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Sample records for otorhinolaryngology sirmione 3-5

  1. Otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Weir, N.

    2000-01-01

    Otorhinolaryngology, a product of the early 20th century, developed from the joining together of the separate departments of otology, whose practitioners were surgeons, and laryngology which was managed by physicians who also treated diseases of the nose and chest. The 20th century opened with brave attempts to perform skilful surgery under conditions of primitive anaesthesia and no antibiotics. The stimulus of two world wars led to significant advances in technology and greater opportunities to explore new and resurrect old surgical procedures. The discovery of antibiotics saw an end to acute mastoiditis and the complications of otitis media and sinusitis, as well as a decline in the number of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy operations.
Over the last 30 years the specialty has undergone dramatic development and has taken advantage of new advances in endoscopy, microsurgery, the use of lasers, cytotoxic drugs, flap reconstruction and microchip technology. During the same period, although still calling themselves otorinolaryngologists, individual surgeons have subspecialised in otology, otoneurosurgery and skull-base surgery, head and neck surgery, phonosurgery, rhinology and facioplastic surgery, and paediatric otothinolaryngology. Each of these subspecialties has its own societies and specialist journals.


Keywords: otorhinolaryngology; history of medicine PMID:10644381

  2. Tissue adhesives in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Gerlind

    2011-01-01

    The development of medical tissue adhesives has a long history without finding an all-purpose tissue adhesive for clinical daily routine. This is caused by the specific demands which are made on a tissue adhesive, and the different areas of application. In otorhinolaryngology, on the one hand, this is the mucosal environment as well as the application on bones, cartilage and periphery nerves. On the other hand, there are stressed regions (skin, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, trachea) and unstressed regions (middle ear, nose and paranasal sinuses, cranial bones). But due to the facts that adhesives can have considerable advantages in assuring surgery results, prevention of complications and so reduction of medical costs/treatment expenses, the search for new adhesives for use in otorhinolaryngology will be continued intensively. In parallel, appropriate application systems have to be developed for microscopic and endoscopic use. PMID:22073094

  3. Lasers in otorhinolaryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais Clemente, Manuel P.

    1992-03-01

    Lasers are now commonly accepted and widely used surgical instruments in otorhinolaryngology. There have been a great number of technological advances with lasers that have contributed to the expansion of this new surgical modality with an increased number of medical applications. Surgical strategies have also changed and are more favorable toward conservative surgery in which less tissues is removed than with more radical resections. This combination of improving technology and medical attitudes has changed the field of otorhinolaryngology, and resulted in an expanding use of laser surgery. Since 1973 we have been using the carbon dioxide laser in the treatment of diseases of the upper aero digestive systems, learning this new surgical technique from the pioneer work of Strong, Jako, and Vaughan. It is our conviction that a laser surgeon must have a thorough knowledge of laser biophysics, instrumentation, safety protocols, and surgical indications, and have the technical skills to perform laser surgery. Laser technology continues to improve at an increased speed, and it is imperative to update knowledge of current and potential applications of lasers in our specialty. It is the purpose of this article to present our clinical experience of 18 years with the use of lasers in surgery of ORL, emphasizing the carbon dioxide laser.

  4. Pycnodysostosis at otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Baglam, Tekin; Binnetoglu, Adem; Fatih Topuz, Muhammet; Baş Ikizoglu, Nilay; Ersu, Refika; Turan, Serap; Sarı, Murat

    2017-04-01

    Pycnodysostosis is a rare autosomal, recessive, skeletal dysplasia caused by a mutation in the cathepsin k gene. Pycnodysostosis is characterized by short stature, characteristic facial appearance (delayed closure of fontanelles and cranial sutures, mandibular hypoplasia and angle disorder, blue sclera), and acroosteolysis of the distal phalanges. Our aim was to describe the otorhinolaryngologic findings, differential diagnoses, various treatment options, and followup in eight cases of pycnodysostosis. This retrospective clinical study used data from eight patients diagnosed with pycnodysostosis by a single pediatric endocrinologist primarily based on clinical and radiographic findings. All patients were referred to the otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic by the pediatric endocrinology unit of the Marmara University between February 2013 and March 2015. Detailed medical histories were obtained in all cases and otorhinolaryngologic physical examination, blood assays, electrocardiogram, lateral skull X-rays, chest radiograph, cephalometric investigations, tympanograms, and audiograms were also carried out. Sleep videos of patients were recorded and those with upper airway problems were evaluated for sleep apnea by polysomnography. Informed consent form was obtained from the parents of all patients. Eight patients (7 females and 1 male) displaying proportionate dwarfism were included in the study. They had a mean age of 14.7 years (range: 13-16 y), the mean height of 141.3 cm (range 132-155 cm), and mean weight of 44.4 kg (range: 39.6-49.3 kg). All patients had facial dysmorphism with frontal bossing and the hands and feet had short digits with overlying cutaneous wrinkles that tapered off with large overriding nails. Midfacial hypoplasia and malocclusion were observed in seven of the eight patients (87.5%), four (50%) had micrognathia, and five (62.5%) had proptosis. Tympanograms and audiograms of all patients were type A and normal, and the mean of the pure

  5. Citation analysis of otorhinolaryngology journals.

    PubMed

    Roy, D; Hughes, J P; Jones, A S; Fenton, J E

    2002-05-01

    Bibliometric analysis is used to assess the 'impact' of scientific journals. The commonest method of evaluation is impact factor. The aim of this study was to analyse the citation data for otorhinolaryngology journals of the years 1994 to 1998. Data on the total number of citations and impact factor of journals was obtained from the CD-ROM editions 1994-98 of the Journal Citation Reports and 'Web of Science' database. The adjusted impact factor and five-year impact factor has been calculated. Fifteen otorhinolaryngology journals have been identified and ranked according to the impact factor. Head and Neck has the highest adjusted impact factor. Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery has the highest five-year impact factor. There is considerable variation in the ranking of journals calculated by the five-year impact factor. Impact factors of otolaryngology journals can help to direct readers to those journals that have a track record of publishing data that are frequently cited. Although there are several limitations to the use of citation data to rank journals, the authors recommend the use of the five-year period for calculation of the impact factor for ranking of otolaryngology journals.

  6. [Neuromuscular electric stimulation therapy in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Miller, S; Kühn, D; Jungheim, M; Schwemmle, C; Ptok, M

    2014-02-01

    Animal experiments have shown that after specific nerve traumatization, neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) can promote nerve regeneration and reduce synkinesia without negatively interfering with normal regeneration processes. NMES is used routinely in physical rehabilitation medicine. This systematic literature search in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the DAHTA database, the Health Technology Assessment Database and MEDLINE or PubMed considered studies on the use of NMES in otorhinolaryngology that have been published in German or English. The search identified 180 studies. These were evaluated and relevant studies were included in the further evaluation. In the fields of otorhinolaryngology and phoniatry/paediatric audiology, clinical studies investigating the effects of NMES on facial and laryngeal paresis, as well as dysphonia and dysphagia have been carried out. The evidence collected to date is encouraging; particularly for the treatment of certain forms of dysphagia and laryngeal paresis.

  7. Otorhinolaryngology manifestations secondary to oral sex.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, Claudia; Morales-Angulo, Carmelo

    Over the last few years, oral and pharyngeal signs and symptoms due to oral sex have increased significantly. However, no review articles related to this subject have been found in the medical literature. The objective of our study was to identify otorhinolaryngological manifestations associated with orogenital/oroanal contact, both in adults and children, in the context of consensual sex or sexual abuse. We performed a review of the medical literature on otorhinolaryngological pathology associated with oral sex published in the last 20 years in the PubMed database. Otorhinolaryngological manifestations secondary to oral sex practice in adults can be infectious, tumoral or secondary to trauma. The more common signs and symptoms found in the literature were human papillomavirus infection (above all, condyloma acuminata and papilloma/condyloma), oral or pharyngeal syphilis, gonococcal pharyngitis, herpes simplex virus infection and pharyngitis from Chlamydia trachomatis. The incidence of human papillomavirus -induced oropharyngeal carcinoma has dramatically increased. In children past the neonatal period, the presence of condyloma acuminatus, syphilis, gonorrhoea or palatal ecchymosis (the last one, unless justified by other causes) should make us suspect sexual abuse. Sexual habits have changed in the last decades, resulting in the appearance of otorhinolaryngological pathology that was rarely seen previously. For this reason, it is important for primary care physicians to have knowledge about the subject to perform correct diagnosis and posterior treatment. Some sexual abuse cases in children may also be suspected based on the knowledge of the characteristic oropharyngeal manifestations secondary to them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  8. [Microcomputer applications in otorhinolaryngology (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Frachet, B; Meyer, B; Chouard, C H; Pialoux, P

    1982-01-01

    Two main types of utilisation of microcomputers in otorhinolaryngology are envisaged: instrumentation and medical audit. The modes of employ of the material in these fields are briefly exposed, followed by the presentation of several examples of its employ and functioning. Practical notions are discussed, particular emphasis then being placed on theoretical considerations involved in the use of such equipment. Of primary importance are strictly medical reflections, problem solving being facilitated (by suppressing or diminishing routine tasks) but never simplified.

  9. [The place of otorhinolaryngology in modern medicine].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T

    2016-01-01

    This publication is devoted to the peculiar features of the development of otorhinolaryngology as an integral component of modern medical science and practice and the place it now occupies among other disciplines. Much attention is given to the formation of the scientific views of focal infections with special reference to tonsillitis, the role of immune pathology an allergic reactions in etiology and pathogenesis of ENT diseases. Also considered is the problem of the elaboration of the new surgical methods and their application for the treatment of ENT pathology.

  10. Writing otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery operative reports.

    PubMed

    Laccourreye, O; Rubin, F; Villeneuve, A; Bonfils, P

    2017-04-04

    Only about ten articles devoted to operative reports have been published in the medical literature, but this document is essential, both medically and legally, to ensure optimal management of operated patients. In this technical note, based on published studies on this subject, the authors describe the key features of operating reports after otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery and emphasize the need to write this document during the minutes after the end of the operation, the importance of standardization and its teaching role during surgical training.

  11. Honey in otorhinolaryngology: when, why and how?

    PubMed

    Werner, A; Laccourreye, O

    2011-06-01

    In this review of the literature devoted to the use of honey, the authors analyse the composition, indications, benefits and adverse effects of this product in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery. Published data indicate that honey applied topically to skin and mucosal wounds and/or burns and administered orally as antitussive medication (after the first year of life) is highly effective with no adverse effects. The physiological action of honey is the result of various mechanisms (osmotic, detersion, bactericidal action). Various medicinal honeys are available worldwide, but only one has Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of wounds. After the first year of life, the use of food honey appears to be as effective as medicinal honey, while decreasing the overall cost of treatment.

  12. Otorhinolaryngology through the works of Hippocrates.

    PubMed

    Manolidis, L S

    2002-01-01

    This retrospective survey refers to the philosophers and first scientists of the pre-Hippocratic era, which included the foundation of schools in Greece at the time (e.g. Ionia, South Sicily, Kyrinia). During the ensuing Hippocratic era the foundations of medicine as a science were laid. The concepts developed by Hippocrates and his school are set out in the Corpus Hippocraticum. In many sections of this work reference is made to diseases of the ear, nose, larynx, head and neck. It is difficult no to be impressed by the fact that many of the diagnoses and therapies are not very dissimilar to contemporary approaches. The notion that Hippocrates, Father of Medicine, gave meaning to otorhinolaryngology is also discussed here.

  13. [Hygiene in otorhinolaryngology: Requirements and reality].

    PubMed

    Jager, E; Heudorf, U

    2015-12-01

    Considering the physiological contamination of skin and mucous membranes in the ear, nose, and throat region by facultative pathogen microorganisms, as well as the increase in multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO), it is mandatory that hygienic procedures be observed in ENT institutions, in order to prevent transmission of bacteria and infections in patients. General guidelines for hygiene in otorhinolaryngology are presented based on the recommendations published by the German Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO). These encompass hand hygiene, surface disinfection, and reprocessing of medical devices. The correct reprocessing of the various components of ENT treatment units (including endoscopes, water bearing systems) is reported. Although law requires and KRINKO recommends that manufacturers of medical devices publish instructions for reprocessing their products, these reprocessing recommendations are often insufficient. Manufacturers should thus be called upon to improve their recommendations. In this paper, the requirements for handling of ENT treatment units are compared with the observations made by the Public Health Department in 7 ENT clinics and 32 ENT practices in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in 2014.

  14. The concepts and applications of tissue engineering in otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Leandro; Castro, Eugénia; Ferreira, Manuela; Helena, Diamantino; Robles, Raquel; Faria E Almeida, António; Condé, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a rapidly developing field that, making biological substitutes for the repair and regeneration of damaged tissues, will play an important role in the future of otorhinolaryngology. In this article we explain the principles of regenerative medicine and its potential applications in Otorhinolaryngology. The authors searched the published literature on this topic, chose relevant references, and extracted and systematized the data. There are some exciting possibilities for future treatments in otorhinolaryngology applying the concepts of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  15. Historical Contribution of Otorhinolaryngology in Split Region till 1923.

    PubMed

    Ivanisević, Petar; Ivanisević, Milan; Kontić, Mirko; Klancnik, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    The beginnings of the modern otorhinolaryngology in Croatia started in the second half of the 19th century. Before that, there were only rare attempts of some doctors who published medical papers touching the frame of otorhinolaryngology. Mainly those were the PhD's disertations at Vienna, Budapest and Padua University. Among them there was dr Ivo Manola from Split, who in Padua in 1834 took a doctor's degree dealing with otologic diseases. Dr Nikola Fertilio (Nerezisća the island of Brac, 1861--Trieste, 1928) was the first otorhinolaryngologist out of a hospital in Split and Dalmatia. He studied medicine partly in Graz and Vienna, where he graduated in 1890. During 1903 he finished severeal otorhinolaryngological courses which were held by professors Viktor Urbantschitsch and Alfred Bing and by private doctor assistant professor Markus Hajek. During the winter 1903/04 he attended the "Semestralkurs über praktische Orhenheilkunde" at professor Adam Politzer, founder and managing director of the first Otology Clinic in Vienna and the world in 1873. He worked in Trieste, where he practiced otorhinolaryngology. Dr. Fertilio a specialist for diseases of nose, ear and throat, occasionally, usually during his holidays, came from Trieste to Dalmatia (Split, Zadar, Sibenik, Dubrovnik and Kotor) to treat and operate patients. He was comming to Split from 1904 till 1914. He published and announced his commings in the local newpapers. He used to come in summer, most often in August and stayed from several days till two weeks. He stayed and had a practice in Hotel Bellevue. As there wasn't an otorhinolaryngologist in the regional hospital of Split till 1923, otorhinolaryngological operations were occasionally performed by doctors of other surgical branches. Otorhinolaryngologist dr Aleksandar Dorsner came to Split hospital in 1923 and organized otorhinolaryngological service that he led till 1934.

  16. [Professor XIE Qiang's unique acupuncture therapy in otorhinolaryngologic department].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Rong; Xie, Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Rui; Wang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    The detailed operating methods and the clinical application of the unique acupuncture therapy established by professor XIE Qiang and applied specially in otorhinolaryngologic department are introduced, ie. acupuncture and moxibustion methods for regulating channels and contacting qi, transferring focus of excitation, needling movement and needling ying combined with minimally invasive needle scalpel. Meanwhile, the position of the experience acupoints named Kaiyin 1 (ease-up the voice 1) and Kaiyin 2 (ease-up the voice 2) and their manipulation are recommended, and the clinical application of these acupuncture methods and acupoints for inflammation and pain in otorhinolaryngologic department are explained.

  17. Prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses in the pediatric emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Signorelli, Luiz Gabriel; Mendes, Elaine de Abreu

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Fever and pain, which are very common in ear, nose, and throat pathologies, are among the most frequent complaints recorded during emergency room pediatric patient treatment. Most of time, the pediatricians are called on to evaluate otorhinolaryngology disorders that requires specialist assessment. Aim: To determine the prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses in a pediatric population in a reference hospital in the city of Itatiba, São Paulo. Methods: We evaluated 2,054 pediatric patients (age range, 0–12 years, 11 months) in this descriptive, transversal observational (survey) study. Data collection was performed by a single observer during 103 night shifts (07:00 p.m. to 07:00 a.m.) between January and December 2011, and included documentation of the main diagnosis, and patient age and sex. The ethics committee and research institution approved study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on diagnosis: Group A otorhinolaryngology disease and Group B included diagnoses not contained in Group A. Results: Of the total enrolled patients, 52.2% corresponded to Group A and 47.8% to Group B; 51.9% were male and 48.1% were female. The average age was 4.5 years (Group A, 3.93 years; Group B, 5.03 years). We compared the prevalence of the diagnostic hypotheses of the 2 groups. Conclusion: A large number of patients sought treatment at pediatric emergency rooms for otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses. PMID:25991987

  18. [Phytomedicine in otorhinolaryngology - evidence-based medicine with medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Sertel, S

    2011-12-01

    Phytomedicine has become an increasingly important treatment option for patients in the western world. Patients who experienced failure or adverse reactions with conventional western medicine often switch to natural and holistic methods. In eastern countries, with their long history of traditional medicine, patients often resort to herbal preparations as the majority of western medicines are unaffordable. The desire of western physicians for evidence-based medicine also applies in the sector of phytomedicine. A serious perception of natural products in scientific medicine can therefore only be based on data from prospective, controlled, randomized double-blind clinical trials. In order to illuminate the present scientific foundation of effective and reliable phytomedicine, a literature search in PubMed (Medline) was conducted based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main focus was on the field of otorhinolaryngology. Besides the presentation of selected, reliable studies and the evaluation of the efficacy of various medicinal plants, shortcomings of selected publications are discussed.

  19. Phytomedicine in otorhinolaryngology and pulmonology: clinical trials with herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Ghazi-Moghadam, Koosha; Inançlı, Hasan Mete; Bazazy, Nazanin; Plinkert, Peter K; Efferth, Thomas; Sertel, Serkan

    2012-08-20

    Phytomedicine has become an important alternative treatment option for patients in the Western world, as they seek to be treated in a holistic and natural way after an unsatisfactory response to conventional drugs. Ever since herbal remedies have been introduced in the Western world, clinicians have raised concerns over their efficacy and possible side-effects. A PubMed (Medline) search was performed covering the last five years (01/07-04/12) and including 55 prospective clinical randomized control trials in the medical specialities Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology. In this review, we present evidence-based clinical data with herbal remedies and try to enlighten the question of efficacy and reliability of phytomedicine.

  20. Therapeutic methods for psychosomatic disorders in oto-rhino-laryngology

    PubMed Central

    Decot, Elke

    2005-01-01

    Psychosomatic disorders such as tinnitus, acute hearing loss, attacks of dizziness, globus syndrome, dysphagias, voice disorders and many more are quite common in ear, nose and throat medicine. They are mostly caused by a number of factors, although the bio-psycho-social model does play an important role. Initial contact with a psychosomatically ill patient and compiling a first case history are important steps to psychosomatic oriented therapy. This contribution will sum up the most important otorhinolaryngological diseases with psychosomatic comorbidity and scientifically evaluated methods of treatment. The contribution will also introduce the reader to important psychosomatic treatment methods from psychotherapeutic relaxation techniques to talk therapy. To conclude, the contribution will discuss the criteria for outpatient as well as inpatient treatment and look at the advantages of psychosomatically oriented therapy, both for the patient and for the doctor. PMID:22073069

  1. Thermal properties of operative endoscopes used in otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    MacKeith, S A C; Frampton, S; Pothier, D D

    2008-07-01

    To measure the thermal properties of operative endoscopes used in otorhinolaryngological practice. A series of endoscopes of varying diameters and angulations were attached to a light source and temperature measurements taken of their shaft and tip; a measurement was also taken 5 mm in front of the endoscope tip. Temperature changes took place rapidly. The amount of heat produced by the endoscopes was maximal at the tip, with larger diameter endoscopes attaining a higher temperature. Temperatures on the shaft and in front of the tip reached relatively constant temperatures independent of the type of endoscope. The maximum temperature achieved was 104.6 degrees C for the 4 mm, 0 degrees endoscope. Cooling occurred rapidly after the light source was switched off. The heat produced by some endoscopes is sufficiently great to cause thermal injury to tissues. Awareness of the temperatures produced by these endoscopes should prompt clinicians to actively cool their endoscopes during a procedure, before any thermal injury is caused.

  2. Phytomedicine in Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology: Clinical Trials with Herbal Remedies

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Koosha Ghazi; Inançlı, Hasan Mete; Bazazy, Nazanin; Plinkert, Peter K.; Efferth, Thomas; Sertel, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    Phytomedicine has become an important alternative treatment option for patients in the Western world, as they seek to be treated in a holistic and natural way after an unsatisfactory response to conventional drugs. Ever since herbal remedies have been introduced in the Western world, clinicians have raised concerns over their efficacy and possible side-effects. A PubMed (Medline) search was performed covering the last five years (01/07–04/12) and including 55 prospective clinical randomized control trials in the medical specialities Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology. In this review, we present evidence-based clinical data with herbal remedies and try to enlighten the question of efficacy and reliability of phytomedicine. PMID:24280678

  3. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the I.P. Pavlov Saint-Peterburg First State Medical University].

    PubMed

    Karpishchenko, S A

    This article is designed to report the results of the analysis ofacademic, scientific, and clinical activities of the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the I.P. Pavlov Saint-Peterburg First State Medical University.

  4. The Surgical Safety Checklist: Results of Implementation in Otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of implementing the surgical safety checklist (SSCL) on the outcome of patient safety in otorhinolaryngology (ENT) surgical procedures in two hospitals in Saudi Arabia: Aseer Central and Abha Private Hospitals. Methods This retrospective study conducted over seven years (1 July 2008 to 30 June 2015) followed a staff educational and training program for the implementation of the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist (WHO SSCL). The program included the use of audiovisual aids and practical demonstrations. Incidents of non-compliance were treated as sentinel events and were audited by the process of root cause analysis. Results There were 5 144 elective ENT surgical cases in both hospitals in which the SSCL was utilized over the seven-year study period. The average compliance rate was 96.5%. Reasons for non-compliance included staff shortage, fast staff turnover, excessive workload, communication problems, and presence of existing processes. Conclusions The implementation of the SSCL was a substantial leap in efforts towards ensuring surgical patients’ safety. It is compulsory in the healthcare system in many countries. Such progress in healthcare improvement can be accomplished with the commitment of the operating suite staff by spending few moments checking facts and establishing an environment of teamwork for the benefit of the surgical patient. PMID:28042399

  5. ANALYSIS OF OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY, ORTHOPEDICS AND THORACIC SURGERY JOURNALS.

    PubMed

    Lima, Wilma Terezinha Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    To perform an extensive analysis of journals in Medicine III - CAPES, and specifically those in the areas of Otorhinolaryngology, Orthopedics and Traumatology and Chest Surgery. An active search for the impact factors in the Journal Citation Reports, Scimago, their indexation in Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus and Google Scholar, and their stratification in WebQualis was done. Forty-four journals with measured impact factors ranging from 3.006 to 0.128 were detected in the area of Otorhinolaryngology; however, only 26 of them (60%) had a Qualis measured by CAPES; in the stratification, no journal was detected in A1, three were A2 and nine B1. Three journals were located for Chest Surgery, with only one of them having a measured Qualis (A2) with a mean of 3.61. Sixty-seven journals were detected for Orthopedics and Traumatology, with an impact factor ranging from 4.699 to 0.156; Qualis was measured in only 38 of them (60%); there were three journal stratified as A1, seven as A2 and 25 as B1. The search for journals of higher impact induces authors to not publish in journals related to their area and facing more difficulties than investigators from other areas. Realizar análise ampla dos periódicos da Medicina III - CAPES e, especificamente, os pertencentes à Otorrinolaringologia, Ortopedia e Traumatologia, e Cirurgia Torácica. Busca ativa do fator de impacto dos periódicos das áreas citadas no Journal Citation Report e Scimago, sua indexação no Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus, Google Scholar e sua estratificação no WebQualis. Para a Otorrinolaringologia foram encontrados 44 periódicos, cujo fator de impacto variou de 3.006 a 0.128; entretanto, apenas 26 deles (60%) tinham Qualis medido pela CAPES; nas estratificações encontrou-se nenhuma revista em A1, três em A2 e nove em B1. Para a Cirurgia Torácica foram localizados três periódicos, sendo que apenas um tinha Qualis medido (A2) com média de 3.61. Os resultados da busca para a Ortopedia e Traumatologia permitiu

  6. [Safe patient care: safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    St Pierre, M

    2013-04-01

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organisation's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organizations maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organisation's "safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality.Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate simulation based team trainings into their curriculum

  7. Influence of laser light on bioimplants used in otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Siedek, Vanessa; Nehls, Kristina; Zur Nieden, Katrin; Leunig, Andreas; Sroka, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    In otorhinolaryngology, dermatology and reconstructive surgery biomaterials as implants and a variety of lasers are used. Laser light applied near to an implant could have the risk to damage these materials. Therefore, their resistance exposed to laser light is of interest. A diode laser emitting at 940 nm and a CO2 laser were used to investigate its effects to the biomaterials Bioverit®, Medpor® and Palacos®, and in addition, an excised implant containing Medpor® and nasal turbinate tissue, excised and fixed in formalin. The macro- and microscopic changes of the material, temperature development during laser energy application in dependency to distance of fibre and material, time of exposure and applied power were investigated. Interaction of diode laser light with Bioverit® (0 mm distance, 360 s, 10 W, 3,600 J) resulted in minimal microscopic effects in direct contact of with the fibre. Using Medpor® (1 mm, 10s, 10 W, 100 J) resulted in melting and perforation. In the case of Palacos® (0.6 mm, 10s, 10 W, 100 J), melting occurred creating a flat excavation. The effect to Medpor® in nasal turbinate (1-2 mm, 10s, 10 W, 100 J) showed tissue denaturation and carbonisation and creation of a hole. The interaction of the CO2 laser with Bioverit® (3 cm, 0.5, 1 and 5 s, 2, 10 or 20 W) induced melting and discolouring resulting finally in a perforating hole. Depending on the material, first damage starts 10 s after an impact of 100 J (threshold value). So interaction between laser energy and biomaterials occurs. This should be carefully considered during clinical laser treatments especially nearby implants.

  8. [Contrastive analysis on disease spectrum of otorhinolaryngology in 230 pilots of three generation fighters].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Xu, Xianrong

    2006-01-01

    To comprehend the changes of disease spectrum of otorhinolaryngology in pilots of fighters. It was analysed that disease spectrum of otorhinolaryngology in 230 pilots of three generation fighter, named as F5, F6 and F7. (1) The top 10 diagnosis in disease spectrum were aortitis media, vertigo, noise-induced deafness, aero-sinusitis, illusion in flight, air-sickness, allergic rhinitis, vestibular dysfunction, chronic rhinitis and Meniere disease. (2) The top 10 diagnosis of F7 pilots changed obviously comparing with those of F5 and F6 pilots. The disease spectrum of otorhinolaryngology of pilots is different in three generation fighters. Compared with F5 and F6 pilots, the proportion of some diseases in F7 pilots shows a trend of decrease, and some others shows a trend of increase. Analysis on the reasons for this change may improve the quality of asiatic medical service.

  9. [Analysis of the otorhinolaryngological doctoral theses submitted in Spain between 1976 and 2005].

    PubMed

    de Diego, Juan Ignacio; Prim, María Pilar

    2008-01-01

    The importance of otorhinolaryngology as a separate branch of medicine has grown in the last decades. The objective of this work is to analyze the doctoral theses in ENT presented in Spain between 1976 and 2005. The TESEO database was searched for theses on otorhinolaryngology produced in Spain between 1976 and 2005. The search criteria used were the terms "Otorhinolaryngology," "Ear, nose, and throat surgery," "Hearing physiology," "Vestibular physiology," "Hearing physics," and "Bioacoustics". 468 theses were found (15.6 theses/year). Of these, 343 (73.6 %) were submitted by otorhinolaryngologists. The Universities of Valencia (Estudi General) (49), Complutense of Madrid (42), Salamanca (39), Barcelona (35), and Autònoma of Barcelona (31) accounted for most of the theses. The name of the supervisor was listed in 376 of the 468 theses (80.4 %); 286 of them had only 1 supervisor (76.1 %) and 90 had 2 (23.9 %). The most frequent topics were otology and audiology (35.1 %). Otorhinolaryngology in Spain has produced a similar number of theses as other areas of knowledge evaluated. The supervision of theses has tended to be shared in the most recent years studied. The number of theses submitted each year did not have only academic influences but also non-academic reasons.

  10. The University of Pennsylvania curriculum for training otorhinolaryngology residents in transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sperry, Steven M; O'Malley, Bert W; Weinstein, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    To define a curriculum for the development of robotic surgical skills in otorhinolaryngology residency training. A systematic review of the current literature on robotic surgery training was performed. Based on prior reports in other specialties, a curriculum for otorhinolaryngology residents was created that progresses through several modules, including didactics, inanimate skills laboratory, and operative experience. The curriculum for residents in otorhinolaryngology was designed as follows: didactics include an overview of the robotic device and instruments, a tutorial in basic controls and function, and a room setup and positioning. The anatomy and steps of transoral procedures are taught through books, videos, operative observations, and cadaver dissections. Skills are developed with a virtual reality robotic simulator and robotics labs. The operative experience progresses from case observation to bedside assistant to console surgeon. The role of the console surgeon progresses in a stepwise fashion, and the procedures of radical tonsillectomy, supraglottic partial laryngectomy, and base of tongue resection have been organized as a series of steps. A structured curriculum for training residents in transoral robotic surgery was developed. This training is important for otorhinolaryngology residents to acquire the knowledge and skills to perform robotic surgery safely. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The value of the otorhinolaryngologic exam in correct mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, Viviane S; de Oliveira, Jene G S; Costa, Jackson M L; Novais, Fernanda O; de Oliveira, Camila I; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2009-09-01

    An increase in mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) cases in northern (Brazil) motivated this study. In 44 ML patients with clinical diagnosis, only 13 parasitologically confirmed cases exhibited mucosal lesion suggestive of ML. Other conditions involving nasal manifestations are frequently confounded with ML. Therefore, otorhinolaryngologic examination is important in the clinical management of ML.

  12. A re-appraisal of publication rates of scientific papers presented at the Otorhinolaryngology Research Society meetings.

    PubMed

    Lau, A S; Krishnan, M; Williams, S P; Mamais, C; Sweed, A; Bhat, J; Somashekar, S; Leong, S C

    2016-12-01

    To review the rate of publication of papers in peer-reviewed journals after oral presentations at the Otorhinolaryngology Research Society meetings between 1996 and 2013 and to compare trends with the previous review (1979-1995). Literature review. Merseyside ENT Research Collaborative. The abstracts of presentations at Otorhinolaryngology Research Society meetings are published in Clinical Otolaryngology. A structured search of PubMed was undertaken to identify published Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentations. Publication rates. A total of 460 abstracts were identified. The interobserver reliability among reviewers was 98%. Of the total, 259 (56.3%) abstracts were published in peer-reviewed journals. The average time from Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentation to publication was 27.7 months (median 23), which was not significantly different from the previous review. Publication by subspeciality was as follows: head and neck (45.6%), otology (30.5%), rhinology (22%) and others (1.9%). Most published Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentations were published in Clinical Otolaryngology (22.4%), followed by the Journal of Laryngology and Otology (8.1%) and the Laryngoscope (7.3%). Clinical research was the most common category of abstracts being presented at Otorhinolaryngology Research Society meetings, followed by laboratory-based research. Over half (56.5%) of laboratory research presented were head and neck themed, while otology and rhinology predominated clinical research presentations. Over half (52.1%) of Otorhinolaryngology Research Society abstracts originated from units in the North of England. Bristol presented the most abstracts (30.1%), followed by Newcastle (25.1%). The publication rate of Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentations remains high and many are subsequently published in high-impact factor otolaryngology journals. More Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentations are now published in American and

  13. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  14. Subspecialist training program in pediatric otorhinolaryngology of UEMS ORL-HNS section.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    The ORL Section and Board of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) developed pediatric ORL subspecialty program. The program was created with support and consultation of the European Society of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. It is divided into four sections: Pediatric Otology, Pediatric Rhinology and Facial Plastic Surgery, Pediatric Laryngology and Phoniatrics and Pediatric Head and Neck Surgery. After completion of the program, the trainee is supposed to achieve an advanced level of competency. The aim of the program is to serve as a guideline for training centers, enabling them to meet the European Standard as set out by the European Board of UEMS through competency based assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the Quality of Reporting of Observational Studies in Otorhinolaryngology - Based on the STROBE Statement.

    PubMed

    Hendriksma, Martine; Joosten, Michiel H M A; Peters, Jeroen P M; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies are the most frequently published studies in literature. When randomized controlled trials cannot be conducted because of ethical or practical considerations, an observational study design is the first choice. The STROBE Statement (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) was developed to provide guidance on how to adequately report observational studies. The objectives were 1) to evaluate the quality of reporting of observational studies of otorhinolaryngologic literature using the STROBE Statement checklist, 2) to compare the quality of reporting of observational studies in the top 5 Ear, Nose, Throat (ENT) journals versus the top 5 general medical journals and 3) to formulate recommendations to improve adequate reporting of observational research in otorhinolaryngologic literature. The top 5 general medical journals and top 5 otorhinolaryngologic journals were selected based on their ISI Web of Knowledge impact factors. On August 3rd, 2015, we performed a PubMed search using different filters to retrieve observational articles from these journals. Studies were selected from 2010 to 2014 for the general medical journals and from 2015 for the ENT journals. We assessed all STROBE items to examine how many items were reported adequately for each journal type. The articles in the top 5 general medical journals (n = 11) reported a mean of 69.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 65.8%-72.7%; median 70.6%), whereas the top 5 ENT journals (n = 29) reported a mean of 51.4% (95% CI: 47.7%-55.0%; median 50.0%). The two journal types reported STROBE items significantly different (p < .001). Quality of reporting of observational studies in otorhinolaryngologic articles can considerably enhance. The quality of reporting was better in general medical journals compared to ENT journals. To improve the quality of reporting of observational studies, we recommend authors and editors to endorse and actively implement the STROBE

  16. Evaluation of the Quality of Reporting of Observational Studies in Otorhinolaryngology - Based on the STROBE Statement

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jeroen P. M.; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Background Observational studies are the most frequently published studies in literature. When randomized controlled trials cannot be conducted because of ethical or practical considerations, an observational study design is the first choice. The STROBE Statement (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) was developed to provide guidance on how to adequately report observational studies. Objectives The objectives were 1) to evaluate the quality of reporting of observational studies of otorhinolaryngologic literature using the STROBE Statement checklist, 2) to compare the quality of reporting of observational studies in the top 5 Ear, Nose, Throat (ENT) journals versus the top 5 general medical journals and 3) to formulate recommendations to improve adequate reporting of observational research in otorhinolaryngologic literature. Methods The top 5 general medical journals and top 5 otorhinolaryngologic journals were selected based on their ISI Web of Knowledge impact factors. On August 3rd, 2015, we performed a PubMed search using different filters to retrieve observational articles from these journals. Studies were selected from 2010 to 2014 for the general medical journals and from 2015 for the ENT journals. We assessed all STROBE items to examine how many items were reported adequately for each journal type. Results The articles in the top 5 general medical journals (n = 11) reported a mean of 69.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 65.8%–72.7%; median 70.6%), whereas the top 5 ENT journals (n = 29) reported a mean of 51.4% (95% CI: 47.7%–55.0%; median 50.0%). The two journal types reported STROBE items significantly different (p < .001). Conclusion Quality of reporting of observational studies in otorhinolaryngologic articles can considerably enhance. The quality of reporting was better in general medical journals compared to ENT journals. To improve the quality of reporting of observational studies, we recommend authors and editors

  17. Quality of reporting of otorhinolaryngology articles using animal models with the ARRIVE statement.

    PubMed

    Bezdjian, Aren; Klis, Sjaak F L; Peters, Jeroen P M; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Research involving animal models is crucial for the advancement of science, provided that experiments are designed, performed, interpreted, and reported well. In order to investigate the quality of reporting of articles in otorhinolaryngology research using animal models, a PubMed database search was conducted to retrieve eligible articles. The checklist of the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) guidelines was used to assess the quality of reporting of articles published in ear, nose and throat (ENT) and multidisciplinary journals. Two authors screened titles, abstracts, and full texts to select articles reporting otorhinolaryngology research using in vivo animal models. ENT journals ( n = 35) reported a mean of 57.1% adequately scored ARRIVE items (median: 58.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI; 53.4-60.9%]), while articles published in multidisciplinary journals ( n = 36) reported a mean of 49.1% adequately scored items (median: 50.0; 95% CI [46.2-52.0%]). Articles published in ENT journals showed better quality of reporting of animal studies based on the ARRIVE guidelines ( P < 0.05). However, adherence to the ARRIVE guidelines is generally poor in otorhinolaryngology research using in vivo animal models. The endorsement of the ARRIVE guidelines by authors, research and academic institutes, editorial offices and funding agencies is recommended for improved reporting of scientific research using animal models.

  18. Using Lean Thinking at an otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic to improve quality of care.

    PubMed

    van Leijen-Zeelenberg, Janneke E; Brunings, Jan Wouter; Houkes, Inge; van Raak, Arno J A; Ruwaard, Dirk; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; Kremer, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Although Lean Thinking has led to considerable improvement in a variety of healthcare settings, its effects on otorhinolaryngology remain underexposed. This study reports on how the implementation of Lean Thinking at an otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic has affected patient and provider satisfaction, waste reduction, and organizational culture. Prospective before-and-after design. The 18-month prospective before-and-after design used mixed methods for data collection and analysis. A survey was conducted to measure satisfaction among patients and providers. Semistructured interviews were conducted to evaluate the effect of Lean Thinking on waste and organizational culture. During the project, 69 issues were posted on the Lean board. Improvements were made on 36 inefficiency issues, not all concerning a specific type of waste. Employees reported considerable improvement in transportation, motion, and waiting. Patient satisfaction was high both at baseline and follow-up and did not change significantly. The effects on provider satisfaction were slight; satisfaction with autonomy and participation decreased significantly, but satisfaction with communication increased significantly. The implementation of Lean Thinking at an otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic reduced waste and increased provider satisfaction with communication. Although patient satisfaction did not change significantly, it cannot be concluded that the intervention had no effect on perceived quality of care. Other approaches to measure patients' perceptions should be considered. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Pain after pediatric otorhinolaryngologic surgery: a prospective multi-center trial.

    PubMed

    Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Geissler, Katharina; Komann, Marcus; Meissner, Winfried

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe postoperative pain within the first day after pediatric otorhinolaryngologic surgery and to identify factors influencing postoperative pain. Using a prospective evaluation and a Web-based multi-center registry, children ≥4 years of age (n = 365) rated their pain using questionnaires of the project Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Treatment for Children including faces numeric rating scales (FNRS, 0-10) for the determination of patient's pain on ambulation and his/her maximal and minimal pain within 8 h after day case surgery or at the first postoperative day for inpatient cases. Additionally, functional interference and therapy-related side effects were assessed. Half of the children were 4 or 5 years of age. The predominant types of surgery were adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy ± ear ventilation tubes. Although analgesics were applied preoperatively, intraoperatively, in the recovery room and on ward, maximal pain within the first day after surgery reached 4.4 ± 3.3 (FNRS). Pain was highest after oral surgery, especially after tonsillectomy and nose surgery. 39% of the children reported pain interference with breathing (39%). The most frequent side effect was drowsiness (55%). Multivariate analysis revealed that maximal pain was independently associated with the non-standardized use of opioids in the recovery room, or use of non-opioid or opioids on ward. Analgesia and perioperative pain management in pediatric otorhinolaryngologic surgery seems to be highly variable. Tonsillectomy and nose surgery are very painful. After otorhinolaryngologic surgery many children seem to receive less analgesia than needed or ineffective analgesic drug regimes.

  20. Acquired factor V inhibitor after exposure to topical human thrombin related to an otorhinolaryngological procedure.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, K; Levine, R

    2015-10-01

    Acquired factor V (FV) inhibitors occur rarely and classically develop after exposure to bovine thrombin. The clinical presentation is variable, ranging from asymptomatic with incidental laboratory abnormalities to significant bleeding. With the development of human-derived thrombin agents, bovine thrombin is less frequently used. We report a case of an acquired FV inhibitor that developed in a patient after exposure to human thrombin used as a hemostatic agent during an otorhinolaryngology surgical procedure. Our review of the literature revealed only one prior reported case of FV inhibitor after exposure to human thrombin. Hematologists and surgeons should be aware of this rare, but potentially life-threatening, complication in the postprocedural setting.

  1. [Mutant prevention concentrations of garenoxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from otorhinolaryngological infections].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kurono, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Nishimura, Tadao; Baba, Shunkichi; Harabuchi, Yasuaki; Fujisawa, Toshiyuki; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ubukata, Kimiko; Ikeda, Fumiaki

    2010-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) of garenoxacin (GRNX), were compared to those of levofloxacin (LVFX), and moxifloxacin (MFLX) against 78 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from otorhinolaryngological infections in Japan during the period January 2007 to June 2007. The MIC and MPC for 90% of the isolates (MIC90 and MPC90) of GRNX were 0.06 and 0.12 microg/mL, respectively, and were the lower values than LVFX and MFLX MIC90s and MPC90s. The ratios of MPC/MIC of GRNX were the lower values than those of LVFX and MFLX.

  2. Assessment of the Quality of Reporting of Randomised Controlled Trials in Otorhinolaryngologic Literature – Adherence to the CONSORT Statement

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jeroen P. M.; Hooft, Lotty; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) are the preferred study design when comparing therapeutical interventions in medicine. To improve clarity, consistency and transparency of reporting RCTs, the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement was developed. Objectives (1) To assess the quality of reports and abstracts of RCTs in otorhinolaryngologic literature by using CONSORT checklists, (2) to compare the quality of reports and abstracts of otorhinolaryngologic RCTs between the top 5 general medical journals and top 5 otorhinolaryngologic journals, and (3) to formulate recommendations for authors and editors of otorhinolaryngologic (‘ENT’) journals. Methods Based on 2012 ISI Web of Knowledge impact factors, the top 5 general medical and ENT journals were selected. On 25 June 2014, using a highly sensitive Cochrane RCT filter and ENT filter, possibly relevant articles since January 1st, 2010 were retrieved and relevant RCTs were selected. We assessed how many CONSORT items were reported adequately in reports and abstracts and compared the two journal types. Results Otorhinolaryngologic RCTs (n = 15) published in general medical journals reported a mean of 92.1% (95% confidence interval: 89.5%–94.7%) of CONSORT items adequately, whereas RCTs (n = 18) published in ENT journals reported a mean of 71.8% (66.7%–76.8%) adequately (p < 0.001). For abstracts, means of 70.0% (63.7%–76.3%) and 32.3% (26.6–38.0%) were found respectively (p < 0.001). Large differences for specific items exist between the two journal types. Conclusion The quality of reporting of RCTs in otorhinolaryngologic journals is suboptimal. RCTs published in general medical journals have a higher quality of reporting than RCTs published in ENT journals. We recommend authors to report their trial according to the CONSORT Statement and advise editors to endorse the CONSORT Statement and implement the CONSORT Statement in the editorial process to ensure more adequate

  3. [Hearing loss in attended patients in otorhinolaryngology service at IMSS in Guadalajara].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Delgado, María Estela; Alvarez-Raygoza, Yolanda; Celis de la-Rosa, Alfredo; Virgen-Enciso, Maricela; Castro-Castañeda, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    to know the etiology, topography, degree of hearing loss and coexisting morbidity in outpatient otorhinolaryngology service at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Guadalajara, Jalisco. descriptive and transversal study of 393 patients older than 12 years, were studied during 12 months. They were sent to the otorhinolaryngology service from five hospitals in Guadalajara. Three population groups were made (adolescents, adults and elderly); medical history, otoscopy and conventional tone audiometry was carried out. the average age of patients was 51.2 (SD 4.2 years), 57.8 % were women and 58.5 % adults. Of the 786 examined ears, 91.9 % (95% CI = 89.8-93.7) had hearing loss; chronic suppurative otitis media with or without sensorineural factor, was the most common of hearing loss, affecting 25.4 % (95% CI = 22.3-28.7) of the 723 hearing loss ears; after mixed cochleopathies (21.8 %, 95% CI = 18.8-25). Sensorineural hearing loss occurred in 85.6 % (95% CI = 82.8-88) and 31 % (95% CI= 27.4-34.3) had moderate hearing loss. The most common coexisting morbidity were high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus. our data suggest that hearing loss in population study is a treatable pathology, this information will aid in the promotion of preventive measures for opportune detection of otitis and comorbidity and to implement detection campaigns in population of risk, schools and labor centers.

  4. [Turkey's place in Europe in respect of pediatric otorhinolaryngology publications in scope of Science Citation Index].

    PubMed

    Erdağ, Taner Kemal; Durmuşoğlu, Mehmet; Özay, Hüseyin; Sönmez, Fatih; Doğan, Ersoy

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate quantitatively the pediatric otorhinolaryngology (ORL) publications belonging to the ORL journals of the Science Citation Index (SCI) made by Turkey and other European countries between five year periods during 1995 and 2012. After SCI journals of 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012 under the ORL heading were determined, the publications of all European countries in these journals were detected electronically using PubMed search engine. Then, the number of pediatric ORL publications and the journals which included them were determined and counted manually for each country. The number of total publications and pediatric ORL publications made by European countries in the mentioned years were 539/98, 737/123, 747/158, 757/175, and 746/171 respectively. Turkey was the country with the highest number of pediatric ORL publications in all years except 1995. It was detected that more than half of the total pediatric ORL publications were included in International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. It is pleasing that Turkey is ahead of many developed European countries in respect of the number of pediatric ORL publications. Further studies on type, evidence-based medicine or citation analysis of these publications will also enable qualitative evaluation.

  5. [The influence of current social, medical, and political trends on the future of otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, D; Löhler, J

    2016-04-01

    All medical specialties are changing permanently, including otorhinolaryngology. Analyzing trends in social changes, medical progress, and political decisions will allow the effects of these on ENT medicine to be at least partially anticipated. Demographic changes and medical progress lead to an increasing demand for medical treatments. In addition, increasing numbers of female physicians are observed, as are many changes in the lifestyles of young physicians. Medical treatment will develop toward more individualized therapies in the future. ENT surgery will become a more ambulatory medical specialty. Driven by political decisions, digital medicine will become more important. Particular services once provided by physicians will be delegated to non-physician professionals. The lack of physicians and the progress in medicine require better networking between in- and outpatient services in the future. The potential of such collaborations is currently not completely realized. However, these developments will also increase the cost of health care. These trends will develop otorhinolaryngology into a conservative and surgical ambulatory care driven medical specialty. Embedded in decentralized networks and cooperations, and supported by IT technologies and specialized non-physician professionals, ENT physicians will work in hospitals as well as in practices on a permanent basis. Nevertheless, the question of funding these changes has yet to be clarified.

  6. The development and design of the European Board of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Examination (EBEORL-HNS).

    PubMed

    Luxenberger, Wolfgang; Ward, Victoria M M; Nikolaou, Angelos; Neudert, Marcus; Bien, Stanislaw; Eichhorn, Thomas; Loppönen, Heikki; Wild, Dominik; Meco, Cem; de la Mota, Maria; Albegger, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    The UEMS Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery section is a dedicated body formed to promote the standardisation and harmonisation of European Otorhinolaryngology (ORL). The European Examination Board of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery was created to establish a supranational final exam and accreditation for ORL Surgeons. It is open to candidates both from the European Union and outside the EU. The exam is composed of a written examination to assess mainly the theoretical knowledge of Otorhinolaryngological diseases. The second part, a viva voce examination, is designed to test the clinical application of knowledge based on case scenarios and clinical conditions presented to the candidates. The inaugural examination written component took place in Mannheim/Germany in 2009 and the inaugural Viva Voce examination in Vienna/Austria in 2010. Up to and including the year 2013, 858 participants have attempted one of the two exam components. Of the 858 participants, 305 were successful in both examinations and obtained the accreditation of the European Diploma (European Board Certification). The historical origins, development of the examination, its formal arrangements and the format of the examination are presented in this article.

  7. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must be...

  8. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must be...

  9. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must be...

  10. Your Child's Development: 3-5 Days

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days Print A A A en español El desarrollo ... hijo: 3-5 días Though only a few days old, your baby already is able to interact ...

  11. Otorhinolaryngologic manifestations of Hartsfield syndrome: Case series and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jeremie D; Menapace, Deanna C; Cofer, Shelagh A

    2017-07-01

    Diagnosis of Hartsfield syndrome includes recognition of three distinct clinical anomalies: holoprosencephaly, ectrodactyly, and bilateral cleft-lip and palate syndrome. A family including three male siblings all affected by Hartsfield syndrome presented to our institution for care. An autosomal dominant variant in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) was identified. This report focuses on otorhinolaryngologic manifestationsof Hartsfield syndrome, previously undescribed, including midline defects of holoprosencephaly, bilateral cleft-lip and palate, retrognathia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, external ear anomalies, eustachian tube dysfunction, and midface abnormalities, in addition to multidisciplinary, long-term management strategies. Multidisciplinary management is imperative in the care of these children with modification of approach based on their medical complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Unknown pathogens from the human oral microflora of interest for otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Tets, V V; Tets, G V; Vikina, D S; Vecherovskaia, M F; Kharlamova, V V

    2014-01-01

    The identification of microorganisms from the human oral cavity is a topical problem in many clinical disciplines including otorhinolaryngology. Many bacterial species of oral microbiota are causative agents of ENT diseases, and poor conditions of the oral cavity, unhealthy teeth and gums increase the risk of the spread of infection. The objective of the present study was to distinguish and identify poorly explored and previously unknown aerobic opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms responsible for various ENT disorders. The normal microflora remains to be thoroughly studied with the use of the new culturing techniques that ensure the isolation of pure microbial cultures. The present publication reports for the first time isolation of the stable mixed microbial biofilms formed by unrelated bacterial species and containing the yet unknown microorganisms. The isolated bacteria were identified as previously unknown or poorly unexplored anaerobic opportunistic species capable of inducing ENT pathology; their sensitivity to antibiotics was evaluated.

  13. [Present situation of the otorhinolaryngology departments in the Spanish Hospitals. Heterogeneity in handling voice disorders].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Parra, M J; Casado, J C; Adrián, J A; Buiza, J J

    2006-02-01

    The study of voice disorders present some specific difficulties such as the aetiological variability of this kind of disorders or the heterogeneity and the poor data we have about the effectiveness of certain treatments used. Research has performed different types of questionnaires in this area to obtain data about the treatments used in clinical practice. These studies have shown lack or scarce of evaluation and control methods in the rehabilitation programs that the specialists commonly use. In this report, a screening questionnaire was sent to the Otorhinolaryngology Departments of the Spanish Hospitals to obtain information about evaluation and treatment resources in voice pathologies. The results show great variability in clinical voice disorders in Spain. However we can observe a full agreement in the need to systematize this evaluation and the collaboration of the speech-therapists in the treatment of the voice disorders.

  14. Pediatric and adult otorhinolaryngological publications: trends over 15 years (1993-2007).

    PubMed

    Even-Or, Ehud; Sichel, Jean Yves; Perez, Ronen; Mimouni, Francis B

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the trends in otorhinolaryngological (ORL) publications from 1993 to 2007. In order to retrieve as many ORL-related articles as possible we used two strategies of literature analysis. Both were based upon ORL Medline articles from 1/1/1993 to 31/12/2007. In the first strategy, we attempted to retrieve as many ORL articles as possible from all Medline recorded journals (ORL-specific and non-ORL-specific journals indiscriminately); we thus used the key words: "otorhinolaryngology or ears or nose or throat". In the second strategy, we attempted to retrieve ORL-related articles in ORL-specific journals only; we thus evaluated all Medline articles from 1/1/1993 to 31/12/2007 from all 83 ORL journals reviewed by Medline. In both strategies we limited the search to "all adults" (i.e. adult ORL) and "all children" (i.e. pediatric ORL). We repeated the search by each time using one limit according to publication types as classified by the Medline, and collected the total number of publications per year for the 15 years of the specified period. We used regression analysis to determine the effect of year of publication upon the number of publications of each type. Using either strategy, there was a steady increase over time both in pediatric and adult ORL in total publications, with a sharper rise in the number of adult publications. Both strategies led to very similar findings, to a few exceptions. There might be a shift of ORL publications toward ORL-specific journals. New medical information available to ORL specialists increases over time, increasing academic burden. The field of pediatric ORL has had a significant yearly increase of published studies but not to the same extent as the field of adult ORL.

  15. The Rate of Epistaxis Incidence in New-Generation Anticoagulants and Perioperative Approach in Otorhinolaryngological Practices.

    PubMed

    Gökdoğan, Ozan; Akyildiz, Ilker; Sayin, Begum Yetis; Okutucu, Sercan; Tanalp, Ali Cevat; Arslan, Necmi

    2017-03-01

    Nose bleeding is a common situation seen in otorhinolaryngological practices. One of the greatest risk factors in nose bleeding is the use of anticoagulant medicine. With the medicine developed in recent years, the risk of nose bleeding due to the frequent use of anticoagulant and antiagregant is gradually increasing.The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of especially new-generation anticoagulants on nose bleeding. In addition, the use and complications of new-generation anticoagulants and antiagregants have been compiled in light of information obtained from the literature.Three hundred forty patients whose follow-up is conducted by the cardiology department and who use oral antithrombocytic medicine have been included in the study. It has been determined that 15% of these patients use new-generation oral anticoagulants (Rivaroksaban, apiksaban, dabigatran, danaparoid) and the other patients are treated with conventional antithrombocytic treatment (Aspirin, Warfarin, Enoksaparin sodium). The rate of nose bleeding in patients who use classical anticoagulants has been observed to be 28%. In 30 of these patients who had nose bleeding, while cauterization and buffering by otorhinolaryngology specialists, major intervention has not been necessary for any of the patients. While bleeding has been observed in 26% of the patients who use new-generation anticoagulants, bleeding that required operational intervention has taken place in 2 patients. Bleedings have been stopped surgically through a large number of cauterization and buffering.While the new-generation anticoagulants cause lower rate of bleeding, it has been observed that controlling these bleedings is more difficult.

  16. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... written agreement or a temporary or final order pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1818 (b) or (c), or as a condition... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability. 3.5 Section 3.5 Banks and... Office determines, pursuant to the procedures set forth in subpart C, that different minimum...

  17. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... written agreement or a temporary or final order pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1818 (b) or (c), or as a condition... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability. 3.5 Section 3.5 Banks and... Office determines, pursuant to the procedures set forth in subpart C, that different minimum...

  18. Your Child's Development: 3-5 Days

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days A A A Though only ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  19. [Primitive oto-rhino-laryngology and cervico-maxillofacial tumors: epidemiological and histological aspects].

    PubMed

    Amana, Bathokedeou; Foma, Winga; Pegbessou, Essobozou; Bissa, Haréfétéguéna; Adam, Saliou; Amana, Essobiziou; Amégbor, Koffi; Boko, Essohanam; Kpemissi, Eyawèlohn

    2016-01-01

    Establish the panorama of primitive oto-rhino-laryngology and cervico-maxillofacial tumors diagnosed at a reference center in Togo. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of cancers diagnosed at the ORL and cervico-maxillofacial surgery department of the CHU Sylvanus Olympio of Lomé. It was conducted over a period of 10 years (1 January 2005 - 31 December 2014). ORL and cervico-maxillofacial tumors account for 0.48% of consultations and 15.3% of all ORL tumors. The average age of patients was 47 years, ranging from 3 months to 86 years. We noted a male predominance; the sex ratio was 1.45. Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco prevailed in the cancer of the larynx. Upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) tumors accounted for 64,8%, with a prevalence of cancers of the oral cavity (36,2% of UAT), followed by cancers of the oropharynx (18,5% of UAT) and finally by cancers of the larynx (18,1% of UAT). Primary malignant cervical adenopathies accounted for 18%. The rarest lesions were cancers of the ear and of maxillomandibular bone tissue (2.24% each). Histology was dominated by squamous cell carcinoma (61.4%) followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma (23.2%). ORL and cervico-maxillofacial tumors are frequent in Togo and can be diagnosed at any age. The predominant tumor types reported are those of the oral cavity, pharynx and primary malignant cervical adenopathies.

  20. Application of flexible endoscopy-based biopsy in the diagnosis of tumour pathologies in otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Saga, Carlos; Olalde, Manuel; Larruskain, Ekhiñe; Álvarez, Leire; Altuna, Xabier

    2017-08-14

    Interventional endoscopy allows us to act on the pathology of the patient with minimal discomfort, low costs and high efficiency. We assessed the validity of flexible endoscopic biopsies in our hospital, in lesions suspected of malignancy in the rhino-pharyngo-laryngeal space. Retrospective study of patients with a pathology suspected of malignancy assessed between 2006-2016 in our centre. We evaluated the effectiveness, the tolerance and the number of complications. We calculated the cost reduction in comparison with direct laryngoscopy in the operating room. We compared our sample with others of similar characteristics described in the literature. Thirty patients were studied with a flexible endoscopic biopsy during that period. Nineteen patients obtained positive results which allowed them to start treatment for their pathology. Seven cases had no evidence of malignancy and required another biopsy under general anaesthesia, which confirmed the carcinoma diagnosis. Two samples ruled out malignancy which was confirmed by laryngeal microsurgery. One case showed inflammation and the lesion was cured after antibiotherapy. It was impossible to collect the sample in one case. Thus, we obtained sensitivity levels of 73% with a specificity of 100%. There were no complications. The cost reduction in our sample was above 80%. Flexible endoscopic biopsy has advantages over direct laryngoscopy that are relevant in the diagnosis of oncological pathology in otorhinolaryngology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  1. [Peripheral vertigo classification. Consensus document. Otoneurology committee of the Spanish otorhinolaryngology society (2003-2006)].

    PubMed

    Morera, Constantino; Pérez, Herminio; Pérez, Nicolás; Soto, Andrés

    2008-02-01

    There are many different vertigo classifications and different denominations are frequently used for the same clinical processes. The Otoneurology Committee of the Spanish Society for Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Pathology proposes an eminently practical classification of peripheral vertigo to facilitate a common terminology that can be easily used by the general ENT practitioners. The methodology used has been by consensus within our Society and especially among the most outstanding work groups in the area of otoneurology in Spain. Initially vertigo is divided into single-episode vertigo and recurring attacks of vertigo, and these are then sub-divided into 2 groups, depending on whether or not hearing loss is present. Acute vertigo without hearing loss corresponds to vestibular neuritis and if it is associated with hearing loss, it is due to labyrinthitis of different aetiologies and cochleo-vestibular neuritis. Recurrent vertigos without hearing loss are classified as induced, either by posture (BPPV) or pressure (perilymphatic fistula), or as spontaneous, including migraine-associated vertigo, metabolic vertigo, childhood paroxysmal vertigo and vertigo of vascular causes (AITs, vertebral-basilar failure). Finally, recurrent vertigo with hearing loss includes Ménière's disease and others such as vertigo-migraine (with hearing loss), autoimmune pathology of the inner ear, syphilitic infection, and perilymphatic fistula (with hearing loss).

  2. Guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology (SFORL). Epistaxis and high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Michel, J; Prulière Escabasse, V; Bequignon, E; Vérillaud, B; Robard, L; Crampette, L; Malard, O

    2017-02-01

    The authors present the guidelines of the French Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society (Société Française d'Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie et de Chirurgie de la Face et du Cou: SFORL) on epistaxis in high blood pressure. A multidisciplinary work group was entrusted with a review of the scientific literature on the above topic. Guidelines were drawn up, based on the articles retrieved and the group members' individual experience. They were then read over by an editorial group independent of the work group. The final version was established in a coordination meeting. The guidelines were graded as A, B, C or expert opinion, by decreasing level of evidence. It is recommended to measure the blood pressure of patients in acute-phase epistaxis (Grade A); to control high blood pressure medically in the acute phase of bleeding, to reduce its duration; to monitor blood pressure at the waning of nosebleed; and to control high blood pressure medically in the waning phase to reduce the risk of recurrence. In case of persistent high blood pressure on waning of severe epistaxis, it is recommended to prescribe cardiovascular evaluation to screen for underlying hypertensive disease (Grade B). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Developing a Registry for Complications in Otorhinolaryngologic Surgery: Tonsil Surgery as a Pilot Cohort.

    PubMed

    Ruohoalho, Johanna; Mäkitie, Antti A; Atula, Timo; Takala, Annika; Keski-Säntti, Harri; Aro, Katri; Haapaniemi, Aaro; Markkanen-Leppänen, Mari; Bäck, Leif J

    2015-07-01

    To find a suitable method to prospectively register all tonsil surgery-related complications. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary care center. From September 2011 to February 2012, patients undergoing tonsillectomy or tonsillotomy were enrolled. A wide range of demographic and clinical data including incidents of postoperative complications was recorded prospectively, and patient records were reviewed 9 months after the end of study period. We evaluated the coverage of prospective data recording, analyzed the complication rates, and assessed the process of registration. A total of 573 patients were recruited. The study registry including 57 variables required the completion of missing data before analysis. Of all 79 patients with a complication, 69.6% were captured prospectively at the emergency department, and the rest were found when reviewing the patient records. The proportion of prospectively captured complications was highest for the most common complications (eg, 81.1% for secondary hemorrhage). The overall complication rate was 13.8%. Secondary hemorrhage was the most common complication, with the incidence of 9.6%. We have demonstrated the initial feasibility of a prospective complication registry for otorhinolaryngology procedures, and the results can be applied accordingly. We also present 5 practical recommendations when initiating a functional registry. Particular attention should be paid to recognition and registration of both rare and serious events. Regular analysis of the results is required in order to respond to possible changes in the incidence or nature of complications. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  4. [High-frequency jet ventilation in otorhinolaryngology - surgical and anaesthesiologic issues].

    PubMed

    Helmstaedter, V; Tellkamp, R; Schwab, B; Lenarz, T; Durisin, M

    2014-07-01

    High-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) through thin catheters creates more room for surgical procedures in laryngotracheal surgery, while few contraindications exist. In contrast, the anaesthesiologist has to cope with reduced monitoring and numerous contraindications. Therefore, every participating discipline has to thoroughly know the method. We report our experiences with HFJV and focus on relevant points, which contribute to a safe and cooperative procedure. We performed a retrospective chart review for patients, who were operated for benign laryngotracheal lesions using HFJV at the Hannover Medical School, Department of Otorhino-Laryngology between June 2012 and February 2013. We analyze patient characteristics, complications and important anaesthesiologic and operative steps. A total of 46 cases of microlaryngoscopies and tracheoscopies were included in this study. The median body mass index was 27 kg/m(2). According to the ASA-classification, 24% of patients were categorized class I, 54% class II and 22% class III. In 2 cases we had reversible, peripheral desaturations down to 70%. In one case, emergent re-intubation with an endotracheal tube was inevitable due to rapid desaturation below 50%. Further complications were not observed. HFJV represents a safe ventilation approach in laryngotracheal surgery, when patients are thoroughly selected. Especially the surgeon benefits from more room in the operating field. Obesity, reflux and cardiopulmonary diseases have to be evaluated well, as these can represent relative contraindications. Individual decisions can be made under consideration of all comorbidities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. [Treatment of otorhinolaryngologic diseases of deficient heat type with Professor XIE Qiang's Tihu Guanding needling method].

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Xie, Qiange; Huang, Bing-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Professor XIE Qiang's Tihu Guanding needling method, a kind of acupuncture method which takes acupoints of the Conception Vessel as the primary and acupoints of the Governor Vessel as the secondary. Acupoints Lianquan (CV 23), Tiantu (CV 22), Qihai (CV 6), Zhongwan (CV 12), Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14) are adopted as the basic ones. Other points can be added according to various symptoms, for instance, Yingxiang (LI 20) and Yintang (GV 29) for rhinopathy, Tinggong (SI 19) and Yifeng (TE 17) for otopathy, Yan'an (Professor XIE's experience) and Shanglianquan (EX-HN 21) for pharyngopathy and Kaiyin 1 (Professor XIE's experience) and Kaiyin 2 (Professor XIE's experience) for laryngopathy. During the needle retention, rotation manipulation should be done every 5 min at Lianquan (CV 23). And the patient should be told to put the tip of one's tongue at the the palate as well as to do deep breathing to communicate the Conception Vessel and the Governor Vessel. Moxibustion is adopted at Yongquan (KI 1) to induce the up floating fire to mingmen (where the primary yang is stored). The therapeutic effect on treatment of persistent otorhinolaryngologic diseases with the above mentioned method is approve to be good.

  6. British Association of Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology members experience with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Razvan A; McCormick, Maxwell; Clarke, Ray W

    2006-07-01

    To establish current practice in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in the UK. Consultant members of the British Association of Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology (BAPO) were sent a questionnaire on current practice concerning the management of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in the paediatric population. The response rate was 39.4% perhaps reflecting the relatively small number of otolaryngologists who treat this condition. Data were analysed from 41 respondents representing 27 departments for a total of 103 patients. A total of 13 patients (12.6%) received adjuvant medical therapies with the antiviral agent cidofovir accounting for 10 patients. Distal spread of RRP has occurred in 27 (26.2%) patients. There were six reported deaths due to progressive RRP. Various lasers (CO(2), KTP, and pulsed dye) are the preferred method of surgical removal of RRP in children. Spontaneous ventilation (65.3%) is the preferred method of anaesthesia. Half of the consultants do not routinely send for HPV subtyping and 75% send lesions for histological examination if there is a change in growth pattern. Two thirds of respondents do not routinely treat their patients with antireflux medication. There is a need for the establishment of a centralized national base to which all treating consultants can report their cases. The time has come for national multicenter controlled trials on the use of adjuvant interventions for the treatment of both severe and less severe RRP disease. Both of the above can be organized under the umbrella of BAPO.

  7. Pattern of Otorhinolaryngological Admissions via Emergency Unit in a Suburban Tertiary Center

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, Taiwo O.; Sogebi, Olusola A.; Tobih, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with ORL lesions sometimes present to the general emergency room. This study reviews the common ENT admissions via emergency room in a sub-urban town in Nigeria Methods: A retrospective study spanning five years from January 2009 to December 2013 Results: A total of 211 cases consisting of 131 (62.1%) males with male: female ratio 1.6: 1 and a mean age of 32.8 ± 22.4 years. About a quarter of the patients were children, the peak age was 21-40 years (in 37%). The common indications for emergency otorhinolaryngological admissions were Epistaxis (16.1%), Nasal/facial trauma (14.7%), pharyngo-esophageal foreign bodies (13.3%) and upper airway obstruction (8.1%). Majority 16 (57.1%) of the Pharyngo-esophageal FBs occurred in children. Most of the airway obstructions in children were due to juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis while laryngeal cancer was the major cause among the adult. Sixty percent had surgical procedures, 86.7% had satisfactory outcome and mortalities were recorded in 1.4%. Conclusion: Majority of causes for ORL admissions via emergency unit are of pharyngo-esophageal origin. There is apparent reversal of the otological origin trend in ENT admissions via A&E unit. PMID:26508908

  8. Water Sourcebook. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville.

    The goal of this supplemental activity guide for elementary students in grades 3-5 is to develop awareness, knowledge, and skills for sound water use decisions. Materials developed for the program are compatible with existing curriculum standards established by State Boards of Education throughout the United States and teach concepts included in…

  9. Synthesis of deoxyribonucleotidyl(3'5')arabinonucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, S.H.; Ainsworth, C.F.; Bell, C.L.; Danyluk, S.S.; MacCoss, M.

    1983-01-01

    Two different synthetic routes using phosphotriester methodology have been utilized to prepare deoxyribonucleotidyl(3'-5)arabinonucleosides containing 9-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A vidarabine) and 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C, cytarabine) at the 3'-terminus in amounts and purity (greater than 95%) suitable for NMR analysis.

  10. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.5 Applicability. This subpart is applicable to all banks unless the... ratios are appropriate for an individual bank based upon its particular circumstances, or...

  11. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.5 Applicability. This subpart is applicable to all banks unless the... ratios are appropriate for an individual bank based upon its particular circumstances, or...

  12. Comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the Practice of Otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Heloisa Sobreira; Pinto, José Antonio; Zavanela, Adma Roberta; Cavallini, André Freitas; Freitas, Gabriel Santos; Garcia, Fabiola Esteves

    2016-07-01

    The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease has a prevalence of ∼12% of the urban population in Brazil. Koufman proposed the term to designate Laryngeal Pharyngeal Reflux (LPR) symptoms, signs or tissue damage resulting from aggression of the gastrointestinal contents in the upper aerodigestive tract. Belafsky et al proposed a score that points to inflammatory laryngeal signs through videolaryngoscopic findings, the Reflux Finding Score (RFS). Moreover, in 2002, they published the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). The objective of this study is to provide a comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the practice of Otorhinolaryngology. Our study involved a total of 135 patients who visited the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) clinic Núcleo de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço de São Paulo between April 2014 and May 2015 with suspected LPR. We excluded nine patients and the study group was 126 patients. All patients were ranked by their RSI and RFS scores. The study group consisted of 126 patients (88 women and 38 men). Their main complaints were cough (40.4%), globus (21.4%), dysphonia (19.8%), throat clearing (15.8%), postnasal drip (3.17%), snoring (1.5%), dysphagia (1.5%), cacosmia (0.7%), and regurgitation (1.5%). The RSI ranges from 13 to 42 with a mean of 20.7 (SD = 6.67). The RFS ranged from 3 to 19 with a mean of 9.53 (SD = 2.64). The RSI and RFS can easily be included in ENT routines as objective parameters, with low cost and high practicality. Based on the clinical index, the specialist can evaluate the need for further tests.

  13. Comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the Practice of Otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Heloisa Sobreira; Pinto, José Antonio; Zavanela, Adma Roberta; Cavallini, André Freitas; Freitas, Gabriel Santos; Garcia, Fabiola Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease has a prevalence of ∼12% of the urban population in Brazil. Koufman proposed the term to designate Laryngeal Pharyngeal Reflux (LPR) symptoms, signs or tissue damage resulting from aggression of the gastrointestinal contents in the upper aerodigestive tract. Belafsky et al proposed a score that points to inflammatory laryngeal signs through videolaryngoscopic findings, the Reflux Finding Score (RFS). Moreover, in 2002, they published the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). Objective  The objective of this study is to provide a comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the practice of Otorhinolaryngology. Methods  Our study involved a total of 135 patients who visited the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) clinic Núcleo de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço de São Paulo between April 2014 and May 2015 with suspected LPR. We excluded nine patients and the study group was 126 patients. All patients were ranked by their RSI and RFS scores. Results  The study group consisted of 126 patients (88 women and 38 men). Their main complaints were cough (40.4%), globus (21.4%), dysphonia (19.8%), throat clearing (15.8%), postnasal drip (3.17%), snoring (1.5%), dysphagia (1.5%), cacosmia (0.7%), and regurgitation (1.5%). The RSI ranges from 13 to 42 with a mean of 20.7 (SD = 6.67). The RFS ranged from 3 to 19 with a mean of 9.53 (SD = 2.64). Conclusion  The RSI and RFS can easily be included in ENT routines as objective parameters, with low cost and high practicality. Based on the clinical index, the specialist can evaluate the need for further tests. PMID:27413402

  14. [Peer teaching and peer assessment are appropriate tools in medical education in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Kemper, M; Linke, J; Zahnert, T; Neudert, M

    2014-06-01

    The use of student tutors (peers) is an accepted method in medical education. In 2011, final year students of the otorhinolaryngology (ORL) department of the University Hospital in Dresden were appointed as peers for the clinical ORL examination. They assisted in the instruction of the clinical ORL examination (peer teaching, PT) and served as examiners (peer assessment, PA) in the final objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The effect on the quality of education and examination was examined. 248 medical students (5(th) year) were divided in 2 groups. They were trained and finally examined in the standardized clinical ORL examination by peers and/or physicians. Group I (n=118) was exclusively trained and examined by physicians and group II (n=130) by peers and physicians. The results of the OSCE were stratified for the 2 groups and in group II for the subgroups according to the instructors' and examiners' qualification (peer or physician). The students evaluated the internship and the instructors' and examiners' quality with a validated questionnaire. In the OSCE, group I scored in the mean 59.9±4.9 points (max. 65). In group II the mean score was 58.3±4.3 points examined by the peers and 59.5±4.8 points for same performance assessed by the physicians. There were no statistical significant differences in the examination results when stratified for the instructors' and examiners' qualification. The evaluation results were consistently positive and identical when compared to the previous year without use of PT and PA and between the 2 groups and subgroups. When using a standardized clinical examination routine peers can be used for PT and PA to appropriate tools in student's medical education without any decrease in the teaching and examination quality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Sinonasal papillomas in a private referral otorhinolaryngology centre: Review of 22 years experience.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Fontes, Aderito; Sandrea Jiménez, Minaret; Urdaneta Lafée, Nelson; Abreu Durán, Perfecto A; Quintana Páez, Liwven E; de Sousa de Abreu, Andreina Carmina

    To evaluate the clinical presentation, treatment outcome and follow-up of all patients managed with sinonasal papillomas (SP), at a tertiary private otorhinolaryngology centre in Caracas (Venezuela). We reviewed 94 patients with SP that were treated at our otolaryngology center, from July 1st 1993 to June 31st 2015. The demographic data, clinical features, radiological findings, anatomical origin, disease extension into the adjacent structures, surgical approaches performed, histopathology outcomes, recurrent risk, malignant transformation rate and coadjuvant therapies were assessed. Sixty-five patients (69.1%) were male and 29 (30.9%) female with an average age of 44.5 years (range 9-80 years). All patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. The most commont histologic subtypes of SP were inverted papilloma (58 patients; 61.7%), fungiform papilloma (35 patients; 37.2%) and oncocytic papilloma (one patient; 1.1%). SP was associated in 2 patients with undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Twelve patients (12.8%) had disease with extension beyond the sinus without associated malignancy. All these patients received adjuvant treatment with advanced techniques of radiotherapy. The mean duration of the follow-up period was 9 years and 2 months. Eighteen patients (19.1%) had recurrent disease during the entire course of follow-up. Complete endoscopic surgical removal of SP is the treatment of choice. In less endoscopically accessible tumours, with peripheral extension or incompletely resected, Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy may be indicated. Timely post-operative endoscopic follow-up with biopsy of suspected lesions is important for early detection of recurrences and associated malignancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  16. Safe patient care – safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    St. Pierre, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organization’s vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture (“top-down process”). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organization’s maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization’s general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed “informed culture”. An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. “Incident reporting systems” are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organization’s safe surgery checklist” is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality. Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate stimulation based team

  17. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexahydro - 1,3,5 - trinitro - 1,3,5 - triazine ( RDX ) ; CASRN 121 - 82 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  18. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - tetr . . . ( HMX ) ; CASRN 2691 - 41 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I

  19. Dermal Sensitization of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-08

    tetrazocine (SEX) in guinea pigs MATERIALS Test Substance Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-I,3,5,7- Tetrazocine (SEX) Chemical Abstract Service...exist as a contaminant in P.DX/HMX manufacturing process. The characteristics of SEX are as follows: Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 13980-00-2

  20. Biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, N.G.; Cornell, J.H.; Kaplan, A.M.

    1981-11-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is poposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed.

  1. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, N. G.; Cornell, J. H.; Kaplan, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethyl-hydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is proposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed. PMID:16345884

  2. Potential impact of the financial crisis on outpatient hospital visits due to otorhinolaryngologic disorders in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Karatzanis, Alexander D; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Nikolaou, Vasilios; Velegrakis, George A

    2012-01-01

    The public health effect of financial crises has been emphasized in previous studies. In addition, a series of otorhinolaryngologic disorders and manifestations has been related to psychological factors in the literature. Such conditions include temporomandibular joint disorders, laryngopharyngeal reflux, chronic tinnitus, and vertigo. Focusing on the outpatient database records of a large hospital in Crete, Greece, the objective of this retrospective study was to explore possible occurrence variations within the prementioned otorhinolaryngologic morbidity which may be potentially attributed to increased levels of socioeconomic stress. Results revealed that although the total number of visits between two periods - before and after the beginning of the financial crisis in Greece - was comparable, a significant increase in the diagnosis of two disorders, namely vertigo and tinnitus was found. In addition, a trend toward increased rate of diagnosis for reflux and temporomandibular joint disorders was noted. Potential implications of these findings are discussed. In conclusion, health care providers in this as well as in other countries facing similar socio-economic conditions should be aware of potential changes in the epidemiologic figures regarding specific medical conditions.

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  4. [Otorhinolaryngology in the field of demography, growing outpatient care and regionalization].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C E; Schuldt, T; Kaiser, A; Letzgus, P; Liebeneiner, J; Schmidt, K; Öner, A; Mlynski, R

    2017-01-01

    Otorhinolaryngology (ENT) departments are strongly affected by current changes in the reimbursement schemes for inpatients. The study was designed to investigate these effects on the ENT Department in Rostock and selected comparison clinics, as well as to outline solutions. We analyzed diagnosis-related group (DRG) reports of the ENT Clinic at Rostock University Medical Center from 2013 to 2015, according to the size of the outpatient potential. Comparisons were made with other surgical departments such as maxillofacial surgery and ophthalmology in terms of average length of stay and the resulting deductibles. We also compared billing as day surgery and complete outpatient surgery for the main small surgical procedures such as tonsillectomy and septum surgery. Finally, we compared the discounts with 22 ENT departments in other maximum care hospitals. The average case mix index of an ENT department in Germany is 0.75, case load average of 2,500 patients and common length of stay 4.1 days. In a typical academic ENT department as in Rostock, health plans usually discount around 500 T€ (thousand euro), which is considerably higher than comparable departments, e.g., oral and maxillofacial surgery or ophthalmology departments. However, discounts on a DRG for inpatient surgery is still approximately 1,000 € more revenue than surgery in an outpatient setting. The benchmark analysis shows that health plans in rural areas are more likely to accept inpatient surgery with discounts for small procedures than strict billing according to outpatient reimbursement schemes. These effects can result in an insufficient cost effectiveness of ENT departments in Germany. As a consequence, substantial restructuring of the in- and outpatient treatment seems necessary, also for academic ENT departments, e.g., in the form of day surgery or ambulatory surgical centers, outpatient clinics with special contracts and specialized inpatient surgery. However, this results in greater

  5. [Clinical manifestation of Kaposi sarcoma in otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery].

    PubMed

    Yu, De-xian; Pi, Shi-jun; Zhang, Wen-shan

    2013-03-01

    To improve the knowledge of Kaposi sarcoma and the relationship between Kaposi sarcoma and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and to improve the ability to diagnose and treat Kaposi sarcoma and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Symptoms, signs and results of 121 patients encountered in the department of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery in Tanzania, who was diagnosed as Kaposi sarcoma actually with HIV infection and AIDS, were retrospectively analyzed in this study. There were 46 males and 75 females with age ranged from 5 to 65 years, medium 30 year. The mucous membranes and skin lesions was the most commonly seen clinical manifestation in 121 cases, these lesions appeared as raised blotches or lumps that might be purple, brown, or red, early stages typical lesions began as flat or slightly raised colored spots. Among the cases reported here, 25 patients (20.66%) showed progressive nose blockage and nose bleeding and the purple-red new-grows were found in the nose of these patients. Fifteen patients (12.40%) had flat or slightly raised colored spots in their mucous membrane of mouth (palate or tongue), and in other 7 patients, purple small lumps were found in the gums of the patients. There were same lesions in their pharynx in 9 cases. In 10 patients (8.26%), Kaposi sarcoma was found in tonsil looked like tonsillitis with enlarged tonsils by two to three degree. Twelve patients (9.92%) had masses in the neck with no pain. Thirty-five patients (28.92%)had lesions of purple black nodules, including 10 patients who had the same lesions with ulcer formation in the nodules. All patients had been followed-up for at least two-years. Eighty-five patients passed away in one year, survival rate of one year was 21.48% (26/121), only 12 patients survived from the disease over two years, two years' survival rate was 9.92% (12/121). Kaposi sarcoma is the characteristic disease for AIDS, mainly found on the membranes and skin. These lesions appears

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the RDX assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the RDX assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science consultation materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the charge to external peer reviewers, are posted on this site. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  9. Reporting Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Otorhinolaryngologic Articles Based on the PRISMA Statement.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jeroen P M; Hooft, Lotty; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) provide the highest possible level of evidence. However, poor conduct or reporting of SRs and MAs may reduce their utility. The PRISMA Statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) was developed to help authors report their SRs and MAs adequately. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate the quality of reporting of SRs and MAs and their abstracts in otorhinolaryngologic literature using the PRISMA and PRISMA for Abstracts checklists, respectively, (2) compare the quality of reporting of SRs and MAs published in Ear Nose Throat (ENT) journals to the quality of SRs and MAs published in the 'gold standard' Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), and (3) formulate recommendations to improve reporting of SRs and MAs in ENT journals. On September 3, 2014, we searched the Pubmed database using a combination of filters to retrieve SRs and MAs on otorhinolaryngologic topics published in 2012 and 2013 in the top 5 ENT journals (ISI Web of Knowledge 2013) or CDSR and relevant articles were selected. We assessed how many, and which, PRISMA (for Abstracts) items were reported adequately per journal type. We identified large differences in the reporting of individual items between the two journal types with room for improvement. In general, SRs and MAs published in ENT journals (n = 31) reported a median of 54.4% of the PRISMA items adequately, whereas the 49 articles published in the CDSR reported a median of 100.0 adequately (difference statistically significant, p < 0.001). For abstracts, medians of 41.7% for ENT journals and 75.0% for the CDSR were found (p < 0.001). The reporting of SRs and MAs in ENT journals leaves room for improvement and would benefit if the PRISMA Statement were endorsed by these journals.

  10. Characteristics and analysis of scientific articles submitted to the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases.

    PubMed

    Laccourreye, O; Bonfils, P; Denoyelle, F; Garrel, R; Jankowski, R; Karkas, A; Makeieff, M; Righini, C; Vincent, C; Martin, C

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate characteristics, suggested modifications and reasons for rejection in scientific articles submitted for publication in the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases. A prospective study analyzed the flaws noted by reviewers in 52 scientific articles submitted to the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases between August 31, 2014 and February 28, 2015. Fifteen flaws concerning content and 7 concerning form were identified. In more than 25% of submissions, major flaws were noted: purely descriptive paper; lack of contribution to existing state of knowledge; failure to define a clear study objective and/or analyze the impact of major variables; poorly structured Materials and methods section, lacking description of study population, objective and/or variables; lack of or inappropriate statistical analysis; Introduction verbose and/or misrepresenting the literature; excessively heterogeneous and/or poorly described study population; imprecise discussion, straying from the point, overstating the significance of results and/or introducing new results not mentioned in the Results section; description of the study population placed in the Results section instead of under Materials and methods; serious mistakes of syntax, spelling and/or tense; and failure to follow the Instructions to Authors. After review, 21.1% of articles were published, 65.3% rejected and 13.4% non-resubmitted within 3 months of review. On univariate analysis, the only variable increasing the percentage of articles accepted was the topic not being devoted to head and neck surgery (P=0.03). These results document the excessive flaw rate still to be found in manuscripts and demonstrate the continuing need for authors to master and implement the rules of scientific medical writing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of old (75-79 years) to very old (80+ years) hospitalized otorhinolaryngology patients.

    PubMed

    Weißenborn, Inga; Ritter, Julia; Geißler, Katharina; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to determine the patients' characteristics, comorbidity, and inpatient treatment features of very old otorhinolaryngology patients (80+ years) compared to old patients (75-79 years). A single-center cohort study in a tertiary and university care center was performed with 144 old and 143 very old patients who were hospitalized in 2012. Predictors for differences between old and very old patients were analyzed univariately and multivariately using regression models. Ear (30 %) and nose/paranasal sinus (23 %) diseases were the most frequent reasons for hospitalization. Baseline and disease characteristics were not different between the two groups of elderly patients. Duration of hospitalization was no longer in very old patients (p = 0.827). Mobility (p = 0.017), dietary intake (p = 0.017), and having hearing aid (p < 0.0001) were independent comorbidity predictors in very old patients compared to old patients. Polymedication was found less frequently in very old patients (p = 0.017). To take cardiovascular drugs (p = 0.009) or psychotherapeutic drugs (p = 0.045) were independent permanent medication predictors in very old patients compared to old patients. About half of the patients received a surgical treatment (52 %) and the other half a conservative treatment (48 %). The very old patients received significantly more often an antibiotic treatment (p < 0.0001). Complication rates for surgical cases and non-surgical cases were not different (p = 0.686 and p = 0.524, respectively). Although comorbidity continues to increase in hospitalized very old compared to old otorhinolaryngology patients, most of the disease, treatment and treatment related complication characteristics seem not to change significantly from old to very old patients.

  12. Reporting Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Otorhinolaryngologic Articles Based on the PRISMA Statement

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jeroen P. M.; Hooft, Lotty; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) provide the highest possible level of evidence. However, poor conduct or reporting of SRs and MAs may reduce their utility. The PRISMA Statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) was developed to help authors report their SRs and MAs adequately. Objectives Our objectives were to (1) evaluate the quality of reporting of SRs and MAs and their abstracts in otorhinolaryngologic literature using the PRISMA and PRISMA for Abstracts checklists, respectively, (2) compare the quality of reporting of SRs and MAs published in Ear Nose Throat (ENT) journals to the quality of SRs and MAs published in the ‘gold standard’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), and (3) formulate recommendations to improve reporting of SRs and MAs in ENT journals. Methods On September 3, 2014, we searched the Pubmed database using a combination of filters to retrieve SRs and MAs on otorhinolaryngologic topics published in 2012 and 2013 in the top 5 ENT journals (ISI Web of Knowledge 2013) or CDSR and relevant articles were selected. We assessed how many, and which, PRISMA (for Abstracts) items were reported adequately per journal type. Results We identified large differences in the reporting of individual items between the two journal types with room for improvement. In general, SRs and MAs published in ENT journals (n = 31) reported a median of 54.4% of the PRISMA items adequately, whereas the 49 articles published in the CDSR reported a median of 100.0 adequately (difference statistically significant, p < 0.001). For abstracts, medians of 41.7% for ENT journals and 75.0% for the CDSR were found (p < 0.001). Conclusion The reporting of SRs and MAs in ENT journals leaves room for improvement and would benefit if the PRISMA Statement were endorsed by these journals. PMID:26317406

  13. Biodegradation of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yih; Brodman, Bruce W

    2004-01-01

    Two bacteria were isolated from 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated soil at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. These organisms were subsequently identified as Rhiziobium rhizogenes BL and Burkholderia sp.BL by the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures). In addition a fungus, identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides by DSMZ, was found to be growing on water wet RDX. All of these organisms were found to degrade RDX. The two bacteria were found to represent new species that have not been reported before. It was found that these organisms along with an added carbon source could degrade RDX to simple gaseous products. Data are presented that elucidate the mechanisms of RDX biodegradation for these organisms.

  14. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  15. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Etnier, E L

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.

  16. [The concept of the development of the otorhinolaryngological service in Moscow under conditions of modernization of the healthcare system and single-channel funding].

    PubMed

    Goluhov, G N; Kriukov, A I; Kunel'skaia, N L; Zakharova, A F; Sokolov, G E; Fomina, E V; Turovskiĭ, A B

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the complex of organizational and socio-economic measures designed to modify the healthcare system in the city of Moscow, improve the quality of medical aid, and ensure its availability for the urban population. The proposed methods were developed based on the results of analysis of the data obtained in the course of checking the work of the otorhinolaryngological services of the city, analysis of effectiveness of using the hospital stock in the therapeutic and prophylactic facilities of Moscow.

  17. Transformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by permanganate.

    PubMed

    Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Comfort, Steve D; Harris, Clifford E; Snow, Daniel D; Cassada, David; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Satapanajaru, Tunlawit

    2011-04-15

    The chemical oxidant permanganate (MnO(4)(-)) has been shown to effectively transform hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) at both the laboratory and field scales. We treated RDX with MnO(4)(-) with the objective of quantifying the effects of pH and temperature on destruction kinetics and determining reaction rates. A nitrogen mass balance and the distribution of reaction products were used to provide insight into reaction mechanisms. Kinetic experiments (at pH ∼ 7, 25 °C) verified that RDX-MnO(4)(-) reaction was first-order with respect to MnO(4)(-) and initial RDX concentration (second-order rate: 4.2 × 10(-5) M(-1) s(-1)). Batch experiments showed that choice of quenching agents (MnSO(4), MnCO(3), and H(2)O(2)) influenced sample pH and product distribution. When MnCO(3) was used as a quenching agent, the pH of the RDX-MnO(4)(-) solution was relatively unchanged and N(2)O and NO(3)(-) constituted 94% of the N-containing products after 80% of the RDX was transformed. On the basis of the preponderance of N(2)O produced under neutral pH (molar ratio N(2)O/NO(3) ∼ 5:1), no strong pH effect on RDX-MnO(4)(-) reaction rates, a lower activation energy than the hydrolysis pathway, and previous literature on MnO(4)(-) oxidation of amines, we propose that RDX-MnO(4)(-) reaction involves direct oxidation of the methylene group (hydride abstraction), followed by hydrolysis of the resulting imides, and decarboxylation of the resulting carboxylic acids to form N(2)O, CO(2), and H(2)O.

  18. [Analysis and publication rate of the presentations at the Turkish National Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery meetings].

    PubMed

    Erdağ, Taner Kemal; Durmuşoğlu, Mehmet; Demir, Ali Oğuz; Doğan, Ersoy; Ikiz, Ahmet Omer

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the analysis and publication rates of presentations presented at the Turkish National Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (TNORL and HNS) meetings. The TNORL and HNS meetings of 2008, 2009 and 2010 were included in the study. The number, subjects, types (clinical study, experimental study, case report) and institutions of the oral presentations and posters were documented using the abstract CD's of the meetings. The conversion rate of presentations into the full-text articles in the peer-reviewed journals were reviewed through the search engines Pubmed for the international indexes and Türk Medline and Ulakbim for the national ones. The time from presentation in the meetings to publication was determined. The distribution of journals according to the publication dates of the articles were evaluated in terms of the Science citation index (SCI), SCI expanded (SCI-E), PubMed and Turkish citation index. The total number of presentations submitted in the three TNORL and HNS meetings was 1,454 and posters accounted for 75.4% of all presentations. While case reports were 53.2% of the total presentations, the ratios were found to be 43% and 3.8% for the research and experimental studies, respectively. Of the oral presentations, 88% included research studies, whereas 70.3% of the posters were case reports. The origin of the presentations was university hospitals, education hospitals, other national institutions, and international institutions with ratios of 51.6%, 44.3%, 3% and 1.1%, respectively. The conversion rate of presentations into the full-text articles was found as 21.9%. The rate was 37.3% for oral presentations and 17% for the posters (p=0.00). For all of the 319 published papers, the overall mean time from presentation to publication was 18.6 months. While 62.7% of the articles were published in international journals, 37.3% were published in national journals. The conversion rate of oral presentations into publications was

  19. Separation of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazacyclohexane by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Meng, Zi-Hui; Xue, Min; Qiu, Li-Li; Zhang, Chen-Fan

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by the Bachmann process leads to a mixture of both. The separation of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane from their mixture is difficult because the sizes and physical properties of these homologous compounds are similar. For this purpose, seven molecularly imprinted polymers have been synthesized for each explosive, and a selective solid-phase extraction procedure has been developed. A molecularly imprinted polymer, synthesized with 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane as the template, methacrylic acid as the monomer and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as the cross-linking agent in a molar ratio of 1:8:8 showed the best separation capability. A packed cartridge containing this polymer can be reused for 23 solid-phase extraction cycles without repacking, and the total separation capability toward 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane reached 6.81 mg per gram of polymer. 1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane was not detected in the separated 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane by high-performance liquid chromatography and vice versa. This newly developed method had the advantages of high recovery (100%) and purity, environmental friendliness, and room temperature operability. This study showed that some molecularly imprinted polymers that cannot absorb target analytes well in the solvent in which the polymers were polymerized might have high-binding capacity for the analytes and show imprinting effects in other solvents.

  20. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, D.G.; Benziger, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole is described. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB. 8 figures.

  1. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Donald G.; Benziger, Theodore M.

    1991-01-01

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB.

  2. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloranisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Donald G.; Benziger, Theodore M.

    1990-01-01

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB.

  3. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  4. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  5. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  6. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues.

    PubMed

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-06-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. © 2014 The authors.

  7. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  8. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  9. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  10. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals; general—(1...

  11. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not approve... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5...

  12. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not approve... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5...

  13. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not approve... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5...

  14. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  15. Nationwide surveillance of 6 otorhinolaryngological infectious diseases and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in the isolated pathogens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kurono, Yuichi; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Watanabe, Akira; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Iwata, Satoshi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Hanaki, Hideaki

    2015-07-01

    The Japanese Three Academic Societies Joint Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance Committee has conducted a nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and rates of isolation in 6 otolaryngological diseases. The surveillance program was conducted in the otorhinolaryngological departments of 29 universities, and their 26 affiliated hospitals. Patients suffering from acute otitis media, chronic otitis media, acute nasal sinusitis, chronic nasal sinusitis, acute tonsillitis, and peritonsillar abscess between January 2011 and June 2012 were investigated. The collected swab or incision samples were cultivated for microbial identification, and the drug susceptibility of detected bacteria was measured at the Kitasato University Research Center for Infections and Antimicrobials. The surveillance focused on three gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus), three gram-negative bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella Catarrhalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and three anaerobic bacteria (Peptostreptococcus spp., Prevotella spp., and Fusobacterium spp.). Bacterial susceptibility to 39 antimicrobial drugs was investigated. We compared bacterial isolation ratio of each disease in this surveillance from those of past 4 times surveillance which we performed formerly, and we also compared percentage of main drug resistant strains from those of past 4 times surveillance. The age composition between this time and former surveillances was not statistically significant by student-t test. We were unable to completely resolve the rise in resistant bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, penicillin-intermediate resistant S. pneumoniae, beta-lactamase non-producing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, beta-lactamase producing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, and beta-lactamase producing amoxicillin clavulanic acid-resistant H. influenzae. We suggest

  16. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. PMID:24692290

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis suppor...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  2. Identification of ovine ruminal microbes capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor tha...

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis suppor...

  4. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-thione. 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothi-adiazine-2-thione may safely be used as a preservative in the... as a preservative for substances added to the pulp suspension prior to the sheet-forming operation provided that the preservative is volatilized by heat in the drying and finishing of the paper and...

  5. Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1.

    PubMed Central

    Binks, P R; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    1995-01-01

    A mixed microbial culture capable of metabolizing the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was obtained from soil enrichments under aerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. A bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1, isolated from the culture used RDX as a sole source of nitrogen for growth. Three moles of nitrogen was used per mole of RDX, yielding a metabolite identified by mass spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis as methylene-N-(hydroxymethyl)-hydroxylamine-N'-(hydroxymethyl)nitroamin e. The bacterium also used s-triazine as a sole source of nitrogen but not the structurally similar compounds octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, cyanuric acid, and melamine. An inducible RDX-degrading activity was present in crude cell extracts. PMID:7747953

  6. Microbial Interactions with Several Munitions Compounds: 1,3-Dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene, and 3,5-Dinitroaniline.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    of both 1,3-DNB and 1,3,5-TNB have been noted following their treatment in a two-stage aerated reactor composed of Azotobacter agilis in the first...3,5-DiNA Biosorption studies were conducted with 3-day Standard Methods broth cultures of Azotobacter beijerinckii (ATCC19366), Bacillus cereus...Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens, and Azotobacter beijerinckil. Bacterial cells were washed by repeated centrifuga- tion and resuspension

  7. Primary Dermal Irritation of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Tetrazine Chemical Abstract 3ervice F ;istry V" 139800-00-2 Lewis--2 Structural formula: C-CH3 H C N-NO2 02 N-N H2 H4X-N Empirical formula: C6H11N7...CHEMICAL DATA Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazine Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 139800-00-2 Structural formula

  8. Multicomponent, one-pot sequential synthesis of 1,3,5- and 1,3,5,5-substituted barbiturates.

    PubMed

    Volonterio, Alessandro; Zanda, Matteo

    2008-10-03

    Carbodiimides and malonic acid monoethylesters readily react to afford N-acylurea derivatives that could be cyclized in situ by addition of a suitable base. This process represents a general and straightforward one-pot sequential synthesis of 1,3,5-trisubstituted barbiturates in very mild conditions (organic solvent/2 N NaOH aqueous solution, 20 degrees C). Performing the reaction in the presence of an electrophile resulted in the formation of fully substituted (namely, 1,3,5,5-tetrasubstituted) barbiturates through a three-component one-pot sequential process. The latter, however, occurred only with highly reactive electrophiles, such as benzyl and, in some instances, allyl halides. In order to expand the scope of the process, we sought to develop a general method for the C-alkylation of 1,3,5-trisubstituted barbiturates. We found that C-alkylation occurred upon treatment of 1,3,5-trisubstituted barbiturates with an alkyl halide in CH3CN at 120 degrees C in the presence of anhydrous K2CO3 affording the target 1,3,5,5-tetrasubstituted barbiturates in good yields. The multicomponent process was accomplished by combining the three steps in a one-pot sequential fashion, i.e., the condensation of carbodiimides with malonic acid monoethylesters, the cyclization of the resulting N-acylureas, and the C-alkylation of the resulting 1,3,5-substituted barbiturates. A detailed study of the influence of the structure of the reactants on the reaction outcome and mechanism is presented. By selective N'-deprotection of 1,3,5,5-tetrasubstituted barbiturates, the corresponding 1,5,5-trisubstituted barbiturates were also prepared.

  9. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  10. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  11. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  12. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  13. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  14. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  15. Examining Core Curricula in Writing for Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtz, Jill; McCurdy, Merilee; Roehling, Julia V.

    2015-01-01

    Within a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, Tier 1 instruction requires the selection of research-based core curricula. However, many educators and administrators are not aware of high-quality core writing curricula. The authors assembled a rubric to assist schools in evaluating core writing curricula for Grades 3-5. Rubric components…

  16. Non-Enzymatic Oligomerization of 3', 5' Cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Giovanna; Pino, Samanta; Timperio, Anna Maria; Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Nováková, Olga; Šedo, Ondrej; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies illustrate that short oligonucleotide sequences can be easily produced from nucleotide precursors in a template-free non-enzymatic way under dehydrating conditions, i.e. using essentially dry materials. Here we report that 3',5' cyclic AMP may also serve as a substrate of the reaction, which proceeds under moderate conditions yet with a lower efficiency than the previously reported oligomerization of 3',5' cyclic GMP. Optimally the oligomerization requires (i) a temperature of 80°C, (ii) a neutral to alkaline environment and (iii) a time on the order of weeks. Differences in the yield and required reaction conditions of the oligomerizations utilizing 3',5' cGMP and cAMP are discussed in terms of the crystal structures of the compounds. Polymerization of 3',5' cyclic nucleotides, whose paramount relevance in a prebiotic chemistry context has been widely accepted for decades, supports the possibility that the origin of extant genetic materials might have followed a direct uninterrupted path since its very beginning, starting from non-elaborately pre-activated monomer compounds and simple reactions.

  17. [3,5-dimethoxyfenol--marker intoxication with Taxus baccata].

    PubMed

    Stríbrný, J; Dogosi, M; Snupárek, Z; Toupalík, P; Baláz, P; Bartos, P

    2010-07-01

    Autopsy findings of fatal intoxication with yew (Taxus baccata) are nonspecific. A presence of plant residues in the digestive tract can signalize yew intoxication. If yew decoction is consumed, plant residues are not found. In such a case the intoxication can be signalized by the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in biological material. Authors of this article describe the proof and quantification of the 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in two cases of fatal intoxication with yew. In both cases the liquid/liquid extraction and solid phase extraction was used. Extracts obtained from the acidic and basic environment were analysed. Extracts from the acidic environment were methylated and the extracts from the basic environment were acetylated. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the blood of both intoxicated persons the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol was proved and its concentration 82 ng/ml and 417 ng/ml was quantificated. In both cases the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol was also proved in the gastric contents and urine.

  18. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  19. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  20. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  1. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  2. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,5-dimethoxystilbene analogs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In our continuing effort to discover natural product-based pest management agents, derivatives of 3,5-dimethoxystilbene were synthesized yielding 27 new and 6 known compounds. Of these, compounds 11 and 12 showed strong Aedes aegypti larvicidal activity (LC50 14.7 and 16.2 ppm, respectively). In fur...

  4. Fenton oxidation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

    PubMed

    Zoh, Kyung-Duk; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2002-03-01

    Oxidation of the high explosives hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1.3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) using Fenton's reagent proceeds rapidly between 20 degrees C and 50 degrees C at pH 3. At an H2O2: Fe2+: RDX molar ratio of 5,178: 48: 1, RDX and HMX were completely removed in 1 to 2 h. All the experimental data could be fit to a pseudo first-order rate equation. The reaction rate was also strongly dependent on Fenton's reagent concentrations. NO3- and N2 were identified as nitrogen byproducts from RDX and HMX oxidation. The experiment with radiolabeled RDX showed that approximately 37% of organic carbon in RDX was mineralized to CO2. We observed formaldehyde and formic acid as a short-lived intermediate. No other volatile or nonvolatile byproducts were found from GC/MS analysis. The results show that RDX and HMX can be effectively mineralized with Fenton's reagents.

  5. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt 3/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 3/5 ) tells us more about the plane. How much will it cost to run, and how will we learn to fly?

  6. Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways that…

  7. Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways that…

  8. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine and Its Mononitroso Derivative Hexahydro-1-Nitroso-3,5-Dinitro-1,3,5-Triazine by Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain SCZ-1 Isolated from an Anaerobic Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Halasz, Annamaria; Paquet, Louise; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    In previous work, we found that an anaerobic sludge efficiently degraded hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), but the role of isolates in the degradation process was unknown. Recently, we isolated a facultatively anaerobic bacterium, identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae strain SCZ-1, using MIDI and the 16S rRNA method from this sludge and employed it to degrade RDX. Strain SCZ-1 degraded RDX to formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (CH3OH) (12% of total C), carbon dioxide (CO2) (72% of total C), and nitrous oxide (N2O) (60% of total N) through intermediary formation of methylenedinitramine (O2NNHCH2NHNO2). Likewise, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) was degraded to HCHO, CH3OH, and N2O (16.5%) with a removal rate (0.39 μmol · h−1 · g [dry weight] of cells−1) similar to that of RDX (0.41 μmol · h−1 · g [dry weight] of cells−1) (biomass, 0.91 g [dry weight] of cells · liter−1). These findings suggested the possible involvement of a common initial reaction, possibly denitration, followed by ring cleavage and decomposition in water. The trace amounts of MNX detected during RDX degradation and the trace amounts of hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine detected during MNX degradation suggested that another minor degradation pathway was also present that reduced —NO2 groups to the corresponding —NO groups. PMID:12406722

  9. The Geometry of Almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagerschnig, Katja; Willse, Travis

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the classic problem of existence of Einstein metrics in a given conformal structure for the class of conformal structures inducedf Nurowski's construction by (oriented) (2, 3, 5) distributions. We characterize in two ways such conformal structures that admit an almost Einstein scale: First, they are precisely the oriented conformal structures c that are induced by at least two distinct oriented (2, 3, 5) distributions; in this case there is a 1-parameter family of such distributions that induce c. Second, they are characterized by the existence of a holonomy reduction to SU(1, 2), SL(3, R), or a particular semidirect product SL(2, R) ltimes Q_+, according to the sign of the Einstein constant of the corresponding metric. Via the curved orbit decomposition formalism such a reduction partitions the underlying manifold into several submanifolds and endows each ith a geometric structure. This establishes novel links between (2, 3, 5) distributions and many other geometries - several classical geometries among them - including: Sasaki-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues in dimension 5; Kähler-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues, Fefferman Lorentzian conformal structures, and para-Fefferman neutral conformal structures in dimension 4; CR geometry and the point geometry of second-order ordinary differential equations in dimension 3; and projective geometry in dimension 2. We describe a generalized Fefferman construction that builds from a 4-dimensional Kähler-Einstein or para-Kähler-Einstein structure a family of (2, 3, 5) distributions that induce the same (Einstein) conformal structure. We exploit some of these links to construct new examples, establishing the existence of nonflat almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) conformal structures for which the Einstein constant is positive and negative.

  10. [Headache: Otorhinolaryngological aspects].

    PubMed

    Michel, O

    2016-01-01

    Headache is the main symptom in a wide variety of diseases of which ear, nose and throat (ENT) entities are only a small fraction but are not reflected in the number of patients. Comprehensive knowledge of the clinical signs of the most common primary headaches, e. g. migraine, is therefore essential for the ENT specialist because the few patients with secondary headache from ENT-related causes must be identified. Reasons for confusing primary headache with e. g. sinusitis are mostly symptoms mediated by the trigeminal nerve, such as nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea because branches of the trigeminal nerve also innervate the meninges. The ENT-specific origin of headaches is characterized by clinical findings of physical organ disease; therefore, from an ENT perspective imaging should be part of the diagnostic procedure as normal imaging findings are indicative of primary headache, which would not normally be treated by an ENT specialist.

  11. Halitosis in Otorhinolaryngology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gokdogan, Ozan; Catli, Tolgahan; Ileri, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    Halitosis is a common and devastating condition, which may affect up to 1/3 of the population. It can be classified either as genuine halitosis, pseudohalitosis, or halitophobia. Genuine halitosis is more common and usually related to an organic pathology such as periodontitis. Malodour molecules such as sulfur compounds that arise from bacterial interactions generate the basis of oral malodour. Pathologies of the tongue, poor oral hygiene, deep caries, cryptic tonsillary hypertrophia, and postnasal drainage are also associated with halitosis. Gastro-esophageal pathologies and systemic problems are accepted as extra-oral sources of halitosis. There are various methods for the diagnosis of halitosis including objective and subjective methods. General oral hygiene recommendations and specific interventions for the related etiological factors have to be addressed in order to achieve satisfactory results after the treatment. Clinicians have to be aware of these aspects regarding this unfavorable condition to achieve the best results. PMID:25938086

  12. [Myasthenia gravis. Otorhinolaryngological considerations].

    PubMed

    Salazar, C; De Saa, M R; Aparicio, M; García, B; Casado, I

    2000-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a motor neuron disease caused by the presence of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors that interfere with proper functioning of the neuromuscular junction. Twenty percent of patients show bulbar involvement as the first indication of disease, with symptoms such as rhinolalia, dysphagia or phonasthenia. We report the cases of five patients for which our intervention was requested. We were involved in capacities ranging from the interpretation of the first symptom of disease to assessment of surgical possibilities for the treatment of chronic aspiration and severe respiratory symptoms in patients with major dysphagia. We review the scant bibliography published in the last five years.

  13. Biodegradation of the nitramine explosives hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in cold marine sediment under anaerobic and oligotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Greer, Charles W; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-02-01

    The in situ degradation of the two nitramine explosives, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), was evaluated using a mixture of RDX and HMX, incubated anaerobically at 10 degrees C with marine sediment from a previous military dumping site of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia, Canada. The RDX concentration (14.7 mg.L-1) in the aqueous phase was reduced by half in 4 days, while reduction of HMX concentration (1.2 mg.L-1) by half required 50 days. Supplementation with the carbon sources glucose, acetate, or citrate did not affect the removal rate of RDX but improved removal of HMX. Optimal mineralization of RDX and HMX was obtained in the presence of glucose. Using universally labeled (UL)-[14C]RDX, we obtained a carbon mass balance distributed as follows: CO2, 48%-58%; water soluble products, 27%-31%; acetonitrile extractable products, 2.0%-3.4%; and products covalently bound to the sediments and biomass, 8.9% (in the presence of glucose). The disappearance of RDX was accompanied by the formation of the mononitroso derivative hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and formaldehyde (HCHO) that subsequently disappeared. In the case of HMX, mineralization reached only 13%-27% after 115 days of incubation in the presence or absence of the carbon sources. The disappearance of HMX was also accompanied by the formation of the mononitroso derivative. The total population of psychrotrophic anaerobes that grew at 10 degrees C was 2.6 x 10(3) colony-forming units.(g sediment dry mass)-1, and some psychrotrophic sediment isolates were capable of degrading RDX under conditions similar to those used for sediments. Based on the distribution of products, we suggest that the sediment microorganisms degrade RDX and HMX via an initial reduction to the corresponding mononitroso derivative, followed by denitration and ring cleavage.

  14. Synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulioukina, N. S.; Makukhin, N. N.; Beletskaya, I. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers the currently available synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles. There are demonstrated significant advances in this field over the last 10-15 years caused by the use of the Bestmann-Ohira reagent [as well as (diazomethyl)phosphonates and phosphonylated hydrazonoyl halides] in reactions with diverse dipolarophiles. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of diazo compounds to α,β-unsaturated phosphonates as well as intramolecular heterocyclization of (1-diazoallyl)phosphonates and (3--diazo-1-propenyl)phosphonates are discussed. Synthetic potential of cyclocondensation of organophosphorus 1,3-dielectrophilic compounds with hydrazines is shown. Ways to introduce a phosphonate group into the pyrazole ring are considered. Examples of chemical transformations of 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles are reported. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  15. Dendrimers Based on [1,3,5]-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    STEFFENSEN, MACKAY B.; HOLLINK, EMILY; KUSCHEL, FRANK; BAUER, MONIKA; SIMANEK, ERIC E.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive and chronological account of dendrimers based on [1,3,5]-triazines is provided. Synthetic strategies to install the triazine through cycloaddition, cyclotrimerization, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution of cyanuric chloride are discussed. Motivations and applications of these architectures are surveyed, including the preparation of supra-molecular assemblies in the solution and solid states and their use in medicines, advanced materials, and separations when anchored to solid supports. PMID:19953202

  16. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Perkins, Edward J; Meyer, Sharon A

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ~50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs=47 mg/kg) in female Sprague-Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs=24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte-erythrocyte-monocyte-megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1(+)) or erythroid (CD71(+)) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector}′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector} ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ{sub SL}(ρ(r{sup -vector}),∇ρ(r{sup -vector}),r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′). γ{sub SL} depends on the electron density ρ(r{sup -vector}) at reference point r{sup -vector}, and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′ dependence of γ{sub SL} in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ{sub SL} yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms.

  18. Seeing experiments with the WIYN 3.5-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Daniel R.; Corson, Charles; Sawyer, David G.

    2000-08-01

    The WIYN 3.5 meter telescope uses active thermal control of the primary mirror and both active and passive ventilation of the observatory enclosure. These features have proven effective for delivering consistently excellent images, and make the WIYN facility an ideal test bed for quantitative measurements of the effects of temperature and ventilation on mirror and dome seeing. We describe the results of seeing experiments conducted over the first four years of operations at the WIYN Observatory.

  19. The longstanding challenge of the nanocrystallization of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Research efforts for realizing safer and higher performance energetic materials are continuing unabated all over the globe. While the thermites – pyrotechnic compositions of an oxide and a metal – have been finely tailored thanks to progress in other sectors, organic high explosives are still stagnating. The most symptomatic example is the longstanding challenge of the nanocrystallization of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Recent advances in crystallization processes and milling technology mark the beginning of a new area which will hopefully lead the pyroelectric industry to finally embrace nanotechnology. This work reviews the previous and current techniques used to crystallize RDX at a submicrometer scale or smaller. Several key points are highlighted then discussed, such as the smallest particle size and its morphology, and the scale-up capacity and the versatility of the process. PMID:28326236

  20. Lateral Transfer of Genes for Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) Degradation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Andeer, Peter F.; Stahl, David A.; Bruce, Neil C.; Strand, Stuart E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that degradation of the military explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by species of Rhodococcus, Gordonia, and Williamsia is mediated by a novel cytochrome P450 with a fused flavodoxin reductase domain (XplA) in conjunction with a flavodoxin reductase (XplB). Pulse field gel analysis was used to localize xplA to extrachromosomal elements in a Rhodococcus sp. and distantly related Microbacterium sp. strain MA1. Comparison of Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y and Microbacterium plasmid sequences in the vicinity of xplB and xplA showed near identity (6,710 of 6,721 bp). Sequencing of the associated 52.2-kb region of the Microbacterium plasmid pMA1 revealed flanking insertion sequence elements and additional genes implicated in RDX uptake and degradation. PMID:19270122

  1. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S.; Perkins, Edward J.; Meyer, Sharon A.

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  2. trans-Dichloridotetrakis(3,5-dimethylpyridine)copper(II).

    PubMed

    Martone, Daniel P; Maverick, Andrew W; Fronczek, Frank R

    2007-06-01

    The title compound, [CuCl(2)(C(7)H(9)N)(4)], lies on a site of crystallographic 42 (D(4)) symmetry in the space group P4/nnc, and is isomorphous with the Ni and Co analogues. The Cu and Cl atoms thus lie on a fourfold axis, and the 3,5-lutidine ligands lie on twofold axes. The Cu-Cl distance is 2.7649 (7) A and the Cu-N distance is 2.0510 (12) A. The space group of the Co analogue is revised from Pnnn to P4/nnc.

  3. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  4. Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus encodes a functional 3'-5' exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan-Hui; de Jong, Jondavid G; Makhmoudova, Amina; Arif, Basil M; Krell, Peter J

    2004-12-01

    The Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) encodes an ORF homologous to type III 3'-5' exonucleases. The CfMNPV v-trex ORF was cloned into the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression-vector system, expressed in insect Sf21 cells with an N-terminal His tag and purified to homogeneity by using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Biochemical characterization of the purified V-TREX confirmed that this viral protein is a functional 3'-5' exonuclease that cleaves oligonucleotides from the 3' end in a stepwise, distributive manner, suggesting a role in proofreading during viral DNA replication and DNA repair. Enhanced degradation of a 5'-digoxigenin- or 5'-(32)P-labelled oligo(dT)(30) substrate was observed at increasing incubation times or increased amounts of V-TREX. The 3'-excision activity of V-TREX was maximal at alkaline pH (9.5) in the presence of 5 mM MgCl(2), 2 mM dithiothreitol and 0.1 mg BSA ml(-1).

  5. 3.5 D temperature model of a coal stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Corumluoglu, O.; Kalayci, I.; Sensogut, C.

    2008-07-01

    Overproduced coal mines that are not sold should remain in coal stock sites. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stock yards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research, a coal stock which was 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m in height, with a weight of 120 tons, was monitored to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over the two layers in the stockpile. Temperatures measured by a specially designed mechanism were then stored into a computer every 3 h for a period of 3 months. Afterward, this dataset was used to delineate 3.5 D temporal temperature distribution models for these two levels, and they were used to analyze and interpret what was seen in these models to derive some conclusions. It was openly seen, followed, and analyzed that internal temperature changes in the stockpile went up to 31{sup o}C by 3.5 D models created for this research.

  6. ANIMO 3.5: User`s guide for the ANIMO version 3.5 nutrient leaching model

    SciTech Connect

    Kroes, J.; Roelsma, J.

    1998-12-31

    This document presents a description of the use of the nutrient leaching model ANIMO (Agricultural Nutrient Model) version 3.5 with special emphasis for input instructions. Each input parameter is characterized by its unit, range, data type, variable name in computer code and symbol in theoretical description, Program outputs and program execution are briefly given. An example is presented with values of input parameters and model results. A technical program description is given as a brief description of program structure, nomenclature, and source code.

  7. 3'-5' tRNAHis Guanylyltransferase in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Ilka; Randau, Lennart; Tomko, Robert J.; Söll, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The identity of the histidine specific transfer RNA (tRNAHis) is largely determined by a unique guanosine residue at position −1. In eukaryotes and archaea, the tRNAHis guanylyltransferase (Thg1) catalyzes 3'-5' addition of G to the 5'-terminus of tRNAHis. Here, we show that Thg1 also occurs in bacteria. We demonstrate in vitro Thg1 activity for recombinant enzymes from the two bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Myxococcus xanthus and provide a closer investigation of several archaeal Thg1. The reaction mechanism of prokaryotic Thg1 differs from eukaryotic enzymes, as it does not require ATP. Complementation of a yeast thg1 knockout strain with bacterial Thg1 verified in vivo activity and suggests a relaxed recognition of the discriminator base in bacteria. PMID:20650272

  8. Microbially Mediated Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5- Triazine by Extracellular Electron Shuttling Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Man Jae; Finneran, Kevin T.

    2006-01-01

    The potential for humic substances to stimulate the reduction of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was investigated. This study describes a novel approach for the remediation of RDX-contaminated environments using microbially mediated electron shuttling. Incubations without cells demonstrated that reduced AQDS transfers electrons directly to RDX, which was reduced without significant accumulation of the nitroso intermediates. Three times as much reduced AQDS (molar basis) was needed to completely reduce RDX. The rate and extent of RDX reduction differed greatly among electron shuttle/acceptor amendments for resting cell suspensions of Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor. AQDS and purified humic substances stimulated the fastest rate of RDX reduction. The nitroso metabolites did not significantly accumulate in the presence of AQDS or humic substances. RDX reduction in the presence of poorly crystalline Fe(III) was relatively slow and metabolites transiently accumulated. However, adding humic substances or AQDS to Fe(III)-containing incubations increased the reduction rates. Cells of G. metallireducens alone reduced RDX; however, the rate of RDX reduction was slow relative to AQDS-amended incubations. These data suggest that extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX transformation is not organism specific but rather is catalyzed by multiple Fe(III)- and humic-reducing species. Electron shuttle-mediated RDX reduction may eventually become a rapid and effective cleanup strategy in both Fe(III)-rich and Fe(III)-poor environments. PMID:16957213

  9. Microaerophilic degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by three Rhodococcus strains.

    PubMed

    Fuller, M E; Perreault, N; Hawari, J

    2010-09-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by three Rhodococcus strains under anaerobic, microaerophilic (<0.04 mg l(-1) dissolved oxygen) and aerobic (dissolved oxygen (DO) maintained at 8 mg l(-1)) conditions. Three Rhodococcus strains were incubated with no, low and ambient concentrations of oxygen in minimal media with succinate as the carbon source and RDX as the sole nitrogen source. RDX and RDX metabolite concentrations were measured over time. Under microaerophilic conditions, the bacteria degraded RDX, albeit about 60-fold slower than under fully aerobic conditions. Only the breakdown product, 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB) accumulated to measurable concentrations under microaerophilic conditions. RDX degraded quickly under both aerated and static aerobic conditions (DO allowed to drop below 1 mg l(-1)) with the accumulation of both NDAB and methylenedinitramine (MEDINA). No RDX degradation was observed under strict anaerobic conditions. The Rhodococcus strains did not degrade RDX under strict anaerobic conditions, while slow degradation was observed under microaerophilic conditions. The RDX metabolite NDAB was detected under both microaerophilic and aerobic conditions, while MEDINA was detected only under aerobic conditions. IMPACT AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: This work confirmed the production of MEDINA under aerobic conditions, which has not been previously associated with aerobic RDX degradation by these organisms. More importantly, it demonstrated that aerobic rhodococci are able to degrade RDX under a broader range of oxygen concentrations than previously reported.

  10. Dissociative electron attachment to the nitroamine HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine).

    PubMed

    Postler, Johannes; Goulart, Marcelo M; Matias, Carolina; Mauracher, Andreas; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Scheier, Paul; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Denifl, Stephan

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, dissociative electron attachment (DEA) measurements with gas phase HMX, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, C4H8N8O8, have been performed by means of a crossed electron-molecular beam experiment. The most intense signals are observed at 46 and 176 u and assigned to NO2(-) and C3H6N5O4(-), respectively. Anion efficiency curves for 15 negatively charged fragments have been measured in the electron energy region from about 0-20 eV with an energy resolution of ~0.7 eV. Product anions are observed mainly in the low energy region, near 0 eV, arising from surprisingly complex reactions associated with multiple bond cleavages and structural and electronic rearrangement. The remarkable instability of HMX towards electron attachment with virtually zero kinetic energy reflects the highly explosive nature of this compound. Substantially different intensity ratios of resonances for common fragment anions allow distinguishing the nitroamines HMX and royal demolition explosive molecule (RDX) in negative ion mass spectrometry based on free electron capture.

  11. Alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine: M06-2X investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of possible environmental contaminant RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was investigated computationally at the PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Results obtained show that the initial deprotonation of RDX by hydroxide leads to nitrite elimination and formation of a denitrated cyclohexene intermediate. Further nucleophilic attack by hydroxide onto cyclic CN double bond results in ring opening. It was shown that the presence of hydroxide is crucial for this stage of the reaction. The dominant decomposition pathway leading to a ring-opened intermediate was found to be formation of 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal. Hydrolytic transformation of its byproduct (methylene nitramine) leads to end products such as formaldehyde and nitrous oxide. Computational results are in a good agreement with experimental data on hydrolysis of RDX, suggesting that 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, nitrite, formaldehyde, and nitrous oxide are main products for early stages of RDX decomposition under alkaline conditions.

  12. [Guidelines: Antibiotic treatment of infections of the head and neck: consensus report on behalf of the presidency of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery edited by P. Federspil, Homburg/Saar].

    PubMed

    Federspil, P

    2009-04-01

    In 1999 the following guidelines were elaborated by a consensus conference of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery with delegates of 10 further societies and complemented by a Delphi procedure. In 2002 and 2008 up-dates were performed by the members of the consensus conference, the chair of the study group of ENT infectiology of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and the presidency of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. The guidelines concern the antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections of the ears, nose and throat, taking the expected spectrum of pathogens, the microbiological and clinical efficacy and the containment of costs into consideration. After specification of the basic principles, the various infections with their causative pathogens and the antibiotics coming into question for therapy are tabulated and a differentiation is made between the antibiotic or the antibiotics of first choice and alternatives. The different dosages of oral and parenteral antibiotics for adults and children are indicated. In the appendix the different groups of antibiotics are characterized concerning their antibacterial spectrum and pharmacokinetics and in particular the differences between the older and newer representatives of the groups are pointed out.

  13. [Interaction of adenosin-3',5'-cyclosulfate with adenosine-3'5'-cyclophosphate dependent protein kinase and phosphodiesterase].

    PubMed

    Severin, E S; Tkachuk, V A; Guliaev, N N

    1976-02-01

    Interaction of adenosine-3',5'-cyclosulphate (cAMS) cAMP analogue, having sulphur atom instead of phosphorus in a six-term cyclic system with pig brain proteinkinase and rabbit skeletal muscle phosphodiesterase is studied. The affinity of proteinkinase to cAMS was found to be in 25000 times lower than the affinity of cAMP, the affinity of cAMS to the active site of phosphodiesterase being high enough. It is suggested that in the regulatory subunit of proteinkinase positive kationic group participates in nucleotide binding by interacting with negative oxygen atom of six-term cyclophosphate system. There is no such a group in the active site of phospodiesterase, because the absence of negative charge in case of cAMS only slightly affects the constant of cAMS binding by phosphodiesterase.

  14. Electron attachment to hydrated oligonucleotide dimers: guanylyl-3',5'-cytidine and cytidylyl-3',5'-guanosine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2010-05-03

    The dinucleoside phosphate deoxycytidylyl-3',5'-deoxyguanosine (dCpdG) and deoxyguanylyl-3',5'-deoxycytidine (dGpdC) systems are among the largest to be studied by reliable theoretical methods. Exploring electron attachment to these subunits of DNA single strands provides significant progress toward definitive predictions of the electron affinities of DNA single strands. The adiabatic electron affinities of the oligonucleotides are found to be sequence dependent. Deoxycytidine (dC) on the 5' end, dCpdG, has larger adiabatic electron affinity (AEA, 0.90 eV) than dC on the 3' end of the oligomer (dGpdC, 0.66 eV). The geometric features, molecular orbital analyses, and charge distribution studies for the radical anions of the cytidine-containing oligonucleotides demonstrate that the excess electron in these anionic systems is dominantly located on the cytosine nucleobase moiety. The pi-stacking interaction between nucleobases G and C seems unlikely to improve the electron-capturing ability of the oligonucleotide dimers. The influence of the neighboring base on the electron-capturing ability of cytosine should be attributed to the intensified proton accepting-donating interaction between the bases. The present investigation demonstrates that the vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of the radical anions of the oligonucleotides dGpdC and dCpdG are significantly larger than those of the corresponding nucleotides. Consequently, reactions with low activation barriers, such as those for O-C sigma bond and N-glycosidic bond breakage, might be expected for the radical anions of the guanosine-cytosine mixed oligonucleotides.

  15. Elevated root retention of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in coniferous trees.

    PubMed

    Schoenmuth, Bernd; Mueller, Jakob O; Scharnhorst, Tanja; Schenke, Detlef; Büttner, Carmen; Pestemer, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    For decades, the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) has been used for military and industrial applications. Residues of RDX pollute soils in large areas globally and the persistence and high soil mobility of these residues can lead to leaching into groundwater. Dendroremediation, i.e. the long-term use of trees to clean up polluted soils, is gaining acceptance as a green and sustainable strategy. Although the coniferous tree species Norway spruce and Scots pine cover large areas of military land in Central Europe, the potential of any coniferous tree for dendroremediation of RDX is still unknown. In this study, uptake experiments with a (14)C-labelled RDX solution (30 mg L(-1)) revealed that RDX was predominantly retained in the roots of 6-year-old coniferous trees. Only 23 % (pine) to 34 % (spruce) of RDX equivalents (RDXeq) taken up by the roots were translocated to aboveground tree compartments. This finding contrasts with the high aerial accumulation of RDXeq (up to 95 %) in the mass balances of all other plant species. Belowground retention of RDXeq is relatively stable in fine root fractions, since water leaching from tissue homogenates was less than 5 %. However, remobilisation from milled coarse roots and tree stubs reached up to 53 %. Leaching from homogenised aerial tree material was found to reach 64 % for needles, 58 % for stems and twigs and 40 % for spring sprouts. Leaching of RDX by precipitation increases the risk for undesired re-entry into the soil. However, it also opens the opportunity for microbial mineralisation in the litter layer or in the rhizosphere of coniferous forests and offers a chance for repeated uptake of RDX by the tree roots.

  16. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in three vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; McFarland, Craig A; Bazar, Matthew A; Quinn, Michael J; LaFiandra, Emily May; Talent, Larry G

    2010-04-01

    The explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine or high-melting explosive (HMX), has been found in soils in areas used for testing and training by the military. Many of these areas contain habitat for valued wildlife species. In an effort to better understand the environmental consequences from exposure, a reptilian (western fence lizard [Sceloporus occidentalis]), an amphibian (red-backed salamander [Plethodon cinereus]), and a mammalian species (rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus]) were exposed to HMX under controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards and rabbits were exposed to HMX by way of corn oil through gavage, and salamanders were exposed to HMX in soil. Two deaths occurred from acute oral exposures to lizards to 5000 mg HMX/kg BW. Histological and gross pathologic assessment suggested gut impaction as a possible cause of death. Salamanders exposed to concentrations of HMX in soil < or = 1970 mg HMX/kg soil for 10 days did not show adverse effects. Rabbits, however, showed neurologic effects manifested as hyperkinetic events with convulsions at > 24 h after oral exposures. An LD(50) for rabbits was calculated as 93 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 76-117). A subacute 14-day testing regime found a lowest observed effect level of 10 mg/kg-d and a no observed adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg-d based on hyperkinesia and seizure incidence, although changes suggesting functional hepatic alterations were also found. These data suggest that physiologic differences between species, particularly in gastrointestinal structure and function, can affect the absorption of HMX and hence lead to marked differences in toxicity from exposure to the same compound.

  18. Superselective microcoil embolization in severe intractable epistaxis: an analysis of 12 consecutive cases from an otorhinolaryngologic and an interventional neuroradiologic point of view.

    PubMed

    Seidel, D U; Remmert, S; Brassel, F; Schlunz-Hendann, M; Meila, D

    2015-11-01

    From 2006 to 2013, 12 patients with severe epistaxis refractory to prior conservative and surgical therapy were treated by superselective embolization of nasal arteries. Supersoft platinum microcoils with smallest diameters were used as the sole embolic agent in all cases. Coils were applied far distally in a stretched position for obtaining ideal target vessel superselectivity. The objective of this study is to evaluate efficacy and complications of superselective coil embolization for treatment of severe intractable epistaxis and to discuss results from an otorhinolaryngologic and an interventional neuroradiologic point of view. Retrospectively, all epistaxis inpatients between 2006 and 2013 were identified and subdivided by form of treatment: conservative, surgical and interventional therapy. Medical records of interventionally treated patients were reviewed for demographics, medical history, risk factors, clinical data, complications and short-term success, and patients were followed up for long-term success. Mean follow-up was 37 months. In 12 patients, 14 embolizations were carried out, with short-term success in 9 patients (75%), while early post-interventional rebleeding occurred in 3 patients (25%). Of 9 patients with short-term success, 1 died during stay, 1 was lost to follow-up and 1 had minor re-bleeding after 30 months. Six patients had short-term and long-term success. Before the first embolization, 3 ± 1 conservative and/or surgical procedures had been undertaken. Length of stay was 12.8 ± 3.6 days. 8 patients (67%) received red cell concentrates. Most frequent complications were mucosal damage and nasal pain, but these were related to repeated packing and surgery. Typical embolic complications as neurological or visual impairment or soft tissue necrosis were not observed in any patient. From the otorhinolaryngologic point of view, surgery is the treatment of choice in severe refractory epistaxis, but in case of repeated failure, superselective

  19. Staphylococcus epidermidis Csm1 is a 3'-5' exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Ramia, Nancy F; Tang, Li; Cocozaki, Alexis I; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) offer an adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from nucleic acid invaders through an RNA-mediated nucleic acid cleavage mechanism. Our knowledge of nucleic acid cleavage mechanisms is limited to three examples of widely different ribonucleoprotein particles that target either DNA or RNA. Staphylococcus epidermidis belongs to the Type III-A CRISPR system and has been shown to interfere with invading DNA in vivo. The Type III-A CRISPR system is characterized by the presence of Csm1, a member of Cas10 family of proteins, that has a permuted histidine-aspartate domain and a nucleotidyl cyclase-like domain, both of which contain sequence features characteristic of nucleases. In this work, we show in vitro that a recombinant S. epidermidis Csm1 cleaves single-stranded DNA and RNA exonucleolytically in the 3'-5' direction. We further showed that both cleavage activities are divalent-metal-dependent and reside in the GGDD motif of the cyclase-like domain. Our data suggest that Csm1 may work in the context of an effector complex to degrade invading DNA and participate in CRISPR RNA maturation.

  20. Generating technique for U(1){sup 3} 5D supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Scherbluk, Nikolai G.

    2008-09-15

    We develop a generating technique for solutions of U(1){sup 3} 5D supergravity via dimensional reduction to three dimensions. This theory, which recently attracted attention in connection with black rings, can be viewed as a consistent truncation of the T{sup 6} compactification of the 11-dimensional supergravity. Its further reduction to three dimensions accompanied by dualization of the vector fields leads to a 3D gravity coupled sigma model on the homogeneous space SO(4,4)/SO(4)xSO(4) or SO(4,4)/SO(2,2)xSO(2,2) depending on the signature of the three-space. We construct a 8x8 matrix representation of these cosets in terms of lower-dimensional blocks. Using it we express a solution generating transformations in terms of potentials and identify those preserving asymptotic conditions relevant to black holes and black rings. As an application we derive the doubly rotating black hole solution with three independent charges. A suitable contraction of the above cosets is used to construct a new representation of the coset G{sub 2(2)}/(SL(2,R)xSL(2,R)) relevant for minimal five-dimensional supergravity.

  1. Biological effects of 3,5-diiodothyronine (T(2)).

    PubMed

    Goglia, F

    2005-02-01

    This article is principally intended to describe the facts concerning the actions of 3,5-diiodothyronine (T(2)). Until recent years, T(2), because of its very low affinity for thyroid hormone receptors (THR), was considered an inactive metabolite of thyroid hormones (TH) (thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodo-L-thyronine (T(3))). Several observations, however, led to a reconsideration of this idea. Early studies dealing with the biological activities of this iodothyronine revealed its ability to stimulate cellular/mitochondrial respiration by a nuclear-independent pathway. Mitochondria and bioenergetic mechanisms seem to be major targets of T(2), although outside the mitochondria T(2) also has effects on carriers, ion-exchangers, and enzymes. Recent studies suggest that T(2) may also affect the transcription of some genes, but again the underlying mechanisms seem to be different from those actuated by T(3). The accumulated evidence permits the conclusion that the actions of T(2) do not simply mimic those of T(3) but instead are specific actions exerted through mechanisms that are independent of those actuated by T(3) and do not involve THR.

  2. Bioavailability of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) to the Praire Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Driver, Crystal J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Harvey, Scott D.

    2006-07-01

    Estimating risk to wildlife requires that measures of exposure be equivalent to that of the laboratory studies from which toxic responses were observed. Exposure measures are often based on modeled estimates of uptake through the food web. These modeled estimates use largely untested assumptions that can lead to inaccurate, uncertain, and unreliable estimates of exposure. Recently, concerns have been raised over the potential bioavailability and biotransfer of munitions or energetics materials such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). RDX is more recalcitrant in the soil, may remain as the parent compound for extended periods of time, and is rapidly taken up by the roots of higher plants and partitioned predominantly into the above ground, herbivore-accessible tissues. This study assessed plant incorporated [14C]-RDX and plant derived [14C]-RDX-metabolites ingestion by a representative hindgut herbivore, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The animals were fed the labeled chow (≤10 g/ day max) for five or seven days followed by a six or four day chase period with the control chow prior to final weighing and sacrifice. Animal excreta including feces, urine, and respired CO2 were collected and measured. Greater than 95% of all label presented to the voles was recovered in the summed excreta. Seventy-four percent of the label in the total excreta was found in the fecal non-absorbed bulk. This means that greater than 20% of the presented 14C-RDX and plant-derived 14C-RDX-metabolites were absorbed by the animal’s digestive tracts over the time course of the experiment and modified prior to release. These materials were either metabolized to 14CO2 (8 to 10% of the total label) or removed as nitrogenous waste through the kidneys (10 to 14%). The feeding regimes were followed by a rapid, 2 to 3 day, clearing of label from the bulk feces with the cessation of exposure. Both 14C-urine and 14CO2 excretion continued after the feces cleared indicating

  3. Ovine ruminal microbes are capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Eaton, H L; De Lorme, M; Chaney, R L; Craig, A M

    2011-08-01

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor that could be transported to the site of contamination. Bovine rumen fluid has been previously shown to transform 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a similar compound, in 4 h. In this study, RDX incubated in whole ovine rumen fluid was nearly eliminated within 4 h. Whole ovine rumen fluid was then inoculated into five different types of media to select for archaeal and bacterial organisms capable of RDX biotransformation. Cultures containing 30 μg mL(-1) RDX were transferred each time the RDX concentration decreased to 5 μg mL(-1) or less. Time point samples were analyzed for RDX biotransformation by HPLC. The two fastest transforming enrichments were in methanogenic and low nitrogen basal media. After 21 days, DNA was extracted from all enrichments able to partially or completely transform RDX in 7 days or less. To understand microbial diversity, 16S rRNA-gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting was conducted. Cloning and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA fragments were performed on both low nitrogen basal and methanogenic media enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed similar homologies to eight different bacterial and one archaeal genera classified under the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Euryarchaeota. After continuing enrichment for RDX degraders for 1 year, two consortia remained: one that transformed RDX in 4 days and one which had slowed after 2 months of transfers without RDX. DGGE comparison of the slower transforming consortium to the faster one showed identical banding patterns except one band. Homology matches to clones from the two consortia identified the same uncultured Clostridia genus in both; Sporanaerobacter

  4. Vibrational spectra of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole and deuterated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Orza, J M; García, M V; Alkorta, I; Elguero, J

    2000-07-01

    The infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole have been recorded in the vapor, liquid (melt and solution) and solid states. Two deuterated derivatives, C5H7N-ND and C5D7N-NH, were also studied in solid state and in solutions. Instrumental resolution was relatively low, 2.0 cm(-1) in the IR and approximately 2.7 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. The solids are made of cyclic hydrogen-bonded trimers. These trimers, present also in chloroform and acetone solutions, give rise to characteristic high absorption IR spectra in the 3200-2500 cm(-1) region, related to Fermi resonance involving nu(NH) vibrations. Bands from trimers are not present in water solutions but these solutions show spectral features similar in several ways to those of the trimer, attributable to solvent-bonded complexes. Evidence of H-bonding interactions with the other solvents is also visible in the high-frequency region. The two very intense bands in the Raman spectra of the solids appearing at 115 and 82 cm(-1) in the parent compound are also connected with a trimer formation. To interpret the experimental data, ab initio computations of the harmonic vibrational frequencies and IR and Raman intensities were carried out using the Gaussian 94 program package after full optimization at the RHF/6-31G* level for the three monomeric compounds as well as for three models of the trimer, with C3h, C3 and C1 symmetry. The combined use of experiments and computations allow a firm assignment of most of the observed bands for all the systems. In general, the agreement between theory and experiment is very good, with the exception of the IR and Raman intensities of some transitions. Particularly noticeable is the failure of the theoretical calculation in accounting for the high intensity of the Raman bands of the solid about 115 and 82 cm(-1).

  5. The 3.5 Meter at Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Donald G.

    1995-05-01

    As of November 1, 1994, the 3.5 meter telescope at Apache Point is in regular science operation. About 15% of the time is still used for engineering. The performance is still being improved. At present, we achieve 4 arc second rms absolute pointing from 20 to 89 degrees above the horizon. Image sizes are one arc second on a regular basis. The best open loop tracking achieved is 0.1 arc sec. errors over 10 minutes, though it can be worse. Closed loop tracking is better than 0.1 arc seconds. No aberrations from the mirror supports have been detected. The honeycomb primary mirror is kept at ambient temperature during the night time. Temperature non-uniformities in the back and front plates are controlled to be the same to 0.1 degrees centigrade. The telescope is regularly used with an infrared imager, a medium resolution spectrograph, and a large format, drift scan CCD camera. An echelle spectrograph, a high angular resolution camera, and an adaptive optics system are being integrated into the system. Instrument changes can be made in less than 20 minutes, at night. All instruments are operational and can be mounted by one person at any time. The observatory is operated by a full time staff of 6.6 individuals. Remote operations are possible from all ARC campuses. Over 70% of the observing is carried out this way, with site visits by astronomers only for mounting visitor instruments or for training purposes. Observing functions, including complete telescope control, instrument control, and data retrieval are carried out by the remote observer. The telescope is scheduled on an hourly basis, two months in advance of the actual runs. The individual university members of the project control their own time allocations and intra-institutional trades of time. The project partners are the University of Chicago, New Mexico State University, Princeton University, the University of Washington, and Washington State University.

  6. Intractable depression successfully treated with a combination of autogenic training and high-dose antidepressant in department of otorhinolaryngology: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Patients suffering from ear discomfort are commonly encountered in the department of otolaryngology. If various clinical examinations do not reveal any objective findings, then the patients are referred to the department of internal medicine or psychiatry. Psychotherapy is recommended in some cases. This paper describes the successful administration of autogenic training in a patient suffering from ear discomfort due to major depression. Case presentation We present a case of intractable depression that was successfully treated with a combination of psychotherapy, administered by a clinical psychologist, and high-dose antidepressant. The patient was a 36-year-old female with hearing discomfort in her left ear. In 2003, she experienced insomnia and an appetite loss, and her condition was diagnosed as major depression along with an avoidant personality disorder. Her depression has not been improved with antidepressant treatment for 3 years in department of psychosomatic medicine. She was referred to our department because of ear discomfort in her left ear. There was no abnormality in her physical examinations. She wanted to be treated in department of otorhinolaryngology. We increased the dose of fluvoxamine maleate up to 200 mg/day, and introduced cognitive therapy and autogenic training by a clinical psychologist. Eventually, her depressive state as well as the hearing complaint was markedly alleviated. Conclusion Autogenic training can be a viable and acceptable treatment option for patients who fail to respond to other therapies. This case emphasizes the importance of autogenic training as a method to control physical symptom of depression. PMID:20184684

  7. 0.4-3.5-micrometer Observations of 4179 Toutatis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, E. S.; Britt, D. T.; Bell, J. F.; Binzel, R. P.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    1993-07-01

    We obtained nearly simultaneous observations of 4179 Toutatis over a 0.3-3.5 micrometer wavelength range on 4 January 1993 UT. Howell obtained a 1.2-2.5 micrometer spectrophotometry using the Multiple Mirror Telescope in Arizona. Britt and Bell obtained narrowband photometry in the 3-micrometer region as well as broadband JHK photometry from the Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii. Binzel measured the visible spectrum using a CCD spectrograph at the McGraw-Hill Observatory in Arizona. Using V photometry reported by Pravec in the Czech Republic on adjacent nights [1], we were able to combine all these spectral regions. The rotation period of this object is approximately 10 days, so the time differences between the measurements of different spectral regions are negligible. Tholen has classified 4179 Toutatis as an S-type asteroid based on visible photometry. We measure a pyroxene absorption band near 2 micrometers, present in most S-type asteroid spectra. Unfortunately, a gap in spectral coverage prevents us from determining the characteristics of the 1-micrometer absorption band accurately. The spectral slope as measured from 1.25 to 2.2 micrometers is 6-10%, which is modest compared to other S-type asteroids. The spectrum of this asteroid is similar to other near-Earth S-type asteroids that have been observed in the near-infrared wavelength region. On 4 January 1993, 4179 Toutatis was 0.182 AU from the Earth, and 1.158 AU from the Sun. At this solar distance, the thermal emission contributes substantially to the flux at 3 micrometers. The determination of thermal emission is complicated by the slow rotation rate and the irregular shape of this object that was revealed by radar observations [2]. Preliminary results suggest that no 3-micrometer absorption feature is present, indicating that this object is anhydrous. Using these spectral data, we will compare 4179 Toutatis to other S-type asteroids, both in the main belt and the near-Earth environment. References

  8. The Role of Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress in 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) Induced Nephrotoxicity in Isolated Renal Cortical Cells from Male Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Christopher R.; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Debbie; Ward, Dakota; Ball, John; Anestis, Dianne; Valentovic, Monica; Rankin, Gary O.

    2016-01-01

    Among the mono- and dichloroanilines, 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of renal biotransformation in 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity is unknown. The current study was designed to determine the in vitro nephrotoxic potential of 3,5-DCA in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) obtained from male Fischer 344 rats, and the role of renal bioactivation and oxidative stress in 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity. IRCC (~4 million cells/ml) from male rats were exposed to 3,5-DCA (0-1.0 mM) for up to 120 min. In IRCC, 3,5-DCA was cytotoxic at 1.0 mM by 60 min as evidenced by the increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but 120 min was required for 3,5-DCA 0.5 mM to increase LDH release. In subsequent studies, IRCC were exposed to a pretreatment (antioxidant or enzyme inhibitor) prior to exposure to 3,5-DCA (1.0 mM) for 90 min. Cytotoxicity induced by 3,5-DCA was attenuated by pretreatment with inhibitors of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; methimazole, N-octylamine), cytochrome P450 (CYP; piperonyl butoxide, metyrapone), or peroxidase (indomethacin, mercaptosuccinate) enzymes. Use of more selective CYP inhibitors suggested that the CYP 2C family contributed to 3,5-DCA bioactivation. Antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, pyruvate) also attenuated 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity, but oxidized glutathione levels and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratios were not increased. These results indicate that 3,5-DCA may be activated via several renal enzyme systems to toxic metabolites, and that free radicals, but not oxidative stress, contribute to 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. PMID:26808022

  9. Novel dinuclear dimethylamido-3,5-dimethylpyrazolato and tetranuclear dimethylamido-3,5-dimethylpyrazolato-polyoxo zirconium(IV) complexes. Synthesis and structural characterisation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Martial; Mosquera, Marta E G; Cuenca, Tomás

    2009-04-14

    The dinuclear dimethylamido-tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolato)-zirconium(IV) complex [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)3(NMe2)]2 1 is prepared by treatment of [Zr(NMe2)4] with 3 equivalents of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (3,5-Me2PzH) with elimination of dimethylamine. When [Zr(NMe2)4] reacted with 2 equivalents of 3,5-Me2PzH, the bis(dimethylamido)-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolato)zirconium(IV) compound [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)2(NMe2)2]2 2 is obtained. Hydrolysis of [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)3(NMe2)]2 in wet toluene affords the tetranuclear oxo compound [Zr4(eta2-3,5-Me2Pz)4(NMe2)2(mu3-O)2(mu2-3,5-Me2Pz)4(mu2-NMe2)2] . All synthesised compounds are characterised by NMR spectroscopic and analytical methods. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis has established the molecular structures of 1 and 4.

  10. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave.

    PubMed

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M

    1977-07-01

    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed.

  11. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave.

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M

    1977-01-01

    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed. PMID:196595

  12. Treatment of otorhinolaryngological manifestations of three rare genetic syndromes: Branchio-Oculo-Facial (BOF), Ectrodactyly Ectodermal dysplasia Clefting (EEC) and focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome).

    PubMed

    Skarzynski, Henryk; Podskarbi-Fayette, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Genetic background and characteristic symptoms of three children with rare genetic syndromes: Ectrodactyly Ectodermal dysplasia Clefting (EEC), Branchio-Oculo-Facial (BOF) and focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) were outlined. All patients presented common otorhinolaryngological features of bilateral hearing impairment and dermal problems. Diagnostic protocol and treatment strategies for all three syndromes were presented and discussed. Skin lesions of the head and neck and degree of hearing loss were identified in clinical examination and by audiological methods. Treatment of hypoacousis and skin disorders were the primary issues in presented cases. In both the EEC syndrome and FDH our priority was to achieve and maintain hearing at the level of social efficiency. Patient with the Branchio-Oculo-Facial syndrome received a cochlear implant at the age of 12 months and was surgically treated for bilateral retroauricular fistulas. In both cases of dysplasia conservative treatment and otosurgery were applied. Results of treatment after 12 months are presented. In all patients hearing result provided good social skills in communication and a good local condition was achieved. Possibilities for future interventions were mentioned and necessity for medical follow-up and rehabilitation were stressed as key issues in maintaining results achieved with treatment presented in this study. Patient with FDH underwent CO(2) laser treatment for papillomatous lesions on her face and neck. Good aesthetic result without recurrence in follow-up examinations was achieved. Baby with the Branchio-Oculo-Facial syndrome is rehabilitated in our Cochlear Implant Center and the fistulas have healed without complications. Due to the rarity and multiplicity of symptoms in presented syndromes a standard therapy has not been established yet. However, it is of crucial importance in such cases to focus on hearing improvement in order to reach and maintain hearing at the level of social

  13. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  14. Trinuclear rare earth metal complexes based on 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis inositol as catalysts for the hydrolysis of phosphodiesters.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ahmed M; Calatayud Sala, José Miguel; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2011-02-14

    Trinuclear rare-earth metal complexes [M₃(taciH₋₃)₂](3+) (M = La(3+), Y(3+)), based on a rigid polyamino-polyalcohol ligand 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol (taci), are proven to be efficient catalysts for the hydrolysis of 2-hydroxypropyl-4-nitrophenyl phophate (HPNP), a commonly used RNA model system.

  15. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  16. Acute Oral Toxicity of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine (Sex) in Male and Female Rats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    flame proof cabinet at room temperature. %.. White--2 Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine Chemical Abstract Service...Trinitrocyclotetramethylenetetramine Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 13980-00-2 Structural formula: 0 11 C-CH 0 2 N-N CH2 HC-N NO 2 , Empirical formula: C6H1

  17. 1H NMR for quantifying sulfide trapping efficiency by using 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazinane.

    PubMed

    Canuto, André V S; Echevarria, Aurea

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an extremely toxic colourless gas; it is corrosive and denser than air. It usually happens in oil and natural gas fields, refineries, coal mines, and in some industrial effluent treatment systems. This work presents an alternative method of monitoring and quantifying H2S trapping efficiency by using 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazinane as a sequestering agent, and sodium sulfide as a source of sulfide ion, through (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The results proved that the reaction occurs very quickly at 20 °C at pH 7 and 10. 3,5-di(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-thiodiazinane and 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-dithiozinane were observed and quantified; it was evidenced that (1)H NMR spectroscopy can be applied as a fast and effective method to quantify H2S trapping efficiency. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Aromatic fluorine compounds. I. The synthesis of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluorides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.

    1944-01-01

    The preparation of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluoride and some of their intermediates is described. 3,5-Dinitrobenzotrifluoride was prepared from 3-nitrobenzotrifluoride with a fuming nitric-sulfuric acid mixture.

  19. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5): interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Guillet, E.G.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C/sub 3/-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C/sub 3/-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending in the degree of polarization. The results show that a mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biologicl membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C/sub 3/-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  20. DiO-C3-(5) and DiS-C3-(5): Interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Guillet, E G; Kimmich, G A

    1981-03-15

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C3-(5) and diS-C3-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C3-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C3-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C3-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending on the degree of polarization. The results show that mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biological membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C3-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C3-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  1. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  2. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy framework...

  3. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy framework...

  4. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  9. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  10. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  11. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  12. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  13. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  14. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. Excited State Processes for Aqueous Rh(NH3)5Cl(2+) and Rh(NH3)5Br(2+).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-10

    white precipitate of Rh(NH3)5(H20)) Br3 was collected and dried overnight at 110-0 C. The resulting yellow product was recrystallized from water/HClO4 to...aquation. In all cases, product concentrations were corrected for the usually small degree of dark or thermal reaction. Pulsed Laser Experiments. The...direct photochemical production . According to Palmer and Harris [16] the reaction Rh(NH 3)5(OH) 2+ + C02(aq) = Rh(NH 3)5(Co3) + + H+ occurs with a rate

  18. Taking a fresh look at the skull base in otorhinolaryngology with web-based simulation: Student's Interactive Skull-Base Trainer (SISTer).

    PubMed

    von Sass, Peter Freiherr; Scheckenbach, Kathrin; Wagenmann, Martin; Klenzner, Thomas; Schipper, Joerg; Chaker, Adam

    2015-02-01

    The increasing amount of medical knowledge and necessity for time-effective teaching and learning have given rise to emerging online, or e-learning, applications. The base of the skull is a challenging anatomic area in the otorhinolaryngology (ORL) department-for both students and lecturers. Technology-enhanced learning might be an expedient approach to benefit both learners and lecturers. To investigate and create for advanced medical students a self-assessed adaptive e-learning application for the skull base within our curriculum of otolaryngology at the University Medical Center of Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany. Pilot approach with prospective evaluation of a newly implemented web-based e-learning simulation. The e-learning application (Student's Interactive Skull-Base Trainer) was made accessible as an elective course to a total of 269 enrolled medical students during the first 2 semesters after web launch. Spatiotemporal independent e-learning application for the skull base. Self-assessed evaluation with focus on general acceptance and personal value as well as usage data analysis. The application was well accepted by the learners. More than 80% of the participating students found the application to be a beneficial tool for enhancing their analytical and clinical problem-solving skills. Although the general matter of the skull base seemed to be of lesser interest, the concept of anchored instructions with the use of high-end, interactive, multimedia-based content was considered to be particularly suitable for this challenging topic. Most of the students would have appreciated an extension of optional e-learning modules. With this pilot approach we were able to implement a useful and now well-accepted tool for blended learning. We showed that it is possible to raise interest even in this very specialized subspecialty of ORL with overall individual learning benefit for the students. There is a demand for more e-learning and web-based simulation

  19. Vibrational properties, phonon spectrum and related thermal parameters of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wen; Zhang, Weibin; Zong, Hehou; Gao, Guofang; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational spectrum, phonon dispersion curve, and phonon density of states (DOS) of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (β-HMX) crystal were obtained by molecular simulation and calculations. As results, it was found that the peaks at low frequency (0-2.5 THz) are comparable with the experimental Terahertz absorption and the molecular vibrational modes are in agreement with previous reports. Thermodynamic properties including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity as functions of temperature were obtained based on the calculated phonon spectrum. The heat capacity at normal temperature was calculated using linear fitting method, with a result consistent with experiments. Graphical Abstract Phonon spectrum and heat capacity of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine from DFT calculation.

  20. Isolation of three hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine-degrading species of the family Enterobacteriaceae from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil.

    PubMed Central

    Kitts, C L; Cunningham, D P; Unkefer, P J

    1994-01-01

    Three species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that biochemically reduced hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) were isolated from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil. Two isolates, identified as Morganella morganii and Providencia rettgeri, completely transformed both RDX and the nitroso-RDX reduction intermediates. The third isolate, identified as Citrobacter freundii, partially transformed RDX and generated high concentrations of nitroso-RDX intermediates. All three isolates produced 14CO2 from labeled RDX under O2-depleted culture conditions. While all three isolates transformed HMX, only M. morganii transformed HMX in the presence of RDX. PMID:7811097

  1. Synthesis of Cis- and Trans-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetraazadecalin, Two New Energetic Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    anr D-4 ,4 ’-(l,3-dinitro-l,3-diazacyclopentane) Q) ........ 17 Separation of and . ...... ................... 17 Meso- erythritol Tetrabenzenesulfonate...synthesis of the unknown 0 and lrwas to start with the corresponding tetrahydroxybutanes (threftol,4l, and erythritol , 1). These would be SCHEME 2. Retro...l,3,5,7-tetranitro-l,3,5,7-tetraazadecalin Q) In this case, the starting material, meso- erythritol , is commer- cially available at reasonable cost

  2. Role of Nitrogen Limitation in Transformation of RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine) by Gordonia sp. Strain KTR9

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Dawn E.; Jung, Carina M.; Eberly, Jed O.; Mohn, William W.; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Crocker, Fiona H.

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptome of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)-degrading strain Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 and its glnR mutant were studied as a function of nitrogen availability to further investigate the observed ammonium-mediated inhibition of RDX degradation. The results indicate that nitrogen availability is a major determinant of RDX degradation and xplA gene expression in KTR9. PMID:23275513

  3. Synthesis and enzymic activity of various substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazines as adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate phosphodiesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Senga, K; O'Brien, D E; Scholten, M B; Novinson, T; Miller, J P; Robins, R K

    1982-03-01

    A series of various pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazines have been prepared and studied as inhibitors of cAMP phosphodiesterase isolated from bovine brain, bovine heart, and rabbit lung. A number of compounds were found to be superior to theophylline. 2-Ethyl-7-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine (35) was found to be 97 times more potent than theophylline as an inhibitor of bovine brain PDE. 8-Bromo-2,4-dimethyl-7-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine (52) showed alpha lung = 40 compared to alpha heart = 3.0. Thus, various substituents could increase or decrease the inhibition relative to the type and source of tissue from which the PDE was isolated. The most active compound was 8-bromo-4-(diethylamino)-7-phenylpyrazolo[1,3-a]-1,3,5-triazine (25), which was 185 times more potent than theophylline as an inhibitor of PDE isolated from rabbit lung. The stepwise synthesis via ring-closure procedures of requisite pyrazole intermediates, followed by electrophilic substitution in the pyrazole ring and/or nucleophilic substitution in the 1,3,5-triazine moiety, resulted in the various pyrazolo[1,5-a]1,3,5-triazines listed in Tables I and II. Structure-activity relationships are reviewed.

  4. Characterization of Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) with Municipal Anaerobic Sludge†

    PubMed Central

    Hawari, Jalal; Halasz, Annamaria; Sheremata, Tamara; Beaudet, Sylvie; Groom, Carl; Paquet, Louise; Rhofir, Chakib; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in liquid cultures with municipal anaerobic sludge showed that at least two degradation routes were involved in the disappearance of the cyclic nitramine. In one route, RDX was reduced to give the familiar nitroso derivatives hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX). In the second route, two novel metabolites, methylenedinitramine [(O2NNH)2CH2] and bis(hydroxymethyl)nitramine [(HOCH2)2NNO2], formed and were presumed to be ring cleavage products produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of the inner C—N bonds of RDX. None of the above metabolites accumulated in the system, and they disappeared to produce nitrous oxide (N2O) as a nitrogen-containing end product and formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (MeOH), and formic acid (HCOOH) that in turn disappeared to produce CH4 and CO2 as carbon-containing end products. PMID:10831452

  5. [Psychopathological disorders in otorhinolaryngological neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Llorca, G; Derecho, J; Gómez del Castillo, M J; Martín, T; del Cañizo Fernández, A

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyze the psychopathologic disorders at the patients affected from O.R.L. cancers. They refer specially to larynx cancer, because of the significance on the loss in speech ability, if the treatment includes total laryngectomy, added to the fear characteristic of the patient with cancer. The highly incidence of alcoholism before diagnosis is also verified, what imply the addiction of psychopathologic disorders. It's estimated a well order to take part actively in their rehabilitation besides the lower incidence of alcoholism after surgery.

  6. Biodegradation of the Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine Ring Cleavage Product 4-Nitro-2,4-Diazabutanal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim; Spanggord, Ronald J.; Bottaro, Jeffrey C.; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-01-01

    Initial denitration of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 produces CO2 and the dead-end product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), OHCNHCH2NHNO2, in high yield. Here we describe experiments to determine the biodegradability of NDAB in liquid culture and soils containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium. A soil sample taken from an ammunition plant contained RDX (342 μmol kg−1), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; 3,057 μmol kg−1), MNX (hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine; 155 μmol kg−1), and traces of NDAB (3.8 μmol kg−1). The detection of the last in real soil provided the first experimental evidence for the occurrence of natural attenuation that involved ring cleavage of RDX. When we incubated the soil with strain DN22, both RDX and MNX (but not HMX) degraded and produced NDAB (388 ± 22 μmol kg−1) in 5 days. Subsequent incubation of the soil with the fungus led to the removal of NDAB, with the liberation of nitrous oxide (N2O). In cultures with the fungus alone NDAB degraded to give a stoichiometric amount of N2O. To determine C stoichiometry, we first generated [14C]NDAB in situ by incubating [14C]RDX with strain DN22, followed by incubation with the fungus. The production of 14CO2 increased from 30 (DN22 only) to 76% (fungus). Experiments with pure enzymes revealed that manganese-dependent peroxidase rather than lignin peroxidase was responsible for NDAB degradation. The detection of NDAB in contaminated soil and its effective mineralization by the fungus P. chrysosporium may constitute the basis for the development of bioremediation technologies. PMID:14766596

  7. Intramolecular C-arylation of 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-pentofuranose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Martin, O R

    1987-12-31

    Upon treatment with tin(IV) chloride, 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)pentofuranose (D-ribo, L-arabino) undergo intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the aromatic substituent at O-2 to give unusual internal C-glycosyl compounds (isochroman derivatives) in high yield. The final products are also partially debenzylated at O-3 or O-5 (up to 25%) under these conditions. By contrast, the corresponding methyl glycosides are poor substrates for the intramolecular C-arylation reaction, as methyl 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-beta-D-ribofuranoside was found to give preponderantly methyl 3,5-di-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-alpha-D-ribofuranoside (11) (49%), and the C-arylation product in 30% yield only in the presence of the same Lewis acid. The competitive formation of 11 is thought to be due to the anomerization of the substrate leading to a tin(IV) complex coordinated with O-1 and O-2, which promoted the cleavage of the benzyl group at O-2. These reactions provide a novel and efficient C-arylation method and suggest a new approach to selectively protected D-ribofuranose derivatives. Evidence for the uncommon C-arylated structure of the new products was gained from their 1H- and 13C(APT)-n.m.r. spectra.

  8. Untemplated nonenzymatic polymerization of 3',5'cGMP: a plausible route to 3',5'-linked oligonucleotides in primordia.

    PubMed

    Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Giorgi, Alessandra; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Pino, Samanta; Costanzo, Giovanna

    2015-02-19

    The high-energy 3',5' phosphodiester linkages conserved in 3',5' cyclic GMPs offer a genuine solution for monomer activation required by the transphosphorylation reactions that could lead to the emergence of the first simple oligonucleotide sequences on the early Earth. In this work we provide an in-depth characterization of the effect of the reaction conditions on the yield of the polymerization reaction of 3',5' cyclic GMPs both in aqueous environment as well as under dehydrating conditions. We show that the threshold temperature of the polymerization is about 30 °C lower under dehydrating conditions than in solution. In addition, we present a plausible exergonic reaction pathway for the polymerization reaction, which involves transient formation of anionic centers at the O3' positions of the participating riboses. We suggest that excess Na(+) cations inhibit the polymerization reaction because they block the anionic mechanism via neutralizing the negatively charged O3'. Our experimental findings are compatible with a prebiotic scenario, where gradual desiccation of the environment could induce polymerization of 3',5' cyclic GMPs synthesized in liquid.

  9. The Determination of Hexahydro-1, 3, 5,-Trinitro-S-Triazine (RDX) and Octahydro-1, 3, 5, 7-Tetranitro-S-Tetrazocine (HMX) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Spectrophometry ", Anal. Chem., 44, pp. 1676-1678, August 1972. 5J A compounds. Previous experience in the analysis of er’.rgetic materials using high performance...in Octahydro-l, 3, 5, 7-Tetranitro-s-Tetrazocine (HMX) by Infrared Spectrophometry ", Anal. Chem., 44, pp. 1676-1678, August 1972. 7. J. Omar Doali

  10. AquaSMART: Water & Boating Safety, Grades 3-5. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a program designed to teach water and boating safety to students in grades 3-5. The written curriculum accompanies a video, AquaSMART 3-5. The theme of the curriculum is AquaSMART. To become AquaSMART, students must learn 10 basic lessons for water and boating safety. The written curriculum begins with an overview…

  11. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  12. Experimental Evidence for Linear Metal-Azide Coordination: The Binary Group 5 Azides [Nb(N3)5], [Ta(N3)5], [Nb(N3)6], and [Ta(N3)6], and 1:1 Acetonitrile Adducts [Nb(N3)5(CH3CN)] and (Ta(N3)5(CH3CN))

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-20

    significantly longer than the equatorial ones, as expected from VSEPR argu- ments.[29] In contrast, the axial M-N-N arrangements in [Nb(N3)5] and [Ta(N3)5...Int. Ed. 2000, 39, 2108. [29] a) R. J. Gillespie, I. Hargittai, The VSEPR Model of Molecular Geometry, Allyn and Bacon, Needham Heights, MA, 1991; b

  13. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  14. New Hofmann-like spin crossover compound with 3,5-lutidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Takafumi; Takahashi, Miwa

    2014-04-01

    A new type III of 3,5-lutidine spin crossover coordination compound with formula Fe(3,5-lutidine)2Ni(CN)4·2[(H2O)(3,5-lutidine)] 2c has been obtained. The ratio of the high spin state (HS) iron (II) changing to the low spin state (LS) iron (II) in 2c is higher than that of type I and type II 3,5-lutidine coordination polymer 2a and 2b previously reported. 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of 2c show two different doublets which correspond to HS1 (inner doublet lines) and HS2 (outer doublet lines). The intensity of the HS1 doublet decreases on cooling to 80 K while the intensity of another component, the LS singlet, increases. The 90 % of the HS1 doublet change to the LS singlet is probably due to suitable environments of octahedral iron (II) ions coordinated by four nitrogen atoms of cyano groups and two nitrogen atoms of 3,5-lutidine ligands. We also prepared the Hofmann-like 3,5-dichloropyridine coordination compound Fe(3,5-dichloropyridine)2Ni(CN)4 ·2[(3,5-dichloropyridine)(H2O)] 2d to compare it with 2c. 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of 2d show that 2d is not a spin crossover coordination compound.

  15. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... validity study. All circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes... validity studies. 60-3.5 Section 60-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... General standards for validity studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of...

  16. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... validity study. All circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes... validity studies. 60-3.5 Section 60-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... General standards for validity studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of...

  17. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... validity study. All circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes... validity studies. 60-3.5 Section 60-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... General standards for validity studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of...

  18. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... validity study. All circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes... validity studies. 60-3.5 Section 60-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... General standards for validity studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of...

  19. Global gene expression in rat brain and liver after oral exposure to the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Bannon, Desmond I; Dillman, James F; Hable, Michael A; Phillips, Christopher S; Perkins, Edward J

    2009-04-01

    RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) is a synthetic, high-impact, relatively stable explosive that has been in use since WWII. Exposure to RDX can occur in occupational settings (e.g., during manufacture) or through the inadvertent ingestion of contaminated environmental media such as groundwater. The toxicology of RDX is dominated by acute clonic-tonic seizures at high doses, which remit when exposure is removed and internal RDX levels decrease. Subchronic studies have revealed few other measurable toxic effects. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of RDX on the mammalian brain and liver using global gene expression analysis based on a predetermined maximum internal dose. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single, oral, nonseizure-inducing dose of either 3 or 18 mg/kg RDX in a gel capsule. Effects on gene expression in the cerebral cortex and liver were assessed using Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2.0 whole genome arrays at 0, 3.5, 24, and 48 h postexposure. RDX blood and brain tissue concentrations rapidly increased between 0 and 3.5 h, followed by decreases at 24 h to below the detection limit at 48 h. Pairwise comparison of high and low doses at each time point showed dramatic differential changes in gene expression at 3.5 h, the time of peak RDX in brain and blood. Using Gene Ontology, biological processes that affected neurotransmission were shown to be primarily down-regulated in the brain, the target organ of toxicity, while those that affected metabolism were up-regulated in the liver, the site of metabolism. Overall, these results demonstrate that a single oral dose of RDX is quickly absorbed and transported into the brain where processes related to neurotransmission are negatively affected, consistent with a potential excitotoxic response, whereas in the liver there was a positive effect on biological processes potentially associated with RDX metabolism.

  20. The 3.5 micron light curves of long period variable stars. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Infrared observations at an effective wavelength of 3.5 microns of a selected group of long period variable (LPV) stars are presented. Mira type and semiregular stars of M, S, and C spectral classifications were monitored throughout the full cycle of variability. Although the variable infrared radiation does not exactly repeat in intensity or time, the regularity is sufficient to produce mean 3.5 micron light curves. The 3.5 micron maximum radiation lags the visual maximum by about one-seventh of a cycle, while the minimum 3.5 micron intensity occurs nearly one-half cycle after infrared maximum. In some stars, there are inflections or humps on the ascending portion of the 3.5 micron light curve which may also be seen in the visual variations.

  1. [Study of the effect of sclareol glycol diterpene on the 3',5'-AMP level].

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Zh; Uzunov, P

    1989-01-01

    Sclareol glycol (SG) is a semisynthetic diterpene of the labdanic group. SG is tetranorlabdaniol bivalent alcohol 13, 14, 15, 16-tetranorlabdan-8 alpha, 12-diol, obtained from the plant Salvia sclarea L., grown in Bulgaria. The effects of SG were studied on the level of 3',5'-AMP in:mono-layer tissue cultures of the anterior hypophysis of the rat; in hypophysial and brain tissue during in vitro incubation; in liver microsomes of the rat during in vitro incubation and in liver perfusate of the rat. It was established that SG induced an increase in accumulation of 3,5'-AMP in the tissues from the anterior hypophyses of mature and newborn rats, in the sections of brain cortex and cerebellum of mature rats. Similar changes were found by the diterpene forskolin, studied comparatively. SG induced a reduction of accumulation of 3',5'-AMP in liver microsomes and diminished the release of 3',5'-AMP in a liver perfusate of the rat. The increased accumulation of 3',5'-AMP due to SG could be explained by postreceptor stimulation of the enzyme adenylate cyclase, binding directly to its catalytic subunit. The reduced accumulation of 3',5'-AMP in liver microsomes and its diminished release in liver perfusate could be explained either by activation of the inhibitory adenylate cyclase in hepatocytes or by desensitisation of 3',5'-AMP-generating system.

  2. Ab initio study of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abdelsalam; Ågren, Hans; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) C 3H 6N 6O 6 molecule is studied by ab initio methods. The results are compared to available experimental observations and against calculations and experimental observations of the conventional non-resonant Raman spectrum for RDX. It is found that all intense bands in the observed CARS spectrum and all Raman differential cross sections are well reproduced by the calculations. The features of the resonant CARS signal vary strongly from the corresponding Raman signal, and are obtained with a considerably larger cross section, a fact that could further facilitate the use of CARS spectroscopy in applications of stand-off detection of gaseous samples at ultra-low concentrations.

  3. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s.

  4. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-21

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s.

  5. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  6. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  7. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Baohong; Tian, Kang; Jones, Lindsey E; Liu, Jun; Anderson, Todd A; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Cobb, George P

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of the explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). In negative ionization mode, HMX forms an acetate adduct ion [M + CH(3)COO](-), m/z 355, in the presence of a small amount of acetic acid in the mobile phase. The ESI collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectrum of m/z 355 was acquired and the transitions m/z 355 --> 147 and m/z 355 --> 174 were chosen for the determination of HMX in samples. Using this quantification technique, the method detection limit was 1.57 microg/L and good linearity was achieved in the range 5-500 microg/L. This method will help to unambiguously analyze environmentally relevant concentrations of HMX. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Safety assessment of 2-ethyl-3,(5 or 6) dimethylpyrazine as a food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G

    2008-04-01

    2-Ethyl-3,(5 or 6)-dimethylpyrazine (CAS No. 27043-05-6), a heterocyclic, nitrogen-containing compound, is used in the food industry as a flavor ingredient for its characteristic roasted odor and flavor, reminiscent of roasted cocoa or nuts. Pyrazines, including 2-ethyl-3,(5 or 6)-dimethylpyrazine, are widely distributed in foods and because of their natural unavoidable occurrence in cooked food; therefore, pyrazine compounds, including 2-ethyl-3,(5 or 6)-dimethylpyrazine, are commonly consumed in the daily diet. 2-Ethyl-3,(5 or 6)-dimethylpyrazine is oxidized in rats almost exclusively via its aliphatic side-chain to carboxylic acid derivatives. The LD(50) of 2-ethyl-3,(5 or 6)-dimethylpyrazine in rats was reported as 460 mg/kg and it is reported to be irritating to the skin, eyes and the upper respiratory tract. Two 90-day rat feeding studies have been conducted on 2-ethyl-3,(5 or 6)-dimethylpyrazine, with the one reporting a no effect level of 12.5mg/kg/day (both sexes) and a second study reporting a NOAEL of 2-ethyl-3,(5 or 6)-dimethylpyrazine 17 and 18 mg/kg/day for male and female rats, respectively. Although no genotoxicity studies were found on 2-ethyl-3,(5 or 6)-dimethylpyrazine, structurally similar pyrazine derivatives were reported as clastogenic in mammalian cells and non-mutagenic in bacterial assays. The relevance of the positive results in assays with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro is unclear. The data and information available, including a prolonged history of safe use, indicate that at the current level of intake, the food flavoring use of 2-ethyl-3,(5 or 6)-dimethylpyrazine is safe.

  9. Cosubstrate independent mineralization of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a Desulfovibrio species under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Clint M; Adrian, Neal R

    2009-02-01

    Past handling practices associated with the manufacturing and processing of the high explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has resulted in extensive environmental contamination. In-situ biodegradation is a promising technology for remediating RDX contaminated sites but often relies on the addition of a cosubstrate. A sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from an RDX-degrading enrichment culture was studied for its ability to grow on RDX as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen and for its ability to mineralize RDX in the absence of a cosubstrate. The results showed the isolate degraded 140 muM RDX in 63 days when grown on RDX as a carbon source. Biomass within the carbon limited culture increased 9-fold compared to the RDX unamended controls. When the isolate was incubated with RDX as sole source of nitrogen it degraded 160 muM RDX in 41 days and exhibited a 4-fold increase in biomass compared to RDX unamended controls. Radiolabeled studies under carbon limiting conditions with (14)C-hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine confirmed mineralization of the cyclic nitramine. After 60 days incubation 26% of the radiolabel was recovered as (14)CO(2), while in the control bottles less than 1% of the radiolabel was recovered as (14)CO(2). Additionally, approximately 2% of the radiolabeled carbon was found to be associated with the biomass. The 16S rDNA gene was sequenced and identified the isolate as a novel species of Desulfovibrio, having a 95.1% sequence similarity to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. This is the first known anaerobic bacterium capable of mineralizing RDX when using it as a carbon and energy source for growth.

  10. Abundance and diversity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)-metabolizing bacteria in UXO-contaminated marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2007-03-01

    Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a toxic explosive known to be resistant to biodegradation. In this study, we found that sediment collected from two unexploded ordnance (UXO) disposal sites (UXO-3, UXO-5) and one nearby reference site (midref) in Hawaii contained anaerobic bacteria capable of removing HMX. Two groups of HMX-removing bacteria were found in UXO-5: group I contained aerotolerant anaerobes and microaerophiles, and group II contained facultative anaerobes. In UXO-3 and midref sediments, HMX-metabolizing bacteria were strictly anaerobic (group III and group IV). Using 16S rRNA sequencing, group I was assigned to a novel phylogenetic cluster of Clostridiales, and groups II and III were related to Paenibacillus and Tepidibacter of Firmicutes, respectively. Group IV bacteria were identified as Desulfovibrio of Deltaproteobacteria. Using [UL-(14)C]-HMX, group IV isolates were found to mineralize HMX (26.8% in 308 d) as determined by liberated (14)CO(2), but negligible mineralization was observed in groups I-III. Resting cells of isolates metabolized HMX to N(2)O and HCHO via the intermediary formation of 1-nitroso-octahydro-3,5,7-trinitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine together with methylenedinitramine. These experimental findings suggest that HMX biotransformation occurred either via initial denitration followed by ring cleavage or via reduction of one or more of the N-NO(2) group(s) to the corresponding N-NO bond(s) prior to ring cleavage.

  11. Preparation of 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles and isoxazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, hydrazines, and hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Harigae, Ryo; Moriyama, Katsuhiko; Togo, Hideo

    2014-03-07

    The reaction of terminal alkynes with n-BuLi, and then with aldehydes, followed by the treatment with molecular iodine, and subsequently hydrazines or hydroxylamine provided the corresponding 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles or isoxazoles in good yields with high regioselectivity, through the formations of propargyl secondary alkoxides and α-alkynyl ketones. The present reactions are one-pot preparation of 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, molecular iodine, and hydrazines, and 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, molecular iodine, and hydroxylamine.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5, Triazine/Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (RDX-PETN) Mixtures by Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Joyce Bou; Bousquet, Bruno; Palka, Norbert; Mounaix, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Absorption spectra of explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and mixtures of both were measured by terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Chemometrics was applied to quantitative analysis of terahertz absorbance spectra obtained in transmission mode to predict the relative amounts of RDX and PETN in samples containing pure components or their mixtures. This analysis was challenging because significant spectral overlap prevented identification of each product fingerprint. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models were thus applied to the terahertz spectra. A comparison between the so-called PLS1 and PLS2 algorithms was performed to predict the PETN concentrations in mixture samples. PLS2 demonstrated better predictive ability than PLS1 with RMSE value lower than 3.5 mg for 400 mg total weight pellets. Moreover, the influence of the highly overlapping spectral frequency band was investigated by reducing the original 0.2-3 THz (6-100 cm(-1)) spectral band to 1.8-3 THz (60-100 cm(-1)). The predictive ability was quite similar in both cases, highlighting the excellent ability of chemometrics to perform quantitative analysis when applied to THz-TDS data, even in the case of highly overlapping spectra.

  13. Photochemical carbonylation of adamantanes; simple synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitroadamantane

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.; Li, J.; Gelber, N.

    1995-12-01

    1,3,5,7-Tetranitroadamantane (2) was obtained from the irradiation of a mixture of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (1) and oxalylchloride followed by conversion of chlorocarbonyl functions to nitro groups using the method of Eaton et. al.

  14. A Microring Resonator Sensor for Sensitive Detection of 1,3,5-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    PubMed Central

    Orghici, Rozalia; Lützow, Peter; Burgmeier, Jörg; Koch, Jan; Heidrich, Helmut; Schade, Wolfgang; Welschoff, Nina; Waldvogel, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    A microring resonator sensor device for sensitive detection of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is presented. It is based on the combination of a silicon microring resonator and tailored receptor molecules. PMID:22163576

  15. G3.5 PAMAM Dendrimers Enhance Transepithelial Transport of SN38 while minimizing Gastrointestinal Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Deborah S.; Vijayalakshmi, Nirmalkumar; Swaan, Peter W.; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2011-01-01

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown promise in oral drug delivery. Conjugation of SN38 to PAMAM dendrimers has the potential to improve its oral absorption while minimizing gastrointestinal toxicity. In this work we evaluated G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer-SN38 conjugates with ester-linked glycine and β-alanine spacers for their suitability in oral therapy of hepatic colorectal cancer metastases. G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was mostly stable while G3.5-Glycine-SN38 showed 10%, 20%, and 56% SN38 release in simulated gastric, intestinal and liver environments for up to 6, 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Short-term treatment of Caco-2 cells with G3.5-SN38 conjugates did not reduce cell viability, while comparable concentrations of SN38 caused significant cytotoxicity. G3.5-Glycine-SN38 and G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 showed IC50 values of 0.60 and 3.59 μM, respectively, in HT-29 cells treated for 48 hours, indicating the efficacy of the drug delivery system in colorectal cancer cells with longer incubation time. Both conjugates increased SN38 transepithelial transport compared to the free drug. Transport of G3.5-Glycine-SN38 was highly concentration-dependent whereas transport of G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was concentration-independent, highlighting the influence of drug loading and spacer chemistry on transport mechanism. Together these results show that PAMAM dendrimers have the potential to improve the oral bioavailability of potent anti-cancer drugs. PMID:21115079

  16. Uncooled Split-off Quantum Infrared Sensors for 3-5 Micron Imaging Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-20

    Quantum Dots) and GaInNAs ( Quantum Well ) detectors. A schematic of the representative structure is shown in Figure 20 (a). Absorption spectra for...REPORT "Uncooled split-off quantum infrared sensors for 3-5 micron imaging applications" 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: A detector... quantum infrared sensors for 3-5 micron imaging applications" Report Title ABSTRACT A detector concept utilizing hole transitions from the light-hole

  17. 3.5 cm artificial urinary sphincter cuff erosion occurs predominantly in irradiated patients.

    PubMed

    Simhan, Jay; Morey, Allen F; Singla, Nirmish; Tausch, Timothy J; Scott, J Francis; Lemack, Gary E; Roehrborn, Claus G

    2015-02-01

    We analyzed our initial 100-case experience with the 3.5 cm artificial urinary sphincter cuff to identify risk factors for cuff erosion. We reviewed the records of a single surgeon, consecutive series of patients treated with 3.5 cm artificial urinary sphincter cuff placement from September 2009 to August 2013. Each patient underwent single perineal cuff placement via standardized technique. Preoperative characteristics, technical considerations and postoperative outcomes were analyzed and compared to those in a cohort of patients in whom a larger (4.0 cm or greater) artificial urinary sphincter cuff was placed during the same period. We identified clinical factors associated with an increased risk of 3.5 cm artificial urinary sphincter cuff erosion. Of the 176 men who met study inclusion criteria during the 4-year period 100 (57%) received the 3.5 cm artificial urinary sphincter cuff and 76 (43%) received a larger cuff (4.0 cm or greater). The continence rate (83% vs 80%, p = 0.65) and mean followup (32 vs 25 months, p = 0.14) were similar in the 2 groups. Erosion developed in 16 of the 176 patients (9%) during the study period, of whom 13 had the 3.5 cm cuff. Of the 100 patients with the 3.5 cm cuff 52 (52%) had a history of radiation, including 11 (21%) with erosion. Cuff erosion developed only rarely in nonirradiated men (2 of 48 or 4%, p = 0.01). A history of radiation was the only significant risk factor associated with 3.5 cm cuff erosion (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.3-29.5). Men with a history of radiation who underwent placement of a 3.5 cm artificial urinary sphincter cuff experienced an increased (21%) risk of cuff erosion. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reversal of Trimethyltin-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits by 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin Yong; Park, Seon Kyeong; Guo, Tian Jiao; Ha, Jeong Su; Lee, Du Sang; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Uk; Kim, Dae Ok

    2016-01-01

    The antiamnesic effect of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA) as the main phenolic compound in Artemisia argyi H. extract on cognitive dysfunction induced by trimethyltin (TMT) (7.1 μg/kg of body weight; intraperitoneal injection) was investigated in order to assess its ameliorating function in mice. In several behavioral tests, namely, the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze (MWM) test, 3,5-diCQA significantly ameliorated learning and memory deficits. After the behavioral tests, brain tissues from the mice were analyzed to characterize the basis of the neuroprotective effect. Acetylcholine (ACh) levels increased, whereas the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased upon administration of 3,5-diCQA. In addition, 3,5-diCQA effectively protected against an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, an increase in the oxidized glutathione (GSH) ratio, and a decline of total superoxide dismutase (SOD) level. 3,5-diCQA may prevent neuronal apoptosis through the protection of mitochondrial activities and the repression of apoptotic signaling molecules such as p-Akt, BAX, and p-tau (Ser 404). PMID:28105250

  19. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  20. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-01-01

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1+ and Rab7+ vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1+perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13023.001 PMID:27008179

  1. Matrix isolation and EPR spectroscopy of septet 3,5-difluoropyridyl-2,4,6-trinitrene.

    PubMed

    Chapyshev, Sergei V; Grote, Dirk; Finke, Christopher; Sander, Wolfram

    2008-09-19

    Septet 3,5-difluoropyridyl-2,4,6-trinitrene along with quintet 2-azido-3,5-difluoropyridyl-4,6-dinitrene, quintet 4-azido-3,5-difluoropyridyl-2,6-dinitrene, triplet 2,6-diazido-3,5-difluoropyridyl-4-nitrene, and triplet 2,4-diazido-3,5-difluoropyridyl-6-nitrene have been obtained by photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-3,5-difluoropyridine in solid argon at 4 K. The electronic and magnetic properties of the matrix-isolated nitrenes were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The fine-structure parameters of the nitrenes were determined with high accuracy from computer spectral simulations. All signals in the EPR spectra of the nitrenes randomly oriented in the solid phase were unambiguously assigned on the basis of eigenfield calculations of the Zeeman energy levels and angular dependencies of resonance fields from the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  2. Cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bond in 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by copper(I) bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatua, Suman; Majumdar, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Reactions of CuCl, CuCl2 and CuBr2 with 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (tBu3tach) resulted in the formation of [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuCl2)] (1), [(tBu3tach)(CuCl2)] (2) and [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuBr2)] (3) respectively. Interestingly, CuBr was found to mediate the cleavage of the C-N bonds of tBu3tach in a vast range of solvents, namely, chloroform, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile and methanol to yield [Cu4Br4(tBuNCH2)4] (4) and stands as an example of C-N bond cleavage of 1,3,5-triazacyclohexane rings by copper salts. Compounds 1 and 3 contains amidinium cations and are unstable in solution towards the release of copper. The release of copper from 3 in solution was confirmed by the isolation of the compound, [CuBr(MeCN)] (5). Formation of the amidinium cations [(tBu3tach-H)+] in 1 and 3 may be avoided by the use of PPh3 to yield [(tBu3tach)Cu(PPh3)](PF6) (6), while the coordinated N-tert-butylmethanimine (tBuNCH2) in 4 could be replaced by PPh3 to yield [Cu4Br4(PPh3)4] (7). Complexes 1-7 are characterized by a combination of single crystal X-ray structure determination and/or elemental analysis, NMR, IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Mass spectrometry.

  3. The phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2)-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC) regulates metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Bong-Kwan; Emr, Scott D

    2013-07-12

    Glucose/carbon metabolism is a fundamental cellular process in living cells. In response to varying environments, eukaryotic cells reprogram their glucose/carbon metabolism between aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and/or gluconeogenesis. The distinct type of glucose/carbon metabolism that a cell carries out has significant effects on the cell's proliferation and differentiation. However, it is poorly understood how the reprogramming of glucose/carbon metabolism is regulated. Here, we report a novel endosomal PI(3,5)P2 lipid-dependent regulatory mechanism that is required for metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Certain gluconeogenesis genes, such as FBP1 (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1) and ICL1 (encoding isocitrate lyase 1) are under control of the Mig1 repressor and Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex. We previously identified the PI(3,5)P2-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC), a mechanism to convert Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor to Cti6-Cyc8-Tup1 coactivator. We demonstrate that the PIPTC plays a critical role for transcriptional activation of FBP1 and ICL1. Furthermore, without the PIPTC, the Cat8 and Sip4 transcriptional activators cannot be efficiently recruited to the promoters of FBP1 and ICL1, suggesting a key role for the PIPTC in remodulating the chromatin architecture at the promoters. Our findings expand our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for metabolic reprogramming in eukaryotes to include key regulation steps outside the nucleus. Given that Tup1 and the metabolic enzymes that control PI(3,5)P2 are highly conserved among eukaryotes, our findings may provide important insights toward understanding glucose/carbon metabolic reprogramming in other eukaryotes, including humans.

  4. Structure and mechanical properties of thin films deposited from 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkey, Daniel D.; Gleason, Karen K.

    2003-05-01

    Pulsed-plasma chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane (V3D3) and water produced thin films with significant Si-OH content. Subsequent annealing of the films resulted in condensation of proximal Si-OH groups, further generating a Si-O-Si network and strengthening the film. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed increasing OH content with increasing plasma duty cycle, and nanoindentation results confirmed increasing hardness with duty cycle, with the 10-40 duty cycle annealed sample having a hardness value of 0.527 GPa. These results were explained within the context of the continuous random network theory and percolation of rigidity arguments. Thermal stability was excellent, with a best-case thickness retention of 99.25% after a 2 h anneal at 400 °C under N2. Dielectric constants for the annealed films ranged between 2.55 and 2.9. The moderate power involved (200 W peak) is amenable to inclusion of a porogen species, opening the possibility of using this methodology to generate a porous thin film with adequate mechanical properties via chemical vapor deposition.

  5. Evaluation of the Community Land Model 3.5 with carbon and nitrogen cycles (CLM3.5CN) at a Tibetan grassland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Lim, Hee-Jeong; Ichii, Kazuhito; Li, Yingnian

    2013-11-01

    The Tibetan plateau plays an important role in energy and carbon cycles by providing an elevated heat source and by storing a large amount of soil carbon due to low temperature. The main vegetation of the plateau is alpine grassland. This study evaluates performance of Community Land Model 3.5 with carbon and nitrogen cycles (CLM3.5CN) over a alpine grassland in the Tibetan plateau in terms of energy and carbon fluxes in conditions of reasonable phenology and initial carbon pool comparable to observations. Comparison between model and observation shows following features. The model captures the magnitude of maximum leaf area index (LAI) but underestimats leaf mass. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is significantly underestimated during the growing season and soil temperature is also underestimated throughout a year with higher negative bias in winter than in other seasons. In order to examine the cause of the model deficiencies, we design four sensitivity tests: seasonal mulch; shallow rooting depth; reduction of critical soil moisture to limit the decomposition rate; smaller specific leaf area (SLA). Considering seasonal mulch improves the negative bias of soil temperature during dormant season has little effect on the NEE during the growing seasson. Underestimation of NEE during the growing season is partly due to underestimated decomposition rate which results from underestimated soil temperature and deep root placement in the soil column. Underestimation of latent heat flux during summer is partly due to use of large SLA in the model. Other deficiencies are also discussed.

  6. Growth changes of eighteen herbaceous angiosperms induced by Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Frank L; Koeser, Andrew K; Dawson, Jeffrey O

    2016-01-01

    Study objectives were to describe and quantify growth responses (tolerance as shoot and root biomass accumulation) to soil-applied Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) treatments of eighteen terrestrial, herbaceous, angiospermous species and also; to determine how much of RDX, RDX transformation products, total N and RDX-derived N accumulated in the foliage. RDX altered growth of eighteen plant species or cultivars at levels of 100, 500, and 1,000 mg kg(-1)dry soil in a 75-d greenhouse study. Sixteen species or cultivars exhibited growth inhibition while two were stimulated in growth by RDX. A maximum amount of foliar RDX in a subset of three plant species was 36.0 mg per plant in Coronilla varia. Foliar concentrations of transformation products of RDX were low relative to RDX in the subset of three species. The proportion of RDX-N with respect to total N was constant, suggesting that foliar RDX transformation did not explain differences in tolerance. There was a δ (15)N shift towards that of synthetic RDX in foliage of the three species at a level of 1,000 mg kg(-1) RDX, proportional in magnitude to uptake of N from RDX and tolerance ranking.Reddened leaf margins for treated Sida spinosa indicate the potential of this species as a biosensor for RDX.

  7. Electron shuttle-mediated biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine adsorbed to granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Millerick, Kayleigh; Drew, Scott R; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-08-06

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) effectively removes hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from groundwater but generates RDX-laden GAC that must be disposed of or regenerated. Batch reactors containing GAC to which RDX was preadsorbed were used in experiments to test the potential for adsorbed RDX reduction and daughter product formation using (i) chemically reduced anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2QDS), (ii) resting Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and (iii) a combined system containing AQDS and GS-15. Approximately 97.0% of the adsorbed RDX was transformed in each of these experimental systems by 90 h. Chemically reduced AQDS (AH2QDS) transformed 99.2% of adsorbed RDX; formaldehyde was produced rapidly and was stoichiometric (3 mol HCHO per mol RDX). Geobacter metallireducens also reduced RDX with and without AQDS present. This is the first study to demonstrate biological transformation of RDX adsorbed to GAC. Formaldehyde increased and then decreased in biological systems, suggesting a previously unreported capacity for G. metallireducens to oxidize formaldehyde, which was confirmed with resting cell suspensions. These data suggest the masses of GAC waste currently produced by activated carbon at RDX remediation sites can be minimized, decreasing the carbon footprint of the treatment technology. Alternatively, this strategy may be used to develop a Bio-GAC system for ex situ RDX treatment.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX) using a combined Sorescu-Rice-Thompson AMBER force field.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Paras M; Rice, Betsy M; Zheng, Lianqing; Thompson, Donald L

    2006-12-28

    We present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX) using the SRT-AMBER force field (P. M. Agrawal et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 5721), which combines the rigid-molecule force field developed by Sorescu-Rice-Thompson (D. C. Sorescu, B. M. Rice, and D. L. Thompson, J. Phys. Chem. B 1997, 101, 798) with the intramolecular interactions obtained from the Generalized AMBER Force Field (Wang et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2004, 25, 1157). The calculated crystal density at room conditions is about 10% lower than the measured value, while the lattice parameters and thermodynamic melting point are within about 5% at ambient pressure. The chair and inverted chair conformation, bond lengths, and bond angles of the RDX molecule are accurately predicted; however, there are some inaccuracies in the calculated orientations of the NO2 groups. The SRT-AMBER force field predicts overall reasonable results, but modifications, probably in the torsional parameters, are needed for a more accurate force field.

  9. On the low pressure shock initiation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine based plastic bonded explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersall, Kevin S.; Tarver, Craig M.; Garcia, Frank; Chidester, Steven K.

    2010-05-01

    In large explosive and propellant charges, relatively low shock pressures on the order of 1-2 GPa impacting large volumes and lasting tens of microseconds can cause shock initiation of detonation. The pressure buildup process requires several centimeters of shock propagation before shock to detonation transition occurs. In this paper, experimentally measured run distances to detonation for lower input shock pressures are shown to be much longer than predicted by extrapolation of high shock pressure data. Run distance to detonation and embedded manganin gauge pressure histories are measured using large diameter charges of six octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) based plastic bonded explosives (PBX's): PBX 9404; LX-04; LX-07; LX-10; PBX 9501; and EDC37. The embedded gauge records show that the lower shock pressures create fewer and less energetic "hot spot" reaction sites, which consume the surrounding explosive particles at reduced reaction rates and cause longer distances to detonation. The experimental data is analyzed using the ignition and growth reactive flow model of shock initiation in solid explosives. Using minimum values of the degrees of compression required to ignite hot spot reactions, the previously determined high shock pressure ignition and growth model parameters for the six explosives accurately simulate the much longer run distances to detonation and much slower growths of pressure behind the shock fronts measured during the shock initiation of HMX PBX's at several low shock pressures.

  10. Dissolution and sorption of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) residues from detonated mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Ashley M; Douglas, Thomas A; Walsh, Marianne E; Trainor, Thomas P

    2011-08-01

    Composition B (Comp B) is a commonly used military formulation composed of the toxic explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Numerous studies of the temporal fate of explosive compounds in soils, surface water and laboratory batch reactors have been conducted. However, most of these investigations relied on the application of explosive compounds to the media via aqueous addition and thus these studies do not provide information on the real world loading of explosive residues during detonation events. To address this we investigated the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX from Comp B residues loaded to pure mineral phases through controlled detonation. Mineral phases included nontronite, vermiculite, biotite and Ottawa sand (quartz with minor calcite). High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX residues loaded onto the mineral surfaces. Detonation resulted in heterogeneous loading of TNT and RDX onto the mineral surfaces. Explosive compound residues dissolved rapidly (within 9 h) in all samples but maximum concentrations for TNT and RDX were not consistent over time due to precipitation from solution, sorption onto mineral surfaces, and/or chemical reactions between explosive compounds and mineral surfaces. We provide a conceptual model of the physical and chemical processes governing the fate of explosive compound residues in soil minerals controlled by sorption-desorption processes.

  11. Cancer mode of action, weight of evidence, and proposed cancer reference value for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Okolica, Michelle R; Gut, Chester P; Gargas, Michael L

    2012-11-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, CAS No. 121-82-4) is a component of munitions formulations, and has been detected in groundwater samples collected at various US military sites. Clean up target levels for RDX may be derived based on consideration of acceptable cumulative human exposure as expressed in toxicity reference values. Evaluations of the cancer weight of evidence and possible modes of action (MOA) for RDX-induced cancer were conducted. It was concluded that the available data provide suggestive evidence of human carcinogenic potential for RDX. While a mutagenic/genotoxic MOA for RDX is unlikely, no alterative MOA is strongly supported by the available data. A nonlinear (threshold) approach to the assessment of human cancer risk was recommended, and a recommended chronic cancer reference dose of 0.08mg/kg/day was derived. For comparison only, computations using a linear approach were also conducted, yielding a cancer risk specific dose of 0.000235mg/kg/day for 1 in 10(5) risk; this value is 2.6-fold higher the current US EPA risk specific dose for 1 in 10(5) risk. Thus, cleanup standards based on human health risk from RDX exposure could potentially depend on the willingness of risk managers to accept a nonlinear MOA and nonlinear toxicity risk value derivation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Toxicologic and histopathologic response of the terrestrial salamander Plethodon cinereus to soil exposures of 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M S; Paulus, H I; Salice, C J; Checkai, R T; Simini, M

    2004-11-01

    Red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) were exposed to four different concentrations of 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil under controlled laboratory conditions for 28 days. Wild-caught P. cinereus (N = 20/treatment) were exposed to target concentrations of 5,000, 1000, 100, 10, and 0 mg RDX/kg soil (dry wt) using a microcosm design. Animals were fed 5 to 10 uncontaminated mutant Drosophila flies every 3 days and monitored daily. Animals were weighed 1 day before being placed in treatment and weekly thereafter. RDX concentrations in soil were analytically determined after the compound was added and mixed at the beginning, the midpoint, and the end of exposure. RDX soil concentrations were relatively stable throughout the exposure period. Signs of overt toxicity were observed primarily in the highest exposure group. Salamanders exposed to 5,000 mg RDX/kg soil exhibited signs of neuromuscular effects (lethargy, gaping, hypersensitivity, tremors) and exhibited significant weight loss. A single moribund animal from this group lost >20% of its original body weight and was killed. Animals in this exposure group also lost weight relative to animals in other treatments. Histopathologic evaluations, including an evaluation of melanomacrophage parameters, indicated no strong treatment-related findings. This study provided information regarding the effects from subchronic dermal exposure of a terrestrial amphibian species to RDX in soil and provides a microcosm approach to the evaluation of toxicity of contaminants in soil to a terrestrial vertebrate.

  13. Temperature-dependent shear viscosity coefficient of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX): A molecular dynamics simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrov, Dmitry; Smith, Grant D.; Sewell, Thomas D.

    2000-04-22

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics methods were used in conjunction with linear response theory and a recently published potential-energy surface [J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3570 (1999)] to compute the liquid shear viscosity and self-diffusion coefficient of the high explosive HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) over the temperature domain 550-800 K. Predicted values of the shear viscosity range from 0.0055 Pa *s at the highest temperature studied up to 0.45 Pa *s for temperatures near the melting point. The results, which represent the first publication of the shear viscosity of HMX, are found to be described by an Arrhenius rate law over the entire temperature domain studied. The apparent activation energy for the shear viscosity is found to scale with the heat of vaporization in a fashion consistent with those for a wide variety of simple nonmetallic liquids. The self-diffusion coefficient, which requires significantly shorter trajectories than the shear viscosity for accurate calculation, also exhibits an Arrhenius temperature dependence over the simulated temperature domain. This has potentially important implications for predictions of the shear viscosity at temperatures near the melting point. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  14. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  15. Effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) exposure on reproduction and hatchling development in Northern bobwhite quail.

    PubMed

    Brunjes, Kristina J; Severt, Scott A; Liu, Jun; Pan, Xiaoping; Brausch, John; Cox, Stephen A; Cobb, George P; McMurry, Scott T; Kendall, Ronald J; Smith, Philip N

    2007-04-15

    Adult Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were exposed via food to octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), an energetic compound found in soils at military training installations. Depuration of HMX into eggs was examined in an initial study, and effects on egg production, hatching, growth, development, and survival of chicks were examined in a follow-up study. HMX was readily and rapidly transferred from female quail into eggs. Marked weight loss was observed in quail exposed to 125 and 250 mg/kg HMX in food, likely due to reductions in food intake rather than a toxic mechanism. In the second study, significant alterations in body mass occurred among quail at concentrations >52.5 +/- 9.3 mg/kg but not at 12.3 +/- 1.1 mg/kg in food. Treatment-related reductions in food consumption and decreases in egg laying rates were observed. No HMX-related effects were found in chick growth or survival. Quail inhabiting HMX-contaminated sites could possibly be exposed to HMX and therefore deposition of HMX into eggs is also possible. However, results of these studies further suggest that the potential for reproductive toxicity of HMX to birds is low.

  16. Performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules for removal of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    An, Chun-jiang; He, Yan-ling; Huang, Guo-he; Liu, Yong-hong

    2010-07-15

    The performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules to degrade octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) was investigated under various conditions. The results of batch experiments showed that anaerobic granules were capable of removing HMX from aqueous solution with high efficiency. Both biotic and abiotic mechanisms contributed to the removal of HMX by anaerobic granules under mesophilic conditions. Adsorption appeared to play a significant role in the abiotic process. Furthermore, HMX could be biodegraded by anaerobic granules as the sole substrate. After 16 days of incubation, 99.04% and 96.42% of total HMX could be removed by 1g VSS/L acclimated and unacclimated granules, respectively. Vancomycin, an inhibitor of acetogenic bacteria, caused a significant inhibition of HMX biotransformation, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, only resulted in a slight decrease of metabolic activity. The presence of the glucose, as a suitable electron donor and carbon source, was found to enhance the degradation of HMX by anaerobic granules. Our study showed that sulfate had little adverse effects on biotransformation of HMX by anaerobic granules. However, nitrate had significant inhibitory effect on the extent of HMX removal especially in the initial period. This study offered good prospects of using high-rate anaerobic technology in the treatment of munition wastewater. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Anaerobic transformation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by ovine rumen microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Perumbakkam, Sudeep; Craig, A M

    2012-01-01

    Explosives such as octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) provide a challenge in terms of bioremediation. In the present study, sheep rumen was studied for its potential to detoxify HMX using analytical chemistry and molecular microbial ecology tools. Results indicated significant loss (p < 0.05) of HMX at 8 h post-incubation and complete disappearance of the parent molecule after 16 h. Qualitative LC-MS/MS analysis provided evidence for the formation of 1-NO-HMX and MEDINA metabolites. A total of 1006 16S rRNA-V3 clones were sequenced and the Classifier tool of the RDPII database was used to sort the sequences at their phylum level. Most sequences were associated with either the phylum Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes. Significant differences at the phylum level (p < 0.001) were found between 0 h and 8 h HMX treatments. Using LibCompare analysis, 8 h HMX treatment showed enrichment of clones (p < 0.01) belonging to the genus Prevotella. From these results, it could be concluded that members of the genus Prevotella are enriched in the rumen and are capable of detoxifying HMX. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Food avoidance behavior to dietary octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) exposure in the northern bobwhite (Colinusvirginianus).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; Gogal, Robert M; Larsen, Calvert T

    2005-08-13

    High-melting explosive (HMX; octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) is a widely utilized explosive component of munitions used by the military. Consequently, production and use through testing and training at military installations has resulted in deposition of HMX in soil. Since these areas are often used by birds, the oral toxicity of HMX exposure to northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) was evaluated. Attempts to determine the acute lethal dose were unsuccessful. Initially, 8 birds (1 male/1 female per dose group) were orally dosed at levels ranging from 125 to 2125 mg HMX/kg body weight. A single death at the midrange resulted in subsequent trials of oral doses up to 10,760 mg/kg body weight. Only a single death occurred at 7173 mg/kg. A subsequent 28-d feeding study was then conducted to evaluate the potential for toxicity resulting from repetitive oral exposures. Northern bobwhite were exposed to concentrations of HMX in feed of either 10000, 1000, 100, or 0 mg/kg. These exposures resulted in a clear concentration-related reduction in feed consumption and body mass. Reductions in egg production in females were correlated with changes in body mass and feed consumption. Other physiological indicators were consistent with a considerable reduction in feed intake. These results suggest that HMX concentration is responsible for intense feed aversion behavior and thus not likely a factor that would appreciably contribute to risk for wild birds at military ranges.

  19. Equation of state, phase transition, decomposition of {beta}-HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) at high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Choong-Shik; Cynn, Hyunchae

    1999-12-08

    Pressure-volume relations and vibrational Raman spectra of unreacted HMX (octahydro-1, 3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) have been obtained in both quasihydrostatic conditions to 45 GPa and nonhydrostatic conditions to 10 GPa by using diamond-anvil cell, angle-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the high-pressure behavior of HMX strongly depends on the stress conditions. HMX is more compressible in hydrostatic conditions (B{sub 0}=12.4 GPa and B{sup '}=10.4) than in nonhydrostatic conditions (B{sub 0}=14.4 GPa, B{sup '}=13.3). This discrepancy in HMX compressibility can be explained in terms of chemical reactions occurring in nonhydrostatic conditions. The static isotherm is in good agreement with the shock Hugoniot, suggesting little temperature effect on the pressure-volume relation. The hydrostatic data suggest that {beta}(monoclinic)-HMX undergoes two phase transitions: (i) a conformational transition at 12 GPa with no apparent abrupt volume change and (ii) a discontinuous one at 27 GPa with a 4% volume change. At 40 GPa, the b and c axes become nearly identical with the c/a ratio 1.62 and {beta}=123 degree sign , approaching a nearly close-packed structure. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  20. 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine decomposition and chemisorption on Al(111) surface: first-principles molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Naoto; Kalia, Rajiv K; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashista, Priya; Shimojo, Fuyuki

    2007-06-21

    We have investigated the decomposition and chemisorption of a 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) molecule on Al(111) surface using molecular dynamics simulations, in which interatomic forces are computed quantum mechanically in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT). The real-space DFT calculations are based on higher-order finite difference and norm-conserving pseudopotential methods. Strong attractive forces between oxygen and aluminum atoms break N-O and N-N bonds in the RDX and, subsequently, the dissociated oxygen atoms and NO molecules oxidize the Al surface. In addition to these Al surface-assisted decompositions, ring cleavage of the RDX molecule is also observed. These reactions occur spontaneously without potential barriers and result in the attachment of the rest of the RDX molecule to the surface. This opens up the possibility of coating Al nanoparticles with RDX molecules to avoid the detrimental effect of oxidation in high energy density material applications.

  1. In Silico Alkaline Hydrolysis of Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: Density Functional Theory Investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Shukla, Manoj K; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Hovorun, Dmytro; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-09-20

    HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), an energetic material used in military applications, may be released to the environment during manufacturing, transportation, storage, training, and disposal. A detailed investigation of a possible mechanism of alkaline hydrolysis, as one of the most promising methods for HMX remediation, was performed by computational study at PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level. Obtained results suggest that HMX hydrolysis at pH 10 represents a highly exothermic multistep process involving initial deprotonation and nitrite elimination, hydroxide attachment accompanied by cycle cleavage, and further decomposition of cycle-opened intermediate to the products caused by a series of C-N bond ruptures, hydroxide attachments, and proton transfers. Computationally predicted products of HMX hydrolysis such as nitrite, 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, formaldehyde, nitrous oxide, formate, and ammonia correspond to experimentally observed species. Based on computed reaction pathways for HMX decomposition by alkaline hydrolysis, the kinetics of the entire process was modeled. Very low efficiency of this reaction at pH 10 was observed. Computations predict significant increases (orders of magnitude) of the hydrolysis rate for hydrolysis reactions undertaken at pH 11, 12, and 13.

  2. In silico kinetics of alkaline hydrolysis of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX): M06-2X investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, L K; Gorb, L; Leszczynska, D; Okovytyy, S I; Shukla, M K; Leszczynski, J

    2017-03-22

    Alkaline hydrolysis of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), as one of the most promising methods for nitrocompound remediation, was investigated computationally at the PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Computational simulation shows that RDX hydrolysis is a highly exothermic multistep process involving initial deprotonation and nitrite elimination, cycle cleavage, further transformation of cycle-opened intermediates to end products caused by a series of C-N bond ruptures, hydroxide attachments, and proton transfers. Computationally predicted products of RDX hydrolysis such as nitrite, nitrous oxide, formaldehyde, formate, and ammonia correspond to experimentally observed ones. Accounting of specific hydration of hydroxide is critical to create an accurate kinetic model for alkaline hydrolysis. Simulated kinetics of the hydrolysis are in good agreement with available experimental data. A period of one month is necessary for 99% RDX decomposition at pH 10. Computations predict significant increases of the reaction rate of hydrolysis at pH 11, pH 12, and pH 13.

  3. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels and activities of adenylate cyclase and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase in Pseudomonas and Bacteroides.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, L S; Hylemon, P B; Phibbs, P V

    1977-01-01

    A modified Gilman assay was used to determine the concentrations of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in rapidly filtered cells and in the culture filtrates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli K-12, and Bacteroides fragilis. In P. aeruginosa cultures, levels of cAMP in the filtrate increased with the culture absorbance (3.5 to 19.8 X 10(-9) M) but did not vary significantly with the carbon source used to support growth. Intracellular concentrations (0.8 to 3.2 X 10(-5) M) were substantially higher and did not vary appreciably during growth or with carbon source. Sodium cAMP (5 mM) failed to reverse the catabolite repression of inducible glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) synthesis caused by the addition of 10 mM succinate. Exogenous cAMP also had no discernible effect on the catabolite repression control of inducible mannitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.67). P. aeruginosa was found to contain both soluble cAMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.17) and membrane-associated adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) activity, and these were compared to the activities detected in crude extracts of E. coli. B. fragilis crude cell extracts contain neither of these enzyme activities, and little or no cAMP was detected in cells or culture filtrates of this anaerobic bacterium. PMID:187575

  4. Solvent induced reactivity of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole towards zinc (II) carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Rupam; Kalita, Dipjyoti; Baruah, Jubaraj B

    2009-09-28

    The reactions of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole with zinc(II)acetate dihydrate and varieties of aromatic carboxylic acids led to formation of mono-nuclear zinc complexes of composition [Zn(HDMP)2(RCO2)2] (R = C6H5, p-CH3-C6H4, p-NO2-C6H4 etc. HDMP = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole) in methanol, whereas the same reactants in dimethylformamide (DMF) gave binuclear 3,5-dimethylpyrazolato bridged zinc carboxylate complexes containing monodentate 3,5-dimethylpyraozole ligands with composition [Zn2(mu-DMP)2(HDMP)2(RCO2)2]. The mononuclear complexes can be converted to the corresponding binuclear complexes by simply dissolving in DMF. The reaction of zinc(II)acetate dihydrate with p-nitrobenzoic acid and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole in different solvents gave solvated mononuclear complexes of the corresponding solvent. All these solvated complexes having the core [Zn(HDMP)2(p-NO2-C6H4CO2)2] contain two structurally independent molecules in the asymmetric unit (Z' = 2).

  5. Towards ten-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gongwen; Geng, Lixiang; Zhu, Xiushan; Li, Li; Chen, Qian; Norwood, R A; Manzur, T; Peyghambarian, N

    2015-03-23

    Raman lasers based on mid-infrared fibers operating at 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window are attractive sources for several applications. Compared to fluoride and chalcogenide fibers, tellurite fibers are more advantageous for high power Raman fiber laser sources at 3-5 µm because of their broader Raman gain bandwidth, much larger Raman shift and better physical and chemical properties. Here we report on our simulations for the development of 10-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fibers as the nonlinear gain medium and readily available continuous-wave (cw) and Q-switched erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.8 µm as the pump sources. Our results show that a watt-level or even ten-watt-level fiber laser source in the 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window can be achieved by utilizing the 1st- and 2nd-order Raman scattering in the tellurite fiber. The presented numerical study provides valuable guidance for future 3-5 um Raman fiber laser development.

  6. Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of the Energetic Compound 3,5-Dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiao-Qin; Cao, Duan-Lin; Cui, Jian-Lan

    2016-07-01

    A novel energetic material, 3,5-dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole (DNNP), was synthesized via nitration and nucleophilic substitution reaction using 4-chloropyrazole as raw material. The structure of DNNP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and elemental analysis. Its detonation properties were calculated and compared with those of other commonly used energetic compounds. The thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was studied by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry coupled with a mass spectrometry (DSC-MS). The results show that the detonation properties of DNNP were better than those of TNT and comparable to those of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). In addition, the thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was supposed. Initially, the O-NO2 bond was broken, thereby producing a nitropyrazole oxygen radical. Subsequently, the nitropyrazole oxygen radical was decomposed by free radical cleavage of nitro or isomerized to nitritepyrazole and subsequently decomposed by free radical cleavage of the nitroso group. Finally, pyrazole ring fission occurred and produced N2, NO, N2O, and CO2.

  7. Sensitivity of 2,6-Diamino-3, 5-Dinitropyrazine-1-Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Tran, T D

    2005-01-20

    The thermal and shock sensitivities of plastic bonded explosive formations based on 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (commonly called LLM-105 for Lawrence Livermore Molecule No.105) are reported. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) apparatus was used to generate times to thermal explosion at various initial temperatures. A four-reaction chemical decomposition model was developed to calculate the time to thermal explosion versus inverse temperature curve. Three embedded manganin pressure gauge experiments were fired at different initial pressures to measure the pressure buildup and the distance required for transition to detonation. An Ignition and Growth reactive model was calibrated to this shock initiation data. LLM-105 exhibited thermal and shock sensitivities intermediate between those of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazine (HMX).

  8. Molecular structure and biochemical activity of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronamine.

    PubMed

    Cody, V; Meyer, T; Dohler, K D; Hesch, R D; Rokos, H; Marko, M

    1984-01-01

    The thyroid hormone decarboxylation product, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronamine (T3AM), has been shown to inhibit the cAMP production stimulated by isoproterenol in turkey erythrocytes. This adrenergic receptor binding inhibition was not shown by the thyroid hormones nor by tyramine, but was observed for 3,5-diiodotyramine, 3,5-diiodothyronamine, and thyronamine. T3AM also inhibits prolactin secretion in cultured pituitary cells as well as domperidon binding in rat corpora striata membranes. T3AM has no thyromimetic activity at the nuclear level. The molecular structure of T3AM, determined as a borosalicylate salt by X-ray diffraction techniques, is the first report of a decarboxylated thyroid hormone analogue.

  9. On the kinetics and energetics of one-electron oxidation of 1,3,5-triazines.

    PubMed

    Azenha, M E D G; Burrows, H D; Canle, M; Coimbra, R; Fernández, M I; García, M V; Rodrigues, A E; Santaballa, J A; Steenken, S

    2003-01-07

    One-electron oxidation of 1,3,5-triazines is observed with both excited uranyl ion (*UO2(2+)) and sulfate radical anion (SO4.-) in aqueous solution, but not with Tl2+, indicating that the standard reduction potentials E degree of 1,3,5-triazine radical cations are = 2.3 +/- 0.1 V vs. NHE, consistent with theoretical calculations; this suggests that if triazines inhibit electron transfer during photosynthesis, they would need to act on the reductive part of the electron transport chain.

  10. Access to Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones through Anodic N-N Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Gieshoff, Tile; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2016-08-01

    Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones are important motifs in heterocyclic chemistry and are of high interest for pharmaceutical applications. In classic organic synthesis, the hydrazinic moiety is installed through condensation using the corresponding hydrazine building blocks. However, most N,N'-diaryl hydrazines are toxic and require upstream preparation owing to their low commercial availability. We present an alternative and sustainable synthetic approach to pyrazolidin-3,5-diones that employs readily accessible dianilides as precursors, which are anodically converted to furnish the N-N bond. The electroconversion is conducted in a simple undivided cell under constant-current conditions.

  11. Bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazole-kappaN2)silver(I) nitrate.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Fackler, John P

    2002-04-01

    The two independent bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazole)silver(I) cations in crystalline [Ag(C(5)H(7)N(2))(2)]NO(3) display N-Ag-N angles of 175.51 (14) and 174.44 (13) degrees, and an average Ag-N distance of 2.124 (5) A. The nitrate anion is situated between [Ag(C(5)H(7)N(2))(2)]+ units and interacts via hydrogen bonds with the NH groups. The two 3,5-dimethylpyrazole ligands are trans about the silver center. Only a small deviation from linearity is observed in the coordination around silver.

  12. Silicon MCM substrates for integration of 3-5 photonic devices and CMOS IC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigal, P.; Carson, R.; Flores, R.; Rose, B.

    The progress made in advanced packaging development at Sandia National Laboratories for integration of 3-5 photonic devices and CMOS IC's on Silicon MCM substrates for planar aid stacked applications will be reported. Studies to characterize precision alignment techniques using solder attach materials compatible with both silicon IC's and 3-5 devices will be discussed. Examples of the use of back-side alignment and IR through-wafer inspection will be shown along with the extra processing steps that are used. Under bump metallurgy considerations are also addressed.

  13. Isolation and antisense suppression of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase modifies flower pigments and colour in cyclamen

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cyclamen is a popular and economically significant pot plant crop in several countries. Molecular breeding technologies provide opportunities to metabolically engineer the well-characterized flavonoid biosynthetic pathway for altered anthocyanin profile and hence the colour of the flower. Previously we reported on a genetic transformation system for cyclamen. Our aim in this study was to change pigment profiles and flower colours in cyclamen through the suppression of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase, an enzyme in the flavonoid pathway that plays a determining role in the colour of anthocyanin pigments. Results A full-length cDNA putatively identified as a F3'5'H (CpF3'5'H) was isolated from cyclamen flower tissue. Amino acid and phylogeny analyses indicated the CpF3'5'H encodes a F3'5'H enzyme. Two cultivars of minicyclamen were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with an antisense CpF3'5'H construct. Flowers of the transgenic lines showed modified colour and this correlated positively with the loss of endogenous F3'5'H transcript. Changes in observed colour were confirmed by colorimeter measurements, with an overall loss in intensity of colour (C) in the transgenic lines and a shift in hue from purple to red/pink in one cultivar. HPLC analysis showed that delphinidin-derived pigment levels were reduced in transgenic lines relative to control lines while the percentage of cyanidin-derived pigments increased. Total anthocyanin concentration was reduced up to 80% in some transgenic lines and a smaller increase in flavonol concentration was recorded. Differences were also seen in the ratio of flavonol types that accumulated. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report of genetic modification of the anthocyanin pathway in the commercially important species cyclamen. The effects of suppressing a key enzyme, F3'5'H, were wide ranging, extending from anthocyanins to other branches of the flavonoid pathway. The results illustrate the complexity

  14. Synthesis and structural characterization of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazolates.

    PubMed

    Haiges, R; Bélanger-Chabot, G; Kaplan, S M; Christe, K O

    2015-02-21

    Salts of 3,5-dinitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole, a building block for energetic materials, have been prepared and fully characterized. Most of the studied salts exhibit high thermal stability and very low shock and friction sensitivities. 3,5-Dinitro-1,2,4-triazolates with the nitrogen-rich ammonium, guanidinium, aminoguanidinium, and aminotetrazolium cations are energetic and have potential for energetic material applications. Salts containing alkali, alkali earth metal, and silver cations exhibit coloured emissions upon combustion while salts with large organic cations such as PPh4(+) and (Ph3P)2N(+) are highly insensitive and can be easily crystallized.

  15. Analysis of the xplAB-Containing Gene Cluster Involved in the Bacterial Degradation of the Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Chun Shiong; Sabir, Dana Khdr; Lorenz, Astrid; Bontemps, Cyril; Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A.; Strand, Stuart E.; Rylott, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated use of the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on military land has resulted in significant soil and groundwater pollution. Rates of degradation of RDX in the environment are low, and accumulated RDX, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined is a possible human carcinogen, is now threatening drinking water supplies. RDX-degrading microorganisms have been isolated from RDX-contaminated land; however, despite the presence of these species in contaminated soils, RDX pollution persists. To further understand this problem, we studied RDX-degrading species belonging to four different genera (Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Gordonia, and Williamsia) isolated from geographically distinct locations and established that the xplA and xplB (xplAB) genes, which encode a cytochrome P450 and a flavodoxin redox partner, respectively, are nearly identical in all these species. Together, the xplAB system catalyzes the reductive denitration of RDX and subsequent ring cleavage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to xplAB, the Rhodococcus species studied here share a 14-kb region flanking xplAB; thus, it appears likely that the RDX-metabolizing ability was transferred as a genomic island within a transposable element. The conservation and transfer of xplAB-flanking genes suggest a role in RDX metabolism. We therefore independently knocked out genes within this cluster in the RDX-degrading species Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Analysis of the resulting mutants revealed that XplA is essential for RDX degradation and that XplB is not the sole contributor of reducing equivalents to XplA. While XplA expression is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions and further enhanced by the presence of RDX, MarR is not regulated by RDX. PMID:25128343

  16. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (<1 mM fructose) into site wells. Biostimulation (no added cells) was performed by injecting groundwater amended with low (<1 mM fructose) or high (>15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation.

  17. 3,5,3′-Triiodo-L-Thyronine- and 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine- Affected Metabolic Pathways in Liver of LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Maria; Silvestri, Elena; Coppola, Maria; Goldberg, Ira J.; Huang, Li-Shin; Salzano, Anna M.; D'Angelo, Fulvio; Ehrenkranz, Joel R.; Goglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), when administered to a model of familial hypercholesterolemia, i.e., low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-knockout (Ldlr−/−) mice fed with a Western type diet (WTD), dramatically reduce circulating total and very low-density lipoprotein/LDL cholesterol with decreased liver apolipoprotein B (ApoB) production. The aim of the study was to highlight putative molecular mechanisms to manage cholesterol levels in the absence of LDLr. A comprehensive comparative profiling of changes in expression of soluble proteins in livers from Ldlr−/− mice treated with either T3 or T2 was performed. From a total proteome of 450 liver proteins, 25 identified proteins were affected by both T2 and T3, 18 only by T3 and 9 only by T2. Using in silico analyses, an overlap was observed with 11/14 pathways common to both iodothyronines, with T2 and T3 preferentially altering sub-networks centered around hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), respectively. Both T2 and T3 administration significantly reduced nuclear HNF4α protein content, while T2, but not T3, decreased the expression levels of the HNFα transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α. Lower PPARα levels were found only following T3 treatment while both T3 and T2 lowered liver X receptor α (LXRα) nuclear content. Overall, this study, although it was not meant to investigate the use of T2 and T3 as a therapeutic agent, provides novel insights into the regulation of hepatic metabolic pathways involved in T3- and T2-driven cholesterol reduction in Ldlr−/− mice. PMID:27909409

  18. Accumulation of hexahydro- 1,3,5-trinitro- 1,3,5-triazine in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Belden, Jason B; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Lydy, Michael J

    2005-08-01

    The extensively used military explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has been widely released to the environment during production, usage, and disposal operations. Toxic effects of RDX have been reported in terrestrial and aquatic receptors, but investigations regarding the bioaccumulation potential of RDX in aquatic systems are scarce. The objective of the present study was to describe the toxicokinetics of RDX during aqueous exposure for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) and to compare the amount of RDX accumulation in juvenile catfish following aqueous exposure only, dietary exposure only, and a combination of dietary and aqueous exposure. The toxicokinetics measurements included bioconcentration factors (BCFs), uptake rates, elimination rates, and biological half-lives. First-order, single-compartment models described the toxicokinetics for both species. Uptake of RDX into oligochaetes was relatively rapid (uptake clearance constant [k(u)] of 5.17 ml/g/h) compared to that in catfish (k(u) = 1.28 ml/g/h). However, elimination also was more rapid in oligochaetes, with biological half-lives of 0.28 and 1.09 h for oligochaetes and catfish, respectively. Thus, both species had very similar estimated BCFs of 2.1 ml/g for oligochaetes and 2.0 ml/g for catfish. Accumulation of RDX in fish that were fed oligochaetes exposed to an exceedingly high water concentration of RDX was minimal. The present investigation indicates that RDX uptake via the aqueous route is the expected dominant uptake pathway, with dietary uptake contributing minimally to the overall body burden in fish inhabiting RDX-contaminated sites. Because of the exceedingly low bioaccumulative potential and low reported toxicity of RDX, the presence of this explosive in aquatic systems is unlikely to pose unacceptable risks to invertebrates and fish.

  19. Transport of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Selim, H.M.; Xue, S.K.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1995-11-01

    This study investigated the fate and transport of explosives in soils. Transport experiments were conducted to describe the mobility of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in a SWy-1 reference clay (bentonite mixed with sand) and two selected soils (Norwood and Kolin). Miscible displacement experiments in packed soil columns under steady flow were used. For the bentonite/sand column, TNT was highly mobile and fully reversible when methanol was used as the background solution. In contrast the TNT pulse was strongly retarded with as much as 50% of that applied remaining within the bentonite/sand, Norwood, or Kolin columns. Products of the transformation of TNT to 4-Am-DNT and other compound were identified in the effluent solution. A 7-day flow interruption during the TNT pulse application resulted in decreased TNT levels in the effluent solution. This decrease corresponded to a sudden increase in the 4-Am-DNT concentration in the effluent. For RDX only limited retention was observed. These findings are consistent with results from adsorption-desorption batch experiments. The TNT and RDX transport results were successfully described by a nonlinear multireaction and transport model (MRTM), which accounted for equilibrium and kinetic (reversible and irreversible) retention mechanisms. However, efforts to describe RDX transport were more successful than efforts to describe TNT when independently determined (batch) parameters were used. The mobility of TNT, RDX, and other compounds from a contaminated soil obtained from a Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) site was also investigated. A gradual release and subsequent movement of various contaminants, including HMX, TNT, RDX, TNG, 2-Am-DNT, and 4-Am-DNT, was observed. The leaching patterns were consistent with results from uncontaminated Kolin soil columns and reflected the affinity of contaminants during leaching in the AAP soil. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Adsorption-desorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, S.K.; Selim, H.M.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1995-11-01

    This study studied the adsorption-desorption behavior of TNT (2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in a bentonite/sand reference material (Swy-1 montmorillonite clay mixed with acid-washed sand) and two selected soils (Norwood and Kolin). Release of TNT,RDX, and other compounds from a contaminated soil obtained from the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) site was also investigated. The kinetics of TNT and RDX retention were measured using batch methods for a range of input concentrations. For RDX, the adsorption isotherms were distinctly linear. The TNT adsorption isotherm for bentonite/sand mixture appeared linear and was described equally well using linear, Freundlich, Langmuir, and a modified Langmuir model. For the Norwood and Kolin soils, TNT adsorption isotherms exhibited distinct nonlinearity and the Freundlich model provided the best fit. As indicated by the K{sub d} values, TNT exhibited stronger retention or affinity to all soils and the bentonite/sand mixture than for RDX. The RDX retention data indicated little time-dependent behavior. The TNT retention data indicated a continued decrease in TNT concentration with time in the Norwood and Kolin soils. This was possibly caused by the formation and subsequent adsorption of transformation products because transformation products, such as amino nitro toluene compounds, were identified during batch experiments. For the bentonite/sand mixture, TNT retention was rapid initially and reached apparent equilibrium within 1 day. Unlike Kolin and Norwood soils, there was no hysteretic behavior of TNT adsorption-desorption by the bentonite/sand mixture and a mass balance suggested fully reversible retention mechanisms. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Toxic effects of oral hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    McFarland, Craig A; Quinn, Michael J; Bazar, Matthew A; Talent, Larry G; Johnson, Mark S

    2009-05-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has been widely used as an explosive in munition formulations, resulting in contamination of wildlife habitat on military installations. To estimate health effects for reptilian species, acute, subacute, and subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted using the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Estimated oral median lethal doses were 72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 49-106) mg/kg body weight (slope, 3.754) for males and 88 (95% CI, 65-119) mg/kg (slope, 4.525) for females. Toxicity from RDX suggested the neurological system as the critical target tissue. A 14-d subacute study followed with males dosed orally with RDX (corn oil) at 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg/d. Signs of toxicity frequently included a characteristic body posture. A significant dose-survival relationship was seen over the range of doses, with a significant decrease in survival at 20 mg/kg/d. Males in the 60-d subchronic study were dosed at 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 8, and 11 mg/kg/d, and signs of toxicity included lethargy, cachexia, and anorexia. Survival was decreased at 8 and 11 mg/kg/d. Reduced growth rate and food consumption occurred at 5 mg/kg/d. Brain tissue was assayed for RDX when seizures were observed at a residue concentration of at least 18 microg/g. No abnormalities were observed in the hematologic indices, whereas plasma proteins were reduced. Hepatic enlargement and decreased testes mass occurred at 8 and 11 mg/kg/d. Plasma testosterone concentrations, sperm counts, and motility measures were variable for all treatment levels. Based on survival, growth rate, food intake, and testes to brain weight ratios, these data suggest a lowest-observed-adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg/d and a no-observed-adverse effect level of 2.5 mg/kg/d.

  2. High dynamic range emission measurements of shocked energetic materials: Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    A new emission apparatus with high time resolution and high dynamic range was used to study shock-induced ignition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in the form of ultrafine powder (4 ± 3 μm particle size), over a range of impact velocities (0.8-4.3 km s-1) and impact durations (2.5-16 ns). A graybody model was used to extract graybody emissivities and time-dependent temperatures from a few ns to 100 μs. The emission transients consisted of three parts: a 6700 K nanosecond burst during the shocks, a 4000-4500 K temperature spike near 0.3 μs followed by a ˜3300 K tail extending out to ˜100 μs. These temperatures varied remarkably little with impact velocity and duration, while the emission intensities and emissivities changed by over an order of magnitude. The emissivity changes were interpreted with a hot spot model, where hot spot temperatures reached a maximum of 6700 K and the hot spot volume fractions increased from 5% to 100% as impact velocity increased from 1 to 3 km s-1. Changing shock durations in the 2.5-16 ns range had noticeable effects on the microsecond emission. The 0.3 μs temperature spike was much smaller or absent with 2.5 ns shocks, but prominent with longer durations. An explanation for these effects was put forth that invoked the formation of carbon-rich clusters during the shock. In this view, cluster formation was minimal with 2.5 ns shocks, but longer-duration shocks produced increasingly larger clusters, and the 0.3 μs temperature spikes represented cluster ignition.

  3. Analysis of the key intermediates of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in groundwater: occurrence, stability and preservation.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Louise; Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Hatzinger, Paul B; Fuller, Mark E; Hawari, Jalal

    2011-08-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a widely used explosive that is present in soils at a number of military sites, including training and testing ranges. Because of its relatively weak adsorption to soil, RDX frequently migrates through the unsaturated zone and causes groundwater contamination. In the environment, RDX can transform to produce mono-, di-, and tri-nitroso derivatives (MNX, DNX, and TNX) and the ring cleavage products methylenedinitramine (MEDINA) and 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB). The present study was undertaken to analyze RDX and its products in groundwater samples taken from various US military sites. The stability of some of the common transformation intermediates of RDX, including the nitroso derivatives, NDAB and MEDINA, under typical conditions in a groundwater aquifer is not well understood, and appropriate preservation methods for these compounds have not been established. Therefore, we studied the inherent stability of these compounds in deionized water and in groundwater, and evaluated various preservation techniques, including adjustment of pH, temperature, and salinity. NDAB and nitroso derivatives were stable under typical ambient environmental conditions, but MEDINA was highly unstable. The addition of sea salts (10% w/v) was found to stabilize MEDINA when the samples were stored at 4 °C. Using appropriate preservation techniques, we detected nitroso derivatives and NDAB, but no MEDINA, at some of the sites investigated. Stabilizing RDX intermediate products in field samples to allow detection is important because the presence of any of these chemicals can indicate past contamination by RDX and provide insight into the occurrence of in situ natural attenuation.

  4. Validation of a novel extraction method for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation by ruminal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Giarrizzo, J G; Murty, L; Tanaree, D; Walker, K; Craig, A M

    2013-04-15

    A simple, fast liquid-liquid extraction method was developed for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation using small sample volumes. The method was tested in vitro with anaerobic incubations of RDX with whole rumen fluid (WRF) and a commercial Sporanaerobacter acetigenes strain in methanogenic media for RDX. Additionally, validation experiments were conducted in deionized water in order to show applicability toward various aqueous matrices. Conditions for extraction were as follows: 300 μL of sample were mixed with an equal volume of a 0.34 M ammonium hydroxide solution to reach a basic pH, extracted with a hexane/ethyl acetate 1:1 (v/v) solution (1 mL) and shaken vigorously for 10 s. The resulting organic phase was transferred, then dried under a constant flow of N2 and reconstituted with acetonitrile (300 μL) for HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS analysis. Percent recovery values were obtained (83-101%) in all matrices for RDX. In WRF (n=3 animals), RDX degradation was observed with almost 100% elimination of RDX after 4 h. The five nitroso and ring cleavage metabolites were observed by mass spectrometry. Liquid cultures of S. acetigenes did not show significant RDX biodegradation activity. RDX extractions from deionized water samples indicated acceptable recoveries with low variability, suggesting suitability of the method for aqueous matrices. Overall, the new method demonstrated acceptable efficiency and reproducibility across three matrices, providing an advantageous alternative for studies where complex matrices and small volume samples are in use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome Shuffling of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia OK-5 for Improving the Degradation of Explosive RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine).

    PubMed

    Lee, Bheong-Uk; Choi, Moon-Seop; Kim, Dong-Min; Oh, Kye-Heon

    2017-02-01

    A genome-shuffled Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain showing the enhanced ability of RDX degradation was constructed, and its characteristics were compared with those of the wild-type one. The shuffled strain was able to completely degrade 25, 50, and 75 µM RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) within 10, 30, and 50 days, respectively. However, it took 30 and 70 days for the wild-type strain to degrade 25 and 50 µM RDX, respectively, and at day 70, the strain degraded only 67% of 75 µM RDX. The shuffled strain reached its maximum growth at 50-60 days and exhibited approximately 1.5-fold increased cell numbers. SEM revealed more severe damage on the surface of the wild-type cells compared to the genome-shuffled cells. The mRNA levels of dnaK and groEL encoding the heat shock proteins were increased by 2.5-fold and fourfold, and DnaK and GroEL proteins were more highly produced in the shuffled cells. In addition, the mRNA levels of pnrB encoding a TNT nitroreductase, and algA involved in exopolymer biosynthesis, were slightly higher in the shuffled strain, but not as high as those of dnaK and groEL. These results indicate that the genome shuffling rendered the shuffled cells more resistant to RDX stress. A proteomic comparison revealed changes in the production levels of certain proteins including nitrate and cell protection, particularly those involved in metabolism. These proteomic analyses provide clues for understanding the improved RDX degradation by the genome-shuffled S. maltophilia strain.

  6. Metabolism of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in a contaminated vadose zone.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Zeev; Yanovich, Yuval; Goldin, Regina; Adar, Eilon

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore biodegradation potential of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in a deep contaminated unsaturated zone over Israel's coastal aquifer. While anaerobic biodegradation potential was observed throughout the profile down to the water table at a depth of 45 m, aerobic biodegradation was limited to the surface of the unsaturated zone. Traces of nitroso-RDX intermediates were detected in the soil samples, indicating possible in situ activity. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the microbial population in the soil consisted of protobacteria, but no known RDX degraders were detected. However, a 16S rRNA gene sequence most similar to Sphingomonas sp. was detected at all depths. Biodegradation rates were faster in the surface (0 and 1m) versus deeper soil samples (22 and 45 m) and were not affected under anaerobic conditions by the presence of nitrate, indicating a concurrent reduction of both compounds. RDX half-life in the surface soil was mostly dependent on carbon content and to lesser extent on soil moisture. Biomineralization of RDX to CO(2) was confirmed by incubating surface soil with (14)C-labeled RDX. An aerobic RDX-degrading bacterium, identified as Gordonia sp., was isolated from the soil: it degraded RDX aerobically and produced 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal. This study, the first to explore RDX biodegradation in the deep vadoze zone, indicates biodegradation potential throughout the profile, which is likely to support natural attenuation.

  7. Geochemical and microbiological processes contributing to the transformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in contaminated aquifer material.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Man Jae; O'Loughlin, Edward J; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Finneran, Kevin T

    2011-08-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a potential human carcinogen, and its contamination of subsurface environments is a significant threat to public health. This study investigated abiotic and biological degradation of RDX in contaminated aquifer material. Anoxic batch systems were started with and without pre-aeration of aquifer material to distinguish initial biological RDX reduction from abiotic RDX reduction. Aerating the sediment eliminated chemical reductants in the native aquifer sediment, primarily Fe(II) sorbed to mineral surfaces. RDX (50 μM) was completely reduced and transformed to ring cleavage products when excess concentrations (2mM) of acetate or lactate were provided as the electron donor for aerated sediment. RDX was reduced concurrently with Fe(III) when acetate was provided, while RDX, Fe(III), and sulfate were reduced simultaneously with lactate amendment. Betaproteobacteria were the dominant microorganisms associated with RDX and Fe(III)/sulfate reduction. In particular, Rhodoferax spp. increased from 21% to 35% and from 28% to 60% after biostimulation by acetate and lactate, respectively. Rarefaction analyses demonstrated that microbial diversity decreased in electron-donor-amended systems with active RDX degradation. Although significant amounts of Fe(III) and/or sulfate were reduced after biostimulation, solid-phase reactive minerals such as magnetite or ferrous sulfides were not observed, suggesting that RDX reduction in the aquifer sediment is due to Fe(II) adsorbed to solid surfaces as a result of Fe(III)-reducing microbial activity. These results suggest that both biotic and abiotic processes play an important role in RDX reduction under in situ conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of transcriptional responses in liver tissue and primary hepatocyte cell cultures after exposure to hexahydro-1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazine

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Edward J; Bao, Wenjun; Guan, Xin; Ang, Choo-Yaw; Wolfinger, Russell D; Chu, Tzu-Ming; Meyer, Sharon A; Inouye, Laura S

    2006-01-01

    Background Cell culture systems are useful in studying toxicological effects of chemicals such as Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), however little is known as to how accurately isolated cells reflect responses of intact organs. In this work, we compare transcriptional responses in livers of Sprague-Dawley rats and primary hepatocyte cells after exposure to RDX to determine how faithfully the in vitro model system reflects in vivo responses. Results Expression patterns were found to be markedly different between liver tissue and primary cell cultures before exposure to RDX. Liver gene expression was enriched in processes important in toxicology such as metabolism of amino acids, lipids, aromatic compounds, and drugs when compared to cells. Transcriptional responses in cells exposed to 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/L RDX for 24 and 48 hours were different from those of livers isolated from rats 24 hours after exposure to 12, 24, or 48 mg/Kg RDX. Most of the differentially expressed genes identified across conditions and treatments could be attributed to differences between cells and tissue. Some similarity was observed in RDX effects on gene expression between tissue and cells, but also significant differences that appear to reflect the state of the cell or tissue examined. Conclusion Liver tissue and primary cells express different suites of genes that suggest they have fundamental differences in their cell physiology. Expression effects related to RDX exposure in cells reflected a fraction of liver responses indicating that care must be taken in extrapolating from primary cells to whole animal organ toxicity effects. PMID:17217515

  9. Investigating differences in the ability of XplA/B-containing bacteria to degrade the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Sabir, Dana Khdr; Grosjean, Nicolas; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Bruce, Neil C

    2017-08-01

    The xenobiotic hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a toxic explosive and environmental pollutant. This study examines three bacterial species that degrade RDX, using it as a sole source of nitrogen for growth. Although isolated from diverse geographical locations, the species contain near identical copies of genes encoding the RDX-metabolising cytochrome P450, XplA and accompanying reductase, XplB. Sequence analysis indicates a single evolutionary origin for xplA and xplB as part of a genomic island, which has been distributed around the world via horizontal gene transfer. Despite the fact that xplA and xplB are highly conserved between species, Gordonia sp. KTR9 and Microbacterium sp. MA1 degrade RDX more slowly than Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Both Gordonia sp. KTR9 and Microbacterium sp. MA1 were found to contain single base-pair mutations in xplB which, following expression and purification, were found to encode inactive XplB protein. Additionally, the Gordonia sp. KTR9 XplB was fused to glutamine synthetase, which would be likely to sterically inhibit XplB activity. Although the glutamine synthetase is fused to XplB and truncated by 71 residues, it was found to be active. Glutamine synthetase has been implicated in the regulation of nitrogen levels; controlling nitrogen availability will be important for effective bioremediation of RDX. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Mineralization of the Cyclic Nitramine Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine by Gordonia and Williamsia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Karen T.; Crocker, Fiona H.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a cyclic nitroamine explosive that is a major component in many military high-explosive formulations. In this study, two aerobic bacteria that are capable of using RDX as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen to support their growth were isolated from surface soil. These bacterial strains were identified by their fatty acid profiles and 16S ribosomal gene sequences as Williamsia sp. KTR4 and Gordonia sp. KTR9. The physiology of each strain was characterized with respect to the rates of RDX degradation and [U-14C]RDX mineralization when RDX was supplied as a sole carbon and nitrogen source in the presence and absence of competing carbon and nitrogen sources. Strains KTR4 and KTR9 degraded 180 μM RDX within 72 h when RDX served as the only added carbon and nitrogen source while growing to total protein concentrations of 18.6 and 16.5 μg/ml, respectively. Mineralization of [U-14C]RDX to 14CO2 was 30% by strain KTR4 and 27% by KTR9 when RDX was the only added source of carbon and nitrogen. The addition of (NH4)2SO4 greatly inhibited KTR9's degradation of RDX but had little effect on that of KTR4. These are the first two pure bacterial cultures isolated that are able to use RDX as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. These two genera possess different physiologies with respect to RDX mineralization, and each can serve as a useful microbiological model for the study of RDX biodegradation with regard to physiology, biochemistry, and genetics. PMID:16332812

  11. Accumulation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine by the earthworm Eisenia andrei in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Savard, Kathleen; Lachance, Bernard; Robidoux, Pierre Y; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2009-10-01

    The heterocyclic polynitramine hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a highly energetic compound found as a soil contaminant at some defense installations. Although RDX is not lethal to soil invertebrates at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg, it decreases earthworm cocoon formation and juvenile production at environmentally relevant concentrations found at contaminated sites. Very little is known about the uptake of RDX in earthworms and the potential risks for food-chain transfer of RDX in the environment. Toxicokinetic studies were conducted to quantify the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) using adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed for up to 14 d to sublethal concentrations of nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX in a Sassafras sandy loam soil. High-performance liquid chromatography of acetonitrile extracts of tissue and soil samples indicated that nonlabeled RDX can be accumulated by the earthworm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The BAF, expressed as the earthworm tissue to soil concentration ratio, decreased from 6.7 to 0.1 when the nominal soil RDX concentrations were increased from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. Tissue concentrations were comparable in earthworms exposed to nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX. The RDX bioaccumulation also was estimated using the kinetically derived model (BAFK), based on the ratio of the uptake to elimination rate constants. The established BAFK of 3.6 for [14C]RDX uptake was consistent with the results for nonlabeled RDX. Radioactivity also was present in the tissue residues of [14C]RDX-exposed earthworms following acetonitrile extraction, suggesting the formation of nonextractable [14C]RDX metabolites associated with tissue macromolecules. These findings demonstrated a net accumulation of RDX in the earthworm and the potential for food-chain transfer of RDX to higher-trophic-level receptors.

  12. Accumulation and effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) exposure in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis).

    PubMed

    McMurry, S T; Jones, L E; Smith, P N; Cobb, G P; Anderson, T A; Lovern, M B; Cox, S; Pan, X

    2012-03-01

    Environmental contamination by energetic compounds is an increasing international concern, although little is known of their accumulation in and affect on wildlife. Reptiles are often good models for contaminants studies due to natural history traits that increase their potential for exposure. We report a study to assess accumulation and effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX, High Melting Explosive) in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis). Acute oral toxicity (LD(50)) was estimated to exceed 2000 mg/kg body weight in adult male and female anoles using a standard up-and-down method. Accumulation of HMX was assessed in adult females via dietary exposure and into eggs by two routes (directly from the soil and via maternal transfer). HMX readily accumulated into adult females in a dose-dependent manner and into eggs following both exposure pathways. However, total HMX in soil-exposed eggs was up to 40-times greater than those exposed via maternal transfer. Although there was a suggestion of an HMX-induced reduction in body weight in adult females, overall there were no effects observed over the 12 week exposure period. The only significant effect on eggs was a 50% reduction in hatching success for eggs exposed to 2000 mg/kg HMX in the soil during incubation. Growth and survival of hatchlings was not affected by HMX exposure. Our results demonstrate that HMX accumulates through the food chain and into eggs from the soil, but likely poses minimal threat to lizards except to hatching success in eggs incubated in soils with HMX levels near maximum environmental concentrations.

  13. Biodegradation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: new insight into the degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-08-01

    Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a recalcitrant energetic chemical that tends to accumulate in soil, close to the surface. The present study describes the aerobic biodegradability of HMX using Phanerochaete chrysosporium. When added to 7 day old static P. chrysosporium liquid cultures, HMX (600 nmol) degraded within 25 days of incubation. The removal of HMX was concomitant with the formation of transient amounts of its mono-nitroso derivative (1-NO-HMX). The latter apparently degraded via two potential routes: the first involved N-denitration followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage, and the second involved alpha-hydroxylation prior to ring cleavage. The degradation of 1-NO-HMX gave the ring-cleavage product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), nitrite (NO2 -), nitrous oxide (N2O), and formaldehyde (HCHO). Using [14C]-HMX, we obtained 14CO2 (70% in 50 days), representing three C atoms of HMX. Incubation of real soils, contaminated with either HMX (403 micromol kg(-1)) (military base soil) or HMX (3057 micromol kg(-1)), and RDX (342 micromol kg(-1)) (ammunition soil) with the fungus led to 75 and 19.8% mineralization of HMX (liberated 14CO2), respectively, also via the intermediary formation of 1-NO-HMX. Mineralization in the latter soil increased to 35% after the addition of glucose, indicating that a fungus-based remediation process for heavily contaminated soils is promising. The present findings improve our understanding about the degradation pathway of HMX and demonstrate the utility of using the robust and versatile fungus P. chrysosporium to develop effective remediation processes for the removal of HMX.

  14. Overestimation of nitrate and nitrite concentrations in water samples due to the presence of nitroglycerin or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Lévesque, Richard; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Marois, André

    2012-08-24

    A large number of laboratory studies have reported nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) to be among the most common degradation products of the high explosives nitroglycerin (NG) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Additionally, several field studies have reported the presence of RDX or NG along with NO(3)(-) in groundwater near production plants. Most studies, however, did not specify whether their NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) analyses were performed on samples which also contained RDX or NG. Inconsistent NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) results obtained in our laboratory suggested that the presence of RDX or NG in water samples caused an overestimation of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) concentrations when using two of the most common analytical methods, namely ionic chromatography and automated colorimetry. This could have important implications for mass balance calculations and for environmental decisions. This paper focused on quantifying the overestimation of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) due to the presence of RDX and NG, and finding a method for extracting RDX and NG from water samples without affecting NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). Results showed that the overestimation can be predicted using regression coefficients; however the margin of error at the 95% confidence level was between 5 and 15%. Alternatively, a cartridge was found which retains both RDX and NG without affecting NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). The cartridge can be used for concentrating the RDX or NG in dilute environmental samples, while removing RDX/NG from solution to allow the interference-free analysis of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). Additionally, if recovery of RDX/NG from the cartridges is not desired, the cartridges could be used for the extraction of more than one sample, thus reducing the costs.

  15. DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL (TCP) BY ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3,5,6-trichloro-2pyridinol (TCP) has been developed to quantitate parts per billion (ppb) amounts of the analyte in urine. TCP is a major metabolite and environmental degradation product of the insecticide c...

  16. Russian/English Interdisciplinary Lessons for General Education and Special Education Students. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    The materials consist of four lessons each at grade levels 3-5, designed for use by both Russian bilingual and English-monolingual teachers in general and special education. The lessons are cross-referenced to learning and performance standards established for New York City (New York) public schools. Each unit (group of grade-level lessons)…

  17. The Self-Assembly Properties of a Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide Derivative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stals, Patrick J. M.; Haveman, Jan F.; Palmans, Anja R. A.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments involving the synthesis and characterization of a benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide derivative and its self-assembly properties are reported. These laboratory experiments combine organic synthesis, self-assembly, and physical characterization and are designed for upper-level undergraduate students to introduce the topic of…

  18. Green synthesis of a typical chiral stationary phase of cellulose-tris(3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background At present, the study on the homogeneous-phase derivatization of cellulose in ionic liquid is mainly focused on its acetylation. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no such report on the preparation of cellulose-tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (CDMPC) with ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (AmimCl) so far. Results With ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) as a reaction solvent, cellulose-tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (CDMPC) was synthesized by the reaction of 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate and soluble microcrystalline cellulose in a homogeneous phase. The synthesized CDMPC was then coated onto the surfaces of aminopropyl silica gel to prepare a chiral stationary phase (CSP). The prepared CSP was successfully used in chiral separation of seven racemic pesticides by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Good chiral separation was obtained using n-hexane and different modifiers as the mobile phases under the optimal percentage and column temperature, with the resolution of metalaxyl, diniconazole, flutriafol, paclobutrazol, hexaconazole, myclobutanil and hexythiazox of 1.73, 1.56, 1.26, 1.00, 1.18, 1.14 and 1.51, respectively. The experimental results suggested it was a good choice using a green solvent of AmimCl for cellulose functionalization. Conclusion CDMPC was successfully synthesized as the chiral selector by reacting 3, 5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate with dissolved microcrystalline cellulose in a green ionic liquid of AmimCl. PMID:23890199

  19. 75 FR 5285 - Mission Statement; Franchise Trade Mission to Mexico; March 3-5, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... trade media, direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and... International Trade Administration Mission Statement; Franchise Trade Mission to Mexico; March 3-5, 2010 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United...

  20. FOURTEEN-DAY TOXICITY STUDY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic effects of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female rats were evaluated by feeding powdered certified laboratory chow diet supplemented with varied concentrations of TNB (0,50,200,400,800 and 1200 mg kg-1 diet) for 14 days. Food intake by female rats in 400,800 and 12...

  1. 43 CFR 3742.3-5 - Mailing of copies of published notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mailing of copies of published notice... MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Procedures Under the Act § 3742.3-5 Mailing of copies of published notice. Within... in the published notice, a Request for Notices, as provided in subsection (d) of section 7 of the Act...

  2. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  3. Evaluation of GALAXY Classroom Science for Grades 3-5. Final Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Gloria J. A.; Austin, Susan; DeLong, Bo; Pasta, David J.; Block, Clifford

    The GALAXY Classroom is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches, supported by the first U.S. interactive satellite communications network designed to facilitate the introduction of innovative curricula to improve student learning in elementary schools. GALAXY Classroom Science for grades 3-5 features the organization of…

  4. 3-Chlorotyrosine and 3,5-Dichlorotyrosine as biomarkers of respiratory tract exposure to chlorine gas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modification of tyrosine by reactive chlorine can produce both 3-chlorotyrosine (CY) and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine (dCY). Both of these amino acids have proven to be promising biomarkers for assessing the extent of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed chlorine stress in a number of adverse physi...

  5. Homogeneous acylation of xylan with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl in ionic liquid and the adsorption property.

    PubMed

    Kong, Weiqing; Dai, Qingqing; Ren, Junli; Ma, Nianfang

    2015-09-05

    A new xylan ester (xylan 3,5-dinitrobenzoate) as a creatinine adsorbent was prepared by the homogeneous acylation of xylan with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride in 1-butul-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid. The influences of reaction conditions on the degree of substitution values of xylan esters were discussed. Results indicated that xylan esters with the degree of substitution range from 1.34 to 1.77 were obtained under the given conditions. The FTIR and (13)C NMR spectroscopies provided the evidence of grafting 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl groups onto the backbone of xylan. Moreover, the adsorption properties of the xylan ester for creatinine were also investigated. Isotherm studies showed that the sorption capacities for creatinine were 2.45, 2.08 and 1.86 mg/g for 23, 30 and 37 °C, respectively. Thermodynamic studies performed indicated the sorption process mainly was controlled by the chemical adsorption. Therefore, xylan 3,5-dinitrobenzoate displayed the promising application in the treatment of chronic renal failure by the creatinine adsorption as the new oral adsorbent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ischemic heart disease mortality and PM(3.5) in a cohort of autoworkers.

    PubMed

    Costello, Sadie; Garcia, Erika; Hammond, S Katharine; Eisen, Ellen A

    2013-03-01

    Increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) has been associated with particulate matter (PM) from air pollution. Yet evidence of increased risk associated with higher workplace exposures is scant. We examined the exposure-response relationship between IHD mortality and PM(3.5) (<3.5 µm diameter) from current and cumulative exposure to straight metalworking fluid in a cohort of 39,412 autoworkers followed from 1941 to 1995. Age, calendar year of follow up, sex, race, and plant were included in each model. To address the decrease in polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content in the straight metalworking fluid over time, analyses were stratified by calendar time. Increased risk of IHD mortality was associated with current exposure to PM(3.5) before 1971 and with cumulative exposure to PM(3.5) after 1971. Results provide modest evidence that occupational exposure to fine PM from straight fluids, especially fluid with higher PAH, may increase the risk of IHD mortality. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. New York system vs. challengers. Public hospitals face down privates in $3.5 million campaign.

    PubMed

    Botvin, J D

    2001-01-01

    New York City Health and Hospitals Corp. (HHC) reacts to new competition from private hospitals. a result of drastic changes in the state's healthcare program for Medicaid patients. Read about HHC's commitment of $5 million to advertising, including a $3.5 million multi-media campaign to enhance the image and increase awareness of its 11 acute care hospitals and related facilities.

  8. No Time for Tea (Grade Level: Elementary Grades, 3-5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Designed for Grades 3-5, this lesson plan aims to let the students learn how the Constitution of the United States provided the framework for the country's democratic form of government. Students will learn how the Constitution provided for representation within the government. A short story about the Boston Tea Party gives the background related…

  9. 3-Chlorotyrosine and 3,5-Dichlorotyrosine as biomarkers of respiratory tract exposure to chlorine gas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modification of tyrosine by reactive chlorine can produce both 3-chlorotyrosine (CY) and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine (dCY). Both of these amino acids have proven to be promising biomarkers for assessing the extent of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed chlorine stress in a number of adverse physi...

  10. DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL (TCP) BY ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3,5,6-trichloro-2pyridinol (TCP) has been developed to quantitate parts per billion (ppb) amounts of the analyte in urine. TCP is a major metabolite and environmental degradation product of the insecticide c...

  11. Russian/English Interdisciplinary Lessons for General Education and Special Education Students. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    The materials consist of four lessons each at grade levels 3-5, designed for use by both Russian bilingual and English-monolingual teachers in general and special education. The lessons are cross-referenced to learning and performance standards established for New York City (New York) public schools. Each unit (group of grade-level lessons)…

  12. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamo-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-05-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  13. A Fast Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometric Analysis of PETN (Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate), RDX (3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane) and HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) in Soil, Utilizing a Simple Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction with Minimum Solvent.

    PubMed

    Anilanmert, Beril; Aydin, Muhammet; Apak, Resat; Avci, Gülfidan Yenel; Cengiz, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Direct analyses of explosives in soil using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods are very limited in the literature and require complex procedures or relatively high amount of solvent. A simple and rapid method was developed for the determination of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), which are among the explosives used in terrorist attacks. A one-step extraction method for 1.00 g soil with 2.00 mL acetonitrile, and a 8-min LC-MS/MS method was developed. The detection limits for PETN, RDX and HMX were 5.2, 8.5 and 3.4 ng/g and quantitation limits were 10.0, 24.5, 6.0 ng/g. The intermediate precisions and Horwitz Ratio's were between 4.10 - 13.26% and 0.24 - 0.98, in order. This method was applied to a model post-blast debris collected from an artificial explosion and real samples collected after a terrorist attack in Istanbul. The method is easy and fast and requires less solvent use than other methods.

  14. The Self-Assembly Properties of a Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide Derivative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stals, Patrick J. M.; Haveman, Jan F.; Palmans, Anja R. A.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments involving the synthesis and characterization of a benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide derivative and its self-assembly properties are reported. These laboratory experiments combine organic synthesis, self-assembly, and physical characterization and are designed for upper-level undergraduate students to introduce the topic of…

  15. Developing Essential Understanding of Multiplication and Division for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Albert; Caldwell, Janet; Hancock, Sarah Wallus; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2011-01-01

    This book identifies and examines two big ideas and related essential understandings for teaching multiplication and division in grades 3-5. Big Idea 1 captures the notion that multiplication is usefully defined as a scalar operation. Problem situations modeled by multiplication have an element that represents the scalar and an element that…

  16. FOURTEEN-DAY TOXICITY STUDY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic effects of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female rats were evaluated by feeding powdered certified laboratory chow diet supplemented with varied concentrations of TNB (0,50,200,400,800 and 1200 mg kg-1 diet) for 14 days. Food intake by female rats in 400,800 and 12...

  17. Regioselective Glycosylation of 3-, 5-, 6-, and 7-Hydroxyflavones by Cultured Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Uesugi, Daisuke; Fujitaka, Yuuya; Okada, Shouta; Tanigawa, Masato; Hamada, Hiroki

    2015-06-01

    Regioselective glycosylation of 3-, 5-, 6-, and 7-hydroxyflavones was investigated using cultured plant cells of Eucalyptus perriniana and Phytolacca americana as biocatalysts. 3- and 7-Hydroxyflavones were practically glycosylated into the corresponding β-D-glucosides by E. perriniana and P. americana.

  18. A Multiple-Data Analysis of the 3.5-Year Development of EFL Student Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the changes in Japanese students English writing behaviors over a 3.5-year period using multiple data sources including written texts, videotaped writing behaviors, and stimulated-recall protocols. Data from student interviews supplemented the analyses. Because 6 (henceforth, English as a second language [ESL]…

  19. Investigation of Unexpected Reaction Intermediates in the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Methyl 3,5-Dinitrobenzoate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Clesia C.; Silva, Ricardo O.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Navarro, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    An experimental project aimed at identifying stable reaction intermediates is described. Initially, the studied reaction appears to involve the simple hydrolysis, by aqueous sodium hydroxide, of methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. On mixing the substrates, however, the reaction mixture unexpectedly turns an intense red in…

  20. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subchronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 rats was evaluated by feeding a powdered certified laboratory diet containing 0, 66.7, 400 and 800 mg TNB/kg diet for 90 days. The calculated average TNB intake was 4.29, 24.70, and 49.28 mg/kg...

  1. CHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats was evaluated by feeding a diet containing 0, 5, 60 and 300 ppm of TNB for 2 years. The calculated average TNB intake over 2 years for males and females was 0.22, 2.64, 13.44 and 0.23,...

  2. Algebraic Reasoning: Professor Arbegla Introduces Variables and Functions. GEMS Teacher's Guide for Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Jaine; Bergman, Lincoln

    This teacher guide helps build a solid foundation in algebra for students in grades 3-5 in which students gain essential understanding of properties of numbers, variables, functions, equations, and formulas. Throughout the problem solving activities, students use computational skills and gain a deeper understanding of the number system. Students…

  3. No Time for Tea (Grade Level: Elementary Grades, 3-5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Designed for Grades 3-5, this lesson plan aims to let the students learn how the Constitution of the United States provided the framework for the country's democratic form of government. Students will learn how the Constitution provided for representation within the government. A short story about the Boston Tea Party gives the background related…

  4. The intensities of methane in the 3-5 mu m region revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejard, L.; Champion, J.; Jouvard, J.; Brown, L.; Pine, A.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the linestrengths of the infrared spectrum of methane (12 and 13) in the 3-5 mu m region has been revisited onthe basis of new measurements from Fourier transform spectra recorded at Kitt Peak under various optical densities.

  5. Carbon dioxide capture by planar (AlN)n clusters (n=3-5).

    PubMed

    Guo, Chen; Wang, Chong

    2017-09-26

    Searching for materials and technologies of efficient CO2 capture is of the utmost importance to reduce the CO2 impact on the environment. Therefore, the (AlN)n clusters (n = 3-5) are researched using density functional theoretical calculations. The results of the optimization show that the most stable structures of (AlN)n clusters all display planar configurations at B3LYP and G3B3 methods, which are consistent with the reported results. For these planar clusters, we further systematically studied their interactions with carbon dioxide molecules to understand their adsorption behavior at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level, including geometric optimization, binding energy, bond index, and electrostatic. We found that the planar structures of (AlN)n (n = 3-5) can capture 3-5 CO2 molecules. The result indicates that (AlN)n (n = 3-5) clusters binding with CO2 is an exothermic process (the capture of every CO2 molecule on (AlN)n clusters releases at least 30 kcal mol(-1) in relative free energy values). These analysis results are expected to further motivate the applications of clusters to be efficient CO2 capture materials.

  6. Smart Spending and Saving: Personal Finance Economics 3-5. Teacher Resource Manual. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Diana C.; Haskell, Douglas A.

    This book is designed to help students in grades 3-5 make better decisions as spenders, savers, borrowers, and managers of money. The learning experiences focus on personal finance and money management. The 10 lessons are divided into 4 units focusing on children making spending decisions, saving decisions, borrowing decisions, and money…

  7. Investigation of Unexpected Reaction Intermediates in the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Methyl 3,5-Dinitrobenzoate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Clesia C.; Silva, Ricardo O.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Navarro, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    An experimental project aimed at identifying stable reaction intermediates is described. Initially, the studied reaction appears to involve the simple hydrolysis, by aqueous sodium hydroxide, of methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. On mixing the substrates, however, the reaction mixture unexpectedly turns an intense red in…

  8. Enhanced extraction of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate and its application to environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Guarav; Malik, Ashok Kumar; Rai, Pramod Kumar

    2008-08-01

    A method for enhanced extraction of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from environmental samples is developed with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactant. In this study, the concentration of SDS surfactant and other analytical parameters are optimized on a high-performance liquid chromatography-UV system. An isocratic flow of 1.0 mL/min with mobile phase acetonitrile-water; 70:30 (v/v) at 230 nm wavelength on a reverse-phase amide column is used for baseline separation of explosives and making calibration curves. The amount of recovered explosives from spiked soil and water samples are calculated. The limits of detection obtained for HMX and RDX standards are 1.5 and 3.8 ppb (S/N=3), respectively, which are much better than obtained by the Environmental Protection Agency method 8330. The recoveries are found to be enhanced by 1.7 and 1.6-fold with SDS solution as compared to water for HMX and RDX, respectively, from soil samples.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No. 58371...), (g)(3)(i), (g)(3)(ii), (g)(4) (resulting in receiving stream levels exceeding 0.1 parts per billion (ppb)), and (g)(5). (iii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4), (b)(4), and...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No. 58371...), (g)(3)(i), (g)(3)(ii), (g)(4) (resulting in receiving stream levels exceeding 0.1 parts per billion (ppb)), and (g)(5). (iii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4), (b)(4), and...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No. 58371...), (g)(3)(i), (g)(3)(ii), (g)(4) (resulting in receiving stream levels exceeding 0.1 parts per billion (ppb)), and (g)(5). (iii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4), (b)(4), and...

  12. Smart Spending and Saving: Personal Finance Economics 3-5. Teacher Resource Manual. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Diana C.; Haskell, Douglas A.

    This book is designed to help students in grades 3-5 make better decisions as spenders, savers, borrowers, and managers of money. The learning experiences focus on personal finance and money management. The 10 lessons are divided into 4 units focusing on children making spending decisions, saving decisions, borrowing decisions, and money…

  13. Synthesis of 14C-Labelled Octahydor-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine (HMx0 and 15N-Isotopic Hexahyrro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) for use in Microcosm Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    bioremediation process. To synthesize C(14)HMX, acetylation of labelled hexamethylenetetramine (C(14)HMTA) was done yielding 3,7-diacetyl-1,3,5,7... hexamethylenetetramine (N(15)HMTA) was done according to the Hale Process. N(15)HMTA was prepared by reaching cold formaldehyde with isotopic nitrogen-15 ammonium hydroxide.

  14. 3,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, a specific agonist for hydroxycarboxylic acid 1, inhibits lipolysis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changlu; Kuei, Chester; Zhu, Jessica; Yu, Jingxue; Zhang, Li; Shih, Amy; Mirzadegan, Taraneh; Shelton, Jonathan; Sutton, Steven; Connelly, Margery A; Lee, Grace; Carruthers, Nicholas; Wu, Jiejun; Lovenberg, Timothy W

    2012-06-01

    Niacin raises high-density lipoprotein and lowers low-density lipoprotein through the activation of the β-hydroxybutyrate receptor hydroxycarboxylic acid 2 (HCA2) (aka GPR109a) but with an unwanted side effect of cutaneous flushing caused by vascular dilation because of the stimulation of HCA2 receptors in Langerhans cells in skin. HCA1 (aka GPR81), predominantly expressed in adipocytes, was recently identified as a receptor for lactate. Activation of HCA1 in adipocytes by lactate results in the inhibition of lipolysis, suggesting that agonists for HCA1 may be useful for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Lactate is a metabolite of glucose, suggesting that HCA1 may also be involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. The low potency of lactate to activate HCA1, coupled with its fast turnover rate in vivo, render it an inadequate tool for studying the biological role of lactate/HCA1 in vivo. In this article, we demonstrate the identification of 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (3-HBA) as an agonist for both HCA2 and HCA1, whereas 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,5-DHBA) is a specific agonist for only HCA1 (EC(50) ∼150 μM). 3,5-DHBA inhibits lipolysis in wild-type mouse adipocytes but not in HCA1-deficient adipocytes. Therefore, 3,5-DHBA is a useful tool for the in vivo study of HCA1 function and offers a base for further HCA1 agonist design. Because 3-HBA and 3,5-DHBA are polyphenolic acids found in many natural products, such as fruits, berries, and coffee, it is intriguing to speculate that other heretofore undiscovered natural substances may have therapeutic benefits.

  15. Nitro Derivatives of 1,3,5-Triazepine as Potential High-Energy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hari Ji; Upadhyay, Manish Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Structure optimization and frequency calculation of six nitro derivatives of 1,3,5-triazepine were performed using a MP2(FULL)/6-311G(d,p) method. In order to obtain reliable energy data, single-point energy and subsequently thermodynamic properties of the species considered were calculated at a fairly high level of theory, CCSD(T)/6-311G(d,p). Solid-phase heats of formation and crystal density were determined using an electrostatic potential (ESP) method utilizing wave function analysis-surface analysis suite (WFA-SAS) code. The result shows that all nitro derivatives possess high positive heats of formation that increase with an increase in the number of nitro groups attached to the ring moiety. The crystal density was found to be in the range of 1.67-1.90 g/cm3. Detonation properties of the compounds were estimated using the Kamlet-Jacobs equation. The results showed that detonation velocity (D) and detonation pressure (P) increased with an increase in the number of nitro groups attached at the ring moiety. It was found that all six nitro derivatives of the title compound had better or comparable performance characteristics than the most widely used commercial explosives, such as TNT, research and development explosives (RDX), and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX). The trinitro derivative (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazepine, F) yielded detonation pressure (P) and detonation velocity (D) of 45.5 GPa and 9.23 km/s, respectively, at a loading density of 1.90 g/cm3, which are superior to the most powerful available explosive HMX (P = 39.00 GPa and D = 9.11 km/s). The results obtained during the present study show that the title compounds can be used as promising futuristic high-energy-density materials (HEDMs).

  16. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. Objectives In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient’s final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. Results The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. Conclusions In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures. PMID:27626010

  17. Computational prediction of probabilistic ignition threshold of pressed granular Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) under shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seokpum; Miller, Christopher; Horie, Yasuyuki; Molek, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Zhou, Min

    2016-09-01

    The probabilistic ignition thresholds of pressed granular Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine explosives with average grain sizes between 70 μm and 220 μm are computationally predicted. The prediction uses material microstructure and basic constituent properties and does not involve curve fitting with respect to or prior knowledge of the attributes being predicted. The specific thresholds predicted are James-type relations between the energy flux and energy fluence for given probabilities of ignition. Statistically similar microstructure sample sets are computationally generated and used based on the features of micrographs of materials used in actual experiments. The predicted thresholds are in general agreement with measurements from shock experiments in terms of trends. In particular, it is found that grain size significantly affects the ignition sensitivity of the materials, with smaller sizes leading to lower energy thresholds required for ignition. For example, 50% ignition threshold of the material with an average grain size of 220 μm is approximately 1.4-1.6 times that of the material with an average grain size of 70 μm in terms of energy fluence. The simulations account for the controlled loading of thin-flyer shock experiments with flyer velocities between 1.5 and 4.0 km/s, constituent elasto-viscoplasticity, fracture, post-fracture contact and friction along interfaces, bulk inelastic heating, interfacial frictional heating, and heat conduction. The constitutive behavior of the materials is described using a finite deformation elasto-viscoplastic formulation and the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The ignition thresholds are determined via an explicit analysis of the size and temperature states of hotspots in the materials and a hotspot-based ignition criterion. The overall ignition threshold analysis and the microstructure-level hotspot analysis also lead to the definition of a macroscopic ignition parameter (J) and a microscopic

  18. Determination of Key Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine with Rhodococcus sp. Strain DN22†

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim; Fiurasek, Petr; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 can convert hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to nitrite, but information on degradation products or the fate of carbon is not known. The present study describes aerobic biodegradation of RDX (175 μM) when used as an N source for strain DN22. RDX was converted to nitrite (NO2−) (30%), nitrous oxide (N2O) (3.2%), ammonia (10%), and formaldehyde (HCHO) (27%), which later converted to carbon dioxide. In experiments with ring-labeled [15N]-RDX, gas chromatographic/mass spectrophotometric (GC/MS) analysis revealed N2O with two molecular mass ions: one at 44 Da, corresponding to 14N14NO, and the second at 45 Da, corresponding to 15N14NO. The nonlabeled N2O could be formed only from -NO2, whereas the 15N-labeled one was presumed to originate from a nitramine group (15N-14NO2) in RDX. Liquid chromatographic (LC)-MS electrospray analyses indicated the formation of a dead end product with a deprotonated molecular mass ion [M-H] at 118 Da. High-resolution MS indicated a molecular formula of C2H5N3O3. When the experiment was repeated with ring-labeled [15N]-RDX, the [M-H] appeared at 120 Da, indicating that two of the three N atoms in the metabolite originated from the ring in RDX. When [U-14C]-RDX was used in the experiment, 64% of the original radioactivity in RDX incorporated into the metabolite with a molecular weight (MW) of 119 (high-pressure LC/radioactivity) and 30% in 14CO2 (mineralization) after 4 days of incubation, suggesting that one of the carbon atoms in RDX was converted to CO2 and the other two were incorporated in the ring cleavage product with an MW of 119. Based on the above stoichiometry, we propose a degradation pathway for RDX based on initial denitration followed by ring cleavage to formaldehyde and the dead end product with an MW of 119. PMID:11772623

  19. Urinary cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate changes in spontaneous and induced onset active labor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da-Chung; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Su, Her-Young; Lo, Shin-Chieh; Ren, Shin-Sia; Wu, Gwo-Jang

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to investigate the changes in urinary cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) between the latent and the active phases of spontaneous and prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1))-induced labor. Seventy singleton pregnant women at 36-41(+) weeks' gestation without signs of fetal distress were enrolled. The first group consisted of 35 pregnant women in whom labor was induced by PGE(1) applied intravaginally. The second group consisted of 35 women who had spontaneous active labor. Clinical data of the two groups were assessed as labor progressed. After the onset of active labor, urinary cGMP/creatinine (U cGMP/Cr) decreased in both groups with the percentage decline of 35.2 and 9.7, respectively, but this difference was only significant in the PGE(1)-induced group (P=0.033). After the onset of active labor, urinary cAMP/creatinine (U cAMP/Cr) decreased in both groups with the percentage decline of 36.5 and 15.6, respectively, but this difference was only significant in the PGE(1)-induced group (P=0.001). The duration of the latent phase was significantly shortened in the PGE(1)-induced group compared with the spontaneous labor group (P<0.05). Decreased U cGMP/Cr and U cAMP/Cr may be a transition from the latent to the active phase in PGE(1)-induced labor. Our results suggest that U cGMP/Cr and U cAMP/Cr can serve as easily obtained secondary messenger markers of myometrial contractility and cervical ripening at the onset of active labor. The NO-cGMP system and the G-protein alpha-cAMP system in the human uterus may concomitantly contribute to uterine quiescence during pregnancy and show downregulation in U cGMP/Cr and U cAMP/Cr at the initiation of active labor.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of melting of perfect crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lianqing; Thompson, Donald L.

    2006-08-01

    The melting mechanism of superheated perfect crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (α-RDX) has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations with the fully flexible force field developed by Smith and Bharadwaj [J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3570 (1999)]. Sequential 50ps equilibration simulations of the constant stress-constant temperature ensemble were performed at 10K intervals over the range of 300-650K, corresponding to a heating rate of 2.0×1011K/s. A solid-solid phase transition is observed between 480 and 490K, followed by melting, which occurs between 500 and 510K. The solid-solid phase transition, both displacive and rotational, is characterized by an abrupt decrease in the lengths of the unit cell edges a and b and an increase of the length of edge c. The molecular conformation in the new phase is AAE, although the axial nitro groups have different changes: one shift is more axial and the other is more equatorial. Phases other than α-RDX have been observed experimentally, however, there are insufficient data for comparisons to ascertain that the new phase observed here corresponds to a real phase. At the high heating rate (2.0×1011K /s) used in the simulations, the melted RDX reaches full orientational disorder at about 540K and translational freedom at around 580K. If the simulation at the melting temperature (510K) is run sufficiently long complete rotational freedom is achieved in a few hundreds of picoseconds, while complete translational freedom requires much longer. These results show that given a sufficiently high heating rate, the system can exist for significant periods of time in a near-liquid state in which the molecules are not as free to rotate and diffuse as in the true liquid state. The bond lengths and bond angles undergo little change upon melting, while there are significant changes in the dihedral angles. The molecular conformation of RDX changes from AAE to EEE upon melting. The ramification of this for formulating

  1. Development of an algorithm for the management of cervical lymphadenopathy in children: consensus of the Italian Society of Preventive and Social Pediatrics, jointly with the Italian Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the Italian Society of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Elena; Camaioni, Angelo; Benazzo, Marco; Biondi, Andrea; Bottero, Sergio; De Masi, Salvatore; Di Mauro, Giuseppe; Doria, Mattia; Esposito, Susanna; Felisati, Giovanni; Felisati, Dino; Festini, Filippo; Gaini, Renato Maria; Galli, Luisa; Gambini, Claudio; Gianelli, Umberto; Landi, Massimo; Lucioni, Marco; Mansi, Nicola; Mazzantini, Rachele; Marchisio, Paola; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Nicola, Marta; Novelli, Andrea; Paulli, Marco; Picca, Marina; Pillon, Marta; Pisani, Paolo; Pipolo, Carlotta; Principi, Nicola; Sardi, Iacopo; Succo, Giovanni; Tomà, Paolo; Tortoli, Enrico; Tucci, Filippo; Varricchio, Attilio; de Martino, Maurizio; Italian Guideline Panel For Management Of Cervical Lymphadenopathy In Children

    2015-01-01

    Cervical lymphadenopathy is a common disorder in children due to a wide spectrum of disorders. On the basis of a complete history and physical examination, paediatricians have to select, among the vast majority of children with a benign self-limiting condition, those at risk for other, more complex, diseases requiring laboratory tests, imaging and, finally, tissue sampling. At the same time, they should avoid expensive and invasive examinations when unnecessary. The Italian Society of Preventive and Social Pediatrics, jointly with the Italian Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, the Italian Society of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, and other Scientific Societies, issued a National Consensus document, based on the most recent literature findings, including an algorithm for the management of cervical lymphadenopathy in children. The Consensus Conference method was used, following the Italian National Plan Guidelines. Relevant publications in English were identified through a systematic review of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from their inception through March 21, 2014. Basing on literature results, an algorithm was developed, including several possible clinical scenarios. Situations requiring a watchful waiting strategy, those requiring an empiric antibiotic therapy, and those necessitating a prompt diagnostic workup, considering the risk for a severe underling disease, have been identified. The present algorithm is a practice tool for the management of pediatric cervical lymphadenopathy in the hospital and the ambulatory settings. A multidisciplinary approach is paramount. Further studies are required for its validation in the clinical field.

  2. Zonal Wave Number 2 Rossby Wave (3.5-day oscillation) Over The Martian Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.; Thokuluwa, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Over the Mars, height (800-50 Pascal pressure coordinate) profiles of temperature (K), measured by radio occultation technique during the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor) mission, obtained for the period of 1-10 January 2006 at the Martian latitude of ~63N in almost all the longitudes are analyzed to study the characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. To avoid significant data gaps in a particular longitude sector, we selected a set of 7 Mars longitude regions with ranges of 0-30E, 35-60E, 65-95E, 190-230E, 250-280E, 290-320E, and 325-360E to study the global characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. The 3.5-day oscillation is not selected as a-priori but observed as a most significant oscillation during this period of 1-10 January 2006. It is observed that in the longitude of 0-30E, the 3.5-day oscillation shows statistically significant power (above the 95% confidence level white noise) from the lowest height (800 Pascal, 8 hPa) itself and up to the height of 450 Pascal level with the maximum power of ~130 K^2 at the 600 & 650 Pascal levels. It started to grow from the power of ~ 50 K^2 at the lowest height of 800 Pascal level and reached the maximum power in the height of 600-650 Pascal level and then it started to get lessened monotonously up to the height of 450 Pascal level where its power is ~ 20 K^2. Beyond this height and up to the height of 50 Pascal level, the wave amplitude is below the white noise level. As the phase of the wave is almost constant at all the height levels, it seems that the observed 3.5-day oscillation is a stationary wave with respect to the height. In the 35-60 E longitude sector, the vertical structure of the 3.5-day oscillation is similar to what observed for the 0-30 E longitude region but the power is statistically insignificant at all the heights. However in the 65-95E longitude sector, the wave grows from the lowest level (70 K^2) of 800 Pascal to its maximum power of 280 K^2 in the height of 700 Pascal level and then it started

  3. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Operational Requirements of the Air Force Otorhinolaryngology Augmentation Team (FFENT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-11

    Konoske, 2007). The U.S. Air Force Medical Services are faced with a wide range of potential scenarios, from providing warfighters forward resuscitative ...917E Cost ESP wt ESP Cube ESP Cost B 6515NCM050289 TUBE JAKO SUCTION 17FR EA 1 4 0.1 0.1 44.17 0.4 0.4 176.68 B 6515NCM040918 TUBE NEONATAL ...TRACHEOSTOMY 3.5 EA 3 4 0.3 0.3 78.03 0.4 0.4 104.04 B 6515NCM040919 TUBE NEONATAL TRACHEOSTOMY 4.0 EA 3 4 0.3 0.3 78.03 0.4 0.4 104.04 B

  4. Realizing directional cloning using sticky ends produced by 3'-5' exonuclease of Klenow fragment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guojie; Li, Jun; Hu, Tianyu; Wei, Hua; Guan, Yifu

    2013-12-01

    The Klenow fragment (KF) has been used to make the blunt end as a tool enzyme. Its 5'-3' polymerase activity can extend the 5' overhanging sticky end to the blunt end, and 3'-5' exonuclease activity can cleave the 3' overhanging sticky end to the blunt end. The blunt end is useful for cloning. Here, we for the first time determined that a sticky end can be made by using the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of KF. We found that KF can cleave the blunt end into certain sticky ends under controlled conditions. We optimized enzyme cleavage conditions, and characterized the cleaved sticky ends to be mainly 2 nt 5' overhang. By using these sticky ends, we realized ligation reaction in vitro, and accomplished cloning short oligonucleotides directionally with high cloning efficiency. In some cases, this method can provide sticky end fragments in large scale for subsequent convenient cloning at low cost.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structures of new 3,5-diaryl-1 H-pyrazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dun-Jia; Zheng, Chun-Yang; Fan, Ling

    2009-12-01

    Seven new 3,5-diaryl-1 H-pyrazoles were synthesized by the condensation of 1,3-diketones with hydrazine in ethanol, and characterized. The crystal structures for 3(5)-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5(3)-(4-fluorphenyl)-1 H-pyrazole ( 5) and 3-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-(6-methoxy-naphthalen-2-yl)-1 H-pyrazole ( 7) have been determined by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The N-H…N intermolecular hydrogen bonds join the molecules into dimers. The NH proton of 5 is disordered, and its dimer is formed by the tautomers 5a5b or 5b5a. Compound 7 only exists as a 7a tautomer, and its dimer consists of the tautomers 7a7a.

  6. Crystal structure of 3,5-di­methyl­pyridine N-oxide dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Merino García, Rosario; Ríos-Merino, Francisco Javier; Bernès, Sylvain; Reyes-Ortega, Yasmi

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, also known as 3,5-lutidine N-oxide dihydrate, C7H9NO·2H2O, the N—O bond is weakened due to the involvement of the O atom as an acceptor of hydrogen bonds from the two water mol­ecules of crystallization present in the asymmetric unit. Fused R 3 5(10) ring motifs based on O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds form chains in the [010] direction, which are further connected by weak C—H⋯O inter­molecular contacts. As a result, the lutidine mol­ecules are stacked in an efficient manner, with π–π contacts characterized by a short separation of 3.569 (1) Å between the benzene rings. PMID:27980810

  7. Characterization of 3'----5' exonuclease associated with DNA polymerase of silkworm nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailov, V S; Marlyev, K A; Ataeva, J O; Kullyev, P K; Atrazhev, A M

    1986-01-01

    3'----5' Exonuclease specific for single-stranded DNA copurified with DNA polymerase of nuclear polyhedrosis virus of silkworm Bombyx mori (BmNPV Pol). BmNPV Pol has no detectable 5'----3' exonuclease activity on single-stranded or duplex DNA. Analysis of the products of 3'----5' exonucleolytic reaction showed that deoxynucleoside monophosphates were released during the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA. The exonuclease activity cosedimented with the polymerase activity during ultracentrifugation of BmNPV Pol in glycerol gradient. The polymerase and the exonuclease activities of BmNPV Pol were inactivated by heat with nearly identical kinetics. The mode of the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA by BmNPV Pol-associated exonuclease was strictly distributive. The enzyme dissociated from single-stranded DNA after the release of a single dNMP and then reassociated with a next polynucleotide being degradated. Images PMID:3012482

  8. Crystal structure of [UO2(NH3)5]NO3·NH3

    PubMed Central

    Woidy, Patrick; Kraus, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Penta­ammine dioxide uranium(V) nitrate ammonia (1/1), [UO2(NH3)5]NO3·NH3, was obtained in the form of yellow crystals from the reaction of caesium uranyl nitrate, Cs[UO2(NO3)3], and uranium tetra­fluoride, UF4, in dry liquid ammonia. The [UO2]+ cation is coordinated by five ammine ligands. The resulting [UO2(NH3)5] coordination polyhedron is best described as a penta­gonal bipyramid with the O atoms forming the apices. In the crystal, numerous N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present between the cation, anion and solvent mol­ecules, leading to a three-dimensional network. PMID:27980813

  9. High-Pressure Studies of 1,3,5,7-Cyclooctatetraene: Experiment and Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachev, Sergey N.; Pravica, Michael; Kim, Eunja; Romano, Edward; Weck, Philippe F.

    2008-11-12

    High-pressure studies of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene have been performed by using Raman spectroscopy up to 16 GPa and compared with complementary density functional calculations. Angular-dispersive X-ray diffraction studies were also performed in the solid state at elevated pressure. The lattice constants of solid 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene obtained from the X-ray diffraction pattern taken at 3.8 GPa and room temperature are in good agreement with theoretical results. At least two phase transitions were observed during pressure increase followed by the loss of long-range crystallographic order, which was also associated with a strong pressure-induced luminescence that allowed estimation of band gap alterations with pressure.

  10. Controlling Costs: The 6-3-5 Method - Case Studies at NAVSEA and NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    Nagy, President/CEO, Catalyst Technologies Morgan Ames, Senior Advisor, Catalyst Technologies Published April 30, 2016 Approved for public...Controlling Costs: The 6-3-5 Method—Case Studies at NAVSEA and NATO Bruce Nagy, President/CEO, Catalyst Technologies Morgan Ames, Senior Advisor...Catalyst Technologies Costing for the Future: Exploring Cost Estimation With Unmanned Autonomous Systems Ricardo Valerdi, Professor, University of

  11. Purification and characterization of DNase VII, a 3'. -->. 5'-directed exonuclease from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, G.F.; Grossman, L.

    1981-01-01

    An exonuclease, DNase VII, has been purified 6000-fold from human placenta. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 43,000, requires Mg/sup 2 +/ for activity, and has a pH optimum of 7.8. The enzyme hydrolyzes single-stranded and nicked duplex DNA at the same rate proceeding in a 3' ..-->.. 5' direction liberating 5'-mononucleotides. It does not measurably hydrolyze polyribonucleotides.

  12. Proton Relaxation in 1, 3, 5-Triamino-2, 4, 6-Trinitrobenzene (TATB).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-16

    AD-AO? 209 NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC F/G 7/4 PROTON RELAXATION IN 1. 3, 5-TRIAMINO-2, 4. 6-TRINITROBENZENE C-ETC(Ul~JUN A0 A N GARROWAY , H A...TATB) 1 April - 31 September 1979 S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(@) A.N. Garroway and H.A. Resing DE-AP-03

  13. Biodegradation of Nitro-Substituted Explosives 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene, Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine, and Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5-Tetrazocine by a Phytosymbiotic Methylobacterium sp. Associated with Poplar Tissues (Populus deltoides × nigra DN34)

    PubMed Central

    Van Aken, Benoit; Yoon, Jong Moon; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2004-01-01

    A pink-pigmented symbiotic bacterium was isolated from hybrid poplar tissues (Populus deltoides × nigra DN34). The bacterium was identified by 16S and 16S-23S intergenic spacer ribosomal DNA analysis as a Methylobacterium sp. (strain BJ001). The isolated bacterium was able to use methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy, which is a specific attribute of the genus Methylobacterium. The bacterium in pure culture was shown to degrade the toxic explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazene (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5-tetrazocine (HMX). [U-ring-14C]TNT (25 mg liter−1) was fully transformed in less than 10 days. Metabolites included the reduction derivatives amino-dinitrotoluenes and diamino-nitrotoluenes. No significant release of 14CO2 was recorded from [14C]TNT. In addition, the isolated methylotroph was shown to transform [U-14C]RDX (20 mg liter−1) and [U-14C]HMX (2.5 mg liter−1) in less than 40 days. After 55 days of incubation, 58.0% of initial [14C]RDX and 61.4% of initial [14C]HMX were mineralized into 14CO2. The radioactivity remaining in solution accounted for 12.8 and 12.7% of initial [14C]RDX and [14C]HMX, respectively. Metabolites detected from RDX transformation included a mononitroso RDX derivative and a polar compound tentatively identified as methylenedinitramine. Since members of the genus Methylobacterium are distributed in a wide diversity of natural environments and are very often associated with plants, Methylobacterium sp. strain BJ001 may be involved in natural attenuation or in situ biodegradation (including phytoremediation) of explosive-contaminated sites. PMID:14711682

  14. A 3.5 to 12 Micron "Dualband" Spectrometer for Generic UAVs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    response, and transmission of the Fresnel lens used for this test in place of the F/2.3 fore-optics. A 3.5 to 12 Micron “Dualband” Spectrometer for... Fresnel lens had been used. As described previously, the camera lens images onto the (cooled) spectrometer slit. The long focal length (400 mm) of the...Measured ** ** Based on DRS Modeling Results ** 28 Initial data collect with Prototype Sensor– Test FPA & Fresnel Lens • Used Fresnel lens (awaiting

  15. Experimental Evidence for Linear Metal-Azide Bonds. The Binary Group 5 Azides Nb(N3)5, Ta(N3)5, [Nb(N3)6]- and [Ta(N3)6]-, and 1:1 Adducts of Nb(N3)5 and Ta(N3)5 with CH3CN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-27

    bonds are significantly longer than the equatorial ones, as expected from VSEPR arguments.[29] In contrast, the axial M-N-N bonds in Nb(N3)5 and Ta...Klapötke, H. Nöth, T. Schütt, M. Warchhold, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2000, 39, 2108. [29] (a) R. J. Gillespie, I. Hargittai, The VSEPR Model of

  16. Measuring Enzyme Kinetics of Glycoside Hydrolases Using the 3,5-Dinitrosalicylic Acid Assay.

    PubMed

    McKee, Lauren S

    2017-01-01

    Use of the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid reagent allows the simple and rapid quantification of reducing sugars. The method can be used for analysis of biological samples or in the characterization of enzyme reactions. Presented here is an application of the method in measuring the kinetics of a glycoside hydrolase reaction, including the optimization of the DNSA reagent, and the production of a standard curve of absorbance and sugar concentration.

  17. Synthesis and dynamic stereochemistry of 4-aryl-thiomorpholine-3,5-dione derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szawkało, Joanna; Maurin, Jan K.; Pluciński, Franciszek; Czarnocki, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    A series of new N-aryl-substituted thiomorpholine-3,5-diones were synthesized. Crystal structures of seven compounds were established on the basis of X-ray crystallography. Stable at room temperature diastereomers were detected for (2-phenyl)-substituted derivatives using 1H NMR. The dynamic stereochemistry of compound 36 was studied with variable-temperature 1H NMR and the mechanism of diastereomers interconversion was proposed on the basis of quantum chemical calculations.

  18. Current and Emerging Materials for 3-5 Micron IR Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentilman, Richard L.

    1986-12-01

    New, more durable windows and domes will be required for future 3-5 micron IR systems. Various oxide and oxynitride crystalline materials are candidates for these new requirements, including sapphire, spinel, ALON, yttria, and MgO. These materials are compared with respect to optical properties, durability, and fabrication costs. Two extrinsic properties, thermal conductivity and fracture strength, have strong effects on thermal shock resistance. Birefringent polycrystalline materials will not have adequate optical resolution for future systems.

  19. Mechanical testing of 3.5 mm locking and non-locking bone plates.

    PubMed

    DeTora, M; Kraus, K

    2008-01-01

    Locking plate technologies are being developed in order to provide the surgeon with advantages over previous bone plate systems (both locking and non-locking). Locking plate systems possess inherent biological advantages in fracture fixation by preserving the periosteal blood supply, serving as internal fixators. It is important to consider the strength of each orthopaedic implant as an important selection criterion while utilizing the reported advantages of locking plate systems to prevent catastrophic fracture failure. Mechanical testing of orthopaedic implants is a common method used to provide a surgeon with insight on mechanical capabilities, as well as to form a standardized method of plate comparison. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate and to quantify observed differences in the bending strength between the LCP (Limited Contact Plate), LC-DCP, 3.5 mm Broad LC-DCP (Limited Contact Dynamic Compression Plate), and SOP (String of Pearls) orthopaedic bone plates. The study design followed the ASTM standard test method for static bending properties of metallic bone plates, which is designed to measure mechanical properties of bone plates subjected to bending, the most common loading encountered in vivo. Single cycle four point bending was performed on each orthopaedic implant. The area moment of inertia, bending stiffness, bending strength, and bending structural stiffness were calculated for each implant. The results of this study demonstrated significant differences (p<0.001) in bending strength and stiffness between the four orthopaedic implants (3.5 Broad LC-DCP>SOP>LCP=LC-DCP). The 3.5 mm LCP should be expected to provide in vivo strength and stiffness similar to a comparable LC-DCP. The SOP should provide strength and stiffness that is greater than a comparable LC-DCP but less than a 3.5 mm Broad LC-DCP.

  20. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Betty W.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the present invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve much of the TATB, but readily dissolves these explosives.

  1. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, B.W.

    1984-11-29

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

  2. Solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatographic determination of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ashok Kumar; Rai, Parmod Kumar

    2008-07-01

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed using preconcentration technique solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analytical technique HPLC-UV for the determination of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from the environmental samples. Aqueous solution of anionic surfactant SDS was used for the extraction of both nitramine high explosives, viz., HMX and RDX from soil samples which were subsequently sorbed on SPME fiber. The static desorption was carried out in the desorption chamber of the SPME-HPLC interface in the presence of mobile phase ACN/methanol/water (30:35:35) and the subsequent chromatographic analysis at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min and detection at 230 nm. For this purpose, a C(18), 5 microm RP analytical column was used as a separation medium in this method. Several parameters relating to SPME, e.g., adsorption/desorption time, concentration of salt, stirring rate, etc., were optimized. The method was linear over the range of 20-400 ng/mL for HMX and RDX standards in the presence of surfactant in aqueous phase, respectively. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) for HMX and RDX are 0.9998 and 0.9982, respectively. With SPME, the detection limits (S/N = 3) in ng/mL are 0.05 and 0.1 for HMX and RDX, respectively in the presence of the SDS surfactant. The developed method has been applied successfully to the analysis of real environmental samples like bore well water, river water, and ground alluvial soil.

  3. 2' Derivatives of guanosine and inosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphates. Synthesis, enzymic activity, and the effect of 8-substituents.

    PubMed

    Miller, J P; Boswell, K H; Mian, A M; Meyer, R B; Robins, R K; Khwaja, T A

    1976-01-13

    A series of representative derivatives of guanosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate (cGMP) and inosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate (cIMP) which contained modifications in either the 2' position or the 8 and 2' positions were synthesized. Three types of derivatives were investigated: (1) derivatives in which the 2' position has been altered to produce a 2'-deoxynucleoside cyclic 3',5'-phosphate or a 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylpurine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate; (2) 2'-omicron-acyl derivatives; and (3) doubly modified derivatives containing a 2' modification [as in (1) and (2)] and an 8-substitution. 2'-Deoxyinosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate and 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylhypoxanthine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate were obtained by HNO2 deamination of 2'-deoxyadenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate and 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate (ara-cAMP), respectively. Treatment of 8-bromo-2'-omicron-(p-toluenesulfonyl) adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate with NaSH yielded the intermediate 8,2'-anhydro-9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-8-mercaptoadenine cyclic 3',5-phosphate, which was converted directly to 2'-deoxyadenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate (dcAMP) by treatment with Raney nickel. 8-Bromo-2'-omicron-(p-toluenesulfonyl) guanosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate was converted to 8,2'-anhydro-9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-8-mercaptoguanine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate, and the latter was desulfurized with Raney nickel to give 2-deoxyguanosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate. Ara-cAMP, 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate, and 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-8-mercaptoguanine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate have been previously reported (Mian et al. (1974), J. Med. Chem. 17, 259). 8-Bromo-2'-omicron-acetylinosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate and 8-[(p-chlorophenyl)thio]-2'-omicron-acetylinosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate were produced by acylation of 8-bromoinosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate and 8-[(p-chlorophenyl)thio]inosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate, respectively; while 8-bromo-2'-omicron-butyrylguanosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate was

  4. A new type of two-dimensional carbon crystal prepared from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qi-Shi; Tang, Pei-Duo; Huang, Hua-Lin; Du, Fang-Li; Huang, Kai; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Long, Si-Yu; Li, Yan-Ming; Qiu, Jie-Shan; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2017-01-01

    A new two-dimensional (2D) carbon crystal, different from graphene, has been prepared from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene, consisting of 4-carbon and 6-carbon rings in 1:1 ratio, named 4–6 carbophene by authors, in which all carbon atoms possess sp2 hybrid orbitals with some distortion, forming an extensive conjugated π-bonding planar structure. The angles between the three σ-bonds of the carbon sp2 orbitals are roughly 120°, 90°, and 150°. Each of the three non-adjacent sides of a 6C-ring is shared with a 4C-ring; and each of the two opposite sides of a 4C-ring is shared with a 6C-ring. Dodecagonal holes with a diameter of approximate 5.8 Å are regularly located throughout the 2D carbon crystal. Even though the bond energies in 4–6 carbophene are weaker than those in the graphene, the new planar crystal is quite stable in ambient conditions. The 4–6 carbophene can be synthetized from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene or other benzene derivatives through dehydration and polymerization reactions, and may possess several possible patterns that form a family of 2D carbon crystals. A possible side reaction involving 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene is also discussed, which may produce a carbon-oxygen two dimensional crystal.

  5. A new type of two-dimensional carbon crystal prepared from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qi-Shi; Tang, Pei-Duo; Huang, Hua-Lin; Du, Fang-Li; Huang, Kai; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Long, Si-Yu; Li, Yan-Ming; Qiu, Jie-Shan; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2017-01-01

    A new two-dimensional (2D) carbon crystal, different from graphene, has been prepared from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene, consisting of 4-carbon and 6-carbon rings in 1:1 ratio, named 4–6 carbophene by authors, in which all carbon atoms possess sp2 hybrid orbitals with some distortion, forming an extensive conjugated π-bonding planar structure. The angles between the three σ-bonds of the carbon sp2 orbitals are roughly 120°, 90°, and 150°. Each of the three non-adjacent sides of a 6C-ring is shared with a 4C-ring; and each of the two opposite sides of a 4C-ring is shared with a 6C-ring. Dodecagonal holes with a diameter of approximate 5.8 Å are regularly located throughout the 2D carbon crystal. Even though the bond energies in 4–6 carbophene are weaker than those in the graphene, the new planar crystal is quite stable in ambient conditions. The 4–6 carbophene can be synthetized from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene or other benzene derivatives through dehydration and polymerization reactions, and may possess several possible patterns that form a family of 2D carbon crystals. A possible side reaction involving 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene is also discussed, which may produce a carbon-oxygen two dimensional crystal. PMID:28094298

  6. Reliability of Sn-3.5Ag Solder Joints in High Temperature Packaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Kurumaddali, Nalini Kanth; Kercher, Andrew K; Leslie, Dr Scott

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant need for next generation, high performance power electronic packages and systems with wide band gap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electricity transmission applications. Sn-3.5Ag solder is a candidate for use in such packages with potential operating temperatures up to 200oC. However, there is a need to understand thermal cycling reliability of Sn-3.5Ag solders subject to such operating conditions. The results of a study on the damage evolution occurring in large area Sn-3.5Ag solders joints between silicon dies and DBC substrates subject to thermal cycling between 200oC and 5oC is presented in this paper. Damage accumulation was followed using high resolution X-ray radiography techniques while nonlinear finite element models were developed based on the mechanical property data available in literature to understand the relationship between the stress state within the solder joint and the damage evolution occurring under thermal cycling conditions. It was observed that regions of damage observed in the experiments do not correspond to the finite element predictions of the location of regions of maximum plastic work.

  7. Performance Evaluation of an Enhanced Uplink 3.5G System for Mobile Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Komnakos, Dimitris; Vouyioukas, Demosthenes; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Constantinou, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The present paper studies the prospective and the performance of a forthcoming high-speed third generation (3.5G) networking technology, called enhanced uplink, for delivering mobile health (m-health) applications. The performance of 3.5G networks is a critical factor for successful development of m-health services perceived by end users. In this paper, we propose a methodology for performance assessment based on the joint uplink transmission of voice, real-time video, biological data (such as electrocardiogram, vital signals, and heart sounds), and healthcare records file transfer. Various scenarios were concerned in terms of real-time, nonreal-time, and emergency applications in random locations, where no other system but 3.5G is available. The accomplishment of quality of service (QoS) was explored through a step-by-step improvement of enhanced uplink system's parameters, attributing the network system for the best performance in the context of the desired m-health services. PMID:19132096

  8. Rotary-linear piezoelectric microactuator with a cubic stator of side length 3.5 mm.

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Tomoaki; Toyama, Shigeki

    2010-08-01

    We report a miniature rotary-linear piezoelectric actuator with a single cubic stator of side length 3.5 mm which can generate rotary motion around the center axis and linear motion in the axial direction. The stator is fabricated as a single metallic cube of side length 3.5 mm with a 2.5-mm diameter through-hole and four piezoelectric elements bonded to the sides of the stator. The simplicity makes the actuator compact without any special manufacturing. In the design for miniaturization, the modal analysis using the finite element method indicates the natural frequency of the stator from the side length 14 mm to 3.5 mm. In the experiments, rotary motion of 24 rad/s and 2.5 microNm were obtained at a resonant frequency of 280 kHz, and linear motion of 80 mm/s and 2.6 mN was observed at 305 kHz by driving the system at an applied voltage of 42 V(rms).

  9. Ethyl-2-(3,5-Dihidroxyfenol): Phloroglucinol derivatives as potential anticancer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumaningsih, Triana; Firdaus, Maulidan; Widyo Wartono, Muhammad; Nur Artanti, Anif; Suci Handayani, Desi; Eryanto Putro, Angga

    2016-02-01

    Ethyl-2-(3,5-dihidroxyfenol) based phloroglucinol compounds have been synthesized. Ethyl-2-(3,5-dihidroksifenol) were synthesized by reacting phloroglucinol with ethyl 2-chloro acetate in excess. Phloroglucinol reaction using 2-chloro ethyl acetate was carried out under reflux for 24 hours at a temperature of 56 oC. The reaction products were identified by a thin layer chromatography and were characterized by melting point test. Analysis of the structure of the products was obtained by FTIR spectrophotometer, H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The result of the reaction between phloroglucinol and 2-chloro ethyl acetate was brownish black solid, and has a melting point of 191 oC. Based on the structural analysis by FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR, the reaction product was a mixture of compounds which is ethyl 2- (3,5-dihidroksifenol) acetate, ethyl-2-(2,4,6-trioxocyclohexyl) acetate, and the rest of phloroglucinol which can not react.

  10. Ambient Temperature Ultrasonic Bonding of Si-Dice Using Sn-3.5wt.%Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Mo; Jung, Jae-Pil; Zhou, Y. Norman; Kim, Jong-Young

    2008-03-01

    Ultrasonic bonding of Si-dice to type FR-4 printed circuit boards (PCB) with Sn-3.5wt.%Ag solder at ambient temperature was investigated. The under-bump metallization (UBM) on the Si-dice comprised Cu/Ni/Al from top to bottom with thicknesses of 0.4 μm, 0.4 μm, and 0.3 μm, respectively. The pads on the PCBs consisted of Au/Ni/Cu with thicknesses of 0.05/5/18 μm, sequentially from top to bottom. Solder was supplied as Sn-3.5wt.%Ag foil rolled to 100 μm thickness, and inserted in the joints. The ultrasonic bonding time was varied from 0.5 s to 3.0 s, and the ultrasonic power was 1400 W. The experimental results showed that reliable joints could be produced between the Si-dice and the PCBs with Sn-3.5wt.%Ag solder. The joint breaking force of “Si-die/solder/FR-4” increased with bonding times up to 2.5 s with a maximum value of 65 N. A bonding time of 3.0 s proved to be excessive, and resulted in cracks along the intermetallic compound between the UBM and solder, which caused a decrease in the bond strength. The intermetallic compound produced by ultrasonic bonding between the UBM and solder was confirmed to be (Cu, Ni)6Sn5.

  11. Structure and applications of metal-organic framework based on cyanide and 3,5-dichloropyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; El-bendary, Mohamed M.

    2013-06-01

    The reaction of the aqueous/acetonitrile solutions of K3[Cu(CN)4] and 3,5-dichloropyridine (3,5-dClpy), in the presence of Me3SnCl affords a new metal-organic framework (MOF), 3∞[(CuCN)2·(3,5-dClpy)2], 1. The structure of the MOF 1 was characterized by IR, UV-visible, TGA and X-ray single crystal analysis. The structure of MOF 1 consists of CuCN building blocks which are connected by CN group forming 1D-zig-zag chains. Each chain is bridged to another chain by hydrogen bonding organizing 2D-sheets. The structure of 1 is further close packed by hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking and lp-π interactions creating 3D-network. The emission spectra and the thermodynamic parameters from TGA of the MOF 1 were discussed. The MOF 1 was used as heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidative discoloration of methylene blue dye (MB) by dilute solution of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The in vitro cytotoxic activity has been evaluated against the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. The cytotoxic effect of the MOF 1 on the viability of MCF-7 cells was determined by MTT assay.

  12. Testing the Axion-Conversion Hypothesis of 3.5 keV Emission with Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yan; Chen, Xuelei; Feng, Hua

    2017-02-01

    The recently measured 3.5 keV line in a number of galaxy clusters, the Andromeda galaxy (M31), and the Milky Way (MW) center can be well accounted for by a scenario in which dark matter decays to axionlike particles (ALPs) and subsequently convert to 3.5 keV photons in magnetic fields of galaxy clusters or galaxies. We propose to test this hypothesis by performing x-ray polarization measurements. Since ALPs can only couple to photons with a polarization orientation parallel to the magnetic field, we can confirm or reject this model by measuring the polarization of the 3.5 keV line and compare it to the orientation of the magnetic field. We discuss luminosity and polarization measurements for both a galaxy cluster and spiral galaxy, and provide a general relation between the polarization and galaxy inclination angle. This effect is marginally detectable with x-ray polarimetry detectors currently under development, such as the enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarization satellite, the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer and the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer. The sensitivity can be further improved in the future with detectors of a larger effective area or better energy resolutions.

  13. Electromigration Behaviors of Cu Reinforced Sn-3.5Ag Composite Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Han, Jing; Ma, Limin; Zuo, Yong; Guo, Fu

    2016-12-01

    The composite approach, by incorporating small amounts of reinforcement particles in the solder matrix, has proven to be one of the effective ways to improve the reliability of solder joints. The effects of Cu addition on electromigration were investigated in this study by incorporating 2% volume fraction Cu particles into Sn-3.5Ag eutectic solder paste by the in situ process. The one-dimensional solder joints, designed to prevent the current crowding effect, were stressed under a constant current density of 104 A/cm2 at room temperature, and the temperature of the sample could reach 105 ± 5°C due to the Joule heating effect. Doping 2 vol.% Cu was found to retard the electromigration phenomenon effectively. After electric current stressing for 528 h, the growth rate of an interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at the anode decreased 73% in contrast to that of Sn-3.5Ag solder joints, and the IMC layer at the cathode was almost unchanged. The polarization effect of Cu reinforced composite solder joints was also apparently mitigated. In addition, the surface damage of the composite solder joints was relieved by incorporating 2 vol.% Cu particles. Compared to Sn-3.5Ag solder joints, which had protruded Cu6Sn5 and wrinkles of Sn-solder matrix on the surface, the solder joints with Cu addition had a more even surface.

  14. Degradation kinetics of malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside exposed to microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengyao; Li, Yuan; Xu, Xiayang; Wu, Jihong; Liao, Xiaojun; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-16

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the degradation of bioactive compounds during microwave treatment is meaningful for the practical application of this novel technology. The influence of microwave power, energy density, temperature, pH value, and initial concentration of anthocyanins (Acys) on the degradation behavior of malvidin-3-glucoside (Mv-3-glu) and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside (Mv-3,5-diglu) was investigated in this study. Results showed that the degradation of both Acys was accelerated with the increase of microwave power, energy density, temperature, pH value, and initial concentration of Acys. The degradation process of both Acys followed the first-order kinetics model (R² > 0.94), whereas the relationship between Acys degradation and energy density fitted to the logistic model well (R² > 0.98). In addition, Mv-3-glu was more susceptible to the microwave treatment than Mv-3,5-diglu. Compared with heating in a 98 ± 2 °C water bath, both Acys degraded more rapidly under microwave treatment at 100 °C, indicating the occurrence of microwave effect. The results provide a guide for the scientific application of microwave treatment.

  15. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have...

  16. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have...

  17. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have...

  18. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have...

  19. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have...

  20. 78 FR 1855 - 1-Methyl-3,5,7-Triaza-1-Azoniatricyclodecane Chloride (Busan1024); Amendment To Terminate Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... AGENCY 1-Methyl-3,5,7-Triaza-1-Azoniatricyclodecane Chloride (Busan1024); Amendment To Terminate Uses... unit. Table 1--1-Methyl-3,5,7-Triaza-1-Azoniatricyclodecane Chloride (Busan1024) Product Cancellation... amendment to terminate uses of 1-Methyl-3,5,7-Triaza-1- Azoniatricyclodecane Chloride (Busan...

  1. 22 CFR 3.5 - Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. 3.5 Section 3.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL GIFTS AND DECORATIONS FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 3.5 Designation of officials and...

  2. 22 CFR 3.5 - Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. 3.5 Section 3.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL GIFTS AND DECORATIONS FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 3.5 Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. (a) The Act effects a...

  3. 22 CFR 3.5 - Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. 3.5 Section 3.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL GIFTS AND DECORATIONS FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 3.5 Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. (a) The Act effects a...

  4. Syntheses, Structural Characterization and Thermoanalysis of Transition-Metal Compounds Derived from 3,5-Dinitropyridone

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Zhou, Qiu-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Cai, Mei-Yu; Li, Ping; Gan, Li-Hua; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Li, Ji-Zhen; Fan, Xue-Zhong; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    Nine metal compounds of Mn(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) derived from dinitropyridone ligands (3,5-dinitro-pyrid-2-one, 2HDNP; 3,5-dinitropyrid-4-one, 4HDNP and 3,5-dinitropyrid-4-one-N- hydroxide, 4HDNPO) were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and partly by TG-DSC. Three of which were further structurally characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis. The structures of the three compounds, Mn(4DNP)2(H2O)4, 4, Zn(4DNPO)2(H2O)4, 8, and Cd(4DNPO)2(H2O)4, 9, crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n and Z = 2, with a = 8.9281(9), b = 9.1053(9), c = 10.6881(11) Å, β = 97.9840(10)° for 4; a = 8.4154(7), b = 9.9806(8), c = 10.5695(8) Å, β = 97.3500(10)° for 8; a = 8.5072(7), b = 10.2254(8), c = 10.5075(8) Å, β 96.6500(10)° for 9. All three complexes are octahedral consisting of four equatorial water molecules, and two nitrogen or oxygen donor ligands (DNP or DNPO). The abundant hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking interactions seem to contribute to stabilization of the crystal structures of the compounds. The TG-DTG results revealed that the complexes showed a weight loss sequence corresponding to all coordinated water molecules, nitro groups, the breaking of the pyridine rings and finally the formation of metal oxides. PMID:20526459

  5. STAT3/5-Dependent IL9 Overexpression Contributes to Neoplastic Cell Survival in Mycosis Fungoides

    PubMed Central

    Vieyra-Garcia, Pablo A.; Wei, Tianling; Naym, David Gram; Fredholm, Simon; Fink-Puches, Regina; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Odum, Niels; O'Malley, John T.; Gniadecki, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sustained inflammation is a key feature of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Resident IL9–producing T cells have been found in skin infections and certain inflammatory skin diseases, but their role in MF is currently unknown. Experimental Design We analyzed lesional skin from patients with MF for the expression of IL9 and its regulators. To determine which cells were producing IL9, high-throughput sequencing was used to identify malignant clones and Vb-specific antibodies were employed to visualize malignant cells in histologic preparations. To explore the mechanism of IL9 secretion, we knocked down STAT3/5 and IRF4 by siRNA transfection in CTCL cell lines receiving psoralen+UVA (PUVA) ± anti-IL9 antibody. To further examine the role of IL9 in tumor development, the EL-4 T-cell lymphoma model was used in C57BL/6 mice. Results Malignant and reactive T cells produce IL9 in lesional skin. Expression of the Th9 transcription factor IRF4 in malignant cells was heterogeneous, whereas reactive T cells expressed it uniformly. PUVA or UVB phototherapy diminished the frequencies of IL9- and IL9r-positive cells, as well as STAT3/5a and IRF4 expression in lesional skin. IL9 production was regulated by STAT3/5 and silencing of STAT5 or blockade of IL9 with neutralizing antibodies potentiated cell death after PUVA treatment in vitro. IL9-depleted mice exhibited a reduction of tumor growth, higher frequencies of regulatory T cells, and activated CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that IL9 and its regulators are promising new targets for therapy development in mycosis fungoides. PMID:26851186

  6. Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3-5 Years, United States 2012.

    PubMed

    Kit, Brian K; Akinbami, Lara J; Isfahani, Neda Sarafrazi; Ulrich, Dale A

    2017-02-14

    Objective Gross motor development in early childhood is important in fostering greater interaction with the environment. The purpose of this study is to describe gross motor skills among US children aged 3-5 years using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Methods We used 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) data, which included TGMD-2 scores obtained according to an established protocol. Outcome measures included locomotor and object control raw and age-standardized scores. Means and standard errors were calculated for demographic and weight status with SUDAAN using sample weights to calculate nationally representative estimates, and survey design variables to account for the complex sampling methods. Results The sample included 339 children aged 3-5 years. As expected, locomotor and object control raw scores increased with age. Overall mean standardized scores for locomotor and object control were similar to the mean value previously determined using a normative sample. Girls had a higher mean locomotor, but not mean object control, standardized score than boys (p < 0.05). However, the mean locomotor standardized scores for both boys and girls fell into the range categorized as "average." There were no other differences by age, race/Hispanic origin, weight status, or income in either of the subtest standardized scores (p > 0.05). Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of US children aged 3-5 years, TGMD-2 mean locomotor and object control standardized scores were similar to the established mean. These results suggest that standardized gross motor development among young children generally did not differ by demographic or weight status.

  7. Hitomi Constraints on the 3.5 keV Line in the Perseus Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F. A.; Akamatsu, H.; Akimoto, F.; Allen, S. W.; Angelini, L.; Arnaud, K. A.; Audard, M.; Awaki, H.; Axelsson, M.; Bamba, A.; Bautz, M. W.; Blandford, R. D.; Bulbul, E.; Brenneman, L. W.; Brown, G. V.; Cackett, E. M.; Chernyakova, M.; Chiao, M. P.; Coppi, P.; Costantini, E.; de Plaa, J.; den Herder, J.-W.; Done, C.; Dotani, T.; Ebisawa, K.; Eckart, M. E.; Enoto, T.; Ezoe, Y.; Fabian, A. C.; Ferrigno, C.; Foster, A. R.; Fujimoto, R.; Fukazawa, Y.; Furuzawa, A.; Galeazzi, M.; Gallo, L. C.; Gandhi, P.; Giustini, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Gu, L.; Guainazzi, M.; Haba, Y.; Hagino, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Harrus, I.; Hatsukade, I.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Hayashida, K.; Hiraga, J.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Hoshino, A.; Hughes, J. P.; Ichinohe, Y.; Iizuka, R.; Inoue, H.; Inoue, S.; Inoue, Y.; Ishibashi, K.; Ishida, M.; Ishikawa, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Itoh, M.; Iwai, M.; Iyomoto, N.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kallman, T.; Kamae, T.; Kara, E.; Kataoka, J.; Katsuda, S.; Katsuta, J.; Kawaharada, M.; Kawai, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Khangulyan, D.; Kilbourne, C. A.; King, A. L.; Kitaguchi, T.; Kitamoto, S.; Kitayama, T.; Kohmura, T.; Kokubun, M.; Koyama, S.; Koyama, K.; Kretschmar, P.; Krimm, H. A.; Kubota, A.; Kunieda, H.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Lee, S.-H.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Limousin, O.; Loewenstein, M.; Long, K. S.; Lumb, D. H.; Madejski, G. M.; Maeda, Y.; Maier, D.; Makishima, K.; Markevitch, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsushita, K.; McCammon, D.; McNamara, B. R.; Mehdipour, M.; Miller, E. D.; Miller, J. M.; Mineshige, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Mitsuishi, I.; Miyazawa, T.; Mizuno, T.; Mori, H.; Mori, K.; Moseley, H.; Mukai, K.; Murakami, H.; Murakami, T.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Nakagawa, T.; Nakajima, H.; Nakamori, T.; Nakano, T.; Nakashima, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Nobukawa, K.; Nobukawa, M.; Noda, H.; Nomachi, M.; O’ Dell, S. L.; Odaka, H.; Ohashi, T.; Ohno, M.; Okajima, T.; Ota, N.; Ozaki, M.; Paerels, F.; Paltani, S.; Parmar, A.; Petre, R.; Pinto, C.; Pohl, M.; Porter, F. S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Ramsey, B. D.; Reynolds, C. S.; Russell, H. R.; Safi-Harb, S.; Saito, S.; Sakai, K.; Sameshima, H.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, G.; Sato, K.; Sato, R.; Sawada, M.; Schartel, N.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Seta, H.; Shidatsu, M.; Simionescu, A.; Smith, R. K.; Soong, Y.; Stawarz, Ł.; Sugawara, Y.; Sugita, S.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Takeda, S.; Takei, Y.; Tamagawa, T.; Tamura, K.; Tamura, T.; Tanaka, T.; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Tashiro, M.; Tawara, Y.; Terada, Y.; Terashima, Y.; Tombesi, F.; Tomida, H.; Tsuboi, Y.; Tsujimoto, M.; Tsunemi, H.; Tsuru, T.; Uchida, H.; Uchiyama, H.; Uchiyama, Y.; Ueda, S.; Ueda, Y.; Ueno, S.; Uno, S.; Urry, C. M.; Ursino, E.; de Vries, C. P.; Watanabe, S.; Werner, N.; Wik, D. R.; Wilkins, D. R.; Williams, B. J.; Yamada, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaoka, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yamauchi, S.; Yaqoob, T.; Yatsu, Y.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, A.; Zhuravleva, I.; Zoghbi, A.; Hitomi Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with Hitomi was expected to resolve the origin of the faint unidentified E≈ 3.5 {keV} emission line reported in several low-resolution studies of various massive systems, such as galaxies and clusters, including the Perseus cluster. We have analyzed the Hitomi first-light observation of the Perseus cluster. The emission line expected for Perseus based on the XMM-Newton signal from the large cluster sample under the dark matter decay scenario is too faint to be detectable in the Hitomi data. However, the previously reported 3.5 keV flux from Perseus was anomalously high compared to the sample-based prediction. We find no unidentified line at the reported high flux level. Taking into account the XMM measurement uncertainties for this region, the inconsistency with Hitomi is at a 99% significance for a broad dark matter line and at 99.7% for a narrow line from the gas. We do not find anomalously high fluxes of the nearby faint K line or the Ar satellite line that were proposed as explanations for the earlier 3.5 keV detections. We do find a hint of a broad excess near the energies of high-n transitions of S xvi (E≃ 3.44 {keV} rest-frame)—a possible signature of charge exchange in the molecular nebula and another proposed explanation for the unidentified line. While its energy is consistent with XMM pn detections, it is unlikely to explain the MOS signal. A confirmation of this interesting feature has to wait for a more sensitive observation with a future calorimeter experiment.

  8. Sequential Injection/Electrochemical Immunoassay for Quantifying the Pesticide Metabolite 3, 5, 6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Riechers, Shawn L.; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-12-04

    An automated and sensitive sequential injection electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor a potential insecticide biomarker, 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. The current method involved a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system equipped with a thin-layer electrochemical flow cell and permanent magnet, which was used to fix 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) antibody coated magnetic beads (TCP-Ab-MBs) in the reaction zone. After competitive immunoreactions among TCP-Ab-MBs, TCP analyte, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled TCP, a 3, 3?, 5, 5?-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride and hydrogen peroxide (TMB-H2O2) substrate solution was injected to produce an electroactive enzymatic product. The activity of HRP tracers was monitored by a square wave voltammetric scanning electroactive enzymatic product in the thin-layer flow cell. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate and the enzymatic product were investigated under batch conditions, and the parameters of the immunoassay were optimized in the SIA system. Under the optimal conditions, the system was used to measure as low as 6 ng L-1 (ppt) TCP, which is around 50-fold lower than the value indicated by the manufacturer of the TCP RaPID Assay? kit (0.25 ug/L, colorimetric detection). The performance of the developed immunoassay system was successfully evaluated on tap water and river water samples spiked with TCP. This technique could be readily used for detecting other environmental contaminants by developing specific antibodies against contaminants and is expected to open new opportunities for environmental and biological monitoring.

  9. Hitomi Constraints on the 3.5 keV Line in the Perseus Galaxy Cluster

    DOE PAGES

    Aharonian, F. A.; Akamatsu, H.; Akimoto, F.; ...

    2017-03-03

    High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with Hitomi was expected to resolve the origin of the faint unidentifiedmore » $$E\\approx 3.5\\,\\mathrm{keV}$$ emission line reported in several low-resolution studies of various massive systems, such as galaxies and clusters, including the Perseus cluster. We have analyzed the Hitomi first-light observation of the Perseus cluster. The emission line expected for Perseus based on the XMM-Newton signal from the large cluster sample under the dark matter decay scenario is too faint to be detectable in the Hitomi data. However, the previously reported 3.5 keV flux from Perseus was anomalously high compared to the sample-based prediction. We find no unidentified line at the reported high flux level. Taking into account the XMM measurement uncertainties for this region, the inconsistency with Hitomi is at a 99% significance for a broad dark matter line and at 99.7% for a narrow line from the gas. We do not find anomalously high fluxes of the nearby faint K line or the Ar satellite line that were proposed as explanations for the earlier 3.5 keV detections. We do find a hint of a broad excess near the energies of high-n transitions of S xvi ($$E\\simeq 3.44\\,\\mathrm{keV}$$ rest-frame)—a possible signature of charge exchange in the molecular nebula and another proposed explanation for the unidentified line. While its energy is consistent with XMM pn detections, it is unlikely to explain the MOS signal. In conclusion, a confirmation of this interesting feature has to wait for a more sensitive observation with a future calorimeter experiment.« less

  10. Oxidation of hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone by human myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Burner, U; Krapfenbauer, G; Furtmüller, P G; Regelsberger, G; Obinger, C

    2000-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is very susceptible to reducing radicals because the reduction potential of the ferric/ferrous redox couple is much higher compared with other peroxidases. Semiquinone radicals are known to reduce heme proteins. Therefore, the kinetics and spectra of the reactions of p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone with compounds I and II were investigated using both sequential-mixing stopped-flow techniques and conventional spectrophotometric measurements. At pH 7 and 15 degrees C the rate constants for compound I reacting with p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone were determined to be 5.6+/-0.4 x 10(7) M(-1)s(-1), 1.3+/-0.1 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1) and 3.1+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. The corresponding reaction rates for compound II reduction were calculated to be 4.5+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), 1.9+/-0.1 x 10(5) M(-1)s(-1) and 4.5+/-0.2 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. Semiquinone radicals, produced by compounds I and II in the classical peroxidation cycle, promote compound III (oxymyeloperoxidase) formation. We could monitor formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase as well as its direct transition to compound II by addition of molecular oxygen. Formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase is shown to depend strongly on the reduction potential of the corresponding redox couple benzoquinone/semiquinone. With 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone as substrate, myeloperoxidase is extremely quickly trapped as compound III. These MPO-typical features could have potential in designing specific drugs which inhibit the production of hypochlorous acid and consequently attenuate inflammatory tissue damage.

  11. The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex, Barberton mountain belt - A section through 3.5 Ga oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.; Hart, Rodger J.

    The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, is investigated, and the intrusive nature of mafic-ultramafic units from the Komati and Kromberg formations into overlying pillow lavas and sediments is documented. Evidence is presented for multiple intrusive events within the igneous sections, including crosscutting intrusives, multiple injection of magma in the Komati section, and sheeted intrusions in the Kromberg section. The thinness of the Jamestown complex suggests that, locally at least, the ca 3.5 Ga oceanic crust was also thin, consistent with the regionally extensive metasomatic alteration.

  12. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR). Version 3.5, Quick Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, B.G.; Richards, R.E.; Reece, W.J.; Gertman, D.I.

    1992-10-01

    This Reference Guide contains instructions on how to install and use Version 3.5 of the NRC-sponsored Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR). The NUCLARR data management system is contained in compressed files on the floppy diskettes that accompany this Reference Guide. NUCLARR is comprised of hardware component failure data (HCFD) and human error probability (HEP) data, both of which are available via a user-friendly, menu driven retrieval system. The data may be saved to a file in a format compatible with IRRAS 3.0 and commercially available statistical packages, or used to formulate log-plots and reports of data retrieval and aggregation findings.

  13. Commissioning Results of the 2nd 3.5 Cell SRF Gun for ELBE

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, A; Freitag, M; Murcek, Petr; Teichert, Jochen; Vennekate, H; Xiang, R; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Turlington, Larry D,

    2014-12-01

    As in 2007 the first 3.5 cell superconducting radio frequency (SRF) gun was taken into operation, it turned out that the specified performance has not been achieved. However, to demonstrate the full potential of this new type of electron source, a second and slightly modified SRF gun II was built in collaboration with Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). We will report on commissioning and first results of the new gun, which includes in particular the characterization of the most important RF properties as well as their comparison with previous vertical test results.

  14. 3,5-Pyridyne--a heterocyclic meta-benzyne derivative.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Michael; Cakir, Bayram; Sander, Wolfram

    2004-05-19

    3,5-Pyridyne (3) has been generated by flash vacuum pyrolysis of 3,5-diiodopyridine (20) and 3,5-dinitropyridine (21) and characterized by IR spectroscopy in cryogenic argon matrices. The aryne can clearly be distinguished from other side products by its photolability at 254 nm, inducing a rapid ring-opening presumably to (Z)-1-aza-hex-3-ene-1,5-diyne. As byproducts of the pyrolysis, HCN and butadiyne were identified, together with traces of acetylene, cyanoacetylene, (E)-1-aza-hex-3-ene-1,5-diyne, and the 3-iodo-5-pyridyl radical (from 20). Several pathways for rearrangements and fragmentations of 3 and of the parent meta-benzyne (1) have been explored computationally by density functional theory and ab initio quantum chemical methods. The lowest energy decomposition pathway of biradicals 1 and 3 is a ring-opening process accompanied by hydrogen migration, leading to (Z)-hex-3-ene-1,5-diyne [(Z)-10] and (Z)-3-aza-hex-3-ene-1,5-diyne [(Z)-24], respectively. Both reactions require activation energies of 45-50 kcal mol(-1). Mechanisms leading from (Z)-24 or directly from 3 to the experimentally observed byproducts are discussed. Upon replacement of the C(5)H moiety by N in meta-benzyne, high-level calculations predict a modest shortening of the interradical distance by 5-7 pm and a reduction of the singlet-triplet energy splitting by 3 kcal mol(-1), in good agreement with isodesmic equations, according to which the singlet ground state of 3 is destabilized relative to 1 by 3-4 kcal mol(-1). In contrast to 3,5-borabenzyne (2), which is found to be doubly aromatic, nucleus-independent chemical shifts of 3 are almost identical to that of pyridine, indicating the absence of paramagnetic ring current effects that may be associated with "in-plane antiaromaticity". As compared with 1, the overall perturbation caused by the nitrogen atom in 3 is weak, and four electron, three center interaction is of minor importance in this molecule.

  15. Meeting report:Iraq oil ministry needs assessment workshop.3-5 Septemner 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2006-11-01

    Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and Sandia National Laboratories met with mid-level representatives from Iraq's oil and gas companies and with former employees and senior managers of Iraq's Ministry of Oil September 3-5 in Amman, Jordan. The goals of the workshop were to assess the needs of the Iraqi Oil Ministry and industry, to provide information about capabilities at DOE and the national laboratories relevant to Iraq, and to develop ideas for potential projects.

  16. Synthesis, antimalarial activity and molecular docking of hybrid 4-aminoquinoline-1,3,5-triazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Hans Raj; Singh, Udaya Pratap; Thakur, Anjali; Kumar Ghosh, Surajit; Gogoi, Kabita; Prakash, Anil; Singh, Ramendra K

    2015-10-01

    A series of novel hybrid 4-aminoquinoline 1,3,5-triazine derivatives was synthesized in a five-steps reaction and evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (RKL-2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Entire synthetic derivatives showed higher antimalarial activity on the sensitive strain while two compounds, viz., 9a and 9c displayed good activity against both the strains of P. falciparum. The observed activity was further substantiated by docking study on both wild and qradruple mutant type P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (pf-DHFR-TS).

  17. Dibromidobis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-κN 2)cobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Tomyn, Stefania; Pavlenko, Vadim A.; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elżbieta; Penkova, Larysa; Kotova, Natalia V.

    2011-01-01

    In the mononuclear title complex, [CoBr2(C5H8N2)2], the CoII atom is coordinated by two N atoms from two monodentate 3,5-dimethyl­pyrazole ligands and two Br atoms in a highly distorted tetra­hedral geometry. In the crystal, the complex mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular N—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds into chains along [101]. An intra­molecular N—H⋯Br hydrogen bond is also present. PMID:22219744

  18. Synthesis of diversely 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazoles via 5-exo-dig cyclization.

    PubMed

    Borkin, Dmitry A; Puscau, Mirela; Carlson, Alena; Solan, Agnes; Wheeler, Kraig A; Török, Béla; Dembinski, Roman

    2012-06-21

    5-Exo-dig cyclocondensation of alk-3-yn-1-ones with hydrazines, in the presence of montmorillonite K-10, provides an effective method with a high atom economy for the synthesis of diversely 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazoles. The microwave-accelerated reaction proceeds in the absence of solvent and leads to 5-benzyl substituted pyrazoles with good yields (72-91%). The regiochemistry of the process was confirmed by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of 1-(2-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-methylbenzyl)-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole.

  19. Experimental study of free-shear layer transition above a cavity at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Rudolph A.; Creel, Theodore R., Jr.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1989-01-01

    The transition behavior of a free-shear layer above a cavity with high and low levels of freestream acoustic disturbances has been studied at Mach 3.5. Optical techniques, mean pitot pressure measurements, and hot-wire measurements were employed to detect transition locations. Transition Reynolds numbers of between 363,000 and 530,000 were found, in agreement with previous results. It is suggested that upstream convected disturbances may be at least partially responsible for the insensitivity of transition Reynolds numbers to the freestream acoustic disturbance field.

  20. Dielectric characteristics of LiCo 3/5Cu 2/5VO 4 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Moti

    2010-08-01

    The LiCo 3/5Cu 2/5VO 4 ceramics was produced by the solution-based chemical method and its dielectric and electrical modulus properties were investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant ( εr) at some selected temperatures shows low-frequency dispersion. Temperature dependence of εr at 1, 100, 200, 500 kHz and 1 MHz exhibits same value of transition temperature ( Tc=300 °C) with ( εr) max. ∼5147, 396, 270, 162 and 111, respectively. Complex electrical modulus study describes the presence of non- Debye type conductivity relaxation in the material.

  1. Joining C/C composite to copper using active Cu-3.5Si braze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuanxun; Li, Zhenglin; Hao, Chuanyong; Zhang, Jinsong

    2012-02-01

    A simple technique was developed to join C/C composite to Cu using active Cu-3.5Si braze for nuclear thermal applications. The brazing alloy exhibited good wettability on C/C substrate due to the reaction layer formed at the interface. A strong interfacial bond of the brazing alloy on C/C with the formation of TiC + SiC + Ti 5Si 3 reaction layer was obtained. The produced CC/Cu/CuCrZr joint exhibited shear strength as high as 79 MPa and excellent thermal resistance during the thermal shock tests.

  2. An explanation for the universal 3.5 power-law observed in currency markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas A.; Johnson, Neil F.

    We present a mathematical theory to explain a recent empirical finding in the Physics literature (Zhao et al., 2013) in which the distributions of waiting-times between discrete events were found to exhibit power-law tails with an apparent universal exponent: α ∼ 3.5 . This new theory provides the first ever qualitative and quantitative explanation of Zhao et al.'s surprising finding. It also provides a mechanistic description of the origin of the observed universality, assigning its cause to the emergence of dynamical feedback processes between evolving clusters of like-minded agents.

  3. Infrared study of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravica, Michael; Yulga, Brian; Liu, Zhenxian; Tschauner, Oliver

    2007-08-01

    We report synchrotron Fourier transform infrared measurements of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene in the mid-IR and far-IR spectral regions up to ˜10GPa , using KBr or petroleum jelly to compress the samples. During the far-IR experiment, we cycled the pressure, measuring IR spectra at various pressures, to determine whether the sample survived. In both experiments, no phase transition was observed. In the high frequency region (˜3000cm-1) , the peak frequencies of the NH2 symmetric and antisymmetric vibrational modes decrease with increasing pressure, indicating strengthening of intermolecular hydrogen bonding with pressure.

  4. Formal synthesis of (+)-3-epi-eupomatilone-6 and the 3,5-bis-epimer.

    PubMed

    Yodwaree, Sariya; Soorukram, Darunee; Kuhakarn, Chutima; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Reutrakul, Vichai; Pohmakotr, Manat

    2014-09-21

    The formal synthesis of (+)-3-epi-eupomatilone-6 () and the 3,5-bis-epimer () has been accomplished. The key synthetic strategy involved the stereoselective construction of (3R,4S,5R)- and (3R,4S,5S)-trisubstituted γ-butyrolactones and from (2R,3R)-2,3-dimethyl-4-pentenoic acid derivative , which was readily obtained via stereoselective conjugate addition of vinylmagnesium chloride to a chiral α,β-unsaturated N-acyl oxazolidinone (Evans' auxiliary) followed by α-methylation.

  5. Infrared Study of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene Under High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Pravica,M.; Yulga, B.; Liu, Z.; Tschauner, O.

    2007-01-01

    We report synchrotron Fourier transform infrared measurements of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene in the mid-IR and far-IR spectral regions up to {approx}10GPa , using KBr or petroleum jelly to compress the samples. During the far-IR experiment, we cycled the pressure, measuring IR spectra at various pressures, to determine whether the sample survived. In both experiments, no phase transition was observed. In the high frequency region ({approx}3000cm{sup -1}) , the peak frequencies of the NH{sub 2} symmetric and antisymmetric vibrational modes decrease with increasing pressure, indicating strengthening of intermolecular hydrogen bonding with pressure.

  6. The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex, Barberton mountain belt - A section through 3.5 Ga oceanic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.; Hart, Rodger J.

    1987-01-01

    The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, is investigated, and the intrusive nature of mafic-ultramafic units from the Komati and Kromberg formations into overlying pillow lavas and sediments is documented. Evidence is presented for multiple intrusive events within the igneous sections, including crosscutting intrusives, multiple injection of magma in the Komati section, and sheeted intrusions in the Kromberg section. The thinness of the Jamestown complex suggests that, locally at least, the ca 3.5 Ga oceanic crust was also thin, consistent with the regionally extensive metasomatic alteration.

  7. Electronic structure of the energetic material 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Kakar, S.; Nelson, A. J.; Treusch, R.; Heske, C.; van Buuren, T.; Jimenez, I.; Pagoria, P.; Terminello, L. J.

    2000-12-15

    Synchrotron radiation is used to study the electronic structure of the energetic material 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Element and site-specific density of unoccupied electronic states in TATB is probed by x-ray-absorption spectroscopy at the C, N, and O K edges. In addition to illuminating the electronic structure of TATB, the absorption data enable the understanding of microscopic changes occurring in such compounds due to various damage mechanisms. The absorption data are further supplemented by data from the core-level and valence-band photoelectron spectroscopy of thin films of TATB.

  8. The Dynamics of the Photofragmentation of Ketene 3-Cyclopentenone, 3,5-Cycloheptadienone, and Tropone.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    PATTERSON AFB OH I UNCLASSIFIED 8 1 SONOBE 1985 RFIT/CI/NR-95-9@D F/O 7/3 M 2-5 11111 2 8 1*25 1* 4 NATIONAL WIREAU OF STANOARDS .cmROcOM RESOLVTMc EST...COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4 . TITLE (and Subtitle) TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The Dynamics of...3,5-Cycloheptadienone, and Tropone Abstract - \\j 4 hotofragment infrared fluorescence methods e used to study enrgy disposal to the carbon monoxide

  9. Management of somatic pain induced by head-and-neck cancer treatment: definition and assessment. Guidelines of the French Oto-Rhino-Laryngology- Head and Neck Surgery Society (SFORL).

    PubMed

    Binczak, M; Navez, M; Perrichon, C; Blanchard, D; Bollet, M; Calmels, P; Couturaud, C; Dreyer, C; Espitalier, F; Testelin, S; Albert, S; Morinière, S

    2014-09-01

    The authors present the guidelines of the French Oto-Rhino-Laryngology- Head and Neck Surgery Society (Société Française d'Oto-rhino-Laryngologie et de Chirurgie de la Face et du Cou [SFORL]) for the management of somatic pain induced by head-and-neck cancer treatment, and in particular the instruments needed for the definition and initial assessment of the various types of pain. A multidisciplinary work group was entrusted with a review of the scientific literature on the above topic. Guidelines were drawn up, based on the articles retrieved and the group members' individual experience. They were then read over by an editorial group independent of the work group. The final version was established in a coordination meeting. The guidelines were graded as A, B, C or expert opinion, by decreasing level of evidence. The priority is to eliminate tumoral recurrence when pain reappears or changes following head-and-neck cancer treatment. Neuropathic pain screening instruments and pain assessment scales should be used to assess pain intensity and treatment efficacy. Functional rehabilitation sessions should be prescribed to reduce musculoskeletal pain and prevent ankylosis and postural disorder. Psychotherapy and mind-body therapy, when available, should be provided in case of chronic pain. In case of recalcitrant complex pain, referral should be made to a multidisciplinary pain structure. The management of somatic pain induced by head-and-neck cancer treatment above all requires identifying and assessing the intensity of the various types of pain involved, their functional impact and their emotional component. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. 3,5-Dimethylisoxazoles Act As Acetyl-lysine-mimetic Bromodomain Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Histone–lysine acetylation is a vital chromatin post-translational modification involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. Bromodomains bind acetylated lysines, acting as readers of the histone-acetylation code. Competitive inhibitors of this interaction have antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties. With 57 distinct bromodomains known, the discovery of subtype-selective inhibitors of the histone–bromodomain interaction is of great importance. We have identified the 3,5-dimethylisoxazole moiety as a novel acetyl-lysine bioisostere, which displaces acetylated histone-mimicking peptides from bromodomains. Using X-ray crystallographic analysis, we have determined the interactions responsible for the activity and selectivity of 4-substituted 3,5-dimethylisoxazoles against a selection of phylogenetically diverse bromodomains. By exploiting these interactions, we have developed compound 4d, which has IC50 values of <5 μM for the bromodomain-containing proteins BRD2(1) and BRD4(1). These compounds are promising leads for the further development of selective probes for the bromodomain and extra C-terminal domain (BET) family and CREBBP bromodomains. PMID:21851057

  11. Dental caries analysis in 3- 5-years-old children: a spatial modelling.

    PubMed

    Afroughi, Solaiman; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Khaledi, Majid Jafari; Motlagh, Mehdi Ghandehari

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of this study was modelling experienced caries of deciduous teeth in 3- 5-years-old children treated in Children's Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, using the spatial autologistic regression. The other objective was identifying a risk pattern of decayed dents of these children. The study group consisted of 400 children (3- 5-years-old). Two groups of postgraduate and under graduate dentistry students under consideration and approval of the professors of dentistry from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences diagnosed and categorised the caries statuses of deciduous dents of the children. The caries statuses were considered as spatially correlated binary data. The appropriate model was autologistic regression. The fitted autologistic model showed that caries in the three nearest neighbours of a tooth, which includes the two adjacent and the one vertically opponent teeth, had significant effect on its caries. The computed risks based on the fitted model revealed a definite-spatial pattern of caries events. Every decayed deciduous tooth in the mouth of a preschool child threatens the three nearest teeth. The risk pattern of caries in each quarter of the teeth lattice of children from incisors to molars has an ascending rate. The dents in maxilla and posterior locations have higher risks of caries than in mandible and anterior locations. These findings are valuable in preventive health care and therapeutic approaches in dentistry of children. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interdiffusion analysis of the soldering reactions in Sn-3.5Ag/Cu couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, K. S.; Kim, S. J.

    2001-11-01

    Extensive microstructural and kinetic studies on the formation and growth of the intermetallics of Sn-rich solder/Cu couples have been reported. However, experimental data on the interdiffusion mechanisms during soldering reactions are limited and in conflict. The interdiffusion processes for soldering of Sn-3.5Ag alloy/Cu couples were investigated by using the Cr-evaporated surface as a reference line. At the beginning of soldering, Cu was observed to outdiffuse to the molten Sn-3.5Ag alloy until saturation, and the Sn-Ag solder dissolved with Cu collapsed below the reference line. As a result, the scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound was formed at the newly-formed Sn-Ag-Cu solder/Cu interface below the original Cu surface. When the soldered joint was reflowed at the lower temperature to suppress the Cu dissolution, the Cu6Sn5/Cu interface moved into the Cu substrate. Therefore, Sn is the dominant diffusing species for the intermetallic formation during the soldering process, although the extensive Cu dissolution occurs at the early stage of soldering.

  13. Design and realization of a planar ultrawideband antenna with notch band at 3.5 GHz.

    PubMed

    Azim, Rezaul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Misran, Norbahiah; Yatim, Baharudin; Arshad, Haslina

    2014-01-01

    A small antenna with single notch band at 3.5 GHz is designed for ultrawideband (UWB) communication applications. The fabricated antenna comprises a radiating monopole element and a perfectly conducting ground plane with a wide slot. To achieve a notch band at 3.5 GHz, a parasitic element has been inserted in the same plane of the substrate along with the radiating patch. Experimental results shows that, by properly adjusting the position of the parasitic element, the designed antenna can achieve an ultrawide operating band of 3.04 to 11 GHz with a notched band operating at 3.31-3.84 GHz. Moreover, the proposed antenna achieved a good gain except at the notched band and exhibits symmetric radiation patterns throughout the operating band. The prototype of the proposed antenna possesses a very compact size and uses simple structures to attain the stop band characteristic with an aim to lessen the interference between UWB and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) band.

  14. The Intrinsic Shape of Sagittarius A* at 3.5 mm Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Blackburn, Lindy; Fish, Vincent L.; Loinard, Laurent; Reid, Mark J.; Castillo, Edgar; Chael, Andrew A.; Hernández-Gómez, Antonio; Hughes, David H.; León-Tavares, Jonathan; Lu, Ru-Sen; Montaña, Alfredo; Narayanan, Gopal; Rosenfeld, Katherine; Sánchez, David; Schloerb, F. Peter; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Shiokawa, Hotaka; SooHoo, Jason; Vertatschitsch, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The radio emission from Sgr A{}\\ast is thought to be powered by accretion onto a supermassive black hole of ˜ 4× {10}6 {M}⊙ at the Galactic Center. At millimeter wavelengths, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations can directly resolve the bright innermost accretion region of Sgr A{}\\ast . Motivated by the addition of many sensitive long baselines in the north-south direction, we developed a full VLBI capability at the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano (LMT). We successfully detected Sgr A{}\\ast at 3.5 mm with an array consisting of six Very Long Baseline Array telescopes and the LMT. We model the source as an elliptical Gaussian brightness distribution and estimate the scattered size and orientation of the source from closure amplitude and self-calibration analysis, obtaining consistent results between methods and epochs. We then use the known scattering kernel to determine the intrinsic two-dimensional source size at 3.5 mm: (147+/- 7 μ {{as}})× (120+/- 12 μ {{as}}), at position angle 88^\\circ +/- 7^\\circ east of north. Finally, we detect non-zero closure phases on some baseline triangles, but we show that these are consistent with being introduced by refractive scattering in the interstellar medium and do not require intrinsic source asymmetry to explain.

  15. Unidirectional growth and characterization of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindan, V.; Dhatchayani, S.; Sarala, N.; Sankaranarayanan, K.

    2016-05-01

    1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene single crystals has been grown by both conventional slow evaporation and Unidirectional Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method. Colourless, highly transparent crystal of size 20 mm × 10 mm × 3mm with well defined morphology was grown from slow evaporation solution method and <111>-oriented unidirectional bulk single crystal of size 23 mm length and 23 mm diameter was grown by the SR method. From the PXRD measurement the material has been crystallized in orthorhombic crystal system. The functional groups were assessed by the use of FTIR analysis. The optical parameter of the grown crystal was obtained from UV-visible spectral analysis and the cutoff wavelength was observed at 247 nm. Mechanical and thermal properties of the grown crystals were carried out from Vicker's hardness test method and TG-DSC analysis respectively. From the TG-DSC studies, the melting points were confirmed at 172°C and no decompose or dissociation was observed. The powder Kurtz method confirms that 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene has second harmonic generation (SHG) and the SHG efficiency was found to be 0.7 times that of KDP.

  16. Stability and Uncertainty of Full Moment Tensor Solutions for M < 3.5 Induced Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, O. S.; Dreger, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in earthquakes associated with industrial activities has created a need to investigate and characterize the source physics of induced seismicity. Many techniques and approaches are available to determine representative source parameters of these events. For M > 3.5 events, high quality seismic data from regional networks can be used to provide reasonable estimates of moment tensor solutions. In this investigation we explore various techniques and datasets to constrain full moment tensor solutions of M < 3.5 induced events, expanding upon the approach developed by Guilhem et al., 2014. Small magnitude events recorded by local seismic networks can yield good quality data with distinct body wave and converted phases depending upon the velocity structure and frequency range. Generating synthetic seismograms or Green's functions to accurately model these high frequency phases can be challenging. To investigate the variability associated with the choice of Green's functions, we test available codes to see how well they capture body wave phases. Other stability and uncertainty measures include the F-test, Jackknife test, residual bootstrap, and Network Sensitivity Solution, (Ford et al., 2009; Ford et al., 2010). Additional datasets to constrain the full moment tensor solution include P-wave first motions and amplitude ratios.

  17. Proton dynamics in the hydrogen bonds of 4-amino-3,5-dihalogenobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaji, Tetsuo; Ueda, Kouhei; Oguni, Masaharu

    2015-08-01

    On the polycrystalline sample of 4-amino-3,5-dihalogenobenzoic acid, 4-NH2-3,5-X2C6H2COOH, which has a symmetric dimer structure in the crystal, the proton tunneling in the hydrogen bonds has been investigated by NQR and NMR spin-lattice relaxation times T1 measurements. Two 35Cl NQR lines of the X = Cl derivative show the existence of two crystallographically inequivalent chlorine atoms in the high-temperature phase, in consistency with the reported crystal structure. Below 138 K, each splits into a doublet indicating the symmetry breaking of the benzoic acid dimer. The proton dynamics was analyzed by a coherent and incoherent tunneling models, for the high- and low-temperature phases, respectively. The temperature dependence of the correlation time of proton translation was estimated. As for the X = I derivative, the proton dynamics was discussed similarly by 1H NMR T1 data by assuming occurrence of a phase transition at low-temperature.

  18. Tunneling Effects and Conformation Determination of the Polar Forms of 1,3,5-TRISILAPENTANE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Frank E.; Tonks, William Raymond Neal; Gillcrist, David Joseph; Wurrey, Charles J.; Guirgis, Gamil A.; Grubbs, G. S., II

    2017-06-01

    1,3,5-trisilapentane has been synthesized and studied in the microwave region for the first time using CP-FTMW spectroscopy. The lowest calculated energy structure, C_2 is essentially non-polar with a calculated dipole of 0.063 D. However, slightly higher in energy at 145 cm^{-1} and 196 cm^{-1} are the calculated energies for the C_1 and C_{2v} conformations, respectively. These structures have much larger dipoles calculated at 1.07 D for C_1 and 4.88 D for C_{2v}. Both of these structures have been confirmed using experiment and the details of such analysis will be discussed. In addition to the structure determination, 1,3,5-trisilapentane has two terminal -SiH_3 groups. The calculated barrier to internal rotation of these groups are calculated to be 327.5 cm^{-1} for C_{2v} and 343.2 cm^{-1} for C_1. This barrier is low enough to exhibit internal rotation splitting in the spectra and treatment of these motions in the analysis will be discussed.

  19. Inositol lipids: from an archaeal origin to phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate faults in human disease.

    PubMed

    Michell, Robert H

    2013-12-01

    The last couple of decades have seen an extraordinary transformation in our knowledge and understanding of the multifarious biological roles of inositol phospholipids. Herein, I briefly consider two topics. The first is the role that recently acquired biochemical and genomic information - especially from archaeons - has played in illuminating the possible evolutionary origins of the biological employment of inositol in lipids, and some questions that these studies raise about the 'classical' biosynthetic route to phosphatidylinositol. The second is the growing recognition of the importance in eukaryotic cells of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate only entered our phosphoinositide consciousness quite recently, but it is speedily gathering a plethora of roles in diverse cellular processes and diseases thereof. These include: control of endolysosomal vesicular trafficking and of the activity of ion channels and pumps in the endolysosomal compartment; control of constitutive and stimulated protein traffic to and from plasma membrane subdomains; control of the nutrient and stress-sensing target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway (TORC1); and regulation of key genes in some central metabolic pathways.

  20. Immunogenicity of Infanrix™ hexa administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age.

    PubMed

    Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Kolhe, Devayani; Hardt, Karin

    2012-04-05

    A pooled analysis of data from four vaccination studies conducted in Europe was undertaken to assess the immunogenicity of Infanrix™ hexa (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) when administered in a total of 702 healthy infants at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. One month after dose 2, between 96.3% and 100% of subjects had seroprotective antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B and poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3; 91.7% against Hib and ≥99.0% were seropositive for each pertussis antigen. One month after the third dose, 98.9-100% of subjects were seroprotected/seropositive for all vaccine antigens. Geometric mean antibody concentrations/titres for each vaccine antigen increased by 6.7-52.9 fold after the third vaccine dose. No serious adverse events in DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib recipients were vaccine related. Infanrix™ hexa induces an adequate immune response after 2-dose primary plus booster doses when administered according to a 3, 5 and 11 months schedule.

  1. Intracellular Generation of ROS by 3,5-Dimethylaminophenol: Persistence, Cellular Response, and Impact of Molecular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming-Wei; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Tseng, Chia-Yi; Ye, Wenjie; Trudel, Laura J.; Skipper, Paul L.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated extensive human exposure to the monocyclic aromatic amines, particularly to 3,5-dimethylaniline, and found an association between exposure to these compounds and risk for bladder cancer. Little is known about molecular mechanisms that might lead to the observed risk. We previously suggested that the hydroxylated 3,5-dimethylaniline metabolite, 3,5-dimethylaminophenol (3,5-DMAP), played a central role in effecting genetic change through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a redox cycle with 3,5-dimethylquinoneimine. Experiments here characterize ROS generation by 3,5-DMAP exposure in nucleotide repair-proficient and -deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells as a function of time. Besides, various cellular responses discussed herein indicate that ROS production is the principal cause of cytotoxicity. Fluorescence microscopy of cells exposed to 3,5-DMAP confirmed that ROS production occurs in the nuclear compartment, as suggested by a previous study demonstrating covalent linkage between 3,5-DMAP and histones. 3,5-DMAP was also compared with 3,5-dimethylhydroquinone to determine whether substitution of one of the phenolic hydroxyl groups by an amino group had a significant effect on some of the investigated parameters. The comparatively much longer duration of observable ROS produced by 3,5-DMAP (7 vs. 1 day) provides further evidence that 3,5-DMAP becomes embedded in the cellular matrix in a form capable of continued redox cycling. 3,5-DMAP also induced dose-dependent increase of H2O2 and ·OH, which were determined as the major free radicals contributing to the cytotoxicity and apoptosis mediated via caspase-3 activation. Overall, this study provides insight into the progression of alkylaniline-induced toxicity. PMID:24973092

  2. A novel three-dimensional Zn(II) coordination polymer with 1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene and cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylate ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kai-Long

    2014-02-01

    In the Zn(II) compound poly[[bis(μ3-cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylato)bis[μ3-1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene]trizinc(II)] hexahydrate], {[Zn3(C18H18N6)2(C9H9O6)2]·6H2O}n, based on mixed 1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene and cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylate ligands, there are two types of crystallographically independent Zn(II) centres, one in a general position and one on a crystallographic twofold axis. They have similar fourfold distorted tetrahedral coordination geometries, ligated by two monodentate carboxylate groups from two cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylate ligands and by two N atoms from two 1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene ligands. The cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylate anions link the Zn(II) cations to generate a two-dimensional layered metal-organic structure running parallel to the (201) plane. Adjacent layers are further connected by tripodal 1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene ligands, resulting in a three-dimensional network. The solvent water molecules are linked to the cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylate ligands via water-carboxylate O-H···O hydrogen bonds.

  3. Subthreshold Ξ- Production in Collisions of p (3.5 GeV )+Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A. V.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O. V.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Müntzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y. V.; Hades Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    Results on the production of the double strange cascade hyperon Ξ- are reported for collisions of p (3.5 GeV )+Nb , studied with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at SIS18 at GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy-Ion Research, Darmstadt. For the first time, subthreshold Ξ- production is observed in proton-nucleus interactions. Assuming a Ξ- phase-space distribution similar to that of Λ hyperons, the production probability amounts to PΞ-=[2.0 ±0.4 (stat)±0.3 (norm)±0.6 (syst)]×1 0-4 resulting in a Ξ-/(Λ +Σ0) ratio of PΞ-/PΛ +Σ0=[1.2 ±0.3 (stat)±0.4 (syst)]×1 0-2 . Available model predictions are significantly lower than the measured Ξ- yield.

  4. Medium effects in proton-induced K0 production at 3.5 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Gaitanos, T.; Weil, J.; Hades Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present the analysis of the inclusive K0 production in p +p and p +Nb collisions measured with the HADES detector (GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy-Ion Research, Darmstadt) at a beam kinetic energy of 3.5 GeV. Data are compared to the Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport model. The data suggest the presence of a repulsive momentum-dependent kaon potential as predicted by the chiral perturbation theory (ChPT). For the kaon at rest and at normal nuclear density, the ChPT potential amounts to ≈35 MeV. A detailed tuning of the kaon production cross sections implemented in the model has been carried out to reproduce the experimental data measured in p +p collisions. The uncertainties in the parameters of the model were examined with respect to the sensitivity of the experimental results from p +Nb collisions to the in-medium kaon potential.

  5. Subthreshold Ξ^{-} production in collisions of p(3.5  GeV)+Nb.

    PubMed

    Agakishiev, G; Arnold, O; Balanda, A; Belver, D; Belyaev, A V; Berger-Chen, J C; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Chernenko, S; Dybczak, A; Epple, E; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O V; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Göbel, K; Golubeva, M; González-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kornakov, G; Kotte, R; Krása, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kuc, H; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Ladygin, V; Lalik, R; Lang, S; Lapidus, K; Lebedev, A; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Müntz, C; Müntzer, R; Naumann, L; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Schwab, E; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Vasiliev, T; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y V

    2015-05-29

    Results on the production of the double strange cascade hyperon Ξ^{-} are reported for collisions of p(3.5  GeV)+Nb, studied with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at SIS18 at GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy-Ion Research, Darmstadt. For the first time, subthreshold Ξ^{-} production is observed in proton-nucleus interactions. Assuming a Ξ^{-} phase-space distribution similar to that of Λ hyperons, the production probability amounts to P_{Ξ^{-}}=[2.0±0.4(stat)±0.3(norm)±0.6(syst)]×10^{-4} resulting in a Ξ^{-}/(Λ+Σ^{0}) ratio of P_{Ξ^{-}}/P_{Λ+Σ^{0}}=[1.2±0.3(stat)±0.4(syst)]×10^{-2}. Available model predictions are significantly lower than the measured Ξ^{-} yield.

  6. Sodium 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol poisoning: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying-Mei; Hao, Feng-Tong; Xia, Yu-Jing

    2014-06-01

    Sodium 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol (STCP) is an important intermediate for synthesizing organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos. At present, chlorpyrifos is one of the world's largest species of pesticide products. Many studies have focused on the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, but few reports have looked at the toxicity mechanism of STCP. Even fewer studies have looked at STCP poisoning. With increasing production and usage of STCP, the chances of such poisoning will increase. In this study, we present a report on four workers who helped in the industrial manufacture of STCP and who were affected by exposure to it. We hope that these case studies will provide a foundation for further research into STCP.

  7. Barium chlorite hydrate, Ba(ClO2)2.3.5H2O.

    PubMed

    Smolentsev, Anton I; Naumov, Dmitry Yu

    2005-05-01

    The structure of barium chlorite hydrate, Ba(ClO2)2.3.5H2O, has been determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis at 150 K. The structure is monoclinic, space group C2/c, with Z = 8. It contains layers of Ba2+ cations coordinated by ClO2- anions and water molecules. There are also solvate water molecules involved only in hydrogen bonding of the layers. Three solvate water O atoms are on sites of twofold symmetry, while all other atoms are in general positions. The full coordination environment of the Ba2+ cation consists of ten O atoms belonging to six chlorites and three water molecules, forming a bicapped square antiprism.

  8. Optimization of 3,5-dimethylisoxazole derivatives as potent bromodomain ligands.

    PubMed

    Hewings, David S; Fedorov, Oleg; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Martin, Sarah; Picaud, Sarah; Tumber, Anthony; Wells, Christopher; Olcina, Monica M; Freeman, Katherine; Gill, Andrew; Ritchie, Alison J; Sheppard, David W; Russell, Angela J; Hammond, Ester M; Knapp, Stefan; Brennan, Paul E; Conway, Stuart J

    2013-04-25

    The bromodomain protein module, which binds to acetylated lysine, is emerging as an important epigenetic therapeutic target. We report the structure-guided optimization of 3,5-dimethylisoxazole derivatives to develop potent inhibitors of the BET (bromodomain and extra terminal domain) bromodomain family with good ligand efficiency. X-ray crystal structures of the most potent compounds reveal key interactions required for high affinity at BRD4(1). Cellular studies demonstrate that the phenol and acetate derivatives of the lead compounds showed strong antiproliferative effects on MV4;11 acute myeloid leukemia cells, as shown for other BET bromodomain inhibitors and genetic BRD4 knockdown, whereas the reported compounds showed no general cytotoxicity in other cancer cell lines tested.

  9. Optimization of 3,5-Dimethylisoxazole Derivatives as Potent Bromodomain Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The bromodomain protein module, which binds to acetylated lysine, is emerging as an important epigenetic therapeutic target. We report the structure-guided optimization of 3,5-dimethylisoxazole derivatives to develop potent inhibitors of the BET (bromodomain and extra terminal domain) bromodomain family with good ligand efficiency. X-ray crystal structures of the most potent compounds reveal key interactions required for high affinity at BRD4(1). Cellular studies demonstrate that the phenol and acetate derivatives of the lead compounds showed strong antiproliferative effects on MV4;11 acute myeloid leukemia cells, as shown for other BET bromodomain inhibitors and genetic BRD4 knockdown, whereas the reported compounds showed no general cytotoxicity in other cancer cell lines tested. PMID:23517011

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations on 1-substituted phenyl-3,5-diphenylformazans.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Habibe; Tokay, Nesrin

    2010-01-01

    In this study 1-substituted phenyl-3,5-diphenylformazans were synthesized from benzaldehyde-N-phenylhydrazone and appropriate phenyldiazonium salts having CH(3), Br, and Cl at the o-, m-, and p-positions of 1-phenyl ring. Their structures were determined by infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectra. Bathochromic effect in accordance with the electron-donating effect of CH(3), Br, and Cl group and its magnitude were dependent upon type and position of substituent on the ring. The ground-state geometries and absorption wavelengths for 1-phenyl substituted formazans were studied with density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. The calculations were carried out by using PBE1PBE functional with 6-311G(2d,2p) basis set for lambda(max) of the UV-vis spectra for the studied formazans. A good agreement was obtained between the experimental and computed values.

  11. Crystal growth of potassium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate (KDNB) for third order nonlinear optical (NLO) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Karuppasamy, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-05-01

    The semi-organic nonlinear optical single crystals of potassium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate (KDNB) were grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST). The lattice parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The optical transmittance, cut-off wavelength and band gap of the KDNB crystal were obtained by UV-Vis NIR spectrum analysis. Vickers microhardness analysis was carried out to identify mechanical stability and work hardening co-efficient of the grown crystal. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was identified by chemical etching study using water as etchant. The third-order nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption co-efficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) of KDNB crystal were evaluated using Z-scan technique at the wavelength of 632.8 nm.

  12. The preparation of 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene nanoemulsion and in vitro release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Gao, Jungang; Zheng, Hetang; Zhang, Ran; Han, Yucui

    2011-01-01

    We have reported a novel procedure to prepare 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene (DHPS) nanoemulsion, using a low-energy emulsification method. Based on the phase diagram, the optimum prescription of nanoemulsion preparation was screened. With polyoxyethylenated castor oil (EL-40) as the surfactant, ethanol as the co-surfactant, and isopropyl myristate (IPM) as the oil phase, the DHPS nanoemulsion was obtained with a transparent appearance, little viscosity, and spherically uniform distribution verified by transmission electron microscopy and laser scattering analyzer. The nanoemulsion was also determined by FT-Raman spectroscopy. The DHPS nanoemulsion demonstrated good stability and stable physical and chemical properties. The nanoemulsion dramatically improved the transdermal release of DHPS (from 8.02 μg · cm(-2) to 273.15 μg · cm(-2)) and could become a favorable new dosage form for DHPS.

  13. The preparation of 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene nanoemulsion and in vitro release

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Gao, Jungang; Zheng, Hetang; Zhang, Ran; Han, Yucui

    2011-01-01

    We have reported a novel procedure to prepare 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene (DHPS) nanoemulsion, using a low-energy emulsification method. Based on the phase diagram, the optimum prescription of nanoemulsion preparation was screened. With polyoxyethylenated castor oil (EL-40) as the surfactant, ethanol as the co-surfactant, and isopropyl myristate (IPM) as the oil phase, the DHPS nanoemulsion was obtained with a transparent appearance, little viscosity, and spherically uniform distribution verified by transmission electron microscopy and laser scattering analyzer. The nanoemulsion was also determined by FT-Raman spectroscopy. The DHPS nanoemulsion demonstrated good stability and stable physical and chemical properties. The nanoemulsion dramatically improved the transdermal release of DHPS (from 8.02 μg · cm−2 to 273.15 μg · cm−2) and could become a favorable new dosage form for DHPS. PMID:21674020

  14. Characterization of Hydrazinium 3,5-Dinitroamine-1,2,4-triazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kejian; Meng, Zihui; Xu, Zhibin; Xue, Min; Lin, Zhihui; Wang, Bozhou; Ge, Zhongxue; Qin, Guangmin

    2014-05-01

    The structure of hydrazinium 3,5-dinitroamine-1,2,4-triazole (HDNAT) was investigated with infrared (IR), mass spectrometry, 13C-NMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray crystallography. The crystal density of HDNAT was determined as 1.91 g/cm3 using X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to a monoclinic system with the space group P2(1). The thermal decomposition process of HDNAT was investigated via thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) at a heating rate of 10 K/min and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under nonisothermal conditions. The decomposition kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were obtained by the Kissinger and Ozawa method. HDNAT can be analyzed by using a C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column with water : acetonitrile : trifluoroacetic acid (97/3/0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase and a capacity factor of 1.33.

  15. Dichlorobis(3,5-dimethylpyrazole-N2)methylphenyltin(IV)

    PubMed

    Casas; Garcia-Martinez; Garcia-Tasende; Sanchez; Sordo; Vazquez-Lopez; Vidarte

    2000-08-01

    The title compound, [SnCl(2)(CH(3))(C(6)H(5))(C(5)H(8)N(2))(2)], was obtained by reaction of dichloromethylphenyltin(IV) and 3, 5-dimethylpyrazole (dmpz) in chloroform, and was recrystallized from acetone. The structure consists of octahedral all-trans [SnMePhCl(2)(dmpz)(2)] molecules, with the Sn atom coordinated to two C [Sn-C 2.127 (5) and 2.135 (4) A], two Cl [Sn-Cl 2.5753 (8) A] and two N atoms [Sn-N 2.357 (3) A]. The dmpz ligands, bound to the metal through their unprotonated N atoms, form weak intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the Cl ligands via their NH groups, giving rise to a polymeric chain along the c axis.

  16. 2-Chloro-N-(3,5-dichloro­phenyl)­benzamide

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, B. Thimme; Foro, Sabine; Sowmya, B. P.; Fuess, Hartmut

    2008-01-01

    The amide group in the structure of the title compound (N35DCP2CBA), C13H8Cl3NO, is trans-planar, similar to that observed in N-(3-chloro­phen­yl)benzamide, N-(3,5-dichloro­phen­yl)benzamide, 2-chloro-N-phenyl­benzamide and other benzanilides. The C=O bond in N35DCP2CBA is anti to the ortho-chloro substituent in the benzoyl ring. The amide group makes dihedral angles of 63.1 (12) and 31.1 (17)°, respectively, with the benzoyl and aniline benzene rings, while the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 32.1 (2)°. The mol­ecules are linked into chains along the b axis by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21202924

  17. Titanium isotopic evidence for felsic crust and plate tectonics 3.5 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Greber, Nicolas D; Dauphas, Nicolas; Bekker, Andrey; Ptáček, Matouš P; Bindeman, Ilya N; Hofmann, Axel

    2017-09-22

    Earth exhibits a dichotomy in elevation and chemical composition between the continents and ocean floor. Reconstructing when this dichotomy arose is important for understanding when plate tectonics started and how the supply of nutrients to the oceans changed through time. We measured the titanium isotopic composition of shales to constrain the chemical composition of the continental crust exposed to weathering and found that shales of all ages have a uniform isotopic composition. This can only be explained if the emerged crust was predominantly felsic (silica-rich) since 3.5 billion years ago, requiring an early initiation of plate tectonics. We also observed a change in the abundance of biologically important nutrients phosphorus and nickel across the Archean-Proterozoic boundary, which might have helped trigger the rise in atmospheric oxygen. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. [(Sp)-8-chloroadenosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate induced differentiation on human leukemia HL-60 cells].

    PubMed

    Su, J; Yang, X B; Wang, L X; Xu, B; Zhang, L H

    1996-01-01

    (Sp)-octyl 8-chloroadenosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate(OCC), a newly synthesized cAMP analog, strongly induced growth inhibition and differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells. The effects were dose- and time-dependent and irreversible. In flow cytometry, OCC brought about a block at the G1 phase of HL-60 cell cycle. Determined by incorporation assay, OCC was shown to strongly inhibit DNA synthesis without affecting the synthesis of RNA and protein in HL-60 cells. OCC activated the protein kinase A(PKA) in the cytosol of HL-60 cells and inhibited its binding to cAMP. The activities of PKA in the cytosol of HL-60 cells treated with OCC were more significantly increased than those in control cells. It can be concluded that OCC binds itself to PKA in competition with cAMP and, as a result, activates PKA.

  19. A Versatile Synthesis of 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A R; Pagoria, P F; Schmidt, R D; Coburn, M D; Lee, G S; Hsu, P C

    2006-04-06

    A safe and versatile synthesis of high-purity 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) based on vicarious nucleophilic substitution (VNS) chemistry has now been achieved. The starting material can be selected from a variety of inexpensive nitroarenes obtained from commercial suppliers (4-nitroaniline, picric acid) or U.S. stockpiles (ammonium picrate, TNT). The use of picric acid and ammonium picrate (Explosive D) is preferred as both compounds are directly converted to picramide in the presence of ammonium salts (diammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium carbamate) in sulfolane at elevated temperature. The picramide resulting from this process is directly converted to TATB using an optimized VNS reaction employing inexpensive hydroxylamine as the nucleophilic aminating reagent. A crucial element in our synthesis is a novel and efficient purification of TATB.

  20. The structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus at 3.5 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, James William; Maghlaoui, Karim; Barber, James

    2007-12-01

    The crystal structure of a light-harvesting protein that interacts with photosystem II is reported. Cyanobacteria and red algae use light-harvesting pigments bound by proteins to capture solar radiation and to channel excitation energy into their reaction centres. In most cyanobacteria, a multi-megadalton soluble structure known as the phycobilisome is a major light-harvesting system. Allophycocyanin is the main component of the phycobilisome core, forming a link between the rest of the phycobilisome and the reaction-centre core. The crystal structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (TeAPC) has been determined and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a crystallographic R value of 26.0% (R{sub free} = 28.5%). The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the allophycocyanin structure from Spirulina platensis as the search model. The asymmetric unit contains an (αβ) monomer which is expanded by symmetry to a crystallographic trimer.

  1. Effects of wind-tunnel noise on swept-cylinder transition at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creel, T. R., Jr.; Beckwith, I. E.; Chen, F.-J.

    1986-01-01

    Transition data are reported for circular cylinders at swept angles of 45 and 60 degrees in the Mach 3.5 pilot-low-disturbance tunnel where free-stream noise levels are varied from approximately .05-0.5 percent in terms of the rms fluctuating pressure normalized by the mean static pressure. Results indicate that end plate or boundary layer trip disturbances at the upstream end of the cylinders cause turbulent flow along the entire test Reynolds number range of 10-170 thousand per inch. With all end plate and trip disturbances removed, transition at the attachment lines occurred at free-stream Reynolds numbers based on diameters of about 70-80 thousand, independent of stream noise levels. The installation of small trips on the attachement lines caused transition at lower Reynolds numbers, depending on both the roughness height and the wind tunnel noise level.

  2. New lithium iron pyrophosphate as 3.5 V class cathode material for lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Natsui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2010-10-06

    A new pyrophosphate compound Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction, and its crystal structure was determined. Its reversible electrode operation at ca. 3.5 V vs Li was identified with the capacity of a one-electron theoretical value of 110 mAh g(-1) even for ca. 1 μm particles without any special efforts such as nanosizing or carbon coating. Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) and its derivatives should provide a new platform for related lithium battery electrode research and could be potential competitors to commercial olivine LiFePO(4), which has been recognized as the most promising positive cathode for a lithium-ion battery system for large-scale applications, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  3. Failure analysis of a 3.5 inch, 50 ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhr, Kenneth H.

    1987-01-01

    The 3.5 inch, 50 ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen cell was on a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) test regime and was being cycled at 10 C and 60 percent depth of discharge. At cycle number 511 the Automatic Control and Data Acquisition System (ACDAS) terminated the test when the end of discharge voltage dropped below the 1.00 volt cutoff. Upon removal of the stack assembly from the pressure vessel, portions of the zircar separator were found to be completely missing. Upon further examination portions of both the positive and negative plates were found to be missing from its substrate and several gas screens were damaged due to excessive heat which caused fusing. The postulated cause of failure is free electrolyte in the cell which caused oxygen channelization resulting in localized recombination which degraded the stack components.

  4. catena-Poly[[[diaqua-cadmium(II)]-bis-[μ-3,5-bis-(isonicotinamido)benzoato

    PubMed

    Chen, Man-Sheng; Deng, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Chun-Hua; Kuang, Dai-Zhi

    2010-09-11

    The title compound, {[Cd(C(19)H(13)N(4)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·4H(2)O}(n) or {[Cd(BBA)(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·4H(2)O}(n), where BBA is 3,5-bis-(iso-nicotin-amido)-benzoate, is isotypic with its Mn isologue [Chen et al. (2009 ▶). J. Coord. Chem.62, 2421-2428]. The cation sits on a twofold axis and is six-coordinated in a slightly distorted octa-hedral geometry; the polyhedra are linked into zigzag chains, which are further connected by N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds as well as π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance of 3.639 (2) Å], giving a three-dimensional supra-molecular framework.

  5. High-performance interband cascade lasers emitting between 3.3 and 3.5 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, J. D.; Leavitt, R. P.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Lascola, K. M.; Pham, J. T.; Towner, F. J.

    2012-06-01

    Semiconductor laser performance in the 3 to 4 micron wavelength region has lagged behind lasers at longer and shorter wavelengths. However, recent advances by the group at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have markedly changed this situation, and in a recent collaboration with the NRL group, we demonstrated high performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns. In this work, we present results extending this earlier work to shorter wavelengths. In particular, we designed four new interband cascade lasers at target wavelengths between 3.3 and 3.5 microns. Initial testing of broad area devices show threshold current densities of ~230 A/cm2 at 300K, almost a factor of two lower than the ~425 A/cm2 results obtained on the broad area devices at 3.8 microns. In this paper, we present performance data on these broad area lasers and also data on narrow ridge devices fabricated from the same material.

  6. Colorimetric determination of catecholamines by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride.

    PubMed

    el-Rabbat, N A; Omar, N M

    1978-06-01

    A convenient spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of epinephrine, levarterenol, isoproterenol, and methyldopa by reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and subsequent measurement of the formazan at 485 nm. With absolute alcohol as the solvent, maximum color absorption was attained in 30 min at 25 degrees in the presence of 0.1 N KOH. Evidence is provided to account for the reduction of the tetrazolium salt at the expense of the epinephrine catechol moiety. In addition to the considerably high values of the molar absorptivities of the chromogen formed, ideal adherence of the color absorption to the Beer-Lambert law permitted a sensitive microdetermination of these catecholamines in both pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations. The tetrazolium interaction was selective. No interference was encountered from common catecholamine antioxidants, adjuvants, or noncatechol degradation products.

  7. DFT STUDY OF CO AND NO ADSORPTION ON BORON NITRIDE (BN)n = 3 - 5 NANOCLUSTERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Ehsan; Pangh, Abdolhakim; Ghorbanpour, Hamed

    2015-11-01

    Interaction of CO and NO molecules by different orientations on (BN)n=3-5 clusters have been studied at the B3LYP/6-311+G* level of theory. Total electronic energies have been corrected for geometrical counterpoise (gCP) and dispersion (D3) energies at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. Formation of a new sigma bond between the gas and (BN)3 cluster, atom in molecules (AIM) results, density of states spectrums (DOS), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces, and visualization of wave function of molecular orbitals in the nearest bonding regions to the Fermi level have confirmed that adsorption of CO by carbon end atom, and NO by nitrogen end atom is covalent in nature, so that the charge transfer is occurred from gas molecule to the cluster.

  8. Disruption of crystalline structure of Sn3.5Ag induced by electric current

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Han-Chie; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Wu, Albert T.

    2016-03-21

    This study presented the disruption of the Sn and Ag{sub 3}Sn lattice structures of Sn3.5Ag solder induced by electric current at 5–7 × 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2} with a high resolution transmission electron microscope investigation and electron diffraction analysis. The electric current stressing induced a high degree of strain on the alloy, as estimated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak shift of the current stressed specimen. The XRD peak intensity of the Sn matrix and the Ag{sub 3}Sn intermetallic compound diminished to nearly undetectable after 2 h of current stressing. The electric current stressing gave rise to a high dislocation density of up to 10{sup 17}/m{sup 2}. The grain morphology of the Sn matrix became invisible after prolonged current stressing as a result of the coalescence of dislocations.

  9. Heat transfer in a compact tubular heat exchanger with helium gas at 3.5 MPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Douglas A.; Glover, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    A compact heat exchanger was constructed consisting of circular tubes in parallel brazed to a grooved base plate. This tube specimen heat exchanger was tested in an apparatus which radiatively heated the specimen on one side at a heat flux of up to 54 W/sq cm, and cooled the specimen with helium gas at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 3000 to 35,000. The measured friction factor of the tube specimen was lower than that of a circular tube with fully developed turbulent flow, although the uncertainty was high due to entrance and exit losses. The measured Nusselt number, when modified to account for differences in fluid properties between the wall and the cooling fluid, agreed with past correlations for fully developed turbulent flow in circular tubes.

  10. Coral reefs in Saudi Arabia: 3.5 years after the Gulf War oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, I. P.

    1995-11-01

    As a consequence of the 1991 Gulf War, 6-8 million barrels of oil were released into the marine environment and a total of 1.12 billion barrels were burned in the Kuwaiti oil fields. In order to detect delayed effects of the Gulf War pollution, six permanent transect lines were placed on Saudi Arabian offshore and inshore reefs. A comparison of three sets of video recordings taken between 1992 and 1994 indicated a significant increase in live coral cover. Therefore, it has been concluded that corals in Saudi Arabia survived the largest oil spill on record remarkably unscathed, with no visible signs of immediate or late effects up to 3.5 years after the Gulf War.

  11. [In vitro synthesis of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Deme, D; Gavaret, J M; Pommier, J; Nunez, J

    1978-01-01

    3,5,3'-triiodotyronine formation was studied in vitro after iodination of goiter thyroglobulin catalyzed by purified thyroid peroxidase. A fractionnal number of T3 is always obtained per mole of thyroglobulin in both in vitro and in vivo. This result cannot be explained by a heterogeneity in thyroglobulin iodination or in a partial conversion of T3 to T4. It is suggested that thyroglobulin is heterogenous either in its primary sequence or in its teritiary configuration. Thyroglobulin contains tyrosine residues which are specific for the T3 formation and moreover T3 is not the precursor of T4. The efficiency of T3 formation was studied: the maximal number of T3 molecules is obtained with 30 iodine atoms per mole of thyroglobulin. In addition the results suggest that the tyrosines which are coupled with a high efficiency are iodinated sequentially.

  12. Theoretical Studies on 4-amino-3,5-dinitropyrazole and Its Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guozheng, Zhao; Ming, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Seven analogues of a new high-energetic material, 4-amino-3,5-dinitropyrazole (LLM-116), were designed through changing NH2 or NO2 groups on the pyrazole ring of LLM-116. Density functional theory studies on LLM-116 and its analogues were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The geometric and electronic structures, natural bond orbital, charge on the nitro group (-QNO2 ), density, detonation properties, and bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of these molecules were investigated and compared with LLM-116. The results showed that molecules E , F , and G had comparable performance with better insensitivity characteristics and might be potential candidates of powerful energetic materials.

  13. Widespread effusive volcanism on Mercury likely ended by about 3.5 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Paul K.; Ostrach, Lillian R.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Chapman, Clark R.; Denevi, Brett W.; Evans, Alexander J.; Klimczak, Christian; Banks, Maria E.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-07-01

    Crater size-frequency analyses have shown that the largest volcanic plains deposits on Mercury were emplaced around 3.7 Ga, as determined with recent model production function chronologies for impact crater formation on that planet. To test the hypothesis that all major smooth plains on Mercury were emplaced by about that time, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for the nine next-largest deposits, which we interpret also as volcanic. Our crater density measurements are consistent with those of the largest areas of smooth plains on the planet. Model ages based on recent crater production rate estimates for Mercury imply that the main phase of plains volcanism on Mercury had ended by ~3.5 Ga, with only small-scale volcanism enduring beyond that time. Cessation of widespread effusive volcanism is attributable to interior cooling and contraction of the innermost planet.

  14. Crystal structure of ammonium (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetate hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham

    2015-10-01

    In the structure of the title hydrated salt, NH4 (+)·C8H5Cl2O3 (-)·0.5H2O, where the anion derives from (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid, the ammonium cation is involved in extensive N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding with both carboxyl-ate and ether O-atom acceptors giving sheet structures lying parallel to (100). The water mol-ecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and is involved in intra-sheet O-H⋯Ocarboxyl-ate hydrogen-bonding inter-actions. In the anion, the oxoacetate side chain assumes an antiperiplanar conformation with the defining C-O-C-C torsion angle = -171.33 (15)°.

  15. PVC-based 1,3,5-trithiane sensor for cerium(III) ions

    PubMed

    Shamsipur; Yousefi; Ganjali

    2000-06-01

    A PVC membrane sensor for cerium(III) ions based on 1,3,5-trithiane as membrane carrier was prepared. The sensor has a linear dynamic range of 1.0 x 10(-1)-5.0 x 10(-5) M, with a Nernstian slope of 19.4+/-0.4 mV decade(-1), and a detection limit 3.0 x 10(-5) M. It has a fast response time of < 15 s and can be used for at least 5 months without any considerable divergence in potentials. The proposed sensor revealed comparatively good selectivities with respect to alkali, alkaline earth, and some transition and heavy metal ions and could be used in a pH range of 5.0-8.0. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions and in determination of F- ion in some mouth wash preparations.

  16. Hydrothermal alteration in the 3.5 b.y. old Onverwacht Group of South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, R.; Dewit, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    K-Ar studies of authigenic and alteration phases from the 3.5 b.y. old Onverwacht group of South Africa delineate hydrothermal metamorphism that ended 3.3 b.y. years ago. A whole rock K-Ar errochron from analysis of barite, dolomite, chert, and serpentinite (komatiite) gives an age of 3.3 b.y. with an intercept of 1,678 + or - 103. The 3.3. b.y. age for the metamorphism in the Onverwacht was confirmed by the Argon isotopes stepwise heating experiments of komatiites and basaltic komatiites from the Onverwacht Group. In addition, the errochron suggests all the phase studied equilibrated with a reservoir of hydrothermal argon with relatively uniform isotopic composition. The concept of hydrothermal activity in the Onverwacht Group is discussed and illustrated with photographs.

  17. Crossflow Instability on a Wedge-Cone at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeler, George B.; Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Balakumar, P.; McDaniel, Keith S.

    2012-01-01

    As a follow-on activity to the HyBoLT flight experiment, a six degree half angle wedge-cone model at zero angle of attack has been employed to experimentally and computationally study the boundary layer crossflow instability at Mach 3.5 under low disturbance freestream conditions. Computed meanflow and linear stability analysis results are presented along with corresponding experimental Pitot probe data. Using a model-mounted probe survey apparatus, data acquired to date show a well defined stationary crossflow vortex pattern on the flat wedge surface. This effort paves the way for additional detailed, calibrated flow field measurements of the crossflow instability, both stationary and traveling modes, and transition-to-turbulence under quiet flow conditions as a means of validating existing stability theory and providing a foundation for dynamic flight instrumentation development.

  18. Hydrothermal alteration in the 3.5 b.y. old Onverwacht Group of South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, R.; Dewit, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    K-Ar studies of authigenic and alteration phases from the 3.5 b.y. old Onverwacht group of South Africa delineate hydrothermal metamorphism that ended 3.3 b.y. years ago. A whole rock K-Ar errochron from analysis of barite, dolomite, chert, and serpentinite (komatiite) gives an age of 3.3 b.y. with an intercept of 1,678 + or - 103. The 3.3. b.y. age for the metamorphism in the Onverwacht was confirmed by the Argon isotopes stepwise heating experiments of komatiites and basaltic komatiites from the Onverwacht Group. In addition, the errochron suggests all the phase studied equilibrated with a reservoir of hydrothermal argon with relatively uniform isotopic composition. The concept of hydrothermal activity in the Onverwacht Group is discussed and illustrated with photographs.

  19. Surfactant media to grow new crystalline cobalt 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Sheng; Bai, Linlu; Xiong, Wei-Wei; Li, Peizhou; Ding, Junfeng; Zhang, Guodong; Wu, Tom; Zhao, Yanli; Lee, Jong-Min; Yang, Yanhui; Geng, Baoyou; Zhang, Qichun

    2014-08-18

    In this report, three new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Co3(μ3-OH)(HBTC)(BTC)2Co(HBTC)]·(HTEA)3·H2O (NTU-Z30), [Co(BTC)]·HTEA·H2O (NTU-Z31), [Co3(BTC)4]·(HTEA)4 (NTU-Z32), where H3BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, TEA = triethylamine, and NTU = Nanyang Technological University, have been successfully synthesized under surfactant media and have been carefully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and IR spectromtry. NTU-Z30 has an unusual trimeric [Co3(μ3-OH)(COO)7] secondary building unit (SBU), which is different from the well-known trimeric [Co3O(COO)6] SBU. The topology studies indicate that NTU-Z30 and NTU-Z32 possess two new topologies, 3,3,6,7-c net and 2,8-c net, respectively, while NTU-Z31 has a known topology rtl type (3,6-c net). Magnetic analyses show that all three materials have weak antiferromagnetic behavior. Furthermore, NTU-Z30 has been selected as the heterogeneous catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of alkene, and our results show that this material exhibits excellent catalytic activity as well as good stability. Our success in growing new crystalline cobalt 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate MOFs under surfactant media could pave a new road to preparing new diverse crystalline inorganic materials through a surfactant-thermal method.

  20. APE2 Zf-GRF facilitates 3'-5' resection of DNA damage following oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Bret D.; Berman, Zachary; Mueller, Geoffrey A.; Lin, Yunfeng; Chang, Timothy; Andres, Sara N.; Wojtaszek, Jessica L.; DeRose, Eugene F.; Appel, C. Denise; London, Robert E.; Yan, Shan; Williams, R. Scott

    2016-12-27

    The Xenopus laevis APE2 (apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2) nuclease participates in 3'-5' nucleolytic resection of oxidative DNA damage and activation of the ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response (DDR) pathway via ill-defined mechanisms. Here we report that APE2 resection activity is regulated by DNA interactions in its Zf-GRF domain, a region sharing high homology with DDR proteins Topoisomerase 3α (TOP3α) and NEIL3 (Nei-like DNA glycosylase 3), as well as transcription and RNA regulatory proteins, such as TTF2 (transcription termination factor 2), TFIIS, and RPB9. Biochemical and NMR results establish the nucleic acid-binding activity of the Zf-GRF domain. Moreover, an APE2 Zf-GRF X-ray structure and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses show that the Zf-GRF fold is typified by a crescent-shaped ssDNA binding claw that is flexibly appended to an APE2 endonuclease/exonuclease/phosphatase (EEP) catalytic core. Structure-guided Zf-GRF mutations impact APE2 DNA binding and 3'-5' exonuclease processing, and also prevent efficient APE2-dependent RPA recruitment to damaged chromatin and activation of the ATR-Chk1 DDR pathway in response to oxidative stress in Xenopus egg extracts. Collectively, our data unveil the APE2 Zf-GRF domain as a nucleic acid interaction module in the regulation of a key single-strand break resection function of APE2, and also reveal topologic similarity of the Zf-GRF to the zinc ribbon domains of TFIIS and RPB9.

  1. Short Term Clinical Outcome after Laparoscopic Cryoablation of the Renal Tumor < or = 3.5 cm.

    PubMed

    Polascik, T J; Nosnik, I; Mayes, J M; Mouraviev, V

    2007-12-01

    Between September 2000 and September 2006, 26 patients underwent primary laparoscopic cryosurgical procedures (28) for an organ-confined renal tumor(s). In one case, cryosurgery was done sequentially on both kidneys. All patients had been carefully selected based on the following criteria: tumor size < or = 3.5 cm, the absence of local and systemic spread on cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the ability to tolerate general anesthesia. A pure laparoscopic approach was employed using third generation cryotechnology (Galil Medical Inc., Plymouth Meeting, USA). Patients were followed by serial CT or MRI scan, creatinine level, and physical examination at least every six months after cryotherapy. The mean patient age was 64 years (range: 44-79) and the mean follow-up was 20.9 +/- 17.2 months. The median tumor size was 2.0 cm (range: 1-3.5 cm). Only one patient required a blood transfusion and one patient developed a transient ileus. The median length of stay was 2.0 days (range: 0-9 days). The median change in creatinine was 0.1 mg/dl (range:-0.4 to 1.8). No patient was converted to open surgery. No evidence of recurrence or progression was found in all patients, and overall survival rate was 100%. Laparoscopic renal cryoablation of the small renal tumor is a safe procedure with minimal complications. Although there were no recurrences with short term follow-up, further long term study is needed to verify its efficacy.

  2. Atmospheric Correction of Satellite Imagery Using Modtran 3.5 Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Fabian O.; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

    1997-01-01

    When performing satellite remote sensing of the earth in the solar spectrum, atmospheric scattering and absorption effects provide the sensors corrupted information about the target's radiance characteristics. We are faced with the problem of reconstructing the signal that was reflected from the target, from the data sensed by the remote sensing instrument. This article presents a method for simulating radiance characteristic curves of satellite images using a MODTRAN 3.5 band model (BM) code to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE), and proposes a method for the implementation of an adaptive system for automated atmospheric corrections. The simulation procedure is carried out as follows: (1) for each satellite digital image a radiance characteristic curve is obtained by performing a digital number (DN) to radiance conversion, (2) using MODTRAN 3.5 a simulation of the images characteristic curves is generated, (3) the output of the code is processed to generate radiance characteristic curves for the simulated cases. The simulation algorithm was used to simulate Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images for two types of locations: the ocean surface, and a forest surface. The simulation procedure was validated by computing the error between the empirical and simulated radiance curves. While results in the visible region of the spectrum where not very accurate, those for the infrared region of the spectrum were encouraging. This information can be used for correction of the atmospheric effects. For the simulation over ocean, the lowest error produced in this region was of the order of 105 and up to 14 times smaller than errors in the visible region. For the same spectral region on the forest case, the lowest error produced was of the order of 10-4, and up to 41 times smaller than errors in the visible region,

  3. Microscopic Haematuria and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Stage 3-5 Nondiabetic Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    You-Hsien Lin, Hugo; Yen, Chun-Yu; Lim, Lee-Moay; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Hung, Chi-Chih; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2015-10-16

    Microscopic haematuria is proposed as a prognostic factor for renal outcomes in patients with glomerulonephritis. However, the role of haematuria in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) or heavy proteinuria has not been investigated. We divided 1799 patients with stage 3-5 nondiabetic CKD into 3 groups according to the results from 3 urinalyses: no haematuria (0-2 red blood cells [RBCs]/hpf ≥2 times), mild haematuria (2-5 RBCs/hpf ≥2 times) and moderate haematuria (≥5-10 RBCs/hpf ≥2 times). The estimated glomerular filtration rate was 25.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), with a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR) of 881 mg/g. The hazard ratios (HRs) of mild and moderate haematuria for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.56, P = 0.024) and 1.34 (95% CI: 1.03-1.74, P = 0.030), respectively. The HR of moderate haematuria for mortality was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.11-2.20, P = 0.011). According to subgroup analysis, the HR of moderate haematuria for ESRD in patients with a UPCR of <500 mg/g was more prominent than that in patients with a UPCR of ≥500 mg/g. Microscopic haematuria in patients with stage 3-5 nondiabetic CKD is associated with increased risks of ESRD and mortality.

  4. [Interaction of 8-substituted derivatives and adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate esters with protein kinase from pig brain].

    PubMed

    Guliaev, N N; Tunitskaia, V L; Nesterova, M V; Mazurova, L A; Murtuzaev, I M

    1977-11-01

    A synthesis of previously unknown 8-substituted derivatives and alkyl esters of cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate, containing reactive groups, was carried out. The interaction of the compounds obtained with a homogeneous preparation of protein kinase from pig brain was studied. It was found that all compounds, with the exception of neutral esters of 3',5'-AMP, activate the enzyme and competitively inhibit 3H-labelled 3',5'-cAMP binding by the regulatory subunit of protein kinase. The activating effect and affinity of 8-(beta-aminoethylamino)-3',5'-cAMP for protein kinase was 10 times lower than that for 3',5'-cAMP and other 8-substituted derivatives of the cyclic nucleotide. It was found that 8-(N-chloroacetylaminoethylamino)-3',5'-cAMP interaction with the enzyme is of irreversible type, which suggest covalent blocking of the nucleophilic group of the 3',5'-cAMP binding site of protein kinase. The data obtained indicate that the 3',5'-cAMP molecule is bound to the regulatory site of protein kinase in the syn-conformation. The previously made assumption on the crucial importance of the negative charge in the 3',5'-cyclophosphate system for the interaction of cyclic AMP with the regulatory subunit of protein kinase has been thus confirmed.

  5. A 3.5 mm POLARIMETRIC SURVEY OF RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Agudo, I.; Thum, C.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Krichbaum, T. P. E-mail: thum@iram.f E-mail: tkrichbaum@mpifr-bonn.mpg.d

    2010-07-15

    We present the results from the first large (>100 sources) 3.5 mm polarimetric survey of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This wavelength is favorable within the radio-millimeter range for measuring the intrinsic linearly polarized emission from AGNs, since in general it is only marginally affected by Faraday rotation of the electric vector position angle and depolarization. The I, Q, U, and V Stokes parameter observations were performed with the XPOL polarimeter at the IRAM 30 m Telescope on different observing epochs from 2005 July (when most of the measurements were made) to 2009 October. Our sample consists of 145 flat-radio-spectrum AGNs with declination >-30{sup 0} (J2000.0) and flux density {approx}>1 Jy at {approx}86 GHz, as measured at the IRAM 30 m Telescope from 1978 to 1994. This constraint on the radio spectrum causes our sample to be dominated by blazars, which allows us to conduct new statistical studies on this class of high-luminosity, relativistically beamed emitters. We detect linear and circular polarization (above minimum 3{sigma} levels of {approx}1.5% and {approx}0.3%) for 76% and 6% of the sample, respectively. We find a clear excess in degree of linear polarization detected at 86 GHz with regard to that at 15 GHz by a factor of {approx}2. Over our entire source sample, the luminosity of the jets is anticorrelated with the degree of linear polarization. Consistent with previous findings claiming larger Doppler factors for brighter {gamma}-ray blazars, quasars listed in our sample, and in the Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Source Catalog (LBAS), show larger luminosities than non-LBAS ones, but our data do not allow us to confirm the same for BL Lac objects. We do not find a clear relation between the linear polarization angle and the jet structural position angle for any source class in our sample. We interpret this as the consequence of a markedly non-axisymmetric character of the 3 mm emitting region in the jets. We find that

  6. Central Tropical Pacific Corals Reveal Reduced ENSO Variability 3-5kyBP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothe, P. R.; Cobb, K. M.; Liguori, G.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.; Deocampo, D.; Southon, J. R.; Santos, G.; Lu, Y.; Capotondi, A.; Di Lorenzo, E.

    2015-12-01

    Future projections of the strength of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the largest source of year-to-year global climate extremes, are highly uncertain. Potential shifts towards stronger and more frequent ENSO extremes (Cai et al., 2014; Kim et al., 2015) would have a profound effect on climate globally. However, the instrumental record of ENSO activity is too short in time to resolve potential anthropogenic trends in ENSO properties, and limits our understanding of the ENSO phenomenon. Thus, we must rely on high-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions of ENSO that extend through the last centuries to millennia to provide a comprehensive view of ENSO variability. Coral δ18O records from the heart of the ENSO region, in the central tropical Pacific, provide monthly-resolved reconstructions of ENSO activity over the last 7000 years. Here, we quantify ENSO variability in 10 new monthly-resolved fossil coral δ18O records from Kiritimati Island (2°N, 157°W) that are U/Th-dated to the 2-6kyBP interval. When combined with previously published coral δ18O records from Cobb et al., 2013, the new coral δ18O records support a prolonged reduction of ~60% in ENSO variability during the 3-5kyBP interval, as compared to the late 20th century. In comparison, ENSO variability during the last millennium was ~30% reduced compared to the late 20th century. These results are consistent with foraminifera and mollusk records from the eastern tropical Pacific (Koutavas and Joanides, 2012; Carre et al., 2014), implying that the observed 3-5kyBP reduction in ENSO variability was not confined to the central Pacific. Taken together, these new records represent a new target - both in terms of amplitude and timing - for modeling efforts designed to uncover the mechanisms governing past ENSO variability. Such data-model comparisons are critical to refining the simulation of ENSO in simulations of future climate change.

  7. Evidence for Early Life in ˜3.5 Billion-Year-Old Pillow Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, N. R.; Furnes, H.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Staudigel, H.; de Wit, M.

    2004-12-01

    Recently discovered biosignatures in the formerly glassy rims of ˜3.5 billion-year-old pillow lavas from the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) in South Africa suggest they were colonized by microbes early in Earth's history. These subaqueous volcanic rocks represent a new geological setting in the search for early life on Earth. This is not entirely surprising since microbial alteration of basaltic glass in pillow lavas and volcaniclastic rocks has been well documented from recent oceanic crust and well-preserved ophiolites. The BGB magmatic sequence contains exceptionally well-preserved mafic to ultramafic pillow lavas, sheet flows, and intrusions interpreted to represent 3.48 to 3.22 billion-year-old oceanic crust and island arc assemblages. We observed micron-sized tubular structures mineralized by titanite in the formerly glassy rims of the BGB pillow lavas. Based on their similarity to textures observed in recent glassy pillow basalts we interpret these structures to represent ancient traces of microbial activity formed during biogenic etching of the originally glassy pillow rims as microbes colonized the glass surface. Petrographic observations coupled with overlapping metamorphic and magmatic dates indicate this process occurred soon after eruption of the pillow lavas. Subsequent greenschist facies seafloor hydrothermal alteration caused the structures to be mineralized by titanite; a process also observed in ophiolitic pillow lavas of much younger age. X-ray mapping reveals the presence of carbon along the margins of the tubular structures interpreted as residual organic material. Disseminated carbonates within the microbially-altered BGB pillow rims have low carbon isotope values consistent with microbial oxidation of organic matter. In contrast, disseminated carbonate in the crystalline pillow interiors have carbon isotope values bracketed between Archean marine carbonate and mantle carbon dioxide. It remains to be seen how deep into the Archean oceanic

  8. Barium aluminides Ba{sub x}Al{sub 5}(x=3,3.5,4)

    SciTech Connect

    Jehle, Michael; Scherer, Harald; Wendorff, Marco; Roehr, Caroline

    2009-05-15

    Three aluminides of the series Ba{sub x}Al{sub 5}(x=3,3.5,4) were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. The crystal structure of the new compound Ba{sub 7}Al{sub 10} was determined using single crystal X-ray data (space group R3-barm, a=604.23(9), c=4879.0(12)pm, Z=3, R1=0.0325). The compound exhibits Al Kagome (3.6.3.6.) nets in which half of the triangles form the basis of trigonal bipyramids Al{sub 5}. The apical Al are thus three-bonded assuming a charge of -2 ({sup 27}Al-NMR chemical shift delta=660pm), whereas the Al atoms of the basal triangle (i.e. of the Kagome net) are four-bonded and thus of formal charge -1(delta=490ppm). The total charge of the anion is thus exactly compensated by the Ba cations, i.e. the compound can be interpreted as an electron precise Zintl phase, exhibiting a distinct pseudo-band gap at the Fermi level of the calculated tDOS. According to the total formula, the structure displays a combination the stacking sequences of Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 5} and Ba{sub 4}Al{sub 5}, the structures of which have been redetermined with current methods (both hexagonal with space group P6{sub 3}/mmc; Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 5}: a=606.55(7), c=1461.8(2)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0239; Ba{sub 4}Al{sub 5}: a=609.21(7), c=1775.8(3)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0300). These three compounds with slightly different electron counts but similar polyanions allow to compare the bond lengths, the electronic structures and the overall bonding situation in dependence of positive or negative deviation of the electron count in relation to the novel formally electron precise Zintl compound Ba{sub 7}Al{sub 10}. - Al{sub 5} layers of Kagome nets in the new binary electron precise Zintl compound Ba{sub 3.5}Al{sub 5}, also found in Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 5} and Ba{sub 4}Al{sub 5}.

  9. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

  10. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(3)-5 - Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... party network transactions. 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Section 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions. (a) Payment card and third party network transactions subject to backup withholding. The gross amount of a reportable transaction that is...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(3)-5 - Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... party network transactions. 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Section 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions. (a) Payment card and third party network transactions subject to backup withholding. The gross amount of a reportable transaction that is...

  13. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(3)-5 - Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... party network transactions. 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Section 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions. (a) Payment card and third party network transactions subject to backup withholding. The gross amount of a reportable transaction that is...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(3)-5 - Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... party network transactions. 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Section 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions. (a) Payment card and third party network transactions subject to backup withholding. The gross amount of a reportable transaction that is...

  15. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON PUBLIC BUILDING OR PUBLIC WORK FINANCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY LOANS OR GRANTS FROM THE...

  16. An intramolecular interaction within the lipid kinase Fab1 regulates cellular phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; Strunk, Bethany S; Azad, Nadia; Petersen, Jason L; Weisman, Lois S

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylated phosphoinositide lipids (PPIs) are low-abundance signaling molecules that control signal transduction pathways and are necessary for cellular homeostasis. The PPI phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) is essential in multiple organ systems. PI(3,5)P2 is generated from PI3P by the conserved lipid kinase Fab1/PIKfyve. Defects in the dynamic regulation of PI(3,5)P2 are linked to human diseases. However, few mechanisms that regulate PI(3,5)P2 have been identified. Here we report an intramolecular interaction between the yeast Fab1 kinase region and an upstream conserved cysteine-rich (CCR) domain. We identify mutations in the kinase domain that lead to elevated levels of PI(3,5)P2 and impair the interaction between the kinase and CCR domain. We also identify mutations in the CCR domain that lead to elevated levels of PI(3,5)P2 Together these findings reveal a regulatory mechanism that involves the CCR domain of Fab1 and contributes to dynamic control of cellular PI(3,5)P2 synthesis.

  17. Pyrrolnitrin analogues. V. Knorr's pyrrole condensation between N-(4-nitrophenacyl)-3,5-dimethylaniline and ethyl acetoacetate.

    PubMed

    Filacchioni, G; Artico, M; Brosio, E; Conti, F

    1978-01-01

    The reaction between N-(4-nitrophenacyl)-3,5-dimethylaniline and ethyl acetoacetate in boiling ethanol afforded 3-carbethoxy-5-(1-carbethoxyacetonyl)-4,5-dihydro-1-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrole and in low yield 3-carbethoxy-1-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-methyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrole. Chemical transformation of the former compound into 5-acetonyl-1-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-methyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrole is described. The structure of 3-carbethoxy-5-(1-carbethoxyacetonyl)-4,5-dihydro-1-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrole has been established by the aid of N.M.R. spectral data. The above reaction, when carried out in boiling ethanol in the presence of a catalytic amount of 3,5-dimethylaniline hydrobromide, led to the formation of 3-carbethoxy-1-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-methyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrole and 4,6-dimethyl-2-(4-nitrophenyl)indole, the former formed in a very good yield. Some pyrrolnitrin analogues have been prepared starting from 3-carbethoxy-1-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-methyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrole.

  18. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with all...

  19. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with all...

  20. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with all...