analyzed to have the same explosive properties as reported in the literature. That is, it is insensitive to impact stimuli, and thermally stable. The median particle diameter of FP-TATB was calculated to be around 14 {mu}m, and the powder can be pressed to a density of 1.82 g/cm{sup 3} without a binder. The amination process is simple and requires neither the monitoring of the ammonia gas pressure nor the controlling of the reaction temperature during amination reaction, and we anticipate no problem in large scale production of FP-TATB.

  2. APO 3.5-meter remote observing program--2002 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Bruce

    2002-12-01

    The Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope is a working model of a modern mid-sized telescope used primarily on a shared-night, remote-observing basis. After a decade of successful remote operation and scientific accomplishments, the Astrophysical Research Consortium, builder and owner of the telescope, is examining the role by which this university-owned instrument can best serve its constituency and astronomy at large in the coming years. Various "niche" scientific capabilities are described for the telescope, including fast-response observations of transient phenomena, synoptic observing programs, reactive queue-scheduled observations, temporal study programs, plus being a capable test bed for new instruments. While specialized uses of the telescope offer potential for major scientific discoveries, traditional observing capabilities need to be sustained for the ongoing and future research programs for the majority of the consortium astronomers and students, a large and diverse community. Finding an appropriate balance between the "unique and specialized" versus the "bread-and-butter" observing models is discussed, as is the role hands-on remote observing can serve to support the various operational models.

  3. Control of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels by depolarizing agents in fungi.

    PubMed

    Trevillyan, J M; Pall, M L

    1979-05-01

    It has been reported that diverse treatments which depolarize the plasma membrane of Neurospora crassa produce rapid increases in cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels. In the current study, membrane active antibiotics, which are known or putative depolarizing agents, were found to produce similar cyclic AMP increases, not only in N. crassa, but also in the distantly related fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Mucor racemosus. Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, which have been found to depolarize Neurospora, also produced cyclic AMP increases in all three fungi. The time course of the cyclic AMP response to these various treatments was similar in all three fungi. The fungal studies and studies on depolarized central nervous tissue suggest that cyclic AMP increases may be produced in response to plasma membrane depolarization in diverse eucaryotic cells. A model is proposed for eucaryotic microorganisms in which membrane depolarization serves as a signal of breakdown of the plasma membrane integrity. The subsequent cyclic AMP increase, in turn, may mediate cellular response to help protect the plasma membrane from chemical and mechanical threats to its integrity.

  4. The Intensities of Methane in the 3-5 μm Region Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féjard, L.; Champion, J. P.; Jouvard, J. M.; Brown, L. R.; Pine, A. S.

    2000-05-01

    The analysis of the linestrengths of the infrared spectrum of methane (12 and 13) in the 3-5 μm region has been revisited on the basis of new measurements from Fourier transform spectra recorded at Kitt Peak under various optical densities. A simultaneous fit of these new data with previously reported tunable difference-frequency laser data has been done. An effective transition moment model in tensorial form up to the third order of approximation within the Pentad scheme has been used. The standard deviations achieved are very close to the experimental precision: 3 and 1.5%, respectively, for the two sets of data for the 12CH4 molecule, representing a substantial improvement with respect to earlier studies. The integrated bandstrengths obtained in the present work differ from previously reported values by factors ranging from -5 to +6%. The correction for the ν3 band, the strongest band of the Pentad system, is +2% with respect to the study of Hilico et al. [J. C. Hilico, J. P. Champion, S. Toumi, V. G. Tyuterev, and S. A. Tashkun, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 455-476 (1994)].

  5. Novel sorbents for coal conversion wastewater treatment. [3,5-dichlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Fogler, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    In this report results from a study undertaken to scale-up the clay modification procedure are described. Hitherto, adsorption of toxic organics found in coal conversion wastewater onto modified clays was carried out in a batch mode utilizing small amounts of the adsorbents. A realistic evaluation of the potential of modified clays as adsorbents under field conditions necessitates the development of continuous wastewater treatment schemes requiring larger amounts of the adsorbents. Hence a need arose for the scale-up of clay modification procedure. Three types of surfactant-modified clays, namely, cetylpyridinium-emathlite (CPC-EMAT), cetylpyridinium-montmorillonite (CPC-MONT), and cetylpyridinium hydroxy aluminum montmorillonite (CPC-HYDAL-MONT) were prepared by a one-step method discussed in our previous report (ref.8). Emathlite (EMAT) is a commercial mixture of clay materials, whereas montmorillonite is a well-characterized, research-grade smectite. Comparison of the amounts of adsorbed surfactant prepared by this method and an earlier method showed that the two procedures yielded identical results. Using 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) as a toxic organic, packed bed adsorption experiments were carried out with CPC-EMAT and CPC-HYDAL-MONT as adsorbents. A step input of the adsorbate at different flow rates was used and the dynamic adsorption capacity of the adsorbents for the toxic organic (i.e. DCP) was determined. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. 3',5'Di-O-trityluridine inhibits in vitro flavivirus replication.

    PubMed

    De Burghgraeve, Tine; Selisko, Barbara; Kaptein, Suzanne; Chatelain, Grégory; Leyssen, Pieter; Debing, Yannick; Jacobs, Michael; Van Aerschot, Arthur; Canard, Bruno; Neyts, Johan

    2013-05-01

    The dengue fever virus (DENV) and the yellow fever virus (YFV) are members of the genus flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. An estimated 50-100 million cases of DENV infections occur each year and approximately half a million patients require hospitalization. There is no vaccine or effective antiviral treatment available. There is an urgent need for potent and safe inhibitors of DENV replication; ideally such compounds should have broad-spectrum activity against flaviviruses. We here report on the in vitro activity of 3',5'di-O-trityluridine on flavivirus replication. The compound results in a dose-dependent inhibition of (i) DENV- and YFV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) (EC₅₀ values in the low micromolar range for the 4 DENV serotypes), (ii) RNA replication (DENV-2 EC₅₀=1.5 μM; YFV-17D EC₅₀=0.83 μM) and (iii) viral antigen production. Antiviral activity was also demonstrated in DENV subgenomic replicons (which do not encode the structural viral proteins) (EC₅₀=2.3 μM), indicating that the compound inhibits intracellular events of the viral replication cycle. Preliminary data indicate that the molecule may inhibit the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. PMID:23470860

  7. Floating Pressure Conversion and Equipment Upgrades of Two 3.5kw, 20k, Helium Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Jonathan; Linza, Robert; Garcia, Sam; Vargas, Gerardo; Lauterbach, John; Ganni, Venkatarao (Rao); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Creel, Jonathan; Norton, Robert; Urbin, John; Howe, Don

    2008-01-01

    Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5KW at 20K, are used at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryo-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. Equipment refurbishment and upgrades to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the mechanical and control issues that necessitated the equipment refurbishment and controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle "floating pressure" control technology. The upgrades -- the controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology and the newly refurbished equipment -- have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e.: at various loads in the vacuum chambers). Capabilities, configuration, and performance data pre, and post, upgrading will be presented.

  8. Complex brecciation and shock effects in the Buck Mountain Wash (H3-5) chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, Melinda; Ruzicka, Alex; Pugh, Richard; Sloan, Larry; Thompson, Edwin

    2007-06-01

    Buck Mountain Wash (BMW) is a new genomict breccia (H3-5) found in the Franconia (H5) strewn field in Arizona that shows complex brecciation and shock effects. It contains three distinct chondritic lithologies in sharp contact: a) a main lithology that consists primarily of petrographic type 5 material but which has finely intermixed type 3 and 4 material, b) a shock-blackened (shock stage S5) type 3 lithology (lithology A), and c) a shock-blackened type 3/4 lithology (lithology B). Buck Mountain Wash was lithified after impact-mixing and impact-melting of weakly and strongly metamorphosed materials, possibly at depth in the regolith of the parent body. Shock effects included brecciation on a fine scale, localized impact-melting of silicates, partial melting, and mobilization of metal-sulfide, and chemical fractionations that produced non-H-group composition kamacite by two disequilibrium mechanisms. Shock heating did not cause significant thermal metamorphism in the shock-blackened lithologies of BMW, except possibly in areas adjacent to whole-rock shock melt. During lithification, cooling must have been rapid at high temperatures to preserve glass and inhomogeneous silicate compositions, but not so fast at lower temperatures as to produce dendritic metal-sulfide globules or martensite.

  9. Crystal structure of phosphoglucomutase from Leishmania major at 3.5 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Barnali; Sen, Udayaditya; Banerjee, Rahul

    2016-02-01

    The crystal structure of phosphoglucomutase (LmPGM) from the parasite Leishmania major has been solved at 3.5 Å resolution. Although the active form of the enzyme is monomeric in solution, four molecules (A, B, C, D) were found in the asymmetric unit, of which the pairs (A,D) and (B,C) were of identical inter-subunit geometry. The parasitic enzyme constituted of four domains exhibited the canonical 'heart' shape of the protein, with domains I to III having a conserved α|β core, while the fourth (IV) domain being structurally distinct from the rest. Conformational variability of the IVth domain, postulated to be responsible for the catalytic function of the enzyme has been studied by normal mode analysis (NMA) and the conformational features responsible for domain movement in the 'hinge region' analyzed in detail. Although the active site of phosphoglucomutase is highly conserved from parasite to human, initial calculations show that a ligand binding pocket could exist near the hinge region, which is unique to the parasite. The enzymatic parameters of LmPGM have been determined and compared with other PGMs from orthologous species in addition to elucidating its mechanism of action by docking the substrate, intermediate onto the active site.

  10. Attempts to detect cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in higher plants by three assay methods.

    PubMed

    Bressan, R A; Ross, C W

    1976-01-01

    Endogenous levels of cyclic adenosine-3':5'-monophosphate in coleoptile first leaf segments of oat (Avena sativa L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) callus, and germinating seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were measured with a modified Gilman binding assay and a protein kinase activation assay. The incorporation of adenosine-8-(14)C into compounds with properties similar to those of cyclic AMP was also measured in studies with germinating lettuce seeds. The binding assay proved reliable for mouse and rat liver analyses, but was nonspecific for plant tissues. It responded to various components from lettuce and potato tissues chromatographically similar to but not identical with cyclic AMP. The protein kinase activation assay was much more specific, but it also exhibited positive responses in the presence of compounds not chromatographically identical to cyclic AMP. The concentrations of cyclic AMP in the plant tissues tested were at the lower limits of detection and characterization obtainable with these assays. The estimates of maximal levels were much lower than reported in many previous studies. PMID:16659419

  11. Comparative spectroscopic, calorimetric, and computational studies of nucleic acid complexes with 2',5"-versus 3',5"-phosphodiester linkages.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, R; Chapman, W H; Srinivasan, A R; Olson, W K; Breslow, R; Breslauer, K J

    1993-01-01

    We have used a combination of spectroscopic, calorimetric, and computational techniques to characterize the properties of nucleic acid complexes with 2',5''- and 3',5''-phosphodiester linkages. Specifically, we have compared the properties of complexes formed by the association of 3',5'' single-stranded 16-mers of adenylic acid (A16) and thymidylic acid (T16) with the complexes formed by the corresponding single-stranded 16-mers with 2',5''-phosphodiester linkages (A*16 and T*16). Our results reveal the following differential features: (i) the 3',5'' strands form either a duplex or a triplex, depending on the sodium ion concentration, whereas the 2',5'' strands form either a triplex or no complex at all; (ii) the 2',5'' and 3',5'' triplexes exhibit significantly different CD spectra, suggesting that the two triplex states are conformationally nonequivalent; (iii) the 2',5'' triplex has a lower charge density than the 3',5'' triplex; (iv) the thermal stability of the 3',5'' triplex, as expected, is concentration dependent, whereas the thermal stability of the 2',5'' triplex is concentration independent; (v) relative to their component single strands, the 2',5'' triplex is thermodynamically much less stable than the 3',5'' triplex, despite being thermally more stable; (vi) the reduced thermodynamic stability of the 2',5'' triplex relative to the 3',5'' triplex is overwhelmingly enthalpic in origin. In the aggregate, our results reveal and characterize significant differences in the properties of complexes formed by the association of strands with identical base sequences but different phosphodiester linkages. We describe a structural model that is consistent with many of the differential properties observed. We also speculate on how these differential properties may have provided an evolutionary advantage for 3',5'' linkages and how the properties of 2',5'' complexes might be exploited in antisense strategies. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8248146

  12. Adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate levels in Thermomonospora curvata during cellulase biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fennington, G.; Neubauer, D.; Stutzenberger, F.

    1983-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of cellulose requires the synergistic activity of at least three enzymes: exo-beta-1,4-glucanase (EC3.2.1.91), endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (EC3.2.1.4), and beta-glucosidase (EC3.2.1.21). Despite extensive studies on a variety of cellulolytic bacteria and fungi, the mechanism(s) regulating the biosynthesis of this inducible catabolic enzyme complex remains unknown. The intracellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) have been shown to play a major role in mediating catabolite repression of enzyme biosynthesis. The cAMP acts through a cAMP receptor protein (termed CRP or CAP) which is a dimer having two identical subunits each capable of binding one molecule of cAMP. The N-terminal domain of the CRP binds the cAMP while the C-terminal domain binds to DNA at the promotor region of a cAMP-dependent operon and stimulates transcription by promoting the formation of a preinitiation complex between RNA polymerase and the DNA. Intracellular cAMP levels in E. coli (the prototype organism for such studies) are influenced by the type and availability of carbon source used for growth. High intracellular cAMP levels should lead to higher concentrations of cAMP-CRP complexes which should increase the transcription rates for cAMP-dependent operons (such as the lac operon of beta-galactosidase) and indeed the differential rate of beta-galactosidase biosynthesis correlates to intracellular cAMP levels. In the case of cellulase, catabolite repression by glucose or other readily metabolizable compounds closely controls production in an apparently similar manner and therefore a correlation may exist between enzyme biosynthesis and intracellular cAMP levels. This communication describes the fluctuation in cAMP levels during cellulase induction and repression in the thermophilic actinomycete, Thermomonospora curvata.

  13. 3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: Volcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life?

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Furnes, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Banerjee, N.R.; Connell, L.B.; Templeton, A.

    2009-04-07

    Alteration textures in volcanic glass from the seafloor fall into two classes, one suggestive of abiotic/diffusive hydration and chemical exchange, and another likely to be caused by microbial, cavity-forming, congruent dissolution. Glass bioalteration is common in submarine lavas throughout the world's ocean, dominant in the upper 300 m of the oceanic crust, and found in all well-preserved ophiolites and greenstone belts dating back to 3.5 Ga. It may yield a significant fraction of the global biomass and geochemical fluxes and is relevant to the development of the earliest life on Earth. We present a critical review concerning these glass bioalteration textures and present new data on their microchemical environment. We explore arguments for their biogenicity and further develop the prevalent model for their formation by relating corrosion morphology to the mechanism of microbial dissolution. Biological alteration produces conspicuous micron-scale granular and tubular textures. Granular glass alteration is well explained by colonizing microbes that selectively dissolve the glass in their contact area, forming a sponge-like interconnected network of micron-sized cavities along glass surfaces. Tubular alteration meanwhile, is more likely to be caused by filamentous cell extensions in a process similar to fungal tunneling of soil feldspars and marine carbonates. While we see clear functional similarities to fungal dissolution behavior, we do not know whether fungal or prokaryotic organisms are involved. However, this functional constraint may eventually help to identify potential microbes responsible for these features, potentially including eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. Yet, we caution that these organisms may be difficult to identify and to study, because they are likely to be sparsely distributed, slow growing, and difficult to cultivate.

  14. Yeast 3',5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase: an affinity tag for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ma, Jianhui; Yang, Yilin; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Yanxing; Yang, Ling; Sun, Meihao

    2014-05-01

    Affinity chromatography is one of the most popular methods for protein purification. Each tag method has its advantages and disadvantages, and combination of different tags and developing of new tags had been proposed and performed. Yeast 3',5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase, also known as HAL2, hydrolyzes 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP) with submicromolar Km, which indicated the tight interactions between HAL2 and PAP. In order to explore the feasibility of HAL2 as a protein purification affinity tag, HAL2 was further characterized with PAP as substrate. Results demonstrated that KmPAP and kcatPAP were ∼0.3μM and ∼11s(-)(1), respectively. Kd for PAP was 0.008μM in the presence of Ca(2+). pH was also found to affect interactions between HAL2 and PAP, with tightest binding (Kd∼8nM) at pH 7.5 and 8. The purification protocol was rationally designed based on nanomolar affinity to PAP agarose in the presence of Ca(2+), which could satisfy the metal requirement for PAP binding, prevent hydrolysis of immobilized PAP and could be chelated by ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) for elution. A series of expression vectors were further constructed and Escherichia coli adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase (APSK) was prokaryotically expressed, purified and characterized. Ready to use expression vector with eight commonly used restriction enzyme recognition sites in multiple cloning site was subsequently constructed. By comparing with current popular tags, HAL2 was found to be an efficient and economical tag for prokaryotic protein expression and purification. PMID:24613729

  15. Highly-Selective and Reversible O₂ Binding in Cr₃(1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate)₂

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Leslie J; Dinca, Mircea; Yano, Junko; Chavan, Sachin; Bordiga, Silvia; Brown, Craig M; Long, Jeffrey R

    2010-06-16

    Reaction of Cr(CO)₆ with trimesic acid in DMF affords the metal–organic framework Cr₃(BTC)₂∙nDMF (BTC3- = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate), which is isostructural to Cu₃(BTC)₂∙3H₂O. Exchanging DMF for methanol and heating at 160 °C under dynamic vacuum for 48 h results in the desolvated framework Cr₃(BTC)₂. Nitrogen gas adsorption measurements performed at 77 K revealed a type I isotherm, indicating BET and Langmuir surface areas of 1810 and 2040 m²/g, respectively. At 298 K, the O₂ adsorption isotherm for Cr₃(BTC)₂ rises steeply to a capacity of 11 wt % at 2 mbar, while the corresponding N₂ adsorption isotherm displays very little uptake, gradually rising to a capacity of 0.58 wt % at 1 bar. Accordingly, the material displays an unprecedented O₂/N₂ selectivity factor of 22. Deoxygenation of the sample could be accomplished by heating at 50 °C under vacuum for 48 h, leading to a gradually diminishing uptake capacity over the course of 15 consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. Infrared and X-ray absorption spectra suggest formation of an O₂ adduct with partial charge transfer from the CrII centers exposed on the surface of the framework. Neutron powder diffraction data confirm this mechanism of O₂ binding and indicate a lengthening of the Cr–Cr distance within the paddle-wheel units of the framework from 2.06(2) to 2.8(1) Å.

  16. Thermal Considerations of Space Solar Power Concepts with 3.5 GW RF Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the thermal challenge of the Space Solar Power (SSP) design concepts with a 3.5 GW radio-frequency (RF) output. High efficiency klystrons are thermally more favored than solid state (butterstick) to convert direct current (DC) electricity to radio-frequency (RF) energy at the transmitters in these concepts. Using klystrons, the heat dissipation is 0.72 GW. Using solid state, the heat dissipation is 2.33 GW. The heat dissipation of the klystrons is 85% at 500C, 10% at 300C, and 5% at 125C. All the heat dissipation of the solid state is at 100C. Using klystrons, the radiator area is 74,500 square m Using solid state, the radiator area is 2,362,200 square m Space constructable heat pipe radiators are assumed in the thermal analysis. Also, to make the SSP concepts feasible, the mass of the heat transport system must be minimized. The heat transport distance from the transmitters to the radiators must be minimized. It can be accomplished by dividing the radiator into a cluster of small radiators, so that the heat transport distances between the klystrons and radiators can be minimized. The area of each small radiator is on the order of 1 square m. Two concepts for accommodating a cluster of small radiators are presented. If the distance between the transmitters and radiators is 1.5 m or less, constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) are acceptable for heat transport. If the distance exceeds 1.5 m, loop heat pipes (LHPs) are needed.

  17. 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine activates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Assunta; Senese, Rosalba; De Matteis, Rita; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    3,5-Diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained at thermoneutrality) in morphological and functional studies, we found that hypothyroidism suppresses the maximal oxidative capacity of BAT and thermogenesis, as revealed by reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, enlarged cells and lipid droplets, and increased number of unilocular cells within the tissue. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats activated BAT thermogenesis and increased the sympathetic innervation and vascularization of tissue. Likewise, T2 increased BAT oxidative capacity in vitro when added to BAT homogenates from hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, UCP1 seems to be a molecular determinant underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial thermogenesis. In fact, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by GDP and its reactivation by fatty acids were greater in mitochondria from T2-treated hypothyroid rats than untreated hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 led to an increase in PGC-1α protein levels in nuclei (transient) and mitochondria (longer lasting), suggesting a coordinate effect of T2 in these organelles that ultimately promotes net activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and BAT thermogenesis. The effect of T2 on PGC-1α is similar to that elicited by triiodothyronine. As a whole, the data reported here indicate T2 is a thyroid hormone derivative able to activate BAT thermogenesis. PMID:25658324

  18. Clio: a 3-5 micron AO planet-finding camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Hinz, Phil M.; Heinze, Ari N.; Freed, Melanie; Breuninger, Andrew H.

    2006-06-01

    Clio is an adaptive-optics camera mounted on the 6.5 meter MMT optimized for diffraction-limited L' and M-band imaging over a ~ 15" field. The instrument was designed from the ground up with a large well-depth, fast readout thermal infrared (~ 3_5μm) 320 by 256 pixel InSb detector, cooled optics, and associated focal plane and pupil masks (with the option for a coronograph) to minimize the thermal background and maximize throughput. When coupled with the MMT's adaptive secondary AO (two warm reflections) system's low thermal background, this instrument is in a unique position to image nearby warm planets, which are the brightest in the L' and M-band atmospheric windows. We present the current status of this recently commissioned instrument that performed exceptionally during first light. Our instrument sensitivities are impressive and are sky background limited: for an hour of integration, we obtain an L'-band 5 σ detection limit of of 17.0 magnitudes ~ 80%) and an M-band limit of 14.5 (Strehl ~ 90%). Our M-band sensitivity is lower due to the increase in thermal sky background. These sensitivities translate to finding relatively young planets five times Jupiter mass (M Jup) at 10 pc within a few AU of a star. Presently, a large Clio survey of nearby stellar systems is underway including a search for planets around solar-type stars, M dwarfs, and white dwarfs. Even with a null result, we can place strong constraints on planet distribution models.

  19. An updated set of nutations derived from the reanalysis of 3.5 decades VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Koot, Laurence; Rivoldini, Attilio; Dehant, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    The global VLBI observation started in the 1979. After that the qualities of the measurements are continuously improving by taking into account various instrumental and environmental effects. The MHB2000 models was introduced in 2002 (Mathews, et.al. 2002, [1]) and it has a good agreement (5 μas) on the short period nutation series (<400 days) with the values derived from 2 decades (1979-2000) VLBI data while a higher uncertainties up to 56 μas for those longer periods (>400 days) nutation series (Herring et.al. 2002). In MHB2000, the forcing frequencies of the nutation series are solved by least-squares fitting to the VLBI data in frequency domain. Koot et al. (2008), have processed another similar set of nutation series by inversing the time series of VLBI data (1984-2005) using a Bayesian approach. In the present work, we will repeat both approaches using the up-to-date 3.5 decades VLBI observations (1980-2014) meanwhile paying more attention on the results of longer period (>400 days). Finally some features of Earth's interior structure will be discussed based on the determined nutation series. [1] Mathews, P.M., Herring, T.A. & Buffett, B.A., 2002. Modeling of nutation and precession: new nutation series for nonrigid Earth and insights into the Earth's interior, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 2068, doi: 10.1029/2001JB000390. [2] Herring, T. A., P. M. Mathews, and B. A. Buffett, Modeling of nutation and precession: Very long baseline interferometry results, J. Geophys. Res., 107, B4, 2069, doi: 10.1029/2001JB000165, 2002 [3] Koot, L., Rivoldini, A., de Viron, O. & Dehant, V., 2008. Estimation of Earth interior parameters from a Bayesian inversion of very long baseline interferometry nutation time series, J. Geophys. Res., 113, 8414, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005409.

  20. Normal coordinate analysis, hydrogen bonding, and conformation analysis of heptane-3,5-dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani-Ghoshkhaneh, Samira; Vakili, Mohammad; Tayyari, Sayyed Faramaraz; Berenji, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transform Raman and infrared spectral measurements have been made for the heptane-3,5-dione (HPD) and simultaneously compared with those of acetylacetone (AA) to give a clear understanding of substitution effect of ethyl groups (in β-positions) on the structure, electron delocalization, and intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IHB). Molecular structure, conformational stabilities, and intramolecular hydrogen bonding of different oxo-enol forms of HPD, have been investigated by MP2, BLYP, B2PLYP, TPSSh, and B3LYP methods, using various basis sets, and experimental results. The energy differences between four stable E1-E4 chelated forms are relatively negligible. The theoretical and experimental results obtained for stable oxo-enol forms of HPD have been compared with each other and also with those of AA. According to the theoretical calculations, HPD has a hydrogen bond strength of about 15.9 kcal/mol, calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level, which is the same as AA, 15.9 kcal/mol. This similarity in the IHB strength is also consistent with the experimental results of the band frequency shifts for the OH/OD and O···O stretching and OH/OD out-of-plane bending frequencies and chemical shift of the O-H group. The molecular stability and the hydrogen bond strength also were investigated by applying the topological analysis, geometry calculations, and spectroscopic results. Potential energy distribution (PED) and normal coordinate analysis have also been performed. A complete assignment of the observed band frequencies has been suggested the presence of four HPD forms at comparable amounts in the sample.

  1. 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine activates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Assunta; Senese, Rosalba; De Matteis, Rita; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    3,5-Diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained at thermoneutrality) in morphological and functional studies, we found that hypothyroidism suppresses the maximal oxidative capacity of BAT and thermogenesis, as revealed by reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, enlarged cells and lipid droplets, and increased number of unilocular cells within the tissue. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats activated BAT thermogenesis and increased the sympathetic innervation and vascularization of tissue. Likewise, T2 increased BAT oxidative capacity in vitro when added to BAT homogenates from hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, UCP1 seems to be a molecular determinant underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial thermogenesis. In fact, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by GDP and its reactivation by fatty acids were greater in mitochondria from T2-treated hypothyroid rats than untreated hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 led to an increase in PGC-1α protein levels in nuclei (transient) and mitochondria (longer lasting), suggesting a coordinate effect of T2 in these organelles that ultimately promotes net activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and BAT thermogenesis. The effect of T2 on PGC-1α is similar to that elicited by triiodothyronine. As a whole, the data reported here indicate T2 is a thyroid hormone derivative able to activate BAT thermogenesis.

  2. 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine Activates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis in Hypothyroid Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Assunta; Senese, Rosalba; De Matteis, Rita; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained at thermoneutrality) in morphological and functional studies, we found that hypothyroidism suppresses the maximal oxidative capacity of BAT and thermogenesis, as revealed by reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, enlarged cells and lipid droplets, and increased number of unilocular cells within the tissue. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats activated BAT thermogenesis and increased the sympathetic innervation and vascularization of tissue. Likewise, T2 increased BAT oxidative capacity in vitro when added to BAT homogenates from hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, UCP1 seems to be a molecular determinant underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial thermogenesis. In fact, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by GDP and its reactivation by fatty acids were greater in mitochondria from T2-treated hypothyroid rats than untreated hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 led to an increase in PGC-1α protein levels in nuclei (transient) and mitochondria (longer lasting), suggesting a coordinate effect of T2 in these organelles that ultimately promotes net activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and BAT thermogenesis. The effect of T2 on PGC-1α is similar to that elicited by triiodothyronine. As a whole, the data reported here indicate T2 is a thyroid hormone derivative able to activate BAT thermogenesis. PMID:25658324

  3. Goldstone/VLA 3.5-cm Mars Radar Observations - Volcanic Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizek, Malynda R.; Butler, B. J.; Slade, M. A.; Haldemann, A. F.; Muhleman, D. O.; Mao, T. F.

    2006-09-01

    Radar experiments provide a powerful means to probe surface and subsurface regions of planetary bodies to determine their chemical, physical, and geological properties. The 2003 Mars opposition provided an excellent opportunity for experiments using the combined Goldstone/VLA 3.5-cm radar instrument. The combination of the proximity of Mars (<0.4 AU) and the VLA being in its highest resolution configuration gave a linear surface resolution of less than 100 km. Observations were taken on four dates near the 2003 opposition: August 11, 19, 28, and September 8. These observations provided the highest resolution images of Mars to date from the combined Goldstone/VLA radar. The images that result from these observations, as well as those obtained in previous observations, give us an opportunity to make comparisons between Mars' two major volcanic regions. The Tharsis and Elysium volcanic regions are the two most reflective non-polar areas on the planet, but they show marked differences in their brightness. While Olympus Mons and the Tharsis volcanoes are fairly bright reflectors, they are only a little more than half as bright as the caldera of Elysium Mons. The Elysium Planitia has a bright, well defined outline, much different than its surroundings. The Daedalia Planum is also extremely bright, near the base of Arsia Mons. Although the lava flows in these regions are of approximately the same age, they exhibit a wide range of reflectiveness. We will present possible explanations for these differences, taking into account age, composition, and morphology variations between the regions. Analysis of the radar echoes from other regions is presented in a companion paper in these proceedings (Butler et al.). The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. this work was supported by the NSF REU program at NRAO.

  4. [Use of the Internet in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Górriz, C; González, F M; Trinidad, A; García, J R; Pinilla, M T; López Cortijo, C; Arellano, B

    1997-05-01

    The Internet is considered by some as one of the most important advances of the late 20th century. The Internet is the functional linking of personal computers via telephone lines to a worldwide network of millions of other computers, which enables them to exchange information freely. Although the Internet crops up in daily conversation, many persons are not aware of its usefulness and relevance for ear, nose and throat specialists. The Internet is accessed by special software that maximizes the potential of this vast computer network. The most important tools are e-mail and the World Wide Web. These tools make it possible to consult multimedia medical publications, access Medline, and carry out information searches, etc. The Internet and its most important uses in otolaryngology are summarized and a list of useful addresses is given. Although its advantages still are not widely appreciated, widespread Internet use is imminent and we think that it is a useful technology to know and use. Moreover, access is becoming easier and cheaper. PMID:9376133

  5. Nasal Myiasis in Hinduism and Contemporary Otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Zimmermann, Terence M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Shane Tubbs, R; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2014-01-01

    Various case reports on nasal myiasis written during the 1990s and 2000s state that nasal myiasis, which is known as peenash among South Asian natives, is a form of divine punishment in Hindu mythology, but do not provide citations from Hindu scriptures that would suggest this interpretation. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon of peenash in a historical context by examining medical literature written during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to identify Hindu texts contributing to the belief of some Hindus that nasal myiasis is a form of divine punishment, and to provide an overview of contemporary treatment for and management of nasal myiasis. PMID:24385004

  6. Phytotherapeutic and naturopathic adjuvant therapies in otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Ciuman, Raphael Richard

    2012-02-01

    Phytotherapeutic pharmaceuticals and herbal medicinal products with its roots in classical phytotherapeutic medicine have a well-established role in otolaryngological therapy, especially for diseases of the upper airways and acute and chronic infections. A thorough selection and application could mean huge benefit for the patient, in particular in cases with contraindications, chemo- and antibiotic resistance or patient request. Besides, it might spare other medications. Phytotherapeutic pharmaceuticals must fulfil the same criteria of quality, effectiveness and harmlessness of evidence-based medicine like chemical pharmaceuticals, although they are often prescribed due to its well established or traditional based use. This review focuses on phytotherapeutic therapies well established within the European Community for otolaryngologic disease patterns by referring to clinical studies or meta-analysis.

  7. An efficient, regioselective amination of 3,5-disubstituted pyridine N-oxides using saccharin as an ammonium surrogate.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Robert P; Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Bartberger, Michael D; Tedrow, Jason S; Vounatsos, Filisaty

    2013-01-01

    A process for the regioselective amination of unsymmetrical 3,5-substituted pyridine N-oxides has been developed utilizing cheap, readily available saccharin as an ammonium surrogate. High conversions of the corresponding saccharin adducts have been achieved under mild reaction conditions. In situ deprotection under acidic conditions allows for a one-pot process to substituted aminopyridines. High regioselectivities were obtained from a variety of 3,5-disubstituted pyridine N-oxides.

  8. 3,5,5-Trimethylhexanoylferrocene induction of heme oxygenase activity in normal hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, R W; Cable, J W; Pepe, J A; Bonkovsky, H L

    1994-04-29

    Recent work showed that the combination of 50 microM glutethimide plus 50 microM ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA) synergistically induces heme oxygenase (HO) activity in cultured chick embryo liver cells (Cable et al., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 168: 176-181, 1990). This synergistic induction is due to increased heme synthesis, which then acts to increase HO gene transcription. The aim of the current studies was to characterize the effects on hepatic heme metabolism of (3,5,5-trimethylhexanoyl)ferrocene (TMH-ferrocene), which causes hepatic iron-loading in rats. Unlike FeNTA, TMH-ferrocene alone maximally induced HO activity at 5-10 microM TMH-ferrocene. At higher concentrations, HO activities declined, as did total cellular protein synthesis. Induction of HO was maximal after a 12-hr exposure to TMH-ferrocene, similar to induction by glutethimide plus FeNTA. The effect of TMH-ferrocene on HO could not be ascribed to greater cellular uptake of iron, since cell-associated iron levels were higher after FeNTA than after TMH-ferrocene treatment. TMH-ferrocene (up to 20 microM) did not induce delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase activity. Uroporphyrin accumulation in cells treated with TMH-ferrocene was minimal, but the combination of TMH-ferrocene and glutethimide caused a synergistic increase in uroporphyrin accumulation, similar to treatment with glutethimide plus FeNTA. 4,6-Dioxoheptanoic acid, an inhibitor of heme synthesis, blocked the induction of HO caused by glutethimide and FeNTA, but did not decrease the induction of HO by TMH-ferrocene. TMH-ferrocene-mediated induction of HO does not appear to be due to lipid peroxidation, since malondialdehyde formation was greater for ferrocene (a structural analog of TMH-ferrocene that does not induce HO) than for TMH-ferrocene. Furthermore, the anti-oxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole, which prevented lipid peroxidation, decreased HO induced by glutethimide plus FeNTA, but butylated hydroxyanisole did not affect HO induced

  9. CARMENES: First Results from the CAHA 3.5m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, Andreas; Consortium, CARMENES

    2015-12-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument currently undergoing commissioning at the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. It has been developed by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions (see also Quirrenbach et al. 2010; 2012; 2014). CARMENES will conduct a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~300 M dwarfs. An important and unique feature of the CARMENES instrument is that it consists of two separate échelle spectrographs, which together cover the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000. The spectrographs are fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope.The main scientific objective of the CARMENES project is to carry out a survey of late-type main sequence stars with the goal of detecting low-mass planets in their habitable zones (HZs). In the focus of the project are very cool stars later than spectral type M4 and moderately active stars. We aim at being able to detect a 2M⊕ planet in the HZ of an M5 star. A long-term radial velocity precision of 1ms-1 per measurement will permit to attain such goals. For stars later than M4 (M < 0.25M⊙), such precision will yield detections of super-Earths of 5M⊕ and smaller inside the entire width of the HZ. The CARMENES survey will thus provide a comprehensive overview of planetary systems around nearby Northern M dwarfs. By reaching into the realm of Earth-like planets, it will provide a treasure trove for follow-up studies probing their habitability.Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Mandel, H., et al. (2010). CARMENES: Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs. In Ground-based and airborne instrumentation for astronomy III. Eds. McLean, I.S., Ramsay, S.K., & Takami, H., SPIE 773513Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Seifert, W., et al. (2012). CARMENES. I: Instrument

  10. [Immunogenicity of additional varicella vaccination 3-5 years after the initial vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2013-07-01

    additional varicella vaccination 3-5 years after the initial vaccination is thought to have greater immunogenicity and is considered effective.

  11. Supramolecular arrangement of 3,5-bis[methylene(dihydroxyphosphoryl)]benzoic acid and its complex with calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybył, Bartosz; Zoń, Jerzy; Janczak, Jan

    2013-09-01

    3,5-Bis[methylene(dihydroxyphosphoryl)]benzoic acid and its complex with calcium in the crystalline form were obtained. The 3,5-bis[methylene(dihydroxyphosphoryl)]benzoic acid crystallises as acetone monosolvate (1a) while its calcium complex as methanol disolvate (1b). The solvent molecules in the crystals are disordered. The 3,5-bis[methylene(dihydroxy-phosphoryl)]benzoic acid molecules in crystal 1a are interconnected via OH⋯O hydrogen bonds forming two-dimensional layers parallel to (1 0 0) plane. Within the layers there are present holes that occupied disordered acetone molecules. In 1b the calcium cation is surrounded by six singly deprotonated 3,5-bis[methylene(dihydroxyphosphoryl)]benzoic acid forming distorted octahedral environment. Each singly deprotonated 3,5-bis[methylene(dihydroxyphosphoryl)]benzoic acid links three calcium cations forming two-dimensional coordinating polymers parallel to (0 1 0) plane. The OH···O hydrogen bonds between the singly deprotonated 3,5-bis[methylene(dihydroxyphosphoryl)]benzoic acid ligands stabilize the two-dimensional polymers. Statistically disordered methanol molecules are located in the holes between the two-dimensional coordinating polymers and interact with them via OH···O hydrogen bonds.

  12. The metabolism of di-(3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) ether (Ionox 201) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wright, A S; Crowne, R S; Hathway, D E

    1967-01-01

    1. Up to one-third of a single oral dose of Ionox 201 was absorbed in rats. 2. In rats dosed with [(14)C]Ionox 201 86.8-97.2% of the label is excreted in the faeces in 24 days (much of this is eliminated in the first 4 days after dosage), 5.6% in the urine and not more than 0.8% in the exhaled air; 5.0% of (14)C is present in the carcass and viscera after removal of the gut, and most of this is in the fatty tissues. 3. About 65.0% of (14)C in the faeces is due to unchanged antioxidant, 30.0% to 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3.5% to unidentified polar constituent(s), 1.4% to 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 0.1% to 3,3',5,5'-tetra-tert.-butyl-4-,4'-stilbenequinone. A variable proportion of (14)C in the urine is due to 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (40-60%) and the remainder (60-40%) to the ester glucuronide, when the animals were treated with different doses of antioxidant. In eight individual animals dosed with 6.78mg. of [(14)C]Ionox 201, one-third of (14)C in the bile is due to the free acid, 45% to the ester glucuronide, 20% to an unidentified constituent and 2% to unchanged antioxidant, and, in two animals dosed with 13.56mg., there is a small proportion of free acid and a larger proportion of ester glucuronide. About 80% of (14)C in the body fat is due to unchanged antioxidant, 19% to the free acid and 1% to 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. 4. At least 36.2% of a single oral dose of Ionox 201 is metabolized: 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid accounts for 30.2% of a dose, (3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoyl beta-d-glucopyranosid)uronic acid for 1.4%, 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde for 1.3%, 3,3',5,5'-tetra-tert.-butyl-4,4'-stilbenequinone for 0.1% and unidentified polar metabolite(s) for 3.2%. 5. The metabolism of Ionox 201 in vivo is closely related to its antioxidant action in vitro. PMID:6030293

  13. Identification of the molecular basis for the functional difference between flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Christian; Ameres, Stefanie; Forkmann, Gert

    2007-07-24

    Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) are cytochrome P450 enzymes and determine the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of flavonoids by introducing hydroxyl groups at the 3'- or the 3'- and 5'-position, respectively. Sequence identity between F3'H and F3'5'H is generally low since their divergence took place early in the evolution of higher plants. However, in the Asteraceae the family-specific evolution of an F3'5'H from an F3'H precursor occurred, and consequently sequence identity is substantially higher. We used this phenomenon for alignment studies, in order to identify regions which could be involved in determining substrate specificity and functionality. Subsequent construction and expression of chimeric genes indicated that substrate specificity of F3'H and F3'5'H is determined near the N-terminal end and the functional difference between these two enzymes near the C-terminal end. The impact on function of individual amino acids located in substrate recognition site 6 (SRS6) was further tested by site-directed mutagenesis. Most interestingly, a conservative Thr to Ser exchange at position 487 conferred additional 5'-hydroxylation activity to recombinant Gerbera hybrida F3'H, whereas the reverse substitution transformed recombinant Osteospermum hybrida F3'5'H into an F3'H with low remaining 5'-hydroxylation activity. Since the physicochemical properties of Thr and Ser are highly similar, the difference in size appears to be the main factor contributing to functional difference. The results further suggest that relatively few amino acids exchanges were required for the evolutionary extension of 3'- to 3',5'-hydroxylation activity.

  14. Genotoxicity of 2,6- and 3,5-Dimethylaniline in Cultured Mammalian Cells: The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming-Wei; Kim, Min Young; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2012-01-01

    Several alkylanilines with structures more complex than toluidines have been associated epidemiologically with human cancer. Their mechanism of action remains largely undetermined, and there is no reported evidence that it replicates that of multicyclic aromatic amines even though the principal metabolic pathways of P450-mediated hydroxylation and phase II conjugation are very similar. As a means to elucidate their mechanisms of action, lethality and mutagenicity in the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt +/−) gene induced in several Chinese hamster ovary cell types by 2,6- and 3,5-dimethylaniline (2,6-DMA, 3,5-DMA) and their N- and ring-hydroxyl derivatives (N-OH-2,6-DMA, N-OH-3,5-DMA, 2,6-DMAP, 3,5-DMAP) were assessed. Dose-response relationships were determined in the parental AA8 cell line, its repair-deficient UV5 subclone and other repair-deficient 5P3NAT2 or -proficient 5P3NAT2R9 subclones engineered to express mouse cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and human N-acetyltransferase (NAT2), and also in AS52 cells harboring the bacterial guanine-hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) gene. Mutations in the gpt gene of AS52 cells were characterized and found to be dominated by G:C to A:T and A:T to G:C transitions. Separately, treatment of AS52 cells with N-OH-2,6-DMA, N-OH-3,5-DMA, 2,6-DMAP, 3,5-DMAP, and 3,5-DMAP led to intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for at least 24h after removal of the mutagens in every case. Using the comet assay, DNA strand breaks were observed in a dose-dependent manner in AS52 cells when treated with each of the four N-OH-2,6-DMA, N-OH-3,5-DMA, 2,6-DMAP, and 3,5-DMAP derivatives. Comparative evaluation of the results indicates that the principal mechanism of mutagenic action is likely to be through redox cycling of intracellularly bound aminophenol/quinone imine structures to generate ROS rather than through formation of covalent DNA adducts. PMID:22831970

  15. Experimental and theoretical characterization of the 3,5-didehydrobenzoate anion: a negatively charged meta-benzyne.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason M; Nizzi, Katrina Emilia; Campbell, J Larry; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I; Seierstad, Mark; Cramer, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    A negatively charged analogue of meta-benzyne, 3,5-didehydrobenzoate, was synthesized in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, and its reactivity was compared to that of the same ion generated previously in a flowing afterglow apparatus and to its positively charged cousin, N-(3,5-didehydrophenyl)-3-fluoropyridinium. 3,5-Didehydrobenzoate was found to react as a nucleophile with electrophilic reagents. In contrast, N-(3,5-didehydrophenyl)-3-fluoropyridinium does not react with the same electrophilic reagents but reacts instead with nucleophilic reagents. Neither ion is able to abstract hydrogen atoms from typical hydrogen atom donors. The absence of any radical reactivity for these meta-benzynes is consistent with predictions that radical reactions of singlet biradicals should be hindered as compared to their monoradical counterparts. High-level calculations predict that the carboxylate moiety does not significantly perturb the singlet-triplet splitting of 3,5-didehydrobenzoate relative to the parent meta-benzyne.

  16. Alternative Splicing-Mediated Targeting of the Arabidopsis GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR3.5 to Mitochondria Affects Organelle Morphology1

    PubMed Central

    Teardo, Enrico; Carraretto, Luca; De Bortoli, Sara; Costa, Alex; Behera, Smrutisanjita; Wagner, Richard; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Szabo, Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of 20 genes encoding for putative ionotropic glutamate receptors in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome, there has been considerable interest in uncovering their physiological functions. For many of these receptors, neither their channel formation and/or physiological roles nor their localization within the plant cells is known. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, new information about in vivo protein localization and give insight into the biological roles of the so-far uncharacterized Arabidopsis GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR3.5 (AtGLR3.5), a member of subfamily 3 of plant glutamate receptors. Using the pGREAT vector designed for the expression of fusion proteins in plants, we show that a splicing variant of AtGLR3.5 targets the inner mitochondrial membrane, while the other variant localizes to chloroplasts. Mitochondria of knockout or silenced plants showed a strikingly altered ultrastructure, lack of cristae, and swelling. Furthermore, using a genetically encoded mitochondria-targeted calcium probe, we measured a slightly reduced mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity in the knockout mutant. These observations indicate a functional expression of AtGLR3.5 in this organelle. Furthermore, AtGLR3.5-less mutant plants undergo anticipated senescence. Our data thus represent, to our knowledge, the first evidence of splicing-regulated organellar targeting of a plant ion channel and identify the first cation channel in plant mitochondria from a molecular point of view. PMID:25367859

  17. Gravitational radiation reaction in the equations of motion of compact binaries to 3.5 post-Newtonian order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissanke, Samaya; Blanchet, Luc

    2005-03-01

    We compute the radiation-reaction force on the orbital motion of compact binaries to the 3.5 post-Newtonian (3.5PN) approximation, i.e. one PN order beyond the dominant effect. The method is based on a direct PN iteration of the near-zone metric and equations of motion of an extended isolated system, using appropriate 'asymptotically matched' flat-spacetime retarded potentials. The formalism is subsequently applied to binary systems of point particles, with the help of the Hadamard self-field regularization. Our result is the 3.5PN acceleration term in a general harmonic coordinate frame. Restricting the expression to the centre-of-mass frame, we find perfect agreement with the result derived in a class of coordinate systems by Iyer and Will using the energy and angular-momentum balance equations.

  18. Effect of 3,5-di-iodo-L-thyronine on the mitochondrial energy-transduction apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, A; Lanni, A; Moreno, M; Brand, M D; Goglia, F

    1998-01-01

    We examined the effect of a single injection of 3,5-di-iodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) (150 microg/100 g body weight) on the rat liver mitochondrial energy-transduction apparatus. We applied 'top-down' elasticity analysis, which allows identification of the site of action of an effector within a metabolic pathway. This kinetic approach considers oxidative phosphorylation as two blocks of reactions: those generating the mitochondrial inner-membrane potential (DeltaPsi; 'substrate oxidation') and those 'consuming' it ('proton leak' and 'phosphorylating system'). The results show that 1 h after the injection of 3,5-T2, state 4 (respiratory state in which there is no ATP synthesis and the exogenous ADP added has been exhausted) and state 3 (respiratory state in which ATP synthesis is at maximal rate) of mitochondrial respiration were significantly increased (by approx. 30%). 'Top-down' elasticity analysis revealed that these increases were due to the stimulation of reactions involved in substrate oxidation; neither 'proton leak' nor the 'phosphorylating system' was influenced by 3,5-T2. Using the same approach we divided the respiratory chain into two blocks of reactions: cytochrome c reducers and cytochrome c oxidizers. We found that both cytochrome c reducers and cytochrome c oxidizers are targets for 3,5-T2. The rapidity with which 3,5-T2 acts in stimulating the mitochondrial respiration rate suggests to us that di-iodo-L-thyronine may play an important role in the physiological conditions in which rapid energy utilization is required, such as cold exposure or overfeeding. PMID:9461551

  19. Identification and characterisation of CYP75A31, a new flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase, isolated from Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the regulation of the flavonoid pathway is important for maximising the nutritional value of crop plants and possibly enhancing their resistance towards pathogens. The flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) enzyme functions at an important branch point between flavonol and anthocyanin synthesis, as is evident from studies in petunia (Petunia hybrida), and potato (Solanum tuberosum). The present work involves the identification and characterisation of a F3'5'H gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and the examination of its putative role in flavonoid metabolism. Results The cloned and sequenced tomato F3'5'H gene was named CYP75A31. The gene was inserted into the pYeDP60 expression vector and the corresponding protein produced in yeast for functional characterisation. Several putative substrates for F3'5'H were tested in vitro using enzyme assays on microsome preparations. The results showed that two hydroxylation steps occurred. Expression of the CYP75A31 gene was also tested in vivo, in various parts of the vegetative tomato plant, along with other key genes of the flavonoid pathway using real-time PCR. A clear response to nitrogen depletion was shown for CYP75A31 and all other genes tested. The content of rutin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside was found to increase as a response to nitrogen depletion in most parts of the plant, however the growth conditions used in this study did not lead to accumulation of anthocyanins. Conclusions CYP75A31 (NCBI accession number GQ904194), encodes a flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase, which accepts flavones, flavanones, dihydroflavonols and flavonols as substrates. The expression of the CYP75A31 gene was found to increase in response to nitrogen deprivation, in accordance with other genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway, as expected for a gene involved in flavonoid metabolism. PMID:20128892

  20. Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome in Cardiac Illness Involves Elevated Concentrations of 3,5-Diiodothyronine and Correlates with Atrial Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Johannes W.; Müller, Patrick; Schiedat, Fabian; Schlömicher, Markus; Strauch, Justus; Chatzitomaris, Apostolos; Klein, Harald H.; Mügge, Andreas; Köhrle, Josef; Rijntjes, Eddy; Lehmphul, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Background Although hyperthyroidism predisposes to atrial fibrillation, previous trials have suggested decreased triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations to be associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). Therapy with thyroid hormones (TH), however, did not reduce the risk of POAF. This study reevaluates the relation between thyroid hormone status, atrial electromechanical function and POAF. Methods Thirty-nine patients with sinus rhythm and no history of atrial fibrillation or thyroid disease undergoing cardiac surgery were prospectively enrolled. Serum concentrations of thyrotropin, free (F) and total (T) thyroxine (T4) and T3, reverse (r)T3, 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) and 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) were measured preoperatively, complemented by evaluation of echocardiographic and electrophysiological parameters of cardiac function. Holter-ECG and telemetry were used to screen for POAF for 10 days following cardiac surgery. Results Seven of 17 patients who developed POAF demonstrated nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS; defined as low T3 and/or low T4 syndrome), compared to 2 of 22 (p < 0.05) patients who maintained sinus rhythm. In patients with POAF, serum FT3 concentrations were significantly decreased, but still within their reference ranges. 3,5-T2 concentrations directly correlated with rT3 concentrations and inversely correlated with FT3 concentrations. Furthermore, 3,5-T2 concentrations were significantly elevated in patients with NTIS and in subjects who eventually developed POAF. In multivariable logistic regression FT3, 3,5-T2, total atrial conduction time, left atrial volume index and Fas ligand were independent predictors of POAF. Conclusion This study confirms reduced FT3 concentrations in patients with POAF and is the first to report on elevated 3,5-T2 concentrations in cardiac NTIS. The pathogenesis of NTIS therefore seems to involve more differentiated allostatic mechanisms. PMID:26279999

  1. Stepwise Polychlorination of 8-Chloro-BODIPY and Regioselective Functionalization of 2,3,5,6,8-Pentachloro-BODIPY

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ning; Xuan, Sunting; Fronczek, Frank R.; Smith, Kevin M.; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2016-01-01

    An effective, stepwise methodology for polychlorination of BODIPY using trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in acetic acid was developed. In this way, selectively substituted di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentachloro-BODIPYs 2–5 were prepared. The pentachloro-BODIPY is shown to undergo regioselective Pd(0)-catalyzed Stille and Suzuki coupling reactions, first at the 8-position followed by the 3,5- and then the 2,6-positions; nucleophilic substitution reactions occur first at the 8-followed by the 3,5-positions, while the 2,6 are unreactive. PMID:26186141

  2. (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol inhibits growth of colon tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Choi, Min Gi; Choi, Jeong Soon; Nam, Kyung Tak; Kim, Hae Deun; Rodriguez, Kevin; Gann, Benjamin; Ham, Young Wan; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we found that (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal showed anti-cancer effect, but it showed lack of stability and drug likeness. We have prepared several (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal analogues by Heck reaction. We selected two compounds which showed significant inhibitory effect of colon cancer cell growth. Thus, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects and possible mechanisms of one compound (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol induced apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner (0-15 μg/ml) through activation of Fas and death receptor (DR) 3 in HCT116 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, the combination treatment with (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, phenylarsine oxide (0.1 μM) or signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor, Stattic (50 μM) increased the expression of Fas and DR3 more significantly. In addition, (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol suppressed the DNA binding activity of both STAT3 and NF-κB. Knock down of STAT3 or NF-κB p50 subunit by STAT3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or p50 siRNA magnified (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol-induced inhibitory effect on colon cancer cell growth. Besides, the expression of Fas and DR3 was increased in STAT3 siRNA or p50 siRNA transfected cells. Moreover, docking model and pull-down assay showed that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol directly bound to STAT3 and NF-κB p50 subunit. Furthermore, (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol inhibited colon tumor growth in a dose dependent manner (2.5 mg/kg-5 mg/kg) in mice. Therefore, these findings indicated that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol may be a promising anti-cancer agent for colon cancer with more advanced research. PMID

  3. Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of β,β′-dibenzo-3,5,8-triaryl-BODIPYs†

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qianli; Fronczek, Frank R.; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2016-01-01

    A series of β,β′-bicyclo-3,5-diaryl-BODIPYs were synthesized from the corresponding β,β′-bicyclo-3,5-diiodo-BODIPYs (1a,b) via Pd(0)-mediated Suzuki cross-coupling reactions in 82–92% yields. Subsequent aromatization with DDQ afforded the corresponding β,β′-dibenzo-aryl-BODIPYs, which showed red-shifted absorptions and emissions in the near-IR range. The dibenzo-appended BODIPYs showed characteristic 1H-, 13C-, 11B- and 19F-NMR shifts, and nearly planar conformations by X-ray crystallography.

  4. Crystal structure of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid-4-pyridone (1/3).

    PubMed

    Staun, Selena L; Oliver, Allen G

    2015-11-01

    Slow co-crystallization of a solution of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid with a large excess of 4-hy-droxy-pyridine produces an inter-penetrating, three-dimensional, hydrogen-bonded framework consisting of three 4-pyridone and one benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid mol-ecules, C9H6O6·3C5H5NO. This structure represents an ortho-rhom-bic polymorph of the previously reported C-centered, monoclinic structure [Campos-Gaxiola et al. (2014 ▸). Acta Cryst. E70, o453-o454]. PMID:26594492

  5. Synthesis, dynamic combinatorial chemistry, and PCR amplification of 3'-5' and 3'-6' disulfide-linked oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dennis Jul; Manuguerra, Ilenia; Kjelstrup, Michael Brøndum; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2014-12-22

    Disulfide dithymidines linked 3'-5' or 3'-6' were synthesized and incorporated into oligonucleotides through a combined phosphotriester and phosphoramidite solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis approach. The disulfide links are cleaved and formed reversibly in the presence of thiols and oligonucleotides. This link was shown to be sequence-adaptive in response to given templates in the presence of mercaptoethanol. The artificial 3'-5' and 3'-6' disulfide link was tolerated by polymerases in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By using sequencing analysis, we show that single mutations frequently occurred randomly in the amplification products of the PCR.

  6. Production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien Y.; Ott, Donald G.

    1980-01-01

    The ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole has utility as a chemical explosive. In accordance with the present invention, it may readily be produced by solvent extraction using high-molecular weight, water-insoluble amines followed by amination with anhydrous ammonia gas. The aqueous reaction mixture produced in the synthesis of the parent compound, 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole, is quite suitable--and indeed is preferred--for use as the feed material in the process of the invention.

  7. Production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.Y.; Ott, D.G.

    1979-11-07

    The ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole has utility as a chemical explosive. In accordance with the present invention, it may readily be produced by solvent extraction using high-molecular weight, water-insoluble amines, followed by amination with anhydrous ammonia gas. The aqueous reaction mixture produced in the synthesis of the parent compound, 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole, is quite suitable - and indeed is preferred - for use as the feed material in the process of the invention.

  8. Trinuclear copper(II) complex showing high selectivity for the hydrolysis of 2'-5' over 3'-5' for UpU and 3'-5' over 2'-5' for ApA ribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Makoto; Kina, Shinichiro; Matsumura, Kazunari; Sumaoka, Jun; Tobey, Suzanne; Lynch, Vincent M; Anslyn, Eric

    2002-11-20

    The cooperative action of multiple Cu(II) nuclear centers is shown to be effective and selective in the hydrolysis of 2'-5' and 3'-5' ribonucleotides. Reported herein is the specific catalysis by two trinuclear Cu(II) complexes of L3A and L3B. Pseudo first-order kinetic studies reveal that the L3A trinuclear Cu(II) complex effects hydrolysis of Up(2'-5')U with a rate constant of 28 x 10(-)(4) min(-)(1) and Up(3'-5')U with a rate constant of 0.5 x 10(-)(4) min(-)(1). The hydrolyses of Ap(3'-5')A and Ap(2'-5')A proceed with rate constants of 24 x 10(-)(4) min(-)(1) and 0.5 x 10(-)(4) min(-)(1) respectively. The L3A trinuclear Cu(II) complex demonstrates high specificity for Up(2'-5')U and Ap(3'-5')A. Similar studies with the more rigid L3B trinuclear Cu(II) complex shows no selectivity and yields lower rate constants for hydrolysis. The selectivity observed with the L3A ligand is attributed to the geometry of the ligand-bound diribonucleotide which ultimately dictates the proximity of the attacking hydroxyl and the phosphoester to a Cu(II) center for activation and subsequent hydrolysis.

  9. Thermal decomposition of energetic materials: Temporal behaviors of the rates of formation of the gaseous pyrolysis products from condensed-phase decomposition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, R. Jr. )

    1990-08-23

    The temporal behaviors of the rates of formation of the gaseous products from the pyrolysis of HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) are determined by simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS). The gaseous products formed from the pyrolysis of HMX, and its deuterium- and {sup 15}NO{sub 2}-labeled analogues, between 210 and 235{degree}C are H{sub 2}O, HCN, CO, CH{sub 2}O, NO, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}NHCHO, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}NNO, 1-nitroso-3,5,7-trinitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (ONTNTA), and their isotopic analogues. In addition, a nonvolatile residue (NVR) is formed. The NVR is a polyamide that decomposes between 250 and 780{degree}C producing NH{sub 3}, HCN, HNCO, H{sub 2}NCHO, CH{sub 3}NHCHO, and products that include long-chain hydrocarbons. The temporal behaviors of the rates of gas formation of the pyrolysis products along with the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the NVR indicate that complex physical processes and chemical mechanisms within the condensed phase of HMX control the decomposition.

  10. A 3.5 year diary study: Remembering and life story importance are predicted by different event characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Jensen, Thomas; Holm, Tine; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Forty-five participants described and rated two events each week during their first term at university. After 3.5 years, we examined whether event characteristics rated in the diary predicted remembering, reliving, and life story importance at the follow-up. In addition, we examined whether ratings of life story importance were consistent across a three year interval. Approximately 60% of events were remembered, but only 20% of these were considered above medium importance to life stories. Higher unusualness, rehearsal, and planning predicted whether an event was remembered 3.5 years later. Higher goal-relevance, importance, emotional intensity, and planning predicted life story importance 3.5 years later. There was a moderate correlation between life story importance rated three months after the diary and rated at the 3.5 year follow-up. The results suggest that autobiographical memory and life stories are governed by different mechanisms and that life story memories are characterized by some degree of stability.

  11. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  12. (7E,11E)-3,5,9,11-Tetramethyltridecadienal: Sex Pheromone of the Strepsipteran Xenos peckii.

    PubMed

    Hrabar, Michael; Zhai, Huimin; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W; Draper, Jason; Britton, Robert; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    Xenos peckii is a strepsipteran parasitoid of the common North American paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus. Mate-seeking X. peckii males respond to a long-range sex pheromone emitted by the female, which remains permanently embedded within the abdomen of a mobile host wasp. During peak pheromone signalling, we excised the female from her host, severed the cephalothorax containing the pheromone gland, extracted it in hexane, and analyzed aliquots of combined extracts by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). These analyses revealed a candidate pheromone component (CPC) that consistently elicited strong responses from male antennae. We identified the CPC as (7E,11E)-3,5,9,11-tetramethyltridecadienal based on its retention indices (RI) on three GC-columns, RI inter-column differentials, mass and NMR spectra, and synthesis of an authentic standard that matched the GC-retention and spectrometric characteristics of the CPC. For a field experiment, we prepared (7E,11E)-3,5,9R,11-tetramethyltridecadienal and (7E,11E)-3,5,9S,11-tetramethyltridecadienal. Xenos peckii males were caught in traps baited with either compound singly or a 1:1 mixture of the two but not in unbaited control traps. The sex pheromone of X. peckii resembles that reported for the strepsipterans Stylops mellittae and S. muelleri, (R,R,R)-3,5,9-trimethyldodecanal, suggesting a common biosynthetic pathway across taxonomic genera.

  13. (19)F(α,n) thick target yield from 3.5 to 10.0 MeV.

    PubMed

    Norman, E B; Chupp, T E; Lesko, K T; Grant, P J; Woodruff, G L

    2015-09-01

    Using a target of PbF2, the thick-target yield from the (19)F(α,n) reaction was measured from E(α)=3.5-10 MeV. From these results, we infer the thick-target neutron yields from targets of F2 and UF6 over this same alpha-particle energy range.

  14. Ilex kaushue and Its Bioactive Component 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid Protected Mice from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Li; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Yu, Huang-Ping; Fang, Jia-You; Chong, Kowit Yu; Chang, Yao-Wen; Chen, Chun-Yu; Yang, Hsuan-Wu; Chang, Wen-Yi; Hsieh, Pei-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe respiratory disease with high mortality rates worldwide. Recent reports suggest that human neutrophil elastase (HNE) plays a key role in the inflammatory response that is characteristic of ALI, which indicates that the development of HNE inhibitors could be an efficient treatment strategy. In the current study, an enzyme-based screening assay was used to identify effective HNE inhibitors from a number of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Among them, a water extract of Ilex kaushue (IKWE) effectively inhibited HNE activity (IC50, 11.37 ± 1.59 μg/mL). Using bioactivity-guided fractionation, one new compound and 23 known compounds were identified. Compound 6 (identified as 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid; 3,5-DCQA) exerted the most potent and selective inhibitory effect on HNE activity (IC50, 1.86 ± 0.06 μM). In a cell-based assay, 3,5-DCQA not only directly reduced superoxide generation and elastase activity but also attenuated the Src family kinase (SRKs)/Vav signaling pathway in N-formyl-L-Met-L-Leu-L-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated human neutrophils. In an animal disease model, both 3,5-DCQA and standardized IKWE protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI in mice, which provides support for their potential as candidates in the development of new therapeutic agents for neutrophilic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27681838

  15. Hydrazino-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine Derivatives' Excellent Corrosion Organic Inhibitors of Steel in Acidic Chloride Solution.

    PubMed

    El-Faham, Ayman; Osman, Sameh M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Mahdy, Gamal A

    2016-06-01

    The corrosion inhibition performance of 2-hydrazino-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-tirazine (DMeHT), 2,4-dihydrazino-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triaizine (DHMeT), and 2,4,6-tridydrazino-1,3,5-triaizne (TH₃) on steel corrosion in acidic media was examined using electrochemical techniques. The results showed 2,4-Ddihydrazino-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triaizine (DHMeT) gave the best corrosion protection performance among the other hydrazino derivatives even at a low concentration of 25 ppm (95%). The number of hydrazino groups play an important role in the corrosion inhibition, where the two hydrazine groups increased the electrostatic interactions between the protonated tested compounds, the negatively charged steel surface resulted from the adsorption of the chloride anions, and the presence of the methoxy group made the compound more reliable for formation of film protection on the surface of steel through the lone pair of oxygen atoms. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements suggested that the corrosion process of steel in presence of the hydrazino-s-triazine derivatives (TH₃, DMeHT and DHMeT) were being controlled by the charge transfer reaction. Polarization curves indicated that the examined TH₃, DMeHT and DHMeT behaved as mixed type inhibitors.

  16. Observational consistency and future predictions for a 3.5 keV ALP to photon line

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Pedro D.; Conlon, Joseph P.; Day, Francesca V.; Marsh, M.C. David; Rummel, Markus

    2015-04-09

    Motivated by the possibility of explaining the 3.5 keV line through dark matter decaying to axion-like particles that subsequently convert to photons, we study ALP-photon conversion for sightlines passing within 50 pc of the galactic centre. Conversion depends on the galactic centre magnetic field which is highly uncertain. For fields at low or mid-range of observational estimates (10–100 μG), no observable signal is possible. For fields at the high range of observational estimates (a pervasive poloidal mG field over the central 150 pc) it is possible to generate sufficient signal to explain recent observations of a 3.5 keV line in the galactic centre. In this scenario, the galactic centre line signal comes predominantly from the region with z>20pc, reconciling the results from the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray telescopes. The dark matter to ALP to photon scenario also naturally predicts the non-observation of the 3.5 keV line in stacked galaxy spectra. We further explore predictions for the line flux in galaxies and suggest a set of galaxies that is optimised for observing the 3.5 keV line in this model.

  17. (7E,11E)-3,5,9,11-Tetramethyltridecadienal: Sex Pheromone of the Strepsipteran Xenos peckii.

    PubMed

    Hrabar, Michael; Zhai, Huimin; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W; Draper, Jason; Britton, Robert; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    Xenos peckii is a strepsipteran parasitoid of the common North American paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus. Mate-seeking X. peckii males respond to a long-range sex pheromone emitted by the female, which remains permanently embedded within the abdomen of a mobile host wasp. During peak pheromone signalling, we excised the female from her host, severed the cephalothorax containing the pheromone gland, extracted it in hexane, and analyzed aliquots of combined extracts by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). These analyses revealed a candidate pheromone component (CPC) that consistently elicited strong responses from male antennae. We identified the CPC as (7E,11E)-3,5,9,11-tetramethyltridecadienal based on its retention indices (RI) on three GC-columns, RI inter-column differentials, mass and NMR spectra, and synthesis of an authentic standard that matched the GC-retention and spectrometric characteristics of the CPC. For a field experiment, we prepared (7E,11E)-3,5,9R,11-tetramethyltridecadienal and (7E,11E)-3,5,9S,11-tetramethyltridecadienal. Xenos peckii males were caught in traps baited with either compound singly or a 1:1 mixture of the two but not in unbaited control traps. The sex pheromone of X. peckii resembles that reported for the strepsipterans Stylops mellittae and S. muelleri, (R,R,R)-3,5,9-trimethyldodecanal, suggesting a common biosynthetic pathway across taxonomic genera. PMID:26271674

  18. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  20. 17 CFR 240.15c3-5 - Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Risk management controls for... Markets § 240.15c3-5 Risk management controls for brokers or dealers with market access. (a) For the... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  1. Radial Profile of the 3.5 keV Line Out to R200 in the Perseus Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franse, Jeroen; Bulbul, Esra; Foster, Adam; Boyarsky, Alexey; Markevitch, Maxim; Bautz, Mark; Iakubovskyi, Dmytro; Loewenstein, Mike; McDonald, Michael; Miller, Eric; Randall, Scott W.; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Smith, Randall K.

    2016-10-01

    The recent discovery of the unidentified emission line at 3.5 keV in galaxies and clusters has attracted great interest from the community. As the origin of the line remains uncertain, we study the surface brightness distribution of the line in the Perseus cluster since that information can be used to identify its origin. We examine the flux distribution of the 3.5 keV line in the deep Suzaku observations of the Perseus cluster in detail. The 3.5 keV line is observed in three concentric annuli in the central observations, although the observations of the outskirts of the cluster did not reveal such a signal. We establish that these detections and the upper limits from the non-detections are consistent with a dark matter decay origin. However, absence of positive detection in the outskirts is also consistent with some unknown astrophysical origin of the line in the dense gas of the Perseus core, as well as with a dark matter origin with a steeper dependence on mass than the dark matter decay. We also comment on several recently published analyses of the 3.5 keV line.

  2. Friends and Relations: Using Literature with Social Themes, Grades 3-5. The Responsive Classroom Series #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Carol Otis; Otis, Rebecca

    This book contains eight selections of literature for children in Grades 3-5, books which focus on themes of friendship and family. Ranging from picture books to novels, these selections are rich with possibilities for exploring topics such as loyalty, empathy, conflict, courage, fairness, responsibility, and diversity. Each selection features the…

  3. Proceedings of the 1998 Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Workshop; Cocoa Beach, Florida; November 3-5, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.

    1998-12-17

    This proceedings is the compilation of all papers presented at the 11th PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Doubletree Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida, on November 3-5, 1998. The workshop was hosted by the Florida Solar Energy Center. This year's workshop included presentations from 29 speakers and had 110 attendees.

  4. Manganese Complexes of 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA): The First Nitrogen Bound Transition Metal Complex of PTA

    SciTech Connect

    Frost,B.; Bautista, C.; Huang, R.; Shearer, J.

    2006-01-01

    The structures of two manganese(II) complexes of 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) reveal the first transition-metal complexes of PTA in which the metal preferentially coordinates to a nitrogen and not the phosphorus of PTA. The coordination environment about the manganese was probed using X-ray crystallography (solid state) and EXAFS spectroscopy (solution).

  5. Nonenzymatic, template-directed ligation of oligoribonucleotides is highly regioselective for the formation of 3'-5' phosphodiester bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, R.; Bartel, D. P.; Szostak, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    We have found that nonenzymatic, template-directed ligation reactions of oligoribonucleotides display high selectivity for the formation of 3'-5' rather than 2'-5' phosphodiester bonds. Formation of the 3'-5'-linked product is favored regardless of the metal ion catalyst or the leaving group, and for several different ligation junction sequences. The degree of selectivity depends on the leaving group: the ratio of 3'-5'- to 2'-5'-linked products was 10-15:1 when the 5'-phosphate was activated as the imidazolide, and 60-80:1 when the 5'-phosphate was activated by the formation of a 5'-triphosphate. Comparison of oligonucleotide ligation reactions with previously characterized single nucleotide primer extension reactions suggests that the strong preference for 3'-5'-linkages in oligonucleotide ligation is primarily due to occurence of ligation within the context of an extended Watston-Crick duplex. The ability of RNA to correctly self-assemble by template-directed ligation is an intrinsic consequence of its chemical structure and need not be imposed by an external catalyst (i.e., an enzyme polymerase); RNA therefore provides a reasonable structural basis for a self-replicating system in a prebiological world.

  6. Theoretical studies on the formation mechanism and explosive performance of nitro-substituted 1,3,5-triazines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kiyull; Park, Young Hee; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Lee, Hai Whang; Kim, Chan Kyung; Koo, Hyun-Joo

    2010-10-01

    To develop new highly energetic materials, we have considered the design of molecules with high nitrogen content. Possible candidates include 1,3,5-triazine derivatives. In this work, we studied potential synthetic routes for melamine using the MP2/6-31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The mechanisms studied here are stepwise mechanism beginning with the dimerization of cyanamide and one-step termolecular mechanism. The same type of mechanism is also applied to nitro-substituted 1,3,5-triazines. Values for the heat of formation in the solid phase were predicted from density functional theory calculations. Densities were estimated from a regression equation obtained by molecular surface electrostatic potentials. The Cheetah program was used to study the explosive performance of these compounds. In this study, we found that the explosive properties of 2-amino-4, 6-dinitro-1, 3,5-triazine (ADNTA), and 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (TNTA) are similar to those of RDX and HMX, respectively.

  7. The metabolism of di-(3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) ether (Ionox 201) in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Wright, A. S.; Crowne, R. S.; Hathway, D. E.

    1967-01-01

    1. Up to one-third of a single oral dose of Ionox 201 was absorbed in rats. 2. In rats dosed with [14C]Ionox 201 86·8–97·2% of the label is excreted in the faeces in 24 days (much of this is eliminated in the first 4 days after dosage), 5·6% in the urine and not more than 0·8% in the exhaled air; 5·0% of 14C is present in the carcass and viscera after removal of the gut, and most of this is in the fatty tissues. 3. About 65·0% of 14C in the faeces is due to unchanged antioxidant, 30·0% to 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3·5% to unidentified polar constituent(s), 1·4% to 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 0·1% to 3,3′,5,5′-tetra-tert.-butyl-4-,4′-stilbenequinone. A variable proportion of 14C in the urine is due to 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (40–60%) and the remainder (60–40%) to the ester glucuronide, when the animals were treated with different doses of antioxidant. In eight individual animals dosed with 6·78mg. of [14C]Ionox 201, one-third of 14C in the bile is due to the free acid, 45% to the ester glucuronide, 20% to an unidentified constituent and 2% to unchanged antioxidant, and, in two animals dosed with 13·56mg., there is a small proportion of free acid and a larger proportion of ester glucuronide. About 80% of 14C in the body fat is due to unchanged antioxidant, 19% to the free acid and 1% to 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. 4. At least 36·2% of a single oral dose of Ionox 201 is metabolized: 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid accounts for 30·2% of a dose, (3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoyl β-d-glucopyranosid)uronic acid for 1·4%, 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde for 1·3%, 3,3′,5,5′-tetra-tert.-butyl-4,4′-stilbenequinone for 0·1% and unidentified polar metabolite(s) for 3·2%. 5. The metabolism of Ionox 201 in vivo is closely related to its antioxidant action in vitro. PMID:6030293

  8. Purification and characterization of UDP-glucose: anthocyanin 3',5'-O-glucosyltransferase from Clitoria ternatea.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Koichiro; Kato, Naoki; Kazuma, Kohei; Noda, Naonobu; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2007-11-01

    A UDP-glucose: anthocyanin 3',5'-O-glucosyltransferase (UA3'5'GT) (EC 2.4.1.-) was purified from the petals of Clitoria ternatea L. (Phaseoleae), which accumulate polyacylated anthocyanins named ternatins. In the biosynthesis of ternatins, delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside (1) is first converted to delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3'-O-beta-glucoside (2). Then 2 is converted to ternatin C5 (3), which is delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3',5'-di-O-beta-glucoside. UA3'5'GT is responsible for these two steps by transferring two glucosyl groups in a stepwise manner. Its substrate specificity revealed the regioselectivity to the anthocyanin's 3'- or 5'-OH groups. Its kinetic properties showed comparable k (cat) values for 1 and 2, suggesting the subequality of these anthocyanins as substrates. However, the apparent Km value for 1 (3.89 x 10(-5) M), which is lower than that for 2 (1.38 x 10(-4) M), renders the k(cat)/Km value for 1 smaller, making 1 catalytically more efficient than 2. Although the apparent Km value for UDP-glucose (6.18 x 10(-3) M) with saturated 2 is larger than that for UDP-glucose (1.49 x 10(-3) M) with saturated 1, the k(cat) values are almost the same, suggesting the UDP-glucose binding inhibition by 2 as a product. UA3'5'GT turns the product 2 into a substrate possibly by reversing the B-ring of 2 along the C2-C1' single bond axis so that the 5'-OH group of 2 can point toward the catalytic center. PMID:17668234

  9. Pharmacological and haematological results of rat skin burn injury treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4.

    PubMed

    Malakyan, Margarita H; Bajinyan, Sergey A; Abrahamyan, Armenuhi K; Petrosyan, Zhasmena H; Harutyunyan, Nektar K; Badiryan, Vardush A; Sorenson, John R J

    2004-01-01

    This research was performed to determine whether or not treatment of burn-injured rats with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4(Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4) facilitated recovery from burn-injury. Four groups of adult male rats received a standard skin burn 1 h before an initial subcutaneous treatment which was continued daily for three days with either 0, 5, 10 or 20micromol Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4/kg body mass. A fifth group was given no treatment. A sixth group served as a non-burn-injured non-treated normal control group. At 3 h and on days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 post-burn-injury blood samples were obtained from rats in all groups for the determination of leukocyte, platelet and erythrocyte counts, clotting times, hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Total protein and middle mass peptides in plasma, as well as plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane peroxidation products were determined on days 7 and 14. Burn wound healing and body mass were determined daily from day 0 to 6 with a notation of crust rejection by day 14. Treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 produced effects consistent with a facilitation of Cu-dependent immune-mediated physiological inflammatory responses to burn injury. It is concluded that treatment of burn injury with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 supports Cu-dependent physiological responses involved in overcoming burn injury, which may have been further optimized by continued treatment beyond day 2, the last day of treatment. PMID:15901413

  10. The B gene of pea encodes a defective flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase, and confers pink flower color.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Carol; Ambrose, Mike J; Turner, Lynda; Hill, Lionel; Ellis, T H Noel; Hofer, Julie M I

    2012-06-01

    The inheritance of flower color in pea (Pisum sativum) has been studied for more than a century, but many of the genes corresponding to these classical loci remain unidentified. Anthocyanins are the main flower pigments in pea. These are generated via the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, which has been studied in detail and is well conserved among higher plants. A previous proposal that the Clariroseus (B) gene of pea controls hydroxylation at the 5' position of the B ring of flavonoid precursors of the anthocyanins suggested to us that the gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), the enzyme that hydroxylates the 5' position of the B ring, was a good candidate for B. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined mutants generated by fast neutron bombardment. We found allelic pink-flowered b mutant lines that carried a variety of lesions in an F3'5'H gene, including complete gene deletions. The b mutants lacked glycosylated delphinidin and petunidin, the major pigments present in the progenitor purple-flowered wild-type pea. These results, combined with the finding that the F3'5'H gene cosegregates with b in a genetic mapping population, strongly support our hypothesis that the B gene of pea corresponds to a F3'5'H gene. The molecular characterization of genes involved in pigmentation in pea provides valuable anchor markers for comparative legume genomics and will help to identify differences in anthocyanin biosynthesis that lead to variation in pigmentation among legume species.

  11. Metabolism of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine by Clostridium bifermentans strain HAW-1 and several other H2-producing fermentative anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Paquet, Louise; Halasz, Annamaria; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-08-01

    Several H2-producing fermentative anaerobic bacteria including Clostridium, Klebsiella and Fusobacteria degraded octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) (36 microM) to formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) with rates ranging from 5 to 190 nmol h(-1)g [dry weight] of cells(-1). Among these strains, C. bifermentans strain HAW-1 grew and transformed HMX rapidly with the detection of the two key intermediates the mononitroso product and methylenedinitramine. Its cellular extract alone did not seem to degrade HMX appreciably, but degraded much faster in the presence of H2, NADH or NADPH. The disappearance of HMX was concurrent with the release of nitrite without the formation of the nitroso derivative(s). Results suggest that two types of enzymes were involved in HMX metabolism: one for denitration and the second for reduction to the nitroso derivative(s).

  12. Tissue culture-induced flower-color changes in Saintpaulia caused by excision of the transposon inserted in the flavonoid 3', 5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H) promoter.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mitsuru; Kawabe, Takashi; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki

    2011-05-01

    The variegated Saintpaulia cultivar Thamires (Saintpaulia sp.), which has pink petals with blue splotches, is generally maintained by leaf cuttings. In contrast, tissue culture-derived progeny of the cultivar showed not only a high percentage of mutants with solid-blue petals but also other solid-color variants, which have not been observed from leaf cuttings. Solid-color phenotypes were inherited stably by their progeny from tissue culture. Petals from each solid-color variant were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and shown to contain different proportions of three main anthocyanin derivatives: malvidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin. Analysis of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) sequences showed no differences in the coding region among the variants and variegated individuals. However, a transposon belonging to the hAT superfamily was found in the promoter region of variegated individuals, and the presence of transposon-related insertions or deletions correlated with the observed flower-color phenotypes. Solid-blue flower mutants contained 8-base pair (bp) insertions (transposon excision footprints), while solid-pink mutants had 58- to 70-bp insertions, and purple- and deep-purple mutants had 21- and 24-bp deletions, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that F3'5'H expression levels correlated with insertions and deletions (indels) caused by hAT excision, resulting in flower-color differences. Our results showed that tissue culture of Saintpaulia 'Thamires' elicits transposon excision, which in turn alters F3'5'H expression levels and flower colors. PMID:21293860

  13. Effect of phosphate activating group on oligonucleotide formation on montmorillonite: the regioselective formation of 3',5'-linked oligoadenylates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabahar, K. J.; Cole, T. D.; Ferris, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of amine structure on the montmorillonite-catalyzed oligomerization of the 5'-phosphoramidates of adenosine are investigated. 4-Aminopyridine derivatives yielded oligoadenylates as long as dodecamers with a regioselectivity for 3',5'-phosphodiester bond formation averaging 88%. Linear and cyclic oligomers are obtained and no A5'ppA-containing products are detected. Oligomers as long as the hexanucleotide are obtained using 2-aminobenzimidazole as the activating group. A predominance of pA2'pA is detected in the dimer fraction along with cyclic 3',5'-trimer; no A5'ppA-containing oligomers were detected. Little or no oligomer formation was observed when morpholine, piperidine, pyrazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and 2-pyridone are used as phosphate-activating groups. The effects of the structure of the phosphate activating group on the oligomer structure and chain lengths are discussed.

  14. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  15. Seasonal and diurnal dependence of Pc 3-5 magnetic pulsation power at geomagnetically conjugate stations in the auroral zones

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Hiroaki National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo ); Sato, Natsuo ); Tonegawa, Yutaka ); Yoshino, Takeo ); Saemundsson, T. )

    1989-06-01

    Seasonal and diurnal variations of Pc 3-5 magnetic pulsation powers have been examined using 2 years of magnetic data from geomagnetically conjugate stations, Syowa in Antarctica and Husafell and Tjoernes in Iceland. The magnetic pulsation powers are found to be relatively higher at the winter hemisphere station than at the summer station. The pulsations observed during equinox show a diurnal dependence, i.e., that the power density is higher in the geomagnetic morning at the stations in Iceland than at Syowa, and this relationship is reversed in the afternoon. The power density ratio of Pc 3 pulsations between the conjugate stations, which is associated with the seasons and with local time, is higher than that of Pc 5. These characteristics can be attributed to the effects of sunlight in the ionosphere, i.e., Pc 3-5 pulsations are shielded when the waves propagate from the magnetosphere to the ground through the sunlit ionosphere.

  16. High-resolution IRCCD images of the Galactic center at 2.2 and 3.5 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollestrup, Eric V.; Becklin, E. E.; Capps, Richard W.

    1989-01-01

    An IRCCD camera was used to obtain high-resolution images at 2.2 and 3.5 microns of the Galactic center at subarcsecond resolution. These images show that the compact nonthermal radio source Sgr A-asterisk is not coincident with any part of IRS 16; Sgr A-asterisk is found to be 1.1 + or - 0.3 arcsec west of IRS 16C. At 3.5 microns, IRS 16 is a complex object. IRS 16SW is resolved into two sources, and IRS 16C may be double or extended. From the colors and sizes of the various components, it is difficult to explain these objects as stellar clusters; the required stellar density would be too high. Finally, there is evidence that there is a blue and a red source, separated by about 1 arcsec, for each of the northern arm sources, IRS 1W, IRS 5, and IRS 10.

  17. In vitro substrate specificities of 3'-5' polymerases correlate with biological outcomes of tRNA 5'-editing reactions.

    PubMed

    Long, Yicheng; Jackman, Jane E

    2015-07-22

    Protozoan mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs) are repaired by a process known as 5'-editing. Mt-tRNA sequencing revealed organism-specific patterns of editing G-U base pairs, wherein some species remove G-U base pairs during 5'-editing, while others retain G-U pairs in the edited tRNA. We tested whether 3'-5' polymerases that catalyze the repair step of 5'-editing exhibit organism-specific preferences that explain the treatment of G-U base pairs. Biochemical and kinetic approaches revealed that a 3'-5' polymerase from Acanthamoeba castellanii tolerates G-U wobble pairs in editing substrates much more readily than several other enzymes, consistent with its biological pattern of editing.

  18. In vitro substrate specificities of 3'-5' polymerases correlate with biological outcomes of tRNA 5'-editing reactions

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yicheng; Jackman, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Protozoan mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs) are repaired by a process known as 5'-editing. Mt-tRNA sequencing revealed organism-specific patterns of editing G-U base pairs, wherein some species remove G-U base pairs during 5'-editing, while others retain G-U pairs in the edited tRNA. We tested whether 3'-5' polymerases that catalyze the repair step of 5'-editing exhibit organism-specific preferences that explain the treatment of G-U base pairs. Biochemical and kinetic approaches revealed that a 3'-5' polymerase from A. castellanii tolerates G-U wobble pairs in editing substrates much more readily than several other enzymes, consistent with its biological pattern of editing. PMID:26143376

  19. Discovery of 1-(1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)piperidine-4-carboxamides as inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Thalji, Reema K; McAtee, Jeff J; Belyanskaya, Svetlana; Brandt, Martin; Brown, Gregory D; Costell, Melissa H; Ding, Yun; Dodson, Jason W; Eisennagel, Steve H; Fries, Rusty E; Gross, Jeffrey W; Harpel, Mark R; Holt, Dennis A; Israel, David I; Jolivette, Larry J; Krosky, Daniel; Li, Hu; Lu, Quinn; Mandichak, Tracy; Roethke, Theresa; Schnackenberg, Christine G; Schwartz, Benjamin; Shewchuk, Lisa M; Xie, Wensheng; Behm, David J; Douglas, Stephen A; Shaw, Ami L; Marino, Joseph P

    2013-06-15

    1-(1,3,5-Triazin-yl)piperidine-4-carboxamide inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase were identified from high through-put screening using encoded library technology. The triazine heterocycle proved to be a critical functional group, essential for high potency and P450 selectivity. Phenyl group substitution was important for reducing clearance, and establishing good oral exposure. Based on this lead optimization work, 1-[4-methyl-6-(methylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]-N-{[[4-bromo-2-(trifluoromethoxy)]-phenyl]methyl}-4-piperidinecarboxamide (27) was identified as a useful tool compound for in vivo investigation. Robust effects on a serum biomarker, 9, 10-epoxyoctadec-12(Z)-enoic acid (the epoxide derived from linoleic acid) were observed, which provided evidence of robust in vivo target engagement and the suitability of 27 as a tool compound for study in various disease models.

  20. Novel H2 activation by a tris[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borane frustrated Lewis pair.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Thomas J; Thom, Alex J W; White, Andrew J P; Ashley, Andrew E

    2012-08-14

    Tris[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borane (1, BArF(18)), has been synthesised on a practical scale for the first time. According to the Gutmann-Beckett method it is a more powerful Lewis acid than B(C(6)F(5))(3). It forms a 'frustrated Lewis pair' with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine which cleaves H(2) to form a salt containing the novel anion [μ-H(BArF(18))(2)](-). PMID:22532230

  1. Fabrication and shear strength analysis of Sn-3.5Ag/Cu-filled TSV for 3D microelectronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Jung, Do-Hyun; Roh, Myong-Hoon; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-09-01

    In this study, lead free Sn-3.5Ag solder bumps have been deposited on Cu-filled through-silicon via (TSV) by electroplating method. The solder bumps are plated using an acidic solution composed of SnSO4, H2SO4, Ag2SO4, thiourea and an additive. The current density is varied from -30 to -60 mA/cm2 to obtain the eutectic Sn-3.5Ag solder. The copper is electroplated in TSV using an acidic solution of CuSO4·5H2O, H2SO4, HCl, and an inhibitor. The bottom-up Cu-filling in TSV is achieved by a 3-step pulse periodic reverse (PPR) electroplating. It has been observed that the eutectic Sn-3.5Ag solder is achieved at a current density of -55 mA/cm2. The solder bumps are further reflowed onto TSV at 260 °C for 20 seconds, and shear strength of the formed Sn-3.5Ag/Cu-filled TSV joint is investigated. The results indicate the formation of Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the joint interface. It is found that with an increase of shear speed from 0.5-10 mm/s, the shear stress initially increases to a maximum, and then decreases beyond shear speed of 10 mm/s through 500 mm/s. It is shown that the ductile fracture mode gradually decreases beyond shear speed of 10 mm/s and disappears completely at 500 mm/s.

  2. Bleaching effect of a 405-nm diode laser irradiation used with titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Kato, J.; Nakazawa, T.; Hirai, Y.

    2007-09-01

    A 405-nm diode laser has recently been developed for soft tissue problems in dentistry. A new in-office bleaching agent consisting of a titanium dioxide photocatalyst and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide has proven to react well with light irradiated at a wavelength of around 400 nm. In this study, we evaluated the bleaching efficacy of a newly developed 405-nm diode laser on bovine teeth treated with a bleaching agent composed of titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide. Sixteen bovine incisors were randomly divided into two groups: Group A, irradiated by the 405-nm diode laser at 200 mW; Group B, irradiated by the 405-nm diode laser at 400 mW. The bleaching agent with titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide was applied to bovine enamel and irradiated for 1 min. The specimens were then washed and dried, and the same procedure was repeated nine more times. After irradiation, we assessed the effects of bleaching on the enamel by measuring the color of the specimens with a spectrophotometer and examining the enamel surfaces with a scanning electron microscope. L* rose to a high score, reaching a significantly higher post-treatment level in comparison to pretreatment. In a comparison of the color difference (Δ E) between Group A and Group B, the specimens in Group B showed significantly higher values after 10 min of irradiation for the post-treatment. No remarkable differences in the enamel surface morphology were found between the unbleached and bleached enamel. The use of a 405-nm diode laser in combination with a bleaching agent of titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide may be an effective method for bleaching teeth without the risk of tooth damage.

  3. Heteroepitaxial growth of 3-5 semiconductor compounds by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition for device applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collis, Ward J.; Abul-Fadl, Ali

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design, install and operate a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system which is to be used for the epitaxial growth of 3-5 semiconductor binary compounds, and ternary and quaternary alloys. The long-term goal is to utilize this vapor phase deposition in conjunction with existing current controlled liquid phase epitaxy facilities to perform hybrid growth sequences for fabricating integrated optoelectronic devices.

  4. Early Archean (3.3-billion to 3.5-billion-year-old) microfossils from Warrawoona Group, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schopf, J W; Packer, B M

    1987-07-01

    Cellularly preserved filamentous and colonial fossil microorganisms have been discovered in bedded carbonaceous cherts from the Early Archean Apex Basalt and Towers Formation of northwestern Western Australia. The cell types detected suggest that cyanobacteria, and therefore oxygen-producing photosynthesis, may have been extant as early as 3.3 billion to 3.5 billion years ago. These fossils are among the oldest now known from the geologic record; their discovery substantiates previous reports of Early Archean microfossils in Warrawoona Group strata.

  5. Tuning the formations of metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate frameworks via the assistance of amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Xiao-Ping; Lian, Ting-Ting; Chen, Shu-Mei; Zhang, Jian

    2015-03-15

    Seven new metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate coordination polymers have been synthesized by modification of auxiliary components during the assembly reactions. Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by XRD and TGA. Interestingly, they show fascinating topological structures. Compounds 1 and 2 possess the undulating layer structure with 3-connected hcb network and (3,6)-connected kgd network. Compound 3 possesses three-dimensional (3D) pillared-layer structure with 3-connected 2-fold interpenetrating srs net. Compound 4 also has the 3D 2-fold interpenetrating pillared-layer structure; however, it has (3,5)-connected hms topology because the Cd(II) center is 5-connected. Compound 5 possess 3D structure through hydrogen bonding interactions between ladder-like layers. Compounds 6 and 7 have the similar 3D frameworks with 4-connected umc net and (3,7)-connected (3.4.5)(3{sup 2}.4{sup 6}.5{sup 5}.6{sup 8}) topology, respectively. The photoluminescent properties of compounds 2–7 were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Presented here are seven new metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate coordination polymers with diverse structures from 2D layers to 3D open frameworks. The synthesis and structural diversity of these compounds are determined by the additional amino acids as unusual buffering agents. - Highlights: • Structural diversity of metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate frameworks. • Tuning structural topologies of MOFs via the assistance of amino acids. • Amino acids as unusual buffering agents for the synthesis of MOFs.

  6. Study on the Complex Equilibria of Molybdenum(VI) with 3,5-Dinitrocatechol and Ditetrazolium Salt.

    PubMed

    Stojnova, Kirila; Racheva, Petya; Divarova, Vidka; Bozhinova, Kristina; Lekova, Vanya

    2016-01-01

    The complex formed between an anionic chelate of Mo(VI)-3,5-dinitrocatechol (3,5-DNC) with the cation of 3,3'-(3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4'-biphenylene)bis(2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride) (Blue Tetrazolium Chloride, BTC) in the liquid-liquid extraction system Mo(VI)-3,5-DNC-BTC-H2O-CHCl3 was studied. The optimum conditions for the complex formation and extraction of the ion-associated complex were established by spectrophotometry. The molar ratio of the reagents was determined by independent methods. The validity of Beer's law was checked and some analytical characteristics were calculated. The association process in aqueous phase and the extraction equilibria were investigated and quantitatively characterized. The following key constants of the processes were calculated: association constant, distribution constant, extraction constant and recovery factor. Based on this, a reaction scheme, a general formula and a structure of the complex were suggested.

  7. The metabolism of 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene in the rat and in man

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, J. W.; Gage, J. C.; Jones, D. I.

    1968-01-01

    1. The major metabolites of 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) in the rat are 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHT-acid), both free (9% of the dose) and as a glucuronide (15%), and S-(3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-N-acetylcysteine. 2. The mercapturic acid does not appear to derive from the usually accepted enzyme mechanism, and may involve a non-enzymic reaction between BHT free radical and cysteine. 3. The ester glucuronide and mercapturic acid found in rat urine are also the major metabolites in rat bile and must be responsible for the enterohepatic circulation. 4. Free BHT-acid is the main component in rat faeces. 5. In man, BHT-acid, free and conjugated, is a minor component in urine, and the mercapturic acid is virtually absent. The bulk of the radioactivity is excreted as the ether-insoluble glucuronide of a metabolite in which the ring methyl group and one tert.-butyl methyl group are oxidized to carboxyl groups, and a methyl group on the other tert.-butyl group is also oxidized, probably to an aldehyde group. 6. These differences in metabolism by the rat and by man are sufficient to account for the difference in excretion by the two species. PMID:5637363

  8. The determination of molecular structure of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene from X-ray diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdowski, Henryk; Hałas, Tomasz; Błaszczak, Zdzisław

    2013-12-01

    The paper reports results of the X-ray diffraction structural studies of liquid 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene, at 358 K, with the use of MoKα radiation of the wavelength λ=0.71069 Å. The observable range of scattering angles was 6°≤2Θ≤120°. The function of reduced radiation intensity was analysed by the reduction method of Blum and Narten. Also for the first time the method of reduction proposed by Mozzi-Warren has been applied to verify the assumed model of the molecule studied and to separate the intra- from intermolecular interactions. Experimental distributions of X-ray scattered intensity were compared with theoretical results predicted by the proposed model of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene molecule. A good agreement between the theoretical im(S) and experimental functions i(S)=[I(S)/N-∑f}/{j2(S)]/g(S), was obtained on assuming the statistically most probable model of the molecule studied. Mean amplitudes of vibrations as a function of CC internuclear distances in 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene molecule were calculated. Analysis of intramolecular interactions between pairs of atoms has been made, taking into account the values of the temperature factors exp [-(/2)S]. The structural data obtained by X-ray analysis for liquid were discussed. Conclusions concerning the most correct interpretation of experimental data are pointed out.

  9. Enrichment of hexachlorobenzene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene transforming bacteria from sediments in Germany and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duan, Tran Hoa; Adrian, Lorenz

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial cultures were enriched from sediments in Germany and Vietnam reductively dechlorinating hexachlorobenzene and the highly persistent 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene to monochlorobenzene. The main products of the reductive dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene were monochlorobenzene and dichlorobenzenes (1,2-; 1,3- and 1,4-dichlorobenzene) while no trichlorobenzenes accumulated. For the reductive dechlorination of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene with the mixed culture from Vietnam sediment, 1,3- dichlorobenzene and monochlorobenzene were produced as intermediate and final end-product, respectively. The pattern of dechlorination did not change when the cultures were repeatedly exposed to oxygen over seven transfers demonstrating oxygen tolerance of the dechlorinating bacteria. However, reductive dechlorination of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene was inhibited by vancomycin at a concentration of 5 mg L(-1). Vancomycin delayed reductive dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene in mixed cultures by about 6 months. When repeatedly applied, vancomycin completely abolished the ability of the mixed culture to transform hexachlorobenzene. Sensitivity to vancomycin and insensitivity to brief exposure of oxygen indicates that the dechlorinating bacteria in the mixed cultures did not belong to the genus Dehalococcoides.

  10. Searching for the 3.5 keV Line in the Stacked Suzaku Observations of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulbul, Esra; Markevitch, Maxim; Foster, Adam; Miller, Eric; Bautz, Mark; Loewenstein, Mike; Randall, Scott W.; Smith, Randall K.

    2016-11-01

    We perform a detailed study of the stacked Suzaku observations of 47 galaxy clusters, spanning a redshift range of 0.01–0.45, to search for the unidentified 3.5 keV line. This sample provides an independent test for the previously detected line. We detect a 2σ -significant spectral feature at 3.5 keV in the spectrum of the full sample. When the sample is divided into two subsamples (cool-core and non-cool core clusters), the cool-core subsample shows no statistically significant positive residuals at the line energy. A very weak (∼ 2σ confidence) spectral feature at 3.5 keV is permitted by the data from the non-cool-core clusters sample. The upper limit on a neutrino decay mixing angle of {\\sin }2(2θ )=6.1× {10}-11 from the full Suzaku sample is consistent with the previous detections in the stacked XMM-Newton sample of galaxy clusters (which had a higher statistical sensitivity to faint lines), M31, and Galactic center, at a 90% confidence level. However, the constraint from the present sample, which does not include the Perseus cluster, is in tension with previously reported line flux observed in the core of the Perseus cluster with XMM-Newton and Suzaku.

  11. sym-Trisubstituted 1,3,5-Triazine Derivatives as Promising Organic Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel in Acidic Solution.

    PubMed

    El-Faham, Ayman; Dahlous, Kholood A; Al Othman, Zeid A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Mahdy, Gamal A

    2016-03-31

    Triazine derivatives, namely, 2,4,6-tris(quinolin-8-yloxy)-1,3,5-triazine (T3Q), N²,N⁴,N⁶-tris(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (T3AMPy) and 2,2',2''-[(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(azanediyl)] tris(ethan-1-ol) (T3EA) were synthesized and their inhibition of steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion protection of the prepared compounds increased with increasing concentration and reached up to 98% at 250 ppm. The adsorption of T3Q, T3AMPy, and T3EA on the steel surface was in accordance with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The electrochemical results revealed that T3Q, T3AMPy and T3EA act as excellent organic inhibitors and can labeled as mixed type inhibitors. The efficiencies of the tested compounds were affected by the nature of the side chain present in the triazine ring, where T3EA gave the least inhibition while T3Q and T3AMPy gave higher and almost the same inhibition effects. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from the different electrochemical techniques were in good agreement.

  12. THE X-RAY LINE FEATURE AT 3.5 KeV IN GALAXY CLUSTER SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Sylwester, B.; Sylwester, J. E-mail: bs@cbk.pan.wroc.pl

    2015-08-10

    Recent work by Bulbul et al. and Boyarsky et al. has suggested that a line feature at ∼3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxy clusters and individual galaxies seen with XMM-Newton is due to the decay of sterile neutrinos, a dark matter candidate. This identification has been criticized by Jeltema and Profumo on the grounds that model spectra suggest that atomic transitions in helium-like potassium (K xviii) and chlorine (Cl xvi) are more likely to be the emitters. Here it is pointed out that the K xviii lines have been observed in numerous solar flare spectra at high spectral resolution with the RESIK crystal spectrometer and also appear in Chandra HETG spectra of the coronally active star σ Gem. In addition, the solar flare spectra at least indicate a mean coronal potassium abundance, which is a factor between 9 and 11 higher than the solar photospheric abundance. This fact, together with the low statistical quality of the XMM-Newton spectra, completely account for the ∼3.5 keV feature and there is therefore no need to invoke a sterile neutrino interpretation of the observed line feature at ∼3.5 keV.

  13. Rapid structural changes and acidification of guard cell vacuoles during stomatal closure require phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Bak, Gwangbae; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yuree; Kato, Mariko; Segami, Shoji; Sze, Heven; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Lee, Youngsook

    2013-06-01

    Rapid stomatal closure is essential for water conservation in plants and is thus critical for survival under water deficiency. To close stomata rapidly, guard cells reduce their volume by converting a large central vacuole into a highly convoluted structure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this change are poorly understood. In this study, we used pH-indicator dyes to demonstrate that vacuolar convolution is accompanied by acidification of the vacuole in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells during abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. Vacuolar acidification is necessary for the rapid stomatal closure induced by ABA, since a double mutant of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase vha-a2 vha-a3 and vacuolar H(+)-PPase mutant vhp1 showed delayed stomatal closure. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the critical role of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] in changes in pH and morphology of the vacuole. Single and double Arabidopsis thaliana null mutants of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinases (PI3P5Ks) exhibited slow stomatal closure upon ABA treatment compared with the wild type. Moreover, an inhibitor of PI3P5K reduced vacuolar acidification and convolution and delayed stomatal closure in response to ABA. Taken together, these results suggest that rapid ABA-induced stomatal closure requires PtdIns(3,5)P2, which is essential for vacuolar acidification and convolution. PMID:23757398

  14. sym-Trisubstituted 1,3,5-Triazine Derivatives as Promising Organic Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel in Acidic Solution.

    PubMed

    El-Faham, Ayman; Dahlous, Kholood A; Al Othman, Zeid A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Mahdy, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Triazine derivatives, namely, 2,4,6-tris(quinolin-8-yloxy)-1,3,5-triazine (T3Q), N²,N⁴,N⁶-tris(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (T3AMPy) and 2,2',2''-[(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(azanediyl)] tris(ethan-1-ol) (T3EA) were synthesized and their inhibition of steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion protection of the prepared compounds increased with increasing concentration and reached up to 98% at 250 ppm. The adsorption of T3Q, T3AMPy, and T3EA on the steel surface was in accordance with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The electrochemical results revealed that T3Q, T3AMPy and T3EA act as excellent organic inhibitors and can labeled as mixed type inhibitors. The efficiencies of the tested compounds were affected by the nature of the side chain present in the triazine ring, where T3EA gave the least inhibition while T3Q and T3AMPy gave higher and almost the same inhibition effects. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from the different electrochemical techniques were in good agreement. PMID:27043517

  15. Decaying vector dark matter as an explanation for the 3.5 keV line from galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, Yasaman; Akbarieh, Amin Rezaei E-mail: am_rezaei@physics.sharif.ir

    2014-11-01

    We present a Vector Dark Matter (VDM) model that explains the 3.5 keV line recently observed in the XMM-Newton observatory data from galaxy clusters. In this model, dark matter is composed of two vector bosons, V and V', which couple to the photon through an effective generalized Chern-Simons coupling, g{sub V}. V' is slightly heavier than V with a mass splitting m{sub V'} – m{sub V} ≅ 3.5 keV. The decay of V' to V and a photon gives rise to the 3.5 keV line. The production of V and V' takes place in the early universe within the freeze-in framework through the effective g{sub V} coupling when m{sub V'} < T < Λ, Λ being the cut-off above which the effective g{sub V} coupling is not valid. We introduce a high energy model that gives rise to the g{sub V} coupling at low energies. To do this, V and V' are promoted to gauge bosons of spontaneously broken new U(1){sub V} and U(1){sub V'} gauge symmetries, respectively. The high energy sector includes milli-charged chiral fermions that lead to the g{sub V} coupling at low energy via triangle diagrams.

  16. Rapid structural changes and acidification of guard cell vacuoles during stomatal closure require phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Bak, Gwangbae; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yuree; Kato, Mariko; Segami, Shoji; Sze, Heven; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Lee, Youngsook

    2013-06-01

    Rapid stomatal closure is essential for water conservation in plants and is thus critical for survival under water deficiency. To close stomata rapidly, guard cells reduce their volume by converting a large central vacuole into a highly convoluted structure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this change are poorly understood. In this study, we used pH-indicator dyes to demonstrate that vacuolar convolution is accompanied by acidification of the vacuole in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells during abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. Vacuolar acidification is necessary for the rapid stomatal closure induced by ABA, since a double mutant of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase vha-a2 vha-a3 and vacuolar H(+)-PPase mutant vhp1 showed delayed stomatal closure. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the critical role of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] in changes in pH and morphology of the vacuole. Single and double Arabidopsis thaliana null mutants of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinases (PI3P5Ks) exhibited slow stomatal closure upon ABA treatment compared with the wild type. Moreover, an inhibitor of PI3P5K reduced vacuolar acidification and convolution and delayed stomatal closure in response to ABA. Taken together, these results suggest that rapid ABA-induced stomatal closure requires PtdIns(3,5)P2, which is essential for vacuolar acidification and convolution.

  17. 3,5-di-iodothyronine stimulates tilapia growth through an alternate isoform of thyroid hormone receptor β1.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Ramírez, Pamela; Luna, Maricela; Valverde-R, Carlos; Orozco, Aurea

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies in our laboratory have shown that in some teleosts, 3,5-di-iodothyronine (T2 or 3,5-T2) is as bioactive as 3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine (T3) and that its effects are in part mediated by a TRβ1 (THRB) isoform that contains a 9-amino acid insert in its ligand-binding domain (long TRβ1 (L-TRβ1)), whereas T3 binds preferentially to a short TRβ1 (S-TRβ1) isoform that lacks this insert. To further understand the functional relevance of T2 bioactivity and its mechanism of action, we used in vivo and ex vivo (organotypic liver cultures) approaches and analyzed whether T3 and T2 differentially regulate the S-TRβ1 and L-TRβ1s during a physiological demand such as growth. In vivo, T3 and T2 treatment induced body weight gain in tilapia. The expression of L-TRβ1 and S-TRβ1 was specifically regulated by T2 and T3 respectively both in vivo and ex vivo. The TR antagonist 1-850 effectively blocked thyroid hormone-dependent gene expression; however, T3 or T2 reversed 1-850 effects only on S-TRβ1 or L-TRβ1 expression, respectively. Together, our results support the notion that both T3 and T2 participate in the growth process; however, their effects are mediated by different, specific TRβ1 isoforms.

  18. Study on the Complex Equilibria of Molybdenum(VI) with 3,5-Dinitrocatechol and Ditetrazolium Salt.

    PubMed

    Stojnova, Kirila; Racheva, Petya; Divarova, Vidka; Bozhinova, Kristina; Lekova, Vanya

    2016-01-01

    The complex formed between an anionic chelate of Mo(VI)-3,5-dinitrocatechol (3,5-DNC) with the cation of 3,3'-(3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4'-biphenylene)bis(2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride) (Blue Tetrazolium Chloride, BTC) in the liquid-liquid extraction system Mo(VI)-3,5-DNC-BTC-H2O-CHCl3 was studied. The optimum conditions for the complex formation and extraction of the ion-associated complex were established by spectrophotometry. The molar ratio of the reagents was determined by independent methods. The validity of Beer's law was checked and some analytical characteristics were calculated. The association process in aqueous phase and the extraction equilibria were investigated and quantitatively characterized. The following key constants of the processes were calculated: association constant, distribution constant, extraction constant and recovery factor. Based on this, a reaction scheme, a general formula and a structure of the complex were suggested. PMID:27640393

  19. REMIT3. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Cale, R.; Clark, T.; Dixson, P.; Hagemeyer; Hardwick, C.; Pippen, H. )

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Part 20 and in agreement with the guidance contained in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. REMIT is a personal computer (PC)-based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Form 5s or Form 4s. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Form 5s and 4s in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files.

  20. Accelerators (3/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  1. Accelerators (3/5)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-07

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  2. Effect of fructose and 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T(2)) on lipid accumulation and insulin signalling in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-like rat primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gnocchi, D; Massimi, M; Alisi, A; Incerpi, S; Bruscalupi, G

    2014-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is nowadays considered as one of the most serious pathological conditions affecting the liver. NAFLD is supposed to be initiated by the accumulation of lipids in the liver, which finally results in an impaired hepatic insulin signalling. Many researchers have recently focused their attention on the role played by fructose as a NAFLD-triggering agent, because of the increased diffusion of fructose-sweetened food. However, epidemiological data do not permit to evaluate the role of fructose per se, because these foods are often associated with elevated energy intake and unhealthy lifestyle. In the present work, we analysed the effects of fructose on the accumulation of lipids and insulin signalling in rat primary hepatocytes. Moreover, we investigated the effect of the thyroid hormone metabolite, devoid of thyrotoxic effects, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) over the same parameters. To evaluate the effect on insulin signalling we took into consideration three key proteins, such as p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and Akt. Our results show that fructose in vitro, in the range of physiological concentrations, was not able to stimulate either lipid accumulation or to impair insulin signalling in our NAFLD-like rat primary hepatocytes. Our data thus support the idea that fructose per se may exert detrimental effects mainly triggering systemic effects, rather than directly affecting isolated hepatocytes. Moreover, we demonstrated that 3,5-T2, at physiological levels, reduces lipid content and triggers phosphorylation of Akt in an insulin receptor-independent manner, revealing new interesting properties as a biologically active molecule.

  3. Generation of Trityl Radicals by Nucleophilic Quenching of Tris(2,3,5,6-tetrathiaaryl)methyl Cations and Practical and Convenient Large-Scale Synthesis of Persistent Tris(4-carboxy-2,3,5,6-tetrathiaaryl)methyl Radical

    PubMed Central

    Rogozhnikova, Olga Yu.; Vasiliev, Vladimir G.; Troitskaya, Tatiana I.; Trukhin, Dmitry V.; Mikhalina, Tatiana V.; Halpern, Howard J.; Tormyshev, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Tris(2,3,5,6-tetrathiaaryl)methyl cations, which were generated from the corresponding triarylmethanols in the presence of strong acids, underwent reaction with nucleophiles to give trityl radicals, as the product of a one-electron reduction of the carbocation. Depending on the nature of the nucleophile, the only byproducts were either diamagnetic quinone methides or asymmetrical monosubstituted trityl radicals. Herein, we report a protocol for the large-scale synthesis of the Finland trityl, which has the advantage of high overall yield and reproducibility. PMID:24772001

  4. Soil properties affect the toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to the enchytraeid worm Enchytraeus crypticus.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Kolakowski, Jan E; Lanno, Roman

    2013-11-01

    The authors investigated individual toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to the potworm Enchytraeus crypticus using the enchytraeid reproduction test. Studies were designed to generate ecotoxicological benchmarks that can be used for developing ecological soil-screening levels for ecological risk assessments of contaminated soils and to identify and characterize the predominant soil physicochemical parameters that can affect the toxicities of TNT and RDX to E. crypticus. Soils, which had a wide range of physicochemical parameters, included Teller sandy loam, Sassafras sandy loam, Richfield clay loam, Kirkland clay loam, and Webster clay loam. Analyses of quantitative relationships between the toxicological benchmarks for TNT and soil property measurements identified soil organic matter content as the dominant property mitigating TNT toxicity for juvenile production by E. crypticus in freshly amended soil. Both the clay and organic matter contents of the soil modulated reproduction toxicity of TNT that was weathered and aged in soil for 3 mo. Toxicity of RDX for E. crypticus was greater in the coarse-textured sandy loam soils compared with the fine-textured clay loam soils. The present studies revealed alterations in toxicity to E. crypticus after weathering and aging TNT in soil, and these alterations were soil- and endpoint-specific.

  5. Ab initio studies of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine/1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone cocrystal under high pressure using dispersion corrected density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Bang-Ming; Lin, He; Zhu, Shun-Guan

    2014-04-14

    A detailed study of structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)/1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) cocrystal under the hydrostatic pressure of 0–100 GPa was performed by using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) method. The calculated crystal structure is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data at the ambient pressure. Based on the analysis of lattice constants, bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles under compression, it is found that HMX molecules in HMX/DMI cocrystal are seriously distorted. In addition, as the pressure increases, the band gap decreases gradually, which suggests that HMX/DMI cocrystal is becoming more metallic. Some important intermolecular interactions between HMX and DMI are also observed in the density of states spectrum. Finally, its thermodynamic properties were characterized, and the results show that HMX/DMI cocrystal is more easily formed in the low pressure.

  6. Effect of adsorption to elemental iron on the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in solution.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seok-Young; Cha, Daniel K; Kim, Byung J; Chiu, Peic

    2002-07-01

    The effect of adsorption to elemental iron on the reductive transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (royal demolition explosive [RDX]) in aqueous solution was studied with scrap iron and high-purity iron. In batch experiments with the same total iron surface area and a mixing rate of 100 rpm, TNT and RDX were removed from the solution within 30 min. With high-purity iron, adsorbed TNT was reduced to 2,4,6-triaminotoluene (TAT) rapidly, with little accumulation of intermediates at the surface. With scrap iron, the extent of adsorption of TNT and its daughter products was more significant and reduction of these adsorbed molecules to TAT was slower. Distribution of the intermediates indicated that the reaction with scrap iron occurred primarily through reduction of the ortho nitro group. Kinetic analysis suggests that mass transfer or adsorption of TNT controlled the overall rate of TNT reduction to TAT with pure iron, whereas with scrap iron, the rate of TAT formation was probably limited by other processes. Compared to TNT, transformation of adsorbed RDX was more rapid and less affected by iron type. The RDX was reduced to an unidentified, water-soluble intermediate and NH4+, which accounted for approximately 50% of the RDX nitrogen. No total organic carbon reduction was observed before and after RDX transformation with scrap iron.

  7. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of a solid dispersion of (3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methoxy] benzoate (VA-T) and polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sa-Li; Hou, Peng; Li, Bin; Fu, Jing; Yin, Xing-Bin; Dang, Xiao-Fang; Yang, Chun-Jing; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Hui; Lei, Hai-Min; Ni, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Ischemic brain injury is a major disease which threatens human health and safety. (3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methoxy] benzoate (VA-T), a newly discovered lead compound, is effective for the treatment of ischemic brain injury and its sequelae. But the poor solubility of VA-T leads to poor dissolution and limited clinical application. In order to improve the dissolution of VA-T, the pharmaceutical technology of solid dispersions was used in the present study. VA-T/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solid dispersion was prepared by the solvent method. The dissolution studies were carried out and solid state characterization was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dissolution rate of VA-T was significantly improved by solid dispersion compared to that of the pure drug and physical mixture. The results of DSC and XRD indicated that the VA-T solid dispersion was amorphous. The IR spectra showed the possible interaction between VA-T and PVP was the formulation of hydrogen bonding. The SEM analysis demonstrated that there was no VA-T crystal observed in the solid dispersions. The ideal drug-to-PVP ratio was 1:5. In conclusion, the solid dispersion technique can be successfully used for the improvement of the dissolution profile of VA-T.

  8. Proteomic approaches for the study of tissue specific effects of 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine and 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine in conditions of altered energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Silvestri, Elena; Coppola, Maria; Cioffi, Federica; Goglia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In vertebrates and, specifically, in mammals, energy homeostasis is achieved by the integration of metabolic and neuroendocrine signals linked to one another in an intricate network hierarchically responding to the tight modulating action of hormones among which thyroid hormones (THs) play a central role. At the cellular level, 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) acts mainly by binding to specific nuclear receptors (TRs) but actually it is becoming more and more evident that some T3- actions are independent of TRs and that other iodothyronines, such as 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), affect energy metabolism and adiposity. In the postgenomic era, clinical and basic biological researches are increasingly benefiting from the recently developed new omics approaches including, among the others, proteomics. Considering the recognized value of proteins as excellent targets in physiology, the functional and simultaneous analysis of the expression level and the cellular localization of multiple proteins can actually be considered fundamental in the understanding of complex mechanisms such as those involved in thyroid control of metabolism. Here, we will discuss new leads (i.e., target proteins and metabolic pathways) emerging in applying proteomics to the actions of T3 and T2 in conditions of altered energy metabolism in animal tissues having a central role in the control of energy balance. PMID:25566089

  9. Small-angle X-ray analysis of the effect of grain size on the thermal damage of octahydro-1, 3, 5, 7-tetranitro-1, 3, 5, 7 tetrazocine-based plastic-bounded expolsives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Guan-Yun; Tian, Qiang; Liu, Jia-Hui; Chen, Bo; Sun, Guang-Ai; Huang, Ming; Li, Xiu-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The microstructure evolution of plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) after thermal stimulus plays a key role in PBX performance. In this paper, the nanoscale pores of thermal-treated octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetrazocine (HMX)-based PBXs with different HMX particle sizes [approximately 40 (FHP) and 100 μm (LHP)] were measured using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). No obvious pore variations were found in the LHP samples heated at 160 °C for 6 h, whereas the amount of pores of FHP decreased when subjected to 160 °C for 6 h. At 180 °C, the average pore radii of FHP and LHP decreased from approximately 45 nm to 25 nm, and the total pore volume increased distinctively because of phase transformation. The LHP sample reached a high level of pore content after being held at 180 °C for 1 h, whereas FHP required 3 h. Both FHP and LHP had relatively high pore volumes when subjected to 200 °C for 1 and 3 h.

  10. The fate of di-(3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methane (Ionox 220) in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Wright, A. S.; Crowne, R. S.; Hathway, D. E.

    1966-01-01

    1. A large proportion of a single oral dose of [14C]Ionox 220 to rats is eliminated in 24 days: 89·3–97·4% of the label is excreted in the faeces (much of this is eliminated in the first 4 days after dosage), 1% in the urine and less than 0·1% in the expired gases; 4·06% of 14C is present in the carcass and viscera after removal of the gut, and most of this is in the fatty tissues. 2. About 87% of 14C in the faeces is due to unchanged antioxidant, 5% to the quinone methide, 5% to the free acid and 3% to an unidentified polar constituent. Three-fifths of 14C in the urine is due to 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid and the remainder to the ester glucuronide. In three individual animals, one-half of 14C in the bile is due to the free acid, one-quarter to the ester glucuronide and the remainder to unchanged antioxidant, whereas in another all of 14C in the bile is due to Ionox 220. About 97% of 14C in the body fat is due to unchanged antioxidant and the remainder to the free acid. 3. Up to 20% of a single oral dose of Ionox 220 is absorbed in rats: 13–14% is metabolized. 3,5-Di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid accounts for just over 5% of a dose of Ionox 220, 3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoyl-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid for less than 0·4%, the quinone methide for just over 5% and an unidentified compound for less than 3%. 4. The physiological and biochemical implications of ingesting Ionox 220 are discussed. PMID:5965331

  11. Ultraviolet relaxation dynamics of aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline at 250 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, James O. F.; Saalbach, Lisa; Crane, Stuart W.; Paterson, Martin J.; Townsend, Dave

    2015-03-21

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the electronic relaxation dynamics of gas-phase aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline, and 3,5-dimethylaniline following ultraviolet excitation at 250 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio coupled-cluster calculations evaluating excited state energies and (in aniline) the evolution of a range of excited state physical properties as a function of N–H bond extension. Due to a lack of consistency between several earlier studies undertaken in aniline, the specific aim of this present work was to gain new insight into the previously proposed non-adiabatic coupling interaction between the two lowest lying singlet excited states S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) and S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}). The methyl-substituted systems N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline were included in order to obtain more detailed dynamical information about the key internal molecular coordinates that drive the S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗})/S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) coupling mechanism. Our findings suggest that in all three systems, both electronic states are directly populated during the initial excitation, with the S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) state then potentially decaying via either direct dissociation along the N–X stretching coordinate (X = H or CH{sub 3}) or internal conversion to the S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) state. In aniline and N, N-dimethylaniline, both pathways most likely compete in the depletion of S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) state population. However, in 3,5-dimethylaniline, only the direct dissociation mechanism appears to be active. This is rationalized in terms of changes in the relative rates of the two decay pathways upon methylation of the aromatic ring system.

  12. Fragrance material review on 1-(3,5,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(3,5,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(3,5,6-Trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(3,5,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients (submitted for publication)) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances.

  13. Drosophila TRPML Forms PI(3,5)P2-activated Cation Channels in Both Endolysosomes and Plasma Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xinghua; Huang, Yu; Lu, Yungang; Xiong, Jian; Wong, Ching-On; Yang, Pu; Xia, Jintang; Chen, De; Du, Guangwei; Venkatachalam, Kartik; Xia, Xuefeng; Zhu, Michael X.

    2014-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential mucolipin (TRPML) channels are implicated in endolysosomal trafficking, lysosomal Ca2+ and Fe2+ release, lysosomal biogenesis, and autophagy. Mutations in human TRPML1 cause the lysosome storage disease, mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV). Unlike vertebrates, which express three TRPML genes, TRPML1–3, the Drosophila genome encodes a single trpml gene. Although the trpml-deficient flies exhibit cellular defects similar to those in mammalian TRPML1 mutants, the biophysical properties of Drosophila TRPML channel remained uncharacterized. Here, we show that transgenic expression of human TRPML1 in the neurons of Drosophila trpml mutants partially suppressed the pupal lethality phenotype. When expressed in HEK293 cells, Drosophila TRPML was localized in both endolysosomes and plasma membrane and was activated by phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) applied to the cytoplasmic side in whole lysosomes and inside-out patches excised from plasma membrane. The PI(3,5)P2-evoked currents were blocked by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), but not other phosphoinositides. Using TRPML A487P, which mimics the varitint-waddler (Va) mutant of mouse TRPML3 with constitutive whole-cell currents, we show that TRPML is biphasically regulated by extracytosolic pH, with an optimal pH about 0.6 pH unit higher than that of human TRPML1. In addition to monovalent cations, TRPML exhibits high permeability to Ca2+, Mn2+, and Fe2+, but not Fe3+. The TRPML currents were inhibited by trivalent cations Fe3+, La3+, and Gd3+. These features resemble more closely to mammalian TRPML1 than TRPML2 and TRPML3, but with some obvious differences. Together, our data support the use of Drosophila for assessing functional significance of TRPML1 in cell physiology. PMID:24375408

  14. High band gap 2-6 and 3-5 tunneling junctions for silicon multijunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, Taher (Inventor); Kachare, Akaram H. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multijunction silicon solar cell of high efficiency is provided by providing a tunnel junction between the solar cell junctions to connect them in series. The tunnel junction is comprised of p+ and n+ layers of high band gap 3-5 or 2-6 semiconductor materials that match the lattice structure of silicon, such as GaP (band gap 2.24 eV) or ZnS (band gap 3.6 eV). Each of which has a perfect lattice match with silicon to avoid defects normally associated with lattice mismatch.

  15. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  16. Synthesis, scale-up, and characterization of 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105)

    SciTech Connect

    Pagoria, P. F.

    1998-04-27

    We have synthesized 4OOg of the new, insensitive, energetic heterocycle, 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-l-oxide (LLM-105) with 81% the energy of HMX and excellent thermal stability. The synthesis is a three step reaction sequence from the commercially available starting material, 2,6-dichloropyrazine, with an overall yield of 36%. In this paper we will describe the scale-up of the synthesis of LLM- 105 and report on performance and shock sensitivity experiments performed on this material.

  17. cis-trans photoisomerization of 1,3,5,7-octatetraene in n-hexane at 4.2 K

    PubMed Central

    Granville, Mark F.; Holtom, Gary R.; Kohler, Bryan E.

    1980-01-01

    Photoisomerization of the linear polyene 1,3,5,7-octatetraene has been observed in an n-hexane matrix maintained at the boiling point of helium. To a good approximation, only the trans,trans and cis,trans isomers participate in the photochemistry. These compounds have been unambiguously identified by comparing the observed high-resolution fluorescence spectra to those of chromatographically purified reference compounds. Although the quantum yield of this process is probably low, its microscopic rate seems to compete favorably with vibrational deactivation. PMID:16592751

  18. Functional binding of a vertebrate hormone, L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), on insect follicle cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Davari, E D; Sevala, V; Davey, K G

    1999-10-01

    A vertebrate hormone, L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), induces volume reduction in the follicle cells of Locusta migratoria and Rhodnius prolixus. The effect of T3 on locust follicle cells is inhibited by ouabain and by antibodies raised against a membrane binding protein for juvenile hormone (JH). [125I]-T3 binds to membrane preparations of vitellogenic follicles in a specific and saturable fashion, with a KD in the low nanomolar range. T3 and JH III exhibited equivalent abilities to compete for the T3 binding site. These findings strongly suggest that T3 and JH act via the same receptor in follicle cells. PMID:10528413

  19. Cryptands with 1,3,5-tris(1',3'-dioxan-2'-yl)-benzene units: synthesis and structural investigations.

    PubMed

    Cîrcu, Monica; Soran, Albert; Hădade, Niculina Daniela; Rednic, Monica; Terec, Anamaria; Grosu, Ion

    2013-09-01

    Various cryptands based on 1,3-dioxane decorated 1,3,5-trisubstituted-benzene building blocks, connected by different chains (exhibiting ester, ether, or triazol groups) to several units with C3 symmetry, are reported. The structure of the compounds was investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction, NMR, and MS. The role of the 1,3-dioxane units was targeted to ensure the preorganization of the substrate for the macrocyclization reactions on one side, and for easier NMR assignment of the structure of the cryptands on the other side. PMID:23924384

  20. Synthesis and Properties of a New Explosive, 4-Amino-3,5-Dinitro-lH-Pyrazole (LLM-116)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R D; Lee, G S; Pagoria, P F; Mitchell, A R; Gilardi, R

    2001-05-22

    A novel synthesis of the title compound was achieved by direct amination using Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution (VNS) methodology. Reaction of 1,1,1-trimethylhydrazinium iodide with 3,5-dinitropyrazole in DMSO produces 4-amino-3,s-dinitro-1H-pyrazole as a 1:1 crystal solvate with DMSO. Recrystallization from water yields the monohydrated crystal. Recrystallization of the monohydrate from butyl acetate yields the compound in pure form. Crystallographic data and results of small-scale safety tests are reported. These data indicate that LLM-116 is a promising candidate as an insensitive high explosive.

  1. Microstructural examination of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-09-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for four heats of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}200 and 300 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment or composition.

  2. Synthesis of Substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Mahmoud; Auping, Judith V.; Meador, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A series of substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(l,2-b:5,4-b')difurans 1 was synthesized. This synthesis is based upon the photocyclization of 2,5-dibenzoylresorcinol dibenzyl ethers to the corresponding tetrahydrobenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans. Treatment of the photoproducts with methanesulfonyl chloride in pyridine afforded 1 in overall yields ranging from 30-72%. A number of these compounds have high fluorescence quantum yields (of phi(sub f) = 0.76-0.90), and their fluorescence spectra exhibit large solvatochromic shifts. These compounds may be suitable for use as fluorescent probes.

  3. L-band (3.5 μm) IR-excess in massive star formation. I. 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maercker, M.; Burton, M. G.

    2005-08-01

    L-band data of 30 Doradus at 3.5 μm taken with SPIREX (South Pole Infrared Explorer) is presented. The photometry was combined with 2MASS JHK data at 1.25-2.2 μm. Colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams are constructed and used to determine the sources with infrared excess. These are interpreted as circumstellar disks, and enable the fraction of sources with disks (the cluster disk fraction or CDF) to be determined. We find that ~42% of the sources detected at L-band in 30 Doradus have an IR-excess.

  4. Some Topological Cycle Indices for the Full Non-Rigid Group 1, 3, 5-triamino-2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaforiadl, N.; Moghani, A.

    2010-11-01

    The dominant subgroups of an arbitrary finite group has been proposed by S. Fujita who applied his results to enumerate isomers of molecules. The full non-rigid group of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitronebzene is isomorphism to the wreath product of the symmetric groups S2 and S3 i.e. S2 wr S3 introduced by K. Balasubramanian (see Chem. Phy. Letter 398, 15-21, 2004), wr stands wreath product. Let Gi and Gj be any subgroups of an arbitrary finite group G, a subduced representation denoted by G(/Gi)↓Gj as a subgroup of the coset representation G(/Gi) that contains only the elements associated with the elements of Gj. A topological cycle index introduced by Fujita is called unit subduced cycle index denoted by USCI is defined Z(G(/Gi)↘Gj,sd) = Πg∈ΩSdg(ij) where Ω is a transversal for the double coset decompositions concerning Gi and Gj for i,j = 1,2,…|Ω| and sdg(ij) = |Gi|/|g-1Gig∩Gj. In this paper at first, we find the markaracter table for the matured full non-rigid group 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene and then, via GAP program the topological indices i.e. USCIs for the above molecule are computed.

  5. Crystal growth, vibrational, optical, thermal and theoretical studies of a nonlinear optical material: 2-Methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, K.; Guru Prasad, L.; Mathammal, R.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystals of 2-methyl 3,5-dinitro benzoic acid with reasonable size have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth method using ethanol as solvent. Quantum chemical calculation of 2-methyl 3,5-Dinitro benzoic acid was carried out by using DFT/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) method. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded and indexed. Both the experimental and theoretical vibrational spectrum validates the presence of functional groups. Polarizability, first order hyperpolarizability and the electric dipole moment values have been computed theoretically. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift of the molecule was calculated and compared with experimental results. TG/DSC analysis has been employed to understand the thermal and physio-chemical stability of the title compound. Frequency conversion property of the crystal was tested by Kurtz and Perry method. Optical absorption behavior of the grown crystal was examined by recording the optical spectrum and band gap energy was also estimated. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energy shows the charge transfer nature of the molecule.

  6. Comparative QSAR Analysis of 3,5-bis (Arylidene)-4-Piperidone Derivatives: the Development of Predictive Cytotoxicity Models

    PubMed Central

    Edraki, Najmeh; Das, Umashankar; Hemateenejad, Bahram; Dimmock, Jonathan R.; Miri, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    1-[4-(2-Alkylaminoethoxy) phenylcarbonyl]-3,5-bis(arylidene)-4-piperidones are a novel class of potent cytotoxic agents. These compounds demonstrate low micromolar to submicromolar IC50 values against human Molt 4/C8 and CEM T-lymphocytes and murine leukemia L1210 cells. In this study, a comparative QSAR investigation was performed on a series of 3,5-bis (arylidene)-4-piperidones using different chemometric tools to develop the best predictive models for further development of analogs with improved cytotoxicity. All the QSAR models were validated by internal validation tests. The QSAR models obtained by GA-PLS method were considered the best as compared to MLR method. The best QSAR model obtained by GA-PLS analysis on L1210, CEM and Molt4/C8 demonstrated good predictively with R2pred values ranging from 0.94-0.80. Molecular density, topological (X2A) and geometrical indices of the molecules were found to be the most important factors for determining cytotoxic properties. PMID:27642313

  7. Face Gender Influences the Looking Preference for Smiling Expressions in 3.5-Month-Old Human Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bayet, Laurie; Quinn, Paul C.; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang; Gentaz, Édouard; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Young infants are typically thought to prefer looking at smiling expressions. Although some accounts suggest that the preference is automatic and universal, we hypothesized that it is not rigid and may be influenced by other face dimensions, most notably the face’s gender. Infants are sensitive to the gender of faces; for example, 3-month-olds raised by female caregivers typically prefer female over male faces. We presented neutral versus smiling pairs of faces from the same female or male individuals to 3.5-month-old infants (n = 25), controlling for low-level cues. Infants looked longer to the smiling face when faces were female but longer to the neutral face when faces were male, i.e., there was an effect of face gender on the looking preference for smiling. The results indicate that a preference for smiling in 3.5-month-olds is limited to female faces, possibly reflective of differential experience with male and female faces. PMID:26068460

  8. Unusual pseudosubstrate specificity of a novel 3,5-dimethoxyphenol O-methyltransferase cloned from Ruta graveolens L.

    PubMed

    Burga, Laura; Wellmann, Frank; Lukacin, Richard; Witte, Simone; Schwab, Wilfried; Schröder, Joachim; Matern, Ulrich

    2005-08-01

    A cDNA was cloned from Ruta graveolens cells encoding a novel O-methyltransferase (OMT) with high similarity to orcinol or chavicol/eugenol OMTs, but containing a serine-rich N-terminus and a 13 amino acid insertion between motifs IV and V. Expression in Escherichia coli revealed S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent OMT activity with methoxylated phenols only with an apparent Km of 20.4 for the prime substrate 3,5-dimethoxyphenol. The enzyme forms a homodimer of 84 kDa, and the activity was insignificantly affected by 2.0 mM Ca2+ or Mg2+, whereas Fe2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ or Hg2+ were inhibitory (78-100%). Dithiothreitol (DTT) suppressed the OMT activity. This effect was examined further, and, in the presence of Zn2+ as a potential thiol methyltransferase (TMT) cofactor, the recombinant OMT methylated DTT to DTT-monomethylthioether. Sets of kinetic OMT experiments with 3,5-dimethoxyphenol at various Zn2+/DTT concentrations revealed the competitive binding of DTT with an apparent Ki of 52.0 microM. Thus, the OMT exhibited TMT activity with almost equivalent affinity to the thiol pseudosubstrate which is structurally unrelated to methoxyphenols.

  9. Design and Realization of a Planar Ultrawideband Antenna with Notch Band at 3.5 GHz

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A small antenna with single notch band at 3.5 GHz is designed for ultrawideband (UWB) communication applications. The fabricated antenna comprises a radiating monopole element and a perfectly conducting ground plane with a wide slot. To achieve a notch band at 3.5 GHz, a parasitic element has been inserted in the same plane of the substrate along with the radiating patch. Experimental results shows that, by properly adjusting the position of the parasitic element, the designed antenna can achieve an ultrawide operating band of 3.04 to 11 GHz with a notched band operating at 3.31–3.84 GHz. Moreover, the proposed antenna achieved a good gain except at the notched band and exhibits symmetric radiation patterns throughout the operating band. The prototype of the proposed antenna possesses a very compact size and uses simple structures to attain the stop band characteristic with an aim to lessen the interference between UWB and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) band. PMID:25133245

  10. Face Gender Influences the Looking Preference for Smiling Expressions in 3.5-Month-Old Human Infants.

    PubMed

    Bayet, Laurie; Quinn, Paul C; Tanaka, James W; Lee, Kang; Gentaz, Édouard; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Young infants are typically thought to prefer looking at smiling expressions. Although some accounts suggest that the preference is automatic and universal, we hypothesized that it is not rigid and may be influenced by other face dimensions, most notably the face's gender. Infants are sensitive to the gender of faces; for example, 3-month-olds raised by female caregivers typically prefer female over male faces. We presented neutral versus smiling pairs of faces from the same female or male individuals to 3.5-month-old infants (n = 25), controlling for low-level cues. Infants looked longer to the smiling face when faces were female but longer to the neutral face when faces were male, i.e., there was an effect of face gender on the looking preference for smiling. The results indicate that a preference for smiling in 3.5-month-olds is limited to female faces, possibly reflective of differential experience with male and female faces.

  11. Examining implicit metacognition in 3.5-year-old children: an eye-tracking and pupillometric study

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Markus; Proust, Joelle; Sodian, Beate

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined early signs of implicit metacognitive monitoring in 3.5-year-old children. During a learning phase children had to learn paired associates. In the test phase, children performed a recognition task and choose the correct associate for a given target among four possible answers. Subsequently, children's explicit confidence judgments (CJs) and their fixation time allocation at the confidence scale were assessed. Analyses showed that explicit CJs did not differ for remembered compared to non-remembered items. In contrast, children's fixation patterns on the confidence scale were affected by the correctness of their memory, as children looked longer to high confidence ratings when they correctly remembered the associated item. Moreover, analyses of pupil size revealed pupil dilations for correctly remembered, but not incorrectly remembered items. The results converge with recent behavioral findings that reported evidence for implicit metacognitive memory monitoring processes in 3.5-year-old children. The study suggests that implicit metacognitive abilities might precede the development of explicit metacognitive knowledge. PMID:23526709

  12. Construction of two novel indium phosphites with (3,6)- and (3,5)-connected frameworks: Synthesis, structure and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Li Huiduan; Zhang Lirong; Huo Qisheng; Liu Yunling

    2013-01-15

    Two novel anionic indium phosphites, formulated as [H{sub 3}O][In(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}] (1) and [C{sub 4}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 3}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})] (2), were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by using piperazine (PIP) as a structure-directing agent (SDA). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}mc (No. 186) and orthorhombic space group Cmcm (No. 63), respectively. Compound 1, constructed from InO{sub 6} octahedra and HPO{sub 3} pseudo-pyramids, exhibits a rare (3,6)-connected layer structure with kgd (Kagome dual) topology. Compound 2, on the other hand, features a 3D phosphite-oxalate hybrid structure with intersecting 8- and 12-MRs channels. From a topological perspective 2 can be regarded as a (3, 5)-connected binodal net with the Schlaefli symbol (4{sup 2}.6)(4{sup 2}.6{sup 5}.8{sup 3}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two novel indium phosphite and indium phosphite-oxalate hybrid compounds are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (3, 6)-connected layer structure with kgd topology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (3,5)-connected binodal net with the Schlaefli symbol (4{sup 2}.6)(4{sup 2}.6{sup 5}.8{sup 3}).

  13. Comparative QSAR Analysis of 3,5-bis (Arylidene)-4-Piperidone Derivatives: the Development of Predictive Cytotoxicity Models.

    PubMed

    Edraki, Najmeh; Das, Umashankar; Hemateenejad, Bahram; Dimmock, Jonathan R; Miri, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    1-[4-(2-Alkylaminoethoxy) phenylcarbonyl]-3,5-bis(arylidene)-4-piperidones are a novel class of potent cytotoxic agents. These compounds demonstrate low micromolar to submicromolar IC50 values against human Molt 4/C8 and CEM T-lymphocytes and murine leukemia L1210 cells. In this study, a comparative QSAR investigation was performed on a series of 3,5-bis (arylidene)-4-piperidones using different chemometric tools to develop the best predictive models for further development of analogs with improved cytotoxicity. All the QSAR models were validated by internal validation tests. The QSAR models obtained by GA-PLS method were considered the best as compared to MLR method. The best QSAR model obtained by GA-PLS analysis on L1210, CEM and Molt4/C8 demonstrated good predictively with R(2) pred values ranging from 0.94-0.80. Molecular density, topological (X2A) and geometrical indices of the molecules were found to be the most important factors for determining cytotoxic properties. PMID:27642313

  14. Accumulation of HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) in indigenous and agricultural plants grown in HMX-contaminated anti-tank firing-range soil.

    PubMed

    Groom, Carl A; Halasz, Annamaria; Paquet, Louise; Morris, Neil; Olivier, Lucie; Dubois, Charles; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    To investigate their potential for phytoremediation, selected agricultural and indigenous terrestrial plants were examined fortheir capacity to accumulate and degrade the explosive octahydro-1 ,3,5,7-tetra nitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). Plant tissue and soil extracts were analyzed for the presence of HMX and possible degradative metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array UV detection (HPLC-UV), micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode-array UV detection (MEKC-UV), and HPLC with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The pattern of HMX accumulation for alfalfa (Medicago sativa), bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), canola (Brassica rapa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and perennial ryegrass (Loliumperenne) grown in a controlled environment on contaminated soil from an anti-tank firing range was similar to that observed for plants (wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa), western wheat grass (Agropyron smithii), brome grass (Bromus sitchensis), koeleria (Koeleria gracilis), goldenrod (Solidago sp.), blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), anemone (Anemone sp.), common thistle (Circium vulgare), wax-berry (Symphoricarpos albus), western sage (Artemisia gnaphalodes), and Drummond's milk vetch (Astragalus drummondii)) collected from the range. No direct evidence of plant-mediated HMX (bio)chemical transformation was provided by the available analytical methods. Traces of mononitroso-HMX were found in contaminated soil extracts and were also observed in leaf extracts. The dominant mechanism for HMX translocation and accumulation in foliar tissue was concluded to be aqueous transpirational flux and evaporation. The accumulation of HMX in the leaves of most of the selected species to levels significantly above soil concentration is relevant to the assessment of both phytoremediation potential and environmental risks.

  15. Quantitative analysis of damage in an octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazonic-based composite explosive subjected to a linear thermal gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Paul D.; Mang, Joseph T.; Asay, Blaine W.

    2005-05-01

    The microstructure within a slowly heated, consolidated explosive will be influenced by both physical changes and chemical reactions prior to thermal ignition. Thermal expansion, exothermic decomposition, endothermic phase change, and increased binder viscosity play significant roles in the cook-off to detonation. To further explore the details of this intricate cook-off process, we have conducted a series of experiments in which a carefully controlled temperature gradient has been applied along a cylinder of PBX 9501 [94.9/2.5/2.5/0.1-wt % octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)/Estane 5703/a eutectic mixture of bis(2,2 dinitropropyl) acetal and bis(2,2-dinitropropyl) formal [abbreviated BDNPA-F]/Irganox] and maintained for a specified amount of time. After heating and subsequent cooling of the PBX 9501, the sample morphology has been probed with polarized light microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering. Using these techniques we have quantitatively characterized the particle morphology, porosity, and chemical state of the explosive as a function of position, and therefore thermal treatment. Results of the analyses clearly show that thermal damage in PBX 9501 can be classified into two separate temperature regimes--an initial low-temperature regime (155-174 deg. C) dominated by the endothermic {beta}-{delta} crystalline phase change, thermal expansion, and Ostwald ripening, and a high-temperature regime (175-210 deg. C) dominated by exothermic chemical decomposition. The results further show the complex interplay between the evolving sample morphology and the chemical reactions leading to a potential thermal self-ignition in the explosive.

  16. Clostridium geopurificans strain MJ1 sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium that grows via fermentation and reduces the cyclic nitramine explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Man Jae; Wei, Na; Millerick, Kayleigh; Popovic, Jovan; Finneran, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    A fermentative, non-spore forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain MJ1(T), was isolated from an RDX contaminated aquifer at a live-fire training site in Northwest NJ, United States. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA base composition, strain MJ1(T) was assigned to the Firmicutes. The DNA G+C content was 42.8 mol%. Fermentative growth was supported by glucose and citrate in a defined basal medium. The bacterium is a strict anaerobe that grows between at pH 6.0 and pH 8.0 and 18 and 37 °C. The culture did not grow with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) as the electron acceptor or mineralize RDX under these conditions. However, MJ1(T) transformed RDX into MNX, methylenedinitramine, formaldehyde, formate, ammonium, nitrous oxide, and nitrate. The nearest phylogenetic relative with a validly published name was Desulfotomaculum guttoideum (95 % similarity). However, MJ1(T) was also related to Clostridium celerecrescens DSM 5628 (95 %), Clostridium indolis DSM 755 (94 %), and Clostridium sphenoides DSM 632 (94 %). DNA:DNA hybridization with these strains was between 6.7 and 58.7 percent. The dominant cellular fatty acids (greater than 5 % of the total, which was 99.0 % recovery) were 16:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) (32.12 %), 18:1cis 11 dimethyl acetal (DMA) (16.47 %), 16:1cis 9 DMA (10.28 %), 16:1cis 9 FAME (8.10 %), and 18:1cis 9 DMA (5.36 %). On the basis of morphological, physiological, and phylogenetic data, Clostridium geopurificans is proposed as a new species in genus Clostridium, with strain MJ1(T) as the type strain. PMID:24522483

  17. Anisotropic shock sensitivity for β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine energetic material under compressive-shear loading from ReaxFF-lg reactive dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tingting; Zybin, Sergey V.; Liu, Yi; Huang, Fenglei; Goddard, William A.

    2012-06-01

    We report here the predictions on anisotropy of shock sensitivity and of chemical process initiation in single crystal β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (β-HMX) using compressive shear reactive dynamics (CS-RD) model with ReaxFF-lg reactive force field. Analysis of resolved shear stress induced by uniaxial compression along three shock directions normal to (110), (011), and (010) planes leads to identify eight slip systems as candidates for shear deformation. For each of the eight slip systems, non-equilibrium reactive dynamics simulations were carried out to determine thermal, mechanical, and chemical responses to shear deformation. Shock direction normal to (010) plane exhibits large shear stress barriers arising from steric hindrance between molecules of adjacent layers leading to local dramatic energy and temperature increases under shear flow that in turn accelerate chemical bond breaking and initial product formation processes, promoting further molecular decomposition and eventually transition to detonation. This suggests that single crystal β-HMX is sensitive to shocks in direction normal to (010) plane. Shock directions normal to (110) and (011) planes reveal significantly less steric hindrance, leading to more modest energy and temperature increases followed by slower chemical reaction initiation. Thus, shock directions normal to (110) and (011) planes are less sensitive than shock direction normal to (010) plane, which agree with interpretations from currently available plate impact experiments on HMX. This validation of CS-RD and ReaxFF for characterizing sensitivity of single crystal energetic materials indicates that these methods can be applied to study sensitivity for more complex polymer bonded explosives and solid composite propellants having complex microstructures, corrugated interfaces, as well as defects.

  18. 40 CFR 721.9730 - 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9730 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6... substances generically identified as 1,3,5-triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted- (PMN Nos....

  19. 40 CFR 721.9730 - 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9730 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6... substances generically identified as 1,3,5-triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted- (PMN Nos....

  20. 40 CFR 721.9730 - 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9730 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6... substances generically identified as 1,3,5-triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted- (PMN Nos....

  1. 40 CFR 721.5262 - 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5-[[4-chloro-6-[substituted] amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3- -, trisodium salt...-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3- -, trisodium salt (PMN P-00-0803) is...-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- ethyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3- -, sodium salt (1:3) (PMN......

  2. Tridentate Lewis Acids Based on 1,3,5-Trisilacyclohexane Backbones and an Example of Their Host-Guest Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Weisheim, Eugen; Reuter, Christian G; Heinrichs, Peter; Vishnevskiy, Yury V; Mix, Andreas; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Mitzel, Norbert W

    2015-08-24

    Directed tridentate Lewis acids based on the 1,3,5-trisilacyclohexane skeleton with three ethynyl groups [CH2Si(Me)(C2H)]3 were synthesised and functionalised by hydroboration with HB(C6F5)2, yielding the ethenylborane {CH2Si(Me)[C2H2B(C6F5)2]}3, and by metalation with gallium and indium organyls affording {CH2Si(Me)[C2M(R)2]}3 (M = Ga, In, R = Me, Et). In the synthesis of the backbone the influence of substituents (MeO, EtO and iPrO groups at Si) on the orientation of the methyl group was studied with the aim to increase the abundance of the all-cis isomer. New compounds were identified by elemental analyses, multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy and in some cases by IR spectroscopy. Crystal structures were obtained for cis-trans-[CH2Si(Me)(Cl)]3, all-cis-[CH2Si(Me)(H)]3, all-cis-[CH2Si(Me)(C2H)]3, cis-trans-[CH2Si(Me)(C2H)]3 and all-cis-[CH2Si(Me)(C2SiMe3)]3. A gas-phase electron diffraction experiment for all-cis-[CH2Si(Me)(C2H)]3 provides information on the relative stabilities of the all-equatorial and all-axial form; the first is preferred in both solid and gas phase. The gallium-based Lewis acid {CH2Si(Me)[C2Ga(Et)2]}3 was reacted with a tridentate Lewis base (1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane) in an NMR titration experiment. The generated host-guest complexes involved in the equilibria during this reaction were identified by DOSY NMR spectroscopy by comparing measured diffusion coefficients with those of the suitable reference compounds of same size and shape.

  3. Synthesis and high-throughput characterization of structural analogues of molecular glassformers: 1,3,5-trisarylbenzenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyi; Cheng, Kevin; Salami-Ranjbaran, Elmira; Gao, Feng; Glor, Ethan C; Li, Mu; Walsh, Patrick J; Fakhraai, Zahra

    2015-10-14

    We report the synthesis and characterization of an analogous series of small organic molecules derived from a well-known glass former, 1,3-bis(1-naphthyl)-5-(2-naphthyl)benzene (α,α,β-TNB). Synthesized molecules include α,α,β-TNB, 3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-phenylbenzene (α,α-P), 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene (α,α-A), 9,9'-(5-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)dianthracene (β-AA) and 3,3',5,5'-tetra(naphthalen-1-yl)-1,1'-biphenyl (α,α,α,α-TNBP). The design of molecules was based on increasing molecular weight with varied π-π interactions in one or more substituents. The synthesis is based on Suzuki cross-coupling of 1-bromo-3-chloro-5-iodobenzene with arylboronic acids, which allows attachment of various substituents to tailor the chemical structure. The bulk compounds were characterized using NMR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thin films of these compounds were produced using physical vapor deposition and were subsequently annealed above the glass transition temperatures (Tg). For each molecular glass, cooling rate-dependent glass transition temperature measurements (CR-Tg) were performed using ellipsometry as a high-throughput method to characterize thin film properties. CR-Tg allows rapid characterization of glassy properties, such as Tg, apparent thermal expansion coefficients, apparent activation energy at Tg and fragility. DSC measurements confirmed the general trend that increasing molecular weight leads to increasing melting point (Tm) and Tg. Furthermore, CR-Tg provided evidence that the introduction of stronger π-interacting substituents in the chosen set of structural analogues increases fragility and decreases the ability to form glasses, such that β-AA has the largest fragility and highest tendency to crystallize among all the compounds. These strong interactions also significantly elevate Tg and promote more harmonic intermolecular potentials, as observed by decreasing value of the apparent

  4. Tridentate Lewis Acids Based on 1,3,5-Trisilacyclohexane Backbones and an Example of Their Host-Guest Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Weisheim, Eugen; Reuter, Christian G; Heinrichs, Peter; Vishnevskiy, Yury V; Mix, Andreas; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Mitzel, Norbert W

    2015-08-24

    Directed tridentate Lewis acids based on the 1,3,5-trisilacyclohexane skeleton with three ethynyl groups [CH2Si(Me)(C2H)]3 were synthesised and functionalised by hydroboration with HB(C6F5)2, yielding the ethenylborane {CH2Si(Me)[C2H2B(C6F5)2]}3, and by metalation with gallium and indium organyls affording {CH2Si(Me)[C2M(R)2]}3 (M = Ga, In, R = Me, Et). In the synthesis of the backbone the influence of substituents (MeO, EtO and iPrO groups at Si) on the orientation of the methyl group was studied with the aim to increase the abundance of the all-cis isomer. New compounds were identified by elemental analyses, multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy and in some cases by IR spectroscopy. Crystal structures were obtained for cis-trans-[CH2Si(Me)(Cl)]3, all-cis-[CH2Si(Me)(H)]3, all-cis-[CH2Si(Me)(C2H)]3, cis-trans-[CH2Si(Me)(C2H)]3 and all-cis-[CH2Si(Me)(C2SiMe3)]3. A gas-phase electron diffraction experiment for all-cis-[CH2Si(Me)(C2H)]3 provides information on the relative stabilities of the all-equatorial and all-axial form; the first is preferred in both solid and gas phase. The gallium-based Lewis acid {CH2Si(Me)[C2Ga(Et)2]}3 was reacted with a tridentate Lewis base (1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane) in an NMR titration experiment. The generated host-guest complexes involved in the equilibria during this reaction were identified by DOSY NMR spectroscopy by comparing measured diffusion coefficients with those of the suitable reference compounds of same size and shape. PMID:26213228

  5. The effect of chemical structure on the stability of physical vapor deposited glasses of 1,3,5-triarylbenzene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyi; Cheng, Kevin; Salami-Ranjbaran, Elmira; Gao, Feng; Li, Chen; Tong, Xiao; Lin, Yi-Chih; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, William; Klinge, Lindsey; Walsh, Patrick J; Fakhraai, Zahra

    2015-08-28

    We detail the formation and properties associated with stable glasses (SG) formed by a series of structural analogues of 1,3-bis(1-naphthyl)-5-(2-naphthyl)benzene (α,α,β-TNB), a well-studied SG former. Five compounds with similar structural properties were synthesized and physical vapor-deposited with a constant deposition rate at various substrate temperatures (Tdep) in the range between 0.73 Tg and 0.96 Tg. These molecules include α,α,β-TNB, 3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-phenylbenzene (α,α-P), 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene (α,α-A), 9,9'-(5-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)dianthracene (β-AA), and 3,3',5,5'-tetra(naphthalen-1-yl)-1,1'-biphenyl (α,α,α,α-TNBP). Ellipsometry was used to study the transformations from the as-deposited glasses into ordinary glasses (OG). The stability of each film was evaluated by measuring the fictive temperature (Tf) and density difference between the as-deposited glass and OG. It is demonstrated that all five molecules can form SGs upon vapor deposition in this temperature range. In-depth studies on the dependence of the stability of as-deposited glasses upon Tdep were performed with three molecules, α,α,β-TNB, α,α-P, and α,α-A. The general trends of stability were comparable at the same Tdep/Tg for these three compounds. Similar to previous studies on α,α,β-TNB, vapor-deposited glasses of α,α-P and α,α-A formed the most stable structures around Tdep = 0.8-0.85 Tg. The most stable glass of each molecule showed the lowest thermal expansion coefficient compared to OG and a positive optical birefringence. However, the SGs of α,α-A were less stable compared to α,α-P and α,α,β-TNB at the relative Tdep/Tg. Based on Arrhenius extrapolation of the aging time, as a measure of stability, the most stable α,α-A glass was only aged for a few years as opposed to hundreds or thousands of years for other glasses. We hypothesize that the reduced stability is due to slower mobility at the free surface of

  6. Influence of the donor concentration on the decay kinetics of sensitized phosphorescence of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene in toluene at 77 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suraeva, E. Yu.; Tishchenko, A. B.; Deryabin, M. I.; Avdeev, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    Dependence of the kinetics of sensitized phosphorescence (SP) of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (1,3,5-TPB) on the concentration of the energy donor - benzophenone (BP) - is studied in toluene at 77 K. An increase in the SP decay rate of 1,3,5-TPB with concentration is established. It is demonstrated that the reason for the increase in the decay rate is the increased radiative deactivation rate constant of triplet excitations caused by exchange interactions. The coefficient characterizing the exponential dependence of the radiative deactivation rate constant for triplet excitations of 1,3,5-TPB on the intermolecular distance in the donor-acceptor pair is determined.

  7. Microwave-assisted synthesis of 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles and evaluation of their anti-ageing activity.

    PubMed

    Koufaki, Maria; Fotopoulou, Theano; Kapetanou, Marianna; Heropoulos, Georgios A; Gonos, Efstathios S; Chondrogianni, Niki

    2014-08-18

    One-pot uncatalysed microwave-assisted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions between in situ generated nitrile oxides and alkynes bearing protected antioxidant substituents, were regioselectively afforded 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles. The yields were moderate, based on the starting aldehydes, while the reaction times were in general shorter than those reported in the literature. The cytoprotective and anti-ageing effect of the final deprotected compounds was evaluated in vitro, on cellular survival following oxidative challenge and in vivo, on organismal longevity using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The activity of the isoxazole analogues depends on the nature and the number of the antioxidant substituents. Analogue 17 bearing a phenolic group and a 6-OH-chroman group is a promising anti-ageing agent, since it increased survival of human primary fibroblasts following treatment with H2O2 and extended C. elegans lifespan. PMID:24996137

  8. Mechanism of Austenite Formation from Spheroidized Microstructure in an Intermediate Fe-0.1C-3.5Mn Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Qingquan; Gouné, Mohamed; Perlade, Astrid; Pardoen, Thomas; Jacques, Pascal; Bouaziz, Olivier; Bréchet, Yves

    2016-07-01

    The austenitization from a spheroidized microstructure during intercritical annealing was studied in a Fe-0.1C-3.5Mn alloy. The austenite grains preferentially nucleate and grow from intergranular cementite. The nucleation at intragranular cementite is significantly retarded or even suppressed. The DICTRA software, assuming local equilibrium conditions, was used to simulate the austenite growth kinetics at various temperatures and for analyzing the austenite growth mechanism. The results indicate that both the mode and the kinetics of austenite growth strongly depend on cementite composition. With sufficiently high cementite Mn content, the austenite growth is essentially composed of two stages, involving the partitioning growth controlled by Mn diffusion inside ferrite, followed by a stage controlled by Mn diffusion within austenite for final equilibration. The partitioning growth results in a homogeneous distribution of carbon within austenite, which is supported by NanoSIMS carbon mapping.

  9. 1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone regulates ANGPTL3-LPL pathway to lessen the ketosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong-Bo; Sun, Zhi-Liang; Zhou, Nan

    2012-05-12

    Ketosis is a metabolic disorder closely associated with both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Recent studies show that angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) contributes to the development of metabolic disorder. The objective of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of 1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (Xan), a naturally occurring flavonoid compound, on ketosis and the mechanisms involved in this regulation. After 4weeks, Xan (10 or 30mg/kg, intragastrically) treatment decreased plasma total ketone bodies, malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostane, triglyceride, total cholesterol levels, and hepatic ANGPTL3 expression concomitantly with increased plasma glucose concentration and adipose lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression in ketosis murine. The present results suggest that Xan regulates ANGPTL3-LPL pathway to lessen the ketosis in mice.

  10. X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and DFT studies of 1-(4-bromophenyl)-3,5-diphenylformazan

    SciTech Connect

    Tezcan, H.; Tokay, N.; Alpaslan, G.; Erdönmez, A.

    2013-12-15

    The crystal structure of 1-(4-bromophenyl)-3,5-diphenylformazan was determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction technique. The crystals are orthorhombic, a = 23.0788(9), b = 7.9606(3), c = 18.6340(12) Å, Z = 8, sp. gr. Pbca, R{sub 1} = 0.074. The structure was also examined using the density-functional theory. Its structure stability, and frontier molecular orbital components were discussed and the results were compared with X-ray and spectral results. The maximum absorbtion peaks of the UV-vis spectrum of the compound have been calculated using the time-dependent density-functional theory. It was found a good agreement between the calculated and experimental maximum absorption wavelength.

  11. 3.5-Ga hydrothermal fields and diamictites in the Barberton Greenstone Belt-Paleoarchean crust in cold environments.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Maarten J; Furnes, Harald

    2016-02-01

    Estimates of ocean temperatures on Earth 3.5 billion years ago (Ga) range between 26° and 85°C. We present new data from 3.47- to 3.43-Ga volcanic rocks and cherts in South Africa suggesting that these temperatures reflect mixing of hot hydrothermal fluids with cold marine and terrestrial waters. We describe fossil hydrothermal pipes that formed at ~200°C on the sea floor >2 km below sea level. This ocean floor was uplifted tectonically to sea level where a subaerial hydrothermal system was active at 30° to 270°C. We also describe shallow-water glacial diamictites and diagenetic sulfate mineral growth in abyssal muds. These new observations reveal that both hydrothermal systems operated in relatively cold environments and that Earth's surface temperatures in the early Archean were similar to those in more recent times. PMID:26933677

  12. Forced Flow and Solidification Process of Sn-3.5%Pb Melt in Hollow Billet Under Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhiming; Chen, Meiling; Teng, Yingli; Yang, Jun; Yang, Li; Gao, Hong

    2015-02-01

    An experimental study with respect to the influence of rotating magnetic field (RMF) on the forced flow, solidification process, and microstructure of Sn-3.5%Pb melt in hollow billet is investigated. The result shows that when the voltage intensity is 100 V, the maximum rotary angular velocity can reach to 30.672 rad/s. While the solidification time is 360 s, the maximum rotary angular velocity is only 2.4 rad/s. The RMF decreases the sump depth and gets the sump shape shallower and flatter. The microstructures are greatly refined with the enhancement of voltage intensities. When the voltage intensity is 100 V, the grain size is refined from 186 to 65 μm. Consequences on the occurrence by RMF are discussed.

  13. The ML 3.5 earthquake sequence induced by the hydrothermal energy project in St. Gallen, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, T.; Wiemer, S.; Deichmann, N.; Diehl, T.; Edwards, B.; Guilhem, A.; Haslinger, F.; Király, E.; Kissling, E. H.; Mignan, A.; Plenkers, K.; Roten, D.; Seif, S.; Woessner, J.

    2013-12-01

    Starting in March 2013, the geothermal project of the city of Sankt Gallen, Switzerland, has drilled through 4 km of sedimentary rocks in the Swiss Molasse Basinin order to find and exploit hydrothermal aquifers in the Mesozoic sediments. In a large-scale 3D seismic survey, the project operators identified a nearly 30 km long N-S striking segmented fault zone in the Mesozoic sediments. Based on the apparent lack of recent seismic activity, they concluded that the fault zone was not active and drilled into this target of potentially enhanced permeability. In July 2013 a testing and stimulation program began in the Malm sediments. A small-scale fresh water injectionon July 14 was followed by two acid stimulations. A low level of seismicity that strongly correlated with the testing program was observed by the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) on a dedicated network of 10 surface stations and one shallow borehole station. The seismicity during this period did not exceed magnitude ML1.2 and was judged to be well within the expected range. When operators were preparing for an airlift test, methane gas was released into the borehole from an unknown source around noon on July 19. The pressure at the wellhead rose rapidly, and operators decided to pump water and heavy mud down the well. Even though wellhead pressure decreased steadily, seismicity started to increase suddenly at 7 pm (UTC) on July 19. Although the traffic light system designed by the operators was triggered in the early phase of the seismicity increase, operators found themselves forced to continue well control instead of stopping the pumps. During this period, the seismicity intensified and culminated in a ML 3.5 event at 3:30 (UTC) on July 20 that was widely felt in the area. Yet, the SED received only a small number of reports on minor non-structural damage. In the following hours, the operators were able to stabilize the well and flare the methane in a controlled manner. Seismicity decreased rapidly

  14. Composition of chondrule silicates in LL3-5 chondrites and implications for their nebular history and parent body metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.; Scott, E. R. D.; Jones, R. H.; Keil, K.; Taylor, G. J.

    1991-02-01

    The composition of 75 type-IA and type-II porphyritic olivine chondrules from nine LL type 3 to type 5 chondrites was determined and was compared with that of chondrules from the Semarkona type 3.0 meteorite. Chemical data for silicates in the LL3.3-5 chondrites indicated that porphyritic olivine chondrules in these chondrites could be derived from chondrules similar to those from the Semarkona LL3.0, the least metamorphosed one of the known LL chondrites. It is shown that the chemical trends defined by the minerals of type-IA and type-II chondrules can be satisfactorily accounted for by the process of solid-state diffusive equilibration between minerals in chondrules and the opaque matrix rather than by changes in conditions during chondrule crystallization.

  15. Composition of chondrule silicates in LL3-5 chondrites and implications for their nebular history and parent body metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, Timothy J.; Scott, Edward R. D.; Keil, Klaus; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Jones, Rhian H.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of 75 type-IA and type-II porphyritic olivine chondrules from nine LL type 3 to type 5 chondrites was determined and was compared with that of chondrules from the Semarkona type 3.0 meteorite. Chemical data for silicates in the LL3.3-5 chondrites indicated that porphyritic olivine chondrules in these chondrites could be derived from chondrules similar to those from the Semarkona LL3.0, the least metamorphosed one of the known LL chondrites. It is shown that the chemical trends defined by the minerals of type-IA and type-II chondrules can be satisfactorily accounted for by the process of solid-state diffusive equilibration between minerals in chondrules and the opaque matrix rather than by changes in conditions during chondrule crystallization.

  16. Shock induced sub-detonation chemical reactions in 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östmark, Henric

    1996-05-01

    The technique of combining slapper ignition with fast (12 μs/scan) time-of-flight mass spectroscopy has been used for studying the early shock-induced decomposition of TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene). By varying the slapper energy, and hence the shock intensity, it was possible to vary the degree of reaction from a weak detonation to full detonation. As the slapper energy was lowered, several larger mass fragments were detected, e.g. m/z 242. This indicates that it is possible to detect early decomposition products using this technique. The same set of experiments was also conducted on isotopically labelled TATB (TATB-15N6) where the corresponding peak occurred at m/z 248. From this it was concluded that the peak resulted from a shock-induced elimination of oxygen, and hence that the early decomposition is a conversion of a nitro group to a nitroso group.

  17. The South Carolina Amazing Coast Program: Using Ocean Sciences to Address Next Generation Science Standards in Grades 3-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E. V.; Thomas, C.; Weiss, B.; Bliss, A.; Spence, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are more inclusive of ocean sciences than the National Science Standards and respective state science standards. In response, the Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-SouthEast (COSEE SE) is piloting the South Carolina's Amazing Coast (SCAC) program: a three-year initiative that incorporates ocean science concepts in grades 3-5 with the goals of addressing NGSS, STEM (science-technology-engineering-math) disciplines, and inquiry skills. The SCAC program targeted two Charleston County, South Carolina elementary schools that were demographically similar: Title 1 status (75% free or reduced lunch), > 90% African American student population, grade level size <55, and proximity to tidal salt marsh or barrier islands (< 2 miles). Fourteen teachers and approximately 240 students participated in the SCAC program between 2010 and 2013. The SCAC framework uses a scaffolding and multi-pronged approach for teacher professional development and student engagement. The scaffolding approach to curriculum implementation focuses on one grade level per year (Year 1 = 3rd; Year 2 = 4th, and Year 3 = 5th), thus building student and teacher literacy in ocean sciences. The coach-mentor model of teacher professional development was also used for the implementation of the program which differs from the traditional 'train the trainer' method in allowing for more frequent and consistent interaction by COSEE SE staff with the students and teachers during the school year. The coach mentor model enabled the creation of a community of practice where teachers served as both learners and practitioners of student learning. Methods for student engagement aligned with the NGSS and included hands-on classroom activities, use of 'hook' species such as loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) and smooth cord grass (Spartina alterniflora), field experiences to explore local ecosystems, interactions with

  18. Effects of 3,5-Dibromo-4-Hydroxybenzonitrile (Bromoxynil) on Bioenergetics of Higher Plant Mitochondria (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed Central

    Zottini, M.; Scoccianti, V.; Zannoni, D.

    1994-01-01

    The herbicide bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile) was tested on mitochondria from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) stems. This compound when used at micromolar concentrations ([almost equal to]20 [mu]M) inhibited malate- and succinate-dependent respiration by intact mitochondria but not oxidation of exogenously added NADH. Bromoxynil did not affect the activities of the succinic and the internal NADH dehydrogenases. Analyses of the effects induced by this herbicide on the membrane potential, [delta]pH, matrix Ca2+ movements, and dicarboxylate transport demonstrated that bromoxynil is likely to act as an inhibitor of the dicarboxylate carrier. In addition, bromoxynil caused a mild membrane uncoupling at concentrations [greater than or equal to]20 [mu]M. No effect on the ATPase activity was observed. PMID:12232423

  19. Structural, vibrational spectroscopic and nonlinear optical activity studies on 2-hydroxy- 3, 5-dinitropyridine: A DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asath, R. Mohamed; Premkumar, S.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2015-06-01

    The conformational analysis was carried out for 2-Hydroxy- 3, 5-dinitropyridine molecule using potential energy surface scan and the most stable optimized conformer was predicted. The vibrational frequencies and Mulliken atomic charge distribution were calculated for the optimized geometry of the molecule using DFT/B3LYP cc-pVQZ basis set by Gaussian 09 Program. The vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using VEDA 4.0 program. In the Frontier molecular orbitals analysis, the molecular reactivity, kinetic stability, intramolecular charge transfer studies and the calculation of ionization energy, electron affinity, global hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index and softness values of the title molecule were carried out. The nonlinear optical activity of the molecule was studied by means of first order hyperpolarizability, which was computed as 7.64 times greater than urea. The natural bond orbital analysis was performed to confirm the nonlinear optical activity of the molecule.

  20. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of preschool environments (3-5 years old children).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This work characterizes levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor and outdoor air of preschool environments, and assesses the respective risks for 3-5-years old children. Eighteen gaseous and particulate (PM1 and PM2.5) PAHs were collected indoors and outdoors during 63 days at preschools in Portugal. Gaseous PAHs accounted for 94-98% of total concentration (ΣPAHs). PAHs with 5-6 rings were predominantly found in PM1 (54-74% particulate ΣPAHs). Lighter PAHs originated mainly from indoor sources whereas congeners with 4-6 rings resulted mostly from outdoor emissions penetration (motor vehicle, fuel burning). Total cancer risks of children were negligible according to USEPA, but exceeded (8-13 times) WHO health-based guideline. Carcinogenic risks due to indoor exposure were higher than for outdoors (4-18 times).