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Sample records for otto fa grandis

  1. Coupled quantum Otto cycle.

    PubMed

    Thomas, George; Johal, Ramandeep S

    2011-03-01

    We study the one-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model of two spin-1/2 systems as a quantum heat engine. The engine undergoes a four-step Otto cycle where the two adiabatic branches involve changing the external magnetic field at a fixed value of the coupling constant. We find conditions for the engine efficiency to be higher than in the uncoupled model; in particular, we find an upper bound which is tighter than the Carnot bound. A domain of parameter values is pointed out which was not feasible in the interaction-free model. Locally, each spin seems to cause a flow of heat in a direction opposite to the global temperature gradient. This feature is explained by an analysis of the local effective temperature of the spins.

  2. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Myburg, Alexander A; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R K; Hussey, Steven G; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Togawa, Roberto C; Pappas, Marilia R; Faria, Danielle A; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, Cesar D; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C; Steane, Dorothy A; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J; Strauss, Steven H; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-19

    Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  3. Otto Hahn: Responsibility and Repression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2006-05-01

    The role that Otto Hahn (1879 1968) played in the discovery of nuclear fission and whether Lise Meitner (1878 1968) should have shared the Nobel Prize for that discovery have been subjects of earlier studies, but there is more to the story. I examine what Hahn and the scientists in his Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem did during the Third Reich, in particular, the significant contributions they made to the German uranium project during the Second World War. I then use this as a basis for judging Hahn’s postwar apologia as the last president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and first president of its successor, the Max Planck Society.

  4. Molecular beams: our legacy from Otto Stern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, N. F.

    1988-06-01

    It is an honor to contribute to this celebration of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Otto Stern, who developed molecular beams to become one of the most nowerful and fruitful physics research methods.

  5. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  6. Otto engine beyond its standard quantum limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggio, Bruno; Antezza, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum Otto cycle based on the properties of a two-level system in a realistic out-of-thermal-equilibrium electromagnetic field acting as its sole reservoir. This steady configuration is produced without the need of active control over the state of the environment, which is a noncoherent thermal radiation, sustained only by external heat supplied to macroscopic objects. Remarkably, even for nonideal finite-time transformations, it largely over-performs the standard ideal Otto cycle and asymptotically achieves unit efficiency at finite power.

  7. Real Otto and Diesel Engine Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the properties of otto/diesel engines during the time they operate with open chambers illustrates applicability of thermodynamics to real systems, demonstrates how delivered power is controlled, and explains the source of air pollution in terms of thermodynamic laws. (Author/JN)

  8. Thermal Stability of Otto Fuel Prepolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompa, Albert S.; Sandagger, Karrie H.; Bryant, William F., Jr.; McConnell, William T.; Lacot, Fernando; Carr, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    Otto Fuel II contains a nitrate ester, plasticizer, and 2-NPDA as a stabilizer. Otto Fuel with stabilizers from three vendors was investigated by dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using samples sealed in a glass ampoule and by Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) using 10 gram samples aged at 75 C for 35 days. DSC kinetics did not show differences between the stabilizer; the samples had an activation energy of 36.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol. However, IMC analysis was sensitive enough to detect small differences between the stabilizer, namely energy of interaction values of 7 to 14 Joules. DSC controlled cooling and heating at 5 C/min from 30 to -60 to 40 C experiments were similar and showed a crystallization peak at -48 +/- 1 C during cooling, and upon heating there was a glass transition temperature step at approx. -54 +/- 0.5 C and a melting peak at -28 +/- 0.4 C.

  9. Thermal Stability of Otto Fuel Prepolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompa, Albert S.; Sandagger, Karrie H.; Bryant, William F., Jr.; McConnell, William T.; Lacot, Fernando; Carr, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    Otto Fuel II contains a nitrate ester, plasticizer, and 2-NDPA as a stabilizer. Otto Fuel with stabilizers from three vendors was investigated by dynamic and isothermal DSC using samples sealed in a glass ampoule and by Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) using 10 gram samples aged at 75 C for 35 days. DSC kinetics did not show differences between the stabilizer; the samples had an activation energy of 36.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol. However, IMC analysis was sensitive enough to detect small differences between the stabilizer, namely energy of interaction values of 7 to 14 Joules. DSC controlled cooling and heating at 5 C/min from 30 to -60 to 40 C experiments were similar and showed a crystallization peak at -48 +/- 1 C during cooling, and upon heating there was a glass transition temperature step at approx. -54 +/- 0.5 C and a melting peak at -28 +/- 0.4 C.

  10. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  11. Optimal performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abah, Obinna; Lutz, Eric

    2016-03-01

    We consider a quantum Otto refrigerator cycle of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator. We investigate the coefficient of performance at maximum figure of merit for adiabatic and nonadiabatic frequency modulations. We obtain analytical expressions for the optimal performance both in the high-temperature (classical) regime and in the low-temperature (quantum) limit. We moreover analyze the breakdown of the cooling cycle for strongly nonadiabatic driving protocols and derive analytical estimates for the minimal driving time allowed for cooling.

  12. Physiological management of dietary deficiency in n-3 fatty acids by spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joshua T; Green, Christopher C

    2015-08-01

    Lipid dynamics of spawning fish are critical to the production of viable embryos and larvae. The present study utilized manipulation of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles to examine the ability of spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to mobilize critical lipid components from somatic reserves or synthesize long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) de novo from shorter-chain C18 precursors. An egg and multi-tissue evaluation of changes in FA concentrations across time after fish were switched from LC-PUFA-rich to LC-PUFA-deficient experimental diets was employed. The two experimental diets contained lipid sources which differed drastically in n-3 C18 FA content but had similar levels of n-6 C18 FAs. Discrete effects of dietary n-3 FAs can be analyzed because n-3 and n-6 represent distinct metabolic families which cannot be exchanged in vivo. Results indicate that a combination of mobilization and de novo synthesis is likely utilized to maintain physiologically required FA levels in critical tissues and embryos. Mobilization was supported by decreases in LC-PUFAs in somatic tissues and decreases in intraperitoneal fat content and liver mass. Evidence for biosynthesis was provided by a higher level of n-3 LC-PUFAs in the liver and ova of fish fed diets containing n-3 C18 precursors versus those fed diets with low levels of precursor FAs. The characteristic physiological plasticity of Gulf killifish is exemplified in the nutritional domain by its management of dietary FA deficiency. PMID:25939715

  13. Catolaccus grandis (Burks)(Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catolaccus grandis is an ectoparasitoid of the boll weevil classified initially within the genus Heterolaccus (Burks 1954). It was first introduced to the U.S. during the early 1970’s and released in experimental fields in Mississippi State, MS (Johnson et al. 1973). Researchers observed encouraging...

  14. Quantum Otto cycle efficiency on coupled qudits.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, E A

    2015-09-01

    Properties of the coupled particles with spin 3/2 (quartits) in a constant magnetic field, as a working substance in the quantum Otto cycle of the heat engine, are considered. It is shown that this system as a converter of heat energy in work (i) shows the efficiency 1 at the negative absolute temperatures of heat baths, (ii) at the temperatures of the opposite sign the efficiency approaches 1, (iii) at the positive temperatures of heat baths antiferromagnetic interaction raises efficiency threefold in comparison with uncoupled particles.

  15. Quantum Otto cycle efficiency on coupled qudits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanchenko, E. A.

    2015-09-01

    Properties of the coupled particles with spin 3/2 (quartits) in a constant magnetic field, as a working substance in the quantum Otto cycle of the heat engine, are considered. It is shown that this system as a converter of heat energy in work (i) shows the efficiency 1 at the negative absolute temperatures of heat baths, (ii) at the temperatures of the opposite sign the efficiency approaches 1, (iii) at the positive temperatures of heat baths antiferromagnetic interaction raises efficiency threefold in comparison with uncoupled particles.

  16. Modeling the complete Otto cycle - Preliminary version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the equations and the computer program being developed to model the complete Otto cycle. The program incorporates such important features as: (1) heat transfer, (2) finite combustion rates, (3) complete chemical kinetics in the burned gas, (4) exhaust gas recirculation, and (5) manifold vacuum or supercharging. Changes in thermodynamic, kinetic and transport data as well as model parameters can be made without reprogramming. Preliminary calculations indicate that: (1) chemistry and heat transfer significantly affect composition and performance, (2) there seems to be a strong interaction among model parameters, and (3) a number of cycles must be calculated in order to obtain steady-state conditions.

  17. Performance of quantum Otto refrigerators with squeezing.

    PubMed

    Long, Rui; Liu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator coupled to a squeezed cold reservoir has been evaluated using the χ figure of merit. We have shown that squeezing can enhance the coefficient of performance (COP) dramatically, surpassing the Carnot COP defined by the initial temperatures of the heat baths. Furthermore, when the squeezing parameter approaches its maximum value, the work input vanishes while the cooling rate remains finite, in apparent contravention of the second law of thermodynamics. To explain this phenomenon, we have shown that squeezing renders the thermal bath into a nonequilibrium state and the temperature of the bath becomes frequency dependent. Thereby, a correlation to the Carnot COP has been deduced. The results reveal that the COP under the maximum χ figure of merit is of the Curzon-Ahlborn style that cannot surpass the actual Carnot COP, and is thus consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.

  18. Performance of quantum Otto refrigerators with squeezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Rui; Liu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator coupled to a squeezed cold reservoir has been evaluated using the χ figure of merit. We have shown that squeezing can enhance the coefficient of performance (COP) dramatically, surpassing the Carnot COP defined by the initial temperatures of the heat baths. Furthermore, when the squeezing parameter approaches its maximum value, the work input vanishes while the cooling rate remains finite, in apparent contravention of the second law of thermodynamics. To explain this phenomenon, we have shown that squeezing renders the thermal bath into a nonequilibrium state and the temperature of the bath becomes frequency dependent. Thereby, a correlation to the Carnot COP has been deduced. The results reveal that the COP under the maximum χ figure of merit is of the Curzon-Ahlborn style that cannot surpass the actual Carnot COP, and is thus consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.

  19. Additive for otto cycle engines and fuel mixture so obtained

    SciTech Connect

    Scifoni, M.

    1985-02-12

    The additive for Otto cycle engines according to the present invention consists of a mixture of water, ethanol, methanol and butanol to which is added a determined quantity of a liquid obtained by pressing prickly pear leaves. Added in a small percentage to the fuel, gasoline, LP or methane, this additive prevents the oxidation associated with the use of water and/or alcohols in Otto cycle engines, lowers fuel consumption and allows the use of low octane fuel.

  20. Dr. Otto "Tiger" Freer: inventor and innovator.

    PubMed

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Connor, David E; Nanda, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Every neurosurgeon develops his or her own standard approach to common intracranial pathologies in terms of the order in which different stages are performed and which instruments are used to perform individual tasks. The majority of the basic steps in performing a craniotomy are learned through repetition and practice during residency training. Significant amounts of energy are devoted to mastering technical skills and developing an operative rhythm. What often receives little attention is the historical origin of the instruments that make the work possible. The Freer elevator represents a particularly interesting example. To people unfamiliar with the accomplishments of turn-of-the-century laryngologist Otto "Tiger" Freer, it can be assumed that the name of the instrument in one's hand is simply named for what it can do, that is, to "free" the nasal mucosa from the bony and cartilaginous septum during the transsphenoidal approach. The technique this master surgeon spent his life and career perfecting is now repeated almost daily by skull base neurosurgeons approaching pathologies from the inferior frontal lobe to the foramen magnum. In reviewing his life and work, the authors of this paper discovered an interesting creative process that led to the design of the eponymous instrument. Additionally, they discovered important advances toward the development of the transnasal approach and in our understanding of the anterior skull base. They present a historical perspective on the life and accomplishments of Dr. Freer and the ubiquitous surgical instrument that he invented and popularized. PMID:22853830

  1. Dr. Otto "Tiger" Freer: inventor and innovator.

    PubMed

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Connor, David E; Nanda, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Every neurosurgeon develops his or her own standard approach to common intracranial pathologies in terms of the order in which different stages are performed and which instruments are used to perform individual tasks. The majority of the basic steps in performing a craniotomy are learned through repetition and practice during residency training. Significant amounts of energy are devoted to mastering technical skills and developing an operative rhythm. What often receives little attention is the historical origin of the instruments that make the work possible. The Freer elevator represents a particularly interesting example. To people unfamiliar with the accomplishments of turn-of-the-century laryngologist Otto "Tiger" Freer, it can be assumed that the name of the instrument in one's hand is simply named for what it can do, that is, to "free" the nasal mucosa from the bony and cartilaginous septum during the transsphenoidal approach. The technique this master surgeon spent his life and career perfecting is now repeated almost daily by skull base neurosurgeons approaching pathologies from the inferior frontal lobe to the foramen magnum. In reviewing his life and work, the authors of this paper discovered an interesting creative process that led to the design of the eponymous instrument. Additionally, they discovered important advances toward the development of the transnasal approach and in our understanding of the anterior skull base. They present a historical perspective on the life and accomplishments of Dr. Freer and the ubiquitous surgical instrument that he invented and popularized.

  2. Dr. Otto heinrich warburg-survivor of ethical storms.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2015-01-01

    Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883-1970; not to be confused with the Zionist of the same name) was a member of an illustrious Jewish family, known for some five centuries. From humble beginnings, the family became prominent in the world for their contributions to all aspects of society. The son of a German mother and a Jewish (converted) father, Otto H. Warburg became a major contributor to medical science in the field of cancer research. Considered for Nobel Prize more than once, he finally received it in 1931 for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the cellular respiratory enzyme. Warburg's personality was controversial: he was intolerant of opposing scientific views yet tolerant toward Nazi abuses. Accused of collaboration under the Nazi regime, Otto H. Warburg was nevertheless readmitted to the global scientific community after World War II. His contribution to cancer research remains influential to this day and has been superseded by discoveries that have built upon his work.

  3. Otto Rudolph Ortmann, Music Philosophy, and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzol, David J.

    2004-01-01

    What is music? What should be taught when music is taught? How should it be taught? In the early twentieth century, these most foundational questions relating to music education were addressed by the highly regarded, though less well known, educator and researcher, Otto Rudolph Ortmann. In 1922, he published an article in which he outlined a…

  4. Conversations with American Composers: Ev Grimes Interviews Otto Luening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Ev

    1986-01-01

    Otto Luening, one of the pioneers in the development of tape composition, talks about a variety of topics, including the education of musicians, the relationship between composer and teacher, his class for non-music majors, the musical training a teacher should have, and changes needed in music education. (RM)

  5. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    SciTech Connect

    Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.

    2014-03-24

    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  6. Dr. Otto Heinrich Warburg—Survivor of Ethical Storms

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883–1970; not to be confused with the Zionist of the same name) was a member of an illustrious Jewish family, known for some five centuries. From humble beginnings, the family became prominent in the world for their contributions to all aspects of society. The son of a German mother and a Jewish (converted) father, Otto H. Warburg became a major contributor to medical science in the field of cancer research. Considered for Nobel Prize more than once, he finally received it in 1931 for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the cellular respiratory enzyme. Warburg’s personality was controversial: he was intolerant of opposing scientific views yet tolerant toward Nazi abuses. Accused of collaboration under the Nazi regime, Otto H. Warburg was nevertheless readmitted to the global scientific community after World War II. His contribution to cancer research remains influential to this day and has been superseded by discoveries that have built upon his work. PMID:25717390

  7. GPM Video of In-fa

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 19 GPM saw a few towering storms in In-fa's eye wall were reaching heights of up to 17.3 km (10.7 miles). The most intense precipitation was measured in In-fa's eye wall by DPR where it was...

  8. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  9. Development and Characterization of Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana Nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Prada, Ariadna L; Bitencourt, Antônio P R; Amado, Jesús R R; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2016-01-01

    Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana are important plant species with folk use and great potential for phytopharmaceuticals. Nanodispersions are disperse systems of insoluble or immiscible substances in a liquid medium that may be prepared with or without coating polymers. To our knowledge, no studies were carried in order to achieve coating-polymer free nanoformulations using B. orellana extract or any C. grandis-based nanoformulations. Thus, on the present study we aimed to develop C. grandis nanoformulations using three different coating polymers (Eudragit® L 100 55, PEG 4000 and Kollicoat®), while B. orellana nanodispersions were obtained using different surfactants (polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, polyethylene glycol 400 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 600 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 400 dioleate and polyethylene glycol 600 dioleate) as coating polymer-free nanoformulations. Characterization of nanoformulations was performed by different parameters, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta-potential. Our results suggested that some optimal nanoformulations were obtained for both plant species. Moreover, possible stable behavior was observed during storage period for C. grandis (30 days) and B. orellana (21 days). On this context, the present study contributes to nanobiotechnology development of phytopharmaceuticals, allowing achievement of novel nano-delivery systems with two important folk medicinal plant extracts and making them potential products for innovative phytopharmaceuticals. PMID:26876518

  10. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  11. Karl Otto Himmler, manufacturer of the first contact lens.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Richard M

    2007-03-01

    In 1889 August Müller (1864-1949) reported the correction of his own high myopia with a ground scleral contact lens that had been manufactured in Berlin two years earlier. This paper provides the first conclusive identification, based upon primary sources, of the manufacturer of these lenses. They were made by an optical engineer, Karl Otto Himmler (1841-1903), whose firm enjoyed, until the outbreak of World War II, an international reputation for the manufacture of microscopes and their accessories. PMID:17110156

  12. ECUT energy data reference series: Otto cycle engines in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    Information that describes the use of the Otto cycle engines in transportation is summarized. The transportation modes discussed in this report include the following: automobiles, light trucks, heavy trucks, marine, recreational vehicles, motorcycles, buses, aircraft, and snowmobiles. These modes account for nearly 100% of the gasoline and LPG consumed in transportation engines. The information provided on each of these modes includes descriptions of the average energy conversion efficiency of the engine, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the activity level as measured in ton-miles. Estimates are provided for the years 1980 and 2000.

  13. Otto Fenichel and the left opposition in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Harris, B; Brock, A

    1991-04-01

    David Rapaport's collection of Otto Fenichel's Rundbriefe (1934-1945) is described as a recently rediscovered, 2,500-page primary source for studying the intellectual and organizational history of European-American psychoanalysis. Beginning as the confidential newsletter of the Reich-Fenichel "Left opposition" within the International Psychoanalytic Association, its function became primarily intellectual as Fenichel's group ceased to function as a caucus. It ended when its editor decided to devote himself to the struggle against neo-Freudianism within psychoanalysis, and to practice as a licensed physician.

  14. Modeling the complete Otto cycle: Preliminary version. [computer programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the equations and the computer program being developed to model the complete Otto cycle. The program incorporates such important features as: (1) heat transfer, (2) finite combustion rates, (3) complete chemical kinetics in the burned gas, (4) exhaust gas recirculation, and (5) manifold vacuum or supercharging. Changes in thermodynamic, kinetic and transport data as well as model parameters can be made without reprogramming. Preliminary calculations indicate that: (1) chemistry and heat transfer significantly affect composition and performance, (2) there seems to be a strong interaction among model parameters, and (3) a number of cycles must be calculated in order to obtain steady-state conditions.

  15. Counterintuitive dispersion effect near surface plasmon resonances in Otto structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Li-Gang; Ye, Lin-Hua; Al-Amri, M.; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the counterintuitive dispersion effect associated with the poles and zeros of reflection and transmission functions in an Otto configuration when a surface plasmon resonance is excited. We show that the zeros and/or poles in the reflection and transmission functions may move into the upper-half complex-frequency plane (CFP), and these locations of the zeros and poles determine the dispersion properties of the whole structures (i.e., the frequency-dependent change of both reflected and transmitted phases). Meanwhile, we demonstrate various dispersion effects (both normal and abnormal) related to the changes of the poles and zeros in both reflection and transmission functions when considering the properties of metal substrates. For a realistic metal substrate in an Otto structure, there are the optimal thickness and incident angle, which correspond to the transitions of the zeros in the reflection function from the upper-half to lower-half CFP. These properties may be helpful to manipulate light propagation in optical devices.

  16. [CO2 release from typical Stipa grandis grassland soil].

    PubMed

    Cui, X; Chen, S; Chen, Z

    2000-06-01

    Determinations on the soil respiration in a typical Stipa grandis grassland of Inner Mongolica by the method of static chamber/alkaline absorbing show that there existed great spatial and temporal variances of soil respiration, and the factors controlling these variances were different. The seasonal variance of soil respiration had a close relationship with the aboveground biomass of S. grandis and the status of soil moisture. The total amount of annual CO2 release in 1995, 1997 and 1998 was estimated as 180, 45.8 and 225 gC.m-2.yr-1, respectively. Overgrazing greatly decreased the biomass of the community, and also, decreased the CO2 release from the soil. The possibility of establishing a dynamic model of soil respiration in grassland with precipitation as a driven factor was discussed. PMID:11767639

  17. Heat pulse observations of Eucalyptus grandis transpiration in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, P.J.; Olbrich, B.W.

    1992-12-31

    Forest plantations in South Africa are currently limited to areas experiencing a minimum mean annual rainfall of 800 mm, and cover approximately 1.18 million ha. Of this total area, 37% is planted to Eucalyptus spp., of which 76% comprise E. grandis Hill ex Maiden. Micrometeorological methods of measuring evapotranspiration are impractical in many areas of South African forestry owing to the rugged topography and heterogeneous canopy and boundary layer conditions. The heat pulse velocity (HPV) technique shows great promise as a suitable method of measuring sap flow in even-aged forest plantations. This paper describes the method in detail, as well as the results of comparisons between HPV sap flow estimates and cut-tree uptake rates for two size classes of E. grandis.

  18. Edaphic factors do not govern the ectomycorrhizal specificity of Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jeremy A; Horton, Thomas R

    2012-11-01

    Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae), a widespread tree of Pacific coral atolls and islands, displays one of the more restrictive ranges of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus associates among autotrophic plants. Only five ECM fungi are currently known associates; our study adds one. In many habitats, P. grandis is restricted to large seabird colonies where nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in the form of guano are substantial. It has been suggested that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of the unusual nutrient-rich habitat in which P. grandis grows. On Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, P. grandis grows in habitats heavily influenced by guano additions and also in upland forests where seabirds do not roost or nest. To test the hypothesis that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of nutrient-related or toxicity-related factors associated with guano inputs, we sampled P. grandis growing in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. We identified ECM symbionts of P. grandis from both habitats as well as two symbionts of Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae) from nutrient-rich habitats. We identified three ECM symbionts of P. grandis from Rota; all three were found in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. No differences in community diversity were detected between guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. We also detected two ECM fungal species associating with I. bijuga but not associating with P. grandis inside guano-rich habitats. From these results, we infer that edaphic factors are not responsible for limiting the ECM community associating with P. grandis to its observed level of specificity. PMID:22569801

  19. Edaphic factors do not govern the ectomycorrhizal specificity of Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jeremy A; Horton, Thomas R

    2012-11-01

    Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae), a widespread tree of Pacific coral atolls and islands, displays one of the more restrictive ranges of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus associates among autotrophic plants. Only five ECM fungi are currently known associates; our study adds one. In many habitats, P. grandis is restricted to large seabird colonies where nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in the form of guano are substantial. It has been suggested that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of the unusual nutrient-rich habitat in which P. grandis grows. On Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, P. grandis grows in habitats heavily influenced by guano additions and also in upland forests where seabirds do not roost or nest. To test the hypothesis that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of nutrient-related or toxicity-related factors associated with guano inputs, we sampled P. grandis growing in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. We identified ECM symbionts of P. grandis from both habitats as well as two symbionts of Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae) from nutrient-rich habitats. We identified three ECM symbionts of P. grandis from Rota; all three were found in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. No differences in community diversity were detected between guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. We also detected two ECM fungal species associating with I. bijuga but not associating with P. grandis inside guano-rich habitats. From these results, we infer that edaphic factors are not responsible for limiting the ECM community associating with P. grandis to its observed level of specificity.

  20. The Politics of Memory: Otto Hahn and the Third Reich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2006-03-01

    As President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and its successor, the Max Planck Society, from 1946 until 1960, Otto Hahn (1879 1968) sought to portray science under the Third Reich as a purely intellectual endeavor untainted by National Socialism. I outline Hahn’s activities from 1933 into the postwar years, focusing on the contrast between his personal stance during the National Socialist period, when he distinguished himself as an upright non-Nazi, and his postwar attitude, which was characterized by suppression and denial of Germany’s recent past. Particular examples include Hahn’s efforts to help Jewish friends; his testimony for colleagues involved in denazification and on trial in Nuremberg; his postwar relationships with émigré colleagues, including Lise Meitner; and his misrepresentation of his wartime work in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry.

  1. Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model in a quantum Otto cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakmak, Selçuk; Altintas, Ferdi; E. Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür

    2016-06-01

    The Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model of two anisotropically interacting spins in a magnetic field is proposed as a working substance of a quantum Otto engine to explore and exploit the anisotropy effects for the optimization of engine operation. Three different cases for the adiabatic branches of the cycle have been considered. In the first two cases, either the magnetic field or coupling strength are changed while, in the third case, both the magnetic field and the coupling strength are changed by the same ratio. The system parameters for which the engine can operate similar to or dramatically different from the engines of non-interacting spins or of coupled spins with Ising model or isotropic XY model interactions are determined. In particular, the role of anisotropy to enhance cooperative work, and to optimize maximum work with high efficiency, as well as to operate the engine near the Carnot bound are revealed.

  2. GPM Video of In-fa

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 23, GPM saw In-fa dropping rain at an extreme rate of over 266 mm (10.5 inches) per hour in storms just to the northwest of the typhoon's eye where thunderstorms reached altitudes of over 1...

  3. [Psychoanalysis and engagement: Otto Fenichel and the political Freudians].

    PubMed

    Fisher, D J

    1988-01-01

    This essay is a critique of Russell Jacoby's The repression of psychoanalysis: Otto Fenichel and the political Freudians (New York, Basic Books, 1983), translated into French by P.U.F. Jacoby depicts Fenichel and his circle of colleagues as political Freudians whose early years were decisively colored by radical youth movements, leftwing politics, the early inspiration of the Russian Revolution, a serious immersion in Marxist culture, a commitment to either socialist or communist parties, and a desire to integrate classical psychoanalysis into a a broader framework of Marxist social theorizing. He centers his book around the archival discovery of the Rundbriefe, 119 circular letters written during Fenichel's exile from 1934 to 1945. He discusses the impact of Wilhelm Reich's ideas and career on the Fenichel circle. Fascism and exile from Europe shattered the lives and commitments of the political Freudians. This essay focuses on Jacoby's use and abuse of the concepts of Americanization, medicalization, the competition from the neo-Freudians, and the apparent silence and "self-repression" of this group's past and leftwing identity once in America. It concludes with a critical analysis of Fenichel's psychoanalytic ethic, which, while engagé, was not Marxist. Fenichel was oriented toward contributing to both psychoanalytic practice and theory. His ethic precluded the intrusion of politics into clinical work, supervision, and teaching. PMID:11640268

  4. Combined SPR and SERS: Otto and Kretschmann configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchiesi, Dominique; Grosges, Thomas; Colas, Florent; Lamy de la Chapelle, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Combined surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) setup was proposed recently. The experimental setup requires a gold layer deposited on a glass substrate. However, due to the poor ability of sticking gold material on glass, a nanometric adhesion layer is used. In this paper we compare numerically both the SERS gain, and the SPR signal, for metallic and dielectric adhesion layers, for two substrates. We show that even if the dielectric materials can be considered as equivalent for the SPR signal, this is not the case for the SERS gain. In particular the dielectric adhesion layer reduces the sensitivity of the SERS gain to this parameter and therefore their use could be more suitable for the fabrication of the sensor. Moreover the higher the refractive index of substrate with regards to the adhesion layer is, the higher efficiency of setup is obtained, and therefore the Otto configuration seems to be more efficient than the Kretschmann one. Optimization of the thicknesses of the adhesion layer and of the gold layer can lead to a SERS gain greater than 103 without nanostructuring.

  5. MAN or FA from n-butane

    SciTech Connect

    Di Cio, A.; Verde, L.

    1985-08-01

    Unsaturated polyester resins were first produced mostly from fumaric acid (FA) rather than from maleic anhydride (MAN). This is perfectly understandable if we consider that, using fumaric acid as raw material, polycondensates with a more homogeneous (less branched) structure are obtained, thus producing resins characterized by a more uniform and reproducible chemical and mechanical properties. Presently, for economical reasons, fumaric acid is used marginally as a MAN substitute in the production of polyester resins. These resins account for a major share (50%) of the overall MAN consumption in the U.S. and in Western Europe.

  6. Revision of sternaspis otto, 1821 (polychaeta, sternaspidae).

    PubMed

    Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2013-01-01

    To the memory of William Ronald Sendall Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, Sternaspis andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, Sternaspis costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, Sternaspis rietschi Caullery

  7. Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To the memory of William Ronald Sendall Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, Sternaspis andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, Sternaspis costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, Sternaspis rietschi

  8. Excessive Food Intake, Obesity and Inflammation Process in Zucker fa/fa Rat Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Chentouf, Myriam; Dubois, Gregor; Jahannaut, Céline; Castex, Françoise; Lajoix, Anne Dominique; Gross, René; Peraldi-Roux, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Inappropriate food intake-related obesity and more importantly, visceral adiposity, are major risk factors for the onset of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is emerging that nutriment-induced β-cell dysfunction could be related to indirect induction of a state of low grade inflammation. Our aim was to study whether hyperphagia associated obesity could promote an inflammatory response in pancreatic islets leading to ß-cell dysfunction. In the hyperphagic obese insulin resistant male Zucker rat, we measured the level of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and estimated their production as well as the expression of their receptors in pancreatic tissue and β-cells. Our main findings concern intra-islet pro-inflammatory cytokines from fa/fa rats: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα expressions were increased; IL-1R1 was also over-expressed with a cellular redistribution also observed for IL-6R. To get insight into the mechanisms involved in phenotypic alterations, abArrays were used to determine the expression profile of proteins implicated in different membrane receptors signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle pathways. Despite JNK overexpression, cell viability was unaffected probably because of decreases in cleaved caspase3 as well as in SMAC/DIABLO and APP, involved in the induction and amplification of apoptosis. Concerning β-cell proliferation, decreases in important cell cycle regulators (Cyclin D1, p35) and increased expression of SMAD4 probably contribute to counteract and restrain hyperplasia in fa/fa rat islets. Finally and probably as a result of IL-1β and IL-1R1 increased expressions with sub-cellular redistribution of the receptor, islets from fa/fa rats were found more sensitive to both stimulating and inhibitory concentrations of the cytokine; this confers some physiopathological relevance to a possible autocrine regulation of β-cell function by IL-1β. These results support the hypothesis that pancreatic islets from prediabetic fa/fa rats undergo an inflammatory

  9. Decline of Hesperia ottoe (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in Northern Tallgrass Prairie Preserves

    PubMed Central

    Swengel, Ann B.; Swengel, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    We counted butterflies on transect surveys during Hesperia ottoe flight period in 1988–2011 at tallgrass prairie preserves in four states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin), divided into units cross-referenced to vegetation type and management history. H. ottoe occurred only in dry and sand prairie types, and was significantly more abundant in undegraded than semi-degraded prairie, and in discontinuous sod (with numerous unvegetated areas due to bare sand and/or rock outcrops) than in continuous sod. This skipper was significantly more abundant in small sites compared to medium and large sites, even when the analysis was limited to undegraded prairie analyzed separately by sod type. H. ottoe was significantly under-represented in year-burn 0 (the first growing season after fire) compared to an expected distribution proportional to survey effort. However, H. ottoe was also over-represented in fire-managed units compared to non-fire-managed units. However, by far most units and sites were in fire management and most populations declined to subdetection during this study. Peak abundance post-fire occurred in a later year-burn in discontinuous sod and was much higher than in continuous sod. We also analyze H. ottoe status and trend in midwestern prairie preserves by compiling a dataset of our and others’ butterfly surveys from 1974 to 2011. Only 1/9 sites with continuous sod had detectable H. ottoe in recent year(s). In discontinuous sod, 2/6 did, with two sites lacking data for the last few years. The number of years H. ottoe was still detectable after preservation and the number of years to consistent non-detection were both significantly higher in discontinuous than continuous sod. Both measures of population persistence averaged over twice as long in discontinuous than continuous sod, and correlated negatively with prairie size. The year when consistent non-detection began varied over several decades among sites. Despite the currently urgent need to

  10. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits.

    PubMed

    Dye, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of potential transpiration models to simulate transpiration rates in areas prone to soil water deficits leads to overestimates of water use as the soil dries. Therefore, I carried out studies on Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. I hypothesized that, with this relationship defined, simple modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict what fraction of potential transpiration was taking place at a given time. Site 1 supported a stand of 3-year-old E. grandis trees, whereas 9-year-old trees were growing on Site 2, situated 2 km away. At each site, plastic sheeting was laid over the ground to prevent soil water recharge and thereby allow the roots in the soil to induce a continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed that prevention of soil water recharge resulted in only moderate drought stress. At Site 1, the trees abstracted water down to 8 m below the surface, whereas trees at Site 2 obtained most of their water from depths below 8 m. I found that modeling the water balance of deep rooting zones is impractical for the purpose of simulating nonpotential transpiration rates because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanism and the water retention characteristics of the deep subsoil strata. I conclude that predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits from the soil water balance is not feasible at these sites.

  11. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil

    PubMed Central

    Tng, David Y. P.; Janos, David P.; Jordan, Gregory J.; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypothesized that phosphorous addition would alleviate edaphic constraints. We grew seedlings in a factorial experiment combining fumigation (to simulate nutrient release and soil pasteurization by fire), soil type (E. grandis forest versus rain forest soil) and phosphorus addition as factors. We found that phosphorus was the principal factor limiting E. grandis seedling survival and growth in rain forest soil, and that fumigation enhanced survival of seedlings in both E. grandis forest and rain forest soil. We conclude that similar to edaphic constraints on temperate giant eucalypts, mineral nutrient and biotic attributes of a tropical rain forest soil may hamper E. grandis seedling establishment. In rain forest soil, E. grandis seedlings benefited from conditions akin to a fire-generated ashbed (i.e., an “ashbed effect”). PMID:25339968

  12. Variable temperature, variable-gap Otto prism coupler for use in a vacuum environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, G. F.; O'Prey, S. M.; Dawson, P.

    2000-11-01

    The field of surface polariton physics really took off with the prism coupling techniques developed by Kretschmann and Raether, and by Otto. This article reports on the construction and operation of a rotatable, in vacuo, variable temperature, Otto coupler with a coupling gap that can be varied by remote control. The specific design attributes of the system offer additional advantages to those of standard Otto systems of (i) temperature variation (ambient to 85 K), and (ii) the use of a valuable, additional reference point, namely the gap-independent reflectance at the Brewster angle at any given, fixed temperature. The instrument is placed firmly in a historical context of developments in the field. The efficacy of the coupler is demonstrated by sample attenuated total reflectance results on films of platinum, niobium, and yttrium barium copper oxide and on aluminum/gallium arsenide (Al/GaAs) Schottky diode structures.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1309-90 Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto... including the systems described in § 86.1310 for petroleum-fueled diesel engines may be used if shown...

  14. 75 FR 70237 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto..., 1988). \\2\\ 53 FR 6197 (March 1, 1988) (Diesel) and 53 FR 7022 (March 4, 1988) (Otto-cycle). \\3\\ 69 FR... 209(b)(1)(C). \\11\\ See, e.g., 74 FR at 32767 (July 8, 2009); see also Motor and Equip. Mfrs. Assoc....

  15. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.008-10 Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...)(1) Exhaust emissions from new 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs shall not exceed:...

  16. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  17. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  18. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  19. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.008-10 Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...)(1) Exhaust emissions from new 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs shall not exceed:...

  20. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  1. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  2. 75 FR 7649 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Otto Dix”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Otto Dix'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... amended, and Delegation of Authority No. 257 of April 15, 2003 , I hereby determine that the objects to be... States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with...

  3. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  4. OTTO Revisited: Management Training and Management Performance. Some Perceptions of Headteachers and Key Subordinates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellawell, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a follow-up study to the 1984 One Term Training Opportunity (OTTO) for headteachers and senior teachers conducted by the City of Birmingham Polytechnic. Discusses the effects of the management training course and attempts to determine whether the performance of managers was significantly affected by management training. (GEA)

  5. Otto Peters on Distance Education: The Industrialization of Teaching and Learning. Routledge Studies in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains new and previously published translations of 11 essays and articles about the industrialization of teaching and learning in distance education that were originally published in German by Otto Peters between 1965 and 1993. A "Preface" (Desmond Keegan) and an introduction placing Peters' writings in their historical context begin…

  6. Damned Lies. And Statistics. Otto Neurath and Soviet Propaganda in the 1930s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chizlett, Clive

    1992-01-01

    Examines the philosophical and historical context in which Otto Neurath (1882-1945) worked. Examines critically (in the light of descriptive statistics) the principles of his Isotype Picture Language. Tests Neurath's personal credibility and scientific integrity by looking at his contributions to Soviet propaganda in the early 1930s. (SR)

  7. Mass propagation of the boll weevil parasite, Catolaccus grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Palamara, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    The USDA and the DOE production facility at Kansas City managed by AlliedSignal have partnered to redirect defense technologies to the development of specialized agricultural equipment. The initial use of the equipment will be for mass rearing of the boll weevil parasite, Catolaccus grandis, however, by reprogramming and altering fixtures, the equipment can be used for other insect species. The process flow diagrams for the following systems have been developed: (1) Mechanized Host Larvae Washing/Drying, Capsule Forming, Larvae Placement, Sealing, and Labeling; (2) Mechanized in vivo Preoviposition, Oviposition, and Developing; (3) Mechanized Placement in Release Containers; (4) Automated Packaging and Storage/Retrieval; (5) Mechanized System for Field Release; (6) Mechanized System for Adult Colony Maintenance, Egg Laying, and Egg Retrieval; (7) Mechanized System for in vitro Diet Manufacturing; (8) Mechanized System for in vitro Mass Propagation with Diet Dispensing, Egg Placement, and Developing of Parasite Pupae. Conceptual designs using ProEngineer software have been developed for four of the eight systems. The initial hardware will include the elements of the systems considered to be the most technologically challenging and those necessary to establish the feasibility of commercial mass rearing. The most important of these are mechanized in vitro diet manufacturing, egg laying/retrieval, egg placement and diet dispensing.

  8. Devolatilisation kinetics and pyrolytic analyses of Tectona grandis (teak).

    PubMed

    Balogun, A O; Lasode, O A; McDonald, A G

    2014-03-01

    Devolatilisation kinetics and pyrolytic analyses were carried out on Tectona grandis (teak) using iso-conversional methods (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Starink) and analytical Py-GC/MS technique respectively. Proximate and elemental analyses were also performed and they showed that the ash and C contents and the HHV were 0.7%, 49.6% and 19.8MJ/kg respectively. Biomass sample was subjected to multiple heating rates (5-35K/min) in thermogravimetric experiments and kinetic parameters were evaluated from the non-isothermal TGA curves. The activation energy (E) varied between 222 and 300kJ/mol as a function of degree of conversion. Similarly, the pre-exponential frequency factor (A) varied between 9.6×10(17) and 9.55×10(24)min(-1). Analytical Py-GC/MS showed the presence of CO2, acetic acid, furan+2-butanone, levoglucosan, trans-coniferyl alcohol and lignin derivatives. The proportion of phenolic compounds identified was more than one-third with isoeugenol, acetoguaiacone, and 4-vinylguaiacol showing dominance. PMID:24486938

  9. Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1)

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatis, K; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Saprospira grandis Gross et al. 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  10. Time to Detection with BacT/Alert FA Plus Compared to BacT/Alert FA Blood Culture Media.

    PubMed

    Nutman, A; Fisher Even-Tsur, S; Shapiro, G; Braun, T; Schwartz, D; Carmeli, Y

    2016-09-01

    Rapid identification of the causative pathogen in patients with bacteremia allows adjustment of antibiotic therapy and improves patient outcomes. We compared in vitro and real-life time to detection (TTD) of two blood culture media, BacT/Alert FA (FA) and BacT/Alert FA Plus (FA Plus), for the nine most common species of bacterial pathogens recovered from blood samples. Experimental data from simulated cultures was compared with microbiology records of TTD for both culture media with growth of the species of interest in clinical blood cultures. In the experimental conditions, median TTD was 3.8 hours (23.9 %) shorter using FA Plus media. The magnitude of reduction differed between species. Similarly, in real life data, FA Plus had shorter TTD than FA media; however, the difference between culture media was smaller, and median TTD was only 1 hour (8.5 %) less. We found shorter TTD with BacT/Alert FA Plus culture media, both experimentally and in real-life conditions and unrelated to antibiotic neutralization, highlighting the importance of appropriate blood culture media selection. PMID:27272123

  11. Mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of diacylglycerols containing hydroxy FA in castor oil and two normal FA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor oil can be used in industry. The molecular species of triacylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) in castor oil have been identified. We report here the identification of twelve diacylglycerols (DAG) containing hydroxy FA in castor oil using positive ion electrospray ionization mass ...

  12. The Eucalyptus grandis NBS-LRR Gene Family: Physical Clustering and Expression Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Nanette; Tobias, Peri A.; Naidoo, Sanushka; Külheim, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is a commercially important hardwood species and is known to be susceptible to a number of pests and pathogens. Determining mechanisms of defense is therefore a research priority. The published genome for E. grandis has aided the identification of one important class of resistance (R) genes that incorporate nucleotide binding sites and leucine-rich repeat domains (NBS-LRR). Using an iterative search process we identified NBS-LRR gene models within the E. grandis genome. We characterized the gene models and identified their genomic arrangement. The gene expression patterns were examined in E. grandis clones, challenged with a fungal pathogen (Chrysoporthe austroafricana) and insect pest (Leptocybe invasa). One thousand two hundred and fifteen putative NBS-LRR coding sequences were located which aligned into two large classes, Toll or interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) and coiled-coil (CC) based on NB-ARC domains. NBS-LRR gene-rich regions were identified with 76% organized in clusters of three or more genes. A further 272 putative incomplete resistance genes were also identified. We determined that E. grandis has a higher ratio of TIR to CC classed genes compared to other woody plant species as well as a smaller percentage of single NBS-LRR genes. Transcriptome profiles indicated expression hotspots, within physical clusters, including expression of many incomplete genes. The clustering of putative NBS-LRR genes correlates with differential expression responses in resistant and susceptible plants indicating functional relevance for the physical arrangement of this gene family. This analysis of the repertoire and expression of E. grandis putative NBS-LRR genes provides an important resource for the identification of novel and functional R-genes; a key objective for strategies to enhance resilience. PMID:26793216

  13. Transcriptome Analysis in Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA Interference in Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza Jr, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families’ data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects. PMID:24386449

  14. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

    PubMed

    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  15. [Isolation and identification of Metarhizium from Citrus grandis 'tomentosa' GAP base].

    PubMed

    Ma, Weisi; Xu, Jiang; Qiao, Haili; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiangming; Qin, Rongmin; Cheng, Huizhen

    2012-04-01

    A type of entomopathogenic fungus of soil in Citrus grandis 'tomentosa' production base was isolated and identified with morphological and molecular biological methods, including pathogenesis, spore characteristic and ITS sequence analysis were conducted. The results showed that eighteen entomopathogenic fungi strains were isolated from the Tenebrio molitor infected in the soil samples, which were identified as Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae. Based on results above, we concluded that there was quantity of Metarhizium resources in this area. These provided the useful information for controlling some pests of C. grandis by using these strains of fungus. PMID:22792782

  16. Epigenetics and development of food allergy (FA) in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-09-01

    This review aims to highlight the latest advance on epigenetics in the development of food allergy (FA) and to offer future perspectives. FA, a condition caused by an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to food, has emerged as a major clinical and public health problem worldwide in light of its increasing prevalence, potential fatality, and significant medical and economic impact. Current evidence supports that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in immune regulation and that the epigenome may represent a key "missing piece" of the etiological puzzle for FA. There are a growing number of population-based epigenetic studies on allergy-related phenotypes, mostly focused on DNA methylation. Previous studies mostly applied candidate-gene approaches and have demonstrated that epigenetic marks are associated with multiple allergic diseases and/or with early-life exposures relevant to allergy development (such as early-life smoking exposure, air pollution, farming environment, and dietary fat). Rapid technological advancements have made unbiased genome-wide DNA methylation studies highly feasible, although there are substantial challenge in study design, data analyses, and interpretation of findings. In conclusion, epigenetics represents both an important knowledge gap and a promising research area for FA. Due to the early onset of FA, epigenetic studies of FA in prospective birth cohorts have the potential to better understand gene-environment interactions and underlying biological mechanisms in FA during critical developmental windows (preconception, in utero, and early childhood) and may lead to new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA and provide novel targets for future drug discovery and therapies for FA. PMID:25096861

  17. Grating-coupled Otto configuration for hybridized surface phonon polariton excitation for local refractive index sensitivity enhancement.

    PubMed

    Pechprasarn, Suejit; Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Zheng, Gaige; Shen, Hong; Lei, Dang Yuan; Somekh, Michael G

    2016-08-22

    We demonstrate numerically through rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) that replacing the prism in the Otto configuration with gratings enables us to excite and control different modes and field patterns of surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) through the incident wavelength and height of the Otto spacing layer. This modified Otto configuration provides us the following multiple modes, namely, SPhP mode, Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity resonance, dielectric waveguide grating resonance (DWGR) and hybridized between different combinations of the above mentioned modes. We show that this modified grating-coupled Otto configuration has a highly confined field pattern within the structure, making it more sensitive to local refractive index changes on the SiC surface. The hybridized surface phonon polariton modes also provide a stronger field enhancement compared to conventional pure mode excitation. PMID:27557229

  18. Optimum outlet temperature of solar collector for maximum work output for an Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Eldighidy, S.M. )

    1993-09-01

    The optimum solar collector outlet temperature for maximizing the work output for an Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration is investigated. A mathematical model for the energy balance on the solar collector along with the useful work output and the thermal efficiency of the Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration is developed. The optimum solar collector outlet temperature for maximum work output is determined. The effect of radiative and convective heat losses from the solar collector, on the optimum outlet temperature is presented. The results reveal that the highest solar collector outlet temperature and, therefore, greatest Otto cycle efficiency and work output can be attained with the lowest values of radiative and convective heat losses. Moreover, high cycle work output (as a fraction of absorbed solar energy) and high efficiency of an Otto heat engine with ideal regeneration, driven by a solar collector system, can be attained with low compression ratio.

  19. Grating-coupled Otto configuration for hybridized surface phonon polariton excitation for local refractive index sensitivity enhancement.

    PubMed

    Pechprasarn, Suejit; Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Zheng, Gaige; Shen, Hong; Lei, Dang Yuan; Somekh, Michael G

    2016-08-22

    We demonstrate numerically through rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) that replacing the prism in the Otto configuration with gratings enables us to excite and control different modes and field patterns of surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) through the incident wavelength and height of the Otto spacing layer. This modified Otto configuration provides us the following multiple modes, namely, SPhP mode, Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity resonance, dielectric waveguide grating resonance (DWGR) and hybridized between different combinations of the above mentioned modes. We show that this modified grating-coupled Otto configuration has a highly confined field pattern within the structure, making it more sensitive to local refractive index changes on the SiC surface. The hybridized surface phonon polariton modes also provide a stronger field enhancement compared to conventional pure mode excitation.

  20. Spin-dependent Otto quantum heat engine based on a molecular substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Wolfgang; Lefkidis, Georgios; Dong, Chuanding; Chaudhuri, Debapriya; Chotorlishvili, Levan; Berakdar, Jamal

    2015-03-01

    We explore the potential of single molecules for thermodynamic cycles. To this end we propose two molecular heat engines based on the realistic Ni2 dimer: a quantum Otto engine and a modified quantum Otto engine for which laser-induced optical excitations substitute for one of the heat-exchange points. For reliable predictions and to inspect the role of spin and electronic correlations we perform fully correlated ab initio calculations of the electronic structure and the excited states. We analyze the efficiency and the word output of the derived engines and find an enhancement when the spin degree of freedom is included. We also use the von Neumann entropy to describe correlations and entanglement of the engines during the cycles. Furthermore, we link our results to previous results regarding an isobaric stroke and a magnetic quantum Diesel engine on the same substance.

  1. Spin-dependent Otto quantum heat engine based on a molecular substance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, W.; Lefkidis, G.; Dong, C. D.; Chaudhuri, D.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Berakdar, J.

    2014-07-01

    We explore the potential of single molecules for thermodynamic cycles. To this end we propose two molecular heat engines based on the Ni2 dimer in the presence of a static magnetic field: (a) a quantum Otto engine and (b) a modified quantum Otto engine for which optical excitations induced by a laser pulse substitute for one of the heat-exchange points. For reliable predictions and to inspect the role of spin and electronic correlations we perform fully correlated ab initio calculations of the molecular electronic structure including spin-orbital effects. We analyze the efficiency of the engines in dependence of the electronic level scheme and the entanglement and find a significant possible enhancement connected to the quantum nature and the heat capacity of the dimer, as well as to the zero-field triplet states splitting.

  2. Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Communities of Aquilaria crassna and Tectona grandis Roots and Soils in Thailand Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Chaiyasen, Amornrat; Young, J. Peter W.; Teaumroong, Neung; Gavinlertvatana, Paiboolya; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lec. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. are sources of resin-suffused agarwood and teak timber, respectively. This study investigated arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus community structure in roots and rhizosphere soils of A. crassna and T. grandis from plantations in Thailand to understand whether AM fungal communities present in roots and rhizosphere soils vary with host plant species and study sites. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism complemented with clone libraries revealed that AM fungal community composition in A. crassna and T. grandis were similar. A total of 38 distinct terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were found, 31 of which were shared between A. crassna and T. grandis. AM fungal communities in T. grandis samples from different sites were similar, as were those in A. crassna. The estimated average minimum numbers of AM fungal taxa per sample in roots and soils of T. grandis were at least 1.89 vs. 2.55, respectively, and those of A. crassna were 2.85 vs. 2.33 respectively. The TRFs were attributed to Claroideoglomeraceae, Diversisporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae. The Glomeraceae were found to be common in all study sites. Specific AM taxa in roots and soils of T. grandis and A. crassna were not affected by host plant species and sample source (root vs. soil) but affected by collecting site. Future inoculum production and utilization efforts can be directed toward the identified symbiotic associates of these valuable tree species to enhance reforestation efforts. PMID:25397675

  3. Otto Hahn (1879-1968): pioneer in radiochemistry and discoverer of radiotherapeutic mesothorium.

    PubMed

    Sgantzos, Markos; Kyrgias, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Karamanou, Marianna; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Androutsos, George

    2014-01-01

    Otto Hahn was a German innovative chemist. He had discovered various radioactive elements, as well as the nuclear fission. He finally received the Nobel Prize for his participation in the atomic energy project, which Hahn and others considered that could be a factor used for peaceful means like cheap electricity and cheap industrial products. His greatest discovery though in oncology was mesothorium, a radioactive element that had been used to treat all cancer types at the beginning of the 20th century.

  4. Otto Stern (1888-1969): The founding father of experimental atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toennies, J. P.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Friedrich, B.; Lower, J. C. A.

    2011-12-01

    We review the work and life of Otto Stern who developed the molecular beam technique and with its aid laid the foundations of experimental atomic physics. Among the key results of his research are: the experimental determination of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular velocities (1920), experimental demonstration of space quantization of angular momentum (1922), diffraction of matter waves comprised of atoms and molecules by crystals (1931) and the determination of the magnetic dipole moments of the proton and deuteron (1933).

  5. NASA Researches the 'FaINT' Side of Sonic Booms

    NASA Video Gallery

    As the latest in a continuing progression of NASA supersonics research projects aimed at reducing or mitigating the effect of sonic booms, the Farfield Investigation of No Boom Threshold, or FaINT,...

  6. F/A-18 FAST Offers Advanced System Test Capability

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has modified an F/A-18A Hornet aircraft with additional research flight control computer systems for use as a Full-scale Advanced Systems Test Bed. Previously f...

  7. F/A-18 Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) Phase 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are evaluating the capability of an F/A-18A aircraft as an in-flight refueling tanker to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refuelin...

  8. Heterozygous FA2H mutations in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Widespread abnormalities in white matter development are frequently reported in cases of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and could be involved in the disconnectivity suggested in these disorders. Homozygous mutations in the gene coding for fatty-acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H), an enzyme involved in myelin synthesis, are associated with complex leukodystrophies, but little is known about the functional impact of heterozygous FA2H mutations. We hypothesized that rare deleterious heterozygous mutations of FA2H might constitute risk factors for ASD. Methods We searched deleterious mutations affecting FA2H, by genotyping 1256 independent patients with ASD genotyped using Genome Wide SNP arrays, and also by sequencing in independent set of 186 subjects with ASD and 353 controls. We then explored the impact of the identified mutations by measuring FA2H enzymatic activity and expression, in transfected COS7 cells. Results One heterozygous deletion within 16q22.3-q23.1 including FA2H was observed in two siblings who share symptoms of autism and severe cognitive impairment, axial T2-FLAIR weighted MRI posterior periventricular white matter lesions. Also, two rare non-synonymous mutations (R113W and R113Q) were reported. Although predictive models suggested that R113W should be a deleterious, we did not find that FA2H activity was affected by expression of the R113W mutation in cultured COS cells. Conclusions While our results do not support a major role for FA2H coding variants in ASD, a screening of other genes related to myelin synthesis would allow us to better understand the role of non-neuronal elements in ASD susceptibility. PMID:24299421

  9. Explosive tandem and segmental duplications of multigenic families in Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Hong; Cao, Phi Bang; Fawal, Nizar; Mathé, Catherine; Azar, Sahar; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Marque, Christiane; Teulières, Chantal; Dunand, Christophe

    2015-03-13

    Plant organisms contain a large number of genes belonging to numerous multigenic families whose evolution size reflects some functional constraints. Sequences from eight multigenic families, involved in biotic and abiotic responses, have been analyzed in Eucalyptus grandis and compared with Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transcription factor families APETALA 2 (AP2)/ethylene responsive factor and GRAS, two auxin transporter families PIN-FORMED and AUX/LAX, two oxidoreductase families (ascorbate peroxidases [APx] and Class III peroxidases [CIII Prx]), and two families of protective molecules late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) and DNAj were annotated in expert and exhaustive manner. Many recent tandem duplications leading to the emergence of species-specific gene clusters and the explosion of the gene numbers have been observed for the AP2, GRAS, LEA, PIN, and CIII Prx in E. grandis, while the APx, the AUX/LAX and DNAj are conserved between species. Although no direct evidence has yet demonstrated the roles of these recent duplicated genes observed in E. grandis, this could indicate their putative implications in the morphological and physiological characteristics of E. grandis, and be the key factor for the survival of this nondormant species. Global analysis of key families would be a good criterion to evaluate the capabilities of some organisms to adapt to environmental variations.

  10. Explosive tandem and segmental duplications of multigenic families in Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Hong; Cao, Phi Bang; Fawal, Nizar; Mathé, Catherine; Azar, Sahar; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Marque, Christiane; Teulières, Chantal; Dunand, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Plant organisms contain a large number of genes belonging to numerous multigenic families whose evolution size reflects some functional constraints. Sequences from eight multigenic families, involved in biotic and abiotic responses, have been analyzed in Eucalyptus grandis and compared with Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transcription factor families APETALA 2 (AP2)/ethylene responsive factor and GRAS, two auxin transporter families PIN-FORMED and AUX/LAX, two oxidoreductase families (ascorbate peroxidases [APx] and Class III peroxidases [CIII Prx]), and two families of protective molecules late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) and DNAj were annotated in expert and exhaustive manner. Many recent tandem duplications leading to the emergence of species-specific gene clusters and the explosion of the gene numbers have been observed for the AP2, GRAS, LEA, PIN, and CIII Prx in E. grandis, while the APx, the AUX/LAX and DNAj are conserved between species. Although no direct evidence has yet demonstrated the roles of these recent duplicated genes observed in E. grandis, this could indicate their putative implications in the morphological and physiological characteristics of E. grandis, and be the key factor for the survival of this nondormant species. Global analysis of key families would be a good criterion to evaluate the capabilities of some organisms to adapt to environmental variations. PMID:25769696

  11. High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome. PMID:25385325

  12. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  13. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  14. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  15. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  16. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  17. FaPYR1 is involved in strawberry fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Chai, Ye-Mao; Jia, Hai-Feng; Li, Chun-Li; Dong, Qing-Hua; Shen, Yuan-Yue

    2011-10-01

    Although the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a role in the ripening of non-climatic fruit, direct genetic/molecular evidence is lacking. In the present study, a strawberry gene homologous to the Arabidopsis ABA receptor gene PYR1, named FaPYR1, was isolated and characterized. The 627 bp cDNA includes an intact open reading frame that encodes a deduced protein of 208 amino acids, in which putative conserved domains were detected by homology analysis. Using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), the FaPYR1 gene was silenced in strawberry fruit. Down-regulation of the FaPYR1 gene not only significantly delayed fruit ripening, but also markedly altered ABA content, ABA sensitivity, and a set of ABA-responsive gene transcripts, including ABI1 and SnRK2. Furthermore, the loss of red colouring in FaPYR1 RNAi (RNA interference) fruits could not be rescued by exogenously applied ABA, which could promote the ripening of wild-type fruits. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the putative ABA receptor FaPYR1 acts as a positive regulator in strawberry fruit ripening. It was also revealed that the application of the VIGS technique in strawberry fruit could be used as a novel tool for studying strawberry fruit development.

  18. Isolation of some pathogenic bacteria from the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis.

    PubMed

    Yaman, M; Ertürk, O; Aslan, I

    2010-01-01

    Some bacteria were isolated from Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis. Six bacteria from D. micans were identified as Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter intermedius, Citrobacter freundii, Cellulomonas flavigena, Microbacterium liquefaciens and Enterobacter amnigenus, three bacteria from R. grandis as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia grimesii, on the basis of fatty acid methyl ester analysis and carbon utilization profile by using Microbial Identification and Biolog Microplate Systems. Their insecticidal effects were tested on larvae and adults of D. micans.

  19. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis.

  20. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis. PMID:23835358

  1. Larvicidal effect of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and turpentine and their major components on Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Seccacini, Emilia; Licastro, Susana; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector

    2007-09-01

    In the search for new alternatives for the control of Aedes aegypti the larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and pine resin essential oil (turpentine) and their major components (alpha- and beta-pinene and 1,8-cineole) was determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of E. grandis essential oil revealed that its major components are alpha-pinene and 1,8-cineole. Similar analysis of turpentine obtained by distillation of the resin pitch of conifers showed that alpha- and beta-pinene are the only major components. Third and early 4th instars of the CIPEIN-susceptible strain of Ae. aegypti were exposed to acetonic solutions of E. grandis essential oil, turpentine, and their major components for 24 h. Turpentine, with an LC50 of 14.7 ppm, was more active than the essential oil of E. grandis (LC50: 32.4 ppm). Larvicidal activity of the essential oil components showed that alpha- and beta-pinene present low LC50 values (15.4 and 12.1 ppm, respectively), whereas pure 1,8-cineole showed an LC50 of 57.2 ppm. These results suggest that alpha-pinene in E. grandis and alpha- and beta-pinene in turpentine serve as the principal larvicidal components of both oils. Results obtained on larvicidal effects of essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis and turpentine could be considered a contribution to the search for new biodegradable larvicides of natural origin. PMID:17939510

  2. Analysis of a quantum irreversible Otto cycle with exergetic sustainable index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalkıran, Alper; Açıkkalp, Emin; Caner, Necmettin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, exergetic sustainability index is applied to quantum irreversible Otto cycle with -1/2 spin system. Exergetic sustainability index in a quantum engine is used first time. This index is the ratio of exergy output (work output for a thermal engine) to total exergetic losses. It gives an opportunity to evaluate for all thermodynamic losses in the system, that is why, it is an important index. In addition, some thermodynamic parameters (work output, exergy destruction, first and second law efficiencies) are considered and their relationships between the exergetic sustainability index are determined.

  3. Sound vibration signal processing for detection and identification detonation (knock) to optimize performance Otto engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujono, A.; Santoso, B.; Juwana, W. E.

    2016-03-01

    Problems of detonation (knock) on Otto engine (petrol engine) is completely unresolved problem until now, especially if want to improve the performance. This research did sound vibration signal processing engine with a microphone sensor, for the detection and identification of detonation. A microphone that can be mounted is not attached to the cylinder block, that's high temperature, so that its performance will be more stable, durable and inexpensive. However, the method of analysis is not very easy, because a lot of noise (interference). Therefore the use of new methods of pattern recognition, through filtration, and the regression function normalized envelope. The result is quite good, can achieve a success rate of about 95%.

  4. Occurrence of discontinuities in the performance of finite-time quantum Otto cycles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanjian; Hänggi, Peter; Poletti, Dario

    2016-07-01

    We study a quantum Otto cycle in which the strokes are performed in finite time. The cycle involves energy measurements at the end of each stroke to allow for the respective determination of work. We then optimize for the work and efficiency of the cycle by varying the time spent in the different strokes and find that the optimal value of the ratio of time spent on each stroke goes through sudden changes as the parameters of this cycle vary continuously. The position of these discontinuities depends on the optimized quantity under consideration such as the net work output or the efficiency. PMID:27575106

  5. Occurrence of discontinuities in the performance of finite-time quantum Otto cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuanjian; Hänggi, Peter; Poletti, Dario

    2016-07-01

    We study a quantum Otto cycle in which the strokes are performed in finite time. The cycle involves energy measurements at the end of each stroke to allow for the respective determination of work. We then optimize for the work and efficiency of the cycle by varying the time spent in the different strokes and find that the optimal value of the ratio of time spent on each stroke goes through sudden changes as the parameters of this cycle vary continuously. The position of these discontinuities depends on the optimized quantity under consideration such as the net work output or the efficiency.

  6. Les Observatoires astronomiques en Italie. An 1863 Report by Otto Wilhelm Struve.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Simone; Galli, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In the autumn of 1863 Otto Wilhelm Struve, director of the Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory in Russia, visited most of the observatories in Italy. The report that he wrote on this occasion provides an overview on the conditions of astronomical research in Italyjust after the unification of the country. Later Struve sent a French translation of his report to the Italian astronomer Giovan Battista Donati, who used it to promote the construction of the Arcetri Observatory in Florence, which was inaugurated in 1872. We present here a transcription of the French translation of Struve's report and the transcription of a letter written by him in support of Donati's project

  7. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  8. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  9. Antidyslipidemic activity of polyprenol from Coccinia grandis in high-fat diet-fed hamster model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Geetu; Gupta, Prasoon; Rawat, Preeti; Puri, Anju; Bhatia, Gitika; Maurya, Rakesh

    2007-12-01

    Ethanol extract of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt showed significant triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol-lowering effects in dyslipidemic hamster model. Ethanolic extract was fractionated into chloroform, n-butanol and water-soluble fractions and were evaluated. Activity was proved to be concentrated in chloroform-soluble fraction. Chloroform-soluble fraction containing active component was subjected to repeated column chromatography, furnished a polyprenol characterized as C(60)-polyprenol (1) isolated for the first time from this plant. It significantly decreased serum TG by 42%, total cholesterol (TC) 25% and glycerol (Gly) 12%, accompanied HDL-C/TC ratio 26% in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed dyslipidemic hamsters at the dose of 50mg/kg body weight. Results are comparable to standard drug fenofibrate at the dose of 108 mg/kg. Based on these investigations, it was concluded that the compound polyprenol (1) isolated from leaves of C. grandis possess marked antidyslipidemic activity.

  10. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    PubMed

    Alcântara, Berenice K de; Pizzaia, Daniel; Piotto, Fernando A; Borgo, Lucélia; Brondani, Gilvano E; Azevedo, Ricardo A

    2015-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al), a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis) has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 µM of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48 h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering. PMID:26062119

  11. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of Saprospira grandis str. Lewin, a predatory marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Saw, Jimmy H W; Yuryev, Anton; Kanbe, Masaomi; Hou, Shaobin; Young, Aaron G; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Alam, Maqsudul

    2012-03-19

    Saprospira grandis is a coastal marine bacterium that can capture and prey upon other marine bacteria using a mechanism known as 'ixotrophy'. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Saprospira grandis str. Lewin isolated from La Jolla beach in San Diego, California. The complete genome sequence comprises a chromosome of 4.35 Mbp and a plasmid of 54.9 Kbp. Genome analysis revealed incomplete pathways for the biosynthesis of nine essential amino acids but presence of a large number of peptidases. The genome encodes multiple copies of sensor globin-coupled rsbR genes thought to be essential for stress response and the presence of such sensor globins in Bacteroidetes is unprecedented. A total of 429 spacer sequences within the three CRISPR repeat regions were identified in the genome and this number is the largest among all the Bacteroidetes sequenced to date.

  12. Surface Plasmon Excitation and Emission Light Property for Otto/Kretschmann Configuration with MEH-PPV Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafuka, Megumi; Minagawa, Masahiro; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    Attenuated total reflection (ATR) property utilizing surface plasmon (SP) excitation was investigated for BK-7 prism/MgF2/Ag film/fluorescent organic dye film structure. In the structure, it is expected that SPs are excited at MgF2/Ag and Ag/dye film interfaces by Otto and Kretschmann configurations, respectively. In the experimental ATR curve, reflection dips for the SP excitations at the interfaces could be detected. Furthermore, SP emission lights were observed by irradiation of Ar ion laser beam from the dye film side. The SP emission light curve with two peaks was observed and it was also considered that the peaks corresponded to the SP excitation of Otto and Kretschmann configurations. The SP emission light spectra indicated the excited fluorescent dyes induced the SP emission lights. Intense emission light of Otto configuration was observed in this sample.

  13. The Oropharyngeal Morphology in the Semiaquatic Giant Asian Pond Turtle, Heosemys grandis, and Its Evolutionary Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lintner, Monika; Weissenbacher, Anton; Heiss, Egon

    2012-01-01

    The oropharynx as a functional entity plays a fundamental role in feeding. Transitions from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles in vertebrates demanded major changes of the oropharynx for the required adaptations to a different feeding environment. Extant turtles evolved terrestrial feeding modes in three families (testudinids, emydids, geoemydids)–independently from other amniotes–and are therefore important model organisms to reconstruct morpho-functional changes behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions. In this study we hypothesized that the oropharyngeal morphology in semiaquatic turtles of the geoemydid family shows parallels to testudinids, the only purely terrestrial extant lineage. We provide an in-depth description of the oropharynx in the semiaquatic geoemydid Heosemys grandis by using a combination of micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and subsequent digital in situ 3-D reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and histology. We show that H. grandis has a large tongue with rough papillose surface and well-developed lingual muscles. The attachment sites of the lingual muscles on the hyolingual skeleton and their courses within the tongue are nearly identical with testudinids. The hyolingual skeleton itself is mainly cartilaginous and shows distinct–but compared to testudinids rather small–anterior extensions of the hyoid body and hypoglossum. Oral glands are well developed in H. grandis but are smaller and simpler than in testudinids. Similarly, oropharyngeal keratinization was minimal and found only in the anterior palate, regions close to the beak, and tongue tip. We conclude that H. grandis shows distinct oropharyngeal morpho-functional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle but still retains characters typical for aquatic forms. This makes this species an important example showing the oropharyngeal adaptations behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions in turtles. PMID:23029486

  14. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  15. Molecular Diagnosis of Abdominal Armillifer grandis Pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Sulyok, Mihály; Rózsa, Lajos; Muntau, Birgit; Haeupler, Alexandra; Bodó, Imre; Hardi, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Pentastomiasis is an emerging snake-borne parasitic zoonosis in the tropics. We describe a molecular and morphological study to diagnose a cluster of asymptomatic abdominal human infections caused by Armillifer grandis. The findings may indicate a silent epidemic in a rural area where severe symptomatic ocular cases with the same parasite species have recently surfaced. Molecular diagnostics are of increasing importance when patient material from remote areas cannot be thoroughly examined locally for logistic reasons. PMID:25948609

  16. De novo Assembly and Transcriptomic Profiling of the Grazing Response in Stipa grandis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiangyang; Ren, Weibo; Ding, Yong; Sa, Rula

    2015-01-01

    Background Stipa grandis (Poaceae) is one of the dominant species in a typical steppe of the Inner Mongolian Plateau. However, primarily due to heavy grazing, the grasslands have become seriously degraded, and S. grandis has developed a special growth-inhibition phenotype against the stressful habitat. Because of the lack of transcriptomic and genomic information, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the grazing response of S. grandis has been prohibited. Results Using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, two libraries prepared from non-grazing (FS) and overgrazing samples (OS) were sequenced. De novo assembly produced 94,674 unigenes, of which 65,047 unigenes had BLAST hits in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (nr) database (E-value < 10-5). In total, 47,747, 26,156 and 40,842 unigenes were assigned to the Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, respectively. A total of 13,221 unigenes showed significant differences in expression under the overgrazing condition, with a threshold false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 and an absolute value of log2Ratio ≥ 1. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were assigned to 43,257 GO terms and were significantly enriched in 32 KEGG pathways (q-value ≤ 0.05). The alterations in the wound-, drought- and defense-related genes indicate that stressors have an additive effect on the growth inhibition of this species. Conclusions This first large-scale transcriptome study will provide important information for further gene expression and functional genomics studies, and it facilitated our investigation of the molecular mechanisms of the S. grandis grazing response and the associated morphological and physiological characteristics. PMID:25875617

  17. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O.; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification. PMID:26327118

  18. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    PubMed

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments. PMID:27343456

  19. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis. PMID:21906288

  20. Efficacy and toxicological evaluation of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) extract in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja Priyadarshani; Jayatilaka, Kamani Ayoma Perera Wijewardena; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini Kumari Boralugoda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oral antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (L.) (Cucurbitaceae) along with toxicological effects in alloxan induced diabetic and healthy Wistar rats. Methods A single graded dose of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (0.25-2.00 g/kg) was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, i.p.) diabetic Wistar rats (n=6). In acute toxicity assessment, Wistar rats were administered the extract at the same dose range and observed for three days. Sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by daily administration of the extract for 30 d at the dose which showed the optimum antihyperglycemic effect. Signs of toxicity, body weight of animals, consumption of food and water were monitored during the study period. The effects of the extract on biochemical (lipid parameters and activities of liver enzymes), hematological parameters (full blood count) and histopathological effects in organs were assessed at the end of the study. Results The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for Coccinia grandis leaf extract was found to be 0.75 g/kg in diabetic rats. The extract neither produced significant changes in consumption of food, intake of water, relative weight of organs nor affected biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters (P<0.05). Conclusions The extract at a dose of 0.75 g/kg was found to be toxicologically safe as a potential antihyperglycemic agent in Wistar rats.

  1. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL identification of juvenile growth traits in Torreya grandis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yanru; Ye, Shengyue; Yu, Weiwu; Wu, Song; Hou, Wei; Wu, Rongling; Dai, Wensheng; Chang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl, a conifer species widely distributed in Southeastern China, is of high economic value by producing edible, nutrient seeds. However, knowledge about the genome structure and organization of this species is poorly understood, thereby limiting the effective use of its gene resources. Here, we report on a first genetic linkage map for Torreya grandis using 96 progeny randomly chosen from a half-sib family of a commercially cultivated variety of this species, Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl cv. Merrillii. The map contains 262 molecular markers, i.e., 75 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD), 119 inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and 62 amplified fragments length polymorphisms (AFLP), and spans a total of 7,139.9 cM, separated by 10 linkage groups. The linkage map was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with juvenile growth traits by functional mapping. We identified four basal diameter-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 5 and 9; four height-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 2, 5 and 8. It was observed that the genetic effects of QTLs on growth traits vary with age, suggesting the dynamic behavior of growth QTLs. Part of the QTLs was found to display a pleiotropic effect on basal diameter growth and height growth.

  2. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    PubMed

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments.

  3. Antiproteolytic and leishmanicidal activity of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt leaf extract against Leishmania donovani promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Das, Partha; Paik, Dibyendu; Pramanik, Asmita; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), development of alternative safe therapeutic strategy is gaining paramount wherein natural components of plant origin have prominence. We explored Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, a medicinal plant known in traditional folk medicine, for its antileishmanial efficacy. SDS-PAGE analysis of the C. grandis leaf extract (Cg-Ex) showed few protein bands about 14-66 kDa among which three (64.8, 55.8 and 15.3 kDa) were identified as serine protease inhibitors by reverse zymography. Since the virulence of Leishmania is also attributed by serine proteases, objective of the present study was to evaluate in vitro antileishmanial activity of Cg-Ex, targeting Leishmania donovani serine protease(s). Inhibition study of Cg-Ex in gelatin-zymogram and spectrophotometric assay revealed its strong inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin rather than chymotrypsin, and also showed significant inhibition of L. donovani serine protease(s). Further, studies with Cg-Ex were extended to estimate its antileishmanial efficacy with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) at 308.0 ± 2.42 μg/ml along with significant morphological alterations. The results have demonstrated the potential of the serine protease inhibitor rich fraction of the C. grandis leaf extract against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:26669017

  4. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL identification of juvenile growth traits in Torreya grandis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl, a conifer species widely distributed in Southeastern China, is of high economic value by producing edible, nutrient seeds. However, knowledge about the genome structure and organization of this species is poorly understood, thereby limiting the effective use of its gene resources. Here, we report on a first genetic linkage map for Torreya grandis using 96 progeny randomly chosen from a half-sib family of a commercially cultivated variety of this species, Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl cv. Merrillii. The map contains 262 molecular markers, i.e., 75 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD), 119 inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and 62 amplified fragments length polymorphisms (AFLP), and spans a total of 7,139.9 cM, separated by 10 linkage groups. The linkage map was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with juvenile growth traits by functional mapping. We identified four basal diameter-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 5 and 9; four height-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 2, 5 and 8. It was observed that the genetic effects of QTLs on growth traits vary with age, suggesting the dynamic behavior of growth QTLs. Part of the QTLs was found to display a pleiotropic effect on basal diameter growth and height growth. PMID:25079139

  5. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  6. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  7. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  8. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  9. Spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-14ew and ASASSN-14fa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takats, K.; Bufano, F.; Pignata, G.; Prieto, J. L.

    2014-08-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-14ew (ATel #6367) and ASASSN-14fa (ATel #6372). The optical spectra (range 450-880 nm) were obtained on August 11.2 and 11.3 UT, respectively, with the SOAR telescope (+ Goodman Spectrograph).

  10. "What D'ya Mean, Project SOL-FA?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Olga S.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1977, Project Sol-fa, funded with an ESEA Title IV-C grant has provided Harrison County primary teachers with inservice training in the Kodaly method of music education. This article provides information on program funding, costs, and accomplishments. Evaluation forms and the inservice syllabus are appended. (SJL)

  11. Birth order and male androphilia in Samoan fa'afafine

    PubMed Central

    Vasey, Paul L; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2007-01-01

    The manner in which male androphilia is publicly expressed varies cross-culturally. As such, it is unclear whether distinct or common underlying causal processes characterize male androphilia in different cultures. Establishing the existence of cross-cultural universals in male androphilia is one means of ascertaining whether common biological bases underlie this phenomenon despite its culturally distinct forms. The evidence that the number of older biological brothers increases the odds of androphilia in later-born males has been well documented for Western samples (i.e. the fraternal birth order effect); but there is little evidence for this effect in non-Western samples. Here, we compare the birth order of androphilic males (i.e. fa'afafine) and gynephilic males from the politically autonomous Polynesian nation of Independent Samoa. Results indicate that relative to gynephilic males, fa'afafine tend to have more siblings and are generally later born when birth order is quantified using Slater, fraternal and sororal indices. More specifically, fa'afafine tend to have a greater number of older brothers, older sisters and younger brothers. We discuss the observed effects in relation to the differing reproductive patterns exhibited by the mothers of fa'afafine and gynephilic males, and to existing social and biological theories for sexual orientation. PMID:17412683

  12. IRAC F/A-18 RFCS on NASA 853

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahli, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    F/A-18 testbed development and flight research are highlighted in this presentation. The current focus is on stability, specifically adaptive flight control, but soon the focus will move towards stability and maneuverability, examining flight planning and guidance, adaptive flight control, engine control and airframe and structures. Later research will additionally review V and V methods. Current and future IRAC plans are highlighted.

  13. Confusion of wills: Otto Rank's contribution to an understanding of childism.

    PubMed

    Barbre, Claude

    2012-12-01

    Drawing from Elisabeth Young-Bruehl's psychological and psychodynamic study of prejudice as a starting point, this paper explores the phenomenon of childism-namely, the prejudice again children-from a Rankian psychodynamic perspective. Young-Bruehl argues that childism is comparable to prejudices such as anti-Semitism, sexism, and racism, and serves such purposes as the elimination of an individual's personhood, sexual exploitation, and the erasure of identity. Adding to Young-Bruehl's analysis of the social and psychological causes and effects of prejudice against children, this paper will examine the nature and dangers of childism explicit and implicit in the writings of Otto Rank. We will examine the development of creative will in child maturation-a development that childist forms of prejudice may obstruct, inhibit, and compromise. We will see that Young-Bruehl's foundational writing on childism echoes many of the observations and writings of Otto Rank in regard to the prejudice against children, and how such prejudice deeply diminishes, undermines, and fractures our unfolding lives and creative will in a shared world. PMID:23175030

  14. Confusion of wills: Otto Rank's contribution to an understanding of childism.

    PubMed

    Barbre, Claude

    2012-12-01

    Drawing from Elisabeth Young-Bruehl's psychological and psychodynamic study of prejudice as a starting point, this paper explores the phenomenon of childism-namely, the prejudice again children-from a Rankian psychodynamic perspective. Young-Bruehl argues that childism is comparable to prejudices such as anti-Semitism, sexism, and racism, and serves such purposes as the elimination of an individual's personhood, sexual exploitation, and the erasure of identity. Adding to Young-Bruehl's analysis of the social and psychological causes and effects of prejudice against children, this paper will examine the nature and dangers of childism explicit and implicit in the writings of Otto Rank. We will examine the development of creative will in child maturation-a development that childist forms of prejudice may obstruct, inhibit, and compromise. We will see that Young-Bruehl's foundational writing on childism echoes many of the observations and writings of Otto Rank in regard to the prejudice against children, and how such prejudice deeply diminishes, undermines, and fractures our unfolding lives and creative will in a shared world.

  15. Efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto cycle within finite-time or irreversible thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feilong; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli; Wang, Jianhui

    2014-12-01

    We consider the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto engine, which uses a spin or a harmonic system as its working substance and works between two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures T(h) and T(c) (Otto engine working in the linear-response regime.

  16. Efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto cycle within finite-time or irreversible thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feilong; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli; Wang, Jianhui

    2014-12-01

    We consider the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto engine, which uses a spin or a harmonic system as its working substance and works between two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures Th and Tc (Otto engine working in the linear-response regime.

  17. Jung's twin brother. Otto Gross and Carl Gustav Jung. With an hitherto unpublished letter by C. G. Jung.

    PubMed

    Heuer, G

    2001-10-01

    This paper is a preliminary communication of several years of research into the life and work of the Austrian psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross (1877-1920). Although he played a pivotal role in the birth of modernity, acting as a significant influence upon psychiatry, psychoanalysis, ethics, sociology and literature, he has remained virtually unknown to this day. Following a biographical sketch and an overview of his main theoretical contributions, the impact of Gross' life and work on the development of analytical theory and practice is described. His relationship with some of the key figures in psychoanalysis is presented, with particular emphasis on his connections to Jung. The paper concludes with an account of relevant contemporary interest in his work: the founding of the International Otto Gross Society, the first edition of The Collected Works of Otto Gross on the Internet, and the 1st and 2nd International Otto Gross Congresses which took place in Berlin in 1999 and at the Burghölzli Clinic, Zürich, in October 2000. PMID:11675896

  18. Jung's twin brother. Otto Gross and Carl Gustav Jung. With an hitherto unpublished letter by C. G. Jung.

    PubMed

    Heuer, G

    2001-10-01

    This paper is a preliminary communication of several years of research into the life and work of the Austrian psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross (1877-1920). Although he played a pivotal role in the birth of modernity, acting as a significant influence upon psychiatry, psychoanalysis, ethics, sociology and literature, he has remained virtually unknown to this day. Following a biographical sketch and an overview of his main theoretical contributions, the impact of Gross' life and work on the development of analytical theory and practice is described. His relationship with some of the key figures in psychoanalysis is presented, with particular emphasis on his connections to Jung. The paper concludes with an account of relevant contemporary interest in his work: the founding of the International Otto Gross Society, the first edition of The Collected Works of Otto Gross on the Internet, and the 1st and 2nd International Otto Gross Congresses which took place in Berlin in 1999 and at the Burghölzli Clinic, Zürich, in October 2000.

  19. Maternal Employment Experiences Affect Children's Behavior via Mood, Cognitive Difficulties, and Parenting Behavior: A Reply to Otto and Atkinson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEwen, Karyl E.; Barling, Julian

    1994-01-01

    Reacts to commentary by Otto and Atkinson concerning MacEwen and Barling's 1991 article on effects of maternal employment experiences on children's behavior. Argues that analyses reported in original article did appropriately test hypotheses outlined in paper and that conclusions were appropriate and substantively similar to conclusions presented…

  20. Description of the female and notes on distribution, habitat, nymphal development, song and chromosomes of Tropidonotacris grandis Ragge (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae).

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia; Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elżbieta; Hemp, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The female of Tropidonotacris grandis is described and information on distribution, habitat, song, chromosomes and nymphal development of this species given. The populations of northern Tanzania all occur in deciduous dry forest, a habitat highly endangered by destruction and therefore T. grandis must be regarded at least as a vulnerable species according to the IUCN red list.  PMID:25544539

  1. Using morphometrics, in situ observations and genetic characters to distinguish among commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species; a redescription of Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 (Antipatharia : Antipathidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Daniel; Toonen, Robert J.; Brugler, Mercer R.; France, Scott C.; Opresko, Dennis M; Montgomery, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    The commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 is redescribed based on reexamination of the holotype from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum and field collections of 34 specimens from depths of 27-127 m. The first scanning electron micrographs of A. grandis skeletal spines are provided, along with a series of in situ color photographs and morphometric measurements of spines and polyps. Three color morphotypes were collected in the field (red, pale red, and white), none of which could be differentiated based on morphological or genetic characters (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). In situ observations are used in conjunction with morphological and genetic characters to distinguish among the commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species A. grandis and A. griggi Opresko, 2009. A. grandis is differentiated from A. griggi by its finer and more irregular branching, smaller and more closely-spaced polyps, and conical spines that are smaller and not characterized by bifurcations towards their apex. Morphologically, the species most closely resembling A. grandis is A. caribbeana Opresko, 1996 from the Caribbean. Among analyzed congenerics, DNA sequences of A. grandis were likewise most similar to those of A. caribbeana for three of the four molecular markers used in this study. A combination of low genetic variability, incomplete taxonomic sampling, and unexpected similarity between A. caribbeana and the unbranched whip coral Stichopathes cf. occidentalis (Gray, 1860), hindered our ability to determine the sister relationship of A. grandis. However, in no phylogenetic reconstruction did A. grandis group sister to its sympatric congener A. griggi.

  2. Description of the female and notes on distribution, habitat, nymphal development, song and chromosomes of Tropidonotacris grandis Ragge (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae).

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia; Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elżbieta; Hemp, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The female of Tropidonotacris grandis is described and information on distribution, habitat, song, chromosomes and nymphal development of this species given. The populations of northern Tanzania all occur in deciduous dry forest, a habitat highly endangered by destruction and therefore T. grandis must be regarded at least as a vulnerable species according to the IUCN red list. 

  3. Warburg effect(s)-a biographical sketch of Otto Warburg and his impacts on tumor metabolism.

    PubMed

    Otto, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Virtually everyone working in cancer research is familiar with the "Warburg effect", i.e., anaerobic glycolysis in the presence of oxygen in tumor cells. However, few people nowadays are aware of what lead Otto Warburg to the discovery of this observation and how his other scientific contributions are seminal to our present knowledge of metabolic and energetic processes in cells. Since science is a human endeavor, and a scientist is imbedded in a network of social and academic contacts, it is worth taking a glimpse into the biography of Otto Warburg to illustrate some of these influences and the historical landmarks in his life. His creative and innovative thinking and his experimental virtuosity set the framework for his scientific achievements, which were pioneering not only for cancer research. Here, I shall allude to the prestigious family background in imperial Germany; his relationships to Einstein, Meyerhof, Krebs, and other Nobel and notable scientists; his innovative technical developments and their applications in the advancement of biomedical sciences, including the manometer, tissue slicing, and cell cultivation. The latter were experimental prerequisites for the first metabolic measurements with tumor cells in the 1920s. In the 1930s-1940s, he improved spectrophotometry for chemical analysis and developed the optical tests for measuring activities of glycolytic enzymes. Warburg's reputation brought him invitations to the USA and contacts with the Rockefeller Foundation; he received the Nobel Prize in 1931. World politics and world wars heavily affected Warburg's scientific survival in Berlin. But, after his second postwar recovery, Warburg's drive for unraveling the energetic processes of life, both in plants and in tumor cells, continued until his death in 1970. The legacy of Otto Warburg is not only the Warburg effect, but also the identification of the "respiratory ferment" and hydrogen-transferring cofactors and the isolation of glycolytic enzymes

  4. Warburg effect(s)-a biographical sketch of Otto Warburg and his impacts on tumor metabolism.

    PubMed

    Otto, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Virtually everyone working in cancer research is familiar with the "Warburg effect", i.e., anaerobic glycolysis in the presence of oxygen in tumor cells. However, few people nowadays are aware of what lead Otto Warburg to the discovery of this observation and how his other scientific contributions are seminal to our present knowledge of metabolic and energetic processes in cells. Since science is a human endeavor, and a scientist is imbedded in a network of social and academic contacts, it is worth taking a glimpse into the biography of Otto Warburg to illustrate some of these influences and the historical landmarks in his life. His creative and innovative thinking and his experimental virtuosity set the framework for his scientific achievements, which were pioneering not only for cancer research. Here, I shall allude to the prestigious family background in imperial Germany; his relationships to Einstein, Meyerhof, Krebs, and other Nobel and notable scientists; his innovative technical developments and their applications in the advancement of biomedical sciences, including the manometer, tissue slicing, and cell cultivation. The latter were experimental prerequisites for the first metabolic measurements with tumor cells in the 1920s. In the 1930s-1940s, he improved spectrophotometry for chemical analysis and developed the optical tests for measuring activities of glycolytic enzymes. Warburg's reputation brought him invitations to the USA and contacts with the Rockefeller Foundation; he received the Nobel Prize in 1931. World politics and world wars heavily affected Warburg's scientific survival in Berlin. But, after his second postwar recovery, Warburg's drive for unraveling the energetic processes of life, both in plants and in tumor cells, continued until his death in 1970. The legacy of Otto Warburg is not only the Warburg effect, but also the identification of the "respiratory ferment" and hydrogen-transferring cofactors and the isolation of glycolytic enzymes

  5. Effects of autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis on influence of chemical components and crystallinity index.

    PubMed

    da Silva Morais, Alaine Patrícia; Sansígolo, Cláudio Angeli; de Oliveira Neto, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Samples of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust were autohydrolyzed in aqueous conditions to reach temperatures in the range 110-190°C and reaction times of 0-150min in a minireactor. In each minireactor were used a liquor:wood ratio (10:1 L:kg dry wood), in order to assess the effects of the autohydrolysis severity and the crystalline properties of cellulose. The content of extractives, lignin, holocellulose, cellulose, hemicelluloses and crystallinity index obtained from the solid fraction after autohydrolysis of sawdust were determined. This study demonstrated that the hemicelluloses were extensively removed at 170 and 190°C, whereas cellulose was partly degraded to Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust. The lignin content decreased, while the extractives content increased. It was defined that during autohydrolysis, had a slight decreased on crystalline structure of cellulose of Eucalyptus urogandis and Eucalyptus grandis. PMID:27187566

  6. Life and Achievement of Otto von Guericke as a Pioneer of Vacuum Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Akira

    Scientific achievement of Otto von Guericke was very remarkable, but it was not introduced in detail in Japan. This was due to his demonstrating experiment with Magdeburug hemisphere using horses was too famous. Therefore, the author wrote in chapter 1, a brief overview of the literature already published in Japan about Guericke and the time he lived in. Chapter 2 will describe his entire life including administrative and political contributions to the city of Magdeburg. Chapter 3 will be used to provide the reader with information on Guericke's activities as physicist, drawing materials from his book. In chapter 4, the author concludes to remark the work to be done in future to obtain clearer description.

  7. Quantum Otto cycle with inner friction: finite-time and disorder effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecce, A.; Galve, F.; Lo Gullo, N.; Dell'Anna, L.; Plastina, F.; Zambrini, R.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of inner friction, by which a quantum heat engine is unable to follow adiabatically its strokes and thus dissipates useful energy, is illustrated in an exact physical model where the working substance consists of an ensemble of misaligned spins interacting with a magnetic field and performing the Otto cycle. The effect of this static disorder under a finite-time cycle gives a new perspective of the concept of inner friction under realistic settings. We investigate the efficiency and power of this engine and relate its performance to the amount of friction from misalignment and to the temperature difference between heat baths. Finally we propose an alternative experimental implementation of the cycle where the spin is encoded in the degree of polarization of photons.

  8. Much Polyphony but Little Harmony: Otto Sackur's Groping for a Quantum Theory of Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badino, Massimiliano; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2013-09-01

    The endeavor of Otto Sackur (1880-1914) was driven, on the one hand, by his interest in Nernst's heat theorem, statistical mechanics, and the problem of chemical equilibrium and, on the other hand, by his goal to shed light on classical mechanics from the quantum vantage point. Inspired by the interplay between classical physics and quantum theory, Sackur chanced to expound his personal take on the role of the quantum in the changing landscape of physics in the turbulent 1910s. We tell the story of this enthusiastic practitioner of the old quantum theory and early contributor to quantum statistical mechanics, whose scientific ontogenesis provides a telling clue about the phylogeny of his contemporaries.

  9. Low-threshold optical bistability with multilayer graphene-covering Otto configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hengliang; Wu, Jipeng; Guo, Jun; Jiang, Leyong; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified Otto configuration to realize tunable and low-threshold optical bistability at terahertz frequencies by attaching multilayer graphene sheets to a nonlinear substrate interface. Our work demonstrates that the threshold of optical bistability can be markedly reduced (three orders of magnitude) by covering the nonlinear substrate with multilayer graphene sheets, due to strong local field enhancement with the excitation of surface plasmons. We present the influences of the Fermi energy of graphene, the incident angle, the thickness of air gap and the relaxation time of graphene on the hysteresis phenomenon and give a way to optimize the surface plasmon resonance, which will enable us to further lower the minimal power requirements for realizing optical bistability due to the strong interaction of light with graphene sheets. These results are promising for realization of terahertz optical switches, optical modulators and logical devices.

  10. North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of a sign, Kaiser Foundation Hospital. Horizontal ribbon windows continue on this façade. - Richmond Field Hospital, 1330 Cutting Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  11. Ligand Binding to the FA3-FA4 Cleft Inhibits the Esterase-Like Activity of Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Leboffe, Loris; di Masi, Alessandra; Trezza, Viviana; Fanali, Gabriella; Gioia, Magda; Coletta, Massimo; Fasano, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl esters of hexanoate (NphOHe) and decanoate (NphODe) by human serum albumin (HSA) at Tyr411, located at the FA3-FA4 site, has been investigated between pH 5.8 and 9.5, at 22.0°C. Values of Ks, k+2, and k+2/Ks obtained at [HSA] ≥ 5×[NphOXx] and [NphOXx] ≥ 5×[HSA] (Xx is NphOHe or NphODe) match very well each other; moreover, the deacylation step turns out to be the rate limiting step in catalysis (i.e., k+3 << k+2). The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of NphOHe and NphODe can be described by the acidic pKa-shift of a single amino acid residue, which varies from 8.9 in the free HSA to 7.6 and 7.0 in the HSA:NphOHe and HSA:NphODe complex, respectively; the pK>a-shift appears to be correlated to the length of the fatty acid tail of the substrate. The inhibition of the HSA-Tyr411-catalyzed hydrolysis of NphOHe, NphODe, and 4-nitrophenyl myristate (NphOMy) by five inhibitors (i.e., diazepam, diflunisal, ibuprofen, 3-indoxyl-sulfate, and propofol) has been investigated at pH 7.5 and 22.0°C, resulting competitive. The affinity of diazepam, diflunisal, ibuprofen, 3-indoxyl-sulfate, and propofol for HSA reflects the selectivity of the FA3-FA4 cleft. Under conditions where Tyr411 is not acylated, the molar fraction of diazepam, diflunisal, ibuprofen, and 3-indoxyl-sulfate bound to HSA is higher than 0.9 whereas the molar fraction of propofol bound to HSA is ca. 0.5. PMID:25790235

  12. Opuntia ficus indica (nopal) attenuates hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    PubMed

    Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; López-Romero, Patricia; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Nopal, a cactus plant widely consumed in the Mexican diet, is considered a functional food because of its antioxidant activity and ability to improve biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nopal consumption on the development of hepatic steatosis and hepatic oxidative stress and on the regulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing 4% nopal for 7 wk. Rats fed the nopal-containing diet had ∼50% lower hepatic TG than the control group as well as a reduction in hepatomegaly and biomarkers of hepatocyte injury such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Attenuation of hepatic steatosis by nopal consumption was accompanied by a higher serum concentration of adiponectin and a greater abundance of mRNA for genes involved in lipid oxidation and lipid export and production of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and microsomal TG transfer proteins in liver. Hepatic reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation biomarkers were significantly lower in rats fed nopal compared with the control rats. Furthermore, rats fed the nopal diet had a lower postprandial serum insulin concentration and a greater liver phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT):AKT ratio in the postprandial state. This study suggests that nopal consumption attenuates hepatic steatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL synthesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving liver insulin signaling in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. PMID:23014486

  13. Ligand binding to the FA3-FA4 cleft inhibits the esterase-like activity of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Leboffe, Loris; di Masi, Alessandra; Trezza, Viviana; Fanali, Gabriella; Gioia, Magda; Coletta, Massimo; Fasano, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl esters of hexanoate (NphOHe) and decanoate (NphODe) by human serum albumin (HSA) at Tyr411, located at the FA3-FA4 site, has been investigated between pH 5.8 and 9.5, at 22.0°C. Values of Ks, k+2, and k+2/Ks obtained at [HSA] ≥ 5×[NphOXx] and [NphOXx] ≥ 5×[HSA] (Xx is NphOHe or NphODe) match very well each other; moreover, the deacylation step turns out to be the rate limiting step in catalysis (i.e., k+3 < k+2). The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of NphOHe and NphODe can be described by the acidic pKa-shift of a single amino acid residue, which varies from 8.9 in the free HSA to 7.6 and 7.0 in the HSA:NphOHe and HSA:NphODe complex, respectively; the pK>a-shift appears to be correlated to the length of the fatty acid tail of the substrate. The inhibition of the HSA-Tyr411-catalyzed hydrolysis of NphOHe, NphODe, and 4-nitrophenyl myristate (NphOMy) by five inhibitors (i.e., diazepam, diflunisal, ibuprofen, 3-indoxyl-sulfate, and propofol) has been investigated at pH 7.5 and 22.0°C, resulting competitive. The affinity of diazepam, diflunisal, ibuprofen, 3-indoxyl-sulfate, and propofol for HSA reflects the selectivity of the FA3-FA4 cleft. Under conditions where Tyr411 is not acylated, the molar fraction of diazepam, diflunisal, ibuprofen, and 3-indoxyl-sulfate bound to HSA is higher than 0.9 whereas the molar fraction of propofol bound to HSA is ca. 0.5. PMID:25790235

  14. Opuntia ficus indica (nopal) attenuates hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    PubMed

    Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; López-Romero, Patricia; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Nopal, a cactus plant widely consumed in the Mexican diet, is considered a functional food because of its antioxidant activity and ability to improve biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nopal consumption on the development of hepatic steatosis and hepatic oxidative stress and on the regulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing 4% nopal for 7 wk. Rats fed the nopal-containing diet had ∼50% lower hepatic TG than the control group as well as a reduction in hepatomegaly and biomarkers of hepatocyte injury such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Attenuation of hepatic steatosis by nopal consumption was accompanied by a higher serum concentration of adiponectin and a greater abundance of mRNA for genes involved in lipid oxidation and lipid export and production of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and microsomal TG transfer proteins in liver. Hepatic reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation biomarkers were significantly lower in rats fed nopal compared with the control rats. Furthermore, rats fed the nopal diet had a lower postprandial serum insulin concentration and a greater liver phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT):AKT ratio in the postprandial state. This study suggests that nopal consumption attenuates hepatic steatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL synthesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving liver insulin signaling in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

  15. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis

    PubMed Central

    Budzinski, Ilara G. F.; Moon, David H.; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD+ for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree. PMID:27446160

  16. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Budzinski, Ilara G F; Moon, David H; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD(+) for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree. PMID:27446160

  17. FaGAST2, a strawberry ripening-related gene, acts together with FaGAST1 to determine cell size of the fruit receptacle.

    PubMed

    Moyano-Cañete, Enriqueta; Bellido, María L; García-Caparrós, Nicolás; Medina-Puche, Laura; Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; González-Reyes, José A; Caballero, José L; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Blanco-Portales, Rosario

    2013-02-01

    Numerous GAST-like genes have been reported in higher plants, but only one GAST-like gene (FaGAST1) has been described in strawberry so far. Herein, we have identified a novel strawberry FaGAST gene (FaGAST2) whose expression showed an increase throughout fruit receptacle development and ripening, coinciding with those stages where a decrease in fruit expansion processes (G3-W and R-OR stages) occurs. FaGAST2 only shares 31% and 15.7% amino acid and nucleotide sequence homology, respectively, with the previously reported FaGAST1 gene, but both genes contain a signal peptide and a highly conserved GASA domain (cysteine-rich domain) in the C-terminal region. FaGAST2 expression is mainly confined to the fruit receptacle and is not regulated by auxins, GA(3) or ABA, but is regulated by ethephon, an intracellular generator of ethylene. In addition, the expression of the FaGAST2 gene also increased under oxidative stress conditions (H(2)O(2) or Colletotrichum acutatum infection), suggesting a direct role for FaGAST2 protein in reactive oxygen species scavenging during fruit growth and ripening and during fungal infection. On the other hand, the overexpression of the FaGAST2 gene in different transgenic lines analyzed caused a delay in the growth of strawberry plants and a reduction in the size of the transgenic fruits. The histological studies performed in these fruits showed that their parenchymal cells were smaller than those of the controls, supporting a relationship between FaGAST2 gene expression, strawberry fruit cell elongation and fruit size. However, transitory silencing of FaGAST2 gene expression through RNA interference approaches revealed an increase in FaGAST1 expression, but no changes in fruit cell size were observed. These results support the hypothesis that both genes must act synergistically to determine fruit cell size during fruit development and ripening.

  18. FaGAST2, a strawberry ripening-related gene, acts together with FaGAST1 to determine cell size of the fruit receptacle.

    PubMed

    Moyano-Cañete, Enriqueta; Bellido, María L; García-Caparrós, Nicolás; Medina-Puche, Laura; Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; González-Reyes, José A; Caballero, José L; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Blanco-Portales, Rosario

    2013-02-01

    Numerous GAST-like genes have been reported in higher plants, but only one GAST-like gene (FaGAST1) has been described in strawberry so far. Herein, we have identified a novel strawberry FaGAST gene (FaGAST2) whose expression showed an increase throughout fruit receptacle development and ripening, coinciding with those stages where a decrease in fruit expansion processes (G3-W and R-OR stages) occurs. FaGAST2 only shares 31% and 15.7% amino acid and nucleotide sequence homology, respectively, with the previously reported FaGAST1 gene, but both genes contain a signal peptide and a highly conserved GASA domain (cysteine-rich domain) in the C-terminal region. FaGAST2 expression is mainly confined to the fruit receptacle and is not regulated by auxins, GA(3) or ABA, but is regulated by ethephon, an intracellular generator of ethylene. In addition, the expression of the FaGAST2 gene also increased under oxidative stress conditions (H(2)O(2) or Colletotrichum acutatum infection), suggesting a direct role for FaGAST2 protein in reactive oxygen species scavenging during fruit growth and ripening and during fungal infection. On the other hand, the overexpression of the FaGAST2 gene in different transgenic lines analyzed caused a delay in the growth of strawberry plants and a reduction in the size of the transgenic fruits. The histological studies performed in these fruits showed that their parenchymal cells were smaller than those of the controls, supporting a relationship between FaGAST2 gene expression, strawberry fruit cell elongation and fruit size. However, transitory silencing of FaGAST2 gene expression through RNA interference approaches revealed an increase in FaGAST1 expression, but no changes in fruit cell size were observed. These results support the hypothesis that both genes must act synergistically to determine fruit cell size during fruit development and ripening. PMID:23231876

  19. This NASA Dryden F/A-18 is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. F/A-18 (No

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Dryden F/A-18 is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. F/A-18 (No. 847) is acting as an in-flight refueling tanker in the study to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refueling system for unmanned vehicles. A 300-gallon aerodynamic pod containing air-refueling equipment is seen beneath the fuselage. The hose and refueling basket are extended during an assessment of their dynamics on the F/A-18A.

  20. FaPOD27 functions in the metabolism of polyphenols in strawberry fruit (Fragaria sp.).

    PubMed

    Yeh, Su-Ying; Huang, Fong-Chin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Mayershofer, Mechthild; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is one of the most preferred fresh fruit worldwide, accumulates numerous flavonoids but has limited shelf life due to excessive tissue softening caused by cell wall degradation. Since lignin is one of the polymers that strengthen plant cell walls and might contribute to some extent to fruit firmness monolignol biosynthesis was studied in strawberry fruit. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and a peroxidase (POD27) gene were strongly expressed in red, ripe fruit whereas a second POD gene was primarily expressed in green, immature fruit. Moreover, FaPOD27 transcripts were strongly and constitutively induced in fruits exposed to Agrobacterium infection. Gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of FaCCR and FaCAD were efficiently suppressed through RNAi in FaCCR- and FaCAD-silenced strawberries. Besides, significantly elevated FaPOD transcript levels were detected after agroinfiltration of pBI-FaPOD constructs in fruits. At the same time, levels of G-monomers were considerably reduced in FaCCR-silenced fruits whereas the proportion of both G- and S-monomers decisively decreased in FaCAD-silenced and pBI-FaPOD fruits. Development, firmness, and lignin level of the treated fruits were similar to pBI-intron control fruits, presumably attributed to increased expression levels of FaPOD27 upon agroinfiltration. Additionally, enhanced firmness, accompanied with elevated lignin levels, was revealed in chalcone synthase-deficient fruits (CHS(-)), independent of down- or up-regulation of individual and combined FaCCR. FaCAD, and FaPOD genes by agroinfiltration, when compared to CHS(-)/pBI-intron control fruits. These approaches provide further insight into the genetic control of flavonoid and lignin synthesis in strawberries. The results suggest that FaPOD27 is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit and thus to improving the firmness of strawberries. PMID:25346738

  1. Whole exome sequencing reveals concomitant mutations of multiple FA genes in individual Fanconi anemia patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited genetic syndrome with highly variable clinical manifestations. Fifteen genetic subtypes of FA have been identified. Traditional complementation tests for grouping studies have been used generally in FA patients and in stepwise methods to identify the FA type, which can result in incomplete genetic information from FA patients. Methods We diagnosed five pediatric patients with FA based on clinical manifestations, and we performed exome sequencing of peripheral blood specimens from these patients and their family members. The related sequencing data were then analyzed by bioinformatics, and the FANC gene mutations identified by exome sequencing were confirmed by PCR re-sequencing. Results Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations of FANC genes were identified in all of the patients. The FA subtypes of the patients included FANCA, FANCM and FANCD2. Interestingly, four FA patients harbored multiple mutations in at least two FA genes, and some of these mutations have not been previously reported. These patients’ clinical manifestations were vastly different from each other, as were their treatment responses to androstanazol and prednisone. This finding suggests that heterozygous mutation(s) in FA genes could also have diverse biological and/or pathophysiological effects on FA patients or FA gene carriers. Interestingly, we were not able to identify de novo mutations in the genes implicated in DNA repair pathways when the sequencing data of patients were compared with those of their parents. Conclusions Our results indicate that Chinese FA patients and carriers might have higher and more complex mutation rates in FANC genes than have been conventionally recognized. Testing of the fifteen FANC genes in FA patients and their family members should be a regular clinical practice to determine the optimal care for the individual patient, to counsel the family and to obtain a better understanding of FA pathophysiology

  2. FaPOD27 functions in the metabolism of polyphenols in strawberry fruit (Fragaria sp.).

    PubMed

    Yeh, Su-Ying; Huang, Fong-Chin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Mayershofer, Mechthild; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is one of the most preferred fresh fruit worldwide, accumulates numerous flavonoids but has limited shelf life due to excessive tissue softening caused by cell wall degradation. Since lignin is one of the polymers that strengthen plant cell walls and might contribute to some extent to fruit firmness monolignol biosynthesis was studied in strawberry fruit. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and a peroxidase (POD27) gene were strongly expressed in red, ripe fruit whereas a second POD gene was primarily expressed in green, immature fruit. Moreover, FaPOD27 transcripts were strongly and constitutively induced in fruits exposed to Agrobacterium infection. Gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of FaCCR and FaCAD were efficiently suppressed through RNAi in FaCCR- and FaCAD-silenced strawberries. Besides, significantly elevated FaPOD transcript levels were detected after agroinfiltration of pBI-FaPOD constructs in fruits. At the same time, levels of G-monomers were considerably reduced in FaCCR-silenced fruits whereas the proportion of both G- and S-monomers decisively decreased in FaCAD-silenced and pBI-FaPOD fruits. Development, firmness, and lignin level of the treated fruits were similar to pBI-intron control fruits, presumably attributed to increased expression levels of FaPOD27 upon agroinfiltration. Additionally, enhanced firmness, accompanied with elevated lignin levels, was revealed in chalcone synthase-deficient fruits (CHS(-)), independent of down- or up-regulation of individual and combined FaCCR. FaCAD, and FaPOD genes by agroinfiltration, when compared to CHS(-)/pBI-intron control fruits. These approaches provide further insight into the genetic control of flavonoid and lignin synthesis in strawberries. The results suggest that FaPOD27 is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit and thus to improving the firmness of strawberries.

  3. FaPOD27 functions in the metabolism of polyphenols in strawberry fruit (Fragaria sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Su-Ying; Huang, Fong-Chin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Mayershofer, Mechthild; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is one of the most preferred fresh fruit worldwide, accumulates numerous flavonoids but has limited shelf life due to excessive tissue softening caused by cell wall degradation. Since lignin is one of the polymers that strengthen plant cell walls and might contribute to some extent to fruit firmness monolignol biosynthesis was studied in strawberry fruit. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and a peroxidase (POD27) gene were strongly expressed in red, ripe fruit whereas a second POD gene was primarily expressed in green, immature fruit. Moreover, FaPOD27 transcripts were strongly and constitutively induced in fruits exposed to Agrobacterium infection. Gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of FaCCR and FaCAD were efficiently suppressed through RNAi in FaCCR- and FaCAD-silenced strawberries. Besides, significantly elevated FaPOD transcript levels were detected after agroinfiltration of pBI-FaPOD constructs in fruits. At the same time, levels of G-monomers were considerably reduced in FaCCR-silenced fruits whereas the proportion of both G- and S-monomers decisively decreased in FaCAD-silenced and pBI-FaPOD fruits. Development, firmness, and lignin level of the treated fruits were similar to pBI-intron control fruits, presumably attributed to increased expression levels of FaPOD27 upon agroinfiltration. Additionally, enhanced firmness, accompanied with elevated lignin levels, was revealed in chalcone synthase-deficient fruits (CHS−), independent of down- or up-regulation of individual and combined FaCCR. FaCAD, and FaPOD genes by agroinfiltration, when compared to CHS−/pBI-intron control fruits. These approaches provide further insight into the genetic control of flavonoid and lignin synthesis in strawberries. The results suggest that FaPOD27 is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit and thus to improving the firmness of strawberries. PMID:25346738

  4. Characteristics of F/A-18 vertical tail buffeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheta, E. F.; Huttsell, L. J.

    2003-03-01

    A time-accurate computational analysis of vertical tail buffeting of full F/A-18 aircraft is conducted at typical flight conditions to identify the buffet characteristics of fighter aircraft. The F/A-18 aircraft is pitched at wide range of high angles of attack at Mach number of 0.243 and Reynolds number of 11 millions. Strong coupling between the fluid and structure is considered in this investigation. Strong coupling occurs when the inertial effect of the motion of the vertical tail is fed back into the flow field. The aerodynamic flow field around the F/A-18 aircraft is computed using the Reynolds-averaged full Navier-Stokes equations. The dynamical structural response of the vertical tail is predicted using direct finite-element analysis. The interface between the fluid and structure is applied using conservative and consistent interfacing methodology. The motion of the computational grid due to the deflection of the vertical tail is computed using transfinite interpolation module. The investigation revealed that the vertical tail is subject to bending and torsional responses, mainly in the first modes of vibrations. The buffet loads increase significantly as the onset of vortex breakdown moves upstream of the vertical tails. The inboard surface of the vertical tail has more significant contribution in the buffet excitation than the outboard surface. In addition, the pressure on the outboard surface of the vertical tail is less sensitive to the angle of attack than the pressure on the inboard surface. The buffet excitation peaks shift to lower frequency as the angle of attack increases. The computational results are compared, and they are in close agreement, with several flight and experimental data.

  5. Development of LiDAR aware allometrics for Abies grandis: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. A.; Tinkham, W. T.; Smith, A. M.; Hudak, A. T.; Falkowski, M. J.; Keefe, R.

    2012-12-01

    Forest managers rely increasingly on accurate allometric relationships to inform decisions regarding stand rotations, silvilcultural treatments, timber harvesting, and biometric modeling. At the same time, advances in remote sensing techniques like LiDAR (light detection and ranging) have brought about opportunities to advance how we assess forest growth, and thus are contributing to the need for more accurate allometries. Past studies have attempted to relate LiDAR data to both plot and individual tree measures of forest biomass. However, many of these studies have been limited by the accuracy of their coincident observations. In this study, 24 Abies grandis were measured, felled, and dissected for the explicit objective of developing LiDAR aware allometrics. The analysis predicts spatial variables of competition, growth potential (e.g, trees per acre, aspect, elevation, etc.) and common statistical distributional metrics (e.g., mean, mode, percentiles, variance, skewness, kurtosis, etc.) derived from LiDAR point cloud returns to coincident in situ measures of Abies grandis stem biomass. The resulting allometries exemplify a new approach for predicting structural attributes of interest (biomass, basal area, volume, etc.) directly from LiDAR point cloud data, precluding the measurement errors that are propogated by indirectly predicting these structure attributes of interest from LiDAR data using traditional plot-based measurements.

  6. Evaluation of Arctopsyche grandis (Hydropsychidae) as a Biological Monitoring Tool in Rocky Mountain Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, W. D.

    2005-05-01

    Trace metal loading has been shown to cause marked disturbance in benthic invertebrate communities of Rocky Mountain streams. Metal concentrations in invertebrate tissues are commonly measured in biological monitoring studies as an indicator of metals contamination in the stream. Comparisons of metal body burdens across sampling sites and occasions carry the assumption that burdens reflect metal bioavailability in the field. Laboratory experiments were conducted with indigenous, larval, net-spinning caddisflies (Arctopsyche grandis) to evaluate this important assumption. Caddisfly larvae were exposed to a range of zinc (50 to 1000 ppb) and copper (10 to 360 ppb) concentrations for 96 hours. Water hardness (50, 100 ppm) and dissolved organic carbon (3, 6 ppm) concentrations were systematically varied in order to estimate differences in metal burdens due to changes in aqueous chemistry. Whole individual larvae were analyzed for trace metal concentrations. Results suggest that larval A. grandis are capable of regulating internal zinc concentrations. Surprisingly, maximum zinc burdens were observed where hardness and DOC were highest. Conversely, copper accumulation was reduced by 30 percent where DOC (3 ppm) was added to the exposure medium. Results will be discussed with respect to their significance for future biomonitoring efforts.

  7. Effects of potassium and sodium supply on drought-adaptive mechanisms in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    PubMed

    Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Christina, Mathias; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; de Cassia Piccolo, Marisa; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; e Moreira, Rildo Moreira; Krusche, Alex Vladimir; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Nouvellon, Yann

    2014-07-01

    A basic understanding of nutrition effects on the mechanisms involved in tree response to drought is essential under a future drier climate. A large-scale throughfall exclusion experiment was set up in Brazil to gain an insight into the effects of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) nutrition on tree structural and physiological adjustments to water deficit. Regardless of the water supply, K and Na supply greatly increased growth and leaf area index (LAI) of Eucalyptus grandis trees over the first 3 yr after planting. Excluding 37% of throughfall reduced above-ground biomass accumulation in the third year after planting for K- supplied trees only. E. grandis trees were scarcely sensitive to drought as a result of the utilization of water stored in deep soil layers after clear-cutting the previous plantation. Trees coped with water restriction through stomatal closure (isohydrodynamic behavior), osmotic adjustment and decrease in LAI. Additionally, droughted trees showed higher phloem sap sugar concentrations. K and Na supply increased maximum stomatal conductance, and the high water requirements of fertilized trees increased water stress during dry periods. Fertilization regimes should be revisited in a future drier climate in order to find the right balance between improving tree growth and limiting water shortage. PMID:24725318

  8. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil. PMID:21455447

  9. Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor from leaves of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.

    PubMed

    Satheesh, L Shilpa; Murugan, K

    2011-05-01

    Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor isolated from Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt. has been reported. A 14.3 kDa protease inhibitor (PI) was isolated and purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation (20-85% saturation), sephadex G-75, DEAE sepharose column and trypsin-sepharose affinity chromatography from the leaves of C. grandis. The purity was checked by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. PI exhibited marked growth inhibitory effects on colon cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PI was thermostable and showed antimicrobial activity without hemolytic activity. PI strongly inhibited pathogenic microbial strains, including Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Eschershia coli, Bacillus subtilis and pathogenic fungus Candida albicans, Mucor indicus, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Examination by bright field microscopy showed inhibition of mycelial growth and sporulation. Morphologically, PI treated fungus showed a significant shrinkage of hyphal tips. Reduced PI completely lost its activity indicating that disulfide bridge is essential for its protease inhibitory and antifungal activity. Results reported in this study suggested that PI may be an excellent candidate for development of novel oral or other anti-infective agents. PMID:21615062

  10. Comparison of flavonoid compounds in the flavedo and juice of two pummelo cultivars (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) from different cultivation regions in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingxia; Nan, Haijuan; Wang, Yanjie; Jiang, Xiaoying; Li, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different cultivation regions on the pattern and content of flavonoids in two pummelo cultivars (C. grandis L. Osbeck) in China. Results showed that similar patterns of flavonoids were observed in the flavedo or juice of each pummelo cultivar from these cultivation regions, whereas the individual flavonoid content showed unique characteristics. Naringin, the predominant flavanone glycoside, showed the highest content in both flavedo and juice of C. grandis "Guanximiyu" from the Pinghe of Fujian (FJ) cultivation region compared with the Dapu of Guangdong (GD) and Nanbu of Sichuan (SC) regions. However, its content in the flavedo of C. grandis "Shatianyu" from the Pingle of Guangxi (GX) was significantly lower than in the GD and SC regions. Vicenin-2 appeared to be the dominant flavone C-glycoside in the flavedo of both cultivars, and the lowest content was observed in the flavedo of C. grandis "Guanximiyu" from the SC region. However, C. grandis "Shatianyu" contained the highest content of vicenin-2 in the flavedo from SC region. Similarly, the predominant flavone O-glucoside, rhoifolin, showed the highest content in C. grandis "Guanximiyu" from the GD and FJ regions, whereas C. grandis "Shatianyu" in SC region showed the highest content of rhoifolin. Cluster analysis suggested that genotype played a primary role in determining the flavonoid profiles of pummelo cultivars, whereas regional differences significantly affected the flavonoid distribution of pummelo cultivars potentially via affecting the direction of flavonoid accumulation in pummelo.

  11. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and delta(13)C in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E. grandis x camaldulensis and E. grandis x nitens grown under two irrigation regimes.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, D; Stock, W D; Bond, W J; Maphanga, D

    1996-05-01

    Clonal variation in water use efficiency (WUE), dry mass accumulation and allocation, and stable carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) of crude leaf fiber extracts was determined in six clones of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. grown for 16 months in field lysimeters in two soil water regimes. The relationships between delta(13)C and WUE calculated on the basis of leaf, harvestable stem, shoot and whole-plant dry mass accumulation were investigated. There was no clonal variation in dry mass accumulation but clonal allocation to roots, harvestable stems, branches and leaves varied. Water use efficiencies (mass of plant or plant part/water used over 16 months) differed significantly between clones. The clonal ranking of WUE varied depending on the units of dry mass accumulation used. Significant relationships between delta(13)C values and instantaneous water use efficiencies and ratios of internal leaf to ambient CO(2) concentrations were found only in the high soil water treatment. There were no relationships between delta(13)C values and whole-plant, shoot and harvestable stem water use efficiencies and soil water availability. Values of delta(13)C were negatively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the low soil water treatment. At the whole-plant level, WUE was positively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the high soil water treatment. We found significant differences in delta(13)C values between clones and the clonal rankings in delta(13)C and WUE were maintained in both soil water treatments. PMID:14871719

  12. Composition and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Kernel Oil from Torreya grandis, Carya Cathayensis, and Myrica R ubra.

    PubMed

    Ni, Liang; Shi, Wei-Yong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we measured the composition and free radical scavenging activity of several species of nuts, namely, Torreya grandis, Carya cathayensis, and Myrica rubra. The nut kernels of the aforementioned species are rich in fatty acids, particularly in unsaturated fatty acids, and have 51% oil content. T. grandis and C. cathayensis are mostly produced in ZheJiang province. The trace elements in the kernels of T. grandis and C. cathayensis were generally higher than those in M. rubra, except for Fe with a value of 64.41 mg/Kg. T. grandis is rich in selenium (52.91-68.71 mg/Kg). All three kernel oils have a certain free radical scavenging capacity, with the highest value in M. rubra. In the DPPH assay, the IC50 of M. rubra kernel oil was 60 μg/mL, and OH was 100 μg/mL. The results of this study provide basic data for the future development of the edible nut resources in ZheJiang province. PMID:24734074

  13. Depositional Environment of Permian Tak Fa Formation, Nakhonsawan, Northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketwetsuriya, Chatchalerm; Nützel, Alexander; Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong

    2016-04-01

    The carbonate rocks of the study area at Amphoe Tak Fa and Amphoe Takhli, Changwat Nakhon Sawan belong to the Tak Fa Formation, Saraburi Group. This formation crops out in the Khao Khwang Platform and consists of late Palaeozoic carbonate platform deposits. It reaches a thickness of 900 meters and crops out in a vast area. The exposures have been measured and samples were collected for petrographic study. The rock consists of limestones, argillaceous limestones, mudstones and dolomites with nodular and banded cherts, which comprise many invertebrate fossils such as fusulinids, ammonoid, pelecypod, gastropod, coral and bryozoa. Many of the fossils are silicified. The gastropod assemblage is currently under study and represents one of the most diverse faunas reported from SE Asia. The age of the rock is Yakhtashian or Artinskian (late Early Permian) to Midian or Capitanian (late Middle Permian). The study of carbonate facies and fauna indicates that the depositional environment was on shelf lagoon within the carbonate platform varying from shallow marine to barrier bar.

  14. Numerical simulation and analysis of power consumption and Metzner-Otto constant for impeller of 6PBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Deyu; Chen, Qiao; Zhou, Shenjie

    2014-05-01

    Majority of non-Newtonian fluids are pseudoplastic with shear-thinning property, which means that the viscosity will be different in different parts of the stirred tank. In such mixing process, it is difficult to predict accurately the power consumption and mean shear rate for designing novel impeller. Metzner-Otto method is a widely accepted method to solve these questions in mixing non-Newtonian fluids. As a result, Metzner-Otto constant will become a key factor to achieve an optimum way of economical mixing. In this paper, taking glycerine and xanthan gum solutions as research system, the power consumption, stirred by the impeller composed of perturbed six-bent-bladed turbine (6PBT) with differently geometrical characteristics in a cylindrical vessel, is studied by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The flow is modeled as laminar and a multiple reference frame (MRF) approach is used to solve the discretized equations of motion. In order to determine the capability of CFD to forecast the flow process, the torque test experiment is used to measure the glycerine solution power consumption. The rheological properties of the xanthan gum solutions are determined by a Brookfield rheometer. It is observed that the power consumption predicted by numerical simulation agrees well with those measured using torque experiment method in stirring glycerine solution, which validate the numerical model. Metzner-Otto constant is almost not correlated with the flow behavior index of pseudoplastic fluids. This paper establishes the complete correlations of power constant and Metzner-Otto constant with impeller geometrical characteristics through linear regression analysis, which provides the valuable instructions and references for accurately predicting the power consumption and mean shear rate of pseudoplastic fluids in laminar flow, comparatively.

  15. Effects of intracerebroventricularly and intraperitoneally administered growth hormone on body weight and food intake in fa/fa Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Carla; Wieczorek, Ingo; Reschke, Kirsten; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2002-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) possesses multiple metabolic effects, in particular with regard to glucose and lipid homeostasis. Studies on the effects of GH on body weight and food and water intake are scarce and have yielded controversial results. We investigated the effects of different modes of GH administration on the parameters of body weight and food intake as well as on insulin and leptin concentrations in fa/fa Zucker rats. In control experiments, aqua pro injection was given. GH was administered over a time period of 11 days at a daily dose of 250 microg intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 25 microg intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). While both food intake and body weight were found to be unaltered in the four groups after this observation period, there was an enhanced food intake and consecutively an increase in body weight over the day period when compared to the night period in the groups of rats that received GH i.c.v. or i.p. This tendency was also shown for water intake. Insulin and leptin concentrations were similar in all groups. Thus, injection of GH appears to modify food intake-related behavior, since the periods of enhanced food and water intake were shifted from night- to daytime. Thus, while in general the metabolic parameters remained unchanged, the activity pattern was clearly modified.

  16. Analysis of Tyr to Phe and fa/fa leptin receptor mutations in the PC12 cell line.

    PubMed

    Eyckerman, S; Waelput, W; Verhee, A; Broekaert, D; Vandekerckhove, J; Tavernier, J

    1999-12-01

    Weight regulation through body-fat content and energy homeostasis, is regulated mainly through the actions of leptin. Herein, we analyse the effect of mutations in the mouse leptin receptor using the PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line as a model system. Both the induction of pancreatitis associated protein 1 and metallothionein-II, two leptin regulated genes in PC12, was evaluated. Tyr to Phe mutations in the cytoplasmic tail of the mouse leptin receptor confirmed the critical role of Tyr1138 (a YxxQ motif) and STAT-3 activation for induction of leptin-induced genes in PC12. In addition, the Tyr985Phe mutation showed enhanced responsiveness to leptin, which was even more pronounced in combination with Tyr1077Phe. The short isoform of the leptin receptor showed complete loss of stimulation of both genes. In contrast, a leptin receptor devoid of all Tyr residues in its cytoplasmic tail was still capable of a limited induction of the PAP 1 gene. A mutant mouse leptin receptor containing the fa/fa mutation showed constitutive signalling and impaired responsiveness to leptin. Treatment with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin alone, in the absence of leptin was sufficient to obtain full induction of both genes. PMID:10586122

  17. Effects of chronic celiprolol treatment on brown fat, feeding, and drinking in fa/fa Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Savontaus, E; Rouru, J; Malminiemi, K; Luukkaa, V; Pesonen, U; Koulu, M; Huupponen, R

    2000-04-01

    Celiprolol is a novel beta-adrenoceptor blocking drug that displays clinically favorable effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Because some other atypical beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs have been described to act as agonists on beta(3)-adrenoceptors, we aimed to investigate the effects of celiprolol on brown fat and beta(3)-adrenoceptors. Chronic treatment of obese fa/fa Zucker rats with celiprolol (50 mg/kg/day orally for 20 days) increased GDP binding to brown fat mitochondria by 1.5-fold, whereas beta(3)-adrenoceptor agonist ZD7114 ((S)-4-[2-[(2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl)amino]ethoxy]-N-(2-methoxyet hyl )phenoxyacetamide, 3 mg/kg/day) increased the binding by 3.3-fold. Weight gain was reduced by 19% due to decreased water and food intakes in celiprolol-treated rats. Celiprolol did not activate lipolysis in rat adipocytes in vitro or stimulate human beta(3)-adrenoceptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells as measured with Cytosensor microphysiometer. Therefore, celiprolol does not seem to activate brown fat via beta(3)-adrenoceptors. PMID:10764928

  18. Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank: debates and confrontations about anxiety and birth.

    PubMed

    Pizarro Obaid, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    The publication of Otto Rank's The Trauma of Birth (1924) gave rise to an intense debate within the secret Committee and confronted Freud with one of his most beloved disciples. After analyzing the letters that the Professor exchanged with his closest collaborators and reviewing the works he published during this period, it is clear that anxiety was a crucial element among the topics in dispute. His reflections linked to the signal anxiety concept allowed Freud to refute Rank's thesis that defined birth trauma as the paradigmatic key to understanding neurosis, and, in turn, was a way of confirming the validity of the concepts of Oedipus complex, repression and castration in the conceptualization of anxiety. The reasons for the modifications of anxiety theory in the mid-1920s cannot be reduced, as Freud would affirm officially in his work of 1926, to the detection of internal contradictions in his theory or to the desire to establish a metapsychological version of the problem, for they gain their essential impulse from the debate with Rank.

  19. The optimal path of piston motion for Otto cycle with linear phenomenological heat transfer law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shaojun; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui

    2009-05-01

    An Otto cycle engine with internal and external irreversibilities of friction and heat leakage, in which the heat transfer between the working fluid and the environment obeys linear phenomenological heat transfer law [ q ∝ Δ( T -1)], is studied in this paper. The optimal piston motion trajectory for maximizing the work output per cycle is derived for the fixed total cycle time and fuel consumed per cycle. Optimal control theory is applied to determine the optimal piston trajectories for the cases of with and without piston acceleration constraint on each stroke and the optimal distribution of the total cycle time among the strokes. The optimal piston motion with acceleration constraint for each stroke consists of three segments, including initial maximum acceleration and final maximum deceleration boundary segments, respectively. Numerical examples for optimal configuration are provided, and the obtained results are compared with those obtained with Newton’s heat transfer law [ q ∝ Δ( T)]. The results also show that optimizing the piston motion can improve power and efficiency of the engine by more than 9%. This is primarily due to the decrease in heat leakage loss on the initial portion of the power stroke.

  20. A point of view on Otto cycle approach specific for an undergraduate thermodynamics course in CMU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memet, F.; Preda, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper refers to the description of the way in which can be presented to future marine engineers the analyzis of the performance of an Otto cycle, in a manner which is beyond the classic approach of the course of thermodynamics in Constanta Maritime University. The conventional course of thermodynamics is dealing with the topic of performance analysis of the cycle of the internal combustion engine with isochoric combustion for the situation in which the working medium is treated as such a perfect gas. This type of approach is viable only when are considered relatively small temperature differences. But this is the situation when specific heats are seen as constant. Instead, the practical experience has shown that small temperature differences are not viable, resulting the need for variable specific heat evaluation. The presentation bellow is available for the adiabatic exponent written as a liniar function depending on temperature. In the section of this paper dedicated to methods and materials, the situation in which the specific heat is taken as constant is not neglected, additionaly being given the algorithm for variable specific heat.For the both cases it is given the way in which it is assessed the work output. The calculus is based on the cycle shown in temperature- entropy diagram, in which are also indicated the irreversible adiabatic compression and expansion. The experience achieved after understanding this theory will allow to future professionals to deal successfully with the design practice of internal combustion engines.

  1. The psychology of thinking before the cognitive revolution: Otto Selz on problems, schemas, and creativity.

    PubMed

    ter Hark, Michel

    2010-02-01

    Otto Selz has been hailed as one of the most important precursors of the cognitive revolution, yet surprisingly few studies of his work exist. He is often mentioned in the context of the Würzburg School of the psychology of thinking and sometimes in the context of Gestalt psychology. In this paper, it is argued that Selz's emphasis on the role of problems and schemas in the direction of thought processes and creativity sets him apart from the program of the Würzburg School. On the other hand, by developing a theory of thinking that is exclusively at the intentional level, Selz also differs from psychologists that take physics as a model for psychology, such as the Gestalt psychology of Wolfgang Kihler. Special emphasis is given in this paper to Selz's use of the concept of problem or task and the concept of the schema. It is further argued that the concept of the schema is the result of Selz's adaptation of the theory of relations as developed by the philosopher Meinong. The paper begins with a sketch of Selz's life that ended so tragically.

  2. Angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine based on coherent dipole-dipole coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shan-He; Luo, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Jin-Can; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule have been widely observed in biological systems and exhibit broad application for molecular structural studies. Quantum delocalization of molecular dipole moments has inspired researchers to explore new avenues to utilize this physical effect for energy harvesting devices. Herein, we propose a simple model of the angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine which seeks to facilitate the conversion of heat to work. Unlike previous studies, the adiabatic processes are accomplished by varying only the directions of the magnetic field. We show that the heat engine continues to generate power when the angle relative to the vector r joining the centres of coupled dipoles departs from the magic angle θm where the static coupling vanishes. A significant improvement in the device performance has to be attributed to the presence of the quantum delocalized levels associated with the coherent dipole-dipole coupling. These results obtained may provide a promising model for the biomimetic design and fabrication of quantum energy generators.

  3. Collective will: a reformulation of Otto Rank's theory of personality individuation.

    PubMed

    Hamm, R

    1997-06-01

    A reevaluation of Otto Rank's theory of personality individuation has been proposed which equates collective and individual will as essential and mutually facilitative aspects of self-development. Rank's viewpoint regarding social and moral development as necessarily normative and, hence, inimical to individuation is therefore challenged and disputed. It is further argued that the nature of will is not a priori moral and that it should be conceptualized empirically as a derivative of the self. The negative will has been defined as the counterposition of two wills against each other. It has been proposed that when the individual and collective will are in fixed opposition to each other their results can be destructive to personality development and to interpersonal and societal relations in general. The relative value given to either individual or collective aspects of will may be partly a function of the historical and sociopolitical environment of both the individuals whose personality development is thereby influenced and the theorist whose interest is devoted to understanding and remedying their problems.

  4. Induction of oxidative metabolism by mitochondrial frataxin inhibits cancer growth: Otto Warburg revisited.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Tim J; Thierbach, René; Voigt, Anja; Drewes, Gunnar; Mietzner, Brun; Steinberg, Pablo; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Ristow, Michael

    2006-01-13

    More than 80 years ago Otto Warburg suggested that cancer might be caused by a decrease in mitochondrial energy metabolism paralleled by an increase in glycolytic flux. In later years, it was shown that cancer cells exhibit multiple alterations in mitochondrial content, structure, function, and activity. We have stably overexpressed the Friedreich ataxia-associated protein frataxin in several colon cancer cell lines. These cells have increased oxidative metabolism, as shown by concurrent increases in aconitase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular respiration, and ATP content. Consistent with Warburg's hypothesis, we found that frataxin-overexpressing cells also have decreased growth rates and increased population doubling times, show inhibited colony formation capacity in soft agar assays, and exhibit a reduced capacity for tumor formation when injected into nude mice. Furthermore, overexpression of frataxin leads to an increased phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Taken together, these results support the view that an increase in oxidative metabolism induced by mitochondrial frataxin may inhibit cancer growth in mammals. PMID:16263703

  5. Quantum Otto engine using a single ion and a single thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Chand, Suman

    2016-05-01

    Quantum heat engines employ a quantum system as the working fluid, that gives rise to large work efficiency, beyond the limit for classical heat engines. Existing proposals for implementing quantum heat engines require that the system interacts with the hot bath and the cold bath (both modelled as a classical system) in an alternative fashion and therefore assumes ability to switch off the interaction with the bath during a certain stage of the heat-cycle. However, it is not possible to decouple a quantum system from its always-on interaction with the bath without use of complex pulse sequences. It is also hard to identify two different baths at two different temperatures in quantum domain, that sequentially interact with the system. Here, we show how to implement a quantum Otto engine without requiring to decouple the bath in a sequential manner. This is done by considering a single thermal bath, coupled to a single trapped ion. The electronic degree of freedom of the ion is chosen as a two-level working fluid while the vibrational degree of freedom plays the role of the cold bath. Measuring the electronic state mimics the release of heat into the cold bath. Thus, our model is fully quantum and exhibits very large work efficiency, asymptotically close to unity.

  6. Mid-infrared Otto excitation of transverse electric modes in doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Mendieta, F.

    2015-04-01

    We have studied numerically the excitation of surface modes of transverse electric polarization in doped graphene. Using the prism-based Otto configuration, the electromagnetic resonances were found within ultra-tiny angular windows of width of order of Δ θ i = 10-3 degrees or lower, beyond the critical angle where evanescent fields are already available. We obtained absorption peaks of angular position strongly dependent on the prism-graphene separation d, which is larger than dc, the cutoff prism-graphene separation. We prove numerically that dc depends on the graphene parameters and can be written as d c = α / 2 , where α ( ω ) is the decay length of the electromagnetic field of the modes. With doping levels of Fermi energy 0.2 eV ≤ μ ≤ 0.3 eV, we found resonances within the range of 80-145 THz. The numerical calculations show the mayor role played by the graphene losses that, indeed, can obliterate the mode resonance.

  7. CQUEAN: New CCD Camera System For The Otto Struve Telescope At The McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Soojong; Park, W.; Im, M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the overall characteristics and the performance of an optical CCD camera system, Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (CQUEAN), which is being used at the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope of the McDonald Observatory since 2010 August. CQUEAN was developed for follow-up imaging observations of near infrared bright sources such as high redshift quasar candidates (z > 4.5), Gamma Ray Bursts, brown dwarfs, and young stellar objects. For efficient observations of the red objects, CQUEAN has a science camera with a deep depletion CCD chip. By employing an auto-guiding system and a focal reducer to enhance the field of view at the classic cassegrain focus, we achieved a stable guiding in 20 minute exposures, an imaging quality with FWHM > 0.6 arcsec over the whole field (4.8 × 4.8 arcmin), and a limiting magnitude of z = 23.4 AB mag at 5-sigma with one hour integration.

  8. Walther Nernst, Albert Einstein, Otto Stern, and the Specific Heat of Hydrogen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, Clayton

    2007-04-01

    In 1911, the German physical chemist Walther Nernst observed that the new quantum theory might both clarify unresolved problems in the specific heats of gases and shed new light on quantum theory itself. He noted that measurements of the specific heat of hydrogen gas at low temperatures might be particularly informative. Arnold Euken, working in Nernst's laboratory in Berlin, published the first measurements in 1912. They showed a sharp drop, corresponding to the rotational degrees of freedom ``freezing out.'' Nernst also developed a theory in his 1911 paper, in which, remarkably, rotational energies were not quantized. Instead, the specific heat fell off because the gas was in equilibrium with quantized Planck oscillators. Nernst's theory was flawed But Einstein adopted an improved version at the 1911 Solvay Conference, and in 1913, he and Otto Stern published a more detailed treatment, in which they suggested tentatively that Planck's recently introduced zero-point energy might reduce or even eliminate the need to quantize physical systems. This episode points out just how mysterious quantum phenomena seemed early in the 20th century.

  9. α1-Tubulin FaTuA1 plays crucial roles in vegetative growth and conidiation in Fusarium asiaticum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiqun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xiang; Zheng, Jingwu; Yin, Yanni; Ma, Zhonghua

    2015-04-01

    The filamentous ascomycete Fusarium asiaticum contains two homologous genes FaTUA1 and FaTUA2 encoding α-tubulins. In this study, we found that FaTUA2 was dispensable for vegetative growth and sporulation in F. asiaticum. The deletion of FaTUA1 however led to dramatically reduced mycelial growth, twisted hyphae and abnormal nuclei in apical cells of hyphae. The FaTUA1 deletion mutant (ΔFaTuA1-5) also showed a significant decrease in conidiation, and produced abnormal conidia. Pathogenicity assays showed that ΔFaTuA1-5 exhibited decreased virulence on wheat head. Unexpectedly, the deletion of FaTUA1 led to resistance to high temperatures. In addition, ΔFaTuA2 showed increased sensitivity to carbendazim. Furthermore, increased FaTUA2 expression in ΔFaTuA1-5 partially restored the defects of the mutant in mycelial growth, conidial production and virulence, vice versa, increased FaTUA1 expression in the FaTUA2 deletion mutant also partially relieved the defect of the mutant in the delay of conidial germination. Taken together, these results indicate that FaTuA1 plays crucial roles in vegetative growth and development, and the functions of FaTuA1 and FaTuA2 are partially interchangeable in F. asiaticum.

  10. The mitochondrial genome of Nobia grandis Sowerby, 1839 (Cirripedia: Sessilia): the first report from the coral-inhabiting barnacles family Pyrgomatidae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the coral-inhabiting barnacle Nobia grandis Sowerby, 1839 complete mitochondrial genome, which is the first report from the family Pyrgomatidae (Cirripedia: Sessilia). The N. grandis mitochondrial genome is 15,032 bp in length, containing a total of 469 bp of non-coding nucleotides spreading in 11 intergenic regions (with the largest region of 376 bp). Compared with the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the N. grandis mitochondrial genome. Gene overlaps are founded in eight places. Nine PCGs (COX1-3, ATP6, ATP8, CYTB, ND2, ND3 and ND6) are encoded on the heavy strand while the remaining 4 PCGs and the two rRNAs are located on the light strand. As the first representative from the family Pyrgomatidae, the N. grandis mitochondrial genome will help us to explore the evolutionary history and molecular evolution of coral barnacles and Sessilia in future studies.

  11. Carbon Stocks and Soil C Dynamics: an Investigation of C Sequestration Potential in a Eucalyptus grandis Plantation in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, M. I.; Crow, S. E.; Yost, R.; Turn, S.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are important for many reasons, one of which is their ability to transfer large quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere to living biomass thereby potentially offsetting climate change. If the biomass is then harvested for commercial use, the stored carbon (C) is released back to the atmosphere and as a result, rotational forestry is generally considered C neutral. However, the growth and harvest of forests also affects the soil C cycle through inputs of below ground biomass (BG) in proportion to above ground biomass (ABG). With sustainable management practices, soil can be a long-term sink for C, and provide a climate offset. This study examines the C stocks and dynamics of a E. grandis plantation located in Hawaii. There are two parts: 1) A snapshot of C resources in the plantation, including live biomass C (both BG and ABG) as well as soil C stock, and 2) An investigation of change in soil C stock and pool size with afforestation in E. grandis plantation. ABG C was calculated using published allometric equations and from measurements of the E. grandis trees and ranged from 41-68 Mg C/ha, while BG C ranged from 7-12 Mg C/ha. Added together, the biomass C stocks constitute a mere ≈10% of the soil C stock. To identify the effect of E. grandis afforestation on changes in soil C stock and pools, we compared adjacent pastureland and forested plots in a paired design. Soil C stocks were measured by taking five 1m soil cores in each of the plots. In the pasture, soil C ranged from 431-723 Mg C/ha, while in the E. grandis, it ranged from 544-692 Mg C/ha, an average percent change of 16%. In all plots, soil C decreased by depth. As expected, the surface (0-18) cm cores in the pasture contained more C on average, as grasses tend to input larger amounts of root biomass C in the surface soil. However, in the 20-70 cm depth, the E. grandis plots contained 20-30% more soil C. It is hypothesized that this is due to large differences in rooting depth. The greater

  12. Carbon Stocks and Soil C Dynamics: an Investigation of C Sequestration Potential in a Eucalyptus grandis Plantation in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, M. I.; Crow, S. E.; Yost, R.; Turn, S.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical forests are important for many reasons, one of which is their ability to transfer large quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere to living biomass thereby potentially offsetting climate change. If the biomass is then harvested for commercial use, the stored carbon (C) is released back to the atmosphere. As a result, commercial rotational forestry is generally considered C neutral. However, the growth and harvest of forests also affects the soil C cycle through inputs of below ground biomass in proportion to above ground biomass. With sustainable management practices, soil can be a long-term sink for C, shifting the C balance of the system and providing a climate offset. This study examines the C stocks and dynamics of an E. grandis plantation located in Hawaii. The study has two parts: 1) A snapshot of C resources in the plantation, and 2) An investigation of change in soil C stock and pool size with afforestation. Above ground biomass C was calculated from measurements of the E. grandis trees and ranged from 40-67 Mg C/ha. Below ground biomass C was estimated from published allometric equations and was 16-27 Mg C/ha. 55 preliminary soil cores from 0-30 cm were collected in a 400 m2 plot in the plantation. Strong spatial dependence was observed in a sample variogram constructed from this data, and cumulative organic C in the top 0.4 t ranged from 120-580 Mg C/ha. To identify the effect of E. grandis afforestation on changes in soil C stock and pools, we compared adjacent pastureland and forested plots in a paired design with six sites. The paired plots constrained elevation, climate, and soil series, so that the effects of conversion from pasture to E. grandis plantation could be evaluated. Soil is physically separated into fractions that have different C turnover times: the labile pool which decomposes rapidly, the intermediate (or intra-aggregate) pool which turns over on a decadal scale, and the mineral-associated pool, which can reside in the soil for

  13. Comparison of larval thermal maxima between Fundulus heteroclitus and F. grandis.

    PubMed

    Galleher, Stacy N; Gilg, Matthew R; Smith, Kelly J

    2010-09-01

    Fundulus heteroclitus and F. grandis are resident salt marsh fishes that overlap in distribution over a narrow range in northeastern Florida. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the limits of the species' ranges could be explained by differences in thermal tolerance. Two populations of each species were collected and then spawned in the laboratory, and 9-day-old larvae were used for critical thermal maxima trials. Mean LOE temperatures of larvae ranged from 43.04 to 43.65 degrees C and showed little difference between species. Therefore, differences in high temperatures experienced cannot account for the differences of the distributions of the two species. Condition-specific competition may play a greater role in determining the observed range of the two species.

  14. Multifunctional properties of polysaccharides from Dalbergia sissoo, Tectona grandis and Mimosa diplotricha.

    PubMed

    Rana, Vikas; Das, Manuj K; Gogoi, Satyabrat; Kumar, Vineet

    2014-02-15

    Three water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated and purified from the leaves of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (DSLP), bark of Tectona grandis L. f (TGBP) and seeds of Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha Sauvalle (MDSP). Antioxidant and moisture preserving activities of these three polysaccharides were investigated using in vitro methods. The antioxidant activities studied include superoxide (O2(*-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(*+)), hydroxyl (OH(-)), nitric oxide (NO*), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(+)) radical scavenging activities, ferric ion (Fe(3+)) reducing ability, ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating and lipid peroxidation activities. The study revealed higher activity of TGBP in all antioxidant assays than DSLP and MDSP. Further, the three polysaccharides showed effective moisture retention properties in comparison with hyaluronic acid and glycerol.

  15. Determination of bioactive compounds in the juice of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Russo, Marina; Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Torre, Germana; Cotroneo, Antonella; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    The juice of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) was analyzed to determine its composition of flavonoids, polymethoxyflavones, coumarins and psoralens. The analyses were carried out by HPLC using columns packed with small diameter Fused-Core C18 particles to achieve high resolution in short analysis time. In addition, the profile of the native carotenoids present in the juice was determined using a C30 column. Identification of flavonoids was achieved by MS with ESI in negative mode; the MS acquisition of oxygenated heterocyclic compounds was performed in positive APCI; carotenoids were detected with a PDA detector. Nineteen native carotenoids were determined in pummelo juice for the first time. The composition of this juice is also discussed in comparison with other Citrus juices, especially grapefruit.

  16. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress in Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii Seedlings by Activating Photosynthesis and Enhancing Antioxidant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xuhua; Tang, Hui; Shen, Chaohua; Wu, Jiasheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Salt stress is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of environmental stress on plants. To investigate the protective role of SA in ameliorating salt stress on Torreya grandis (T. grandis) trees, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze the biomass, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis (Pn), gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) of T. grandis under 0.2% and 0.4% NaCl conditions with and without SA. Methodology/Principal Findings The exposure of T. grandis seedlings to salt conditions resulted in reduced growth rates, which were associated with decreases in RWC and Pn and increases in REC and MDA content. The foliar application of SA effectively increased the chlorophyll (chl (a+b)) content, RWC, net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn), and proline content, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and minimized the increases in the REC and MDA content. These changes increased the capacity of T. grandis in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased the shoot and root dry matter. However, when the plants were under 0% and 0.2% NaCl stress, the dry mass of the shoots and roots did not differ significantly between SA-treated plants and control plants. Conclusions SA induced the salt tolerance and increased the biomass of T. grandis cv. by enhancing the chlorophyll content and activity of antioxidative enzymes, activating the photosynthetic process, and alleviating membrane injury. A better understanding about the effect of salt stress in T. grandis is vital, in order gain knowledge over expanding the plantations to various regions and also for the recovery of T. grandis species in the future. PMID:25302987

  17. Involvement of fertilization antigen (FA-1) in involuntary immunoinfertility in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Naz, R K

    1987-01-01

    Sera from immunoinfertile patients (n = 32) and fertile controls (n = 20) were analyzed for cross-reaction with a purified and characterized sperm-specific glycoprotein, the fertilization antigen (FA-1), employing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immunoinfertile sera demonstrated a strong reaction with FA-1 when compared with fertile control sera. There was no correlation between the reaction of sera with FA-1 and the titers obtained through the sperm agglutination technique and the sperm immobilization technique. Immunoinfertile sera showed binding with the protein bands in the regions corresponding to FA-1 on Western blots involving sodium deoxycholate-solubilized human sperm. Antigens isolated with immunoaffinity chromatography involving immunoinfertile sera also demonstrated antigen bands corresponding to FA-1 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Of the seven immunoinfertile couples, three that had antibodies to FA-1 in the male as well as female partners demonstrated a block of fertilization (IVF) due to antibodies bound on the sperm surface. The anti-FA-1 antibody activity was detected in serum as well as in follicular fluid and seminal plasma. Immunoinfertile sera that showed an inhibition of human sperm penetration of zona-free hamster ova showed a significant (P less than 0.001) increase in penetration rates after absorption with FA-1. These results indicate that sera from immunoinfertile patients had antibodies reacting with FA-1, and these antibodies are involved in the fertilization process. Images PMID:3316276

  18. Young Otto Struve: The Education and Development of A Research Scientist 1921-1932

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1995-12-01

    Otto Struve arrived at Yerkes Observatory from Turkey in October 1921, the penniless survivor of a defeated army. Then 24 years old, he immediately began his studies and assistantship as the only graduate student at the observatory. Eleven years later he became its "boy director." His education, training, research experience and development are described in the context of Yerkes Observatory, and of American graduate and post-graduate work in astronomy of the time. Under Director Edwin B. Frost, Yerkes Observatory's main program was radial-velocity measurements of O, B, and A stars. Struve worked on it and did his thesis on spectroscopic binaries. A prodigious achiever, he was appointed to the faculty as an instructor as soon as he received his doctorate. On his own he jumped into frontier research on interstellar absorption lines, based in large part on existing spectrograms taken for the radial-velocity program. Reviewing Cecilia Payne's book on stellar atmospheres in 1926 converted Struve to a self-taught observational astrophysicist. Research leaves at Mount Wilson and Harvard, with working visits to Lick and the DAO, plus a Guggenheim year at Cambridge with Arthur S. Eddington, broadened his horizons. Struve always observed diligently, published frequently, attended AAS meetings, presented oral papers, and discussed his research with others. With practically no knowledge of modern physics, he cultivated others who were experts in it, beginning with Pol Swings, a visitor from Belgium. By 1932 Struve was ready to become director of Yerkes Observatory, and to lead it back into its place as a leading astrophysical research center, for which George Ellery Hale had founded it.

  19. Multiple defects occur in the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein system in liver plasma membranes of obese (fa/fa) but not lean (Fa/Fa) Zucker rats: loss of functional Gi and abnormal Gs function.

    PubMed

    Houslay, M D; Gawler, D J; Milligan, G; Wilson, A

    1989-01-01

    suggested that abnormalities in the levels of expression of primarily the 52 kDa form of alpha-Gs may give rise to the abnormal coupling between glucagon receptors and adenylate cyclase in liver membranes from obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. PMID:2561940

  20. Physical Demands of Different Positions in FA Premier League Soccer.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Jonathan; Polman, Remco; O'Donoghue, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands of English Football Association (FA) Premier League soccer of three different positional classifications (defender, midfielder and striker). Computerised time-motion video-analysis using the Bloomfield Movement Classification was undertaken on the purposeful movement (PM) performed by 55 players. Recognition of PM had a good inter-tester reliability strength of agreement (κ= 0.7277). Players spent 40.6 ± 10.0% of the match performing PM. Position had a significant influence on %PM time spent sprinting, running, shuffling, skipping and standing still (p < 0.05). However, position had no significant influence on the %PM time spent performing movement at low, medium, high or very high intensities (p > 0.05). Players spent 48.7 ± 9.2% of PM time moving in a directly forward direction, 20.6 ± 6.8% not moving in any direction and the remainder of PM time moving backward, lateral, diagonal and arced directions. The players performed the equivalent of 726 ± 203 turns during the match; 609 ± 193 of these being of 0° to 90° to the left or right. Players were involved in the equivalent of 111 ± 77 on the ball movement activities per match with no significant differences between the positions for total involvement in on the ball activity (p > 0.05). This study has provided an indication of the different physical demands of different playing positions in FA Premier League match-play through assessment of movements performed by players. Key pointsPlayers spent ~40% of the match performing Pur-poseful Movement (PM).Position had a significant influence on %PM time spent performing each motion class except walking and jogging. Players performed >700 turns in PM, most of these being of 0°-90°.Strikers performed most high to very high intensity activity and most contact situations.Defenders also spent a significantly greater %PM time moving backwards than the other two posi-tions.Different positions could

  1. FaRP cell distribution in the developing CNS suggests the involvement of FaRPs in all parts of the chromatophore control pathway in Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Aroua, Salima; Andouche, Aude; Martin, Madeleine; Baratte, Sébastien; Bonnaud, Laure

    2011-04-01

    The FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP) family includes a wide range of neuropeptides that have a role in many biological functions. In cephalopods, these peptides intervene in the peculiar body patterning system used for communication and camouflage. This system is particularly well developed in the cuttlefish and is functional immediately after hatching (stage 30). In this study, we investigate when and how the neural structures involved in the control of body patterning emerge and combine during Sepia embryogenesis, by studying the expression or the production of FaRPs. We detected FaRP expression and production in the nervous system of embryos from the beginning of organogenesis (stage 16). The wider FaRP expression was observed concomitantly with brain differentiation (around stage 22). Until hatching, FaRP-positive cells were located in specific areas of the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PNS). Most of these areas were implicated in the control of body patterns, suggesting that FaRPs are involved in all parts of the neural body pattern control system, from the 'receptive areas' via the CNS to the chromatophore effectors.

  2. Freshwater influences on embryos, hatching and larval survival of euryhaline Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis and potential constraints on habitat distribution.

    PubMed

    Ramee, S W; Allen, P J

    2016-08-01

    The influence of fresh water on potential habitat occupancy of early life-history stages of euryhaline Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis was determined by evaluating fertilization of freshwater-spawned eggs and subsequent survival of embryos and larvae in comparison with saline water (salinity 7). Overall per cent fertilization of eggs was low (mean ± s.e. = 20·21 ± 0·03%). Embryo survival was greater in saline water, but hatching rate (mean ± s.e. = 81·6 ± 0·1%) and post-hatch survival of larvae in fresh water (mean ± s.e. = 74·5 ± 0·1%) was relatively high. Therefore, the relative limitation of fresh water on habitat distribution of F. grandis changes with development, stimulating further questions on factors that may constrain habitat distribution of euryhaline fishes. PMID:27238386

  3. Activity of a Brazilian strain of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against the cotton Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Monnerat, R; Martins, E; Praça, L; Dumas, V; Berry, C

    2012-02-01

    A Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis, toxic to Diptera, including mosquitoes, was found also to show toxicity to the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman at an equivalent level to that of the standard coleopteran-active B. thuringiensis subspecies tenebrionis T08017. Recombinant B. thuringiensis strains expressing the individual Cyt1Aa, Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins from this strain were assessed to evaluate their potential contribution to the activity against A. grandis, either alone or in combination. Whilst individual toxins produced mortality, none was sufficiently potent to allow calculation of LC50 values. Combinations of toxins were unable to attain the same potency as the parental B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, suggesting a major role for other factors produced by this strain. PMID:23950011

  4. Clustering PPI data by combining FA and SHC method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Clustering is one of main methods to identify functional modules from protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. Nevertheless traditional clustering methods may not be effective for clustering PPI data. In this paper, we proposed a novel method for clustering PPI data by combining firefly algorithm (FA) and synchronization-based hierarchical clustering (SHC) algorithm. Firstly, the PPI data are preprocessed via spectral clustering (SC) which transforms the high-dimensional similarity matrix into a low dimension matrix. Then the SHC algorithm is used to perform clustering. In SHC algorithm, hierarchical clustering is achieved by enlarging the neighborhood radius of synchronized objects continuously, while the hierarchical search is very difficult to find the optimal neighborhood radius of synchronization and the efficiency is not high. So we adopt the firefly algorithm to determine the optimal threshold of the neighborhood radius of synchronization automatically. The proposed algorithm is tested on the MIPS PPI dataset. The results show that our proposed algorithm is better than the traditional algorithms in precision, recall and f-measure value. PMID:25707632

  5. Exterior building details of Building D, east façade: painted concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building D, east façade: painted concrete east face façade, main entry has flat cement plaster surround, double door six light over panels, two light transom over double door; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  6. Otto Rank, the Rankian circle in Philadelphia, and the origins of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    deCarvalho, R J

    1999-05-01

    Otto Rank's will therapy helped shape the ideas and techniques of relationship therapy developed by the Philadelphia social workers Jessie Taft, Virginia Robinson, and Frederick Allen in the 1930s. Rank's work and these ideas and techniques in turn strongly influenced the formulation of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy. This article compares and contrasts will, relationship, and person-centered approaches to psychotherapy and discusses the social factors--primarily the professional conflicts between a male-dominated psychiatry and female social workers over the independent practice of psychotherapy--that were crucial in the dissemination of Rank's psychological thought and the early popularity of Rogers.

  7. Otto Rank, the Rankian circle in Philadelphia, and the origins of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    deCarvalho, R J

    1999-05-01

    Otto Rank's will therapy helped shape the ideas and techniques of relationship therapy developed by the Philadelphia social workers Jessie Taft, Virginia Robinson, and Frederick Allen in the 1930s. Rank's work and these ideas and techniques in turn strongly influenced the formulation of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy. This article compares and contrasts will, relationship, and person-centered approaches to psychotherapy and discusses the social factors--primarily the professional conflicts between a male-dominated psychiatry and female social workers over the independent practice of psychotherapy--that were crucial in the dissemination of Rank's psychological thought and the early popularity of Rogers. PMID:11623737

  8. Ameliorative potential of Coccinia grandis extract on serum and liver marker enzymes and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumari, S.; Bhuvaneswari, P.; Rajeswari, P.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most severe metabolic pandemic of the 21st century, affecting essential biochemical activities in almost every cell in the body. Indian literatures have already mentioned herbal remediation for a number of human ailments. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Coccinia grandis extract on serum and liver marker enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT and LDH) and lipid profile (total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids in serum and liver) in streptozotocin induced diabetic animals. The experimental animals were treated with methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis and the levels of marker enzymes and lipid profile were estimated. The ALP, AST, ALT and LDH levels were increased in diabetic rats and restored to near normal levels after administration of plant extract. The lipid profile increased in diabetic group and after the treatment with the plant extract the levels were reverted to near normal. Thus the methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis has a potent ability to restore the marker enzymes and the lipid profile was reverted to near normal levels. PMID:22736887

  9. Modifying solubility of polymeric xylan extracted from Eucalyptus grandis and sugarcane bagasse by suitable side chain removing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Katiana R; Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, Johann F

    2015-10-20

    α-l-Arabinofuranosidase (AbfB) and novel α-d-glucuronidase (Agu1B) enzymes were applied for selective hydrolysis of beechwood (Fagus sylvatica) xylan (Sigma-Aldrich) as well as xylans extracted from Eucalyptus grandis and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse, leading to precipitation of these carbohydrate biopolymers. Hemicellulose extraction was performed with two mild-alkali methods, Höije and Pinto. Precipitation occurred after removal of 67, 40 and 16% 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) present in polymeric xylans from beechwood, E. grandis (Pinto) and E. grandis (Höije), respectively. Precipitation was maximized at Agu1B levels of 3.79-7.53mg/gsubstrate and hemicellulose concentrations of 4.5-5.0% (w/v). Polymeric xylan from sugarcane bagasse precipitated after removal of 48 and 22% of arabinose and MeGlcA, respectively, at optimal AbfB and Agu1B dosages of 9.0U/g and 6.4mg/g, respectively. Both the purity of polymeric xylans and structure thereof had a critical impact on the propensity for precipitation, and morphology of the resulting precipitate. Nano-to micro-meter precipitates were produced, with potential for carbohydrate nanotechnology applications.

  10. Proinflammatory gene expression and renal lipogenesis are modulated by dietary protein content in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Palacio, Claudia; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe; Cruz, Cristino; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Salas-Garrido, Gerardo; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease. It is not clear whether the adoption of a high-protein diet in obese patients affects renal lipid metabolism or kidney function. Thus the aims of this study were to assess in obese Zuckerfa/fa rats the effects of different types and amounts of dietary protein on the expression of lipogenic and inflammatory genes, as well as renal lipid concentration and biochemical parameters of kidney function. Rats were fed different concentrations of soy protein or casein (20, 30, 45%) for 2 mo. Independent of the type of protein ingested, higher dietary protein intake led to higher serum triglycerides (TG) than rats fed adequate concentrations of protein. Additionally, the soy protein diet significantly increased serum TG compared with the casein diet. However, rats fed soy protein had significantly decreased serum cholesterol concentrations compared with those fed a casein diet. No significant differences in renal TG and cholesterol concentrations were observed between rats fed with either protein diets. Renal expression of sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) and its target gene HMG-CoA reductase was significantly increased as the concentration of dietary protein increased. The highest protein diets were associated with greater expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the kidney, independent of the type of dietary protein. These results indicate that high soy or casein protein diets upregulate the expression of lipogenic and proinflammatory genes in the kidney.

  11. Reviving astrometry on the McDonald observatory 2.1-m Otto Struve telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J.; Riddle, A.

    2014-07-01

    The first regular observations of asteroids at McDonald observatory started in 1950 with a 10-inch telescope as part of the Yerkes-McDonald survey, which was followed by a long lull after its completion in 1952. Astrometric observations resumed in the early 70s using the 2.1-m telescope, but were mainly of faint outer solar system satellites to support the emerging planetary space program. Observation of asteroids was later added to the program in order to refine the fundamental reference frame and to aid Hubble Space Telescope astrometry. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been the main emphasis since 1995 using a 0.76 m telescope, which worked very well while the surveys concentrated on objects 1 km or larger. However, NASA's mission to discover and catalogue NEOs has been extended down to objects 140 m in size. Most of these new NEO candidates are outside the reach of the 0.76-m telescope. In 2011, the Otto Struve telescope has received a new instrument, the Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse, or CQUEAN (Park, 2012). The telescope-camera combination allows us to follow up virtually any object discovered by the various NEO search teams, as it provides measurable images of a 19th magnitude source with a single 10 second exposure in the red. The field of view is 4.8' by 4.8', with 0.281 arcsec/pixel resolution, and we can fully sample the point-spread function for precision astrometry. Although this telescope is 75 years old, we are getting circular stellar images for exposures up to 240 seconds with the CQUEAN auto-guider. We obtained images of M71 at three different air masses during two nights in the Sloan i and r filter bands. The σ of the standard coordinate residuals is a little under 0.07 seconds of arc for both cases. We have also looked at the field of view for systematic errors both in direction and magnitude, and we found it to be satisfactorily uniform. The overall quality of our data is improved due to better angular resolution and dome seeing. Based on

  12. Semiochemicals from herbivory induced cotton plants enhance the foraging behavior of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Sujii, E R; Mayon, P; Caulfield, J C; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2012-12-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been monitored through deployment of traps baited with aggregation pheromone components. However, field studies have shown that the number of insects caught in these traps is significantly reduced during cotton squaring, suggesting that volatiles produced by plants at this phenological stage may be involved in attraction. Here, we evaluated the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by undamaged or damaged cotton plants at different phenological stages, under different infestation conditions, and determined the attractiveness of these VOCs to adults of A. grandis. In addition, we investigated whether or not VOCs released by cotton plants enhanced the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone emitted by male boll weevils. Behavioral responses of A. grandis to VOCs from conspecific-damaged, heterospecific-damaged (Spodoptera frugiperda and Euschistus heros) and undamaged cotton plants, at different phenological stages, were assessed in Y-tube olfactometers. The results showed that volatiles emitted from reproductive cotton plants damaged by conspecifics were attractive to adults boll weevils, whereas volatiles induced by heterospecific herbivores were not as attractive. Additionally, addition of boll weevil-induced volatiles from reproductive cotton plants to aggregation pheromone gave increased attraction, relative to the pheromone alone. The VOC profiles of undamaged and mechanically damaged cotton plants, in both phenological stages, were not different. Chemical analysis showed that cotton plants produced qualitatively similar volatile profiles regardless of damage type, but the quantities produced differed according to the plant's phenological stage and the herbivore species. Notably, vegetative cotton plants released higher amounts of VOCs compared to reproductive plants. At both stages, the highest rate of VOC release was observed in A. grandis-damaged plants. Results show that A. grandis uses

  13. Feeding ecology of the copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis near the lower interface of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowing, Marcia M.; Wishner, Karen F.

    Feeding ecology of the calanoid copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis collected in the Arabian Sea at one station during the Spring Intermonsoon and during the Southwest Monsoon of 1995 was studied with transmission electron microscopy of gut-contents. Highest abundances of these animals occurred from ˜400 to 1100 m, near the lower interface of the oxygen minimum zone and at the inflection point where oxygen starts to increase. We expected that their gut-contents would include particles and cells that had sunk relatively undegraded from surface waters as well as those from within the oxygen minimum zone, and that gut-contents would differ between the Spring Intermonsoon and the more productive SW Monsoon. Overall, in both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis was omnivorous, and consumed a variety of detrital particles, prokaryotic and eukaryotic autotrophs, gram-negative bacteria including metal-precipitating bacteria, aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, microheterotrophs, virus-like particles and large virus-like particles, as well as cuticle and cnidarian tissue. Few significant differences in types of food consumed were seen among life stages within or among various depth zones. Amorphous, unidentifiable material was significantly more abundant in guts during the Spring Intermonsoon than during the late SW Monsoon, and recognizable cells made up a significantly higher portion of gut-contents during the late SW Monsoon. This is consistent with the Intermonsoon as a time when organic material is considerably re-worked by the surface water microbial loop before leaving the euphotic zone. In both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis had consumed what appeared to be aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, similar to those we had previously found in gut-contents of several species of zooplankton from the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern tropical Pacific. By intercepting sinking material, populations of Lucicutia aff. L. grandis act as a filter for carbon

  14. Cross-resistance in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) populations resistant to dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Oziolor, Elias M; Dubansky, Benjamin; Burggren, Warren W; Matson, Cole W

    2016-06-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC) in Houston, Texas is an aquatic environment with a long history of contamination, including polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals. Populations of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) from the HSC have adapted to resist developmental cardiac deformities caused by dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Contaminants in the HSC have acted as a strong selective pressure on resident Gulf killifish populations. Rapid adaptation can lead to fitness costs, some as a direct result of the mechanisms involved in the adaptive process, whereas other adaptations may be more general. To explore potential fitness costs, we evaluated two Gulf killifish populations with documented resistance to DLC-induced cardiac teratogenesis (Patrick Bayou and Vince Bayou), and one previously characterized reference population (Gangs Bayou). We also characterized a previously unstudied population from Galveston Bay as an additional reference population (Smith Point). We tested the sensitivity of F1 larvae from these four populations to two classes of pesticides (pyrethroid (permethrin) and carbamate (carbaryl)) and two model pro-oxidants (tert-butyl hydroquinone (tBHQ) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH)). In addition, we explored their responses to hypoxia and measured resting metabolic rates (M.O2). Both adapted populations were cross-resistant to the toxicity of carbaryl and both pro-oxidants tested. There were no population differences in sensitivity to permethrin. On the other hand, one reference population (Gangs Bayou) was less sensitive to hypoxia, and maintained a lower M.O2 . However, there were no differences in hypoxia tolerance or resting metabolic rate between the second reference and the two adapted populations. This investigation emphasizes the importance of including multiple reference populations to clearly link fitness costs or

  15. RNA-Seq reveals complex genetic response to deepwater horizon oil release in Fundulus grandis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The release of oil resulting from the blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DH) drilling platform was one of the largest in history discharging more than 189 million gallons of oil and subject to widespread application of oil dispersants. This event impacted a wide range of ecological habitats with a complex mix of pollutants whose biological impact is still not yet fully understood. To better understand the effects on a vertebrate genome, we studied gene expression in the salt marsh minnow Fundulus grandis, which is local to the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico and is a sister species of the ecotoxicological model Fundulus heteroclitus. To assess genomic changes, we quantified mRNA expression using high throughput sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq) in F. grandis populations in the marshes and estuaries impacted by DH oil release. This application of RNA-Seq to a non-model, wild, and ecologically significant organism is an important evaluation of the technology to quickly assess similar events in the future. Results Our de novo assembly of RNA-Seq data produced a large set of sequences which included many duplicates and fragments. In many cases several of these could be associated with a common reference sequence using blast to query a reference database. This reduced the set of significant genes to 1,070 down-regulated and 1,251 up-regulated genes. These genes indicate a broad and complex genomic response to DH oil exposure including the expected AHR-mediated response and CYP genes. In addition a response to hypoxic conditions and an immune response are also indicated. Several genes in the choriogenin family were down-regulated in the exposed group; a response that is consistent with AH exposure. These analyses are in agreement with oligonucleotide-based microarray analyses, and describe only a subset of significant genes with aberrant regulation in the exposed set. Conclusion RNA-Seq may be successfully applied to feral and extremely polymorphic

  16. [The clinic Heilanstalt Weidenplan in Halle (Saale), origin of the German urology. Otto Kneise's founding of the first independent urology department in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zacher, W; Stolze, K-J

    2014-07-01

    The routine use of cystoscope initiated the development of the modern urology. Otto Kneise (1875-1953) extended the targets of cystoscopy by including examinations of the male bladder and prostate. He achieved the goal that "cystoscopy is part of general work in urology and not a pure gynecological act". He, thus, founded the specialty gynecological urology in the field urology, which prevented it from becoming an independent field. Under the leadership of Otto Kneise, the first independent urology department in Germany was created in the hospital Heilanstalt Weidenplan.

  17. Lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of TG containing acetylenic FA.

    PubMed

    Jie, Marcel S F Lie Ken; Fua, Xun; Lau, Maureen M L; Chye, M L

    2002-10-01

    Hydrolysis of symmetrical acetylenic TG of type AAA [viz., glycerol tri-(4-decynoate), glycerol tri-(6-octadecynoate), glycerol tri-(9-octadecynoate), glycerol tri-(10-undecynoate), and glycerol tri-(13-docosynoate)] in the presence of eight microbial lipases was studied. Novozyme 435 (Candida antarctica), an efficient enzyme for esterification, showed a significant resistance in the hydrolysis of glycerol tri-(9-octadecynoate) and glycerol tri-(13-docosynoate). Hydrolysis of acetylenic TG with Lipolase 100T (Humicola lanuginosa) was rapidly accomplished. Lipase PS-D (Pseudomonas cepacia) showed a fair resistance toward the hydrolysis of glycerol tri-(6-octadecynoate) only, which reflected its ability to recognize the delta6 positional isomer of 18:1. Lipase CCL (Candida cylindracea, syn. C. rugosa) and AY-30 (C. rugosa) were able to catalyze the release of 10-undecynoic acid and 9-octadecynoic acid from the corresponding TG, but less readily the 13-docosynoic acid in the case of glycerol tri-(13-docosynoate). The two lipases CCL and AY-30 were able to distinguish the small difference in structure of fatty acyl moieties in the TG substrate. To confirm this trend, three regioisomers of mixed acetylenic TG of type ABC (containing one each of delta6, delta9, and delta13 acetylenic FA in various positions) were prepared and hydrolyzed with CCL and AY-40. The results reconfirmed the observation that AY-30 and CCL were able to distinguish the slight differences in the molecular structure (position of the acetylenic bond and chain length) of the acyl groups in the TG during the hydrolysis of such TG substrates.

  18. Integrated Tail Buffet Loads on the F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyn, Larry A.; James, Kevin D.

    1994-01-01

    The unsteady pressures acting on the vertical tails of a full-scale F/A-18 fighter aircraft were studied to gain a better understanding of tail-buffet loads that frequently occur on fighter aircraft operating at high angles-of-attack. Data for the study were acquired during two test entries in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel wherein the aircraft was tested at wind speeds up to 100 knots and at angles-of-attack from 20deg to 40deg. For the purposes of this paper, the primary difference between the two tests is that, during the first wind-tunnel entry, the pressure transducers were more sparsely spaced and covered less of the fin than during the second entry. In addition to a brief description of the spectral analysis methods used for the unsteady aerodynamic pressures and loads, an analysis of the effects of sensor density on estimating integrated loads is presented. It was found that the integrated loads determined from sparse sensor arrays are significantly higher than actual loads. However, a modest increase in the number of sensors can greatly reduce the error and a method for correcting load estimates from sparse sensor arrays is also suggested. The results for the time-averaged, power-spectral analysis are then presented for the tail-fin bending moments. Power spectra are presented for the aircraft at zero sideslip over an angle-of-attack range from 20deg to 40deg and for the aircraft at an angle-of-attack of 30deg over a sideslip range from -16deg to 16deg. Since the aircraft was equipped with a removable leading-edge extension (LEX) fence to reduce tail-buffet loads, the tail-fin bending moment loads are also presented for that configuration. The LEX fence is shown to significantly reduce bending moment loads over a broad range frequencies, for all the aircraft attitudes presented.

  19. Purification and characterization of a proteinase from pineapple fruit, fruit bromelain FA2.

    PubMed

    Yamada, F; Takahashi, N; Murachi, T

    1976-06-01

    Fruit bromelain FA2, the main proteinase component of the juice of pineapple fruit, has been purified and characterized. 1. Efficient extraction of this enzyme from the crude material was possible using "Cellulosin AP," a microbial polysaccharidase preparation containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and pectinase. The enzyme was purified mainly by successive applications of anion-exchange chromatography, yielding an apparently homogeneous protein as judged by several physical, chemical, and immunochemical criteria. Properties of FA2 include: molecular weight, 31,000; isoelectric point, pH 4.6; absorbance at 280 nm of a 1% solution at pH 7.0 per cm, 19.2. 2. FA2 gave only alanine phenylthiohydantoin upon amino-terminal group analysis by the Edman procedure. Stepwise degradation yielded the amino-terminal sequence Ala-Val-Pro-Gln-Ser-Ile-Asp-Trp-Arg-Asp-Tyr-Gly-Ala. The amino acid composition of FA2 was not markedly different from that of stem bromelain, except for a much smaller lysine content and a smaller alanine content relative to glycine in FA2. FA2 contained neither amino sugars nor neutral carbohydrates as determined by several methods, so FA2 is not a glycoprotein. 3. By labeling the reactive cysteine residue (CYS) with [14C]iodoacetate, the following partial amino acid sequence has been determined. Asn-Glx-Asn-Pro-Cys-Gly-Ala-CYS.

  20. Bactrian camel nanobody-based immunoassay for specific and sensitive detection of Cry1Fa toxin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pingyan; Li, Guanghui; Yan, Junrong; Hu, Yonghong; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Xianjin; Wan, Yakun

    2014-12-15

    The variable domain of the heavy-chain-only antibody (VHH) or nanobody (Nb), derived from camelids, begins to play an important role on the detection of protein markers. In this study, we constructed a phage-displayed library of VHHs against Cry1Fa by immunizing a healthy Bactrian camel with Cry1Fa toxin. After a series of bio-panning and screening by phage display technology, three anti-Cry1Fa nanobodies (Nbs) with great difference in complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) were obtained and they were highly specific to Cry1Fa as well as showed full of activity when exposed to 70 °C for 3 h. Through modifying Nbs with Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) and biotin, two Nbs which can recognize the different epitopes of Cry1Fa were determined and they were used to establish a novel sandwich immune ELISA based on biotin-SA interaction for Cry1Fa detection. The immunoassay exhibited a linear range from 1 to 100 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.88 ng/mL. The recoveries from spiked corn and soybean samples were ranged from 83.33 to 117.17%, with a coefficient of variation (C.V) less than 6.0%. All together, the proposed immunoassay will be a promising way for sensitive and accurate determination of Cry1Fa toxin. PMID:25448390

  1. Surface Chemical and Color Characterization of Juvenile TECTONA GRANDIS Wood Subjected to Steam-Drying Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocal, Alexander; Moya, Róger; Rodriguez-Solis, María; Starbird, Ricardo; Muñoz, Freddy

    2016-11-01

    The color of Tectona grandis wood is an attribute that favors its commercialization, however, wood color from fast-growth plantation trees is clear and lacks uniformity. The aim of this work is to characterize steamed teak wood by means of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and L∗a∗b∗ color systems. Two moisture conditions (green and 50%) and two grain patterns (flat and quarter) of boards were analyzed through the application of different steaming times (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18h). The FTIR results showed that the bands at 1158, 1231, 1373 and 1419cm-1 did not show any change with steaming, whereas the bands at 1053, 1108, 1453, 1506, 1536, 1558, 1595, 1652, 1683, 1700 and 1733cm-1 presented a decrease in the intensity with the steaming time. The band at 1318cm-1 was the only one that increased. Lightness (L∗) was the most affected parameter, followed by yellowness (b∗), while redness (a∗) showed the smallest change. Surface color change (ΔE∗) presented the lowest value between 3h and 6h of steam-drying in the boards with flat grain, whereas for boards with quarter grain, the smallest ΔE∗ value was obtained after 18h of steaming.

  2. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qundi; Liang, Zhikun; Zhao, Mingqian; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Depo; Xu, Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and solvent extraction (SE). A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD), 56 (HS-SPME), and 48 (SE) compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81%) were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E)-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level. PMID:24349825

  3. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhisheng; Liu, Qundi; Liang, Zhikun; Zhao, Mingqian; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Depo; Xu, Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and solvent extraction (SE). A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD), 56 (HS-SPME), and 48 (SE) compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81%) were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E)-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level. PMID:24349825

  4. Metabolic and embryonic responses to terrestrial incubation of Fundulus grandis embryos across a temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Brown, C A; Green, C C

    2014-03-01

    This study simulated terrestrial incubation and measured rates of embryogenesis, nitrogen elimination, heart rate, lactate production, maximum length of time a hatch could be delayed and developmental responses of terrestrially incubated Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis embryos at temperatures ranging from 20 to 30° C. Temperature had a positive relationship with rate of embryogenesis, but a negative relationship with extent of extended incubation. The 30° C treatment reached embryonic maturity 6 days before the 20° C treatment. Embryos hatched between intervals of 240 and 336, 144 and 288, 96 and 240 and 96 and 192 h after reaching developmental maturity for the 20, 23, 26 and 30° C treatments. Significantly higher concentrations of total nitrogen, in the form of ammonia and urea, were recorded in the 20 and 30° C treatments. While temperature significantly influenced lactate and ATP concentrations, no significant influence of time of incubation was detected. Terrestrial embryos displayed an ability to develop quickly during embryogenesis and prolong incubation for an extended period of time after reaching embryonic maturity. This adaptation may be a life-history trait used to minimize asynchronous hatching, cannibalism and cohort size heterogeneity. PMID:24588641

  5. Investigating a galactomannan gel obtained from Cassia grandis seeds as immobilizing matrix for Cramoll lectin.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Silva, Caroline S; Soares, Paulo A G; Barros, Wilson; Correia, Maria T S; Coelho, Luana C B B; Teixeira, José A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2016-05-01

    Characterization, with emphasis on the rheological properties, of Cassia grandis seeds galactomannan gel containing immobilized Cramoll 1-4 is presented. The gels, with and without immobilized Cramoll 1-4, were evaluated along time by rheometry, pH, color, microbial contamination and lectin hemagglutinating activity (HA). Rheological determinations confirmed the gels to be very stable up to 30 days with variations occurring after this period. Rheological data also showed that the gel/Cramoll 1-4 immobilizing matrix loses its elastic modulus substantially after 60 days. Both gels presented no microbial contamination as well as a pH close to neutral. Colorimetric parameters demonstrated the gels transparency with occasional yellowness. The opacity of the galactomannan gel did not change significantly along the study; the same did not occur for the gel with immobilized Cramoll 1-4 as a statistically significant reduction of its opacity was observed. In what concerns immobilized Cramoll 1-4 HA, up to 90% of its initial HA was maintained after 20 days, with a decrease to 60% after 60 days. These results combined with the thickening and stabilizing characteristics of the galactomannan gel make this gel a promising immobilizing matrix for Cramoll 1-4 that can be further exploited for clinical and cosmetic applications. PMID:26840177

  6. Cultivar variations in antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic properties of pomelo pulp (Citrus grandis [L.] Osbeck) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mäkynen, Kittana; Jitsaardkul, Sritanaporn; Tachasamran, Pansiree; Sakai, Nathaporn; Puranachoti, Supitcha; Nirojsinlapachai, Natthapat; Chattapat, Vipaporn; Caengprasath, Natarin; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2013-08-15

    Pomelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) is a native fruit of great economic importance in Southeast Asia. To provide experimental evidence for the antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic properties of pomelo, 6 cultivars, including Kao-Yai (KY), Thong-dee (TD), Kao-Tangkwa (KT), Kao-Numpueng (KN), Ta-Koi (TK), and Tubtim Siam (TS) were evaluated. KY had the highest phenolic content, and the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-pireyhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. From the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, naringin and naringenin were the major flavonoids in the KT and TK cultivars. Six pomelo cultivars had antihyperlipidemic activities including the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase, as well as cholesterol micelle formation and bile acid binding. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that the 6 cultivars were separated into 2 classifications. In addition, the total phenolics of the pomelo cultivars were significantly correlated with ferric reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The results suggest that pomelo provides significant health benefits and may be used for developing functional foods.

  7. Ferric ions involved in the flower color development of the Himalayan blue poppy, Meconopsis grandis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kumi; Kitahara, Sayoko; Ito, Daisuke; Kondo, Tadao

    2006-05-01

    The Himalayan blue poppy, Meconopsis grandis, has sky blue-colored petals, although the anthocyanidin nucleus of the petal pigment is cyanidin. The blue color development in this blue poppy involving ferric ions was therefore studied. We analyzed the vacuolar pH, and the organic and inorganic components of the colored cells. A direct measurement by a proton-selective microelectrode revealed that the vacuolar pH value was 4.8. The concentrations of the total anthocyanins in the colored cells were around 5mM, and ca. three times more concentrated flavonols were detected. Fe was detected by atomic analysis of the colored cells, and the ratio of Fe to anthocyanins was ca. 0.8 eq. By mixing the anthocyanin, flavonol and metal ion components in a buffered aq. solution at pH 5.0, we were able to reproduce the same blue color; the visible absorption spectrum and CD were identical to those in the petals, with Fe(3+), Mg(2+) and flavonol being essential for the blue color. The blue pigment in Meconopsis should be a new type of metal complex pigment that is different from a stoichiometric supramolecular pigment such as commelinin or protocyanin.

  8. Structure and function of the digestive system of solen grandis dunker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiuzhen, Sheng; Wenbin, Zhan; Sulian, Ren

    2003-10-01

    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing. Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  9. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Ahmad, Ishak

    2013-11-01

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  10. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils. PMID:16332132

  11. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Ahmad, Ishak

    2013-11-27

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  12. FaRe: A Mathematica package for tensor reduction of Feynman integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re Fiorentin, Michele

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present FaRe, a package for Mathematica that implements the decomposition of a generic tensor Feynman integral, with arbitrary loop number, into scalar integrals in higher dimension. In order for FaRe to work, the package FeynCalc is needed, so that the tensor structure of the different contributions is preserved and the obtained scalar integrals are grouped accordingly. FaRe can prove particularly useful when it is preferable to handle Feynman integrals with free Lorentz indices and tensor reduction of high-order integrals is needed. This can then be achieved with several powerful existing tools.

  13. Desalination of Walls and Façades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedekind, W.; Jáuregui Arreola, K.; Siegesmund, S.

    2012-04-01

    For large monumental objects like walls and façades, the common technique of applying poultices for desalination often are not effective. This practice is neither cost effective nor does it lead to the desired result of desalination. To manage the conservation and desalination of these kinds of objects, several sprinkling techniques are known and have been applied on historical objects. For example, in the wooden warship Vasa, which was excavated from the sea bottom in Stockholm/Sweden, a sprinkling method was applied in 1961 for conservation and desalination. A sprinkling method to desalinate porous mineral materials will be presented using three different case studies: the rock cut monument no. 825 in Petra/Jordan, the medieval monastary church of the former Franziscan convent in Zeitz/Germany and the baroque monastary church Santa Monica in Guadalajara/Mexico. Before to start with practical conservation, the material- and petropysical properties, focoussed on water transport properties, like porosity, pore size distribution, water uptake and drying rate were investigadet. Diagnostic investigations on the objects included the mapping of deterioration, moister content measurements and salt accumulation determined by borehole cuts samples at depth. In the sprinkling method water is sprayed onto the wall surface through nozzels arranged in a modular grid. Depending on the sprinkling duration, a small or a large amount of water seeps into the porous materials, whereby the depth penetration can be adjusted accordingly. The water not absorbed by the stone runs off the facade and can be collected in liter amounts and tested by electrical conductivity with respect to the dissolved substances. After the drying of the wall's surface and the accumulation of salt at the material's surface, the procedure is repeated. For each subsequent washing a lower content of salt should be brought to the surface. Step by step the salt concentration will eventually decrease to almost

  14. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND...

  15. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later... work, W, over each test interval according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection...

  16. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection...

  17. One-step column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution followed by automatic separation of volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides from Citrus grandis.

    PubMed

    Han, Han-Bing; Li, Hui; Hao, Rui-Lin; Chen, Ya-Fei; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2014-02-15

    Citrus grandis Tomentosa is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. Its functional components include volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides which cannot be effectively extracted through traditional methods. A column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution was developed for one-step extraction of all bioactive substances from C. grandis. Dried material was loaded into a column with petroleum ether: ethanol (8:2, PE) and sequentially eluted with 2-fold PE, 3-fold ethanol: water (6:4) and 8-fold water. The elutes was separated into an ether fraction containing volatiles and an ethanol-water fraction containing flavonoids and polysaccharides. The later was separated into flavonoids and polysaccharides by 80% ethanol precipitation of polysaccharides. Through this procedure, volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides in C. grandis were simultaneously extracted at 98% extraction rates and simply separated at higher than 95% recovery rates. The method provides a simple and high-efficient extraction and separation of wide range bioactive substances.

  18. Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: fouroverfour doublehung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: four-over-four double-hung wood sash window with concrete sill; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  19. Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: second floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: second floor metal multi-pane industrial-type sash windows; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  20. Perspective view of main entrance, north façade with two story ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of main entrance, north façade with two story square tower, Note medical cross made of wood on tower, originally there were four. - Richmond Field Hospital, 1330 Cutting Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  1. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey, George F.A. Palmer, Photographer, 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey, George F.A. Palmer, Photographer, 1937 VIEW OF FIREPLACE WITH BIBLICAL TILES, NORTHEAST PARLOR CHAMBER ON SECOND FLOOR-'deTERNAY'S ROOM'. - Nichols-Wanton-Hunter House, 54 Washington Street, Newport, Newport County, RI

  2. Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: ca. 1914 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: ca. 1914 covered porch with an asphalt singled low-hipped roof; southwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, George F.A. Palmer, Photographer, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, George F.A. Palmer, Photographer, June 16, 1936 DETAIL OF HOPPER AND HOISTING MECHANISM (FOR REMOVAL OF MILL STONES. 1757, CUT IN STONE). - Benjamin Hammond Grist Mill, Hammond Hill Road, Kingston, Washington County, RI

  4. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, George F.A. Palmer, Photographer, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, George F.A. Palmer, Photographer, June 16, 1936 DETAIL OF RECEIVING TROUGH (BASEMENT). - Benjamin Hammond Grist Mill, Hammond Hill Road, Kingston, Washington County, RI

  5. Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: second floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: second floor entrance with cement plaster profiled surround and embedded wood beam end; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  6. NASA Videographer Captures X-51 from F/A-18 Chase

    NASA Video Gallery

    A tiny dashcam video camera records NASA Dryden videographer Lori Losey capturing the historic launch of the Air Force's X-51 Waverider hypersonic vehicle from the rear cockpit of a NASA F/A-18 flo...

  7. Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: doublehung wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: double-hung wood window with brick arch lintel and brick sill; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  8. Exterior building details of Building E, oblique west façade: brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building E, oblique west façade: brick arch lintel and brick infilled window with brick sill; southeasterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  9. Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: brick arch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: brick arch lintel over historic entry that was brick infilled; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  10. East and north elevations (rear façade) of quarters no. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and north elevations (rear façade) of quarters no. 2, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  11. East façade, Burton Park Club House, with Amphitheater in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East façade, Burton Park Club House, with Amphitheater in foreground, view to north from Amphitheater stage (90 mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  12. Portico, north façade, looking south (bearing 190). Statues of "Floral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Portico, north façade, looking south (bearing 190). Statues of "Floral Wealth" and "Romantic Wealth" at top landing. - California State Library & Courts Building, 914 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. Portico on south façade, looking north (bearing 350), with statues ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Portico on south façade, looking north (bearing 350), with statues of "Climatic Wealth" and "Mineral Wealth" at top landing. - California State Office Building No. 1, 915 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. Georgia Power Co. Quantities for F.A. P. 425G (Bridge) Contract ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Georgia Power Co. Quantities for F.A. P. 425G (Bridge) Contract No. 1 and 2 - Tallulah Falls Bridge, Spanning Tallulah Falls River on U.S. Highway 23/State Route 15, Tallulah Falls, Habersham County, GA

  15. North façade of crucible steel building; looking southwest Bethlehem ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North façade of crucible steel building; looking southwest - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Crucible Steel Plant, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  16. North (main) façade, looking southsoutheast (bearing 165) from steps of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North (main) façade, looking south-southeast (bearing 165) from steps of California State Office building (Jesse (Unruh Building). - California State Library & Courts Building, 914 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. View southeast; detail of north façade with crane rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast; detail of north façade with crane rail - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. View northeast; detail of southwest corner showing damage to façade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast; detail of southwest corner showing damage to façade - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. View north detail of south façade showing damage to wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north detail of south façade showing damage to wall - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. View south; detail view of south façade at column A13 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south; detail view of south façade at column A13 - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: iron latticed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: iron latticed gate dungeon entrance, granite base; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  2. NASA F/A-18 Flight-Tests Mars Science Lab Radar

    NASA Video Gallery

    A NASA F/A-18 put the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Science Laboratory landing radar to the test during recent flights over Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. With the test radar housed in a pod und...

  3. Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: ellshaped south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: ell-shaped south facing concrete staircase with decorative pipe railing, second floor entrance with cement plaster profiled surround, dentil course cornice, truncated embedded wood beams, cream colored plaster-finished exterior façade, closed off window well with protruding vent; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  4. Evolved resistance to PCB- and PAH-induced cardiac teratogenesis, and reduced CYP1A activity in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) populations from the Houston Ship Channel, Texas.

    PubMed

    Oziolor, Elias M; Bigorgne, Emilie; Aguilar, Lissette; Usenko, Sascha; Matson, Cole W

    2014-05-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC), connecting Houston, Texas to Galveston Bay and ultimately the Gulf of Mexico, is heavily industrialized and includes several areas that have historically been identified as containing significant levels of mercury, dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, inhabit this entire estuarine system, including the most contaminated areas. F. grandis is the sister species of the well-established estuarine model organism Fundulus heteroclitus, for which heritable resistance to both PCB and PAH toxicity has been documented in several populations. F. grandis collected from two Superfund sites on the HSC and from a reference population were used to establish breeding colonies. F1 embryos from HSC populations were approximately 1000-fold more resistant to PCB126- and 2-5-fold more resistant to coal tar-induced cardiovascular teratogenesis, relative to embryos from the reference population. Reciprocal crosses between reference and contaminated populations exhibit an intermediate level of resistance, confirming that observed protection is genetic and biparentally inherited. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) data confirm a reduction in basal and induced cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity in resistant populations of F. grandis. This result is consistent with responses previously described for resistant populations of F. heteroclitus, specifically a recalcitrant aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway. The decreased levels of cardiovascular teratogenesis, and decrease in CYP1A inducibility in response to PCB126 and a PAH mixture, suggest that HSC F. grandis populations have adapted to chronic contaminants exposures via a mechanism similar to that previously described for F. heteroclitus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of evolved pollution resistance in F. grandis. Additionally, the mechanistic similarities between the population

  5. Evolved resistance to PCB- and PAH-induced cardiac teratogenesis, and reduced CYP1A activity in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) populations from the Houston Ship Channel, Texas.

    PubMed

    Oziolor, Elias M; Bigorgne, Emilie; Aguilar, Lissette; Usenko, Sascha; Matson, Cole W

    2014-05-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC), connecting Houston, Texas to Galveston Bay and ultimately the Gulf of Mexico, is heavily industrialized and includes several areas that have historically been identified as containing significant levels of mercury, dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, inhabit this entire estuarine system, including the most contaminated areas. F. grandis is the sister species of the well-established estuarine model organism Fundulus heteroclitus, for which heritable resistance to both PCB and PAH toxicity has been documented in several populations. F. grandis collected from two Superfund sites on the HSC and from a reference population were used to establish breeding colonies. F1 embryos from HSC populations were approximately 1000-fold more resistant to PCB126- and 2-5-fold more resistant to coal tar-induced cardiovascular teratogenesis, relative to embryos from the reference population. Reciprocal crosses between reference and contaminated populations exhibit an intermediate level of resistance, confirming that observed protection is genetic and biparentally inherited. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) data confirm a reduction in basal and induced cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity in resistant populations of F. grandis. This result is consistent with responses previously described for resistant populations of F. heteroclitus, specifically a recalcitrant aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway. The decreased levels of cardiovascular teratogenesis, and decrease in CYP1A inducibility in response to PCB126 and a PAH mixture, suggest that HSC F. grandis populations have adapted to chronic contaminants exposures via a mechanism similar to that previously described for F. heteroclitus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of evolved pollution resistance in F. grandis. Additionally, the mechanistic similarities between the population

  6. Effects of an inducible aiiA gene on disease resistance in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, L J; Li, L M

    2016-08-01

    N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are metabolites of mostly gram-negative bacteria and are critical signaling molecules in bacterial quorum-sensing systems. At threshold concentrations, AHLs can activate the expression of pathogenic genes and induce diseases. Therefore, reducing AHL concentrations is a key point of disease control in plants. AHL-lactonase, which is expressed by aiiA, is widespread in Bacillus sp and can hydrolyze AHLs. In the present study, we cloned aiiA from Bacillus subtilis by PCR. A plant expression vector of aiiA was constructed and name Pcam-PPP3-aiiA, in which expression of aiiA was controlled by the pathogen-inducible plant promoter PPP3. The recombinant plasmid was transferred into Eucalyptus × urophylla × E. grandis by an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR and Southern blotting showed that aiiA was successfully integrated into the E. urophylla × E. grandis genome and its expression was induced by Ralstonia solanacearum 12 h after inoculation, as shown by reverse transcription-PCR. The transcription efficacy of aiiA increased 43.88-, 30.65-, and 18.95-fold after inoculation with R. solanacearum, Erwinia carotovora ssp. zeae (Sabet) and Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum, respectively as shown by RT-real-time PCR. Transgenic E.urophylla × E.grandis expressing the AIIA protein exhibited significantly enhanced disease resistance compared to non-transgenic plants by delaying the onset of wilting and reducing the disease index. PMID:26905275

  7. Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt: Path for a New Drug for Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Munasinghe, M. A. A. K.; Abeysena, C.; Yaddehige, I. S.; Vidanapathirana, T.; Piyumal, K. P. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Role of herbs in the management and control of diabetes has emerged fast over the years. We assessed the efficacy of Coccinia grandis (locally known as Ken, Kovakka) leaves as a hypoglycemic agent. Methods. Double-blind phase I clinical trial was conducted at the general hospital and a private hospital in Matara in August 2009. All the participants were given a common meal for dinner, and they maintained a 10-hour fasting period. Sixty-one healthy volunteers were given a meal containing 20 g of leaves of Coccinia grandis which was mixed with a measured amount of scraped coconut and table salt for breakfast, and other 61 were given the placebo meal which also contained scraped coconut and salt. Glucose tolerance test was performed blindly for the two groups. Mixed factorial design analysis of variance and student's t-test were applied. Results. Overall blood sugar levels of the experimental group were also significantly lower than those of the control group (F(1,117) 5.56, P < 0.05). Increase in the blood sugar levels from fasting to one hour (F(1,117) 6.77, P < 0.05) and two hours (F(1,117) 5.28, P < 0.05) postprandially was statistically significant for participants who were in the control group than those of in the experimental group. The mean difference of postprandial blood sugar levels (mg/dL) after one hour (20.2, 95% confidence interval, 4.81 to 35.5) and two hours (11.46, 95% confidence interval; 1.03 to 21.9) was statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusions. Coccinia grandis has a blood sugar lowering effect. However further studies are needed to validate our findings. PMID:21822423

  8. Architectural Kansei of ‘Wall’ in The Façade Design by Le Corbusier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendai, Shoichiro

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the modern architect Le Corbusier's architectural Kansei (sensibility) on wall in site environment through the analysis of his façade design, using Œuvres complètes (1910-1965, 8 vols., Les éditions d'architecture, Artemis, Zurich) and Le Corbusier Archives (1982-1984, 32 vols., Garland Publishing, Inc. and Fondation Le Corbusier, New York, London, Paris). At first, I arrange five façade types, according to the explanation by Le Corbusier ; ‘fenêtre en longueur (strip window)’, ‘pan de verre (glass wall)’, ‘brise-soleil (sun-breaker)’, ‘loggia’ and ‘claustra’. Through the analysis of the relationship between these types and the design process of each building, we find that Le Corbusier's façade design includes the affirmation and the negation of the ‘wall’ at the same time. In fact, the nature of façade modification during design process is divers: increase in transparency, decrease in transparency and spatialization of façade. That means, Le Corbusier studied the environmental condition by these façade types, and tried to realize the phenomenal openness. This trial bases on the function of architectural Kansei as correspondence between body and environment beyond the physical design.

  9. The Politics of Forgetting: Otto Hahn and the German Nuclear-Fission Project in World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2012-03-01

    As the co-discoverer of nuclear fission and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, Otto Hahn (1879-1968) took part in Germany`s nuclear-fission project throughout the Second World War. I outline Hahn's efforts to mobilize his institute for military-related research; his inclusion in high-level scientific structures of the military and the state; and his institute's research programs in neutron physics, isotope separation, transuranium elements, and fission products, all of potential military importance for a bomb or a reactor and almost all of it secret. These activities are contrasted with Hahn's deliberate misrepresentations after the war, when he claimed that his wartime work had been nothing but "purely scientific" fundamental research that was openly published and of no military relevance.

  10. Entransy analysis and optimization of performance of nano-scale irreversible Otto cycle operating with Maxwell-Boltzmann ideal gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Bidi, Mokhtar

    2016-08-01

    This paper made attempt to investigate thermodynamically a nano scale irreversible Otto cycle for optimizing its performance. This system employed an ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas as a working fluid. Two different scenarios were proposed in the multi-objective optimization process and the results of each of the scenarios were examined separately. The first scenario made attempt to maximize the dimensionless ecological function and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. Furthermore, the second scenario tried to maximize the ecological coefficient of performance and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. The multi objective evolutionary method integrated with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was used to optimize the proposed objective functions. To determine the final output of each scenario, three efficient decision makers were employed. Finally, error analysis was employed to determine the deviation of solutions chosen by decision makers.

  11. Dr. Otto Soltmann (1876) on development of the motor cortex and recovery after its removal in infancy.

    PubMed

    Finger, S; Beyer, T; Koehler, P J

    2000-09-15

    In 1870, Fritsch and Hitzig demonstrated that dogs have a motor cortex. In a chapter published 6 years later, Otto Soltmann studied the functional development of the motor cortex, which he believed functioned in willed movement. He was the first to show that the dog's motor cortex becomes electrically excitable at about 10 days of age, with the contralateral forepaw area appearing first. He also studied the effects of ablating the cortical motor regions unilaterally and bilaterally, and encountered a remarkable degree of sparing of function in his animals operated on as newborns, but not in older-operated dogs. Soltmann turned to the theory of functional take-over (vicariation) to account for the absence of deficits in his young animals. He was especially intrigued by the fact that electrical stimulation of a healthy motor cortex could produce bilateral matched movements, but only in dogs that sustained opposite motor cortex lesions very early in life.

  12. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 Å resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains (α, β, and γ). The class I active site is within the C-terminal α domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal γ and β domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg2+ complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This “loop-in” conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the “loop-out” conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities. PMID:22219188

  13. Influence of Two Acyclic Homoterpenes (Tetranorterpenes) on the Foraging Behavior of Anthonomus grandis Boh.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Woodcock, C M; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria Carolina

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is attracted to constitutive and conspecific herbivore-induced cotton volatiles, preferring the blend emitted by cotton at the reproductive over the vegetative stage. Moreover, this preference was paralleled by the release of the acyclic homoterpenes (tetranorterpenes) (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene (TMTT) in Delta Opal cotton being higher at the vegetative than at the reproductive stage. Here, we evaluated whether this difference in release of acyclic homoterpenes also occurred in other cotton varieties, and if boll weevils could recognize these compounds as indicators of a specific cotton phenological stage. Results showed that cotton genotypes CNPA TB-90, BRS-293 and Delta Opal all produced higher levels of DMNT and TMTT at the vegetative stage than at the reproductive stage and that these homoterpenes allowed for principal component analysis separation of volatiles produced by the two phenological stages. Electroantennograms confirmed boll weevil antennal responses to DMNT and TMTT. Behavioral assays, using Y-tube olfactometers, showed that adding synthetic homoterpenes to reproductive cotton volatiles (mimicking cotton at the vegetative stage in terms of homoterpene levels) resulted in reduced attraction to boll weevils compared to that to unmodified reproductive cotton. Weevils showed no preference when given a choice between plants at the vegetative stage and the vegetative stage-mimicked plant. Altogether, the results show that DMNT and TMTT are used by boll weevils to distinguish between cotton phenological stages. PMID:27105878

  14. Evaluation of acute toxicity and genotoxicity of liquid products from pyrolysis of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, A S; Bayona, J M; García, M T; Solanas, A M

    2000-02-01

    Slow pyrolysis of Eucalyptus grandis wood was performed in an oven laboratory, and smoke was trapped and condensed to yield liquid products. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenolic fractions were isolated from the former liquid products using adsorption column chromatography (ACC) and identified by GC/MS. Concentrations of PAH and phenolic fractions in total pyrolysis liquids were respectively 48.9 microg/g and 8.59% (w/w). Acute toxicity of total samples of pyrolysis liquids and the phenolic fraction was evaluated by means of two bioassays, namely, 24-h immobilization bioassay with Daphnia magna and Microtox bioassays, the latter employing the luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum. Total pyrolysis liquids and the PAH fraction were evaluated for genotoxicity by the Microtox bioassay conducted using rehydrated freeze-dried dark mutant of the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fisheri strain M169. Total pyrolysis liquids and the phenolic fraction, respectively, in concentrations of 170 and 68 mg/L were able to immobilize 50% (EC(50)) of the D. magna population following 24-h exposure. Concentrations of 19 and 6 mg/L, respectively, for total pyrolysis liquids and phenolic fraction were the effective concentrations that resulted in a 50% (EC(50)) reduction in light produced by bacteria in the Microtox bioassay. Accordingly, the Microtox bioassay was more sensitive to toxic effects of both kind of samples than the D. magna bioassay, particularly for the phenolic fraction. Regarding to the genotoxicity evaluation, the results achieved by Microtox bioassay showed that total pyrolysis liquids had no genotoxic effects with and without exogenous metabolic activation using rat liver homogenate (S9). However, the PAH fraction showed toxic effects with rat liver activation and had a dose-response number (DRN) equal to 1.6, being in this way suspected genotoxic. The lowest detected concentration (LDC) of the PAH fraction able to cause genotoxic effects was 375

  15. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  16. FANCI Regulates Recruitment of the FA Core Complex at Sites of DNA Damage Independently of FANCD2

    PubMed Central

    Castella, Maria; Jacquemont, Celine; Thompson, Elizabeth L.; Yeo, Jung Eun; Cheung, Ronald S.; Huang, Jen-Wei; Sobeck, Alexandra; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Taniguchi, Toshiyasu

    2015-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA)-BRCA pathway mediates repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks. The FA core complex, a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase, participates in the detection of DNA lesions and monoubiquitinates two downstream FA proteins, FANCD2 and FANCI (or the ID complex). However, the regulation of the FA core complex itself is poorly understood. Here we show that the FA core complex proteins are recruited to sites of DNA damage and form nuclear foci in S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. ATR kinase activity, an intact FA core complex and FANCM-FAAP24 were crucial for this recruitment. Surprisingly, FANCI, but not its partner FANCD2, was needed for efficient FA core complex foci formation. Monoubiquitination or ATR-dependent phosphorylation of FANCI were not required for the FA core complex recruitment, but FANCI deubiquitination by USP1 was. Additionally, BRCA1 was required for efficient FA core complex foci formation. These findings indicate that FANCI functions upstream of FA core complex recruitment independently of FANCD2, and alter the current view of the FA-BRCA pathway. PMID:26430909

  17. The cathepsin B inhibitor, z-FA-CMK is toxic and readily induced cell death in human T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liow, K.Y.; Chow, S.C.

    2013-11-01

    The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethylketone (z-FA-CMK) was found to be toxic and readily induced cell death in the human T cell line, Jurkat, whereas two other analogs benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethylketone (z-FA-FMK) and benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethylketone (z-FA-DMK) were not toxic. The toxicity of z-FA-CMK requires not only the CMK group, but also the presence of alanine in the P1 position and the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal. Dose–response studies showed that lower concentrations of z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells whereas higher concentrations induced necrosis. In z-FA-CMK-induced apoptosis, both initiator caspases (-8 and -9) and effector caspases (-3, -6 and -7) were processed to their respective subunits in Jurkat T cells. However, only the pro-form of the initiator caspases were reduced in z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and no respective subunits were apparent. The caspase inihibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-valine-alanine-aspartic acid-(O-methyl)-fluoromehylketone (z-VAD-FMK) inhibits apoptosis and caspase processing in Jurkat T cells treated with low concentration of z-FA-CMK but has no effect on z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and the loss of initiator caspases. This suggests that the loss of initiator caspases in Jurkat T cells during z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis is not a caspase-dependent process. Taken together, we have demonstrated that z-FA-CMK is toxic to Jurkat T cells and induces apoptosis at low concentrations, while at higher concentrations the cells die of necrosis. - Highlights: • z-FA-CMK is toxic and induce cell death in the human T cells. • z-FA-CMK toxicity requires the CMK group, alanine and the benzyloxycarbonyl group. • z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis at low concentration and necrosis at high concentration.

  18. Role and mechanism of Twist1 in modulating the chemosensitivity of FaDu cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sumei; Yu, Liang; Mu, Yakui; Ma, Juke; Tian, Jiajun; Xu, Wei; Wang, Haibo

    2014-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the most important obstacles affecting the efficacy of chemotherapy treatments for numerous types of cancer. In the present study, we have demonstrated the possible function of Twist1 in the chemosensitivity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and have identified that its mechanism maybe associated with MDR1/P-gp regulation. To investigate this, the hypopharyngeal cancer cell line, FaDu, and its MDR cell line induced by taxol, FaDu/T, were employed. Stable transfectants targeted to Twist1 overexpression and Twist1 silencing based on FaDu were also conducted. Morphological observation, flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and laser scanning confocal microscope detection were utilized to detect the associations between Twist1 and the chemosensitivity of FaDu cells. Our results demonstrated that Twist1 and MDR1/P-gp were upregulated in FaDu/T cells in a MDR dose-dependent manner. The anti-apoptotic capabilities of FaDu/T cells were enhanced during MDR progression, with apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, activated caspase-3 and caspase-9) changing to resist apoptosis. Twist1 overexpression decreased the sensitivity of cells to taxol as revealed by a significant increase in MDR1/P-gp and IC50 (P<0.05). This overexpression also enhanced the resistance to apoptosis, with apoptotic proteins changing to resist cell death, and inhibited Ca2+ release induced by taxol (P<0.05). Detections in Twist1 silencing cells also confirmed this result. This study provided evidence that alterations of Twist1 expression modulates the chemosensitivity of FaDu cells to taxol. Therefore, Twist1 knockdown may be a promising treatment regimen for advanced hypopharyngeal carcinoma patients with MDR.

  19. Berberine-induced anticancer activities in FaDu head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yo-Seob; Yim, Min-Ji; Kim, Bok-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Rok; Lee, Sook-Young; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Kim, Su-Gwan; Yu, Sang-Joun; Lee, Gyeong-Je; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated berberine‑induced apoptosis and the signaling pathways underlying its activity in FaDu head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. Berberine did not affect the viability of primary human normal oral keratinocytes. In contrast, the cytotoxicity of berberine was significantly increased in FaDu cells stimulated with berberine for 24 h. Furthermore, berberine increased nuclear condensation and apoptosis rates in FaDu cells than those in untreated control cells. Berberine also induced the upregulation of apoptotic ligands, such as FasL and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and triggered the activation of caspase-8, -7 and -3, and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, characteristic of death receptor-dependent extrinsic apoptosis. Moreover, berberine activated the mitochondria‑dependent apoptotic signaling pathway by upregulating pro-apoptotic factors, such as Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, and the active form of caspase-9, and downregulating anti-apoptotic factors, such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. In addition, berberine increased the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 in FaDu cells. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk suppressed the activation of caspase-3 and prevented cytotoxicity in FaDu cells treated with berberine. Interestingly, berberine suppressed cell migration through downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9. Moreover, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38, components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway that are associated with the expression of MMP and VEGF, was suppressed in FaDu cells treated with berberine for 24 h. Therefore, these data suggested that berberine exerted anticancer effects in FaDu cells through induction of apoptosis and suppression of migration. Berberine may have potential applications as a chemotherapeutic agent for the management of head and neck squamous carcinoma.

  20. The Eucalyptus grandis R2R3-MYB transcription factor family: evidence for woody growth-related evolution and function.

    PubMed

    Soler, Marçal; Camargo, Eduardo Leal Oliveira; Carocha, Victor; Cassan-Wang, Hua; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Hefer, Charles A; Paiva, Jorge A Pinto; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    The R2R3-MYB family, one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants, controls a wide variety of plant-specific processes including, notably, phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall formation. We performed a genome-wide analysis of this superfamily in Eucalyptus, one of the most planted hardwood trees world-wide. A total of 141 predicted R2R3-MYB sequences identified in the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence were subjected to comparative phylogenetic analyses with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera. We analysed features such as gene structure, conserved motifs and genome location. Transcript abundance patterns were assessed by RNAseq and validated by high-throughput quantitative PCR. We found some R2R3-MYB subgroups with expanded membership in E. grandis, V. vinifera and P. trichocarpa, and others preferentially found in woody species, suggesting diversification of specific functions in woody plants. By contrast, subgroups containing key genes regulating lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation are more conserved across all of the species analysed. In Eucalyptus, R2R3-MYB tandem gene duplications seem to disproportionately affect woody-preferential and woody-expanded subgroups. Interestingly, some of the genes belonging to woody-preferential subgroups show higher expression in the cambial region, suggesting a putative role in the regulation of secondary growth.

  1. Genome scans for divergent selection in natural populations of the widespread hardwood species Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) using microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhijiao; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Fagen; Weng, Qijie; Zhou, Chanpin; Li, Mei; Li, Jie; Huang, Huanhua; Mo, Xiaoyong; Gan, Siming

    2016-01-01

    Identification of loci or genes under natural selection is important for both understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation and practical applications, and genome scans provide a powerful means for such identification purposes. In this study, genome-wide simple sequence repeats markers (SSRs) were used to scan for molecular footprints of divergent selection in Eucalyptus grandis, a hardwood species occurring widely in costal areas from 32° S to 16° S in Australia. High population diversity levels and weak population structure were detected with putatively neutral genomic SSRs. Using three FST outlier detection methods, a total of 58 outlying SSRs were collectively identified as loci under divergent selection against three non-correlated climatic variables, namely, mean annual temperature, isothermality and annual precipitation. Using a spatial analysis method, nine significant associations were revealed between FST outlier allele frequencies and climatic variables, involving seven alleles from five SSR loci. Of the five significant SSRs, two (EUCeSSR1044 and Embra394) contained alleles of putative genes with known functional importance for response to climatic factors. Our study presents critical information on the population diversity and structure of the important woody species E. grandis and provides insight into the adaptive responses of perennial trees to climatic variations. PMID:27748400

  2. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiling of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) Gene Family in Eucalyptus grandis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; Mila, Isabelle; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Dunand, Christophe; Paiva, Jorge A. P.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is a central hormone involved in a wide range of developmental processes including the specification of vascular stem cells. Auxin Response Factors (ARF) are important actors of the auxin signalling pathway, regulating the transcription of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. The recent availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence allowed us to examine the characteristics and evolutionary history of this gene family in a woody plant of high economic importance. With 17 members, the E. grandis ARF gene family is slightly contracted, as compared to those of most angiosperms studied hitherto, lacking traces of duplication events. In silico analysis of alternative transcripts and gene truncation suggested that these two mechanisms were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ARF family in Eucalyptus. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with genomes of other taxonomic lineages revealed the presence of a new ARF clade found preferentially in woody and/or perennial plants. High-throughput expression profiling among different organs and tissues and in response to environmental cues highlighted genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, responding dynamically to various environmental stimuli. Finally, this study allowed identification of three ARF candidates potentially involved in the auxin-regulated transcriptional program underlying wood formation. PMID:25269088

  3. Two-step liquid hot water pretreatment of Eucalyptus grandis to enhance sugar recovery and enzymatic digestibility of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Wang, Qiong; Qi, Wei; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Jingliang; Xu, Huijuan

    2010-07-01

    A two-step liquid hot water pretreatment (TSLHW) was developed with the objective of achieving complete saccharification of both hemicellulose and cellulose of Eucalyptus grandis, thereby avoiding the problems associated with the use of strong acid catalysts. The first step of the pretreatment was studied in the temperature range 180-200 degrees C, and the highest yield of total xylose achieved was 86.4% after 20 min at 180 degrees C. The second-step of the pretreatment was studied in the temperature range 180-240 degrees C and for lengths of time of 0-60 min. The conversion rate of glucan was more sensitive to temperature than time. The optimum reaction conditions for the second step of the pretreatment with minimal degradation of sugars were 200 degrees C for 20 min. the total sugar recovery from E. grandis with the optimized pretreatment and 72 h enzymatic digestion, reached 96.63%, which is superior to the recovery from a single-step pretreatment with hot water or dilute acid.

  4. Both FA- and mPEG-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles for targeted cellular uptake and enhanced tumor tissue distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhenqing; Zhan, Chuanming; Jiang, Qiwei; Hu, Quan; Li, Le; Chang, Di; Yang, Xiangrui; Wang, Yixiao; Li, Yang; Ye, Shefang; Xie, Liya; Yi, Yunfeng; Zhang, Qiqing

    2011-10-01

    Both folic acid (FA)- and methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG)-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) had been designed for targeted and prolong anticancer drug delivery system. The chitosan NPs were prepared with combination of ionic gelation and chemical cross-linking method, followed by conjugation with both FA and mPEG, respectively. FA-mPEG-NPs were compared with either NPs or mPEG-/FA-NPs in terms of their size, targeting cellular efficiency and tumor tissue distribution. The specificity of the mPEG-FA-NPs targeting cancerous cells was demonstrated by comparative intracellular uptake of NPs and mPEG-/FA-NPs by human adenocarcinoma HeLa cells. Mitomycin C (MMC), as a model drug, was loaded to the mPEG-FA-NPs. Results show that the chitosan NPs presented a narrow-size distribution with an average diameter about 200 nm regardless of the type of functional group. In addition, MMC was easily loaded to the mPEG-FA-NPs with drug-loading content of 9.1%, and the drug releases were biphasic with an initial burst release, followed by a subsequent slower release. Laser confocal scanning imaging proved that both mPEG-FA-NPs and FA-NPs could greatly enhance uptake by HeLa cells. In vivo animal experiments, using a nude mice xenograft model, demonstrated that an increased amount of mPEG-FA-NPs or FA-NPs were accumulated in the tumor tissue relative to the mPEG-NPs or NPs alone. These results suggest that both FA- and mPEG-conjugated chitosan NPs are potentially prolonged drug delivery system for tumor cell-selective targeting treatments.

  5. Analysis and Assessment of Strength Development in Compressed FaL-G Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra Prasad, K.; Vijaya Bhaskar, S.; Narasimhulu, M. L.; Manohara Reddy, R.

    2014-09-01

    Of the several options explored in large scale utilization of fly ash, such as production of blended cements, high volume fly ash cement concretes, fly ash, lime and gypsum (FaL-G) combinations, alkali activated fly ash mortars and concretes are of recent innovations. The last two are non-traditional cementing materials, since no cement is used in processing of these materials. This investigation deals with analysis and assessment of strength development in compressed FaL-G blocks. FaL-G chemistry provides a strong scientific base for understanding the mechanisms of interaction. But an equally strong technological base in the production of FaL-G blocks is the need of the hour. In this investigation, analysis has been made to advance a phenomenological model to arrive at the combinations of the ingredients to produce compressed blocks to meet the strength development desired at specified age, based on carefully planned experimental data generated. The analysis of test results has been done within the framework of Abrams' law, which is extensively used in concrete technology. The validity has been examined with an independent set of experimental data. With incorporation of more data covering still wider spectrum of materials the phenomenological model can further be reinforced as a viable tool in the production of compressed FaL-G blocks.

  6. Water balance analysis of a watershed dominated by Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantations in Felixlandia (MG, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surian-Gamba, Otávio; Cristina-Tonello, Kelly; Garcia-Leite, Hélio; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Texeira-Dias, Herly C.

    2015-04-01

    Commercial eucalyptus plantations are commonly associated to excessive water use despite the fact that numerous studies have demonstrated significant differences among species and environmental systems. In fact, the analysis of its impact on water balance depending on specific environmental conditions is essential to guarantee its sustainability. The water balance of Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantations in the Basin Creek of Riacho Fundo in Felixlândia, Minas Gerais (Brazil) is presented through a study of 2.6 years of measurements in a catchment of 719.9 ha. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships among precipitation, interception and evapotranspiration of eucalyptus plantations, for evaluating the weight on flow and effective precipitation. A triangular weir with a set of level- and baro-logger were used for measuring flow. Rainfall was measured with 2 pluviometers and evaporation using two evapotranspirometers Soil Control, Model JR-200mm. For througfall, eight plots of 136.5 m² each were installed with twelve pluviometers. To estimate the stemflow, the empirical equation Et = - 0.060 + 0.053 (P) was used, where P is the precipitation. The effective precipitation was calculated by summing of the througfall value plus the stemflow. The losses by interception were obtained by the difference between precipitation and effective precipitation. The analysis was carried out on the monthly and annual scales. The results showed that the measured rainfall was close to the average for the region, reaching values close to 1200 mm. The interception of the eucalyptus plantation for the period was approximately 12% of the external precipitation. There were neither significant relationships between flow and evapotranspiration nor between flow and effective precipitation, which shows the complexity of water components at the catchment scale. This is likely associated to the delay effect of the subsurface flow. The average flow for the period of study was

  7. Flight Tests of a Ministick Controller in an F/A-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoliker, Patrick C.; Carter, John

    2003-01-01

    In March of 1999, five pilots performed flight tests to evaluate the handling qualities of an F/A-18 research airplane equipped with a small-displacement center stick (ministick) controller that had been developed for the JAS 39 Gripen airplane (a fighter/attack/ reconnaissance airplane used by the Swedish air force). For these tests, the ministick was installed in the aft cockpit (see figure) and production support flight control computers (PSFCCs) were used as interfaces between the controller hardware and the standard F/A-18 flight-control laws. The primary objective of the flight tests was to assess any changes in handling qualities of the F/A-18 airplane attributable to the mechanical characteristics of the ministick. The secondary objective was to demonstrate the capability of the PSFCCs to support flight-test experiments.

  8. Aerodynamics of powered missile separation from F/A-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, J. U.; Shanks, S. P.; Buning, P. G.

    1993-01-01

    A 3D dynamic 'chimera' algorithm that solves the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations over multiple moving bodies was modified to numerically simulate the aerodynamics, missile dynamics, and missile plume interactions of a missile separating from a generic wing and from an F/A-18 aircraft in transonic flow. The missile is mounted below the wing for missile separation from the wing and on the F/A-18 fuselage at the engine inlet side for missile separation from aircraft. Static and powered missile separation cases are considered to examine the influence of the missile and plume on the wing and F/A-18 fuselage and engine inlet. The aircraft and missile are at two degrees angle of attack, Reynolds number of 10 million, freestream Mach number of 1.05 and plume Mach number of 3.0. The computational results show the details of the flow field.

  9. Birth order and avuncular tendencies in Samoan men and fa'afafine.

    PubMed

    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L

    2013-04-01

    Androphilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal to males whereas gynephilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal to females. In Samoa, transgendered androphilic males are known locally as fa'afafine. Previous research has shown that, compared to Samoan gynephilic men, fa'afafine report greater willingness to invest time and money toward nieces and nephews (i.e., greater avuncular tendencies) and also have greater numbers of older brothers and older sisters. The present study examined whether the Samoan male sexual orientation difference in avuncular tendencies could be accounted for by these parallel differences in numbers of older brothers and older sisters. The sample included 204 fa'afafine and 272 Samoan gynephilic men from our Samoan data archive for whom we had concurrent information on (1) a measure of willingness to invest time and money in nieces and nephews (i.e., avuncular tendencies) and (2) numbers of older and younger biological brothers and sisters. Among fa'afafine, but not Samoan gynephilic men, number of older brothers and number of older sisters were both significantly positively associated with avuncular tendencies. When controlling for number of older brothers, the magnitude of the male sexual orientation difference in avuncular tendencies was lowered, but remained statistically significant. In contrast, when controlling for number of older sisters, the male sexual orientation difference in avuncular tendencies ceased to exist. Discussion detailed how these findings help hone in on the proximate basis of elevated avuncular tendencies among fa'afafine. In addition, discussion focused on how particular evolutionary and cultural factors might relate to the avuncularity of fa'afafine.

  10. Detecting blind building façades from highly overlapping wide angle aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burochin, Jean-Pascal; Vallet, Bruno; Brédif, Mathieu; Mallet, Clément; Brosset, Thomas; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    This paper deals with the identification of blind building façades, i.e. façades which have no openings, in wide angle aerial images with a decimeter pixel size, acquired by nadir looking cameras. This blindness characterization is in general crucial for real estate estimation and has, at least in France, a particular importance on the evaluation of legal permission of constructing on a parcel due to local urban planning schemes. We assume that we have at our disposal an aerial survey with a relatively high stereo overlap along-track and across-track and a 3D city model of LoD 1, that can have been generated with the input images. The 3D model is textured with the aerial imagery by taking into account the 3D occlusions and by selecting for each façade the best available resolution texture seeing the whole façade. We then parse all 3D façades textures by looking for evidence of openings (windows or doors). This evidence is characterized by a comprehensive set of basic radiometric and geometrical features. The blindness prognostic is then elaborated through an (SVM) supervised classification. Despite the relatively low resolution of the images, we reach a classification accuracy of around 85% on decimeter resolution imagery with 60 × 40 % stereo overlap. On the one hand, we show that the results are very sensitive to the texturing resampling process and to vegetation presence on façade textures. On the other hand, the most relevant features for our classification framework are related to texture uniformity and horizontal aspect and to the maximal contrast of the opening detections. We conclude that standard aerial imagery used to build 3D city models can also be exploited to some extent and at no additional cost for facade blindness characterisation.

  11. A Security-façade Library for Virtual-observatory Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixon, G.

    2009-09-01

    The security-façade library implements, for Java, IVOA's security standards. It supports the authentication mechanisms for SOAP and REST web-services, the sign-on mechanisms (with MyProxy, AstroGrid Accounts protocol or local credential-caches), the delegation protocol, and RFC3820-enabled HTTPS for Apache Tomcat. Using the façade, a developer who is not a security specialist can easily add access control to a virtual-observatory service and call secured services from an application. The library has been an internal part of AstroGrid software for some time and it is now offered for use by other developers.

  12. [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta) soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) sites with slash and burn management].

    PubMed

    Uribe, Sheila; Huerta, Esperanza; Geissen, Violette; Mendoza, Manuel; Godoy, Roberto; Jarquín, Aarón

    2012-12-01

    Soil burning has been used in agricultural and forestry systems as a fundamental technique to clean the land and add some nutrients to the soil. In addition, earthworms are known to promote various soil functions since they contribute to aeration and organic matter and nutrients availability to other soil organisms. This study evaluated the effects of tropical forest crops management with presence-absence of Eucalyptus grandis on earthworm population in Huimanquillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Three sites (average area of 1-1.5ha each) with different management conditions were considered for soil and earthworm sampling (two depths and six replicates): without vegetation (SV) and recent slash-burned (38 days), forest crops of five years of production of E. grandis (Euc), and secondary vegetation of 15 years (Acah). Soil physico-chemical properties (apparent density, humidity, texture, pH, Ntot, OM, P, K, cationic capacity) were also evaluated, and earthworms were collected at the end of the rainy season (august-october 2007). We found that the sites soil is an acrisol acid, with pH 3.0-4.5 in the first 30cm depth. Organic matter content (OM) and total nitrogen (Ntot) in the recently burned sites were significantly lower (6-8% y 0.19-0.22%, respectively) than in sites with vegetation (OM=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%). Only one species (P. corethrurus) was found in all the sampled areas, where most of the individuals were at juvenile stage (80%). The highest densities and biomass were found in Euc. treatment (166.4ind/m2 y 36.8g/m2) followed by Acah (138.7ind/m2 y 19.1g/m2 respectively), while the SV treatment showed of about an 80% reduced earthworm populations when compared to other treatments. Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah) still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. We concluded that the management used to culture E. grandis produces negative effects over the abundance and diversity of earthworms

  13. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (ΔB(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ΔB(w)/ANPP and ΔB(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ΔB(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by

  14. [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta) soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) sites with slash and burn management].

    PubMed

    Uribe, Sheila; Huerta, Esperanza; Geissen, Violette; Mendoza, Manuel; Godoy, Roberto; Jarquín, Aarón

    2012-12-01

    Soil burning has been used in agricultural and forestry systems as a fundamental technique to clean the land and add some nutrients to the soil. In addition, earthworms are known to promote various soil functions since they contribute to aeration and organic matter and nutrients availability to other soil organisms. This study evaluated the effects of tropical forest crops management with presence-absence of Eucalyptus grandis on earthworm population in Huimanquillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Three sites (average area of 1-1.5ha each) with different management conditions were considered for soil and earthworm sampling (two depths and six replicates): without vegetation (SV) and recent slash-burned (38 days), forest crops of five years of production of E. grandis (Euc), and secondary vegetation of 15 years (Acah). Soil physico-chemical properties (apparent density, humidity, texture, pH, Ntot, OM, P, K, cationic capacity) were also evaluated, and earthworms were collected at the end of the rainy season (august-october 2007). We found that the sites soil is an acrisol acid, with pH 3.0-4.5 in the first 30cm depth. Organic matter content (OM) and total nitrogen (Ntot) in the recently burned sites were significantly lower (6-8% y 0.19-0.22%, respectively) than in sites with vegetation (OM=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%). Only one species (P. corethrurus) was found in all the sampled areas, where most of the individuals were at juvenile stage (80%). The highest densities and biomass were found in Euc. treatment (166.4ind/m2 y 36.8g/m2) followed by Acah (138.7ind/m2 y 19.1g/m2 respectively), while the SV treatment showed of about an 80% reduced earthworm populations when compared to other treatments. Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah) still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. We concluded that the management used to culture E. grandis produces negative effects over the abundance and diversity of earthworms

  15. Effects of substrate water potential in root growth of Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings.

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that root of maguey (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck) seedlings reacts during the first 24 h to low substrate water potential (PsiW), by anatomical modifications. Three-4 cm root length seedlings were planted in vermiculite for 24 h at PsiW between -0.03 and -2.35 MPa. Root dimensions, proline content and anatomy were evaluated. Substrate PsiW between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa did not significantly affect longitudinal root growth. However, proline content significantly increased from 1.6 to 2.1 micromoles mg(-1). Significant reductions of transverse root area (41%), thickness of mucilage covering the epidermis (47%), thickness of epidermis (between 15 and 46%), area of the parenchyma (between 35 and 41%) and number of vessels (up to 28%) were observed with PsiW of -2.35 MPa. In contrast, thickness of xylem wall, diameter of xylem vessels and the number of cells of the cortex of the differentiation root region significantly increased (64, 17, and 97%, respectively). The anatomical changes associated with low substrate PsiW indicate a net increase of root apoplatic paths; structures involved in water conduction increased their diameter under low substrate PsiW conditions and anatomical changes occurred during the first 24 h of water stress.

  16. Polyplax guatemalensis sp. n. (Phthiraptera: Anoplura), a new sucking louse from Peromyscus grandis, a montane cloud forest rodent from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Durden, L A; Eckerlin, R P

    2001-01-01

    The adult male and female of Polyplax guatemalensis sp. n. are described from the sigmodontine murid rodent Peromyscus grandis Goodwin collected in the Reserva de Biosfera, Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala, at an elevation of 2,200 m. The new species extends the number of known native species of Polyplax in the New World to four with none of them recorded south of Panama. Polyplax guatemalensis is morphologically most closely related to Polyplax auricularis which parasitises a cluster of closely related New World sigmodontine rodents from Canada to Panama. These two species can be distinguished from all other known species of Polyplax by the presence of partially overlapping, subtriangular, anterior abdominal plates in both sexes. Polyplax guatemalensis can be separated from P. auricularis by the abundant tergal abdominal setae and longer pseudopenis in males, and by the presence of one fewer anterior abdominal, subtriangular tergite and sternite in females.

  17. Genetic diversity of Brazilian natural populations of Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the major cotton pest in the New World.

    PubMed

    Martins, W F S; Ayres, C F J; Lucena, W A

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five RAPD loci and 6 isozyme loci were studied to characterize the genetic variability of natural populations of Anthonomus grandis from two agroecosystems of Brazil. The random-amplified polymorphic DNA data disclosed a polymorphism that varied from 52 to 84% and a heterozygosity of 0.189 to 0.347. The index of genetic differentiation (GST) among the six populations was 0.258. The analysis of isozymes showed a polymorphism and a heterozygosity ranging from 25 to 100% and 0.174 to 0.277, respectively. The genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations obtained by isozyme data was 0.544. It was possible to observe rare alleles in the populations from the Northeast region. The markers examined allowed us to distinguish populations from large-scale, intensive farming region (cotton belts) versus populations from areas of small-scale farming

  18. Effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in Citrus grandis juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Ping; Qi, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Chen-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Liao, Xin-Yan; Wang, Liu-Qing; Zhu, Dong-Huang; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-02-15

    We investigated the effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in 'Guanximiyou' pummelo (Citrus grandis) juice sacs. Granulated juice sacs had decreased concentrations of citrate and isocitrate, thus lowering juice sac acidity. By contrast, malate concentration was higher in granulated juice sacs than in normal ones. The reduction in citrate concentration might be caused by increased degradation, as indicated by enhanced aconitase activity, whilst the increase in malate concentration might be caused by increased biosynthesis, as indicated by enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the activities of most acid-metabolizing enzymes were regulated at the transcriptional level, whilst post-translational modifications might influence the PEPC activity. Granulation led to increased accumulation of mineral elements (especially phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, zinc and copper) in juice sacs, which might be involved in the incidence of granulation in pummelo fruits.

  19. Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: two threelight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: two three-light wood casement windows flank a three-light fixed wood window with concrete sill; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  20. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236FA IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the shell-side heat transfer performance of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236fa, which is considered to be a potential substitute for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 in Navy shipboard chillers, for both conventional finned [1024- and 1575-fpm (...

  1. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, VISCOSITY, AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236FA WITH POTENTIAL LUBRICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and density measurements for refrigerant R-236fa and two potential lubricants . (The data are needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for use in refrigeration systems.) The tested oi...

  2. Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: profiled cement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: profiled cement plaster door surround, black mesh gate protects a two-light transom atop non-original metal door; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  3. Automatic modelling of building façade objects via primitive shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetti Arachchige, N.; Perera, S.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a new approach to recognize individual façade objects and to reconstruct such objects in 3D using MLS point clouds. Core of the approach is a primitive shape based algorithm, which introduces building primitives, to identify the façade objects separately from other irrelevant objects and then to model the correct topology. The primitive shape is identified against defined different primitive shapes by using the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. The advantage of this process is that it offers an ability not only to model correct geometric shapes but also to remove occlusion effects from the final model. To evaluate the validity of the proposed approach, experiments have been conducted using two types of street scene point clouds captured by Optech Lynx Mobile Mapper System and Z+F laser scanner. Results of the experiments show that the completeness, correctness, and quality of the reconstructed building façade objects are well over 90 %, proving the proposed method is a promising solution for modelling 3D façade objects with different geometric shapes.

  4. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  5. Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: recessed panel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: recessed panel inscribed "1859", historic window opening with concrete sill above door, cement plaster dentil course and cornice, truncated wood beam ends, plaster finished brick wall, granite base; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  6. Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: concrete staircase, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: concrete staircase, profiled cement, plaster door surround, recessed panel inscribed "1859", historic window opening with concrete sill above door, cement plaster dentil course and cornice truncated wood beam ends, plaster finished brick wall, granite base; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  7. NEW CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVE FOR OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES: HFC-236FA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a preliminary evaluation of a new hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)--HFC-236fa or 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane--as a possible alternative for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 (1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane) refrigerant for chillers and as a possible fire s...

  8. Exterior building details of Building C, south façade: second floor" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, south façade: second floor" four-over-four windows, arch brick lintels, brick sills, decorative metal grilles and tiebacks; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  9. Exterior building details of Building B, west façade: road level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building B, west façade: road level four-over-four double-hung painted-wood windows with brick sill and arch brick lintels; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  10. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic fouroverfour ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic four-over-four window, brick lintel, brick quoins, corbelled brick cornice, spiral metal staircase to inclined stairs rising to second floor cantilever wooden walkway; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  11. Exterior building details of Building C, west façade: second floor: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, west façade: second floor: four-over-four windows, arch brick lintels, brick sills, decorative metal grilles; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  12. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: inscribed date ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: inscribed date panel "hospital 1885", corbelled brick belt course, parapet, second floor historic four-over-four window with brick lintels, quoins and decorative metal grilled, cantilever wooden walkway; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  13. Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: exposed common ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: exposed common bond brick wall, arched brick lintels over a two single-light casement window with brick sills, arched brick lintel over door cornice; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  14. Exterior building details of Building B, west façade: two paintedwood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building B, west façade: two painted-wood single-light casements over two-light casements with concrete sill and arch brick lintel, over infilled brick patch with arch brick lintel, brick lintel above windows and brick infilled oval; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  15. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, brick lintels, brick window sills, decorative metal grilles, scored cement finished brick wall; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  16. 75 FR 27489 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. PW615F-A Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    .... Investigation showed that the Fuel Filter Bypass Valve poppet in the Fuel Oil Heat Exchanger (FOHE) on that.... PW615F-A turbofan engines with fuel/oil heat exchanger (FOHE) part number (P/ N) 35C3778-01 or P/N... Federal holidays. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp., 1000...

  17. Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: fixed fiveoverfive ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: fixed five-over-five wood windows with five-light hoppers with concrete sills; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  18. Genome Sequence of the Alkaline-Tolerant Cellulomonas sp. Strain FA1

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cohen, Michael F.; Hu, Ping; Nguyen, My Vu; Kamennaya, Nina; Brown, Natasha; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Torok, Tamas

    2015-06-18

    We present the genome of the cellulose-degrading Cellulomonas sp. strain FA1 isolated from an actively serpentinizing highly alkaline spring. Knowledge of this genome will enable studies into the molecular basis of plant material degradation in alkaline environments and inform the development of lignocellulose bioprocessing procedures for biofuel production.

  19. Genome Sequence of the Alkaline-Tolerant Cellulomonas sp. Strain FA1

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Michael F.; Hu, Ping; Nguyen, My Vu; Kamennaya, Nina; Brown, Natasha; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Torok, Tamas

    2015-06-18

    We present the genome of the cellulose-degrading Cellulomonas sp. strain FA1 isolated from an actively serpentinizing highly alkaline spring. Knowledge of this genome will enable studies into the molecular basis of plant material degradation in alkaline environments and inform the development of lignocellulose bioprocessing procedures for biofuel production.

  20. Leaching of biocides from façades under natural weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, M; Zuleeg, S; Vonbank, R; Bester, K; Carmeliet, J; Boller, M; Wangler, T

    2012-05-15

    Biocides are included in organic building façade coatings as protection against biological attack by algae and fungi but have the potential to enter the environment via leaching into runoff from wind driven rain. The following field study correlates wind driven rain to runoff and measured the release of several commonly used organic biocides (terbutryn, Irgarol 1051, diuron, isoproturon, OIT, DCOIT) in organic façade coatings from four coating systems. During one year of exposure of a west oriented model house façade in the Zurich, Switzerland area, an average of 62.7 L/m(2), or 6.3% of annual precipitation came off the four façade panels installed as runoff. The ISO method for calculating wind driven rain loads is adapted to predict runoff and can be used in the calculation of emissions in the field. Biocide concentrations tend to be higher in the early lifetime of the coatings and then reach fairly consistent levels later, generally ranging on the order of mg/L or hundreds of μg/L. On the basis of the amount remaining in the film after exposure, the occurrence of transformation products, and the calculated amounts in the leachate, degradation plays a significant role in the overall mass balance.

  1. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic six ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: historic six light entry double door with three light transom, historic six light door with a one light transom, arch brick lintels and quoins, scored cement plaster finished brick walls; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  2. Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China?

    PubMed

    Roney, Britton R; Renhui, Li; Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan; Honegger, Rosmarie; Cox, Paul Alan

    2009-01-01

    Grown in arid regions of western China the cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme--called fa cai in Mandarin and fat choy in Cantonese--is wild-harvested and used to make soup consumed during New Year's celebrations. High prices, up to $125 USD/kg, led to overharvesting in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. Degradation of arid ecosystems, desertification, and conflicts between Nostoc harvesters and Mongol herdsmen concerned the Chinese environmental authorities, leading to a government ban of Nostoc commerce. This ban stimulated increased marketing of a substitute made from starch. We analysed samples purchased throughout China as well as in Chinese markets in the United States and the United Kingdom. Some were counterfeits consisting of dyed starch noodles. A few samples from California contained Nostoc flagelliforme but were adulterated with starch noodles. Other samples, including those from the United Kingdom, consisted of pure Nostoc flagelliforme. A recent survey of markets in Cheng Du showed no real Nostoc flagelliforme to be marketed. Real and artificial fa cai differ in the presence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Given its status as a high-priced luxury food, the government ban on collection and marketing, and the replacement of real fa cai with starch substitutes consumed only on special occasions, it is anticipated that dietary exposure to BMAA from fa cai will be reduced in the future in China.

  3. South façade, view to north from center of Elk Grove ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South façade, view to north from center of Elk Grove Boulevard. Drew-Sherwood Tank House. (HABS No. CA-2610-B) visible at left of house. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, House, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  4. View of rear façade of office building; note projecting bay, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of rear façade of office building; note projecting bay, above the basement level, which commanded a view of the iron works - Everett Iron Company, Office Building, 0.25 mile Southwest of Everett, Earlston, Bedford County, PA

  5. Genome Sequence of the Alkaline-Tolerant Cellulomonas sp. Strain FA1.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael F; Hu, Ping; Nguyen, My Vu; Kamennaya, Nina; Brown, Natasha; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Torok, Tamas

    2015-06-18

    We present the genome of the cellulose-degrading Cellulomonas sp. strain FA1 isolated from an actively serpentinizing highly alkaline spring. Knowledge of this genome will enable studies into the molecular basis of plant material degradation in alkaline environments and inform the development of lignocellulose bioprocessing procedures for biofuel production.

  6. Genome Sequence of the Alkaline-Tolerant Cellulomonas sp. Strain FA1

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Nguyen, My Vu; Kamennaya, Nina; Brown, Natasha; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Torok, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    We present the genome of the cellulose-degrading Cellulomonas sp. strain FA1 isolated from an actively serpentinizing highly alkaline spring. Knowledge of this genome will enable studies into the molecular basis of plant material degradation in alkaline environments and inform the development of lignocellulose bioprocessing procedures for biofuel production. PMID:26089422

  7. Cat allergen sampling by a new personal collector (Partrap FA 52).

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Russo, M; Barber, D; Califano, C; Parmiani, S; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies carried out by us and others have demonstrated that Fel d 1, the main cat allergen, may be passively transferred by human clothing in cat-free environments. Consequently, the monitoring of the Fel d 1 levels either in indoor environments or on allergen-contaminated clothes of sensitized cat owners should be considered an important tool in prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a personal air sampler (Partrap FA 52) in capturing cat allergen from wool fabrics. Seven identical wool webs (80 x 100 cm) were put in the baskets of seven male cats for 1 week. In our laboratory each web was divided into two parts (80 x 50 cm), the first of which was then divided in two parts (40 x 50 cm) and each was vacuumed directly by one collector. The second part was dry-cleaned at a professional cleaners, divided in two parts and then vacuumed. For the dust collection from wool webs we used a fixed high volume air sampler (CF/20 Gelaire Flow Labs, Milan, Italy) and a personal collector (Partrap FA 52, Coppa Biella, Italy). Fel d 1 content was determined using a two site ELISA (ALK-Abelló Group, Madrid, Spain). Both air samplers collected cat allergens from cat-exposed wool fabrics before and after dry cleaning. There were significant differences between the levels of Fel d 1 before and after dry cleaning by using either CF/20 or Partrap FA52 and between the levels of Fel d 1 before dry cleaning using CF/20 and Partrap FA 52. The results of our study suggest that Partrap FA 52, although its air flow is half that of the CF/20, is able to collect even residual amounts of cat allergen from wool webs after dry cleaning and consequently may constitute a simple and effective means of monitoring the levels of Fel d 1 on the clothes of cat owners.

  8. Slicing Method for curved façade and window extraction from point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iman Zolanvari, S. M.; Laefer, Debra F.

    2016-09-01

    Laser scanning technology is a fast and reliable method to survey structures. However, the automatic conversion of such data into solid models for computation remains a major challenge, especially where non-rectilinear features are present. Since, openings and the overall dimensions of the buildings are the most critical elements in computational models for structural analysis, this article introduces the Slicing Method as a new, computationally-efficient method for extracting overall façade and window boundary points for reconstructing a façade into a geometry compatible for computational modelling. After finding a principal plane, the technique slices a façade into limited portions, with each slice representing a unique, imaginary section passing through a building. This is done along a façade's principal axes to segregate window and door openings from structural portions of the load-bearing masonry walls. The method detects each opening area's boundaries, as well as the overall boundary of the façade, in part, by using a one-dimensional projection to accelerate processing. Slices were optimised as 14.3 slices per vertical metre of building and 25 slices per horizontal metre of building, irrespective of building configuration or complexity. The proposed procedure was validated by its application to three highly decorative, historic brick buildings. Accuracy in excess of 93% was achieved with no manual intervention on highly complex buildings and nearly 100% on simple ones. Furthermore, computational times were less than 3 sec for data sets up to 2.6 million points, while similar existing approaches required more than 16 hr for such datasets.

  9. A case report and literature review of Fanconi Anemia (FA) diagnosed by genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Ponnumony John; Margaret, Priya; Rajendran, Ramya; Ramalingam, Revathy; Menezes, Godfred A; Shirley, Alph S; Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sung Sup; Seol, Dodam; Seo, Soo Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital malformations, hematological problems and predisposition to malignancies. The genes that have been found to be mutated in FA patients are called FANC. To date 16 distinct FANC genes have been reported. Among these, mutations in FANCA are the most frequent among FA patients worldwide which account for 60- 65%. In this study, a nine years old male child was brought to our hospital one year ago for opinion and advice. He was the third child born to consanguineous parents. The mutation analyses were performed for proband, parents, elder sibling and the relatives [maternal aunt and maternal aunt's son (cousin)]. Molecular genetic testing [targeted next-generation sequencing (MiSeq, Illumina method)] was performed by mutation analysis in 15 genes involved. Entire coding exons and their flanking regions of the genes were analysed. Sanger sequencing [(ABI 3730 analyzer by Applied Biosystems)] was performed using primers specific for 43 coding exons of the FANCA gene. A novel splice site mutation, c.3066 + 1G > T, (IVS31 + 1G > T), homozygote was detected by sequencing in the patient. The above sequence variant was identified in heterozygous state in his parents. Further, the above sequence variant was not identified in other family members (elder sibling, maternal aunt and cousin). It is concluded that genetic study should be done if possible in all the cases of suspected FA, including siblings, parents and close blood relatives. It will help us to plan appropriate treatment and also to select suitable donor for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and to plan for genetic counseling. In addition to the case report, the main focus of this manuscript was to review literature on role of FANCA gene in FA since large number of FANCA mutations and polymorphisms have been identified. PMID:25953249

  10. Effect of low temperature on chlorophyll biosynthesis in albinism line of wheat (Triticum aestivum) FA85.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Gang; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Jing-Ya; Liang, Guang-Wang; Liu, Ying-Tuan; Guo, Ai-Guang

    2012-07-01

    The 'stage albinism line of winter wheat' FA85 exhibits a severe block in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis with prolonged low-temperature treatment. The correlations between leaf color and low temperature provide more comprehensive understanding of low temperature as an environmental signal that regulate the metabolic changes in the entire Chl-synthesizing pathway. In this study, we investigated differences in Chl biosynthesis between leaves of Aibian1 and FA85 by measuring their Chl precursors and heme content, transcripts for key genes of Chl biosynthesis and key enzyme activities. With prolonged low-temperature treatment, the Chl content gradually decreased, but Chl precursors, including protoporphyrin IX, Mg-protoporphyrin IX and protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), simultaneously accumulated. Parallel to the decline in Chl content, the protoporphyrin IX distribution toward Chl synthesis was less than that in heme synthesis in the leaves of FA85. Corresponding to the change of protoporphyrin IX distribution, the relative changes in magnesium chelatase (EC 6.6.1.1) and ferrochelatase (EC 4.99.1.1) activities in the leaves of FA85 also indirectly reflected channeling of the metabolic flow into heme rather than Chl. A drastic loss in the transcripts for Pchlide oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.1.33) and Chl synthase (EC 2.5.1.62) accounted for a decrease in the metabolic flux and the re-direction of metabolites. The high-level accumulations of Chl precursors and traces of Chl in the leaves of FA85 suggest that a severe block between the steps from Pchlide to Chl formation during Chl biosynthesis is partially derived from the transcriptional downregulation of Pchlide oxidoreductase and Chl synthase.

  11. 75 FR 51657 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. (P&WC) PW615F-A Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... could result in an unsafe condition. The PW615F-A engine Fuel Filter Bypass Valve installation is very... uncommanded power reduction on one of its engines. Investigation showed that the Fuel Filter Bypass Valve... condition. The PW615F-A engine Fuel Filter Bypass Valve installation is very similar to that of...

  12. An Evaluation Technique for an F/A-18 Aircraft Loads Model Using F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olney, Candida D.; Hillebrandt, Heather; Reichenbach, Eric Y.

    2000-01-01

    A limited evaluation of the F/A-18 baseline loads model was performed on the Systems Research Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California). Boeing developed the F/A-18 loads model using a linear aeroelastic analysis in conjunction with a flight simulator to determine loads at discrete locations on the aircraft. This experiment was designed so that analysis of doublets could be used to establish aircraft aerodynamic and loads response at 20 flight conditions. Instrumentation on the right outboard leading edge flap, left aileron, and left stabilator measured the hinge moment so that comparisons could be made between in-flight-measured hinge moments and loads model-predicted values at these locations. Comparisons showed that the difference between the loads model-predicted and in-flight-measured hinge moments was up to 130 percent of the flight limit load. A stepwise regression technique was used to determine new loads derivatives. These derivatives were placed in the loads model, which reduced the error to within 10 percent of the flight limit load. This paper discusses the flight test methodology, a process for determining loads coefficients, and the direct comparisons of predicted and measured hinge moments and loads coefficients.

  13. The role of FaBG3 in fruit ripening and B. cinerea fungal infection of strawberry.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Ji, Kai; Sun, Yufei; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hongqing; Leng, Ping

    2013-10-01

    In plants, β-glucosidases (BG) have been implicated in developmental and pathogen defense, and are thought to take part in abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis via hydrolysis of ABA glucose ester to release active ABA; however, there is no genetic evidence for the role of BG genes in ripening and biotic/abiotic stress in fruits. To clarify the role of BG genes in fruit, eight Fa/FvBG genes encoding β-glucosidase were isolated using information from the GenBank strawberry nucleotide database. Of the Fa/FvBG genes examined, expression of FaBG3 was the highest, showing peaks at the mature stage, coincident with the changes observed in ABA content. To verify the role of this gene, we suppressed the expression of FaBG3 via inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tobacco rattle virus carrying a FaBG3 fragment (RNAi). The expression of FaBG3 in FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit was markedly reduced, and the ABA content was lower than that of the control. FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit did not exhibit full ripening, and were firmer, had lower sugar content, and were pale compared with the control due to down-regulation of ripening-related genes. FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit with reduced ABA levels were much more resistant to Botrytis cinerea fungus but were more sensitive to dehydration stress than control fruit. These results indicate that FaBG3 may play key roles in fruit ripening, dehydration stress and B. cinerea fungal infection in strawberries via modulation of ABA homeostasis and transcriptional regulation of ripening-related genes.

  14. A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Raasmaja, Atso; Lecklin, Anne; Li, Xiang Ming; Zou, Jianqiang; Zhu, Guo-Guang; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.

  15. Effects of HPV-16 infection on hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and FaDu cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wuhao; Feng, Long; Li, Ping; Wang, Yuanyuan; Du, Yuwen; Chen, Xiaonan; Wu, Shujun; Zhao, Guoqiang; Lou, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is a common type of malignant tumor among head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Heavy smoking and/or drinking is associated with the development of HNSCC. However, HNSCC also occurs in individuals that do not drink or smoke, possibly due to infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV). HPV-16 has been shown to be closely associated with the occurrence of several types of cancers. However, its role in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of HPV-16 on hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and FaDu cells. Lentiviral vectors were used to establish FaDu cells that expressed the E6 and E7 proteins of HPV-16. We used quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays and western blotting to detect and determine the levels of expression for E6-E7 mRNAs and proteins. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), Transwell assays, and flow cytometry were used to assess the effects of HPV-16 E6-E7 on the proliferation, invasion, metastasis and apoptosis of FaDu cells. Expression of microRNAs was analyzed by qRT-PCR. We found that the expression levels of HPV-16 E6-E7 were increased in FaDu cells transfected with the lentiviral vector compared with that observed in the control cells. In addition, the rates of apoptosis were decreased in the transfected cells, while proliferation was increased. The average numbers of cells penetrating the Matrigel were significantly higher than those for the controls. We detected miR-363 and miR-15a, and their expression levels were significantly increased in the HPV-16-positive patients and in FaDu cells expressing HPV-16 E6-E7. We found that HPV-16 E6-E7 appeared to inhibit apoptosis, and to increase cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, miR-363 and miR-15a were overexpressed in the hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma samples infected with

  16. Molecular cytogenetics (FISH, GISH) of Coccinia grandis : a ca. 3 myr-old species of cucurbitaceae with the largest Y/autosome divergence in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Sousa, A; Fuchs, J; Renner, S S

    2013-01-01

    The independent evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in 19 species from 4 families of flowering plants permits studying X/Y divergence after the initial recombination suppression. Here, we document autosome/Y divergence in the tropical Cucurbitaceae Coccinia grandis, which is ca. 3 myr old. Karyotyping and C-value measurements show that the C. grandis Y chromosome has twice the size of any of the other chromosomes, with a male/female C-value difference of 0.094 pg or 10% of the total genome. FISH staining revealed 5S and 45S rDNA sites on autosomes but not on the Y chromosome, making it unlikely that rDNA contributed to the elongation of the Y chromosome; recent end-to-end fusion also seems unlikely given the lack of interstitial telomeric signals. GISH with different concentrations of female blocking DNA detected a possible pseudo-autosomal region on the Y chromosome, and C-banding suggests that the entire Y chromosome in C. grandis is heterochromatic. During meiosis, there is an end-to-end connection between the X and the Y chromosome, but the X does not otherwise differ from the remaining chromosomes. These findings and a review of plants with heteromorphic sex chromosomes reveal no relationship between species age and degree of sex chromosome dimorphism. Its relatively small genome size (0.943 pg/2C in males), large Y chromosome, and phylogenetic proximity to the fully sequenced Cucumis sativus make C. grandis a promising model to study sex chromosome evolution.

  17. Selection of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato isolates as microbial control agents against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nussenbaum, A L; Lecuona, R E

    2012-05-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main pest of cotton in the Americas. The aim of this work was to evaluate isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato virulent against A. grandis. Screening was performed to evaluate the pathogenicity of 28 isolates of M. anisopliae s.l. and 66 isolates of B. bassiana s.l. against boll weevil adults. To select the isolates, LC(50) values of the most virulent isolates were calculated, and compatibility between the fungi and insecticides was studied. In addition, the effects of these isolates on the feeding behavior of the adults were evaluated. Isolates Ma 50 and Ma 20 were the most virulent against A. grandis and their LC(50) values were 1.13×10(7) and 1.20×10(7) conidia/ml, respectively. In addition, these isolates were compatible with pyrethroid insecticides, but none with endosulfan. On the other hand, infected females reduced the damage caused by feeding on the cotton squares and their weight gain. This shows that entomopathogenic fungi cause mortality in the insects, but also these fungi could influence the feeding behavior of the females. In summary, these results indicate the possibility of the use of M. anisopliae s.l. as a microbiological control agent against boll weevils. Also, this species could be included in an Integrated Pest Management program.

  18. Above-ground biomass and carbon estimates of Shorea robusta and Tectona grandis forests using QuadPOL ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, M. D.; Tripathi, P.; Mishra, B.; Kumar, Shashi; Chitale, V. S.; Behera, Soumit K.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms to mitigate climate change in tropical countries such as India require information on forest structural components i.e., biomass and carbon for conservation steps to be implemented successfully. The present study focuses on investigating the potential use of a one time, QuadPOL ALOS PALSAR L-band 25 m data to estimate above-ground biomass (AGB) using a water cloud model (WCM) in a wildlife sanctuary in India. A significant correlation was obtained between the SAR-derived backscatter coefficient (σ°) and the field measured AGB, with the maximum coefficient of determination for cross-polarized (HV) σ° for Shorea robusta, and the weakest correlation was observed with co-polarized (HH) σ° for Tectona grandis forests. The biomass of S. robusta and that of T. grandis were estimated on the basis of field-measured data at 444.7 ± 170.4 Mg/ha and 451 ± 179.4 Mg/ha respectively. The mean biomass values estimated using the WCM varied between 562 and 660 Mg/ha for S. robusta; between 590 and 710 Mg/ha for T. grandis using various polarized data. Our results highlighted the efficacy of one time, fully polarized PALSAR data for biomass and carbon estimate in a dense forest.

  19. Analysis of Tangential Slot Blowing on F/A-18 Isolated Forebody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Rizk, Yehia M.; Schiff, Lewis B.

    1995-01-01

    The generation of significant side forces and yawing moments on an F/A-18 fuselage through tangential slot blowing is analyzed using computational fluid dynamics. The effects of freestream Mach number, jet exit conditions, jet length, and jet location are studied. The effects of over- and underblowing on force and moment production are analyzed. Non-time-accurate solutions are obtained to determine the steady-state side forces, yawing moments, and surface pressure distributions generated by tangential slot blowing. Time-accurate solutions are obtained to study the force onset time lag of tangential slot blowing. Comparison with available experimental data from full-scale wind-tunnel and subscale wind-tunnel tests are made. This computational analysis complements the experimental results and provides a detailed understanding of the effects of tangential slot blowing on the flowfield about the isolated F/A-18 forebody. Additionally, it extends the slot-blowing database to transonic maneuvering Mach numbers.

  20. Analysis of tangential slot blowing on F/A-18 isolated forebody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, K.; Rizk, Y.; Schiff, L.

    1994-01-01

    Generation of significant side forces and yawing moments on an F/A-18 fuselage through tangential slot blowing is analyzed using computational fluid dynamics. The effects of freestream Mach number, jet exit conditions, jet length, and jet location are studied. The effects of over- and under-blowing on force and moment production are analyzed. Non-time-accurate solutions are obtained to determine the steady-state side forces, yawing moments, and surface pressure distributions generated by tangential slot blowing. Time-accurate solutions are obtained to study the force onset time lag of tangential slot blowing. Comparison with available experimental data from full-scale wind tunnel and sub-scale wind tunnel tests are made. This computational analysis complements the experimental results and provides a detailed understanding of the effects of tangential slot blowing on the flow field about the isolated F/A-18 forebody. Additionally, it extends the slot-blowing database to transonic maneuvering Mach numbers.

  1. Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: embedded wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: embedded wood beams and interrupted dentil course cornice resulting from the removal of the third floor tuberculosis ward, yard level paneled Dutch door, second level two a typical six-light wood casement windows over a single-panel wood door with four light exits to fire escape; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  2. Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: white painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: white painted brick wall of road and second level, road level: paired four-light casement window and a small single-light wood casement window; second level: four-over-four wood double-hung window and a six-light horizontal pivot over a three-light fixed window; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  3. Zebrafish Cacna1fa is required for cone photoreceptor function and synaptic ribbon formation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Sujuan; Muto, Akira; Orisme, Wilda; Henson, Hannah E.; Parupalli, Chaithanyarani; Ju, Bensheng; Baier, Herwig; Taylor, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the human CACNA1F gene cause incomplete congenital stationary night blindness type 2 (CSNB2), a non-progressive, clinically heterogeneous retinal disorder. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CSNB2 have not been fully explored. Here, we describe the positional cloning of a blind zebrafish mutant, wait until dark (wud), which encodes a zebrafish homolog of human CACNA1F. We identified two zebrafish cacna1f paralogs and showed that the cacna1fa transcript (the gene mutated in wud) is expressed exclusively in the photoreceptor layer. We demonstrated that Cacna1fa localizes at the photoreceptor synapse and is absent from wud mutants. Electroretinograms revealed abnormal cone photoreceptor responses from wud mutants, indicating a defect in synaptic transmission. Although there are no obvious morphological differences, we found that wud mutants lacked synaptic ribbons and that wud is essential for the development of synaptic ribbons. We found that Ribeye, the most prominent synaptic ribbon protein, was less abundant and mislocalized in adult wud mutants. In addition to cloning wud, we identified synaptojanin 1 (synj1) as the defective gene in slacker (slak), a blind mutant with floating synaptic ribbons. We determined that Cacna1fa was expressed in slak photoreceptors and that Synj1 was initially expressed wud photoreceptors, but was absent by 5 days postfertilization. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Cacna1fa is essential for cone photoreceptor function and synaptic ribbon formation and reveal a previously unknown yet critical role of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in the expression and/or distribution of synaptic ribbon proteins, providing a new model to study the clinical variability in human CSNB2 patients. PMID:24419318

  4. FA composition of heart and skeletal muscle during embryonic development of the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Decrock, Frederic; Groscolas, Rene; Speake, Brian K

    2002-04-01

    Since the yolk lipids of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) naturally contain the highest concentrations of DHA and EPA yet reported for the eggs of any avian species, the effects of this (n-3)-rich yolk on the FA profiles of the embryonic heart and skeletal muscle were investigated. The concentrations (mg/g wet tissue) of phospholipid (PL) in the developing heart and leg muscle of the penguin doubled between days 27 and 55 from the beginning of egg incubation (i.e., from the halfway stage of embryonic development to 2 d posthatch), whereas no net increase occurred in pectoral muscle. During this period, the concentration of TAG in heart decreased by half but increased two- and sixfold in leg and pectoral muscle, respectively. The most notable change in cholesteryl ester concentration occurred in pectoral muscle, increasing ninefold between days 27 and 55. Arachidonic acid (ARA) was the major polyunsaturate in PL of the penguin's heart, where it formed about 20% (w/w) of FA at day 55. At the equivalent developmental stage, the heart PL of the chicken contained a 1.3-fold greater proportion of ARA, contained a fifth less DHA, and was almost devoid of EPA, whereas the latter FA was a significant component (7% of FA) of penguin heart PL. Similarly, in PL of leg and pectoral muscle, the chicken displayed about 1.4-fold more ARA, up to 50% less DHA, and far less EPA in comparison with the penguin. Thus, although ARA-rich PL profiles are achieved in the heart and muscle of the penguin embryo, these profiles are significantly affected by the high n-3 content of the yolk. PMID:12030322

  5. Full-Scale Wind Tunnel Studies of F/A-18 Tail Buffet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyn, Larry A.; James, Kevin D.

    1993-01-01

    Tail buffet studies were conducted on a full-scale, production, F/A-18, fighter aircraft in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California. The F/A-18 was tested over an angle-of-attack range of 18deg to 50deg, a side-slip range of -15deg to 15deg, and at wind speeds of up to 100 knots. The maximum speed corresponds to a Reynolds number of 12.3 x 10(exp 6) based on mean aerodynamic chord and a Mach number of 0.15. The port, vertical tail fin was instrumented with thirty-two surface pressure transducers, arranged in four by four arrays on both sides on the fin. The aircraft was also equipped with a removable Leading Edge eXtension (LEX) fence that is used on F/A-18 aircraft to reduce tail buffet loads. Time-averaged, power-spectral analysis results are presented for the tail fin bending moment derived from the integrated pressure field. The results are only for the zero side-slip condition, both with and without the LEX fence. The LEX fence significantly reduces the magnitude of the root-mean-square pressures and bending moments. Scaling issues are addressed by comparing full-scale results for pressures at the 60%-span and 45%-chord location with published results of small-scale, F/A-18 tail-buffet tests. The comparison shows that the tail buffet frequency scales very well with length and velocity. Root-mean-square pressures and power spectra do not scale as well. The LEX fence is shown to reduce tail buffet loads at all model scales.

  6. Development and characterization of a high sensitivity segmented Fast Neutron Spectrometer (FaNS-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, T. J.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Heimbach, C. R.; Ji, G.; Nico, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the development of a segmented fast neutron spectrometer (FaNS-2) based upon plastic scintillator and 3He proportional counters. It was designed to measure both the flux and spectrum of fast neutrons in the energy range of few MeV to 1 GeV. FaNS-2 utilizes capture-gated spectroscopy to identify neutron events and reject backgrounds. Neutrons deposit energy in the plastic scintillator before capturing on a 3He nucleus in the proportional counters. Segmentation improves neutron energy reconstruction while the large volume of scintillator increases sensitivity to low neutron fluxes. A main goal of its design is to study comparatively low neutron fluxes, such as cosmogenic neutrons at the Earth's surface, in an underground environment, or from low-activity neutron sources. In this paper, we present details of its design and construction as well as its characterization with a calibrated 252Cf source and monoenergetic neutron fields of 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV. Detected monoenergetic neutron spectra are unfolded using a Singular Value Decomposition method, demonstrating a 5% energy resolution at 14 MeV. Finally, we discuss plans for measuring the surface and underground cosmogenic neutron spectra with FaNS-2.

  7. Flight Test of the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of flight tests performed on the F/A active aeroelastic wing airplane is shown. The topics include: 1) F/A-18 AAW Airplane; 2) F/A-18 AAW Control Surfaces; 3) Flight Test Background; 4) Roll Control Effectiveness Regions; 5) AAW Design Test Points; 6) AAW Phase I Test Maneuvers; 7) OBES Pitch Doublets; 8) OBES Roll Doublets; 9) AAW Aileron Flexibility; 10) Phase I - Lessons Learned; 11) Control Law Development and Verification & Validation Testing; 12) AAW Phase II RFCS Envelopes; 13) AAW 1-g Phase II Flight Test; 14) Region I - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 15) Region I - Subsonic 1-g 360 Roll; 16) Region II - Supersonic 1-g Rolls; 17) Region II - Supersonic 1-g 360 Roll; 18) Region III - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 19) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (open-loop); 20) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (closed-loop); 21) AAW Phase II Elevated-g Flight Test; 22) Region I - Subsonic 4-g RPO; and 23) Phase II - Lessons Learned

  8. Aeroservoelastic Modeling and Validation of a Thrust-Vectoring F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    An F/A-18 aircraft was modified to perform flight research at high angles of attack (AOA) using thrust vectoring and advanced control law concepts for agility and performance enhancement and to provide a testbed for the computational fluid dynamics community. Aeroservoelastic (ASE) characteristics had changed considerably from the baseline F/A-18 aircraft because of structural and flight control system amendments, so analyses and flight tests were performed to verify structural stability at high AOA. Detailed actuator models that consider the physical, electrical, and mechanical elements of actuation and its installation on the airframe were employed in the analysis to accurately model the coupled dynamics of the airframe, actuators, and control surfaces. This report describes the ASE modeling procedure, ground test validation, flight test clearance, and test data analysis for the reconfigured F/A-18 aircraft. Multivariable ASE stability margins are calculated from flight data and compared to analytical margins. Because this thrust-vectoring configuration uses exhaust vanes to vector the thrust, the modeling issues are nearly identical for modem multi-axis nozzle configurations. This report correlates analysis results with flight test data and makes observations concerning the application of the linear predictions to thrust-vectoring and high-AOA flight.

  9. Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Studies of F/A-18 Tail Buffet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyn, Larry A.; James, Kevin D.

    1996-01-01

    Tail buffet studies were conducted on a full-scale, production F/A-18 fighter aircraft in the 80 by 120 ft Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The F/A-18 was tested over an angle-of-attack range of 18-50 deg, and at wind speeds of up to 168 ft/s, corresponding to a Reynolds number of 12.3x10(exp 6) based on mean aerodynamic chord and a Mach number of 0.15. The port, vertical tail fin was instrumented and the aircraft was equipped with a removable leading-edge extension (LEX) fence. Time-averaged, power-spectral analysis results are presented for the tail fin bending moment derived from the integrated pressure field, for the zero side-slip condition, both with and without the LEX fence. The LEX fence significantly reduces the magnitude of the rms pressures and bending moments. Scaling issues are addressed by comparing full-scale results for pressures at the 60%-span and 45%-chord location with small-scale, F/A-18 tail-buffet data. The comparison shows that the tail buffet frequency scales very well with length and velocity. Root-mean-square pressures and power spectra do not scale as well. The LEX fence is shown to reduce tail buffet loads at all model scales.

  10. Wavelet Analyses of F/A-18 Aeroelastic and Aeroservoelastic Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.

    1997-01-01

    Time-frequency signal representations combined with subspace identification methods were used to analyze aeroelastic flight data from the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and aeroservoelastic data from the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The F/A-18 SRA data were produced from a wingtip excitation system that generated linear frequency chirps and logarithmic sweeps. HARV data were acquired from digital Schroeder-phased and sinc pulse excitation signals to actuator commands. Nondilated continuous Morlet wavelets implemented as a filter bank were chosen for the time-frequency analysis to eliminate phase distortion as it occurs with sliding window discrete Fourier transform techniques. Wavelet coefficients were filtered to reduce effects of noise and nonlinear distortions identically in all inputs and outputs. Cleaned reconstructed time domain signals were used to compute improved transfer functions. Time and frequency domain subspace identification methods were applied to enhanced reconstructed time domain data and improved transfer functions, respectively. Time domain subspace performed poorly, even with the enhanced data, compared with frequency domain techniques. A frequency domain subspace method is shown to produce better results with the data processed using the Morlet time-frequency technique.

  11. Active Aeroelastic Wing Aerodynamic Model Development and Validation for a Modified F/A-18A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Diebler, Corey G.

    2005-01-01

    A new aerodynamic model has been developed and validated for a modified F/A-18A used for the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) research program. The goal of the program was to demonstrate the advantages of using the inherent flexibility of an aircraft to enhance its performance. The research aircraft was an F/A-18A with wings modified to reduce stiffness and a new control system to increase control authority. There have been two flight phases. Data gathered from the first flight phase were used to create the new aerodynamic model. A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique was used to obtain stability and control derivatives. The derivatives were incorporated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F-18 simulation, validated, and used to develop new AAW control laws. The second phase of flights was used to evaluate the handling qualities of the AAW aircraft and the control law design process, and to further test the accuracy of the new model. The flight test envelope covered Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.30 and dynamic pressures from 600 to 1250 pound-force per square foot. The results presented in this report demonstrate that a thorough parameter identification analysis can be used to improve upon models that were developed using other means. This report describes the parameter estimation technique used, details the validation techniques, discusses differences between previously existing F/A-18 models, and presents results from the second phase of research flights.

  12. Differential Protection of Cry1Fa Toxin against Spodoptera frugiperda Larval Gut Proteases by Cadherin Orthologs Correlates with Increased Synergism

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Khalidur; Abdullah, Mohd Amir F.; Ambati, Suresh; Taylor, Milton D.

    2012-01-01

    The Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are the most widely used biopesticides effective against a range of crop pests and disease vectors. Like chemical pesticides, development of resistance is the primary threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt toxins. Recently discovered cadherin-based Bt Cry synergists showed the potential to augment resistance management by improving efficacy of Cry toxins. However, the mode of action of Bt Cry synergists is thus far unclear. Here we elucidate the mechanism of cadherin-based Cry toxin synergism utilizing two cadherin peptides, Spodoptera frugiperda Cad (SfCad) and Manduca sexta Cad (MsCad), which differentially enhance Cry1Fa toxicity to Spodoptera frugiperda neonates. We show that differential SfCad- and MsCad-mediated protection of Cry1Fa toxin in the Spodoptera frugiperda midgut correlates with differential Cry1Fa toxicity enhancement. Both peptides exhibited high affinity for Cry1Fa toxin and an increased rate of Cry1Fa-induced pore formation in S. frugiperda. However, only SfCad bound the S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicle and more effectively prolonged the stability of Cry1Fa toxin in the gut, explaining higher Cry1Fa enhancement by this peptide. This study shows that cadherin fragments may enhance B. thuringiensis toxicity by at least two different mechanisms or a combination thereof: (i) protection of Cry toxin from protease degradation in the insect midgut and (ii) enhancement of pore-forming ability of Cry toxin. PMID:22081566

  13. The evolution of the discipline of pharmacology amid an era of global turbulence: the unique contributions of Otto Krayer (1899-1982).

    PubMed

    Rubin, Ronald P

    2014-08-01

    This article revisits the life and times of Otto Krayer, a gifted scientist, teacher and administrator. His unique contributions to the discipline of pharmacology and to the biomedical sciences are chronicled in the wake of the political upheaval that crippled German science during the 1930s. The anti-scientific attitude that pervaded Germany at the time led to the exile of Krayer and many other eminent scientists. Their fate is recounted, as well as the negative impact on science caused by a National Socialist regime that blatantly disregarded basic scientific principles. The threat of intolerance and unethical behaviour still remains a key obstacle to scientific creativity.

  14. The potential role of polyamines in gill epithelial remodeling during extreme hypoosmotic challenges in the Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying; Zhang, Guo-Xia; Zhang, Shujun; Domangue, Beau; Galvez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines are a family of low molecular weight organic cations produced in part by the coordinated actions of arginase II (Arg II) and ornithine decarboxylase (Odc). Although gill polyamine homeostasis is affected by acute transfer to fresh water, little is known of its function in fish osmoregulation. The current study investigated the role of polyamines in the compensatory response of hypoosmotic challenge in the euryhaline fish, Fundulus grandis. Adult F. grandis were acclimated to 5 ppt water, transferred abruptly to 5, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.1 ppt water, and assessed for osmoregulatory function, gill morphology, and polyamine homeostasis. The plasma osmolality, Na(+) concentration, and Cl(-) concentration were only significantly reduced during exposure to salinities at or below 0.5 ppt, although these effects were transient except in the 0.1 ppt treatment. The phenotype of mitochondrion-rich cells (MRCs) shifted from a seawater-type to a freshwater-type only at salinities that also produced a plasma osmotic disturbance. Hypoosmotic exposure increased the concentrations of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in the gill over the entire 7 day period. Exposure to 0.1 ppt water also transiently increased gill caspase-3 activity and gill mRNA levels of the immediate-early response genes, c-fos and c-myc, thus tightly associating polyamines with gill remodeling during freshwater acclimation. Furthermore, arginase II and ornithine decarboxylase mRNA levels were most highly expressed in MRCs, and these levels were further increased only in the 0.1 ppt treatment. Reduction of gill polyamine levels following administration of the Odc inhibitor, alpha-dl-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), inhibited gill caspase-3 activity, but surprisingly reduced the magnitude of the plasma osmotic imbalance elicited by exposure to 0.1 ppt water. We used isolated opercular epithelia mounted on Ussing chambers to assess the influence of polyamines on the attenuating response of hypotonic shock

  15. Differential modulation of the functionality of white adipose tissue of obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats by the type of protein and the amount and type of fat.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Granados, Omar; González-Palacios, Berenice; Tovar-Palacio, Claudia; Torre-Villalvazo, Ivan; Olivares-García, Verónica; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence indicates that several metabolic abnormalities developed during obesity are associated with the presence of dysfunctional adipose tissue. Diet is a key factor that modulates several functions of adipose tissue; however, each nutrient in the diet produces specific changes. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the effect of the interaction of the type (coconut or soybean oil) and amount (5% or 10%) of fat with the type of dietary protein (casein or soy protein) on the functionality of white adipose tissue of Zucker (fa/fa) rats. The results showed that soybean oil reduced adipocyte size and decreased esterified saturated fatty acids in white adipose tissue. Excess dietary fat also modified the composition of esterified fatty acids in white adipose tissue, increased the secretion of saturated fatty acids to serum from white adipose tissue and reduced the process of fatty acids re-esterification. On the other hand, soy protein sensitized the activation of the hormone-sensitive lipase by increasing the phosphorylation of this enzyme (Ser 563) despite rats fed soy protein were normoglucagonemic, in contrast with rats fed casein that showed hyperglucagonemia but reduced hormone-sensitive lipase phosphorylation. Finally, in white adipose tissue, the interaction between the tested dietary components modulated the transcription/translation process of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism genes via the activity of the PERK-endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Therefore, our results showed that the type of protein and the type and amount of dietary fat selectively modify the activity of white adipose tissue, even in a genetic model of obesity.

  16. "Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making": Correction to Otto et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Reports an error in "Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making" by Ashley S. Otto, Joshua J. Clarkson and Frank R. Kardes (, 2016[Jul], Vol 111[1], 1-16). In the article, the main heading for Experiment 3 was missing due to a production error, and the first sentence of the first paragraph of Experiment 3 should begin as follows: Experiment 2 offered support for the hypothesis that those seeking closure engage in decision sidestepping to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) We all too often have to make decisions-from the mundane (e.g., what to eat for breakfast) to the complex (e.g., what to buy a loved one)-and yet there exists a multitude of strategies that allows us to make a decision. This work focuses on a subset of decision strategies that allows individuals to make decisions by bypassing the decision-making process-a phenomenon we term decision sidestepping. Critical to the present manuscript, however, we contend that decision sidestepping stems from the motivation to achieve closure. We link this proposition back to the fundamental nature of closure and how those seeking closure are highly bothered by decision making. As such, we argue that the motivation to achieve closure prompts a reliance on sidestepping strategies (e.g., default bias, choice delegation, status quo bias, inaction inertia, option fixation) to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. In support of this framework, five experiments demonstrate that (a) those seeking closure are more likely to engage in decision sidestepping, (b) the effect of closure on sidestepping stems from the bothersome nature of decision making, and (c) the reliance on sidestepping results in downstream consequences for subsequent choice. Taken together, these findings offer unique insight into the cognitive motivations stimulating a reliance on decision sidestepping and

  17. "Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making": Correction to Otto et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Reports an error in "Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making" by Ashley S. Otto, Joshua J. Clarkson and Frank R. Kardes (, 2016[Jul], Vol 111[1], 1-16). In the article, the main heading for Experiment 3 was missing due to a production error, and the first sentence of the first paragraph of Experiment 3 should begin as follows: Experiment 2 offered support for the hypothesis that those seeking closure engage in decision sidestepping to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) We all too often have to make decisions-from the mundane (e.g., what to eat for breakfast) to the complex (e.g., what to buy a loved one)-and yet there exists a multitude of strategies that allows us to make a decision. This work focuses on a subset of decision strategies that allows individuals to make decisions by bypassing the decision-making process-a phenomenon we term decision sidestepping. Critical to the present manuscript, however, we contend that decision sidestepping stems from the motivation to achieve closure. We link this proposition back to the fundamental nature of closure and how those seeking closure are highly bothered by decision making. As such, we argue that the motivation to achieve closure prompts a reliance on sidestepping strategies (e.g., default bias, choice delegation, status quo bias, inaction inertia, option fixation) to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. In support of this framework, five experiments demonstrate that (a) those seeking closure are more likely to engage in decision sidestepping, (b) the effect of closure on sidestepping stems from the bothersome nature of decision making, and (c) the reliance on sidestepping results in downstream consequences for subsequent choice. Taken together, these findings offer unique insight into the cognitive motivations stimulating a reliance on decision sidestepping and

  18. Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Metabolism and Callose Synthesis in Cultured Pollen Tubes of Nicotiana alata Link et Otto.

    PubMed Central

    Schlupmann, H.; Bacic, A.; Read, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Membrane preparations from cultured pollen tubes of Nicotiana alata Link et Otto contain a Ca2+ -independent (1-3)-[beta]-D-glucan (callose) synthase activity that has a low affinity for UDP-glucose, even when activated by treatment with trypsin (H. Schlupmann, A. Basic, S.M. Read [1993] Planta 191: 470-481). Therefore, we investigated whether UDP-glucose was a likely substrate for callose synthesis in actively growing pollen tubes. Deposition of (1-3)-[beta]-glucan occurred at a constant rate, 1.4 to 1.7 nmol glucose min-1, in tubes from 1 mg of pollen from 3 h after germination; however, the rate of incorporation of radioactivity from exogenous [14C]-sucrose into wall polymers was not constant, but increased until at least 8 h after germination, probably due to decreasing use of internal reserves. UDP-glucose was a prominent ultraviolet-absorbing metabolite in pollen-tube extracts, with 1.6 nmol present in tubes from 1 mg of pollen, giving a calculated cytoplasmic concentration of approximately 3.5 mM. Radioactivity from [14C]-sucrose was rapidly incorporated into sugar monophosphates and UDP-glucose by the growing tubes, consistent with a turnover time for UDP-glucose of less than 1 min; the specific radioactivity of extracted UDP-[14C]glucose was equal to that calculated from the rate of incorporation of [14C]sucrose into wall glucans. Large amounts of less metabolically active neutral sugars were also present. The rate of synthesis of (1-3)-[beta]-glucan by nontrypsin-treated pollen-tube membrane preparations incubated with 3.5 mM UDP-glucose and a [beta]-glucoside activator was slightly greater than the rate of deposition of (1-3)-[beta]-glucan by intact pollen tubes. These data are used to assess the physiological significance of proteolytic activation of pollen-tube callose synthase. PMID:12232233

  19. Comparative interrogation of the developing xylem transcriptomes of two wood-forming species: Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Hefer, Charles A; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Myburg, Alexander A; Douglas, Carl J; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2015-06-01

    Wood formation is a complex developmental process governed by genetic and environmental stimuli. Populus and Eucalyptus are fast-growing, high-yielding tree genera that represent ecologically and economically important species suitable for generating significant lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analysis of the developing xylem and leaf transcriptomes of Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis together with phylogenetic analyses identified clusters of homologous genes preferentially expressed during xylem formation in both species. A conserved set of 336 single gene pairs showed highly similar xylem preferential expression patterns, as well as evidence of high functional constraint. Individual members of multi-gene orthologous clusters known to be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis also showed conserved xylem expression profiles. However, species-specific expression as well as opposite (xylem versus leaf) expression patterns observed for a subset of genes suggest subtle differences in the transcriptional regulation important for xylem development in each species. Using sequence similarity and gene expression status, we identified functional homologs likely to be involved in xylem developmental and biosynthetic processes in Populus and Eucalyptus. Our study suggests that, while genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis show high levels of gene expression conservation, differential regulation of some xylem development genes may give rise to unique xylem properties.

  20. Molecular characterization of a distinct bipartite Begomovirus species infecting ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L.) in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Nagendran, K; Satya, V K; Mohankumar, S; Karthikeyan, G

    2016-02-01

    A distinct bipartite begomovirus was found to be associated with the mosaic disease on ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L.) in Tamil Nadu, India. The complete DNA A and DNA B components were cloned by rolling circle amplification. Genome organization of this virus is found to be typical of Old World bipartite begomovirus. The association of betasatellite component with this virus is absent. The closest nucleotide identity of 73.4 % was seen with the Loofa yellow mosaic virus (LYMV-[VN]-AF509739) suggesting that it is a new virus species Coccinia mosaic virus (CoMoV-Ivy gourd [TN TDV Coc1]) and distantly related to the other known begomoviruses. The DNA B component shared a maximum identity of 55 % with that of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). In the phylogenetic analysis, CoMoV-Ivy gourd form cluster separate from other begomoviruses. Recombination analysis showed that there was no recombination event in the genome. This is the distinct begomovirus infecting ivy gourd. PMID:26739457

  1. Biochemical and ecophysiological responses to manganese stress by ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and in association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Canton, Gabriela C; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Cogo, Antônio J D; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob; Melo, Juliana; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; A Krohling, Cesar; Campostrini, Eliemar; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Cruz, Cristina; Ramos, Alessandro C

    2016-07-01

    At relatively low concentrations, the element manganese (Mn) is essential for plant metabolism, especially for photosynthesis and as an enzyme antioxidant cofactor. However, industrial and agricultural activities have greatly increased Mn concentrations, and thereby contamination, in soils. We tested whether and how growth of Pisolithus tinctorius is influenced by Mn and glucose and compare the activities of oxidative stress enzymes as biochemical markers of Mn stress. We also compared nutrient accumulation, ecophysiology, and biochemical responses in Eucalyptus grandis which had been colonized by the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius with those which had not, when both were exposed to increasing Mn concentrations. In vitro experiments comprised six concentrations of Mn in three concentrations of glucose. In vivo experiments used plants colonized by Pisolithus tinctorius, or not colonized, grown with three concentrations of Mn (0, 200, and 1000 μM). We found that fungal growth and glucose concentration were correlated, but these were not influenced by Mn levels in the medium. The anti-oxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase were both activated when the fungus was exposed to Mn. Also, mycorrhizal plants grew more and faster than non-mycorrhizal plants, whatever Mn exposure. Photosynthesis rate, intrinsic water use efficiency, and carboxylation efficiency were all inversely correlated with Mn concentration. Thus, we originally show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus provides protection for its host plants against varying and potentially toxic concentrations of Mn.

  2. Integrated hot-compressed water and laccase-mediator treatments of Eucalyptus grandis fibers: structural changes of fiber and lignin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Quan; Wen, Jia-Long; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-02-18

    Eucalyptus grandis fibers were treated with hot-compressed water (HCW) and laccase mediator to enhance the fiber characteristics and to produce an active lignin substrate for binderless fiberboard production. The composition, morphology, and crystallinity index (CrI) analysis of fibers showed that the HCW treatment increased the CrI and lignin content of the treated fibers through partial removal of hemicelluloses. Simultaneously, the HCW treatment produced some granules and holes on the surface of the fibers, which possibly facilitated the accessibility of the laccase mediator. Milled wood lignins and enzymatic hydrolysis lignins isolated from the control and treated fibers were comparatively characterized. A reduction of molecular weight was observed, which indicated that a preferential degradation of lignin occurred after exposure to the laccase mediator. Quantitative (13)C, 2D-HSQC and (31)P NMR characterization revealed that the integrated treatment resulted in the cleavage of β-O-4' linkages, removal of G' (oxidized α-ketone) substructures, and an increase in the S/G ratio and free phenolic hydroxyls.

  3. Biochemical and ecophysiological responses to manganese stress by ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and in association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Canton, Gabriela C; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Cogo, Antônio J D; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob; Melo, Juliana; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; A Krohling, Cesar; Campostrini, Eliemar; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Cruz, Cristina; Ramos, Alessandro C

    2016-07-01

    At relatively low concentrations, the element manganese (Mn) is essential for plant metabolism, especially for photosynthesis and as an enzyme antioxidant cofactor. However, industrial and agricultural activities have greatly increased Mn concentrations, and thereby contamination, in soils. We tested whether and how growth of Pisolithus tinctorius is influenced by Mn and glucose and compare the activities of oxidative stress enzymes as biochemical markers of Mn stress. We also compared nutrient accumulation, ecophysiology, and biochemical responses in Eucalyptus grandis which had been colonized by the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius with those which had not, when both were exposed to increasing Mn concentrations. In vitro experiments comprised six concentrations of Mn in three concentrations of glucose. In vivo experiments used plants colonized by Pisolithus tinctorius, or not colonized, grown with three concentrations of Mn (0, 200, and 1000 μM). We found that fungal growth and glucose concentration were correlated, but these were not influenced by Mn levels in the medium. The anti-oxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase were both activated when the fungus was exposed to Mn. Also, mycorrhizal plants grew more and faster than non-mycorrhizal plants, whatever Mn exposure. Photosynthesis rate, intrinsic water use efficiency, and carboxylation efficiency were all inversely correlated with Mn concentration. Thus, we originally show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus provides protection for its host plants against varying and potentially toxic concentrations of Mn. PMID:26861483

  4. Exposure to the water soluble fraction of crude oil or to naphthalenes alters breathing rates in Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.C.; Fingerman, M.

    1984-03-01

    Alteration in breathing rate has been used to monitor the effects of pollutants on fishes. Particularly pertinent to the study described herein are the observations that the water soluble fractions (WSF) from Cook Inlet crude oil, Prudhoe Bay crude oil and No. 2 fuel oil increased the breathing rate of pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, fry. However, possible underlying neurological mechanisms for this response have not been identified. Pollutant-induced changes in a fish's breathing rate may indicate neurochemical imbalances in the brain. Exposure of the longnose killifish, Fundulus similis, to the WSF of petroleum resulted in accumulation of naphthalenes from this WSF in high levels in the brain. Various organic compounds have been found to ultimately produce reductions in the whole brain concentration of dopamine in fishes. In view of these effects of various pollutants on breathing rate and the brain dopamine level in fishes, experiments were performed to determine the effects of (a) the WSF of South Louisiana crude oil, (b) two of its most toxic components (naphthalene and 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene) and (c) the dopamine precursor, L-DOPA, on the breathing rate of Fundulus grandis. These experiments would not only reveal whether the WSF and naphthalenes affect the breathing rate but also whether it might be affected by the dopamine concentration in the fish.

  5. Arthropods of Rose Atoll with special reference to ants and Pulvinaria Urbicola Scales (Hempitera Coccidae) on Pisonia Grandis trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Pendleton, Frank; Schmaedick, Mark; Ernsberger, Kelsie

    2014-01-01

    Rose Atoll, at the eastern end of the Samoan Archipelago, is a small but important refuge for seabirds, shorebirds, and sea turtles. While the vertebrate community is relatively well-studied, the terrestrial arthropod fauna, and its role in ecosystem function, are poorly known. Arthropods may be influencing the decline of Pisonia grandis, an ecologically important tree that once dominated the 6.6 ha of land on Rose Atoll. Reasons for the decline are not fully understood but a facultative relationship between two invasive arthropods, the soft scale Pulvinaria urbicola and ants, likely has contributed to tree death. The primary objectives of this study were to systematically survey the terrestrial arthropod fauna and identify ant species that tend scales on Pisonia. Using an array of standard arthropod collecting techniques, at least 73 species from 20 orders were identified, including nine ant species. Of the ants collected, only Tetramorium bicarinatum and T. simillimum were observed tending scales on Pisonia. No known natural enemies of Pulvinaria scales were found, suggesting little predation on scale populations. Treatment of Pisonia with the systemic insecticide imidacloprid failed to eliminate Pulvinaria scales, although short-term suppression apparently occurred. The arthropod fauna of Rose Atoll is dominated by exotic species that likely have a significant impact on the structure and function of the island’s ecosystem.

  6. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  7. Multi-tissue molecular, genomic, and developmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on resident Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitehead, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Rice, Charles D.; Galvez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster resulted in crude oil contamination along the Gulf coast in sensitive estuaries. Toxicity from exposure to crude oil can affect populations of fish that live or breed in oiled habitats as seen following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In an ongoing study of the effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil on fish, Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) were collected from an oiled site (Grande Terre, LA) and two reference locations (coastal MS and AL), and monitored for measures of exposure to crude oil. Killifish collected from Grande Terre had divergent gene expression in the liver and gill tissue coincident with the arrival of contaminating oil, and up-regulation of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein in gill, liver, intestine and head kidney for over one year following peak landfall of oil (August, 2011) compared to fish collected from reference sites. Furthermore, laboratory exposures of Gulf killifish embryos to field-collected sediments from Grande Terre and Barataria Bay, LA also resulted in increased CYP1A and developmental abnormalities when exposed to sediments collected from oiled sites compared to exposure to sediments collected from a reference site. These data are predictive of population-level impacts in fish exposed to sediments from oiled locations along the Gulf of Mexico coast. PMID:23659337

  8. Comparison of chemical profiling and antioxidant activities of fruits, leaves, branches, and flowers of Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa'.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Yu, Ke-Yun; Liu, E-Hu; Li, Ping

    2014-11-19

    Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa' (CGT) is particularly cultivated in China and widely used in health foods. In this study, the chemical profiles of different parts of CGT were comprehensively compared by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. A total of 22 compounds were identified and two C-glucosyl flavones were found for the first time in CGT. Four main constituents (rhiofolin, naringin, meranzin hydrate, and isoimperatorin) in different parts of CGT were simultaneously determined. Overall, the contents of the four main compounds decreased with the ripening process. In parallel, the antioxidant activities of their extracts were also evaluated by three assays (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing antioxidant power), and the results indicated a similar tendency: small fruit > flower ∼ medium fruit > large fruit > leaf ∼ branch. The results obtained in the present work may provide useful information for future utilization of CGT.

  9. Multitissue molecular, genomic, and developmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on resident Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    PubMed

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitehead, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey T; Rice, Charles D; Galvez, Fernando

    2013-05-21

    The Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster resulted in crude oil contamination along the Gulf coast in sensitive estuaries. Toxicity from exposure to crude oil can affect populations of fish that live or breed in oiled habitats as seen following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In an ongoing study of the effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil on fish, Gulf killifish ( Fundulus grandis ) were collected from an oiled site (Grande Terre, LA) and two reference locations (coastal MS and AL) and monitored for measures of exposure to crude oil. Killifish collected from Grande Terre had divergent gene expression in the liver and gill tissue coincident with the arrival of contaminating oil and up-regulation of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein in gill, liver, intestine, and head kidney for over one year following peak landfall of oil (August 2011) compared to fish collected from reference sites. Furthermore, laboratory exposures of Gulf killifish embryos to field-collected sediments from Grande Terre and Barataria Bay, LA, also resulted in increased CYP1A and developmental abnormalities when exposed to sediments collected from oiled sites compared to exposure to sediments collected from a reference site. These data are predictive of population-level impacts in fish exposed to sediments from oiled locations along the Gulf of Mexico coast. PMID:23659337

  10. Multitissue molecular, genomic, and developmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on resident Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    PubMed

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitehead, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey T; Rice, Charles D; Galvez, Fernando

    2013-05-21

    The Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster resulted in crude oil contamination along the Gulf coast in sensitive estuaries. Toxicity from exposure to crude oil can affect populations of fish that live or breed in oiled habitats as seen following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In an ongoing study of the effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil on fish, Gulf killifish ( Fundulus grandis ) were collected from an oiled site (Grande Terre, LA) and two reference locations (coastal MS and AL) and monitored for measures of exposure to crude oil. Killifish collected from Grande Terre had divergent gene expression in the liver and gill tissue coincident with the arrival of contaminating oil and up-regulation of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein in gill, liver, intestine, and head kidney for over one year following peak landfall of oil (August 2011) compared to fish collected from reference sites. Furthermore, laboratory exposures of Gulf killifish embryos to field-collected sediments from Grande Terre and Barataria Bay, LA, also resulted in increased CYP1A and developmental abnormalities when exposed to sediments collected from oiled sites compared to exposure to sediments collected from a reference site. These data are predictive of population-level impacts in fish exposed to sediments from oiled locations along the Gulf of Mexico coast.

  11. Aporphine alkaloids from the leaves of Phoebe grandis (Nees) Mer. (Lauraceae) and their cytotoxic and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Omar, Hanita; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Zajmi, Asdren; Nordin, Noraziah; Abdelwahab, Siddiq Ibrahim; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Hadi, A Hamid A; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2013-07-29

    The oxoaporphine alkaloid lysicamine (1), and three proaporphine alkaloids, litsericinone (2), 8,9,11,12-tetrahydromecambrine (3) and hexahydromecambrine A (4) were isolated from the leaves of Phoebe grandis (Nees) Merr. (Lauraceae). Compounds 2 and 3 were first time isolated as new naturally occurring compounds from plants. The NMR data for the compounds 2-4 have never been reported so far. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against a MCF7 (human estrogen receptor (ER+) positive breast cancer) cell line with IC₅₀ values of 26 and 60 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxic activity against HepG2 (human liver cancer) cell line was evaluated for compounds 1-4 with IC₅₀ values of 27, 14, 81 and 20 µg/mL, respectively. Lysicamine (1) displayed strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (B145), Staphylococcus aureus (S1434) and Staphylococus epidermidis (a clinically isolated strain) with inhibition zones of 15.50 ± 0.57, 13.33 ± 0.57 and 12.00 ± 0.00 mm, respectively. However, none of the tested pathogenic bacteria were susceptible towards compounds 2 and 3.

  12. Integrated hot-compressed water and laccase-mediator treatments of Eucalyptus grandis fibers: structural changes of fiber and lignin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Quan; Wen, Jia-Long; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-02-18

    Eucalyptus grandis fibers were treated with hot-compressed water (HCW) and laccase mediator to enhance the fiber characteristics and to produce an active lignin substrate for binderless fiberboard production. The composition, morphology, and crystallinity index (CrI) analysis of fibers showed that the HCW treatment increased the CrI and lignin content of the treated fibers through partial removal of hemicelluloses. Simultaneously, the HCW treatment produced some granules and holes on the surface of the fibers, which possibly facilitated the accessibility of the laccase mediator. Milled wood lignins and enzymatic hydrolysis lignins isolated from the control and treated fibers were comparatively characterized. A reduction of molecular weight was observed, which indicated that a preferential degradation of lignin occurred after exposure to the laccase mediator. Quantitative (13)C, 2D-HSQC and (31)P NMR characterization revealed that the integrated treatment resulted in the cleavage of β-O-4' linkages, removal of G' (oxidized α-ketone) substructures, and an increase in the S/G ratio and free phenolic hydroxyls. PMID:25639522

  13. A modified F/A-18 in a distinctive red, white and blue paint scheme was showcased during formal roll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A modified F/A-18 in a distinctive red, white and blue paint scheme was showcased during formal rollout ceremonies for the Active Aeroelastic Wing flight research program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on March 27, 2002.

  14. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1 /2 coupled to an arbitrary spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Ã.-zgür E.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1 /2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s ), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism.

  15. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1/2 coupled to an arbitrary spin.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1/2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism.

  16. Purification and Characterization of Botulinum Neurotoxin FA from a Genetically Modified Clostridium botulinum Strain

    PubMed Central

    Pellett, Sabine; Tepp, William H.; Bradshaw, Marite; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Dykes, Janet K.; Lin, Guangyun; Nawrocki, Erin M.; Pier, Christina L.; Barr, John R.; Maslanka, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by neurotoxigenic clostridial species, are the cause of the severe disease botulism in humans and animals. Early research on BoNTs has led to their classification into seven serotypes (serotypes A to G) based upon the selective neutralization of their toxicity in mice by homologous antibodies. Recently, a report of a potential eighth serotype of BoNT, designated “type H,” has been controversial. This novel BoNT was produced together with BoNT/B2 in a dual-toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum strain. The data used to designate this novel toxin as a new serotype were derived from culture supernatant containing both BoNT/B2 and novel toxin and from sequence information, although data from two independent laboratories indicated neutralization by antibodies raised against BoNT/A1, and classification as BoNT/FA was proposed. The sequence data indicate a chimeric structure consisting of a BoNT/A1 receptor binding domain, a BoNT/F5 light-chain domain, and a novel translocation domain most closely related to BoNT/F1. Here, we describe characterization of this toxin purified from the native strain in which expression of the second BoNT (BoNT/B) has been eliminated. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the toxin preparation contained only BoNT/FA and confirmed catalytic activity analogous to that of BoNT/F5. The in vivo mouse bioassay indicated a specific activity of this toxin of 3.8 × 107 mouse 50% lethal dose (mLD50) units/mg, whereas activity in cultured human neurons was very high (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 0.02 mLD50/well). Neutralization assays in cells and mice both indicated full neutralization by various antibodies raised against BoNT/A1, although at 16- to 20-fold-lower efficiency than for BoNT/A1. IMPORTANCE Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by anaerobic bacteria, are the cause of the potentially deadly, neuroparalytic disease botulism. BoNTs have been classified into seven serotypes

  17. Purification and Characterization of Botulinum Neurotoxin FA from a Genetically Modified Clostridium botulinum Strain.

    PubMed

    Pellett, Sabine; Tepp, William H; Bradshaw, Marite; Kalb, Suzanne R; Dykes, Janet K; Lin, Guangyun; Nawrocki, Erin M; Pier, Christina L; Barr, John R; Maslanka, Susan E; Johnson, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by neurotoxigenic clostridial species, are the cause of the severe disease botulism in humans and animals. Early research on BoNTs has led to their classification into seven serotypes (serotypes A to G) based upon the selective neutralization of their toxicity in mice by homologous antibodies. Recently, a report of a potential eighth serotype of BoNT, designated "type H," has been controversial. This novel BoNT was produced together with BoNT/B2 in a dual-toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum strain. The data used to designate this novel toxin as a new serotype were derived from culture supernatant containing both BoNT/B2 and novel toxin and from sequence information, although data from two independent laboratories indicated neutralization by antibodies raised against BoNT/A1, and classification as BoNT/FA was proposed. The sequence data indicate a chimeric structure consisting of a BoNT/A1 receptor binding domain, a BoNT/F5 light-chain domain, and a novel translocation domain most closely related to BoNT/F1. Here, we describe characterization of this toxin purified from the native strain in which expression of the second BoNT (BoNT/B) has been eliminated. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the toxin preparation contained only BoNT/FA and confirmed catalytic activity analogous to that of BoNT/F5. The in vivo mouse bioassay indicated a specific activity of this toxin of 3.8 × 10(7) mouse 50% lethal dose (mLD50) units/mg, whereas activity in cultured human neurons was very high (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 0.02 mLD50/well). Neutralization assays in cells and mice both indicated full neutralization by various antibodies raised against BoNT/A1, although at 16- to 20-fold-lower efficiency than for BoNT/A1. IMPORTANCE Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by anaerobic bacteria, are the cause of the potentially deadly, neuroparalytic disease botulism. BoNTs have been classified into seven serotypes, serotypes A

  18. Central role of FaGAMYB in the transition of the strawberry receptacle from development to ripening.

    PubMed

    Vallarino, José G; Osorio, Sonia; Bombarely, Aureliano; Casañal, Ana; Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida; Giavalisco, Patrick; Fernie, Alisdair R; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2015-10-01

    The receptacle of the strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit accounts for the main properties of the ripe fruit for human consumption. As it ripens, it undergoes changes similar to other fruits in sugar : acid ratio, volatile production and cell wall softening. However, the main regulators of this process have not yet been reported. The white stage marks the initiation of the ripening process, and we had previously reported a peak of expression for a FaGAMYB gene. Transient silencing of FaGAMYB using RNAi and further determination of changes in global gene expression by RNAseq, and composition of primary and secondary metabolites have been used to investigate the role played by this gene during the development of the receptacle. Down-regulation of FaGAMYB caused an arrest in the ripening of the receptacle and inhibited colour formation. Consistent with this, several transcription factors associated with the regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway showed altered expression. FaGAMYB silencing also caused a reduction of ABA biosynthesis and sucrose content. Interestingly, exogenous ABA application to the RNAI-transformed receptacle reversed most defects caused by FaGAMYB down-regulation. The study assigns a key regulatory role to FaGAMYB in the initiation of strawberry receptacle ripening and acting upstream of the known regulator ABA. PMID:26010039

  19. Central role of FaGAMYB in the transition of the strawberry receptacle from development to ripening.

    PubMed

    Vallarino, José G; Osorio, Sonia; Bombarely, Aureliano; Casañal, Ana; Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida; Giavalisco, Patrick; Fernie, Alisdair R; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2015-10-01

    The receptacle of the strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit accounts for the main properties of the ripe fruit for human consumption. As it ripens, it undergoes changes similar to other fruits in sugar : acid ratio, volatile production and cell wall softening. However, the main regulators of this process have not yet been reported. The white stage marks the initiation of the ripening process, and we had previously reported a peak of expression for a FaGAMYB gene. Transient silencing of FaGAMYB using RNAi and further determination of changes in global gene expression by RNAseq, and composition of primary and secondary metabolites have been used to investigate the role played by this gene during the development of the receptacle. Down-regulation of FaGAMYB caused an arrest in the ripening of the receptacle and inhibited colour formation. Consistent with this, several transcription factors associated with the regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway showed altered expression. FaGAMYB silencing also caused a reduction of ABA biosynthesis and sucrose content. Interestingly, exogenous ABA application to the RNAI-transformed receptacle reversed most defects caused by FaGAMYB down-regulation. The study assigns a key regulatory role to FaGAMYB in the initiation of strawberry receptacle ripening and acting upstream of the known regulator ABA.

  20. Improved metabolic status and insulin sensitivity in obese fatty (fa/fa) Zucker rats and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats treated with the thiazolidinedione, MCC-555

    PubMed Central

    Upton, R; Widdowson, P S; Ishii, S; Tanaka, H; Williams, G

    1998-01-01

    We examined the effect of chronic (21 days) oral treatment with the thiazolidinedione, MCC-555 ((±)-5-[{6-(2-fluorbenzyl)-oxy-2-naphy}methyl]-2,4-thiazolidinedione) on metabolic status and insulin sensitivity in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats which display an impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or overt diabetic symptoms, respectively.MCC-555 treatment to obese Zucker rats (10 and 30 mg kg−1) and diabetic ZDF rats (10 mg kg−1) reduced non-esterified fatty acid concentrations in both rat strains and reduced plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations in the obese Zucker rats. Liver glycogen concentrations were significantly increased by chronic MCC-555 treatment in both obese Zucker rats (30 mg kg−1 day−1) and diabetic ZDF rats (10 mg kg−1 day−1), as compared with vehicle-treated lean and obese rats and there was a significant increase in hepatic glycogen synthase activity in MCC-555-treated diabetic ZDF rats as compared to vehicle-treated controls.During a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp, MCC-555-treated obese Zucker rats and diabetic ZDF rats required significantly higher glucose infusion rates to maintain stable glucose concentrations (2.01±0.19 mg min−1 and 6.42±1.03 mg min−1, respectively) than vehicle-treated obese controls (0.71±0.17 mg min−1 and 2.09±0.71 mg min−1; P<0.05), demonstrating improved insulin sensitivity in both Zucker and ZDF rats. MCC-555 treatment also enhanced insulin-induced suppression of hepatic glucose production in ZDF rats as measured using infusions of [6-3H]-glucose under clamp conditions.In conclusion, we have demonstrated that MCC-555 improves metabolic status and insulin sensitivity in obese Zucker and diabetic ZDF rats. MCC-555 may prove a useful compound for alleviating the metabolic disturbances and IGT associated with insulin resistance in man. PMID:9886762

  1. Myosins FaMyo2B and Famyo2 Affect Asexual and Sexual Development, Reduces Pathogenicity, and FaMyo2B Acts Jointly with the Myosin Passenger Protein FaSmy1 to Affect Resistance to Phenamacril in Fusarium asiaticum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhitian; Liu, Xiumei; Li, Bin; Cai, Yiqiang; Zhu, Yuanye; Zhou, Mingguo

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that mutations occurred in the gene myosin5 were responsible for resistance to the fungicide phenamacril in Fusarium graminearum. Here, we determined whether there is a functional link between phenamacril resistance and the myosin proteins FaMyo2B and Famyo2 in Fusarium asiaticum, which is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight in China. We found that FaMyo2B acts jointly with FaSmy1 to affect resistance to phenamacril in F. asiaticum. We also found that FaMyo2B disruption mutant and Famyo2 deletion mutant were defective in hyphal branching, conidiation, and sexual reproduction. ΔFamyo2 also had an enhanced sensitivity to cell wall damaging agents and an abnormal distribution of septa and nuclei. In addition, the FaMyo2B and Famyo2 mutants had reduced pathogenicity on wheat coleoptiles and flowering wheat heads. Taken together, these results reveal that FaMyo2B and Famyo2 are required for several F. asiaticum developmental processes and activities, which help us better understand the resistance mechanism and find the most effective approach to control FHB. PMID:27099966

  2. Myosins FaMyo2B and Famyo2 Affect Asexual and Sexual Development, Reduces Pathogenicity, and FaMyo2B Acts Jointly with the Myosin Passenger Protein FaSmy1 to Affect Resistance to Phenamacril in Fusarium asiaticum

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhitian; Liu, Xiumei; Li, Bin; Cai, Yiqiang; Zhu, Yuanye; Zhou, Mingguo

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that mutations occurred in the gene myosin5 were responsible for resistance to the fungicide phenamacril in Fusarium graminearum. Here, we determined whether there is a functional link between phenamacril resistance and the myosin proteins FaMyo2B and Famyo2 in Fusarium asiaticum, which is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight in China. We found that FaMyo2B acts jointly with FaSmy1 to affect resistance to phenamacril in F. asiaticum. We also found that FaMyo2B disruption mutant and Famyo2 deletion mutant were defective in hyphal branching, conidiation, and sexual reproduction. ΔFamyo2 also had an enhanced sensitivity to cell wall damaging agents and an abnormal distribution of septa and nuclei. In addition, the FaMyo2B and Famyo2 mutants had reduced pathogenicity on wheat coleoptiles and flowering wheat heads. Taken together, these results reveal that FaMyo2B and Famyo2 are required for several F. asiaticum developmental processes and activities, which help us better understand the resistance mechanism and find the most effective approach to control FHB. PMID:27099966

  3. Occultifur tropicalis f.a., sp. nov., a novel cystobasidiomycetous yeast species isolated from tropical regions.

    PubMed

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Surussawadee, Janjira; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Ribeiro, José R A; Hagler, Allen N; Limtong, Savitree

    2015-05-01

    Five strains representing a single novel anamorphic yeast species were isolated from sugar cane. Two strains were from tissue (DMKU-SE38, DMKU-SE59(T)) and two from the external surface (DMKU-SP385, DMKU-SP403) of leaves collected in Thailand and the fifth (IMUFRJ 52020) from the rhizoplane of sugar cane in an organically cultivated field in Brazil. On the basis of sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, they were classified as representing a single species of the genus Occultifur. The sequences of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA genes and the ITS regions of the five strains were either identical or differed from each other by only one nucleotide substitution. The novel species was related most closely to Occultifur brasiliensis f.a. CBS 12687(T) but with 0.7-1.0% nucleotide substitutions (4-6 nt) in the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and 2.5-2.7% nucleotide substitutions (14-15 nt) in the ITS region. The name Occultifur tropicalis f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DMKU-SE59(T) ( =BCC 61184(T) =NBRC 109696(T) =CBS 13389 (T)).

  4. Positional distribution of FA in TAG of enzymatically modified borage and evening primrose oils.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, S P J Namal; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2002-08-01

    Stereospecific analysis was carried out to establish positional distribution of FA in the TAG of DHA, EPA, and (EPA + DHA)-enriched oils. In this study, TAG of enzymatically modified oils were purified using a silicic acid column. The TAG were then subjected to positional distribution analysis using a modified procedure involving reductive cleavage with Grignard reagent. The results showed that in DHA-enriched borage oil (BO), DHA was randomly distributed over the three positions of TAG, whereas gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was mainly esterified at the sn-2 and -3 positions. In DHA-enriched evening primrose oil (EPO), however, DHA and GLA were concentrated in the sn-2 position. In EPA-enriched BO, EPA was randomly distributed over the three positions of TAG, similar to that observed for DHA. In EPA-enriched EPO, however, this FA was mainly located at the primary positions (sn-1 and sn-3) of TAG. In both oils, GLA was preferentially esterified at the sn-2 position. In (EPA + DHA)-enriched BO, EPA and DHA were mainly esterified at the sn-1 and -3 positions of TAG, whereas GLA was mainly located at the sn-2 position. In (EPA + DHA)-enriched EPO, GLA was mainly located at the sn-2 and -3 positions; EPA was preferentially esterified at the sn-1 and -3 positions, and DHA was found mainly at the sn-3 position. PMID:12371752

  5. Overview of HATP Experimental Aerodynamics Data for the Baseline F/A-18 Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.; Murri, Daniel G.; Erickson, Gary E.; Fisher, David F.; Banks, Daniel W.; Lanser, Wendy, R.

    1996-01-01

    Determining the baseline aerodynamics of the F/A-18 was one of the major objectives of the High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP). This paper will review the key data bases that have contributed to our knowledge of the baseline aerodynamics and the improvements in test techniques that have resulted from the experimental program. Photographs are given highlighting the forebody and leading-edge-extension (LEX) vortices. Other data representing the impact of Mach and Reynolds numbers on the forebody and LEX vortices will also be detailed. The level of agreement between different tunnels and between tunnels and flight will be illustrated using pressures, forces, and moments measured on a 0.06-scale model tested in the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High Speed Tunnel, a 0.16-scale model in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel, a full-scale vehicle in the Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel, and the flight F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). Next, creative use of wind tunnel resources that accelerated the validation of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes will be described. Lastly, lessons learned, deliverables, and program conclusions are presented.

  6. Stability analysis of an F/A-18 E/F cable mount m odel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Nancy; Farmer, Moses

    1994-01-01

    A full-span F/A-18 E/F cable mounted wind tunnel model is part of a flutter clearance program at the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Parametric analysis of this model using GRUMCBL software was conducted to assess stability for wind tunnel tests. Two configurations of the F/A-18 E/F were examined. The parameters examined were pulley-cable friction, mach number, dynamic pressure, cable geometry, center of gravity location, cable tension, snubbing the model, drag, and test medium. For the nominal cable geometry (Cable Geometry 1), Configuration One was unstable for cases with higher pulley-cable friction coefficients. A new cable geometry (Cable Geometry 3) was determined in which Configuration One was stable for all cases evaluated. Configuration Two with the nominal center of gravity position was found to be unstable for cases with higher pulley-cable friction coefficients; however, the model was stable when the center of gravity moved forward 1/2. The model was tested using the cable mount system during the initial wind tunnel entry and was stable as predicted.

  7. Occultifur tropicalis f.a., sp. nov., a novel cystobasidiomycetous yeast species isolated from tropical regions.

    PubMed

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Surussawadee, Janjira; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Ribeiro, José R A; Hagler, Allen N; Limtong, Savitree

    2015-05-01

    Five strains representing a single novel anamorphic yeast species were isolated from sugar cane. Two strains were from tissue (DMKU-SE38, DMKU-SE59(T)) and two from the external surface (DMKU-SP385, DMKU-SP403) of leaves collected in Thailand and the fifth (IMUFRJ 52020) from the rhizoplane of sugar cane in an organically cultivated field in Brazil. On the basis of sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, they were classified as representing a single species of the genus Occultifur. The sequences of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA genes and the ITS regions of the five strains were either identical or differed from each other by only one nucleotide substitution. The novel species was related most closely to Occultifur brasiliensis f.a. CBS 12687(T) but with 0.7-1.0% nucleotide substitutions (4-6 nt) in the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and 2.5-2.7% nucleotide substitutions (14-15 nt) in the ITS region. The name Occultifur tropicalis f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DMKU-SE59(T) ( =BCC 61184(T) =NBRC 109696(T) =CBS 13389 (T)). PMID:25713048

  8. F/A-18 forebody vortex control. Volume 1: Static tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Brian R.; Suarez, Carlos J.; Malcolm, Gerald N.; Ayers, Bert F.

    1994-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted on a six percent model of the F/A-18 at the NASA Ames 7 X 10-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate several forebody vortex control configurations at high angles of attack in order to determine the most effective method of obtaining well behaved yawing moments, in preparation for the rotary balance test. Both mechanical and pneumatic systems were tested. Single and dual rotating nose tip strakes and a vertical nose strake were tested at different sizes and deflections. A series of jet blowing configurations were located at various fuselage stations, azimuth angles, and pointing angles ranging from straight aft to 60 deg canted inboard. Slot blowing was investigated for several slot lengths and fuselage stations. The effect of blowing rate was tested for both of these pneumatic systems. The most effective configurations were then further tested with a variation of both sideslip angle and Reynolds number over a range of angles of attack from 0 to 60 deg. It was found that a very robust system can be developed that provides yawing moments at angles of attack up to 60 deg that significantly exceeds that available from 30 deg of rudder deflection (F/A-18 maximum) at 0 deg angle of attack.

  9. Computational Analysis of Forebody Tangential Slot Blowing on the F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Rizk, Yehia M.; Schiff, Lewis B.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the computational effort to analyze forebody tangential slot blowing for use on the F/A-18 aircraft is presented. Tangential slot blowing generates side force and yawing moment which may be used to control the aircraft flying at high angle of attack. Computations using the isolated forebody are obtained at full-scale wind tunnel test conditions for direct comparison with available experimental data. The effects of jet exit conditions, jet length, and jet location are also studied using the isolated forebody. In addition, these computations are used to predict the effect of slot blowing at transonic maneuvering flight conditions. The effects of over- and under-blowing on force and moment production are analyzed. Non-time-accurate solutions are obtained to determine the steady-state side force and yawing moments generated by tangential slot blowing. Time-accurate solutions are obtained to study the force onset time lag of tangential slot blowing. The effect of blowing on the burst point location are then analyzed by obtaining computations using the aircraft geometry, which includes the wing, empennage, and faired-over inlets. The effect of blowing on the buffet loads on the vertical tails are analyzed using time-accurate computations. Comparison with available experimental data from full-scale wind tunnel and sub-scale wind tunnel tests are made. This computational analysis compliments the experimental results and provides a detailed understanding of the effects of tangential slot blowing on the flow field about the F/A-18.

  10. Aerostructural Vortical Flow Interactions with Applications to F/A-18 and F-117 Tail Buffet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Massey, Steven J.; Sheta, Essam F.

    1996-01-01

    The buffet response of the flexible twin-tail configuration of the F/A-18 and a generic F-111 aircraft are computationally simulated and experimentally validated. The problem is a multidisciplinary one which requires the sequential solution of three sets of equations on a multi-block grid structure. The first set is the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations. The second set is the aeroelastic equations for bending and torsional twin-tail responses. The third set is the grid-displacement equations which are used to update the grid coordinates due to the tail deflections. The computational models consist of a 76 deg. swept back, sharp edged delta wing of aspect ratio of one and a swept-back F/A-18 or F-117 twin-tail. The configuration is pitched at 30 deg. angle-of-attack. The problem is solved for the initial flow conditions with the twin tails kept rigid. Next, the aeroelastic equations of the tails are turned on along with the grid-displacement equations to solve for the bending and torsional tails responses due to the unsteady loads produced by the vortex breakdown flow of the leading-edge vortex cores of the delta wing. Several spanwise locations of the twin tails are investigated. The computational results are validated using several existing experimental data.

  11. F/A-18 Performance Benefits Measured During the Autonomous Formation Flight Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, M. Jake; Ray, Ronald J.; Walsh, Kevin R.; Ennix, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) investigated performance benefits resulting from formation flight, such as reduced aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption. To obtain data on performance benefits, a trailing F/A-18 airplane flew within the wing tip-shed vortex of a leading F/A-18 airplane. The pilot of the trail airplane used advanced station-keeping technology to aid in positioning the trail airplane at precise locations behind the lead airplane. The specially instrumented trail airplane was able to obtain accurate fuel flow measurements and to calculate engine thrust and vehicle drag. A maneuver technique developed for this test provided a direct comparison of performance values while flying in and out of the vortex. Based on performance within the vortex as a function of changes in vertical, lateral, and longitudinal positioning, these tests explored design-drivers for autonomous stationkeeping control systems. Observations showed significant performance improvements over a large range of trail positions tested. Calculations revealed maximum drag reductions of over 20 percent, and demonstrated maximum reductions in fuel flow of just over 18 percent.

  12. Composting of food waste subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment and inoculated with Paecilomyces sp. FA13.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Mimoto, Hiroshi; Tran, Quyen Ngoc Minh; Oinuma, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    Food waste collected from restaurants, convenience stores, and food-processing factories was mixed with sawdust and subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment at 180°C for 30min to prepare compost raw material. Furan compounds such as 5-HMF (5-hydroxymethyl furfural) and furfural were produced at concentration levels of approximately 8 and 0.5mg/g-ds, respectively, through hydrothermal pretreatment. The furan compounds inhibited the activity of composting microorganisms, thus delaying the start of organic matter degradation during composting. A newly identified fungus, Paecilomyces sp. FA13, which possesses the ability to degrade furan compounds, was isolated and used as an inoculum for the composting of the raw material prepared by hydrothermal pretreatment. By inoculating the FA13 into the compost raw material at 10(5)CFU/g-ds, the degradation of furan compounds was accelerated. As a result, bacterial activity, which contributed to composting, was enhanced, significantly promoting the start of vigorous degradation of organic materials.

  13. Positional distribution of FA in TAG of enzymatically modified borage and evening primrose oils.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, S P J Namal; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2002-08-01

    Stereospecific analysis was carried out to establish positional distribution of FA in the TAG of DHA, EPA, and (EPA + DHA)-enriched oils. In this study, TAG of enzymatically modified oils were purified using a silicic acid column. The TAG were then subjected to positional distribution analysis using a modified procedure involving reductive cleavage with Grignard reagent. The results showed that in DHA-enriched borage oil (BO), DHA was randomly distributed over the three positions of TAG, whereas gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was mainly esterified at the sn-2 and -3 positions. In DHA-enriched evening primrose oil (EPO), however, DHA and GLA were concentrated in the sn-2 position. In EPA-enriched BO, EPA was randomly distributed over the three positions of TAG, similar to that observed for DHA. In EPA-enriched EPO, however, this FA was mainly located at the primary positions (sn-1 and sn-3) of TAG. In both oils, GLA was preferentially esterified at the sn-2 position. In (EPA + DHA)-enriched BO, EPA and DHA were mainly esterified at the sn-1 and -3 positions of TAG, whereas GLA was mainly located at the sn-2 position. In (EPA + DHA)-enriched EPO, GLA was mainly located at the sn-2 and -3 positions; EPA was preferentially esterified at the sn-1 and -3 positions, and DHA was found mainly at the sn-3 position.

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis of the AP2/ERF Family in Eucalyptus grandis: An Intriguing Over-Representation of Stress-Responsive DREB1/CBF Genes

    PubMed Central

    SanClemente, H.; Mounet, F.; Dunand, C.; Marque, G.; Marque, C.; Teulières, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The AP2/ERF family includes a large number of developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors sharing an AP2 DNA-binding domain. Among them DREB1/CBF and DREB2 factors are known as master regulators respectively of cold and heat/osmotic stress responses. Experimental Approaches The manual annotation of AP2/ERF family from Eucalyptus grandis, Malus, Populus and Vitis genomes allowed a complete phylogenetic study for comparing the structure of this family in woody species and the model Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiles of the whole groups of EgrDREB1 and EgrDREB2 were investigated through RNAseq database survey and RT-qPCR analyses. Results The structure and the size of the AP2/ERF family show a global conservation for the plant species under comparison. In addition to an expansion of the ERF subfamily, the tree genomes mainly differ with respect to the group representation within the subfamilies. With regard to the E. grandis DREB subfamily, an obvious feature is the presence of 17 DREB1/CBF genes, the maximum reported to date for dicotyledons. In contrast, only six DREB2 have been identified, which is similar to the other plants species under study, except for Malus. All the DREB1/CBF and DREB2 genes from E. grandis are expressed in at least one condition and all are heat-responsive. Regulation by cold and drought depends on the genes but is not specific of one group; DREB1/CBF group is more cold-inducible than DREB2 which is mainly drought responsive. Conclusion These features suggest that the dramatic expansion of the DREB1/CBF group might be related to the adaptation of this evergreen tree to climate changes when it expanded in Australia. PMID:25849589

  15. [First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the State of Pará, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rafael C; Lemos, Walkymário P; Bernardino, Aline S; Buecke, Joel; Müller, Antonio A

    2010-01-01

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hübner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Pará, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil.

  16. Differences in the effects of fuel oil and oil dispersant, and three polychlorinated biphenyls on fin regeneration in the Gulf Coast killifish, Fundulus grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Fingerman, S.W.

    1980-08-01

    Several environmental pollutants have been found to inhibit growth in animals. As a result of experiments performed in this laboratory on the long range effects of low levels of environmental pollutants on molting and limb regeneration in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator and because animals in nature are rarely exposed to a single pollutant, a series of experiments was conducted to determine the effects, if any, of a single exposure to several pollutants, singly and in combination, on fin regeneration in the Gulf Coast killifish Fundulus grandis. The pollutants investigated were a fuel oil, an oil dispersant, and three polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

  17. Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) root suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) is a tropical plant widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. The anti-obesity property of this plant has been claimed but still remains to be scientifically proven. We therefore investigated the effects of ivy gourd leaf, stem, and root on adipocyte differentiation by employing cell culture model. Methods Dried roots, stems, and leaves of ivy gourd were separately extracted with ethanol. Each extract was then applied to 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes upon induction with a mixture of insulin, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and dexamethasone, for anti-adipogenesis assay. The active extract was further fractionated by a sequential solvent partitioning method, and the resulting fractions were examined for their abilities to inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Differences in the expression of adipogenesis-related genes between the treated and untreated cells were determined from their mRNA and protein levels. Results Of the three ivy gourd extracts, the root extract exhibited an anti-adipogenic effect. It significantly reduced intracellular fat accumulation during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. Together with the suppression of differentiation, expression of the genes encoding PPARγ, C/EBPα, adiponectin, and GLUT4 were down-regulated. Hexane-soluble fraction of the root extract also inhibited adipocyte differentiation and decreased the mRNA levels of various adipogenic genes in the differentiating cells. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that ivy gourd root may prevent obesity based mainly on the ability of its active constituent(s) to suppress adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect is mediated by at least down-regulating the expression of PPARγ-the key transcription factor of adipogenesis in pre-adipocytes during their early differentiation processes. PMID:24884680

  18. Vegetative propagation of adult Eucalyptus grandis X urophylla and comparison of growth between micropropagated plantlets and rooted cuttings.

    PubMed

    Yang, J C; Chung, J D; Chen, Z Z

    1995-12-01

    Methods for the production of micropropagated plantlets and rooted cuttings were developed and used to vegetatively multiply adult Eucalyptus grandis X urophylla. Rooting success was less than 5% when cuttings excised from twigs of 3-year-old trees were used. The rooted cuttings were grown in the greenhouse as explant- or cutting-donors and maintained at a height of 30 to 100 cm by trimming back periodically. Good rooting success (95%) of cuttings was obtained for epicormic shoots produced from donor plants after trimming 5 times. Explants of both apical and axillary buds taken from the donor plants produced multiple shoots when cultured in vitro. In vitro multiple shoot production was optimal on MS medium containing 0.1 mg/l BA and 0.01 mg/l NAA averaging 13.7 shoots per explant in a 40-day culture period. Shoot elongation was accelerated on a modified MS medium containing half strength potassium nitrate and sucrose. Elongated shoots excised at approximately 1.5 cm in length were successfully rooted on media with NAA or IBA concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg/l. Root formation was optimal on medium consisting of full strength MS basal macro elements and vitamins, half strength micro elements, 1% sucrose and supplemented with 0.3 mg/l IBA. In the field test, no significant differences were found in tree height and DBH between micropropagated plantlets and rooted cuttings at 1 and 3 years old, with the exception at 2 years old. A considerable difference arose between the 2 types of vegetative propagules in physiological response to flowering, caused by dissimilar degrees of rejuvenation. PMID:24185769

  19. [Rapid Identification of Epicarpium Citri Grandis via Infrared Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology Combined with Neural Network].

    PubMed

    Pan, Sha-sha; Huang, Fu-rong; Xiao, Chi; Xian, Rui-yi; Ma, Zhi-guo

    2015-10-01

    To explore rapid reliable methods for detection of Epicarpium citri grandis (ECG), the experiment using Fourier Transform Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR) and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology combined with Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network pattern recognition, for the identification of ECG, and the two methods are compared. Infrared spectra and fluorescence spectral images of 118 samples, 81 ECG and 37 other kinds of ECG, are collected. According to the differences in tspectrum, the spectra data in the 550-1 800 cm(-1) wavenumber range and 400-720 nm wavelength are regarded as the study objects of discriminant analysis. Then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce the dimension of spectroscopic data of ECG and MLP Neural Network is used in combination to classify them. During the experiment were compared the effects of different methods of data preprocessing on the model: multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variable correction (SNV), first-order derivative(FD), second-order derivative(SD) and Savitzky-Golay (SG). The results showed that: after the infrared spectra data via the Savitzky-Golay (SG) pretreatment through the MLP Neural Network with the hidden layer function as sigmoid, we can get the best discrimination of ECG, the correct percent of training set and testing set are both 100%. Using fluorescence spectral imaging technology, corrected by the multiple scattering (MSC) results in the pretreatment is the most ideal. After data preprocessing, the three layers of the MLP Neural Network of the hidden layer function as sigmoid function can get 100% correct percent of training set and 96.7% correct percent of testing set. It was shown that the FTIR/ATR and fluorescent spectral imaging technology combined with MLP Neural Network can be used for the identification study of ECG and has the advantages of rapid, reliable effect. PMID:26904814

  20. [Rapid Identification of Epicarpium Citri Grandis via Infrared Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology Combined with Neural Network].

    PubMed

    Pan, Sha-sha; Huang, Fu-rong; Xiao, Chi; Xian, Rui-yi; Ma, Zhi-guo

    2015-10-01

    To explore rapid reliable methods for detection of Epicarpium citri grandis (ECG), the experiment using Fourier Transform Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR) and Fluorescence Spectrum Imaging Technology combined with Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network pattern recognition, for the identification of ECG, and the two methods are compared. Infrared spectra and fluorescence spectral images of 118 samples, 81 ECG and 37 other kinds of ECG, are collected. According to the differences in tspectrum, the spectra data in the 550-1 800 cm(-1) wavenumber range and 400-720 nm wavelength are regarded as the study objects of discriminant analysis. Then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce the dimension of spectroscopic data of ECG and MLP Neural Network is used in combination to classify them. During the experiment were compared the effects of different methods of data preprocessing on the model: multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variable correction (SNV), first-order derivative(FD), second-order derivative(SD) and Savitzky-Golay (SG). The results showed that: after the infrared spectra data via the Savitzky-Golay (SG) pretreatment through the MLP Neural Network with the hidden layer function as sigmoid, we can get the best discrimination of ECG, the correct percent of training set and testing set are both 100%. Using fluorescence spectral imaging technology, corrected by the multiple scattering (MSC) results in the pretreatment is the most ideal. After data preprocessing, the three layers of the MLP Neural Network of the hidden layer function as sigmoid function can get 100% correct percent of training set and 96.7% correct percent of testing set. It was shown that the FTIR/ATR and fluorescent spectral imaging technology combined with MLP Neural Network can be used for the identification study of ECG and has the advantages of rapid, reliable effect.

  1. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; Gilligan, Eric T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) flight characterization experiments performed using an F/A-18 (TN 853). AAC was designed and developed specifically for launch vehicles, and is currently part of the baseline autopilot design for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The scope covered here includes a brief overview of the algorithm (covered in more detail elsewhere), motivation and benefits of flight testing, top-level SLS flight test objectives, applicability of the F/A-18 as a platform for testing a launch vehicle control design, test cases designed to fully vet the AAC algorithm, flight test results, and conclusions regarding the functionality of AAC. The AAC algorithm developed at Marshall Space Flight Center is a forward loop gain multiplicative adaptive algorithm that modifies the total attitude control system gain in response to sensed model errors or undesirable parasitic mode resonances. The AAC algorithm provides the capability to improve or decrease performance by balancing attitude tracking with the mitigation of parasitic dynamics, such as control-structure interaction or servo-actuator limit cycles. In the case of the latter, if unmodeled or mismodeled parasitic dynamics are present that would otherwise result in a closed-loop instability or near instability, the adaptive controller decreases the total loop gain to reduce the interaction between these dynamics and the controller. This is in contrast to traditional adaptive control logic, which focuses on improving performance by increasing gain. The computationally simple AAC attitude control algorithm has stability properties that are reconcilable in the context of classical frequency-domain criteria (i.e., gain and phase margin). The algorithm assumes that the baseline attitude control design is well-tuned for a nominal trajectory and is designed to adapt only when necessary. Furthermore, the adaptation is attracted to the nominal design and adapts only on an as-needed basis

  2. The Relationship between Adult Occupational Preferences and Childhood Gender Nonconformity among Samoan Women, Men, and Fa'afafine.

    PubMed

    Semenyna, Scott W; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has found that sex differences in occupational preferences are both substantial and cross-culturally universal. Androphilic males tend to display "gender-shifted" occupational preferences, with relatively female-typical interests. Past research has overwhelmingly relied on Western samples; this article offers new insights from a non-Western setting. Known locally as fa'afafine, androphilic males in Samoa occupy a third-gender category. Data were collected in Samoa from 103 men, 103 women, and 103 fa'afafine regarding occupational preferences and recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). A substantial sex difference was observed in the occupational preferences of men and women (d = 2.04). Interestingly, women and fa'afafine did not differ in their preferences (p = 0.89), indicating a complete gender inversion of occupational preferences in the latter. Although there was no correlation between women's CGN and masculine occupational preferences, there was a significant correlation (r = -0.62) between these variables in both men and fa'afafine. Among males (both men and fa'afafine), increased CGN was associated with preference for feminine occupations. The present research corroborates past findings and furnishes support for the conclusion that female-typical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally invariant aspect of male androphilia.

  3. Interspecific hybridization does not affect the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Parul; Singh, B N

    2015-08-01

    The Drosophila bipectinata species complex comprises of four very closely related species namely D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata, D. malerkotliana and D. pseudoananassae. It was found that irrespective of the evolutionary divergence among the species, FA which is reflective of the developmental precision remains nearly same in four species. During the present study, the level of FA in different morphological traits was studied in interspecific hybrids and compared with that of parental species with the view that it would throw light on the degree of divergence between the parental species. If they have not diverged much, the interspecific hybrids may have a similar FA level, incompatibilities between their genomes being negligible. On the other hand, if there is substantial divergence, the level of FA may be higher due to incompatibility between the genomes of the parental species. The morphological traits taken were sternopleural bristle number and wing length in both males and females and ovariole number and sex-comb tooth number in females and males respectively. However, except in a few cases, we could not detect any significant differences in the level of FA in hybrids as compared to pure species. On the other hand, a number of abnormalities like poor viability, dystrophied ovaries, asymmetrical eyes etc., could be detected in hybrids from crosses involving D. pseudoananassae as one of the parents. Therefore, we conclude that specific developmental pathways are more susceptible to developmental disturbances due to genomic incompatibilities than the large complex system bringing about developmental stability.

  4. Impact of FaSSIF on the solubility and dissolution-/permeation rate of a poorly water-soluble compound.

    PubMed

    Frank, Kerstin J; Westedt, Ulrich; Rosenblatt, Karin M; Hölig, Peter; Rosenberg, Jörg; Mägerlein, Markus; Brandl, Martin; Fricker, Gert

    2012-08-30

    The poorly water-soluble drug ABT-102, a potent TRPV1 (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1) antagonist, was investigated in terms of its solubility and dissolution-permeation rate across Caco-2 cell monolayers in the presence and absence of fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF). ABT-102 showed a more than 30-fold higher apparent solubility in FaSSIF, compared to Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). On the other hand, the amount of truly dissolved API in the suspension, as assessed by inverse dialysis, was found hardly influenced by FaSSIF. Neither the drug nor FaSSIF adversely affected cell viability or integrity of the Caco-2 monolayer. P-gp-inhibition experiments confirmed that the drug was not a substrate of the export pump. The flux of ABT-102 across the Caco-2 barrier was found virtually the same in FaSSIF and in buffer, i.e. in vitro overall dissolution-/permeation rate of ABT-102 from suspensions appears not affected by its enhanced apparent solubility due to association with TC/PC-micelles. PMID:22579958

  5. The Pre-Anschluss Vienna School of Medicine - The medical scientists: Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) and Otto Loewi (1873-1961).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lily Bzl; Shaw, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Two famous medical scientists are described whose major advances were made largely from laboratory-based research. Karl Landsteiner, who received the Nobel Prize in 1930, was the discoverer or co-discoverer of the blood groups and the Rhesus factor. He contributed to the understanding of poliomyelitis, syphilis and typhus. He made major contributions to immunology, inter alia by isolating haptens. After World War I, he left Austria and continued his work initially in the Netherlands and then at the Rockefeller Institute in the USA. Otto Loewi, a pharmacologist, received his Nobel Prize (jointly with his life-long friend, Sir Henry Dale) in 1936 for his discovery that acetylcholine was the chemical agent for the stimulation of autonomic nerves to transmit to the organs they govern. He also made numerous other contributions including the demonstration that amino acids could be converted by animals to proteins. He left Austria after the Anschluss and settled in the USA.

  6. Precise Measurement of the Thickness of a Dielectric Layer on a Metal Surface by Use of a Modified Otto Optical Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneoka, Yoshiki; Nishigaki, Kentaro; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a modified method for thickness measurement of a dielectric coating layer on metal based on Otto optical configuration (O-configuration). This method enables us to estimate the coating thickness that typically ranges from several tens of nanometers to more than one micrometer with precision less than a few nanometers. The common method to measure the thickness of dielectric coating layer is to utilize the frustrated total-internal reflection. In order to measure the thickness of several tens of nanometers, one can apply the surface-plasmon-resonance (SPR) phenomenon generated by the p-polarized light. For thickness larger than one hundred nanometers, a metal-clad leaky-waveguide (MCLW) mode generated by the p- or the s-polarized light can be employed without significant changes to the optical setup. The numerical and experimental verifications of the modified O-configuration reveals its effectiveness for precise measurement of moderately-thick dielectric coating layer on the metal.

  7. Transonic Experimental Observations of Abrupt Wing Stall on an F/A-18E Model (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi; Hall, Robert M.; Lamar, John E.

    2003-01-01

    A transonic wind tunnel test of an 8% F/A-18E model was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 16 ft Transonic Tunnel (16-ft TT) to investigate on-surface flow physics during stall. The technical approach employed focused on correlating static (or time-averaged) and unsteady wind-tunnel test data to the unsteady wing-stall events using force, moment, pressure, and pressure-sensitive-paint measurements. This paper focuses on data obtained on the pre-production configuration of the F/A-18E aircraft at Mach number of 0.90. The flow unsteadiness occurring on the wing as the wing went through the stall process was captured using the time history of balance and pressure measurements and by calculating the root mean square (RMS) for a number of instrument signals. The second step was to gather global perspectives on the pressures influencing the wing stall process. The abrupt wing stall experienced by the 8% F/A-18E Model was observed to be an unsteady event triggered by the rapid advancement of separation, which had migrated forward from the trailing edge, to the leading-edge flap hingeline over a very small increment in angle of attack. The angle of attack at which this stall occurred varied, from run to run, over an 1 deg increment. The abrupt wing stall was observed, using pressure-sensitive-paint, to occur simultaneously on both wing panels or asymmetrically. The pressure-sensitive paint data and wingroot bending moment data were essential in providing insight to the flow structures occurring over the wing and the possible asymmetry of those flow structures. A repeatability analysis conducted on eight runs of static data provided a quick and inexpensive examination of the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of abrupt wing stall. The results of the repeatability analysis agreed extremely well with data obtained using unsteady measurement techniques. This approach could be used to identify test conditions for more complex unsteady data measurements using

  8. Field-Evolved Mode 1 Resistance of the Fall Armyworm to Transgenic Cry1Fa-Expressing Corn Associated with Reduced Cry1Fa Toxin Binding and Midgut Alkaline Phosphatase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jakka, Siva R. K.; Gong, Liang; Hasler, James; Banerjee, Rahul; Sheets, Joel J.; Narva, Kenneth; Blanco, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal protein genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are expressed by transgenic Bt crops (Bt crops) for effective and environmentally safe pest control. The development of resistance to these insecticidal proteins is considered the most serious threat to the sustainability of Bt crops. Resistance in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) populations from Puerto Rico to transgenic corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein resulted, for the first time in the United States, in practical resistance, and Bt corn was withdrawn from the local market. In this study, we used a field-collected Cry1Fa corn-resistant strain (456) of S. frugiperda to identify the mechanism responsible for field-evolved resistance. Binding assays detected reduced Cry1Fa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Ca toxin binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the larvae of strain 456 compared to that from the larvae of a susceptible (Ben) strain. This binding phenotype is descriptive of the mode 1 type of resistance to Bt toxins. A comparison of the transcript levels for putative Cry1 toxin receptor genes identified a significant downregulation (>90%) of a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which translated to reduced ALP protein levels and a 75% reduction in ALP activity in BBMV from 456 compared to that of Ben larvae. We cloned and heterologously expressed this ALP from susceptible S. frugiperda larvae and demonstrated that it specifically binds with Cry1Fa toxin. This study provides a thorough mechanistic description of field-evolved resistance to a transgenic Bt crop and supports an association between resistance and reduced Cry1Fa toxin binding and levels of a putative Cry1Fa toxin receptor, ALP, in the midguts of S. frugiperda larvae. PMID:26637593

  9. Field-Evolved Mode 1 Resistance of the Fall Armyworm to Transgenic Cry1Fa-Expressing Corn Associated with Reduced Cry1Fa Toxin Binding and Midgut Alkaline Phosphatase Expression.

    PubMed

    Jakka, Siva R K; Gong, Liang; Hasler, James; Banerjee, Rahul; Sheets, Joel J; Narva, Kenneth; Blanco, Carlos A; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan L

    2015-12-04

    Insecticidal protein genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are expressed by transgenic Bt crops (Bt crops) for effective and environmentally safe pest control. The development of resistance to these insecticidal proteins is considered the most serious threat to the sustainability of Bt crops. Resistance in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) populations from Puerto Rico to transgenic corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein resulted, for the first time in the United States, in practical resistance, and Bt corn was withdrawn from the local market. In this study, we used a field-collected Cry1Fa corn-resistant strain (456) of S. frugiperda to identify the mechanism responsible for field-evolved resistance. Binding assays detected reduced Cry1Fa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Ca toxin binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the larvae of strain 456 compared to that from the larvae of a susceptible (Ben) strain. This binding phenotype is descriptive of the mode 1 type of resistance to Bt toxins. A comparison of the transcript levels for putative Cry1 toxin receptor genes identified a significant downregulation (>90%) of a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which translated to reduced ALP protein levels and a 75% reduction in ALP activity in BBMV from 456 compared to that of Ben larvae. We cloned and heterologously expressed this ALP from susceptible S. frugiperda larvae and demonstrated that it specifically binds with Cry1Fa toxin. This study provides a thorough mechanistic description of field-evolved resistance to a transgenic Bt crop and supports an association between resistance and reduced Cry1Fa toxin binding and levels of a putative Cry1Fa toxin receptor, ALP, in the midguts of S. frugiperda larvae.

  10. Wing Torsional Stiffness Tests of the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Olney, Candida D.; Crawford, Natalie D.; Stauf, Rick; Reichenbach, Eric Y.

    2002-01-01

    The left wing of the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) F/A-18 airplane has been ground-load-tested to quantify its torsional stiffness. The test has been performed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in November 1996, and again in April 2001 after a wing skin modification was performed. The primary objectives of these tests were to characterize the wing behavior before the first flight, and provide a before-and-after measurement of the torsional stiffness. Two streamwise load couples have been applied. The wing skin modification is shown to have more torsional flexibility than the original configuration has. Additionally, structural hysteresis is shown to be reduced by the skin modification. Data comparisons show good repeatability between the tests.

  11. Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) Synthesis Genes in Azotobacter sp. Strain FA8

    PubMed Central

    Pettinari, M. Julia; Vázquez, Gustavo J.; Silberschmidt, Daniel; Rehm, Bernd; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Méndez, Beatriz S.

    2001-01-01

    Genes responsible for the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in Azotobacter sp. FA8 were cloned and analyzed. A PHB polymerase gene (phbC) was found downstream from genes coding for β-ketothiolase (phbA) and acetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase (phbB). A PHB synthase mutant was obtained by gene inactivation and used for genetic studies. The phbC gene from this strain was introduced into Ralstonia eutropha PHB-4 (phbC-negative mutant), and the recombinant accumulated PHB when either glucose or octanoate was used as a source of carbon, indicating that this PHB synthase cannot incorporate medium-chain-length hydroxyalkanoates into PHB. PMID:11679365

  12. Aeroelastic modeling for the FIT (Functional Integration Technology) team F/A-18 simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiler, Thomas A.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    1989-01-01

    As part of Langley Research Center's commitment to developing multidisciplinary integration methods to improve aerospace systems, the Functional Integration Technology (FIT) team was established to perform dynamics integration research using an existing aircraft configuration, the F/A-18. An essential part of this effort has been the development of a comprehensive simulation modeling capability that includes structural, control, and propulsion dynamics as well as steady and unsteady aerodynamics. The structural and unsteady aerodynamics contributions come from an aeroelastic mode. Some details of the aeroelastic modeling done for the Functional Integration Technology (FIT) team research are presented. Particular attention is given to work done in the area of correction factors to unsteady aerodynamics data.

  13. Aeroelastic modeling for the FIT team F/A-18 simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiler, Thomas A.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    1989-01-01

    Some details of the aeroelastic modeling of the F/A-18 aircraft done for the Functional Integration Technology (FIT) team's research in integrated dynamics modeling and how these are combined with the FIT team's integrated dynamics model are described. Also described are mean axis corrections to elastic modes, the addition of nonlinear inertial coupling terms into the equations of motion, and the calculation of internal loads time histories using the integrated dynamics model in a batch simulation program. A video tape made of a loads time history animation was included as a part of the oral presentation. Also discussed is work done in one of the areas of unsteady aerodynamic modeling identified as needing improvement, specifically, in correction factor methodologies for improving the accuracy of stability derivatives calculated with a doublet lattice code.

  14. F/A-18 and F-16 forebody vortex control, static and rotary-balance results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Brian; Smith, Brooke

    1994-01-01

    The results from research on forebody vortex control on both the F/A-18 and the F-16 aircraft will be shown. Several methods of forebody vortex control, including mechanical and pneumatic schemes, will be discussed. The wind tunnel data includes both static and rotary balance data for forebody vortex control. Time lags between activation or deactivation of the pneumatic control and when the aircraft experiences the resultant forces are also discussed. The static (non-rotating) forces and pressures are then compared to similar configurations tested in the NASA Langley and DTRC Wind Tunnel, the NASA Ames 80'x120' Wind Tunnel, and in flight on the High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV).

  15. Nakazawaea siamensis f.a., sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from phylloplane.

    PubMed

    Kaewwichian, Rungluk; Limtong, Savitree

    2014-01-01

    Strain DMKU-RK467(T), representing a novel yeast species, was isolated from the external surface of sugar cane leaves collected in Thailand. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, strain DMKU-RK467(T) was assigned to a novel species of the genus Nakazawaea. The novel species was related most closely to the type strain of Candida wickerhamii but they differed by 1.9 % nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and by 5.2 % nucleotide substitutions in the ITS region. The name Nakazawaea siamensis f.a., sp. nov. is proposed (type strain DMKU-RK467(T) = BCC 50734(T) = NBRC 108903(T) = CBS 12569(T)). PMID:24052626

  16. Wind Tunnel Visualization of the Flow Over a Full-Scale F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Botha, Gavin J.; James, Kevin D.; Crowder, James P.; Schmitz, Fredric H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed paper presents flow visualization performed during experiments conducted on a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind-Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. This investigation used both surface and off-surface flow visualization techniques to examine the flow field on the forebody, canopy, leading edge extensions (LEXs), and wings. The various techniques used to visualize the flow field were fluorescent tufts, flow cones treated with reflective material, smoke in combination with a laser light sheet, and a video imaging system. The flow visualization experiments were conducted over an angle of attack range from 20deg to 45deg and over a sideslip range from -10deg to 10deg. The results show regions of attached and separated flow on the forebody, canopy, and wings. Additionally, the vortical flow is clearly visible over the leading-edge extensions, canopy, and wings.

  17. Control Law-Control Allocation Interaction: F/A-18 PA Simulation Test - Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne; Nelson, Mark

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the first stage of research into Control Law - Control Allocation Interactions. A three-year research effort was originally proposed: 1. Create a desktop flight simulation environment under which experiments related to the open questions may be conducted. 2. Conduct research to determine which aspects of control allocation have impact upon control law design that merits further research. 3. Conduct research into those aspects of control allocation identified above, and their impacts upon control law design. Simulation code was written utilizing the F/A-18 airframe in the power approach (PA) configuration. A dynamic inversion control law was implemented and used to drive a state-of-the-art control allocation subroutine.

  18. Worst-Case Flutter Margins from F/A-18 Aircraft Aeroelastic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick; Brenner, Marty

    1997-01-01

    An approach for computing worst-case flutter margins has been formulated in a robust stability framework. Uncertainty operators are included with a linear model to describe modeling errors and flight variations. The structured singular value, micron, computes a stability margin which directly accounts for these uncertainties. This approach introduces a new method of computing flutter margins and an associated new parameter for describing these margins. The micron margins are robust margins which indicate worst-case stability estimates with respect to the defined uncertainty. Worst-case flutter margins are computed for the F/A-18 SRA using uncertainty sets generated by flight data analysis. The robust margins demonstrate flight conditions for flutter may lie closer to the flight envelope than previously estimated by p-k analysis.

  19. Comparing the performance of FA, DFA and DMA using different synthetic long-range correlated time series

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ying-Hui; Gu, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding the significant efforts to develop estimators of long-range correlations (LRC) and to compare their performance, no clear consensus exists on what is the best method and under which conditions. In addition, synthetic tests suggest that the performance of LRC estimators varies when using different generators of LRC time series. Here, we compare the performances of four estimators [Fluctuation Analysis (FA), Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Backward Detrending Moving Average (BDMA), and Centred Detrending Moving Average (CDMA)]. We use three different generators [Fractional Gaussian Noises, and two ways of generating Fractional Brownian Motions]. We find that CDMA has the best performance and DFA is only slightly worse in some situations, while FA performs the worst. In addition, CDMA and DFA are less sensitive to the scaling range than FA. Hence, CDMA and DFA remain “The Methods of Choice” in determining the Hurst index of time series. PMID:23150785

  20. Genetic Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Growth and Wood Quality Traits in Eucalyptus Grandis Using a Maternal Half-Sib Family and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Grattapaglia, D.; Bertolucci, FLG.; Penchel, R.; Sederoff, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of forest productivity traits was performed using an open pollinated half-sib family of Eucalyptus grandis. For volume growth, a sequential QTL mapping approach was applied using bulk segregant analysis (BSA), selective genotyping (SG) and cosegregation analysis (CSA). Despite the low heritability of this trait and the heterogeneous genetic background employed for mapping. BSA detected one putative QTL and SG two out of the three later found by CSA. The three putative QTL for volume growth were found to control 13.7% of the phenotypic variation, corresponding to an estimated 43.7% of the genetic variation. For wood specific gravity five QTL were identified controlling 24.7% of the phenotypic variation corresponding to 49% of the genetic variation. Overlapping QTL for CBH, WSG and percentage dry weight of bark were observed. A significant case of digenic epistasis was found, involving unlinked QTL for volume. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the within half-sib design for QTL mapping in forest trees and indicate the existence of major genes involved in the expression of economically important traits related to forest productivity in Eucalyptus grandis. These findings have important implications for marker-assisted tree breeding. PMID:8913761

  1. Construction of a full-length cDNA library of Solen grandis dunker and identification of defense- and immune-related genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guohua; Liu, Xiangquan; Ren, Lihua; Yang, Jianmin; Wei, Xiumei; Yang, Jialong

    2013-11-01

    The basic genetic characteristics, important functional genes, and entire transcriptome of Solen grandis Dunker were investigated by constructing a full-length cDNA library with the `switching mechanism at the 5'-end of the RNA transcript' (SMART) technique. Total RNA was isolated from the immune-relevant tissues, gills and hemocytes, using the Trizol reagent, and cDNA fragments were digested with Sfi I before being ligated to the pBluescript II SK* vector. The cDNA library had a titer of 1048 cfu μL-1 and a storage capacity of 1.05×106 cfu. Approximately 98% of the clones in the library were recombinants, and the fragment lengths of insert cDNA ranged from 0.8 kb to 3.0 kb. A total of 2038 expressed sequence tags were successfully sequenced and clustered into 965 unigenes. BLASTN analysis showed that 240 sequences were highly similar to the known genes (E-value < 1e -5; percent identity >80%), accounting for 25% of the total unigenes. According to the Gene Ontology, these unigenes were related to several biological processes, including cell structure, signal transport, protein synthesis, transcription, energy metabolism, and immunity. Fifteen of the identified sequences were related to defense and immunity. The full-length cDNA sequence of HSC70 was obtained. The cDNA library of S. grandis provided a useful resource for future researches of functional genomics related to stress tolerance, immunity, and other physiological activities.

  2. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116) in land subject to the sandy process in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Eduardo Lorensi; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Machado, Rafael Goulart; Eckhardt, Daniel Pazzini; Dahmer, Sabrina de Fátima Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, inoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116), produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the São Francisco de Assis city, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production then non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter. PMID:25763017

  3. Leaf cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals novel mechanisms for boron-induced alleviation of aluminum-toxicity in Citrus grandis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liu-Qing; Yang, Lin-Tong; Guo, Peng; Zhou, Xin-Xing; Ye, Xin; Chen, En-Jun; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-10-01

    Little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of boron (B)-induced alleviation of aluminum (Al)-toxicity. 'Sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis) seedlings were irrigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing different concentrations of B (2.5 or 20μM H3BO3) and Al (0 or 1.2mM AlCl3·6H2O). B alleviated Al-induced inhibition in plant growth accompanied by lower leaf Al. We used cDNA-AFLP to isolate 127 differentially expressed genes from leaves subjected to B and Al interactions. These genes were related to signal transduction, transport, cell wall modification, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolism, lipid metabolism and stress responses. The ameliorative mechanisms of B on Al-toxicity might be related to: (a) triggering multiple signal transduction pathways; (b) improving the expression levels of genes related to transport; (c) activating genes involved in energy production; and (d) increasing amino acid accumulation and protein degradation. Also, genes involved in nucleic acid metabolism, cell wall modification and stress responses might play a role in B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity. To conclude, our findings reveal some novel mechanisms on B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity at the transcriptional level in C. grandis leaves.

  4. Genome-wide patterns of recombination, linkage disequilibrium and nucleotide diversity from pooled resequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping unlock the evolutionary history of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2015-11-01

    We used high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and whole-genome pooled resequencing to examine the landscape of population recombination (ρ) and nucleotide diversity (ϴw ), assess the extent of linkage disequilibrium (r(2) ) and build the highest density linkage maps for Eucalyptus. At the genome-wide level, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed within c. 4-6 kb, slower than previously reported from candidate gene studies, but showing considerable variation from absence to complete LD up to 50 kb. A sharp decrease in the estimate of ρ was seen when going from short to genome-wide inter-SNP distances, highlighting the dependence of this parameter on the scale of observation adopted. Recombination was correlated with nucleotide diversity, gene density and distance from the centromere, with hotspots of recombination enriched for genes involved in chemical reactions and pathways of the normal metabolic processes. The high nucleotide diversity (ϴw = 0.022) of E. grandis revealed that mutation is more important than recombination in shaping its genomic diversity (ρ/ϴw = 0.645). Chromosome-wide ancestral recombination graphs allowed us to date the split of E. grandis (1.7-4.8 million yr ago) and identify a scenario for the recent demographic history of the species. Our results have considerable practical importance to Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), while indicating bright prospects for genomic prediction of complex phenotypes in eucalypt breeding.

  5. Chromosomal localization of 45S rDNA, sex-specific C values, and heterochromatin distribution in Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Biplab Kumar; Yamamoto, Masashi; Jha, Sumita

    2016-01-01

    Coccinia grandis is a widely distributed dioecious cucurbit in India, with heteromorphic sex chromosomes and X-Y sex determination mode. The present study aids in the cytogenetic characterization of four native populations of this plant employing distribution patterns of 45S rDNA on chromosomes and guanine-cytosine (GC)-rich heterochromatin in the genome coupled with flow cytometric determination of genome sizes. Existence of four nucleolar chromosomes could be confirmed by the presence of four telomeric 45S rDNA signals in both male and female plants. All four 45S rDNA sites are rich in heterochromatin evident from the co-localization of telomeric chromomycin A (CMA)(+ve) signals. The size of 45S rDNA signal was found to differ between the homologues of one nucleolar chromosome pair. The distribution of heterochromatin is found to differ among the male and female populations. The average GC-rich heterochromatin content of male and female populations is 23.27 and 29.86 %, respectively. Moreover, the male plants have a genome size of 0.92 pg/2C while the female plants have a size of 0.73 pg/2C, reflecting a huge genomic divergence between the genders. The great variation in genome size is owing to the presence of Y chromosome in the male populations, playing a multifaceted role in sexual divergence in C. grandis. PMID:25795278

  6. Rapid evaluation and quality control of next generation sequencing data with FaQCs

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Chien -Chi; Chain, Patrick S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Background: Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies that parallelize the sequencing process and produce thousands to millions, or even hundreds of millions of sequences in a single sequencing run, have revolutionized genomic and genetic research. Because of the vagaries of any platform's sequencing chemistry, the experimental processing, machine failure, and so on, the quality of sequencing reads is never perfect, and often declines as the read is extended. These errors invariably affect downstream analysis/application and should therefore be identified early on to mitigate any unforeseen effects. Results: Here we present a novel FastQ Quality Control Software (FaQCs) that can rapidly process large volumes of data, and which improves upon previous solutions to monitor the quality and remove poor quality data from sequencing runs. Both the speed of processing and the memory footprint of storing all required information have been optimized via algorithmic and parallel processing solutions. The trimmed output compared side-by-side with the original data is part of the automated PDF output. We show how this tool can help data analysis by providing a few examples, including an increased percentage of reads recruited to references, improved single nucleotide polymorphism identification as well as de novo sequence assembly metrics. Conclusion: FaQCs combines several features of currently available applications into a single, user-friendly process, and includes additional unique capabilities such as filtering the PhiX control sequences, conversion of FASTQ formats, and multi-threading. The original data and trimmed summaries are reported within a variety of graphics and reports, providing a simple way to do data quality control and assurance.

  7. Polarization of large cometary dust aggregates: computations with FaSTMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, Johannes; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri

    2016-10-01

    We model light scattering by cometary dust with a special emphasis on polarization effects of large aggregated non-spherical dust particles. The contribution of large aggregates to the scattering characteristics of cometary dust is not well studied due to the rapid growth of computational time with respect to the number of grains in an aggregate when modelled by conventional numerical techniques (Mackowski, Mishchenko, JQSRT, 112(13), 2182-2192, 2011). To speed up computations, we apply our novel Fast Superposition T-Matrix Method (FaSTMM) that can deal with aggregates consisting of large numbers of non-spherical inhomogeneous grains.The FaSTMM is based on two individual solvers. First, the so-called T-matrices of the grains in an aggregate are determined by the method-of-moments solution of the Maxwell equations based on the volume-integral-equation approach. Once the T-matrices have been computed and stored, the second solver, i.e., the superposition T-matrix method, accelerated by the multilevel-fast-multipole algorithm (MLFMA), is employed to solve for the scattering properties of the entire aggregate consisting of arbitrarily rotated grains whose T-matrices had been computed by the first solver. Such an approach allows for efficient computations of ensample-averaged light-scattering features of aggregated dust particles. The MLFMA acceleration works especially well for sparse, fractal-like aggregates within a large volume. The method is exact in the sense that no approximation is made for the physics described by the classical electromagnetic scattering theory.As a dust model, we use porous aggregates with non-spherical grains consisting of a silicate core covered by organic refractory mantle. Thus, the dust particle model is consistent with the cometary dust formation model by Greenberg (Greenberg, Hage, Astrophys. J. 361, 260-274, 1990).Acknowledgments. Research supported by the European Research Council (ERC, grant Nr. 320773).

  8. Rapid evaluation and quality control of next generation sequencing data with FaQCs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lo, Chien -Chi; Chain, Patrick S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Background: Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies that parallelize the sequencing process and produce thousands to millions, or even hundreds of millions of sequences in a single sequencing run, have revolutionized genomic and genetic research. Because of the vagaries of any platform's sequencing chemistry, the experimental processing, machine failure, and so on, the quality of sequencing reads is never perfect, and often declines as the read is extended. These errors invariably affect downstream analysis/application and should therefore be identified early on to mitigate any unforeseen effects. Results: Here we present a novel FastQ Quality Control Software (FaQCs) that can rapidly processmore » large volumes of data, and which improves upon previous solutions to monitor the quality and remove poor quality data from sequencing runs. Both the speed of processing and the memory footprint of storing all required information have been optimized via algorithmic and parallel processing solutions. The trimmed output compared side-by-side with the original data is part of the automated PDF output. We show how this tool can help data analysis by providing a few examples, including an increased percentage of reads recruited to references, improved single nucleotide polymorphism identification as well as de novo sequence assembly metrics. Conclusion: FaQCs combines several features of currently available applications into a single, user-friendly process, and includes additional unique capabilities such as filtering the PhiX control sequences, conversion of FASTQ formats, and multi-threading. The original data and trimmed summaries are reported within a variety of graphics and reports, providing a simple way to do data quality control and assurance.« less

  9. Delta-like 1/Fetal Antigen-1 (Dlk1/FA1) Is a Novel Regulator of Chondrogenic Cell Differentiation via Inhibition of the Akt Kinase-dependent Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Qanie, Diyako; Jafari, Abbas; Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Jensen, Charlotte H.; Säämänen, Anna-Marja; Sanz, Maria Luisa Nueda; Laborda, Jorge; Abdallah, Basem M.; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    Delta-like 1 (Dlk1, also known as fetal antigen-1, FA1) is a member of Notch/Delta family that inhibits adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation; however, its role in chondrogenesis is still not clear. Thus, we overexpressed Dlk1/FA1 in mouse embryonic ATDC5 cells and tested its effects on chondrogenic differentiation. Dlk1/FA1 inhibited insulin-induced chondrogenic differentiation as evidenced by reduction of cartilage nodule formation and gene expression of aggrecan, collagen Type II and X. Similar effects were obtained either by using Dlk1/FA1-conditioned medium or by addition of a purified, secreted, form of Dlk1 (FA1) directly to the induction medium. The inhibitory effects of Dlk1/FA1 were dose-dependent and occurred irrespective of the chondrogenic differentiation stage: proliferation, differentiation, maturation, or hypertrophic conversion. Overexpression or addition of the Dlk1/FA1 protein to the medium strongly inhibited the activation of Akt, but not the ERK1/2, or p38 MAPK pathways, and the inhibition of Akt by Dlk1/FA1 was mediated through PI3K activation. Interestingly, inhibition of fibronectin expression by siRNA rescued the Dlk1/FA1-mediated inhibition of Akt, suggesting interaction of Dlk1/FA1 and fibronectin in chondrogenic cells. Our results identify Dlk1/FA1 as a novel regulator of chondrogenesis and suggest Dlk1/FA1 acts as an inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt pathways that leads to its inhibitory effects on chondrogenesis. PMID:21724852

  10. Genetic Linkage Maps of Eucalyptus Grandis and Eucalyptus Urophylla Using a Pseudo-Testcross: Mapping Strategy and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Grattapaglia, D.; Sederoff, R.

    1994-01-01

    We have used a ``two-way pseudo-testcross'' mapping strategy in combination with the random amplified polymorhic DNA (RAPD) assay to construct two moderate density genetic linkage maps for species of Eucalyptus. In the cross between two heterozygous individuals many single-dose RAPD markers will be heterozygous in one parent, null in the other and therefore segregate 1:1 in their F(1) progeny following a testcross configuration. Meiosis and gametic segregation in each individual can be directly and efficiently analyzed using RAPD markers. We screened 305 primers of arbitrary sequence, and selected 151 to amplify a total of 558 markers. These markers were grouped at LOD 5.0, θ = 0.25, resulting in the maternal Eucalyptus grandis map having a total of 240 markers into 14 linkage groups (1552 cM) and the paternal Eucalyptus urophylla map with 251 markers in 11 linkage groups (1101 cM) (n = 11 in Eucalyptus). Framework maps ordered with a likelihood support >/=1000:1 were assembled covering 95% of the estimated genome size in both individuals. Characterization of genome complexity of a sample of 48 mapped random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers indicate that 53% amplify from low copy regions. These are the first reported high coverage linkage maps for any species of Eucalyptus and among the first for any hardwood tree species. We propose the combined use of RAPD markers and the pseudo-testcross configuration as a general strategy for the construction of single individual genetic linkage maps in outbred forest trees as well as in any highly heterozygous sexually reproducing living organism. A survey of the occurrence of RAPD markers in different individuals suggests that the pseudo-testcross/RAPD mapping strategy should also be efficient at the intraspecific level and increasingly so with crosses of genetically divergent individuals. The ability to quickly construct single-tree genetic linkage maps in any forest species opens the way for a shift from the

  11. Controlled clinical comparison of plastic and glass bottles of BacT/ALERT FA medium for culturing organisms from blood of adult patients.

    PubMed

    Petti, Cathy A; Mirrett, Stanley; Woods, Christopher W; Reller, L Barth

    2005-04-01

    A new, clear-plastic nonvented aerobic FA bottle, designed to prevent breakage, has been developed for the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We assessed the new plastic FA bottle by comparing its performance with that of the current glass FA bottle for recovery of microorganisms and time to detection of growth in blood samples obtained for culture from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infections. We conclude that the BacT/ALERT plastic and glass FA bottles are comparable for recovery of microorganisms and that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  12. [Risk of nasopharyngeal cancer, Leukemia and other tumors in a cohort of employees and students potentially exposed to (FA) formaldehyde in University laboratories].

    PubMed

    Sernia, S; Di Folco, F; Altrudo, P; Sbriccoli, B; Sestili, C; Colamesta, V; Del Buono, S; Michetti, A; Ortis, M; Dawodu, A; Villari, P; La Torre, G

    2016-01-01

    FA was recently classified as carcinogen of second class (category 1B). A retrospective cohort study was conducted for the evaluation of the association between exposure to FA and cancer in professionally potentially exposed in a University setting. The cohort was composed of 140 exposed to FA and 364 not exposed in the period 1999-2015. The results showed no cancers of naso-pharynx and leukemias or lymphomas both among exposed and not exposed. Moreover, the exposure to FA is not significantly associated to an increase of other types of tumors. PMID:27212573

  13. Water-tunnel study results of a TF/A-18 and F/A-18 canopy flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven A.; Fisher, David F.

    1990-01-01

    A water tunnel study examining the influence of canopy shape on canopy and leading edge extension flow patterns was initiated. The F/A-18 single-place canopy model and the TF/A-18 two place canopy model were the study subjects. Plan view and side view photographs showing the flow patterns created by injected colored dye are presented for 0 deg and 5 deg sideslip angles. Photographs taken at angle of attack and sideslip conditions correspond to test departure points found in flight test. Flight experience has shown that the TF/A-18 airplane departs in regions where the F/A-18 airplane is departure-resistant. The study results provide insight into the differences in flow patterns which may influence the resulting aerodynamics of the TF/A-18 and F/A-18 aircraft. It was found that at 0 deg sideslip, the TF/A-18 model has more downward flow on the sides of the canopy than the F/A-18 model. This could be indicative of flow from the leading edge extension (LEX) vortexes impinging on the sides of the wider TF/A-18 canopy. In addition, the TF/A-18 model has larger areas of asymmetric separated and unsteady flow on the LEXs and fuselage, possibly indicating a lateral and directional destabilizing effect at the conditions studied.

  14. Determination of the refractive index difference caused by the birefringence of FA (II) centers in KCl:Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silfsten, Pertti; Ketolainen, Pertti

    1991-11-01

    A method is described for determining the refractive index difference caused by the birefringence of oriented FA (II) centers in KCl:Li crystals. It is shown that the portion induced by the birefringence can be separated from an absorption spectrum measured through a polarizer-analyzer system. From this portion the refractive index difference can then be calculated with ease.

  15. Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John F.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

  16. Behind the Façade of Fee-Free education: Shadow Education and Its Implications for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark; Kwo, Ora

    2013-01-01

    Most governments, at an official level, espouse the principles of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Among its statements is that education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Yet while the façade of government education systems presents an image that instruction is free of charge, families across the…

  17. The optimization of FA/O barrier slurry with respect to removal rate selectivity on patterned Cu wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hu; Yan, Li; Yuling, Liu; Yangang, He

    2016-02-01

    Because the polishing of different materials is required in barrier chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) processes, the development of a kind of barrier slurry with improved removal rate selectivity for Cu/barrier/TEOS would reduce erosion and dishing defects on patterned Cu wafers. In this study, we developed a new benzotriazole-free barrier slurry named FA/O barrier slurry, containing 20 mL/L of the chelating agent FA/O, 5 mL/L surfactant, and a 1:5 concentration of abrasive particles. By controlling the polishing slurry ingredients, the removal rate of different materials could be controlled. For process integration considerations, the effect of the FA/O barrier slurry on the dielectric layer of the patterned Cu wafer was investigated. After CMP processing by the FA/O barrier slurry, the characteristics of the dielectric material were tested. The results showed that the dielectric characteristics met demands for industrial production. The current leakage was of pA scale. The resistance and capacitance were 2.4 kω and 2.3 pF, respectively. The dishing and erosion defects were both below 30 nm in size. CMP-processed wafers using this barrier slurry could meet industrial production demands. Project supported by the Special Project Items No. 2 in National Long-Term Technology Development Plan (No. 2009ZX02308), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (No. F2012202094), and the Doctoral Program Foundation of Xinjiang Normal University Plan (No. XJNUBS1226).

  18. A Hypomorphic PALB2 Allele Gives Rise to an Unusual Form of FA-N Associated with Lymphoid Tumour Development

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Philip J.; Stewart, Grant. S.; Smith, Anna; Eaton, Charlotte; Taylor, Alexander J.; Guy, Chloe; Eringyte, Ieva; Fooks, Peggy; Last, James I.; Horsley, Robert; Oliver, Antony W.; Janic, Dragana; Dokmanovic, Lidija; Stankovic, Tatjana; Taylor, A. Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with biallelic truncating mutations in PALB2 have a severe form of Fanconi anaemia (FA-N), with a predisposition for developing embryonal-type tumours in infancy. Here we describe two unusual patients from a single family, carrying biallelic PALB2 mutations, one truncating, c.1676_1677delAAinsG;(p.Gln559ArgfsTer2), and the second, c.2586+1G>A; p.Thr839_Lys862del resulting in an in frame skip of exon 6 (24 amino acids). Strikingly, the affected individuals did not exhibit the severe developmental defects typical of FA-N patients and initially presented with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The expressed p.Thr839_Lys862del mutant PALB2 protein retained the ability to interact with BRCA2, previously unreported in FA-N patients. There was also a large increased chromosomal radiosensitivity following irradiation in G2 and increased sensitivity to mitomycin C. Although patient cells were unable to form Rad51 foci following exposure to either DNA damaging agent, U2OS cells, in which the mutant PALB2 with in frame skip of exon 6 was induced, did show recruitment of Rad51 to foci following damage. We conclude that a very mild form of FA-N exists arising from a hypomorphic PALB2 allele. PMID:26990772

  19. A NASA F/A-18, participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project, flies over the Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA F/A-18 is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. The 300-gallon aerial refueling store seen on the belly of the aircraft carries fuel and a refueling drogue. This aircraft acts as a tanker in the study to develop an aerodynamic model for future automated aerial refueling, especially of unmanned vehicles.

  20. Viewing time measures of sexual orientation in Samoan cisgender men who engage in sexual interactions with fa'afafine.

    PubMed

    Petterson, Lanna J; Dixson, Barnaby J; Little, Anthony C; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Androphilia refers to attraction to adult males, whereas gynephilia refers to attraction to adult females. The current study employed self-report and viewing time (response time latency) measures of sexual attraction to determine the sexual orientation of Samoan cisgender men (i.e., males whose gender presentation and identity is concordant with their biological sex) who engage in sexual interactions with transgender male androphiles (known locally as fa'afafine) compared to: (1) Samoan cisgender men who only engage in sexual interactions with women, and (2) fa'afafine. As expected, both measures indicated that cisgender men who only engaged in sexual interactions with women exhibited a gynephilic pattern of sexual attraction, whereas fa'afafine exhibited an androphilic one. In contrast, both measures indicated that cisgender men who engaged in sexual interactions with fa'afafine demonstrated a bisexual pattern of sexual attraction. Most of the cisgender men who exhibited bisexual viewing times did not engage in sexual activity with both men and women indicating that the manner in which bisexual patterns of sexual attraction manifest behaviorally vary from one culture to the next. PMID:25679961

  1. Study of the degradation activity and the strategies to promote the bioavailability of phenanthrene by Sphingomonas paucimobilis strain 20006FA.

    PubMed

    Coppotelli, Bibiana M; Ibarrolaza, Agustin; Dias, Romina L; Del Panno, Maria T; Berthe-Corti, Luise; Morelli, Irma S

    2010-02-01

    The present study describes the phenanthrene-degrading activity of Sphingomonas paucimobilis 20006FA and its ability to promote the bioavailability of phenanthrene. S. paucimobilis 20006FA was isolated from a phenanthrene-contaminated soil microcosm. The strain was able to grow in liquid mineral medium saturated with phenanthrene as the sole carbon source, showing high phenanthrene elimination (52.9% of the supplied phenanthrene within 20 days). The accumulation of 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and salicylic acid as major phenanthrene metabolites and the capacity of the strain to grow with sodium salicylate as the sole source of carbon and energy indicated that the S. paucimobilis 20006FA possesses a complete phenanthrene degradation pathway. However, under the studied conditions, the strain was able to mineralize only the 10% of the consumed phenanthrene. Investigations on the cell ability to promote bioavailability of phenanthrene showed that the S. paucimobilis strain 20006FA exhibited low cell hydrophobicity (0.13), a pronounced chemotaxis toward phenanthrene, and it was able to reduce the surface tension of mineral liquid medium supplemented with phenanthrene as sole carbon source. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that: (1) in suspension cultures, cells formed flocks and showed small vesicles on the cell surface and (2) cells were also able to adhere to phenanthrene crystals and to produce biofilms. Clearly, the strain seems to exhibit two different mechanisms to enhance phenanthrene bioavailability: biosurfactant production and adhesion to the phenanthrene crystals.

  2. A Hypomorphic PALB2 Allele Gives Rise to an Unusual Form of FA-N Associated with Lymphoid Tumour Development.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Philip J; Stewart, Grant S; Smith, Anna; Eaton, Charlotte; Taylor, Alexander J; Guy, Chloe; Eringyte, Ieva; Fooks, Peggy; Last, James I; Horsley, Robert; Oliver, Antony W; Janic, Dragana; Dokmanovic, Lidija; Stankovic, Tatjana; Taylor, A Malcolm R

    2016-03-01

    Patients with biallelic truncating mutations in PALB2 have a severe form of Fanconi anaemia (FA-N), with a predisposition for developing embryonal-type tumours in infancy. Here we describe two unusual patients from a single family, carrying biallelic PALB2 mutations, one truncating, c.1676_1677delAAinsG;(p.Gln559ArgfsTer2), and the second, c.2586+1G>A; p.Thr839_Lys862del resulting in an in frame skip of exon 6 (24 amino acids). Strikingly, the affected individuals did not exhibit the severe developmental defects typical of FA-N patients and initially presented with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The expressed p.Thr839_Lys862del mutant PALB2 protein retained the ability to interact with BRCA2, previously unreported in FA-N patients. There was also a large increased chromosomal radiosensitivity following irradiation in G2 and increased sensitivity to mitomycin C. Although patient cells were unable to form Rad51 foci following exposure to either DNA damaging agent, U2OS cells, in which the mutant PALB2 with in frame skip of exon 6 was induced, did show recruitment of Rad51 to foci following damage. We conclude that a very mild form of FA-N exists arising from a hypomorphic PALB2 allele. PMID:26990772

  3. 2 CFR 200.411 - Adjustment of previously negotiated indirect (F&A) cost rates containing unallowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of previously negotiated indirect (F&A) cost rates containing unallowable costs. 200.411 Section 200.411 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...

  4. Two strawberry miR159 family members display developmental-specific expression patterns in the fruit receptacle and cooperatively regulate Fa-GAMYB.

    PubMed

    Csukasi, Fabiana; Donaire, Livia; Casañal, Ana; Martínez-Priego, Llúcia; Botella, Miguel A; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Llave, César; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2012-07-01

    • We have reported previously that the gibberellin (GA) content in strawberry receptacle is high, peaking at specific stages, pointing to a role of this hormone in fruit development. In Arabidopsis, miR159 levels are dependent on GA concentration. This prompted us to investigate the role of two members of the miR159 family and their putative strawberry target gene, GAMYB, in relation to changes in GA content during the course of fruit development. • The highest expression level of the two Fa-MIR159 genes was in the fruit's receptacle tissue, with dramatic changes observed throughout development. The lowest levels of total mature miR159 (a and b) were observed during the white stage of receptacle development, which was concurrent with the highest expression of Fa-GAMYB. A functional interaction between miR159 and Fa-GAMYB has been demonstrated in receptacle tissue. • The application of bioactive GA (i.e. GA(3) ) to strawberry plants caused the down-regulated expression of Fa-MIR159a, but the expression of Fa-MIR159b was not affected significantly. Clear discrepancies between Fa-MIR159b and mature Fa-miR159b levels were indicative of post-transcriptional regulation of Fa-MIR159b gene expression. • We propose that Fa-miR159a and Fa-miR159b interact with Fa-GAMYB during the course of strawberry receptacle development, and that they act in a cooperative fashion to respond, in part, to changes in GA endogenous levels.

  5. Evaluation of F/A-18A HARV inlet flow analysis with flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. Frederic; Podleski, Steve D.; Barankiewicz, Wendy S.; Zeleznik, Susan Z.

    1995-01-01

    The F/A-18A aircraft has experienced engine stalls at high angles-of-attack and yaw flight conditions which were outside of its flight envelope. Future aircraft may be designed to operate routinely in this flight regime. Therefore, it is essential that an understanding of the inlet flow field at these flight conditions be obtained. Due to the complex interactions of the fuselage and inlet flow fields, a study of the flow within the inlet must also include external effects. Full Navier-Stokes (FNS) calculations on the F/A-18A High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) inlet for several angles-of-attack with sideslip and free stream Mach numbers have been obtained. The predicted forebody/fuselage surface static pressures agreed well with flight data. The surface static pressures along the inlet lip are in good agreement with the numerical predictions. The major departure in agreement is along the bottom of the lip at 30 deg and 60 deg angle-of-attack where a possible streamwise flow separation is not being predicted by the code. The circumferential pressure distributions at the engine face are in very good agreement with the numerical results. The variation in surface static pressure in the circumferential direction is very small with the exception of 60 angle-of-attack. Although the simulation does not include the effect of the engine, it appears that this omission has a second order effect on the circumferential pressure distribution. An examination of the unsteady flight test data base has shown that the secondary vortex migrates a significant distance with time. In fact, the extent of this migration increases with angle-of-attack with increasing levels of distortion. The effects of the engine on this vortex movement is unknown. This implies that the level of flow unsteadiness increases with increasing distortion. Since the computational results represent an asymptotic solution driven by steady boundary conditions, these numerical results may represent an arbitrary point

  6. PARC3D calculations of the F/A-18A HARV inlet vortex generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podleski, Steve D.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is currently engaged in a research effort as a team member of the High Alpha Technology Program within the NASA agency. This program uses a specially-equipped F/A-18A aircraft called the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), in an effort to improve the maneuverability of high performance military aircraft at low-subsonic-speed, high-angle-of-attack conditions. The overall objective of the NASA Lewis effort is to develop inlet analysis technology towards efficient airflow delivery to the engine during these maneuvers. One portion of this inlet analysis technology uses computational fluid dynamics to predict installed inlet performance. Most of the F/A-18A HARV geometry, which includes the ramp/splitter plate, side diverter and slot, inlet lip and upper diverter, and deflected leading-edge flap has been modeled. The empennage and rear fuselage have not. A pair of vortex generators located on the bottom wall of the inlet were not modeled initially. These vortex generators were installed to alleviate any flow separation that may be induced by the wheel well protrusion into the inlet wall. Calculations completed with the PARC3D code showed that the pressure recovery has been underpredicted and the flow distortion over-predicted. To improve the correlation of PARC3D predictions with flight and wind tunnel tests, the vortex generators were included in the grid geometry and the results are presented in this report. The grid totals 27 blocks or 1.3 million grid points for the half model, which includes the vortex generator grid blocks. Two flight cases were calculated, a high speed case with a Mach number of 0.8 and angle of attack of 3.4; and a low speed case with a Mach number of 0.43 and angle of attack of 32.2. The vortex generators have a significant effect on the inlet boundary layers at high speed, low angle of attack; and have no effect at low speed, high angle of attack.

  7. Cytotoxicity of amino alcohols to rat hepatoma-derived Fa32 cells.

    PubMed

    Scheers, Ellen M; Forsby, Anna; Dierickx, Paul J

    2002-01-01

    Amino alcohols are used as emulsifying agents in dry-cleaning soaps, wax removers, cosmetics, paints and insecticides. The cytotoxicities of 12 amino alcohols, which differed in chain length, position of the amino and alcohol groups, and the presence of an additional phenyl group, were determined by the neutral red uptake inhibition assay with normally cultured, glutathione-depleted or antioxidant-enriched Fa32 rat hepatoma-derived cells. Glutathione depletion and antioxidant enrichment were achieved by including 50(M L-buthionine-S,R-sulphoximine (BSO) or 100(M (-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) in the culture medium for 24 hours before and during the assay. The cytotoxicity of the amino alcohols observed after treatment for 24 hours was expressed as the concentration of compound needed to induce a 50% reduction in neutral red uptake (NI50). The observed NI50 values ranged from 3mM to 30mM. The individual stereoisomers and a racemic mixture of 1-amino-2-propanol exhibited similar cytotoxicities (with normally cultured Fa32 cells, and vitamin E- and BSO-treated cultures). Similar NI50 values for D-(+)-2-amino-1-propanol, 3-amino-1-propanol and the L-, D- or DL- forms of 1-amino-2-propanol, indicated that the position of the amino group had little influence on the cytotoxicities of the amino alcohols. In contrast, the position of the hydroxyl group appeared to play an important role for the toxicity of the compound, as indicated by the significantly different NI50 values for 4-amino-1-butanol and 4-amino-2-butanol. An additional phenyl group greatly increased the cytotoxicity of 2-amino-1,3-propanediol. For most of the compounds, cytotoxicity increased when GSH was depleted, and decreased when the cells were enriched with vitamin E. This indicated that most of the tested chemicals interact with GSH, either directly or indirectly, by processes which generate oxygen free-radicals. Decreased toxicity was found for most of the chemicals administered to vitamin E

  8. Environmental and health effects of nanomaterials in nanotextiles and façade coatings.

    PubMed

    Som, Claudia; Wick, Peter; Krug, Harald; Nowack, Bernd

    2011-08-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are expected to hold considerable potential for products that offer improved or novel functionalities. For example, nanotechnologies could open the way for the use of textile products outside their traditional fields of applications, for example, in the construction, medical, automobile, environmental and safety technology sectors. Consequently, nanotextiles could become ubiquitous in industrial and consumer products in future. Another ubiquitous field of application for ENM is façade coatings. The environment and human health could be affected by unintended release of ENM from these products. The product life cycle and the product design determine the various environmental and health exposure situations. For example, ENM unintentionally released from geotextiles will probably end up in soils, whereas ENM unintentionally released from T-shirts may come into direct contact with humans and end up in wastewater. In this paper we have assessed the state of the art of ENM effects on the environment and human health on the basis of selected environmental and nanotoxicological studies and on our own environmental exposure modeling studies. Here, we focused on ENM that are already applied or may be applied in future to textile products and façade coatings. These ENM's are mainly nanosilver (nano-Ag), nano titanium dioxide (nano-TiO(2)), nano silica (nano-SiO(2)), nano zinc oxide (nano-ZnO), nano alumina (nano-Al(2)O(3)), layered silica (e.g. montmorillonite, Al(2)[(OH)(2)/Si(4)O(10)]nH(2)O), carbon black, and carbon nanotubes (CNT). Knowing full well that innovators have to take decisions today, we have presented some criteria that should be useful in systematically analyzing and interpreting the state of the art on the effects of ENM. For the environment we established the following criteria: (1) the indication for hazardous effects, (2) dissolution in water increases/decreases toxic effects, (3) tendency for agglomeration or sedimentation

  9. FaCE: a tool for three body Faddeev calculations with core excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, I. J.; Nunes, F. M.; Danilin, B. V.

    2004-08-01

    FaCE is a self contained program, with namelist input, that solves the three body Faddeev equations. It enables the inclusion of excitation of one of the three bodies, whilst the other two remain inert. It is particularly useful for obtaining the binding energies and bound state structure compositions of light exotic nuclei treated as three-body systems, given the three effective two body interactions. A large variety of forms for these interactions may be defined, and supersymmetric transformations of these potentials may be calculated whenever two body states need to be removed due to Pauli blocking. Program summaryTitle of program: FaCE (Faddeev with Core Excitation) Catalogue identifier: ADTW Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTW Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: The code is designed to run on any Unix/Linux workstation or PC. Operating systems: Linux or UNIX Program language used: Fortran-90 Numerical libraries used: Source code for 6 routines from the NAG and BLAS libraries is included to enable independent compilation. Memory required to execute with typical data: 9 Mbytes of RAM memory and 12 MB of hard disk space. No. of bits in a word: 32 or 64 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 116 514 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 15 574 Distribution format: tar gzip file Nature of physical problem: The program calculates eigenenergies and eigenstates for the three body problem by solving the Faddeev equations. Method of solution: Given the two body effective potentials it performs the supersymmetric transformation in case where there are forbidden states to be removed. The three body wavefunction is expanded in hyperspherical coordinates, the hyper-angular part is a series of Jacobi polynomials and the hyper-radial part is written in terms of a Laguerre basis. Within this basis the three body matrix elements are calculated

  10. A Phasin with Many Faces: Structural Insights on PhaP from Azotobacter sp. FA8

    PubMed Central

    Mezzina, Mariela P.; Wetzler, Diana E.; Catone, Mariela V.; Bucci, Hernan; Di Paola, Matias; Pettinari, M. Julia

    2014-01-01

    Phasins are a group of proteins associated to granules of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Apart from their structural role as part of the PHA granule cover, different structural and regulatory functions have been found associated to many of them, and several biotechnological applications have been developed using phasin protein fusions. Despite their remarkable functional diversity, the structure of these proteins has not been analyzed except in very few studies. PhaP from Azotobacter sp. FA8 (PhaPAz) is a representative of the prevailing type in the multifunctional phasin protein family. Previous work performed in our laboratory using this protein have demonstrated that it has some very peculiar characteristics, such as its stress protecting effects in recombinant Escherichia coli, both in the presence and absence of PHA. The aim of the present work was to perform a structural characterization of this protein, to shed light on its properties. Its aminoacid composition revealed that it lacks clear hydrophobic domains, a characteristic that appears to be common to most phasins, despite their lipid granule binding capacity. The secondary structure of this protein, consisting of α-helices and disordered regions, has a remarkable capacity to change according to its environment. Several experimental data support that it is a tetramer, probably due to interactions between coiled-coil regions. These structural features have also been detected in other phasins, and may be related to their functional diversity. PMID:25077609

  11. Deflection-Based Structural Loads Estimation From the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizotte, Andrew M.; Lokos, William A.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional techniques in structural load measurement entail the correlation of a known load with strain-gage output from the individual components of a structure or machine. The use of strain gages has proved successful and is considered the standard approach for load measurement. However, remotely measuring aerodynamic loads using deflection measurement systems to determine aeroelastic deformation as a substitute to strain gages may yield lower testing costs while improving aircraft performance through reduced instrumentation weight. This technique was examined using a reliable strain and structural deformation measurement system. The objective of this study was to explore the utility of a deflection-based load estimation, using the active aeroelastic wing F/A-18 aircraft. Calibration data from ground tests performed on the aircraft were used to derive left wing-root and wing-fold bending-moment and torque load equations based on strain gages, however, for this study, point deflections were used to derive deflection-based load equations. Comparisons between the strain-gage and deflection-based methods are presented. Flight data from the phase-1 active aeroelastic wing flight program were used to validate the deflection-based load estimation method. Flight validation revealed a strong bending-moment correlation and slightly weaker torque correlation. Development of current techniques, and future studies are discussed.

  12. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing of the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Olney, Candida D.; Chen, Tony; Crawford, Natalie D.; Stauf, Rick; Reichenbach, Eric Y.; Bessette, Denis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes strain-gage calibration loading through the application of known loads of the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 airplane. The primary goal of this test is to produce a database suitable for deriving load equations for left and right wing root and fold shear; bending moment; torque; and all eight wing control-surface hinge moments. A secondary goal is to produce a database of wing deflections measured by string potentiometers and the onboard flight deflection measurement system. Another goal is to produce strain-gage data through both the laboratory data acquisition system and the onboard aircraft data system as a check of the aircraft system. Thirty-two hydraulic jacks have applied loads through whiffletrees to 104 tension-compression load pads bonded to the lower wing surfaces. The load pads covered approximately 60 percent of the lower wing surface. A series of 72 load cases has been performed, including single-point, double-point, and distributed load cases. Applied loads have reached 70 percent of the flight limit load. Maximum wingtip deflection has reached nearly 16 in.

  13. Inlet Flow Characteristics During Rapid Maneuvers for an F/A-18A Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steenken, William G.; Williams, John G.; Walsh, Kevin R.

    1999-01-01

    The F404-GE-400 engine powered F/A-18A High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was used to examine the characteristics of inlet airflow during rapid aircraft maneuvers. A study of the degree of similarity between inlet data obtained during rapid aircraft maneuvers and inlet data obtained at steady aerodynamic attitudes was conducted at the maximum engine airflow of approximately 145 Ibm/sec using a computer model that was generated from inlet data obtained during steady aerodynamic maneuvers. Results show that rapid-maneuver inlet recoveries agreed very well with the recoveries obtained at equivalent stabilized angle-of-attack conditions. The peak dynamic circumferential distortion values obtained during rapid maneuvers agreed within 0.01 units of distortion over the 10 - 38 degree angle of attack range with the values obtained during steady aerodynamic maneuvers while similar agreement was found for the peak dynamic radial distortion values up to 29 degrees angle-of-attack. Exceedences of the rapid-maneuver peak dynamic circumferential distortion values relative to the peak distortion model values at steady attitudes occurred only at low or negative angles of attack and were inconsequential from an engine-stability assessment point of view. The results of this study validate the current industry practice of testing at steady aerodynamic conditions to characterize inlet recovery and peak dynamic distortion levels.

  14. Environmental embrittlement of iron-aluminide alloy FA-129 during gas tungsten arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Fasching, A.A.; Edwards, G.R.; David, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    Iron aluminides are susceptible to hydrogen cold cracking during gastungsten arc welding (GTAW). Cracking occurs by brittle fracture in the fusion zone, which has been attributed to excessive grain growth during solidification. To further investigate hydrogen cold cracking in iron aluminides and, specifically, to study the effect of base material grain size on fusion zone cracking susceptibility, base materials of varying grain size were GTAW. The specimens for this investigation came from a production-sized vacuum arc remelt (VAR) ingot. The results of this investigation showed that changes in either the base material thermomechanical processing or the common welding parameters could not easily be used to refine the fusion zone grain size. This investigation showed that conventional GTAW produced coarse fusion zone grain structures even in fine-grained base material. The results also revealed that fracture strength decreased only slightly with a decrease in heat input, but exhibited a dramatic decrease as the water vapor content increased. in addition, the unrecrystallized base material showed the greatest susceptibility toward hydrogen cold cracking. Fracture stress versus grain size plots at different levels of water vapor were produced for iron-aluminide alloy FA-129.

  15. Papiliotrema siamense f.a., sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Surussawadee, Janjira; Khunnamwong, Pannida; Srisuk, Nantana; Limtong, Savitree

    2014-09-01

    Two strains representing a novel species were isolated from the external surface of a sugar cane leaf (DMKU-SP85(T)) and tissue of a rice leaf (DMKU-RE97) collected in Thailand. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the two strains were determined to represent a novel species of the genus Papiliotrema although sexual reproduction was not observed. The sequences of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and ITS region of the two strains were identical, but differed from those of the type strain of Cryptococcus nemorosus by 0.6 % nucleotide substitutions (four nucleotide substitutions out of 597 nucleotides) in the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and 1.8 % nucleotide substitutions (nine nucleotide substitutions out of 499 nucleotides) in the ITS region. The name Papiliotrema siamense f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DMKU-SP85(T)( = BCC 69499(T) = CBS 13330(T)). PMID:24925598

  16. The aerodynamic characteristics of vortex ingestion for the F/A-18 inlet duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.

    1991-01-01

    A Reduced Navier-Stokes (RNS) solution technique was successfully combined with the concept of partitioned geometry and mesh generation to form a very efficient 3D RNS code aimed at the analysis-design engineering environment. Partitioned geometry and mesh generation is a pre-processor to augment existing geometry and grid generation programs which allows the solver to (1) recluster an existing gridlife mesh lattice, and (2) perturb an existing gridfile definition to alter the cross-sectional shape and inlet duct centerline distribution without returning to the external geometry and grid generator. The present results provide a quantitative validation of the initial value space marching 3D RNS procedure and demonstrates accurate predictions of the engine face flow field, with a separation present in the inlet duct as well as when vortex generators are installed to supress flow separation. The present results also demonstrate the ability of the 3D RNS procedure to analyze the flow physics associated with vortex ingestion in general geometry ducts such as the F/A-18 inlet. At the conditions investigated, these interactions are basically inviscid like, i.e., the dominant aerodynamic characteristics have their origin in inviscid flow theory.

  17. Induced Moment Effects of Formation Flight Using Two F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Cobleigh, Brent R.

    2002-01-01

    Previous investigations into formation flight have shown the possibility for significant fuel savings through drag reduction. Using two F/A-18 aircraft, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has investigated flying aircraft in autonomous formation. Positioning the trailing airplane for best drag reduction requires investigation of the wingtip vortex effects induced by the leading airplane. A full accounting of the vortex effect on the trailing airplane is desired to validate vortex-effect prediction methods and provide a database for the design of a formation flight autopilot. A recent flight phase has mapped the complete wingtip vortex effects at two flight conditions with the trailing airplane at varying distances behind the leading one. Force and moment data at Mach 0.56 and an altitude of 25,000 ft and Mach 0.86 and an altitude of 36,000 ft have been obtained with 20, 55, 110, and 190 ft of longitudinal distance between the aircraft. The moments induced by the vortex on the trailing airplane were well within the pilot's ability to control. This report discusses the data analysis methods and vortex-induced effects on moments and side force. An assessment of the impact of the nonlinear vortex effects on the design of a formation autopilot is offered.

  18. Spatial Characteristics of the Unsteady Differential Pressures on 16 percent F/A-18 Vertical Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.; Ashley, Holt

    1998-01-01

    Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon which plagues high performance aircraft at high angles of attack. For the F/A-18 at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their turbulent wake. The resulting buffeting of the vertical tails is a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. Previous flight and wind-tunnel investigations to determine the buffet loads on the tail did not provide a complete description of the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures. Consequently, the unsteady differential pressures were considered to be fully correlated in the analyses of buffet and buffeting. The use of fully correlated pressures in estimating the generalized aerodynamic forces for the analysis of buffeting yielded responses that exceeded those measured in flight and in the wind tunnel. To learn more about the spatial characteristics of the unsteady differential pressures, an available 16%, sting-mounted, F-18 wind-tunnel model was modified and tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the ACROBAT (Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet-Affected Tails) program. Surface pressures were measured at high angles of attack on flexible and rigid tails. Cross-correlation and cross-spectral analyses of the pressure time histories indicate that the unsteady differential pressures are not fully correlated. In fact, the unsteady differential pressure resemble a wave that travels along the tail. At constant angle of attack, the pressure correlation varies with flight speed.

  19. Twist Model Development and Results From the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizotte, Andrew; Allen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the wing twist of the active aeroelastic wing F/A-18 aircraft is a fundamental research objective for the program and offers numerous benefits. In order to clearly understand the wing flexibility characteristics, a model was created to predict real-time wing twist. A reliable twist model allows the prediction of twist for flight simulation, provides insight into aircraft performance uncertainties, and assists with computational fluid dynamic and aeroelastic issues. The left wing of the aircraft was heavily instrumented during the first phase of the active aeroelastic wing program allowing deflection data collection. Traditional data processing steps were taken to reduce flight data, and twist predictions were made using linear regression techniques. The model predictions determined a consistent linear relationship between the measured twist and aircraft parameters, such as surface positions and aircraft state variables. Error in the original model was reduced in some cases by using a dynamic pressure-based assumption and by using neural networks. These techniques produced excellent predictions for flight between the standard test points and accounted for nonlinearities in the data. This report discusses data processing techniques and twist prediction validation, and provides illustrative and quantitative results.

  20. Acoustic emission testing on an F/A-18 E/F titanium bulkhead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher A.; Van Way, Craig B.; Lockyer, Allen J.; Kudva, Jayanth N.; Ziola, Steve M.

    1995-04-01

    An important opportunity recently transpired at Northrop Grumman Corporation to instrument an F/A - 18 E/F titanium bulkhead with broad band acoustic emission sensors during a scheduled structural fatigue test. The overall intention of this effort was to investigate the potential for detecting crack propagation using acoustic transmission signals for a large structural component. Key areas of experimentation and experience included (1) acoustic noise characterization, (2) separation of crack signals from extraneous noise, (3) source location accuracy, and (4) methods of acoustic transducer attachment. Fatigue cracking was observed and monitored by strategically placed acoustic emission sensors. The outcome of the testing indicated that accurate source location still remains enigmatic for non-specialist engineering personnel especially at this level of structural complexity. However, contrary to preconceived expectations, crack events could be readily separated from extraneous noise. A further dividend from the investigation materialized in the form of close correspondence between frequency domain waveforms of the bulkhead test specimen tested and earlier work with thick plates.

  1. Active Control of F/A-18 Vertical Tail Buffeting using Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheta, Essam F.; Moses, Robert W.; Huttsell, Lawerence J.; Harrand, Vincent J.

    2003-01-01

    Vertical tail buffeting is a serious multidisciplinary problem that limits the performance of twin-tail fighter aircraft. The buffet problem occurs at high angles of attack when the vortical flow breaks down ahead of the vertical tails resulting in unsteady and unbalanced pressure loads on the vertical tails. This paper describes a multidisciplinary computational investigation for buffet load alleviation of full F/A-18 aircraft using distributed piezoelectric actuators. The inboard and outboard surfaces of the vertical tail are equipped with piezoelectric actuators to control the buffet responses in the first bending and torsion modes. The electrodynamics of the smart structure are expressed with a three-dimensional finite element model. A single-input-single-output controller is designed to drive the active piezoelectric actuators. High-fidelity multidisciplinary analysis modules for the fluid dynamics, structure dynamics, electrodynamics of the piezoelectric actuators, fluid-structure interfacing, and grid motion are integrated into a multidisciplinary computing environment that controls the temporal synchronization of the analysis modules. Peak values of the power spectral density of tail tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 22% in the first bending mode and by as much as 82% in the first torsion mode. RMS values of tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 12%.

  2. F/A-18 forebody vortex control. Volume 2: Rotary-balance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Brian R.; Suarez, Carlos J.; Malcolm, Gerald N.; Ayers, Bert F.

    1994-01-01

    A rotary-balance wind tunnel test was conducted on a six percent model of the F/A-18 at the NASA Ames 7 X 10-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The data reduction was specially written for the test in National Instruments' LabVIEW. The data acquisition, reduction and analysis was performed with a Macintosh computer. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of several forebody vortex control configurations in a rotary flow field. The devices that were found to be the most effective during the static tests (Volume 1) were investigated and included both mechanical and pneumatic configurations. The mechanical systems evaluated were small, single and dual, rotating nose tip strakes and a vertical nose strake. The jet blowing configuration used nozzles canted inboard 60 degrees. A two segment tangential slot was also evaluated. The different techniques were evaluated at angles of attack of 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 51 degrees, and 60 degrees. Sideslip and Reynolds number were varied for some of the configurations. All of the techniques proved to be effective in the rotating flow field. The vertical nose strake had the largest 'envelope' of effectiveness. Forebody vortex control provides large, robust yawing moments at medium to high angles of attack, even during combat maneuvers such as loaded roll.

  3. Full-scale high angle-of-attack tests of an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyn, Larry A.; Lanser, Wendy R.; James, Kevin D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of high angle-of-attack tests of a full-scale F/A-18 in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, California. A production aircraft was tested over an angle-of-attack range of 18 to 50 deg and at wind speeds of up to 100 knots. These tests had three primary test objectives. Pneumatic and mechanical forebody flow control devices were tested at full-scale and shown to produce significant yawing moments for lateral control of the aircraft at high angles of attack. Mass flow requirements for the pneumatic system were found to scale with freestream density and speed rather than freestream dynamic pressure. Detailed measurements of the pressures buffeting the vertical tail were made and spatial variations in the buffeting frequency were found. The LEX fence was found to have a significant effect on the frequency distribution on the outboard surface of the vertical fin. In addition to the above measurements, an extensive set of data was acquired for the validation of computational fluid dynamics codes and for comparison with flight test and small-scale wind tunnel test results.

  4. Early-life study of the FA409 full-depth asphalt-concrete pavement sections

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) is currently implementing a mechanistic thickness-design procedure for full-depth asphalt-concrete pavements. This thesis is an early design-life investigation of full-depth asphalt-concrete pavements, constructed on FA409 near Carlyle, Illinois in 1986. Included in the study are: sampling and testing of paving and subgrade materials; extensive non-destructive testing (NDT) using the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD); development of techniques for interpreting NDT data; determination of as-built structural characteristics of the various pavement sections; evaluation of subsurface drainage and lime-treated soil behavior; and examination of the validity of the ILLI-PAVE computer model. The simplicity of a full-depth asphalt-concrete pavement allows useful information regarding pavement structure to be determined from FWD surface-deflection data. The ILLI-PAVE model was used in conjunction with statistical methods to quantify, in the form of regression equations or algorithms, the relationship between pavement structure (Tac, Eac, and Eri) and pavement response to FWD loading. Testing of pavement and subgrade material samples as used to validate these algorithms.

  5. Update: HFC 245fa Blown Foam Development with External Tank Spray Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) Materials Research Laboratory is currently investigating environmentally friendly blowing agents for use in the insulations of the Space Shuttle's External Tank. The original TPS foam materials of the External Tank were blown with chlorofluorocarbon 11, which is now regulated because of its high Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP). Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), with an ODP that is one tenth that of CFCs, have been widely adopted as an interim blowing agent in urethane insulations. In FY96, Lockheed Martin completed the production qualification and validation of HCFC 141b blown insulations. Because of the expected limited commercial lifetime of HCFC 141b, research efforts are underway to identify and develop alternatives with zero ODP. HFC245fa (1,1,1,3,3-pentaflouropropane) has been chosen by the manufacturer as a third-generation blowing agent to be marketed commercially. Preliminary work evaluating this third-generation candidate has demonstrated promising material mechanical property data. Favorable results from small-scale spray activities have justified evaluations using production foam processing spray parameters. With the scale-up of the spray equipment, however, additional processing issues have been identified. This paper will present data collected to date regarding the use of this blowing agent in External Tank spray foams.

  6. Aeroservoelastic Model Validation and Test Data Analysis of the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.; Prazenica, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Model validation and flight test data analysis require careful consideration of the effects of uncertainty, noise, and nonlinearity. Uncertainty prevails in the data analysis techniques and results in a composite model uncertainty from unmodeled dynamics, assumptions and mechanics of the estimation procedures, noise, and nonlinearity. A fundamental requirement for reliable and robust model development is an attempt to account for each of these sources of error, in particular, for model validation, robust stability prediction, and flight control system development. This paper is concerned with data processing procedures for uncertainty reduction in model validation for stability estimation and nonlinear identification. F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) aircraft data is used to demonstrate signal representation effects on uncertain model development, stability estimation, and nonlinear identification. Data is decomposed using adaptive orthonormal best-basis and wavelet-basis signal decompositions for signal denoising into linear and nonlinear identification algorithms. Nonlinear identification from a wavelet-based Volterra kernel procedure is used to extract nonlinear dynamics from aeroelastic responses, and to assist model development and uncertainty reduction for model validation and stability prediction by removing a class of nonlinearity from the uncertainty.

  7. F/A-18 1/9th scale model tail buffet measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. A.; Glaister, M. K.; Maclaren, L. D.; Meyn, L. A.; Ross, J.

    1991-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were carried out on a 1/9th scale model of the F/A-18 at high angles of attack to investigate the characteristics of tail buffet due to bursting of the wing leading edge extension (LEX) vortices. The tests were carried out at the Aeronautical Research Laboratory low-speed wind tunnel facility and form part of a collaborative activity with NASA Ames Research Center, organized by The Technical Cooperative Program (TTCP). Information from the program will be used in the planning of similar collaborative tests, to be carried out at NASA Ames, on a full-scale aircraft. The program covered the measurement of unsteady pressures and fin vibration for cases with and without the wing LEX fences fitted. Fourier transform methods were used to analyze the unsteady data, and information on the spatial and temporal content of the vortex burst pressure field was obtained. Flow visualization of the vortex behavior was carried out using smoke and a laser light sheet technique.

  8. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance by adapting an otherwise welltuned classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This AAC algorithm is currently part of the baseline design for the SLS Flight Control System (FCS), but prior to this series of research flights it was the only component of the autopilot design that had not been flight tested. The Space Launch System (SLS) flight software prototype, including the adaptive component, was recently tested on a piloted aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) which has the capability to achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle. Scenarios for the flight test campaign were designed specifically to evaluate the AAC algorithm to ensure that it is able to achieve the expected performance improvements with no adverse impacts in nominal or nearnominal scenarios. Having completed the recent series of flight characterization experiments on DFRC's F/A-18, the AAC algorithm's capability, robustness, and reproducibility, have been successfully demonstrated. Thus, the entire SLS control architecture has been successfully flight tested in a relevant environment. This has increased NASA's confidence that the autopilot design is ready to fly on the SLS Block I vehicle and will exceed the performance of previous architectures.

  9. Review of Full-Scale F/A-18 Research at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Lawrence E.; Schmitz, Fredric H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Results of flow visualization and tail buffett studies conducted on a full-scale production F/A-18 fighter aircraft in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex are presented. Test conditions range between 20 degrees and 40 degrees angle of attack, 16 degrees and -16 degrees side-slip angle, and up to a Mach number of 0.15 (corresponding to a Reynolds number of 12.3 x 10(exp 6) based on mean aerodynamic chord). Flow visualization results include both surface and off-surface techniques that examine forebody, canopy, leading-edge extension, and wing flow fields. Unsteady pressures measured at 96 locations on the port tail fin are used to determine the effect of a removable leading-edge extension fence on tail buffet loads at high angle of attack. Analyses and comparisons include tail fin bending moment and wave velocities on the tail surface. Repeatability and scaling issues are assessed through comparison with measurements from previous full-scale tests and several small-scales tests.

  10. Functional characterization of FaNIP1;1 gene, a ripening-related and receptacle-specific aquaporin in strawberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco J; Medina-Puche, Laura; Gelis, Samuel; Ramos, José; Sabir, Farzana; Soveral, Graça; Prista, Catarina; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Caballero, José L; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Blanco-Portales, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    Strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa) is a soft fruit with high water content at ripe stage (more than 90% of its fresh weight). Aquaporins play an important role in plant water homeostasis, through the facilitation of water transport and solutes. We report the role played by FaNIP1;1 in the receptacle ripening process. The analysis by qRT-PCR of FaNIP1;1 showed that this gene is mainly expressed in fruit receptacle and has a ripening-related expression pattern that was accompanied by an increase in both the abscisic acid and water content of the receptacle throughout fruit ripening. Moreover, FaNIP1;1 was induced in situations of water deficit. Additionally, we show that FaNIP1;1 expression was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively regulated by auxins. The water transport capacity of FaNIP1;1 was determined by a stopped-flow spectroscopy in yeast over-expressing FaNIP1;1. Glycerol, H2O2 and boron transport were also demonstrated in yeast. On the other hand, GFP-FaNIP1;1 fusion protein was located in plasma membrane. In conclusion, FaNIP1;1 seems to play an important role increasing the plasma membrane permeability, that allows the water accumulation in the strawberry fruit receptacle throughout the ripening process. PMID:26259188

  11. Characterization of a chromosomal type II toxin-antitoxin system mazEaFa in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Ning, Degang; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Zhaoying; Xu, Qinggang

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have evolved to survive stressful environmental changes by regulating growth, however, the underlying mechanism for this is obscure. The ability of chromosomal type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems to modulate growth or cell death has been documented in a variety of prokaryotes. A chromosomal mazEaFa locus of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 has been predicted as a putative mazEF TA system. Here we demonstrate that mazEaFa form a bicistronic operon that is co-transcribed under normal growth conditions. Overproduction of MazFa induced Anabaena growth arrest which could be neutralized by co-expression of MazEa. MazFa also inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli cells, and this effect could be overcome by simultaneous or subsequent expression of MazEa via formation of the MazEa-MazFa complex in vivo, further confirming the nature of the mazEaFa locus as a type II TA system. Interestingly, like most TA systems, deletion of mazEaFa had no effect on the growth of Anabaena during the tested stresses. Our data suggest that mazEaFa, or together with other chromosomal type II TA systems, may promote cells to cope with particular stresses by inducing reversible growth arrest of Anabaena.

  12. Functional characterization of FaNIP1;1 gene, a ripening-related and receptacle-specific aquaporin in strawberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco J; Medina-Puche, Laura; Gelis, Samuel; Ramos, José; Sabir, Farzana; Soveral, Graça; Prista, Catarina; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Caballero, José L; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Blanco-Portales, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    Strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa) is a soft fruit with high water content at ripe stage (more than 90% of its fresh weight). Aquaporins play an important role in plant water homeostasis, through the facilitation of water transport and solutes. We report the role played by FaNIP1;1 in the receptacle ripening process. The analysis by qRT-PCR of FaNIP1;1 showed that this gene is mainly expressed in fruit receptacle and has a ripening-related expression pattern that was accompanied by an increase in both the abscisic acid and water content of the receptacle throughout fruit ripening. Moreover, FaNIP1;1 was induced in situations of water deficit. Additionally, we show that FaNIP1;1 expression was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively regulated by auxins. The water transport capacity of FaNIP1;1 was determined by a stopped-flow spectroscopy in yeast over-expressing FaNIP1;1. Glycerol, H2O2 and boron transport were also demonstrated in yeast. On the other hand, GFP-FaNIP1;1 fusion protein was located in plasma membrane. In conclusion, FaNIP1;1 seems to play an important role increasing the plasma membrane permeability, that allows the water accumulation in the strawberry fruit receptacle throughout the ripening process.

  13. Orientations of Iron-Sulfur Clusters FA and FB in the Homodimeric Type-I Photosynthetic Reaction Center of Heliobacterium modesticaldum.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Toru; Matsuoka, Masahiro; Azai, Chihiro; Itoh, Shigeru; Oh-Oka, Hirozo

    2016-05-12

    Orientations of the FA and FB iron-sulfur (FeS) clusters in a structure-unknown type-I homodimeric heriobacterial reaction center (hRC) were studied in oriented membranes of the thermophilic anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium Heliobacterium modesticaldum by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and compared with those in heterodimeric photosystem I (PS I). The Rieske-type FeS center in the cytochrome b/c complex showed a well-oriented EPR signal. Illumination at 14 K induced an FB(-) signal with g-axes of gz = 2.066, gy = 1.937, and gx = 1.890, tilted at angles of 60°, 60°, and 45°, respectively, with respect to the membrane normal. Chemical reduction with dithionite produced an additional signal of FA(-), which magnetically interacted with FB(-), with gz = 2.046, gy = 1.942, and gx = 1.911 at 30°, 60°, and 90°, respectively. The angles and redox properties of FA(-) and FB(-) in hRC resemble those of FB(-) and FA(-), respectively, in PS I. Therefore, FA and FB in hRC, named after their g-value similarities, seem to be located like FB and FA, not like FA and FB, respectively, in PS I. The reducing side of hRC could resemble those in PS I, if the names of FA and FB are interchanged with each other.

  14. Anti microbial and anti-oxidant properties of the isolated compounds from the methanolic extract from the leaves of Tectona grandis

    PubMed Central

    Nayeem, Naira; Karvekar, MD

    2011-01-01

    The compounds Gallic acid (GA), rutin(R), quercitin (Q), ellagic acid (EA) and sitosterol(S) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Tectona grandis. These compounds were subjected to antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The zone of inhibition of isolated compounds was evaluated by cup plate method against bacteria i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Eschericia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and fungi Candida albicans. The anti oxidant activity of the extract and the isolated compounds were evaluated by using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). Rutin has shown significant anti microbial activity against both the gram positive and gram negative bacteria when compared to the other compounds. The results of the anti oxidant activity revealed that quercitin showed good activity followed by rutin gallic acid, ellagic acid and sitosterol. The difference in both these activities of the isolated compounds was attributed to the number and position of the phenolic OH groups PMID:24826018

  15. Partial purification and characterization of the short-chain prenyltransferases, gernayl diphospate synthase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase, from Abies grandis (grand fir).

    PubMed

    Tholl, D; Croteau, R; Gershenzon, J

    2001-02-15

    In the conifer Abies grandis (grand fir), a secreted oleoresin rich in mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes serves as a constitutive and induced defense against insects and pathogenic fungi. Geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase, two enzymes which form the principal precursors of the oleoresin mono- and sesquiterpenes, were isolated from the stems of 2-year-old grand fir saplings. These enzymes were partially purified by sequential chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, Mono-Q, and phenyl-Sepharose to remove competing phosphohydrolase and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) isomerase activities. GPP and FPP synthase formed GPP and E,E-FPP, respectively, as the sole products of the enzymatic condensation of IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The properties of both enzymes are broadly similar to those of other prenyltransferases. The apparent native molecular masses are 54 +/- 3 kDa for GPP synthase and 110 +/- 6 kDa fo

  16. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Raquel S.; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B.; Moura, Hudson F. N.; de Macedo, Leonardo L. P.; Arraes, Fabrício B. M.; Lucena, Wagner A.; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T.; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A.; da Silva, Maria C. M.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  17. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  18. Critical coupling layer thickness for positive or negative Goos-Hänchen shifts near the excitation of backward surface polaritons in Otto-ATR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Mariana A.; Cuevas, Mauro; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the lateral displacement (Goos-Hänchen shift) of spatially limited beams reflected from attenuated total reflection (ATR) devices in the Otto configuration when backward surface plasmon polaritons are excited at the interface between a positive refractive index slab and a semi-infinite metamaterial with a negative refractive index. First, the stationary phase approximation and a phenomenological model based on the properties of the complex poles and zeroes of the reflection coefficient are used to demonstrate that: (i) the excitation of backward surface waves can lead to both negative and positive (and not exclusively negative) Goos-Hänchen shifts, and (ii) the sign of the shift depends on whether the value of the coupling layer thickness is higher or lower than a critical value characteristic of the ATR structure. Then, these findings are verified through rigorous calculations of the spatial structure of the reflected beam. For incident beams with a Gaussian profile, the lateral shift calculated as the first moment of the field distribution of the reflected beam agrees quite well with the predictions of approximate analysis. Near the resonant excitation of the backward surface plasmon polariton, large (negative or positive) Goos-Hänchen shifts are obtained, along with a splitting of the reflected beam.

  19. GLUCOMANNAN AND GLUCOMANNAN PLUS SPIRULINA-ENRICHED SQUID-SURIMI ADDED TO HIGH SATURATED DIET AFFECT GLYCEMIA, PLASMA AND ADIPOSE LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN GROWING FA/FA RATS.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, M José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a very prevalent chronic disease. Among dietary factors for its prevention and treatment, interest has grown in satiating fibre (konjac glucomannan) and spirulina. Our previous studies suggest that glucomannan itself and/or in conjunction to spirulina displayed hypolipemic and antioxidant effects when incorporated to squid surimi as functional ingredients. The present study aims to determine whether glucomannan- enriched or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi improve plasma glucose and insulin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats fed a high saturated fat diet. Twenty four growing rats, divided into three groups, were given modified AIN-93M diets for seven weeks: 30% squid-surimi control diet (C), 30% glucomannan-enriched squid-surimi diet (G) and 30% glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi diet (GS). All rats became hyperglycemics and hyperinsulinemics, but G and GS diets induced significantly lower glucose levels (20%; p < 0.05) but did not modify insulinemia with respect to C diet. GS animals showed higher HOMA-D (p < 0.05) than C ones suggesting increased insulin availability. Plasma leptin and adiponectin decreased in G and GS vs. C group (p < 0.05). Adipose adiponectin increased significantly in G and GS vs. C rats (16-20 times, p < 0.01). Leptin in adipose tissue was higher in GS vs. G group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both glucomannan-diets were able to reduce hyperglycemia and increase adipose tissue adiponectin levels in fa/fa rats, suggesting an anti-hypertrophic and insulin-sensitizing adipokine effect in this tissue. Spirulina inclusion increased insulin availability. Although results are promising, the utility of consuming glucomannan surimis as part of usual diets demands future studies.

  20. GLUCOMANNAN AND GLUCOMANNAN PLUS SPIRULINA-ENRICHED SQUID-SURIMI ADDED TO HIGH SATURATED DIET AFFECT GLYCEMIA, PLASMA AND ADIPOSE LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN GROWING FA/FA RATS.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, M José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a very prevalent chronic disease. Among dietary factors for its prevention and treatment, interest has grown in satiating fibre (konjac glucomannan) and spirulina. Our previous studies suggest that glucomannan itself and/or in conjunction to spirulina displayed hypolipemic and antioxidant effects when incorporated to squid surimi as functional ingredients. The present study aims to determine whether glucomannan- enriched or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi improve plasma glucose and insulin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats fed a high saturated fat diet. Twenty four growing rats, divided into three groups, were given modified AIN-93M diets for seven weeks: 30% squid-surimi control diet (C), 30% glucomannan-enriched squid-surimi diet (G) and 30% glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi diet (GS). All rats became hyperglycemics and hyperinsulinemics, but G and GS diets induced significantly lower glucose levels (20%; p < 0.05) but did not modify insulinemia with respect to C diet. GS animals showed higher HOMA-D (p < 0.05) than C ones suggesting increased insulin availability. Plasma leptin and adiponectin decreased in G and GS vs. C group (p < 0.05). Adipose adiponectin increased significantly in G and GS vs. C rats (16-20 times, p < 0.01). Leptin in adipose tissue was higher in GS vs. G group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both glucomannan-diets were able to reduce hyperglycemia and increase adipose tissue adiponectin levels in fa/fa rats, suggesting an anti-hypertrophic and insulin-sensitizing adipokine effect in this tissue. Spirulina inclusion increased insulin availability. Although results are promising, the utility of consuming glucomannan surimis as part of usual diets demands future studies. PMID:26667726

  1. Occurrence of Far-Red Light Photoacclimation (FaRLiP) in Diverse Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Fei; Shen, Gaozhong; Bryant, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have evolved a number of acclimation strategies to sense and respond to changing nutrient and light conditions. Leptolyngbya sp. JSC-1 was recently shown to photoacclimate to far-red light by extensively remodeling its photosystem (PS) I, PS II and phycobilisome complexes, thereby gaining the ability to grow in far-red light. A 21-gene photosynthetic gene cluster (rfpA/B/C, apcA2/B2/D2/E2/D3, psbA3/D3/C2/B2/H2/A4, psaA2/B2/L2/I2/F2/J2) that is specifically expressed in far-red light encodes the core subunits of the three major photosynthetic complexes. The growth responses to far-red light were studied here for five additional cyanobacterial strains, each of which has a gene cluster similar to that in Leptolyngbya sp. JSC-1. After acclimation all five strains could grow continuously in far-red light. Under these growth conditions each strain synthesizes chlorophylls d, f and a after photoacclimation, and each strain produces modified forms of PS I, PS II (and phycobiliproteins) that absorb light between 700 and 800 nm. We conclude that these photosynthetic gene clusters are diagnostic of the capacity to photoacclimate to and grow in far-red light. Given the diversity of terrestrial environments from which these cyanobacteria were isolated, it is likely that FaRLiP plays an important role in optimizing photosynthesis in terrestrial environments. PMID:25551681

  2. Transonic Unsteady Aerodynamics of the F/A-18E at Conditions Promoting Abrupt Wing Stall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.; Byrd, James E.

    2003-01-01

    A transonic wind tunnel test of an 8% F/A-18E model was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel (16-Ft TT) to investigate the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) characteristics of this aircraft. During this test, both steady and unsteady measurements of balance loads, wing surface pressures, wing root bending moments, and outer wing accelerations were performed. The test was conducted with a wide range of model configurations and test conditions in an attempt to reproduce behavior indicative of the AWS phenomenon experienced on full-scale aircraft during flight tests. This paper focuses on the analysis of the unsteady data acquired during this test. Though the test apparatus was designed to be effectively rigid. model motions due to sting and balance flexibility were observed during the testing, particularly when the model was operating in the AWS flight regime. Correlation between observed aerodynamic frequencies and model structural frequencies are analyzed and presented. Significant shock motion and separated flow is observed as the aircraft pitches through the AWS region. A shock tracking strategy has been formulated to observe this phenomenon. Using this technique, the range of shock motion is readily determined as the aircraft encounters AWS conditions. Spectral analysis of the shock motion shows the frequencies at which the shock oscillates in the AWS region, and probability density function analysis of the shock location shows the propensity of the shock to take on a bi-stable and even tri-stable character in the AWS flight regime.

  3. Navier-Stokes, flight, and wind tunnel flow analysis for the F/A-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffari, Farhad

    1994-01-01

    Computational analysis of flow over the F/A-18 aircraft is presented along with complementary data from both flight and wind tunnel experiments. The computational results are based on the three-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes formulation and are obtained from an accurate surface representation of the fuselage, leading-edge extension (LEX), and the wing geometry. However, the constraints imposed by either the flow solver and/or the complexity associated with the flow-field grid generation required certain geometrical approximations to be implemented in the present numerical model. In particular, such constraints inspired the removal of the empennage and the blocking (fairing) of the inlet face. The results are computed for three different free-stream flow conditions and compared with flight test data of surface pressure coefficients, surface tuft flow, and off-surface vortical flow characteristics that included breakdown phenomena. Excellent surface pressure coefficient correlations, both in terms of magnitude and overall trend, are obtained on the forebody throughout the range of flow conditions. Reasonable pressure agreement was obtained over the LEX; the general correlation tends to improve at higher angles of attack. The surface tuft flow and the off-surface vortex flow structures compared qualitatively well with the flight test results. To evaluate the computational results, a wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effects of existing configurational differences between the flight vehicle and the numerical model on aerodynamic characteristics. In most cases, the geometrical approximations made to the numerical model had very little effect on overall aerodynamic characteristics.

  4. Design and development of an F/A-18 inlet distortion rake: A cost and time saving solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuhas, Andrew J.; Ray, Ronald J.; Burley, Richard R.; Steenken, William G.; Lechtenberg, Leon; Thornton, Don

    1995-01-01

    An innovative inlet total pressure distortion measurement rake has been designed and developed for the F/A-18 A/B/C/D aircraft inlet. The design was conceived by NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines personnel. This rake has been flight qualified and flown in the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The eight-legged, one-piece, wagon wheel design of the rake was developed at a reduced cost and offered reduced installation time compared to traditional designs. The rake features 40 dual-measurement ports for low- and high-frequency pressure measurements with the high-frequency transducer mounted at the port. This high-frequency transducer offers direct absolute pressure measurements from low to high frequencies of interest, thereby allowing the rake to be used during highly dynamic aircraft maneuvers. Outstanding structural characteristics are inherent to the design through its construction and use of lightweight materials.

  5. An H-Infinity Approach to Control Synthesis with Load Minimization for the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick

    1999-01-01

    The F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing research aircraft will demonstrate technologies related to aeroservoelastic effects such as wing twist and load minimization. This program presents several challenges for control design that are often not considered for traditional aircraft. This paper presents a control design based on H-infinity synthesis that simultaneously considers the multiple objectives associated with handling qualities, actuator limitations, and loads. A point design is presented to demonstrate a controller and the resulting closed-loop properties.

  6. Natural abundance stable carbon isotope evidence for the routing and de novo synthesis of bone FA and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Jim, Susan; Ambrose, Stanley H; Evershed, Richard P

    2003-02-01

    This research reported in this paper investigated the relationship between diet and bone FA and cholesterol in rats raised on a variety of isotopically controlled diets comprising 20% C3 or C4 protein (casein) and C3 and/or C4 nonprotein or energy (sucrose, starch, and oil) macronutrients. Compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (delta13C) was performed on the FA (16:0, 18:0, 18:1, and 18:2) and cholesterol isolated from the diet (n = 4) and bone (n = 8) of these animals. The dietary signals reflected by the bone lipids were investigated using linear regression analysis. delta13C values of bone cholesterol and stearic (18:0) acid were shown to reflect whole-diet delta13C values, whereas the delta13C values of bone palmitic (16:0), oleic (18:1), and linoleic (18:2) acids reflected dietary FA delta13C values. Dietary signal differences are a result of the balance between direct incorporation (or routing) and de novo synthesis of each of these bone lipids. Estimates of the degree of routing of these bone lipids gleaned from correlations between delta13C(dlipid-wdiet) (= delta13C(diet lipid) - delta13C(whole diet)) spacings and delta13C(blipid-wdiet) (= delta13C(bone lipid) - delta13C(whole diet)) fractionations demonstrated that the extent of routing, where 18:2 > 16:0 > 18:1 > 18:0 > cholesterol, reflected the relative abundances of these lipids in the diet. These findings provide the basis for more accurate insights into diet when the delta13C analysis of bone fatty FA or cholesterol is employed.

  7. Smoke generators show the twisting paths of wingtip vortices behind two NASA Dryden F/A-18 jets used

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Smoke generators show the twisting paths of wingtip vortices behind two NASA Dryden F/A-18 jets used in the Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) program. A vortex is a spiraling current of air emanating from aircraft wingtips as they fly. By mapping the vortex pattern and using sophisticated software to put the trailing aircraft in the optimum location, the energy of the vortex could result in fuel savings for the follower aircraft of 15 percent or more.

  8. A NASA F/A-18, participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project, flies over the Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA F/A-18 flies over the Dryden Flight Research Center and Rogers Dry Lake on December 11, 2002. The aircraft is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. The 300-gallon aerial refueling store seen on the belly of the aircraft carries fuel and a refueling drogue. This aircraft acts as a tanker in the study to develop an aerodynamic model for future automated aerial refueling, especially of unmanned vehicles.

  9. Fluorophore Absorption Size Exclusion Chromatography (FA-SEC): An Alternative Method for High-Throughput Detergent Screening of Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Yao; Sun, Xing-Han; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Shao-En; Li, Guan-Syun; Hu, Nien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins play key roles in many fundamental functions in cells including ATP synthesis, ion and molecule transporter, cell signalling and enzymatic reactions, accounting for ~30% genes of whole genomes. However, the hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins frequently hampers the progress of structure determination. Detergent screening is the critical step in obtaining stable detergent-solubilized membrane proteins and well-diffracting protein crystals. Fluorescence Detection Size Exclusion Chromatography (FSEC) has been developed to monitor the extraction efficiency and monodispersity of membrane proteins in detergent micelles. By tracing the FSEC profiles of GFP-fused membrane proteins, this method significantly enhances the throughput of detergent screening. However, current methods to acquire FSEC profiles require either an in-line fluorescence detector with the SEC equipment or an off-line spectrofluorometer microplate reader. Here, we introduce an alternative method detecting the absorption of GFP (FA-SEC) at 485 nm, thus making this methodology possible on conventional SEC equipment through the in-line absorbance spectrometer. The results demonstrate that absorption is in great correlation with fluorescence of GFP. The comparably weaker absorption signal can be improved by using a longer path-length flow cell. The FA-SEC profiles were congruent with the ones plotted by FSEC, suggesting FA-SEC could be a comparable and economical setup for detergent screening of membrane proteins. PMID:27332877

  10. Active Aeroelastic Wing Aerodynamic Model Development and Validation for a Modified F/A-18A Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Diebler, Corey G.

    2005-01-01

    A new aerodynamic model has been developed and validated for a modified F/A-18A airplane used for the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) research program. The goal of the program was to demonstrate the advantages of using the inherent flexibility of an aircraft to enhance its performance. The research airplane was an F/A-18A with wings modified to reduce stiffness and a new control system to increase control authority. There have been two flight phases. Data gathered from the first flight phase were used to create the new aerodynamic model. A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique was used to obtain stability and control derivatives. The derivatives were incorporated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F-18 simulation, validated, and used to develop new AAW control laws. The second phase of flights was used to evaluate the handling qualities of the AAW airplane and the control law design process, and to further test the accuracy of the new model. The flight test envelope covered Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.30 and dynamic pressures from 600 to 1250 pound-force per square foot. The results presented in this report demonstrate that a thorough parameter identification analysis can be used to improve upon models that were developed using other means. This report describes the parameter estimation technique used, details the validation techniques, discusses differences between previously existing F/A-18 models, and presents results from the second phase of research flights.

  11. A water tunnel flow visualization study of the vortex flow structures on the F/A-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Ramirez, Edgar J.

    1991-01-01

    The vortex flow structures occurring on the F/A-18 aircraft at high angles of attack were studied. A water tunnel was used to gather flow visualization data on the forebody vortex and the wing leading edge extension vortex. The longitudinal location of breakdown of the leading edge vortex was found to be consistently dependent on the angle of attack. Other parameters such as Reynolds number, model scale, and model fidelity had little influence on the overall behavior of the flow structures studied. The lateral location of the forebody vortex system was greatly influenced by changes in the angle of sideslip. Strong interactions can occur between the leading edge extension vortex and the forebody vortex. Close attention was paid to vortex induced flows on various airframe components of the F/A-18. Reynolds number and angle of attack greatly affected the swirling intensity, and therefore the strength of the studied vortices. Water tunnel results on the F/A-18 correlated well with those obtained in similar studies at both full and sub scale levels. The water tunnel can provide, under certain conditions, good simulations of realistic flows in full scale configurations.

  12. Fluorophore Absorption Size Exclusion Chromatography (FA-SEC): An Alternative Method for High-Throughput Detergent Screening of Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Yao; Sun, Xing-Han; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Shao-En; Li, Guan-Syun; Hu, Nien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins play key roles in many fundamental functions in cells including ATP synthesis, ion and molecule transporter, cell signalling and enzymatic reactions, accounting for ~30% genes of whole genomes. However, the hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins frequently hampers the progress of structure determination. Detergent screening is the critical step in obtaining stable detergent-solubilized membrane proteins and well-diffracting protein crystals. Fluorescence Detection Size Exclusion Chromatography (FSEC) has been developed to monitor the extraction efficiency and monodispersity of membrane proteins in detergent micelles. By tracing the FSEC profiles of GFP-fused membrane proteins, this method significantly enhances the throughput of detergent screening. However, current methods to acquire FSEC profiles require either an in-line fluorescence detector with the SEC equipment or an off-line spectrofluorometer microplate reader. Here, we introduce an alternative method detecting the absorption of GFP (FA-SEC) at 485 nm, thus making this methodology possible on conventional SEC equipment through the in-line absorbance spectrometer. The results demonstrate that absorption is in great correlation with fluorescence of GFP. The comparably weaker absorption signal can be improved by using a longer path-length flow cell. The FA-SEC profiles were congruent with the ones plotted by FSEC, suggesting FA-SEC could be a comparable and economical setup for detergent screening of membrane proteins.

  13. High-altitude searches for vulcanoids: Observations from F/A-18B aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durda, D. D.; Stern, S. A.

    2003-05-01

    We have conducted a high-altitude observing campaign to search for vulcanoids, a population of small, asteroid-like bodies hypothesized to reside in the dynamically stable region interior to Mercury's orbit (i.e., orbits with aphelia <0.21 AU). This airborne search campaign utilized our versatile and highly capable SWUIS-A (Southwest Universal Imaging System - Airborne) instrument flown with SwRI flight astronomers to an altitude of 49,000 ft MSL aboard NASA F/A-18B aircraft in order to obtain darker twilight conditions for near-Sun observing than are possible from the ground. The first observing run (3 nights) was successfully completed at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center during the March/April 2002 vernal equinox observing opportunity; the second observing run (3 nights) was completed during the September 2002 autumnal equinox observing opportunity. On each of the three evening and three morning twilight flights we recorded image data covering 250 square degrees of sky centered on the ecliptic from solar elongations of 6-18 deg. Reduction of the Mar/Apr and Sep 2002 data sets demonstrates that we are reliably detecting objects to magnitude V = 9.5-11 at 15-20 degrees solar elongation. This is significantly fainter than the instrument would have performed from the ground and comparable to the faintest stars visible in our space-based SOHO LASCO C3 coronagraph vulcanoids search (Durda et al. 2000; Icarus 148, 312-315). The SWUIS-A instrument itself is capable of imaging objects as faint as magnitude V = 13, corresponding to vulcanoids less than 10 km across, with a sufficiently dark sky background. For reference, V = 10 corresponds to a 18-km diameter object 1 AU from Earth and 0.15 AU from the sun with a Mercury-like geometric albedo of 14%. No vulcanoid candidates have been detected in the 49,000-ft altitude airborne observations to date. We thank NASA research pilots Rick Searfoss, Frank Batteas, Craig Bomben, and Dana Purifoy. This research is supported by

  14. Photosynthetic acclimation to drought stress in Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings is largely dependent on thermal dissipation and enhanced electron flux to photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Campos, Huitziméngari; Trejo, Carlos; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; García-Nava, Rodolfo; Conde-Martínez, F Víctor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío

    2014-10-01

    Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck, a crassulacean acid metabolism plant that is adapted to water-limited environments, has great potential for bioenergy production. However, drought stress decreases the requirement for light energy, and if the amount of incident light exceeds energy consumption, the photosynthetic apparatus can be injured, thereby limiting plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and re-watering on the photosynthetic efficiency of A. salmiana seedlings. The leaf relative water content and leaf water potential decreased to 39.6 % and -1.1 MPa, respectively, over 115 days of water withholding and recovered after re-watering. Drought caused a direct effect on photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in light-acclimated leaves, as indicated by a decrease in the photosynthetic electron transport rate. Additionally, down-regulation of photochemical activity occurred mainly through the inactivation of PSII reaction centres and an increased thermal dissipation capacity of the leaves. Prompt fluorescence kinetics also showed a larger pool of terminal electron acceptors in photosystem I (PSI) as well as an increase in some JIP-test parameters compared to controls, reflecting an enhanced efficiency and specific fluxes for electron transport from the plastoquinone pool to the PSI terminal acceptors. All the above parameters showed similar levels after re-watering. These results suggest that the thermal dissipation of excess energy and the increased energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII to the reduction of PSI end acceptors may be an important acclimation mechanism to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from over-excitation in Agave plants. PMID:24798124

  15. Photosynthetic acclimation to drought stress in Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings is largely dependent on thermal dissipation and enhanced electron flux to photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Campos, Huitziméngari; Trejo, Carlos; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; García-Nava, Rodolfo; Conde-Martínez, F Víctor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío

    2014-10-01

    Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck, a crassulacean acid metabolism plant that is adapted to water-limited environments, has great potential for bioenergy production. However, drought stress decreases the requirement for light energy, and if the amount of incident light exceeds energy consumption, the photosynthetic apparatus can be injured, thereby limiting plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and re-watering on the photosynthetic efficiency of A. salmiana seedlings. The leaf relative water content and leaf water potential decreased to 39.6 % and -1.1 MPa, respectively, over 115 days of water withholding and recovered after re-watering. Drought caused a direct effect on photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in light-acclimated leaves, as indicated by a decrease in the photosynthetic electron transport rate. Additionally, down-regulation of photochemical activity occurred mainly through the inactivation of PSII reaction centres and an increased thermal dissipation capacity of the leaves. Prompt fluorescence kinetics also showed a larger pool of terminal electron acceptors in photosystem I (PSI) as well as an increase in some JIP-test parameters compared to controls, reflecting an enhanced efficiency and specific fluxes for electron transport from the plastoquinone pool to the PSI terminal acceptors. All the above parameters showed similar levels after re-watering. These results suggest that the thermal dissipation of excess energy and the increased energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII to the reduction of PSI end acceptors may be an important acclimation mechanism to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from over-excitation in Agave plants.

  16. With a long flight data probe extending from its nose, this F/A-18A has been modified to conduct fli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    With a long flight data probe extending from its nose, this F/A-18A has been modified to conduct flight research in the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) project at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California.

  17. A modified F/A-18A sporting a distinctive red, white and blue paint scheme is the test aircraft for

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A modified F/A-18A sporting a distinctive red, white and blue paint scheme is the test aircraft for the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) project at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California.

  18. This modified F/A-18A with its distinctive red, white and blue paint scheme is the test aircraft for

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This modified F/A-18A with its distinctive red, white and blue paint scheme is the test aircraft for the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) project at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California.

  19. GNRs@SiO₂-FA in combination with radiotherapy induces the apoptosis of HepG2 cells by modulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Shen, Lei; He, Ke-Wu; Xiao, Wei-Hua

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the apoptosis of the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2, induced by treatment with folic acid-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods (GNRs@SiO2-FA) in combination with radiotherapy, and to determine the involvement of apoptosis-related proteins. An MTT colorimetric assay was used to assess the biocompatibility of GNRs@SiO2-FA. The distribution of GNRs@SiO2-FA into the cells was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HepG2 cells cultured in vitro were divided into the following 4 groups: i)the control group (untreated), ii) the GNRs@SiO2-FA group, iii) the radiotherapy group (iodine 125 seeds) and iv) the combination group (treated with GNRs@SiO2-FA and iodine 125 seeds) groups. The apoptosis of the HepG2 cells was detected by flow cytometry. The concentration range of <40 µg/ml GNRs@SiO2-FA was found to be safe for the biological activity of the HepG2 cells. GNRs@SiO2-FA entered the cytoplasm through endocytosis. The apoptotic rates of the HepG2 cells were higher in the GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy groups than in the control group (P<0.05). The apoptotic rate was also significantly higher in the combination group than the GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy groups (P<0.05). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the combination of GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy more effectively induces the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. These apoptotic effects are achieved by increasing the protein expression of Bax and caspase-3, and inhibiting the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Ki-67. The combination of GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy may thus prove to be a new approach in the treatment of primary liver cancer.

  20. Glucomannan and glucomannan plus spirulina added to pork significantly block dietary cholesterol effects on lipoproteinemia, arylesterase activity, and CYP7A1 expression in Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    González-Torres, Laura; Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; Olivero-David, Raúl; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González, Rafaela Raposo; González-Muñoz, Ma José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Zucker fa/fa rats easily develop dyslipidemia and obesity. Restructured pork (RP) is a suitable matrix for including functional ingredients. The effects of glucomannan- RP or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched RP on plasma lipid/lipoprotein levels, cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) expression, and arylesterase activity in growing fa/fa rats fed high-energy, high-fat cholesterol-enriched diets were tested. Groups of six rats each received diet containing 15% control-RP (C), 15% glucomannan-RP diet (G), 15% glucomannan + spirulina-RP diet (GS), and same diets enriched with 2.4% cholesterol and 0.49% cholic acid (cholesterol-enriched control (HC), cholesterol-enriched glucomannan (HG), and cholesterol-enriched glucomannan + spirulina (HGS) diets) over a 7-week period. C diet induced obesity, severe hyperglycemia, moderate hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Those facts were not significantly modified by G or GS diets. G diet increased CYP7A1 expression but decreased the total cholesterol/high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol ratio (p < 0.05) vs. C diet. GS vs. G diet increased (p < 0.05) CYP7A1 expression. HC vs. C diet reduced food intake, body weight gain, and plasma glucose (p < 0.01) but increased cholesterolemia (p < 0.01), lipidemia (plasma cholesterol plus triglycerides) (p < 0.001), cholesterol/triglyceride ratio in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), and HDL (p < 0.05), cholesterol transported by VLDL and intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) + low density lipoproteins (LDL), total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio and CYP7A1 expression (at least p < 0.05). HG and HGS diets vs. HC noticeably reduced lipidemia (p < 0.001), normalized VLDL and IDL + LDL lipid composition, and increased CYP7A1 expression (p < 0.01) but did not modify the cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. HGS vs. HG decreased triglyceridemia, the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index and increased arylesterase/HDL-cholesterol activity (p < 0