da Silva, Marcelo Felipe Rodrigues; Bezerra-Silva, Patrícia Cristina; de Lira, Camila Soledade; de Lima Albuquerque, Bheatriz Nunes; Agra Neto, Afonso Cordeiro; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Maciel, Jefferson Rodrigues; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz
Essential oil from fresh leaves of the shrub Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC was obtained in 0.21% (w/w) yield by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus. Thirty-one components, accounting for 96.61% of the leaf oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (30.62%), terpinolene (17.44%), trans -caryophyllene (6.27%), α-pinene (5.92%), δ-cadinene (4.92%), and Limonene (4.46%). Bioassays against larvae of the Dengue mosquito (Aedes aegypti) revealed that leaf oil (LC50 = 30.52 ppm), terpinolene (LC50 = 31.16 ppm), and pure 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (LC50 = 22.1 ppm) possessed larvicidal activities and are able to interfere with the activity of proteases from L4 gut enzymes. Additionally, the essential oil exhibited a strong oviposition deterrent activity at 50 and 5 ppm. This paper constitutes the first report of biological activities associated with the essential oil of leaves of P. corcovadensis.
Cunico, Miriam M; Trebien, Herbert A; Galetti, Fábio C; Miguel, Obdulio G; Miguel, Marilis D; Auer, Celso G; Silva, Célio L; de Souza, Ana Olívia
Ottonia martiana is a plant popularly known in Brazil by the use for toothache. Ethanolic extract (EE), hexane fraction (HF), dichloromethane fraction (DF) and piperovatine obtained from O. martiana were assayed in vitro and in vivo. The acute toxicity of EE was determined, and LD50 values of 164.5 and 65.0 mg/kg by the oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively, indicated a high toxicity for EE in vivo, explaining its popular use by topical administration only. A local anesthetic-like effect of EE and its fractions was observed in experimental models using pain induction, and such effect involved an analgesic action. The antimycobacterial activity of EE, HF, DF and piperovatine was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27924. EE, HF, DF, and piperovatine showed a potential antimycobacterial effect with MICs of 16.0, 62.0, 62.0 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively. Piperovatine was more effective than the EE or the other fractions. The selectivity index (SI=IC50/MIC) values calculated for EE, HF, DF and piperovatine based on the MICs and the cytotoxicity against J774 macrophages (IC50 by MTT assay) revealed values of 6.43, 2.34, 1.5 and 9.66, respectively.
Yi, Y H; Gu, J Q; Xiao, K; Wang, Z Z; Lin, H W
The structures of two triterpenoids and their glycosides were isolated from Aralia dasyphylla Miq. Their structures have been identified to be oleanoic acid(I), 16 beta-hydroxy-18 beta-H-oleanoic acid(II), oleanoic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(III) and 16 beta-hydroxy-18 beta-H-oleanoic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(IV), respectively, mainly through interpretation of UV, IR, MS, 1H and 13CNMR, DEPT, HMQC and HMBC spectra data. The stereochemistry of II has been confirmed by NOESY. Pharmacological experiments showed that the total saponins exerted preventative effect on CCl4-induced liver injury of male mice and hypoglycemic effect on a model of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.
Fu, Yurong; Lai, Weiyong; Zhang, Junqing
20 batches of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. were collected from Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan province in China. The contents of heavy metals of As, Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cu were determined and compared. The results indicated that geographical source might be a major factor to influence the contents of heavy metals of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu) in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Compared to the criteria of heavy metals, the contents of As, Hg, Pb, and Cd in almost all the samples were in accordance with The Green Trade Standards. The contents of Cu were higher than the criteria for heavy metals except the samples from Changxing town, Qiongzhong county, Maoyang town, Qiongzhong county, Wupo town, Tunchang county, and Nanlv town, Tunchang county, in Hainan province. The best cultivation regions of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. were from Changxing town, Qiongzhong county, Maoyang town, Qiongzhong county, Wupo town, Tunchang county, and Nanlv town, Tunchang county, in Hainan province. This research would provide the scientific basis for quality control and standardization of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. PMID:27293963
Li, J M; Li, X W; Zhang, D Y; Xing, M
Explants excised from the young shoots of Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem. were cultured on MS media. Calli were induced from the explants on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D, 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA. Then these calli were transferred onto the MS medium containing 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D + 0.5 mg/L BA + 0.5 mg/L NAA and 0.2% activated charcoal. Under these conditions the somatic embryoids were observed and regenerated plants were obtained from somatic embryogenesis. Then, a experimental system with stability and high regenerating efficiency has been set up for the propagation of the young plants, the cell breeding technology and the control of somatic embryogenesis of Aralia elata (Miq.).
Baba, Takashi; Hirose, Dai; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Watanabe, Naoaki; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Kurashige, Yuji; Karimi, Fraidoon; Ban, Takuya
The root diameters as well as colonization and diversity of the root-associating fungi of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. were investigated in order to obtain information on their mycorrhizal properties. The distal regions of roots had typical hair roots with diameters of less than 100 μm. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ErMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) were frequently observed in the roots. Ascomycetes, particularly helotialean fungi, appeared to be dominant among the endophytic fungi of V. oldhamii roots. Furthermore, Rhizoscyphus ericae (Read) Zhuang & Korf and Oidiodendron maius Barron known as ErMF were detected more frequently than other fungal species. PMID:27297892
Baba, Takashi; Hirose, Dai; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Watanabe, Naoaki; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Kurashige, Yuji; Karimi, Fraidoon; Ban, Takuya
The root diameters as well as colonization and diversity of the root-associating fungi of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. were investigated in order to obtain information on their mycorrhizal properties. The distal regions of roots had typical hair roots with diameters of less than 100 μm. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ErMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) were frequently observed in the roots. Ascomycetes, particularly helotialean fungi, appeared to be dominant among the endophytic fungi of V. oldhamii roots. Furthermore, Rhizoscyphus ericae (Read) Zhuang & Korf and Oidiodendron maius Barron known as ErMF were detected more frequently than other fungal species.
Park, S-U; Chae, Y-A; Facchini, P J
Scrophularia buergeriana Miq. (figwort) contains a diverse group of bioactive natural products and is used to treat a variety of ailments, including fever, constipation, neuritis, and laryngitis. A transformation protocol was established for S. buergeriana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Kanamycin-resistant plants were regenerated from leaf explants co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain GV3101. The shoot regeneration medium was supplemented with 2 mg l(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine and 70 mg l(-1) putrescine to improve the efficiency of organogenesis. Detection of the neomycin phosphotransferase gene, the presence of high levels of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) transcripts and enzyme activity, and the histochemical localization of GUS confirmed the genetic transformation of S. buergeriana. This work demonstrates the potential of using A. tumefaciens to efficiently transfer foreign genes into a commercially and culturally important Oriental medicinal plant.
Comparative pharmacokinetic studies of peimine and peiminine in rat plasma by LC-MS-MS after oral administration of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. and Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. - Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. couple extract.
Chen, Lihua; Liu, Lili; Zhu, Weifeng; Zhang, Huimin; Yan, Zhihong; Liu, Hongning
A sensitive LC-MS-MS method has been successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of peimine and peiminine in rat plasma after oral administration of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. exact and Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. - Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. couple extract. The results indicated that plasma profiles of peimine and peiminine confirmed to two-compartment open model with weighting function of 1/C2 for data fitting and parameter estimation and the utilization with Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. could decrease C(max) and prolong MRT(0-infinity) and t1/2 of peimine remarkly with the bioavailability of peimine remained practically unchanged. Meanwhile, the concentration of peimine in rat plasma was more stable. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among all calculated parameters of peiminine.
Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Ping; Su, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Bing
A chemical investigation of the 80% ethanol extract of the seeds of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth.) Miq. led to the isolation of five new pregnane steroids, 17α,18,20S-trihydroxy-pregn-4-en-3,16-dione (1), 18-hydoxy-pregn-4,17(20)-trans-dien-3,16-dione (2), 3β,18-dihydroxy-pregn-5,17(20)-trans-dien-16-one (3), 2α,3β,4β,18-tetrahydroxy-pregn-5,17(20)-trans-dien-16-one (4), and 2α,3β,4β,17α,18,20S-hexahydroxy-pregn-5-en-16-one (5), along with two known compounds, 17α,20S-dihydroxy-pregn-4-en-3,16-dione (6) and 3β-hydroxy-pregn-5,17-dien-16-one (7). Structural elucidation of all the compounds was accomplished by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, and HRESIMS. The isolated compounds were tested in vitro for cytotoxic activities against seven tumor cell lines. As a result, pregnane-type steroids 1, 5 and 6 exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values <20μM against all tested tumor cell lines except meningioma cells (BEN-MEN-1).
Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo
Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity.
Ueda, Yoshimi; Oku, Hisae; Iinuma, Munekazu; Ishiguro, Kyoko
The anti-anaphylactic and anti-pruritic activities of a 35% EtOH extract (IT) of the flowers of Impatiens textori MIQ. were investigated by in vivo assay. IT and apigenin (1), apigenin 7-glucoside (2) and luteolin (3), principal compounds from IT, inhibited compound 48/80 (COM)-induced by blood pressure (BP) decrease, which was an immunoglobulin (Ig)E-independent anaphylaxis-like response. Compounds 1-3 all inhibited BP decrease induced by IgE-dependent anaphylaxis. Furthermore, IT also inhibited the blood flow (BF) decrease induced by antigen-induced anaphylaxis in actively sensitized mice. IT showed a significant inhibitory effect on scratching behavior induced by COM without a central depressant. IT also significantly inhibited platelet activating factor (PAF)- and serotonin (5-HT)-induced scratching behavior and mitigated protease (PA)-induced scratching behavior. These findings showed that the flowers of I. textori can be utilized as an anti-anaphylactic and anti-pruritic agent in addition to the traditional applications of this plant.
Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo
Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity. PMID:27099614
Mogana, R.; Teng-Jin, K.; Wiart, C.
Bioassay guided fractionation of an ethanol extract of leaves of Canarium patentinervium Miq. (Burseraceae Kunth.) led to the isolation of scopoletin. The structure of this coumarin was elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D) and mass spectrometry. Scopoletin inhibited the enzymatic activity of 5-lipoxygenase and acetyl cholinesterase with an IC50 equal to 1.76 ± 0.01 μM and 0.27 ± 0.02 mM, respectively, and confronted oxidation in the ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and β-carotene bleaching assay with EC50 values equal to 5.62 ± 0.03 μM, 0.19 ± 0.01 mM, 0.25 ± 0.03 mM and 0.65 ± 0.07 mM, respectively. Given the aforementioned evidence, it is tempting to speculate that scopoletin represents an exciting scaffold from which to develop leads for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23878606
Patel, Neil; Hodges, Samantha J.; Hall, Melanie; Benson, Philip E.; Marshman, Zoe; Cunningham, Susan J.
Objectives: To seek the views of adolescents with malocclusion about how the appearance and arrangement of their teeth affects their everyday life and to incorporate these views into a new Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ). Methods: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of 30 young people (10–16 years) referred for orthodontic treatment to two dental teaching hospitals. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using framework analysis. Several themes and sub themes were identified and these were used to identify items to include in the new measure. Results: Three themes emerged which were: concerns about the appearance of their teeth, effect on social interactions and oral health/function. Participants expressed the view that their teeth did not look normal, causing them embarrassment and a lack of confidence, particularly when they were with their peers or having their photograph taken. Concerns regarding the potential effect of a malocclusion on oral health, in terms of food becoming stuck between crooked teeth, interferences when chewing and increased risk of damaging the teeth were also identified. The themes were used to generate individual items for inclusion in the questionnaire. Conclusions: Common themes relating to the impact of malocclusion on the lives of young people were identified and generated items for the new MIQ to measure the oral health-related quality of life of young people with malocclusion. Part 2 outlines the further development and testing of the MIQ. PMID:26747334
Pang, Wensheng; Lin, Siding; Dai, Qiwen; Zhang, Hongcheng; Hu, Juan
Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax is one of the most widespread herbal and healthcare products in China. Extensive clinical use has shown that it has functions which "strengthens qi and generates saliva, moistens the lung and relieves cough". The ethyl acetate fraction extracted from the roots of the plant Pseudostellaria heterophylla exhibited a dose-dependent antitussive effect between 100 to 500 mg/kg. At a dose of 400 mg/kg, the ethyl acetate fraction treatment markedly prolonged the cough latent period and reduced the number of coughs in a guinea pig model induced by citric acid. Fall lung airway resistance, rise in dynamic lung compliance, decreased serum levels of IL-8, GM-CSF, TNF-α, and ET-1 in rat model of stable phase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induced by cigarette smoke exposure were also observed. These results suggest that ethyl acetate fraction has antitussive activity related to its improvement in lung function via attenuation of airway inflammation by adjustment of multi-cytokine levels.
Cai, Xianlei; Gao, Guang; Tang, Xiangming; Dong, Baili; Dai, Jiangyu; Chen, Dan; Song, Yuzhi
To investigate the effects of different habitats and plant growth status on abundance, biomass and community structure of epiphytic microbes, Potamogeton malaianus Miq. at two different habitats (Gonghu Bay and East Taihu) in Lake Taihu were collected in June, August and November (corresponding to the period of development of submerged macrophytes). The relative abundance of major epiphytic algae groups was determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the structures and dynamics of epiphytic bacteria were assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Results showed that the biomass of epiphytic microbes was not significant difference between the two sites, and the analysis of similarity found no significant intra-lake heterogeneity in community structure, but the temporal heterogeneity of epiphytic microbes was significant, which linked to the growth state of submerged macrophytes and water temperature. The difference in community structure between June and August was larger than that between August and November at each site, indicating that the growth status of submerged macrophytes has a greater impact on the community structure of epiphytic microbes than the seasonal variation of environmental conditions.
Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee
Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants.
Lee, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Eun-Mi
To prevent bone loss that occurs with increasing age, certain nutritional and pharmacological factors are needed. In the present study, the ethanol extract from the fruit of Rubus coreanus Miq. (RCE) was investigated for its effect on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. RCE (10approximately50 microg/ml) caused a significant elevation in cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen content, and osteocalcin secretion in the cells. The effect of RCE (50 microg/ml) in increasing cell viability, ALP activity, and collagen content was prevented by the presence of 10(-6) M cycloheximide and 10(-6) M tamoxifen, suggesting that RCE's effect results from a newly synthesized protein component and might be partly involved in estrogen action. We then examined the effect of RCE on the H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis and production of local factors in osteoblasts. Treatment with RCE (10approximately50 microg/ml) decreased the 0.2 mM H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6 and nitric oxide (NO) in osteoblasts. Our data indicate that the enhancement of osteoblast function by Rubus coreanus Miq. may result in the prevention of osteoporosis and inflammatory bone diseases.
Liu, Renmin; Sun, Qinghua; Shi, Yunrong; Kong, Lingyi
A preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method for isolation and purification of coumarin compounds from the Chinese medicinal plant Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim (Zihuaqianhu in Chinese) was successfully established by using light petroleum-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:7:4, v/v) as the two-phase solvent system. The upper phase of light petroleum-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:7:4, v/v) was used as the stationary phase of HSCCC. Nodakenetin (2.8 mg), 6.1 mg of Pd-C-IV, 7.3 mg of Pd-D-V, 4.7 mg of ostruthin, 7.8 mg of decursidin and 11.2 mg of decursitin C with the purity of 88.3%, 98.0%, 94.2%, 97.1%, 97.8% and 98.4%, respectively, were separated successfully in one-step separation from 150 mg of crude sample from P. decursivum (Miq.) Maxim. After purified by HSCCC again with light petroleum-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:4:5, v/v) as the two-phase solvent system, the purity of (I) can reach 99.4%. The structures of all the compounds were identified by 1H NMR and 13C NMR.
Shi, Shao-Huai; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Bing; Li, Huan; Liu, Ai-Jing; Wu, Bo; Bi, Kai-Shun
As a kind of medicine which can also be used as food, Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. has a long clinical history in China. A variety of studies demonstrated the significant neuroprotective activity effects of chloroform (CF) extract from the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla. In order to further elucidate the possible mechanisms of CF extract which mainly contains sesquiterpenes with neuroprotection on the cognitive ability, mice were injected with Aβ1−42 and later with CF in this study. The results showed that the long-term treatment of CF enhanced the cognitive performances in behavior tests, increased activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and amyloid-β (Aβ), and reversed the activation of microglia, degeneration of neuronal acidophilia, and nuclear condensation in the cortex and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that CF ameliorates learning and memory deficits by attenuating oxidative stress and regulating the activation of microglia and degeneration of neuronal acidophilia to reinforce cholinergic functions. PMID:25180067
Canarium odontophyllum (CO) Miq. has been considered as one of the most sought-after plant species in Sarawak, Malaysia, due to its nutritional and pharmacological benefits. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction of crude methanol and acetone extracts from CO leaves in combination with oxacillin, vancomycin, and linezolid, respectively, against MRSA ATCC 33591 as preliminary study has reported its potential antistaphylococcal activity. The broth microdilution assay revealed that both methanol and acetone extracts were bactericidal with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 312.5 μg/mL and 156.25 μg/mL and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of 625 μg/mL and 312.5 μg/mL, respectively. Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) indices were obtained via the chequerboard dilution assay where methanol extract-oxacillin, acetone extract-oxacillin, methanol extract-linezolid, and acetone extract-linezolid combinations exhibited synergism (FIC index ≤ 0.5). The synergistic action of the methanol extract-oxacillin combination was verified by time-kill analysis where bactericidal effect was observed at concentration of 1/8 × MIC of both compounds at 9.6 h compared to oxacillin alone. As such, these findings postulated that both extracts exert their anti-MRSA mechanism of action similar to that of vancomycin and provide evidence that the leaves of C. odontophyllum have the potential to be developed into antistaphylococcal agents. PMID:27006659
Shakirin, Faridah Hanim; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Amom, Zulkhairi; Cheng Yuon, Lau
The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of pulp and kernel oils of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO) on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress of healthy rabbits. The oils are rich in SFAs and MUFAs (mainly palmitic and oleic acids). The pulp oil is rich in polyphenols. Male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were fed for 4 weeks on a normal diet containing pulp (NP) or kernel oil (NK) of CO while corn oil was used as control (NC). Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-c and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured in this paper. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidise), thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARSs), and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were also evaluated. Supplementation of CO pulp oil resulted in favorable changes in blood lipid and lipid peroxidation (increased HDL-C, reduced LDL-C, TG, TBARS levels) with enhancement of SOD, GPx, and plasma TAS levels. Meanwhile, supplementation of kernel oil caused lowering of plasma TC and LDL-C as well as enhancement of SOD and TAS levels. These changes showed that oils of CO could be beneficial in improving lipid profile and antioxidant status as when using part of normal diet. The oils can be used as alternative to present vegetable oil. PMID:22685623
Tsuda, Hirotoshi; Kunitake, Hisato; Kawasaki-Takaki, Ryoko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Masao; Komatsu, Haruki; Yukizaki, Chizuko
Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.) was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.). The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract.
The interest in black raspberry products has been increasing due to its flavor and potential health benefits. While black raspberries grown in North America are Rubus occidentalis L., there has been some confusion regarding the identity of black raspberry grown in Korea (known as bokbunja; R. corean...
Shakirin, Faridah Hanim; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Amom, Zulkhairi; Yuon, Lau Cheng
The effect of C. odontophyllum (CO) fruit parts was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Forty-nine rabbits, which were randomly divided into seven groups of seven animals (n = 7), received a diet containing different parts of CO fruit parts for 8 weeks. The groups were as follows: (1) normal diet: NC group and (2) hypercholesterolemic diet: PC, HS (10 mg/kg/day simvastatin), HPO (20 g kg−1 oil extracted from the pulp of CO), HKO (20 g kg−1 oil extracted from the kernel of CO), HF (50 g kg−1 fullfat pulp of CO), and HD (50 g kg−1 defatted pulp of CO). Among these groups, rabbits receiving defatted pulp of CO showed the greatest cholesterol lowering effect as it had reduced plasma LDL-C, TC, and thiobarbiturate reactive substance (TBARS) levels as well as atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of high dietary fiber and antioxidants activity are potential factors contributing to the cholesterol lowering effect. Consequently, these results indicate the potential use of CO defatted pulp as a cholesterol lowering and antioxidant agent. PMID:22811751
Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Amom, Zulkhairi
Opiate abuse has been studied to cause adaptive changes observed in the presynaptic release and the mediated-synaptic plasticity proteins. The involvement of neuronal SNARE proteins reveals the role of the neurotransmitter release in expressing the opioid actions. The present study was designed to determine the effect of the alkaloid extract of Erythroxylum cuneatum (E. cuneatum) against chronic morphine and the influences of E. cuneatum on neurotransmission processes observed in vitro. The human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH, was treated with the morphine, methadone, or E. cuneatum. The cell lysates were collected and tested for α-synuclein, calmodulin, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP 2), and synaptotagmin 1. The extract of E. cuneatum was observed to upregulate the decreased expression of dependence proteins, namely, α-synuclein and calmodulin. The effects were comparable to methadone and control. The expressions of VAMP 2 and synaptotagmin 1 were normalised by the plant and methadone. The extract of E. cuneatum was postulated to treat dependence symptoms after chronic morphine and improve the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor activating protein receptor (SNARE) protein involved in synaptic vesicle after. PMID:27974903
Lee, Gi-An; Song, Jae Young; Choi, Heh-Ran; Chung, Jong-Wook; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Jung-Ro; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Myung-Chul
The Rubus genus consists of more than 600 species that are distributed globally. Only a few Rubus species, including raspberries and blueberries, have been domesticated. Genetic diversity within and between Rubus species is an important resource for breeding programs. We developed genomic microsatellite markers using an SSR-enriched R. coreanus library to study the diversity of the Rubus species. Microsatellite motifs were discovered in 546 of 646 unique clones, and a dinucleotide repeat was the most frequent (75.3%) type of repeat. From 97 microsatellite loci with reproducible amplicons, we acquired 29 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Rubus coreanus collection. The transferability values ranged from 59.8% to 84% across six Rubus species, and Rubus parvifolius had the highest transferability value (84%). The average number of alleles and the polymorphism information content were 5.7 and 0.541, respectively, in the R. coreanus collection. The diversity index of R. coreanus was similar to the values reported for other Rubus species. A phylogenetic dendrogram based on SSR profiles revealed that seven Rubus species could be allocated to three groups, and that R. coreanus was genetically close to Rubus crataegifolius (mountain berry). These new microsatellite markers might prove useful in studies of the genetic diversity, population structure, and evolutionary relationships among Rubus species.
Ahmadu, A A; Zezi, A U; Yaro, A H
The leaves of the plants Daniellia oliveri (Fabaceae) and Ficus sycomorus (Moraceae) used in diarrhea treatment in Hausa ethnomedicine of Northern Nigeria were investigated. The study was carried out on perfused isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The n-butanol extracts: NBD and NBF (0.16-3.2 mg/ml) caused a dose-dependent relaxation of isolated rabbit jejunum. The acute toxicity test for NBD and NBT in mice established an i.p LD(50) of > 4000 mg/kg for D. oliveri and 1131.4 mg/kg for F. sycomorus. In castor oil-induced diarrhea, 80% protection was observed for D. oliveri at doses of 200 mg/kg and 60% protection was observed at 100 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg respectively. For F. sycomorus 100% protection was observed at doses of 120 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg, for the n-butanol extract. The antidiarrheal activity was comparable to loperamide 5 mg/kg. The result revealed that the extracts have pharmacological activity against diarrhea.
Tung, Nguyen Huu; Uto, Takuhiro; Sakamoto, Ayana; Hayashida, Yuka; Hidaka, Yuuki; Morinaga, Osamu; Lhieochaiphant, Sorasak; Shoyama, Yukihiro
On the search for anti-cancer compounds from Thai traditional herb medicines, a bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the methanol extract of Mammea siamensis flower resulted in the isolation and identification of eight compounds (1-8) including a novel geranylated coumarin, namely mammeanoyl (2), and seven known compounds (1 and 3-8). The structure of new compound 2 was elucidated based on the extensive spectroscopic and chemical methods. Among the isolated compounds, three structurally related coumarins 3, 4, and 5 showed significant antiproliferative activities against human leukemia and stomach cancer cell lines. However, these compounds did not affect the cell viabilities of colon cancer, hepatoma, and normal skin fibroblast cell lines. Further analysis demonstrated that the morphological features of apoptosis including DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed in human leukemia HL-60 cells treated with compounds 3, 4, and 5. In addition, compound 3 led to caspase-3 activation and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and compound 3-induced DNA fragmentation was inhibited by caspase-specific inhibitors. These results suggest that compound 3, 4, and 5 exert antiproliferative actions through apoptotic cell death in leukemia cells and these compounds may have the potential to be developed into new anti-cancer drug candidates.
Dorla, Emmanuelle; Bialecki, Anne; Deuscher, Zoé; Allibert, Agathe; Grondin, Isabelle; Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Philippe
The essential oil from leaves of Peperomia borbonensis from Réunion Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized using GC-FID, GC-MS and NMR. The main components were myristicin (39.5%) and elemicin (26.6%). The essential oil (EO) of Peperomia borbonensis and its major compounds (myristicin and elemicin), pure or in a mixture, were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) using a filter paper impregnated bioassay. The concentrations necessary to kill 50% (LC50 ) and 90% (LC90 ) of the flies in three hours were determined. The LC50 was 0.23 ± 0.009 mg/cm² and the LC90 was 0.34 ± 0.015 mg/cm² for the EO. The median lethal time (LT50 ) was determined to compare the toxicity of EO and the major constituents. The EO was the most potent insecticide (LT50 = 98 ± 2 min), followed by the mixture of myristicin and elemicin (1.4:1) (LT50 = 127± 2 min) indicating that the efficiency of the EO is potentiated by minor compounds and emphasizing one of the major assets of EOs against pure molecules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Hirata, Hisae; Kashihara, Misako; Horiike, Tokumasa; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Dohra, Hideo; Netsu, Osamu; Tsuyumu, Shinji
ITALIC! Pectobacterium carotovorumsubsp. ITALIC! carotovorumand its lytic bacteriophage PPWS1 were isolated from a Japanese horseradish rhizome with soft rot. Sequencing of the phage genomic DNA suggested that PPWS1 is a new species of the family ITALIC! Podoviridaeand has high similarity to the bacteriophage Peat1 infectious to ITALIC! P. atrosepticum.
Kashihara, Misako; Horiike, Tokumasa; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Dohra, Hideo; Netsu, Osamu; Tsuyumu, Shinji
Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and its lytic bacteriophage PPWS1 were isolated from a Japanese horseradish rhizome with soft rot. Sequencing of the phage genomic DNA suggested that PPWS1 is a new species of the family Podoviridae and has high similarity to the bacteriophage Peat1 infectious to P. atrosepticum. PMID:27103734
GONZÁLEZ-ASTORGA, JORGE; VOVIDES, ANDREW P.; CRUZ-ANGON, ANDREA; OCTAVIO-AGUILAR, PABLO; IGLESIAS, CARLOS
• Background and Aims Dioon angustifolium was considered within D. edule. Recent morphometric and allozyme studies on D. edule have shown that D. angustifolium has originated from geographic isolation and is therefore considered to be a separate species. This cycad is endemic to north-eastern Mexico and is known only from three populations in the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain chain. Its populations are small when compared with its southern relative D. edule. In this study, genetic variation was determined within and between populations of D. angustifolium and the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation and isolation of populations of this species were assessed. • Methods Allozyme electrophoresis of 14 presumptive loci was used. The data were analysed with statistical approximations for estimating genetic diversity, structure, gene flow and recent genetic bottlenecks. • Key Results Means and standard deviations of genetic diversity estimators were: number of alleles per locus (A = 1·67 ± 0·23), percentage of polymorphic loci (P = 52·4 ± 23 %) and expected heterozygosity (HE = 0·218 ± 0·093). The genetic variation attributable to differences among populations was 16·7 %. Mean gene flow between paired populations was Nm = 1·55 ± 0·67, which is similar to that reported for endemic plant species of narrow geographical distribution and species with gravity-dispersed seed. A recent bottleneck is detected in the populations studied. • Conclusions Dioon angustifolium presents high levels of genetic diversity compared with other cycad species, in spite of small population sizes. The recent bottleneck effect did not effectively reduce the genetic variation to the extent of eliminating these populations. The distribution of D. angustifolium appears to be the result of historical biogeographical effects related to the Pleistocene glaciations. It is recommended that this species be catalogued in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and conservation efforts be made to preserve it. PMID:15760914
Ansarullah; Jayaraman, Selvaraj; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A.; Ramachandran, A. V.
Oreocnide integrifolia (OI) leaves are used as folklore medicine by the people of northeast India to alleviate diabetic symptoms. Preliminary studies revealed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potentials of the aqueous leaf extract. The present study was carried out to evaluate whether the OI extract induces insulin secretion in vivo and in vitro and also whether it is mediated through the insulin-signaling pathway. The experimental set-up consisted of three groups of C57BL/6J mice strain: (i) control animals fed with standard laboratory diet, (ii) diabetic animals fed with a high-fat diet for 24 weeks and (iii) extract-supplemented animals fed with 3% OI extract along with high-fat diet for 24 weeks. OI-extract supplementation lowered adiposity and plasma glucose and insulin levels. Immunoblot analysis of IRS-1, Akt and Glut-4 protein expressions in muscles of extract-supplemented animals revealed that glucoregulation was mediated through the insulin-signaling pathway. Moreover, immunostaining of pancreas revealed increased insulin immunopositive cells in OI-extract-treated animals. In addition, the insulin secretogogue ability of the OI extract was demonstrated when challenged with high glucose concentration using isolated pancreatic islets in vitro. Overall, the present study demonstrates the possible mechanism of glucoregulation of OI extract suggestive of its therapeutic potential for the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:21785636
Artanti, Nina; Tachibana, Sanro; Kardono, Leonardus B S
The active α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 were found to be the unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids). These compounds have potential as antidiabetic agents. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of various media composition on growth (mycelium dry weight) and the fatty acids content (μg mg(-1) mycelium DW) of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. For that purpose, the experiments were set up by varying the carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions and desaturase and fatty acid synthase inhibitors in the media. Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 grown on potato dextrose broth (PDB) was used as control. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were (range from 43.9 ± 2.5 to 88.6 ± 5.2%) at 10 μg mL(-1). This activity seemed to correlate with the unsaturated fatty acids content of the samples. Different sugars as carbon source experiment showed that xylose gave the highest growth (938.7 ± 141.6 mg). However, the highest fatty acids content was obtained from fructose medium which containing linoleic acid (38.8 ± 4.9 μ g mg(-1) DW). Soluble starch gave better growth (672.5 ± 62.3 mg) but very low fatty acids content (2.8 ± 0.1 μg mg(-1) DW) was obtained. Yeast extract was the best nitrogen source. Fatty acids production was better as compared to beef extract and soytone. This is the first report of various media compositions on fatty acids content in Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
Gonzalez, M J; Nascimento, M S; Cidade, H M; Pinto, M M; Kijjoa, A; Anantachoke, C; Silva, A M; Herz, W
Nine xanthones, including 3-(4-hydroxy-3-metnylbutyl)-4,8-dihydroxyxanthone, were isolated from the wood of a Thai collection of CALOPHYLLUM TEYSMANNII Miq. var. INUPHYLLOIDE (King) P. Stephen. Immunomodulatory activities of eight of these have been investigated.
Lim, Kyungtaek; Yamada, Kazunori D; Frith, Martin C; Tomii, Kentaro
Protein database search for public databases is a fundamental step in the target selection of proteins in structural and functional genomics and also for inferring protein structure, function, and evolution. Most database search methods employ amino acid substitution matrices to score amino acid pairs. The choice of substitution matrix strongly affects homology detection performance. We earlier proposed a substitution matrix named MIQS that was optimized for distant protein homology search. Herein we further evaluate MIQS in combination with LAST, a heuristic and fast database search tool with a tunable sensitivity parameter m, where larger m denotes higher sensitivity. Results show that MIQS substantially improves the homology detection and alignment quality performance of LAST across diverse m parameters. Against a protein database consisting of approximately 15 million sequences, LAST with m = 10(5) achieves better homology detection performance than BLASTP, and completes the search 20 times faster. Compared to the most sensitive existing methods being used today, CS-BLAST and SSEARCH, LAST with MIQS and m = 10(6) shows comparable homology detection performance at 2.0 and 3.9 times greater speed, respectively. Results demonstrate that MIQS-powered LAST is a time-efficient method for sensitive and accurate homology search.
Ay, Khitam Mousa; Halaweh, Rami Saleh; Al-Taieb, Mohammad Abu
This study investigates the effect of movement imagery on learning the forearm pass in volleyball. Twenty four mail students from Physical Education Factuly at Jordan University (19 ± 0.5) years of age. After Completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997) the subjects randomly divided into two groups,…
Presented are new definitions and interpretations for smartness and intelligence associated with materials, structures, and material systems (MS & MS). These newly proposed definitions complement and augment the present notion of smart and/or intelligent materials, structures and material systems, as accepted by our scientific community. These new definitions numerically quantify the concepts of smartness and intelligence for materials, structures and material systems. In this context amino acid sequences and structures such as proteins are proposed to be the smartest material family and are given an MSQ of 1000. Correspondingly, ribonucleic acid sequences such as RNA and DNA macromolecular assemblies and structures are proposed to be the most intelligent material family and are given an MIQ of 1000. In the same category the proteins are given an MIQ of about 700. Ionic polymeric gels, shape memory alloys, electromagnetic (electrostrictive, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic) materials, electrorheological fluids and magnetorheological fluids are then categorized under this hierarchy of smart/intelligent materials with MSQs and MIQs of smaller values. A similar classification is also applied to smart/intelligent structures with reference to simple cells such as bacteria and viruses such as T4 Bacteriophages. A number of examples are presented and the corresponding MSQs and MIQs are estimated to show that materials, structure and material systems can truly be numerically categorized in connection with their smartness and intelligence and thus be compared with biological and botanical structures and material systems.
Bolles, Gina; Chatfield, Steven J.
This study explores the intersection of the individual's imagery ability, imagery use in dance training and performance, and learning style. Thirty-four intermediate-level ballet and modern dance students at the University of Oregon completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R) and Kolb's Learning Style Inventory-3 (LSI-3). The four…
... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS General Provisions § 855.2 Responsibilities. (a) As the program manager... for Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (SAF/MIQ). The Air Force Real Estate Agency...
... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS General Provisions § 855.2 Responsibilities. (a) As the program manager... for Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (SAF/MIQ). The Air Force Real Estate Agency...
... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS General Provisions § 855.2 Responsibilities. (a) As the program manager... for Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (SAF/MIQ). The Air Force Real Estate Agency...
Costion, Craig M.; Plunkett, Gregory M.
Abstract Osmoxylon Miq. (Araliaceae) is revised for Palau, Micronesia including descriptions of two new taxa Osmoxylon leidichii Costion, sp. nov. and Osmoxylon ngardokense Costion, sp. nov. Full descriptions are provided for all four Palau species, along with diagnostic field keys. PMID:26884705
Nikou, Mahdi Moshtaghi; Ramezani, Mohaddaseh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Rasouli, Mehrnoush; Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh; Schumann, Peter; de la Haba, Rafael R; Ventosa, Antonio
A Gram-stain-positive actinobacterial strain, Miq-4T, was isolated from soil around Meighan wetland in the centre of Iran. Strain Miq-4T was strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive. The isolate grew in the presence of 3–15 % (w/v) NaCl, at 20–40 °C and pH 6.0–11.0. The optimum NaCl, temperature and pH for growth were 7.0 %, 30 °C and 7.0–8.5, respectively. The cell wall of strain Miq-4T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino acid and glucose and ribose as the whole-cell sugars. The polar lipid pattern consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. Strain Miq-4T synthesized cellular fatty acids of anteiso- and iso-branched types, including anteiso-C17 : 0, anteiso- C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-9(H4). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and characteristic patterns of 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotides revealed that strain Miq-4T belongs to the family Glycomycetaceae and showed the closest phylogenetic similarity with Haloglycomyces albus YIM 92370T (94.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain Miq-4T represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Glycomycetaceae, for which the name Salininema proteoliyticum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is Miq-4T ( = IBRC-M 10908T = LMG 28391T). An emended description of the family Glycomycetaceae is also proposed in order to include features of the new genus.
Araújo, Nathalia Diniz; Coelho, Victor Peçanha M; Ventrella, Marília Contin; Agra, Maria de Fátima
In this work the leaf anatomy of three species of Ficus section Americanae (Miq.) Miq. from Brazil, whose leaves and latex are used in folk medicine is reported. The work was carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy in order to characterize these species and to evaluate their taxonomic significance, and also contribute to the quality control of their ethnodrugs. The three species (Ficus cyclophylla, Ficus elliotiana, and Ficus caatingae) showed hypostomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, straight epidermal cell outlines, and a dorsiventral mesophyll. Some micro-morphological characters such as density and distribution of epicuticular waxes, glandular trichomes, the length and width of stomata, as well as the palisade of mesophyll and petiole outlines proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation of species. These may contribute as additional support for the taxonomy of the section and for the quality control of their ethnodrugs.
Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Pei-Fu; Song, Heng; Zhang, Bo-Li
The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of seven medicinal plants of Piper. The dual index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio was established, which showed the sibship of the medicinal plants. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. Piper laetispicum (C. DC.) was greater than 77%, and the variant peak ratio was less than 30%. The results showed the near sibship between the three drugs. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper nigrum L. and Piper boehmeriae folium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense (C. DC.) was about 61% which showed the farther sibship. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and Piper betle (Linn.) was only 44%, which showed the farthest sibship. Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its adulterants, such as Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand. -Mazz., Piper boehmeriaefolium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense C. DC. , Piper laetispicum C. DC., Piper nigrum L., could be identified by comparing their second order derivative IR spectrum of the samples. FTIR technique is a non-destructive analysis method which provides information of functional group, type and hydrogen bond without complex pretreatment procedures such as extraction and separatioin. FTIR method has some characteristics such as rapid and simple analysis procedure, good reproducibility, non-destructive testing, few amount of required sample and low cost and is environment-friendly. The method solved the problems of limit in resource of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, many fakes and difficulties in identification, and brought the security for the clinical medication. FTIR provides a new method for identification of Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its fakes and meets the requirement for comprehensive analy sis and global analysis of traditional Chinese medicine.
Yegorova, A.; Leonenko, I.; Scrypynets, Yu; Maltsev, G.; Antonovich, V.
Under physiological conditions, in vitro interaction between the bio-active substance 6-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethyl)-6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline hydrochloride (MIQ) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated at an excitation wavelength 260 nm and at different temperatures (298 K, 308 K and 313 K) by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. From spectral analysis, MIQ showed a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching procedure. The binding constant is estimated asK A = 2.55 × 10-4 l · mol-1 at 298 K. Based on the thermodynamic parameters evaluated from the van ’t Hoff equation, the enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) were derived to be negative values. A value of 2.37 nm for the average distance r between MIQ (acceptor) and tryptophan residues of HSA (donor) was derived from the fluorescence resonance energy transfer. UV/vis absorption spectra were used to confirm the quenching mechanism.
Lans, Cheryl; Harper, Tisha; Georges, Karla; Bridgewater, Elmo
Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs. PMID:11737880
Kowalska, M T; Itzhak, Y; Puett, D
Cycads, the most primitive of the living gymnosperms, have been used and continue to be used for food and medicinal purposes by many cultures, although toxins must be removed before ingestion. In our quest to identify tropical plants that contain inhibitors of the cytochrome P-450 aromatase and thus may be efficacious in treating estrogen-dependent tumors, we have screened extracts from 5 species of cycad folia encompassing 3 genera: Cycas cairnsiana F. Muell., Cycas revoluta Thunb., Cycas rumphii Miq., Dioon spinulosum Dyer and Encephalartos ferox Bertol. All extracts were found to contain inhibitors of the human enzyme.
Xian, Yan-Fang; Fan, Ding; Ip, Siu-Po; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Lin, Zhi-Xiu
Isorhynchophylline (IRN), an oxindole alkaloid, has been identified as the main active ingredient responsible for the biological activities of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Miq ex Havil. (Rubiaceae). Previous studies in our laboratory have revealed that IRN possesses potent neuroprotective effects in different models of Alzheimer's disease. However, the antidepressant-like effects of IRN are remained unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of IRN. The antidepressant-like effects of IRN was determined by using animal models of depression including forced swimming and tail suspension tests. The acting mechanism was explored by determining the effect of IRN on the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and the activities of monoamine oxidases. Intragastric administration of IRN at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg for 7 days caused a significant reduction of immobility time in both forced swimming and tail suspension tests, while IRN did not stimulate locomotor activity in the open-field test. In addition, IRN treatment antagonized reserpine-induced ptosis and significantly enhanced the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters including norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and the activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice. These results suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of IRN are mediated, at least in part, by the inhibition of monoamine oxidases.
Tao, Yanyan; Luo, Jianguang; Lu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Deran; Hou, Zhiguo; Kong, Lingyi
The fragmentation behaviors of the angular- and linear-type coumarins from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn and P. decursivum (Miq.) Maxim were simultaneously investigated by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n). For more structural identification, the fragment ions were analyzed and some possible fragmentation pathways were proposed. Different positions and numbers of the substituent also led to different fragment behaviors. Two types of coumarins from P. praeruptorum and P. decursivum were structurally elucidated by these techniques. In addition, UV spectra were applied to support the MS analysis. This is the first time that the two types of coumarins from herbal extracts have been differentiated by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n). The method further illustrated the importance of the ESI-MS(n) technique in the identification of different types of coumarins and was applied for the rapid differentiation of the two herbs.
Li, Guangyan; Song, Xiangwen; Han, Bangxing; Fang, Shiying
Shancigu (Rhizome Pleionis) was first recorded in the Ben cao shiyi (Supplements to Chinese Materia Medica). The source of the strain of this medicinal was unclear because of its too simple description in the medical books in the Tang and Song dynasties. Its original plant could be Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino, Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker and so on. The original plant of Shanciguwas Tulipaedulis since the Ming dynasty to the Republican period. The name of "Guangcigu" began to appear in the Republican period because of the changes of its processing method. The original plants evolved into Cremastra appendiculata, Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe and Pleione yunnanensis Rolfe, with Tulipa edulisas the original plant of Guangcigu (Bulbus of Tulipasedulis). It is found that only the Tulipaedulis is the unequivocal origin with the longest medicinal history through sorting out of the original plants of Shancigu. Hence, it is suggested that Tulipa edulis should be recovered as the original strain of Shancigu.
Moon, Hyung-In; Jung, Seil; Lee, Young-Choon; Lee, Jai-Heon
The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of eight Artemisia plants (Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Artemisia fukudo Makino., Artemisia japonica Thunb., Artemisia montana (Nakai) Pamp., Artemisia keiskeana Miq., Artemisia rubripes Nakai., Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Kom., and Artemisia sylvatica Max.) from South Korea on the classical pathway (CP). We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from eight Artemisia plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the CP. A. rubripes and A. montana chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC₅₀) values of 54.3 and 64.2 μg/mL. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Artemisia plants.
Do, Quoc-Tuan; Lamy, Cécile; Renimel, Isabelle; Sauvan, Nancy; André, Patrice; Himbert, Franck; Morin-Allory, Luc; Bernard, Philippe
Reverse pharmacognosy aims at finding biological targets for natural compounds by virtual or real screening and identifying natural resources that contain the active molecules. We report herein a study focused on the identification of biological properties of meranzin, a major component isolated from Limnocitrus littoralis (Miq.) Swingle. Selnergy, an IN SILICO biological profiling software, was used to identify putative binding targets of meranzin. Among the 400 screened proteins, 3 targets were selected: COX1, COX2 and PPARgamma. Binding tests were realised for these 3 protein candidates, as well as two negative controls. The predictions made by Selnergy were consistent with the experimental results, meaning that these 3 targets can be modulated by an extract containing this compound in a suitable concentration. These results demonstrate that reverse pharmacognosy and its inverse docking component is a powerful tool to identify biological properties for natural molecules and hence for plants containing these compounds.
Santos-Couto-Paz, Clarissa C.; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Tierra-Criollo, Carlos J.
Background Mental practice (MP) is a cognitive strategy which may improve the acquisition of motor skills and functional performance of athletes and individuals with neurological injuries. Objective To determine whether an individualized, specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional physical therapy (PT), promoted better learning of motor skills in daily functions in individuals with chronic stroke (13±6.5 months post-stroke). Method Nine individuals with stable mild and moderate upper limb impairments participated, by employing an A1-B-A2 single-case design. Phases A1 and A2 included one month of conventional PT, and phase B the addition of MP training to PT. The motor activity log (MAL-Brazil) was used to assess the amount of use (AOU) and quality of movement (QOM) of the paretic upper limb; the revised motor imagery questionnaire (MIQ-RS) to assess the abilities in kinesthetic and visual motor imagery; the Minnesota manual dexterity test to assess manual dexterity; and gait speed to assess mobility. Results After phase A1, no significant changes were observed for any of the outcome measures. However, after phase B, significant improvements were observed for the MAL, AOU and QOM scores (p<0.0001), and MIQ-RS kinesthetic and visual scores (p=0.003; p=0.007, respectively). The significant gains in manual dexterity (p=0.002) and gait speed (p=0.019) were maintained after phase A2. Conclusions Specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional PT, led to improvements in motor imagery abilities combined with increases in the AOU and QOM in daily functions, manual dexterity, and gait speed. PMID:24271094
Sun, Shi; Du, Guang-Jian; Qi, Lian-Wen; Williams, Stainley; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su
Ethnopharmacological relevance Devil’s Club Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq. is a widely used folk medicine in the Pacific Northwest such as Alaska and British Columbia for treating a variety of ailments including arthritis, cold, fever, infections, diabetes and cancer. Aim of the study To investigate hydrophobic constituents and their potential anticancer activity from Devil’s Club O. horridus. Materials and methods The root bark of O. horridus (Sm.) Miq was isolated by chromatographic techniques. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods and comparison with published data. The anti-proliferation of isolated hydrophobic constituents in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, human colon cancer SW-480 and HCT-116 cells were tested. The potential mechanism of anti-proliferation was also investigated using cell cycle and apoptosis assays. Results and discussion Six compounds were isolated and structurally identified as 9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol, 1-acetate (1), oplopandiol acetate (2), falcarindiol (3), oplopandiol (4), trans-nerolidol (5) and t-cadinol (6). These compounds showed potential anticancer activities on human breast cancer and colon cancer cells, of which compound 3 possesses the strongest activity. Further cell cycle and apoptosis test by flow cytometry showed the polyacetylenes 1–4 induced HCT-116 cell arresting in G2/M phase and inhibited proliferation by the induction of apoptosis at both earlier and later stage. Conclusion These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of O. horridus as well as some of the isolated compounds in the treatment of cancer. PMID:20723598
Koike, T; Kitao, M; Maruyama, Y; Mori, S; Lei, T T
Photosynthetic acclimation of deciduous broad-leaved tree species was studied along a vertical gradient within the canopy of a multi-species deciduous forest in northern Japan. We investigated variations in (1) local light regime and CO2 concentration ([CO2]), and (2) morphological (area, thickness and area per mass), biochemical (nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations) and physiological (light-saturated photosynthetic rate) attributes of leaves of seven major species on three occasions (June, August and October). We studied early successional species, alder (Alnus hirsuta (Spach) Rupr.) and birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Miq.) Hara); gap phase species, walnut (Juglans ailanthifolia Carrière) and ash (Fraxinus mandshurica var. japonica Rupr.); mid-successional species, basswood (Tilia japonica (Miq.) Simonk.) and elm (Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (Rehd.) Nakai); and the late-successional species, maple (Acer mono Bunge). All but maple initiated leaf unfolding from the lower part of the crown. The [CO2] within the vertical profile ranged from 320-350 ppm in the upper canopy to 405-560 ppm near the ground. The lowest and highest ambient [CO2] occurred during the day and during the night, respectively. This trend was observed consistently during the summer, but not when trees were leafless. Chlorophyll concentration was positively related to maximum photosynthetic rate within, but not among, species. Leaf senescence started from the inner part of the crown in alder and birch, but started either in the outer or top portion of the canopy of ash, basswood and maple. Chlorophyll (Chl) to nitrogen ratio in leaves increased with decreasing photon flux density. However, Chl b concentration in all species remained stable until the beginning of leaf senescence. Maximum photosynthetic rates observed in sun leaves of early successional species, gap phase or mid-successional species, and late successional species were 12.5-14.8 micromol m(-2) s(-1), 4.1-7.8 micromol
Ishida, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Nakano, Takashi; Adachi, Minaco; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Maruta, Emiko; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan
In tropical dry forests, uppermost-canopy leaves of evergreen trees possess the ability to use water more conservatively compared with drought-deciduous trees, which may result from significant differences in the photoprotective mechanisms between functional types. We examined the seasonal variations in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments within lamina of the uppermost-canopy leaves of three drought-deciduous trees (Vitex peduncularis Wall., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., Shorea siamensis Miq.), a semi-deciduous tree (Irvingia malayana Miq.) and two evergreen trees (Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) in Thailand. Area-based maximum carbon assimilation rates (Amax) decreased during the dry season, except in S. siamensis. The electron transport rate (ETR) remained unchanged in deciduous trees, but decreased during the dry season in evergreen and semi-deciduous trees. In the principal component analysis, the first axis (Axis 1) accounted for 44.3% of the total variation and distinguished deciduous from evergreen trees. Along Axis 1, evergreen trees were characterized by a high Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), high xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll and a high de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the deciduous trees were characterized by a high ETR, a high quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII = (Fm(') -F)/Fm(')) and a high mass-based Amax under high-light conditions. These findings indicate that drought-deciduous trees showing less conservative water use tend to dissipate a large proportion of electron flow through photosynthesis or alternative pathways. In contrast, the evergreens showed more conservative water use, reduced Amax and ETR and enhanced NPQ and xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll during the dry season, indicating that down-regulated photosynthesis with enhanced thermal dissipation of excess light energy played an important role in
Pöch, G.; Schultz, T. W.
Mixture toxicity for each of four ethyl α-halogenated acetates (ExACs) with each of three α-halogenated acetonitriles (xANs) was assessed. Inhibition of bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri was measured after 15, 30 and 45-min of exposure. Concentration-response curves were developed for each chemical at each exposure duration and used to develop predicted concentration-response curves for the dose-addition and independence models of combined effect. Concentration-response curves for each mixture and each exposure duration were then evaluated against the predicted curves, using three metrics per model: 1) EC50-based additivity quotient (AQ) or independence quotient (IQ) values, 2) mean AQ (mAQ) or mean IQ (mIQ) values, calculated by averaging the EC25, EC50 and EC75 AQ or IQ values, and 3) deviation values from additivity (DV-A) or independence (DV-I). Mixture toxicity for ethyl iodoacetate (EIAC) was dose-additive with each of the xANs at all exposure durations and was often consistent with independence as well. The same was true for mixture toxicity of ethyl bromoacetate (EBAC) with each xAN. However, for the two more slowly reactive chemicals ethyl chloroacetate (ECAC) and ethyl fluoroacetate (EFAC) mixture toxicity with each xAN only became consistent with dose-addition upon increasing exposure duration. Consistency with independence for both ECAC and EFAC with the xANs was essentially limited to the EC50-IQ metric; thereby demonstrating the utility of calculating the mean quotient (mAQ, mIQ) and deviation value (DV-A, DV-I) metrics. Upon review of these findings with those from the first two papers in the series, the results suggest that instances in which mixture toxicity was not consistent with dose-addition relate: 1) to differences in the capability of the chemicals to form strong H-bonds with water and 2) to differences in relative reactivity and time-dependent toxicity levels of the chemicals. PMID:24368709
Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In
The leaves of Angelica anomala Lallemant, Angelica cartilagino-marginata var. distans (Nakai) Kitag, Angelica czernevia (Fisch. et Meyer) Kitagawa, Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hooker, Angelica decursiva (Miq.) Franch. & Sav, Angelica fallax Boissieu, Angelica gigas Nakai, Angelica japonica A. gray were essential oil extracted and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The Angelica anomala, A. cartilagino-marginata var. distans, A. czernevia, A. dahurica, A. decursiva, A. fallax, A. gigas, A. japonica essential oil yield were 4.13, 4.83, 4.45, 3.25, 4.11, 4.73, 4.34 and 4.21%. The A. dahurica essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with a lethal concentration 50 (LC₅₀) value of 43.12 ppm and an LC₉₀ value of 65.23 ppm. The above indicates that essential oil contents may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil.
Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit
Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010–2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189
Peng, Lian; Zou, Hui-Qin; Bauer, Rudolf; Liu, Yong; Tao, Ou; Yan, Su-Rong; Han, Yu; Li, Jia-Hui; Ren, Zhi-Yu; Yan, Yong-Hong
Identification of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) by human experience is often inaccurate because individual ability and external factors may influence the outcome. However, it might be promising to employ an electronic nose (E-nose) to identify them. This paper presents a rapid and reliable method for identification of ten different species of CHMs from Zingiberaceae family based on their response signals from E-nose. Ten Zingiberaceae CHMs were measured and their maximum response values were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Result shows that E Zhu (Curcuma phaeocaulis Val.) and Yi Zhi (Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.) could not be distinguished completely by PCA. Two solutions were proposed: (i) using BestFirst+CfsSubsetEval (BC) method to extract more discriminative features to select sensors with higher contribution rate and remove the redundant signals; (ii) employing a novel cascade classifier with two stages to enhance the distinguishing-positive rate (DPR). Based on these strategies, six features were extracted and used in different stages of the cascade classifier with higher DPRs. PMID:25114708
Gan, Runtao; Dong, Guo; Yu, Jiangbo; Wang, Xu; Fu, Songbin; Yang, Shusen
As one important constituent extracted from a traditional Chinese medicine, Uncaria Rhynchophylla Miq Jacks, isorhynchophylline has been used to treat hypertension, epilepsy, headache, and other illnesses. Whether isorhynchophylline protects hearts against cardiac arrhythmias is still incompletely investigated. This study was therefore aimed to examine the preventive effects of isorhynchophylline on heart arrhythmias in guinea pigs and rats and then explore their electrophysiological mechanisms. In vivo, ouabain and calcium chloride were used to establish experimental arrhythmic models in guinea pigs and rats. In vitro, the whole-cell patch-lamp technique was used to study the effect of isorhynchophylline on action potential duration and calcium channels in acutely isolated guinea pig and rat cardiomyocytes. The dose of ouabain required to induce cardiac arrhythmias was much larger in guinea pigs administered with isorhynchophylline. Additionally, the onset time of cardiac arrhythmias induced by calcium chloride was prolonged, and the duration was shortened in rats pretreated with isorhynchophylline. The further study showed that isorhynchophylline could significantly decrease action potential duration and inhibit calcium currents in isolated guinea pig and rat cardiomyocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, isorhynchophylline played a remarkably preventive role in cardiac arrhythmias through the inhibition of calcium currents in rats and guinea pigs.
Saadawi, Sakina; Jalil, Juriyati; Jasamai, Malina; Jantan, Ibrahim
Acetylmelodorinol, chrysin and polycarpol, together with benzoic acid, benzoquinone and stigmasterol were isolated from the leaves of Mitrella kentii (Bl.) Miq. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) and thromboxane B₂ (TXB₂) production in human whole blood using a radioimmunoassay technique. Their inhibitory effect on platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor binding to rabbit platelet was determined using ³H-PAF as a ligand. Among the compounds tested, chrysin showed a strong dose-dependent inhibitory activity on PGE(2) production (IC₅₀ value of 25.5 µM), which might be due to direct inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymatic activity. Polycarpol, acetylmelodorinol and stigmasterol exhibited significant and concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on TXB₂ production with IC₅₀ values of 15.6, 19.1 and 19.4 µM, respectively, suggesting that they strongly inhibited COX-1 activity. Polycarpol and acetylmelodorinol showed strong dose-dependent inhibitory effects on PAF receptor binding with IC₅₀ values of 24.3 and 24.5 µM, respectively.
Lathiff, Siti Mariam Abdul; Jemaon, Noraini; Abdullah, Siti Awanis; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur
Two new prenylated flavonoids, 4',5-dihydroxy-6,7-(2,2-dimethylpyrano)-2'-methoxy-8-γ,γ-dimethylallylflavone 1 and 3'-hydroxycycloartocarpin 2 along with six known flavonoids, 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-prenylflavanone 3, isobavachalcone 4, pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A 5, artocarpin 6, chaplashin 7 and cycloartocarpin 8 were isolated for the first time from the leaves and the heartwoods of Artocarpus anisophyllus Miq. The structures of isolated flavonoids were elucidated spectroscopically using 1D and 2D NMR, FTIR, MS, UV and also by comparison with literature data. These flavonoids were screened for their antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. The dichloromethane and ethyl acetate crude extracts together with 3'-hydroxycycloartocarpin 2, pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A 5 and artocarpin 6 showed DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity with SC50 values of 80.2, 40.0, 152.9, 20.2 and 140.0 μg/mL in 30 min, respectively. Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A 5 exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibitory activity against tyrosinase from mushroom with IC50 values of 60.5 μg/mL.
Miao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Zaibiao; Guo, Qiaosheng; Zhu, Yunhao; Yang, Xiaohua; Sun, Yuan
Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker is an important medicinal plant with a variety of anti-cancer properties. The stolon is one of the main asexual reproductive organs of T. edulis and possesses a unique morphology. To explore the molecular mechanism of stolon formation, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of the transcriptomes of stolons at three developmental stages. In the present study, 15.49 Gb of raw data were generated and assembled into 74,006 unigenes, and a total of 2,811 simple sequence repeats were detected in T. edulis. Among the three libraries of stolons at different developmental stages, there were 5,119 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A functional annotation analysis based on sequence similarity queries of the GO, COG, KEGG databases showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in many physiological and biochemical processes, such as material and energy metabolism, hormone signaling, cell growth, and transcription regulation. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the DEGs were consistent with the transcriptome data, which further supported a role for the DEGs in stolon formation. This study provides novel resources for future genetic and molecular studies in T. edulis. PMID:27064558
Battaglia, Claudia; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Tsopani, Despina; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a mental training protocol could improve gymnastic jumping performance. Seventy-two rhythmic gymnasts were randomly divided into an experimental and control group. At baseline, experimental group completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire Revised (MIQ-R) to assess the gymnast ability to generate movement imagery. A repeated measures design was used to compare two different types of training aimed at improving jumping performance: (a) video observation and PETTLEP mental training associated with physical practice, for the experimental group, and (b) physical practice alone for the control group. Before and after six weeks of training, their jumping performance was measured using the Hopping Test (HT), Drop Jump (DJ), and Counter Movement Jump (CMJ). Results revealed differences between jumping parameters F(1,71)=11.957; p<.01, and between groups F(1,71)=10.620; p<.01. In the experimental group there were significant correlations between imagery ability and the post-training Flight Time of the HT, r(34)=-.295, p<.05 and the DJ, r(34)=-.297, p<.05. The application of the protocol described herein was shown to improve jumping performance, thereby preserving the elite athlete's energy for other tasks.
Miao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Zaibiao; Guo, Qiaosheng; Zhu, Yunhao; Yang, Xiaohua; Sun, Yuan
Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker is an important medicinal plant with a variety of anti-cancer properties. The stolon is one of the main asexual reproductive organs of T. edulis and possesses a unique morphology. To explore the molecular mechanism of stolon formation, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of the transcriptomes of stolons at three developmental stages. In the present study, 15.49 Gb of raw data were generated and assembled into 74,006 unigenes, and a total of 2,811 simple sequence repeats were detected in T. edulis. Among the three libraries of stolons at different developmental stages, there were 5,119 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A functional annotation analysis based on sequence similarity queries of the GO, COG, KEGG databases showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in many physiological and biochemical processes, such as material and energy metabolism, hormone signaling, cell growth, and transcription regulation. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the DEGs were consistent with the transcriptome data, which further supported a role for the DEGs in stolon formation. This study provides novel resources for future genetic and molecular studies in T. edulis.
Yuan, Dan; Ma, Bin; Yang, Jing-yu; Xie, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Li-jia; Kano, Yoshihiro; Wu, Chun-fu
Excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines from activated microglia contributes to human neurodegenerative disorders. Our previous study demonstrated the potent inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in rat primary microglial cells by rhynchophylline (RIN) and isorhynchophylline (IRN), a pair of isomeric alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks. that has been used in China for centuries as a "cognitive enhancer" as well as to treat strokes. We further investigated whether RIN and IRN effectively suppress release of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-activated microglial cells and the underling molecular mechanism for the inhibition of microglial activation. RIN and IRN concentration-dependently attenuated LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta as well as NO in mouse N9 microglial cells, with IRN showing more potent inhibition of microglial activation. The western blotting analysis indicated that the potential molecular mechanism for RIN or IRN-mediated attenuation was implicated in suppressions of iNOS protein level, phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPKs, and degradation of IkappaBalpha. In addition, the differential regulation of the three signaling pathways by two isomers was shown. Our results suggest that RIN and IRN may be effective therapeutic candidates for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation.
Lajevardi, Seyed Mehdi; Wu, Hong Ren
This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation.
Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun
Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P>0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.
Kuroda, Katsushi; Kasuga, Jun; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo
It has been accepted that xylem ray parenchyma cells (XRPCs) in hardwood species respond to subfreezing temperatures either by deep supercooling or by extracellular freezing. Present study by cryo-scanning electron microscopy examined the freezing responses of XRPCs in five boreal hardwoods: Salix sachalinensis Fr. Schmit, Populus sieboldii Miq., Betula platyphylla Sukat. var japonica Hara, Betula pubescens Ehrh., and red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), in which XRPCs have been reported to respond by extracellular freezing. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that slow cooling of xylem to -80 degrees C resulted in intracellular freezing in the majority of XRPCs in S. sachalinensis, an indication that these XRPCs had been deep supercooled. In contrast, in the majority of XRPCs in P. sieboldii, B. platyphylla, B. pubescens, and red osier dogwood, slow cooling to -80 degrees C produced slight cytorrhysis without clear evidence of intracellular freezing, suggesting that these XRPCs might respond by extracellular freezing. In these XRPCs exhibited putative extracellular freezing; however, deep etching revealed the apparent formation of intracellular ice crystals in restricted local areas. To confirm the occurrence of intracellular freezing, we rewarmed these XRPCs after cooling and observed very large intracellular ice crystals as a result of the recrystallization. Thus, the XRPCs in all the boreal hardwoods that we examined responded by deep supercooling that was accompanied with incomplete desiccation. From these results, it seems possible that limitations to the deep-supercooling ability of XRPCs might be a limiting factor for adaptation of hardwoods to cold climates.
Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit
Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance.
Ghosh, Prasun; Jaffer, Syed S; Purkayastha, Pradipta
Effect of cyclodextrin encapsulation on the photophysics of three indoloquinoline derivatives, namely, 5-methyl-5H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline (MIQ), 8-chloro-5-methyl-5H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline (CMIQ), and 2,8-dichloro-5-methyl-5H-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline (DCMIQ), has been studied using steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The three compounds, which are basically cryptosanguinolentines, exist mainly in their zwitterionic forms in the excited state. Appreciable emission from the π-π* state can be observed on excitation of the compounds at a specific wavelength. The existence of zwitterions in the excited state leads to mutual interaction to form dimers triggered by the presence of the hydrophobic nanocavities of cyclodextrins (CDs) through Coulombic interaction. This is evidenced by steady state fluorescence measurements and treating the fluorophores with CDs of different cavity space. The photophysical behavior of the compounds gets dramatically modulated when they are treated with α-, β-, and γ-CD hosts. Presence of chloro substituent/s on the parent molecule and the extent of encapsulation by CDs of different dimensions exhibit enormous alterations in the fluorescence characteristics of the compounds. Solvation of the chromophoric moiety by water molecules deviates in character due to the guest-host interaction. Trapped water molecules inside the bigger cavity of γ-CD seem to play a vital role in quenching the fluorescence of the zwitterions of the molecules.
Black, Marykate Z; Minchin, Peter E H; Gould, Nick; Patterson, Kevin J; Clearwater, Michael J
In vivo measurements of (14)C tracer distribution have usually involved monitoring the β(-) particles produced as (14)C decays. These particles are only detectable over short distances, limiting the use of this technique to thin plant material. In the present experiments, X-ray detectors were used to monitor the Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted since β(-) particles were absorbed in plant tissues. Bremsstrahlung radiation is detectable through larger tissue depths. The aim of these experiments was to demonstrate the Bremsstrahlung method by monitoring in vivo tracer-labelled photosynthate partitioning in small kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq.) plants in response to root pruning. A source shoot, consisting of four leaves, was pulse labelled with (14)CO(2). Detectors monitored import into a fruit and the root system, and export from a source leaf. Repeat pulse labelling enabled the comparison of pre- and post-treatment observations within an individual plant. Diurnal trends were observed in the distribution of tracer, with leaf export reduced at night. Tracer accumulated in the roots declined after approximately 48 h, which may have resulted from export of (14)C from the roots in carbon skeletons. Cutting off half the roots did not affect tracer distribution to the remaining half. Tracer distribution to the fruit was increased after root pruning, demonstrating the higher competitive strength of the fruit than the roots for carbohydrate supply. Increased partitioning to the fruit following root pruning has also been demonstrated in kiwifruit field trials.
Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md. Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun
Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P > 0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567
Bowden, Joseph D; Bauerle, William L
We investigated which parameters required by the MAESTRA model were most important in predicting leaf-area-based transpiration in 5-year-old trees of five deciduous hardwood species-yoshino cherry (Prunus x yedoensis Matsum.), red maple (Acer rubrum L. 'Autumn Flame'), trident maple (Acer buergeranum Miq.), Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. 'Kwanzan') and London plane-tree (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait.) Willd.). Transpiration estimated from sap flow measured by the heat balance method in branches and trunks was compared with estimates predicted by the three-dimensional transpiration, photosynthesis and absorbed radiation model, MAESTRA. MAESTRA predicted species-specific transpiration from the interactions of leaf-level physiology and spatially explicit micro-scale weather patterns in a mixed deciduous hardwood plantation on a 15-min time step. The monthly differences between modeled mean daily transpiration estimates and measured mean daily sap flow ranged from a 35% underestimation for Acer buergeranum in June to a 25% overestimation for A. rubrum in July. The sensitivity of the modeled transpiration estimates was examined across a 30% error range for seven physiological input parameters. The minimum value of stomatal conductance as incident solar radiation tends to zero was determined to be eight times more influential than all other physiological model input parameters. This work quantified the major factors that influence modeled species-specific transpiration and confirmed the ability to scale leaf-level physiological attributes to whole-crown transpiration on a species-specific basis.
Ji, Zhi-Hong; Xu, Zhong-Qi; Zhao, Hong; Yu, Xin-Yu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory decline and cognitive impairment. Amyloid beta (Aβ) has been proposed as the causative role for the pathogenesis of AD. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that Aβ neurotoxicity is mediated by glutamate excitotoxicity. Daucosterol palmitate (DSP), a plant steroid with anti-glutamate excitotoxicity effect, was isolated from the anti-aging traditional Chinese medicinal herb Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. in our previous study. Based on the anti-glutamate excitotoxicity effect of DSP, in this study we investigated potential benefit and mechanism of DSP in ameliorating learning and memory impairment in AD model rats. Results from this study showed that DSP administration effectively ameliorated Aβ-induced learning and memory impairment in rats, markedly inhibited Aβ-induced hippocampal ROS production, effectively prevented Aβ-induced hippocampal neuronal damage and significantly restored hippocampal synaptophysin expression level. This study suggests that DSP may be a potential candidate for development as a therapeutic agent for AD cognitive decline.
Hieu, Le D; Thang, Tran D; Hoi, Tran M; Ogunwande, Isiaka A
The chemical composition of essential oils from four Piper species, Piper retrofractum Vahl., P. boehmeriaefolium (Miq.) C. DC., P. sarmentosum Roxb., and P. maclurei Merr., were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen to sixty-four compounds representing 92.0%-98.4% of the total contents were identified in the oil samples. The major constituents identified in P. retrofractum leaf oil were benzyl benzoate (14.4%), myrcene (14.4%), bicycloelemene (9.9%), bicyclogermacrene (7.0%) and β-caryophyllene (5.3%). On the other hand, the main constituents of P. boehmeriaefolium were α-copaene (28.3%), α-pinene (7.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.7%). P. sarmentosum showed a very different chemical profile characterized mainly by aromatic compounds and devoid of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The major constituents were benzyl benzoate (49.1%), benzyl alcohol (17.9%), 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid phenylmethyl ester (10.0%) and 2-butenyl-benzene (7.9%). The leaf of P. maclurei was characterized by higher amount of (E)-cinnamic acid (37.4%) and (E)-nerolidol (19.4%). Moreover, (Z)-9-octadecanoic acid methyl ester (28.0%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (17.2%), phytol (12.2%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (8.8%) were the major compounds identified in the stem oil.
Wan Othman, Wan Nurul Nazneem; Liew, Sook Yee; Khaw, Kooi Yeong; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia among older adults. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase are two enzymes involved in the breaking down of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Inhibitors for these enzymes have potential to prolong the availability of acetylcholine. Hence, the search for such inhibitors especially from natural products is needed in developing potential drugs for Alzheimer's disease. The present study investigates the cholinesterase inhibitory activity of compounds isolated from three Cryptocarya species towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Nine alkaloids were isolated; (+)-nornantenine 1, (-)-desmethylsecoantofine 2, (+)-oridine 3, (+)-laurotetanine 4 from the leaves of Cryptocarya densiflora BI., atherosperminine 5, (+)-N-methylisococlaurine 6, (+)-N-methyllaurotetanine 7 from the bark of Cryptocarya infectoria Miq., 2-methoxyatherosperminine 8 and (+)-reticuline 9 from the bark of Cryptocarya griffithiana Wight. In general, most of the alkaloids showed higher inhibition towards BChE as compared to AChE. The phenanthrene type alkaloid; 2-methoxyatherosperminine 8, exhibited the most potent inhibition against BChE with IC50 value of 3.95μM. Analysis of the Lineweaver-Burk (LB) plot of BChE activity over a range of substrate concentration suggested that 2-methoxyatherosperminine 8 exhibited mixed-mode inhibition with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 6.72μM. Molecular docking studies revealed that 2-methoxyatherosperminine 8 docked well at the choline binding site and catalytic triad of hBChE (butyrylcholinesterase from Homo sapiens); hydrogen bonding with Tyr 128 and His 438 residues respectively.
Chu, Chu; Liu, Hui-Juan; Qi, Lian-Wen; Liu, E-Hu; Li, Ping
The flower buds of five Lonicera species, Lonicera japonica Thunb., L. macranthoides Hand.-Mazz., L. hypoglauca Miq., L. confusa DC. and L. fulvotomentosa Hsu et S.C. Cheng are confusable and usually utilized under the same name "Jinyinhua" in different areas for morphological similarity. Studies found that these five species possess extreme differences in chemical compounds, correspondingly showing different pharmacological activities and clinical applications. To ensure efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines and prevent unknown adverse effect, in this work, a simple, rapid and effective method combining normal light and fluorescence microscopy was developed for authentication. Surface slides and transverse sections of these buds were investigated to reveal their differences. As a routine technique, normal light microscopy which gives detailed microscopic features such as glandular hairs and nonglandular hairs, can easily distinguish four species except L. confusa. Fluorescence technique, which could present different distribution of fluorescence materials, is further employed to identify three species including L. confusa successfully. It is the first report to identify these five Lonicera species by combining normal light and fluorescence microscopy. This work indicated combining normal light and fluorescence microscopy could be a powerful method in authentication of confused species.
Wang, Zhou-yong; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Min; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan; Lin, Shu-fang; Wu, Zhi-gang
A FatB unigene was obtained from the transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Full-length FatB cDNA was cloned from buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Lonicera japonica Thunb. var. chinensis (Wats.) Bak., Lonicera hypoglauca Miq. and Lonicera dasystyla Rehd. using RT-PCR technology, and named as LJFatB, LHFatB, LJCFatB and LDFatB. The results of bioinformatic analysis showed that LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB and Arabidopsis thaliana AtFatB had a closely relationship. Nucleotide sequences and protein secondary structure of LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB are different and their proteins had conserved FatB substrate binding sites and catalytic activity sites. Transcriptive level of LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB in bud was not significantly different. Therefore, LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB could have the same biological function as AtFatB.
Soika, Grazyna; Kozak, Marcin
Three poorly known species of the subfamily Eriophyinae living on Tilia spp. (Tiliaceae) are illustrated and supplementary descriptions are provided. Two of them, Eriophyes exilis (Nalepa 1892) and Eriophyes nervalis (Nalepa 1918), were recorded both in vein angle galls on leaves of Tilia platyphyllos Scop. and in erinea on leaves of Tilia tomentosa Moench, Tilia americana L. 'Moltkei', Tilia americana var. heterophylla (Vent.) Loudon, Tilia cordata Mill., Tiliajaponica (Miq.) Simonk., Tilia petiolaris DC. and Tilia zamoyskiana Wr6bl. The third species, Eriophyes tiliae Nalepa 1890, was found in nail galls on leaves of T platyphyllos, T americana and T. cordata. All of these Eriophyes species showed noticeable morphological differences between protogyne and deutogyne females in terms of the number of dorsal annuli, location of setae d, length of setae e and 3a, distance between tubercles 3a and the length and pattern of the prodorsal shield. Based on a comparative morphological analysis of this original data with that published by A. Nalepa, new synonyms for the following species are proposed: Erophyes exilis (Nalepa) = Eriophyes leiosoma Nalepa syn. nov.; Eriophyes nervalis (Nalepa) = Eriophyes tiliaceus Nalepa syn. nov., Eriophyes tiliae Nalepa = Eriophyes rudis Nalepa syn. nov. = Eriophyes tomentosae Nalepa syn. nov. A key to all studied Eriophyes species living on lime trees is included.
Obst, Katja; Lieder, Barbara; Reichelt, Katharina V; Backes, Michael; Paetz, Susanne; Geißler, Katrin; Krammer, Gerhard; Somoza, Veronika; Ley, Jakob P; Engel, Karl-Heinz
The phytochemical profile of Macropiper excelsum (G.Forst.) Miq. subsp. excelsum (Piperaceae), a shrub which is widespread in New Zealand, was investigated by LC-MS-guided isolation and characterization via HR-ESI-TOF-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The isolated compounds were sensorily evaluated to identify their contribution to the overall taste of the crude extract with sweet, bitter, herbal and trigeminal impressions. Besides the known non-volatile Macropiper compounds, the lignans (+)-diayangambin and (+)-excelsin, four further excelsin isomers, (+)-diasesartemin, (+)-sesartemin, (+)-episesartemin A and B were newly characterized. Moreover, piperine and a number of piperine analogues as well as trans-pellitorine and two homologues, kalecide and (2E,4E)-tetradecadienoic acid N-isobutyl amide were identified in M. excelsum, some of them for the first time. Methyl(2E,4E)-7-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)hepta-2,4-dienoate was identified and characterized for the first time in nature. Sensory analysis of the pure amides indicated that they contributed to the known chemesthetic effects of Macropiper leaves and fruits. Since the pungent piperine has been shown to affect glucose and fatty acid metabolism in vivo in previous studies, piperine itself and four of the isolated compounds, piperdardine, chingchengenamide A, dihydropiperlonguminine, and methyl(2E,4E)-7-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)hepta-2,4-dienoate, were investigated regarding their effects on glucose and fatty acid uptake by enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 μM. Piperdardine showed the most pronounced effect, with glucose uptake increased by 83 ± 18% at 100 μM compared to non-treated control cells. An amide group seems to be advantageous for glucose uptake stimulation, but not necessarily for fatty acid uptake-stimulating effects of piperine-related compounds.
Li, Jun; Zhen, Wei; Long, Dengkai; Ding, Ling; Gong, Anhui; Xiao, Chenghong; Jiang, Weike; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Luqi
Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax is a mild tonic herb widely cultivated in the Southern part of China. The tuberous roots of P. heterophylla accumulate high levels of secondary metabolism products of medicinal value such as saponins, flavonoids, and isoquinoline alkaloids. Despite numerous studies on the pharmacological importance and purification of these compounds in P. heterophylla, their biosynthesis is not well understood. In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing platform to sequence the RNA from flowers, leaves, stem, root cortex and xylem tissues of P. heterophylla. We obtained 616,413,316 clean reads that we assembled into 127, 334 unique sequences with an N50 length of 951 bp. Among these unigenes, 53,184 unigenes (41.76%) were annotated in a public database and 39, 795 unigenes were assigned to 356 KEGG pathways; 23,714 unigenes (8.82%) had high homology with the genes from Beta vulgaris. We discovered 32, 095 DEGs in different tissues and performed GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. The most enriched KEGG pathway of secondary metabolism showed up-regulated expression in tuberous roots as compared with the ground parts of P. heterophylla. Moreover, we identified 72 candidate genes involved in triterpenoids saponins biosynthesis in P. heterophylla. The expression profiles of 11 candidate unigenes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Our study established a global transcriptome database of P. heterophylla for gene identification and regulation. We also identified the candidate unigenes involved in triterpenoids saponins biosynthesis. Our results provide an invaluable resource for the secondary metabolites and physiological processes in different tissues of P. heterophylla. PMID:27764127
Ishida, Atsushi; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Ladpala, Phanumard; Staporn, Duriya; Panuthai, Samreong; Gamo, Minoru; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ishizuka, Moriyoshi; Puangchit, Ladawan
We compared differences in leaf properties, leaf gas exchange and photochemical properties between drought-deciduous and evergreen trees in tropical dry forests, where soil nutrients differed but rainfall was similar. Three canopy trees (Shorea siamensis Miq., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob. and Vitex peduncularis Wall. ex Schauer) in a drought-deciduous forest and a canopy tree (Hopea ferrea Lanessan) in an evergreen forest were selected. Soil nutrient availability is lower in the evergreen forest than in the deciduous forest. Compared with the evergreen tree, the deciduous trees had shorter leaf life spans, lower leaf masses per area, higher leaf mass-based nitrogen (N) contents, higher leaf mass-based photosynthetic rates (mass-based P(n)), higher leaf N-based P(n), higher daily maximum stomatal conductance (g(s)) and wider conduits in wood xylem. Mass-based P(n) decreased from the wet to the dry season for all species. Following onset of the dry season, daily maximum g(s) and sensitivity of g(s) to leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit remained relatively unchanged in the deciduous trees, whereas both properties decreased in the evergreen tree during the dry season. Photochemical capacity and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of photosystem II (PSII) also remained relatively unchanged in the deciduous trees even after the onset of the dry season. In contrast, photochemical capacity decreased and NPQ increased in the evergreen tree during the dry season, indicating that the leaves coped with prolonged drought by down-regulating PSII. Thus, the drought-avoidant deciduous species were characterized by high N allocation for leaf carbon assimilation, high water use and photoinhibition avoidance, whereas the drought-tolerant evergreen was characterized by low N allocation for leaf carbon assimilation, conservative water use and photoinhibition tolerance.
Chu, Zhuo-Dong; Liu, Wen-Ju; Xiao, Ya-Bing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Duan, Yu-Hang
Concentrations of As, Hg, Pb, Cd in soils and herbal medicine samples from cultivated regions of Anguo City in Hebei Province were analyzed and assessed, and the bioconcentration factors of different herbal medicines were studied and discussed as well. The results showed that the average contents of As, Hg, Pb, Cd in soils from herbal medicine cultivated regions were 12.9, 0.036, 15.6, 0.118 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in soils were lower than class II of the soil environmental quality standard. When local soil background values of heavy metals were used as assessment standard, among the 16 cultivated regions the percentage of As, Hg, Ph, Cd belonging to lightly pollution class were 18.75%, 43.75%, 0%, 100%, respectively based on the single pollution index. And the Nemerow index results were between 1 and 2, which suggested the soils were at slight pollution level. However, when quality standard class II was used, both the single pollution index and Nemerow index did not exceed 0.7, which means that soils investigated were generally safe for cultivation of Chinese herbal medicines. The assessment of heavy metals in herbal medicines showed that the pollution indices of most herbal samples (< 95%) were lower then 1. Cd bioconcentration factors of Aster tataricus L. and Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Hg bioconcentration factors of Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. f. and Glehnia littoralis F. Schmidt ex Miq. were above 1. Therefore, the accumulation characteristic of heavy metals in Chinese herbal medicines should be fully concerned when GAP base soil quality assessment was taken.
Zadeh, Lofti A.
The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial
Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Su Yeon; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Iksoo
We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella, and compared their genome organization and sequence composition to those of available gelechioid mitogenomes for an enhanced understanding of Gelechioidea genomic characteristics. We compared all available lepidopteran mitogenome arrangements, including that of M. albilinella, which is unique in Gelechioidea, to comprehend the extensiveness and mechanisms of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera. The genomes of M. albilinella and D. ustalella are 15,274 and 15,410 bp in size, respectively, with the typical sets of mitochondrial (mt) genes. The COI gene begins with CGA (arginine) in all sequenced gelechioids, including M. albilinella and D. ustalella, reinforcing the feature as a synapomorphic trait, at least in the Gelechioidea. Each 353- and 321-bp long A + T-rich region of M. albilinella and D. ustalella contains one (D. ustalella) or two (M. albilinella) tRNA-like structures. The M. albilinella mitogenome has a unique gene arrangement among the Gelechioidea: ARNESF (the underline signifies an inverted gene) at the ND3 and ND5 junction, as opposed to the ARNSEF that is found in ancestral insects. An extensive search of available lepidopteran mitogenomes, including that of M. albilinella, turned up six rearrangements that differ from those of ancestral insects. Most of the rearrangements can be explained by the tandem duplication-random loss model, but inversion, which requires recombination, is also found in two cases, including M. albilinella. Excluding the MIQ rearrangement at the A + T-rich region and ND2 junction, which is found in nearly all Ditrysia, most of the remaining rearrangements found in Lepidoptera appear to be independently derived in that they are automorphic at several taxonomic scales, although current mitogenomic data are limited, particularly for congeneric data.
Park, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Dae; Lee, Whi Min; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Hwa Jin; Kim, Tae Wan; Choe, Nong-Hoon; Kim, Sang Keun; Rhee, Man Hee
Suaeda asparagoides Miq. (Chenopodiaceae: S. asparagoides) is a salt-marsh plant that has long been prescribed in traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of hypertension and hepatitis. In order to elucidate the pharmacological mechanisms of the herb, we conducted an examination of the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of solvent-extracts of S. asparagoides. All of the solvent fractions showed potent anti-oxidative effects, as assessed using a radical generation assay system (xanthine oxidase assay) and an electron-donating activity system (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical] assay), with IC50 values ranging from 9 to 42 microg/ml. In agreement with this pattern, the total phenolic contents were widely distributed in the various solvent fractions, and ranged from 36.5 to 50.3 mg/g of dry weight. All of the solvent fractions significantly suppressed NO production in RAW264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1 microg/ml) and of the fractions, only the chloroform (CHC) fraction completely blocked the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). Additionally, the hexane (HEX) and CHC fractions suppressed the mRNA expression of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), respectively, in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Therefore, these results suggest that the pharmacological action of S. asparagoides is due to its potent anti-oxidative effects and anti-inflammatory effects, and that therefore it can be applied to other diseases caused by oxidative stress and inflammation, such as cardiovascular diseases.
Lee, Jaehak; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Kim, Mihae; Kim, Jaehun; Kim, Daeho; Kim, Sunpyo; Kim, Gur-Yoo; Kim, Songmun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo
In traditional systems of medicine, fruits, leaves, and stems of Actinidia arguta (Sieb. et Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq. have been used to treat various inflammatory diseases. The present study determined the proximate composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic potential of A. arguta stem. Phenolic composition of hot water extract and its sub-fractions was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu’s reagent method. In vitro antioxidant activities of the samples were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. Anti-inflammatory activity of different fractions was investigated through the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (1 μg/ml) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, inhibition of α-glucosidase activity of hot water extract was determined using p-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (pNPG) as a substrate. Ethyl acetate (557.23 mg GAE/g) fraction contains higher level of total phenolic content. The antioxidant activity evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay showed a strong activity for ethyl acetate (IC50 of 14.28 μg/ml) and n-butanol fractions (IC50 of 48.27 μg/ml). Further, ethyl acetate fraction effectively inhibited NO production in RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than other fractions (nitrite level to 32.14 μM at 200 μg/ml). In addition, hot water extract of A. arguta stem exhibited appreciable inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase enzyme with IC50 of 1.71 mg/ml. The obtained results have important consequence of using A. arguta stem toward the development of effective anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:25473361
Ju, Da-Tong; Liao, Hung-En; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chung, Li-Chin; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Lin, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chih-Yang
Peripheral nerve injuries, caused by accidental trauma, acute compression or surgery, often result in temporary or life-long neuronal dysfunctions and inflict great economic or social burdens on the patients. Nerve cell proliferation is an essential process to restore injured nerves of adults. Schwann cells play a crucial role in endogenous repair of peripheral nerves due to their ability to proliferate, migrate and provide trophic support to axons via expression of various neurotrophic factors, such as the nerve growth factor (NGF), especially after nerve injury. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a dihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, isolated from the kernels of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq (AOF), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine the fruits of which are widely used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-salivation and anti-diarrheatic. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms by which PCA induces Schwann cell proliferation by activating IGF-IR-PI3K-Akt pathway. Treatment with PCA induces phosphorylation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/serine - threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) pathway, and activates expression of cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis after 18 h of treatment showed that proliferation of the RSC96 cells was enhanced by PCA treatment. The PCA induced proliferation was accompanied by modulation in the expressions of cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A. Knockdown of PI3K using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and inhibition of IGF-IR receptor resulted in the reduction in cell survival proteins. The results collectively showed that PCA treatment promoted cell proliferation and cell survival via IGF-I signaling.
Background Recent studies have shown that plant genomes have potentially undergone rampant horizontal gene transfer (HGT). In plant parasitic systems HGT appears to be facilitated by the intimate physical association between the parasite and its host. HGT in these systems has been invoked when a DNA sequence obtained from a parasite is placed phylogenetically very near to its host rather than with its closest relatives. Studies of HGT in parasitic plants have relied largely on the fortuitous discovery of gene phylogenies that indicate HGT, and no broad systematic search for HGT has been undertaken in parasitic systems where it is most expected to occur. Results We analyzed the transcriptomes of the holoparasite Rafflesia cantleyi Solms-Laubach and its obligate host Tetrastigma rafflesiae Miq. using phylogenomic approaches. Our analyses show that several dozen actively transcribed genes, most of which appear to be encoded in the nuclear genome, are likely of host origin. We also find that hundreds of vertically inherited genes (VGT) in this parasitic plant exhibit codon usage properties that are more similar to its host than to its closest relatives. Conclusions Our results establish for the first time a substantive number of HGTs in a plant host-parasite system. The elevated rate of unidirectional host-to- parasite gene transfer raises the possibility that HGTs may provide a fitness benefit to Rafflesia for maintaining these genes. Finally, a similar convergence in codon usage of VGTs has been shown in microbes with high HGT rates, which may help to explain the increase of HGTs in these parasitic plants. PMID:22681756
Cordero, Roberto A.
The hypothesis that the short, stunted development of elfin cloud forest trees is influenced by strong winds was tested by studying growth, gas exchange and biomechanics of potted saplings of Cecropia schreberiana Miq. ex. C. peltata L. (Cecropiaceae) exposed to two natural wind regimes (exposed and protected) at high elevation sites in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. The wind-exposure treatment produced several thigmomorphogenetic responses, including reductions in plant stature and crown area, changes in allocation patterns, and increased root to shoot ratio, leaf abrasion and leaf epinasty. Wind-exposure decreased maximum photosynthetic rate and respiration on an area basis, but not on a leaf-mass basis. Wind-exposed plants had lower apparent quantum yields, and higher light compensation points than wind-protected plants. Photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency was lower in wind-exposed plants, but such plants had higher leaf nitrogen concentration than wind-protected plants. There were no effects of treatments on stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and water-use efficiency. Stems of wind-exposed plants had lower second moment of area, apparent modulus of elasticity, flexural stiffness and stem density, but higher water content than wind-protected plants. Tissue-density-specific stiffness and the calculated critical height were not affected by the treatments. Wind-exposed plants were biomechanically less predisposed to bending and failing under their own weight than wind-protected plants because their safety factors were smaller, indicating that maintenance of an ontogenetically less developed structure enables plants to cope with wind loading. Windward trees showed a lower scaling component of the allometric relationship between diameter and height than leeward trees.
Wang, Zhibin; Wu, Qiong; Meng, Yonghai; Sun, Yichun; Wang, Qi; Yang, Chunjuan; Wang, Qiuhong; Yang, Bingyou; Kuang, Haixue
Aralia elata (Miq.) Seems (A. elata) grow in Northeast China and the total saponins of A. elata is used to auxiliary treatment for the acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis and the transaminase on the high side. Aralia-saponinV and Aralia-saponinVI are the major bioactive saponins in A. elata leaves. A selective and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic study of Aralia-saponinV and Aralia-saponinVI indwelling the extract in rat plasma in this article. The sample pretreatment involved a one-step extraction of 0.2mL plasma with methanol. Shengmaxinside C was used as internal standard (I.S.). The separation was carried out on an Agilent SB-C18 column (1.8μm, 50mm×2.1mm) at 30°C with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-5mM ammonium acetate (90:10, v/v) at a ﬂow rate of 0.2mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in the negative ionization mode. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) monitored for Aralia-saponinV, Aralia-saponinVI and I.S. were 1103.2/941.2, 1119.2/957.0 and 707.0/647.1, respectively. The current UHPLC-MS/MS assay method was validated for linearity, intra-day and inter-day precisions, accuracy, extraction recovery and stability, and it was suitable for the pharmacokinetic studies of the two saponins after oral administration of extract of A. elata leaves. The lower limits of quantification were 5.70ng/mL for Aralia-saponinV and 6.15ng/mL for Aralia-saponinVI. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 7.4% and the accuracy range was from 1.19% to 8.60%. The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and I.S. from rat plasma were all more than 89.5%. This paper described a simple, sensitive and validated UHPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of Aralia-saponinV and Aralia-saponinVI in rat plasma after oral administration of the extract of A
Uto, Takuhiro; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Thongjankaew, Pinjutha; Lhieochaiphant, Sorasak; Shoyama, Yukihiro
Background: Mammea siamensis (Miq.) T. Anders. is used as a medicinal plant in Thailand and has several traditional therapeutic properties. In a previous study, we isolated eight compounds from the flower of M. siamensis and demonstrated that kayeassamin A (KA) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against human leukemia and stomach cancer cell lines. Objective: In this study, we investigated the effect of KA on cell viability and apoptotic mechanisms in HL-60 human leukemia cells. Materials and Methods: Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation were observed using Hoechst 33258 staining and agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively. The sub-G1 phase of cells was analyzed by flow cytometry after the cellular DNA had been stained with propidium iodide. The protein levels of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspases were determined by Western blotting. Results: KA exhibited a significant cytotoxic effect in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and induced chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and sub-G1 phase DNA content, known as molecular events associated with the induction of apoptosis. In addition, KA strongly induced the activation of PARP and caspase-3 and -8, with weak caspase-9 activation. Furthermore, KA-induced DNA fragmentation was abolished by pretreatment with z-VAD-FMK (a broad caspase inhibitor), z-DEVD-FMK (a caspase-3 inhibitor), and z-IETD-FMK (a caspase-8 inhibitor), but not by z-LEHD-FMK (a caspase-9 inhibitor) pretreatment. Conclusion: These results indicate that KA triggers apoptotic cell death by activation of caspase-3 and -8 in HL-60 cells. SUMMARY Kayeassamin A (KA) isolated from the flower of Mammea siamensis exhibited a significant cytotoxic effect in HL-60 human leukemia cells. KA triggers apoptotic cell death by activating caspase-3/-8. Abbreviations Used: KA: Kayeassamin A; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2