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Sample records for outbreaks ontario canada

  1. 2015 Outbreak of Cyclosporiasis Linked to the Consumption of Imported Sugar Snap Peas in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Yvonne; Johnson, Karen; Hanson, Heather; Huneault, Danya

    2017-09-06

    An outbreak of cyclosporiasis in Ontario, Canada, was investigated in the fall of 2015. Thirty-five confirmed and 10 probable cases were linked to the investigation. Epidemiological and food safety evidence implicated fresh sugar snap peas imported from Guatemala as the source of the outbreak. We describe here the first documented cyclosporiasis outbreak in Canada involving the consumption of sugar snap peas.

  2. Rhinovirus outbreaks in long-term care facilities, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Longtin, Jean; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Winter, Anne Luise; Patel, Samir; Eshaghi, Alireza; Jamieson, Frances; Low, Donald E; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2010-09-01

    Diagnostic difficulties may have led to underestimation of rhinovirus infections in long-term care facilities. Using surveillance data, we found that rhinovirus caused 59% (174/297) of respiratory outbreaks in these facilities during 6 months in 2009. Disease was sometimes severe. Molecular diagnostic testing can differentiate these outbreaks from other infections such as influenza.

  3. Rhinovirus Outbreaks in Long-term Care Facilities, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Marchand-Austin, Alex; Winter, Anne-Luise; Patel, Samir; Eshaghi, Alireza; Jamieson, Frances; Low, Donald E.; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic difficulties may have led to underestimation of rhinovirus infections in long-term care facilities. Using surveillance data, we found that rhinovirus caused 59% (174/297) of respiratory outbreaks in these facilities during 6 months in 2009. Disease was sometimes severe. Molecular diagnostic testing can differentiate these outbreaks from other infections such as influenza. PMID:20735934

  4. Global Distribution and Evolutionary History of Enterovirus D68, with Emphasis on the 2014 Outbreak in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Eshaghi, Alireza; Duvvuri, Venkata R; Isabel, Sandra; Banh, Philip; Li, Aimin; Peci, Adriana; Patel, Samir N; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2017-01-01

    Despite its first appearance in 1962, human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been recognized as an emerging respiratory pathogen in the last decade when it caused outbreaks and clusters in several countries including Japan, the Philippines, and the Netherlands. The most recent and largest outbreak of EV-D68 associated with severe respiratory illness took place in North America between August 2014 and January 2015. Between September 1 and October 31 2014, EV-D68 infection was laboratory confirmed among 153/907 (16.9%) persons tested for the virus in Ontario, Canada, using real time RT-PCR and subsequent genotyping by sequencing of partial VP1 gene. In order to understand the evolutionary history of the 2014 North American EV-D68 outbreak, we conducted phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses using available partial VP1 genes (n = 469) and NCBI available whole genome sequences (WGS) (n = 38). The global EV-D68 phylogenetic tree (n = 469) reconfirms the divergence of three distinct clades A, B, and C from the prototype EV-D68 Fermon strain as previously documented. Two sub-clades (B1 and B2) were identified, with most 2014 EV-D68 outbreak strains belonging to sub-cluster B2b2 (one of the two emerging clusters within sub-clade B2), with two signature substitutions T650A and M700V in BC and DE loops of VP1 gene, respectively. The close homology between WGS of strains from Ontario (n = 2) and USA (n = 21) in the recent EV-D68 outbreak suggests genetic relatedness and also a common source for the outbreak. The time of most recent common ancestor of EV-D68 and the 2014 EV-D68 outbreak strain suggest that the viruses possibly emerged during 1960-1961 and 2012-2013, respectively. We observed lower mean evolutionary rates of global EV-D68 using WGS data than estimated with partial VP1 gene sequences. Based on WGS data, the estimated mean rate of evolution of the EV-D68 B2b cluster was 9.75 × 10(-3) substitutions/site/year (95% BCI 4.11 × 10(-3) to 16 × 10(-3)).

  5. Global Distribution and Evolutionary History of Enterovirus D68, with Emphasis on the 2014 Outbreak in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Eshaghi, Alireza; Duvvuri, Venkata R.; Isabel, Sandra; Banh, Philip; Li, Aimin; Peci, Adriana; Patel, Samir N.; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its first appearance in 1962, human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been recognized as an emerging respiratory pathogen in the last decade when it caused outbreaks and clusters in several countries including Japan, the Philippines, and the Netherlands. The most recent and largest outbreak of EV-D68 associated with severe respiratory illness took place in North America between August 2014 and January 2015. Between September 1 and October 31 2014, EV-D68 infection was laboratory confirmed among 153/907 (16.9%) persons tested for the virus in Ontario, Canada, using real time RT-PCR and subsequent genotyping by sequencing of partial VP1 gene. In order to understand the evolutionary history of the 2014 North American EV-D68 outbreak, we conducted phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses using available partial VP1 genes (n = 469) and NCBI available whole genome sequences (WGS) (n = 38). The global EV-D68 phylogenetic tree (n = 469) reconfirms the divergence of three distinct clades A, B, and C from the prototype EV-D68 Fermon strain as previously documented. Two sub-clades (B1 and B2) were identified, with most 2014 EV-D68 outbreak strains belonging to sub-cluster B2b2 (one of the two emerging clusters within sub-clade B2), with two signature substitutions T650A and M700V in BC and DE loops of VP1 gene, respectively. The close homology between WGS of strains from Ontario (n = 2) and USA (n = 21) in the recent EV-D68 outbreak suggests genetic relatedness and also a common source for the outbreak. The time of most recent common ancestor of EV-D68 and the 2014 EV-D68 outbreak strain suggest that the viruses possibly emerged during 1960–1961 and 2012–2013, respectively. We observed lower mean evolutionary rates of global EV-D68 using WGS data than estimated with partial VP1 gene sequences. Based on WGS data, the estimated mean rate of evolution of the EV-D68 B2b cluster was 9.75 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year (95% BCI 4.11 × 10-3 to 16 × 10-3). PMID:28298902

  6. Outbreaks of West Nile virus in captive waterfowl in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cox, Sherri L; Campbell, G Douglas; Nemeth, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    The detrimental effects of West Nile virus (WNV) have been well characterized in several taxonomic groups of North American birds, such as corvids and raptors. Relatively less is known about the virus' effects in waterfowl species, many of which are abundant in North America and occupy habitats, for example wetlands and marshes, likely to harbour dense mosquito populations. In two successive years, outbreaks of WNV-associated disease were observed in waterfowl at a rehabilitation centre. In the present report, clinical and pathological findings are provided for seven mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and one Canada goose (Branta canadensis) that developed acute disease and either died or were killed humanely. The most severe and consistent microscopic lesion in mallards was myocardial degeneration and coagulative necrosis consistent with acute heart failure. The Canada goose had necrotizing myocarditis. Other lesions included pulmonary perivascular oedema, lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis, and splenic and bursal lymphoid depletion. WNV infection was confirmed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. Myofibres within all cardiac muscle layers had positive immunohistochemical staining, as did blood vessel walls in the heart and spleen. These results suggest that juvenile mallards are highly susceptible to fatal WNV-associated cardiac failure, and confirm that adult Canada geese are susceptible to fatal WNV-associated disease. The synchronous timing of clinical disease and death in these waterfowl are consistent with WNV mosquito-borne infections within a WNV transmission focus during the summer (July and August) of 2012 and 2013.

  7. Outbreak of type E foodborne botulism linked to traditionally prepared salted fish in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Walton, Ryan N; Clemens, Alexander; Chung, Jackson; Moore, Stephen; Wharton, Deborah; Haydu, Liz; de Villa, Eileen; Sanders, Greg; Bussey, Jeff; Richardson, David; Austin, John W

    2014-10-01

    On April 17, 2012, two adult females presented to the hospital with symptoms of botulism. Patient A displayed shortness of breath, increasing lethargy, ptosis, and fixed and dilated pupils, and was intubated after admission. Patient B presented with shortness of breath, vomiting, and stridor. Both patients consumed a meal consisting of a traditionally prepared salted fish, fesikh, on the evening of April 16 during a gathering to celebrate Sham el-Nessim, an Egyptian holiday marking the beginning of spring. Foodborne botulism was suspected based on symptoms and consumption of potentially hazardous food. Antitoxin was administered to both patients on April 18. Another attendee of the Sham el-Nessim gathering (patient C), who also consumed the implicated food, developed symptoms consistent with botulism on April 18. Clinical specimens from all three symptomatic attendees tested positive for either Clostridium botulinum or type E botulinum neurotoxin. Fesikh remaining from the shared meal contained both type E botulinum neurotoxin and C. botulinum type E organisms. Unsold fesikh shad and fesikh sardines tested positive for C. botulinum type E, while unsold fesikh mullet pieces in oil tested positive for both C. botulinum type E and type E botulinum neurotoxin. After consultation with public health investigators, all fesikh products were voluntarily withheld from sale by the manufacturer prior to laboratory confirmation of contamination. Additional illnesses were likely prevented by these precautionary holds, which underscores the importance of timely public health action based on epidemiological evidence available in advance of laboratory results. This is the first documented outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with fesikh to occur in Canada.

  8. An outbreak of foodborne botulism in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona R; Austin, John W; Blanchfield, Burke; Fong, Ignatius W

    2003-01-01

    Botulism is a rare paralytic illness resulting from a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in Canada is predominately due to C botulinum type E and affects mainly the First Nations and Inuit populations. The most recent outbreak of botulism in Ontario was in Ottawa in 1991 and was caused by C botulinum type A. We report an outbreak of foodborne type B botulism in Ontario, which implicated home-canned tomatoes. The outbreak was characterized by mild symptoms in two cases and moderately severe illness in one case. The investigation shows the importance of considering the diagnosis of botulism in patients presenting with cranial nerve and autonomic dysfunction, especially when combined with gastrointestinal complaints; it also highlights the importance of proper home canning technique. PMID:18159458

  9. A socio-ecological autopsy of the E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in Walkerton, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ali, S Harris

    2004-06-01

    The socio-political context of modern environmental health disasters tends to be defined as being outside the scope of official public health and epidemiological investigations into the causes of such disasters. On the other hand, popular accounts of these disasters tend to focus exclusively on the role of particular individuals and/or political actors, while minimizing the role of ecological factors. It is argued that an exclusive focus on either set of causal factors gives an incomplete or distorted picture of the origins of an environmental health disaster. In this paper, a socio-ecological analysis is developed to demonstrate how the largest outbreak of waterborne E. coli O157:H7 in Canadian history was the emergent product of a complex interplay and intertwining of social and ecological processes. The socio-ecological autopsy approach that is developed here traces the social and ecological chain of events that ultimately led to the outbreak and demonstrates, in particular, the need for investigative analysis to focus on the socio-ecological "incubation" of an environmental health disaster. Drawing from both the social sciences (particularly, the sociology of disasters and organizational sociology), and from the ecological sciences (particularly disease ecology), the analysis developed here responds to the call for the application of a more transdisciplinary approach to the study of contemporary environmental health problems.

  10. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  11. [Overview of acupuncture development in Ontario Canada].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Bin-jiang

    2012-04-01

    The history of acupuncture in Ontario, Canada was traced, and the current status as welI as the prospection were introduced in this paper. Statistics showed that the history of acupuncture in Ontario started in the 1880s, and it was only popular in China Town and Chinese community. In the 1970s, it gradually merged into the mainstream of the society, and entered into a growing period. With the tide of Chinese immigration in the 1980s and 1990s, acupuncture matured rapidly. In 2006, the "Traditional Chinese Medicine Act" was passed in Ontario, it was considered as a milestone in the history of acupuncture. At present, just like the other 23 health care professions, acupuncture has already be included into the legislation system, and become a component of Ontario's health care system. At the same time, the law and regulation may also promote the establishment of "pure Chinese Medicine" in Ontario.

  12. West Nile Virus Outbreak in North American Owls, Ontario, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Ian K.; Lindsay, Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; McKeever, Katherine; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario, Canada. Peak death rates occurred in mid-August, and the epidemiologic curve resembled that of corvids in the surrounding Niagara region. The outbreak occurred in the midst of a louse fly (Icosta americana, family Hippoboscidae) infestation. Of the flies tested, 16 (88.9 %) of 18 contained WNV RNA. Species with northern native breeding range and birds >1 year of age were at significantly higher risk for WNV-related deaths. Species with northern native breeding range and of medium-to-large body size were at significantly higher risk for exposure to WNV. Taxonomic relations (at the subfamily level) did not significantly affect exposure to WNV or WNV-related deaths. Northern native breeding range and medium-to-large body size were associated with earlier death within the outbreak period. Of the survivors, 69 (75.8 %) of 91 were seropositive for WNV. PMID:15663850

  13. West Nile virus outbreak in North American owls, Ontario, 2002.

    PubMed

    Gancz, Ady Y; Barker, Ian K; Lindsay, Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; McKeever, Katherine; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-12-01

    From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario, Canada. Peak death rates occurred in mid-August, and the epidemiologic curve resembled that of corvids in the surrounding Niagara region. The outbreak occurred in the midst of a louse fly (Icosta americana, family Hippoboscidae) infestation. Of the flies tested, 16 (88.9 %) of 18 contained WNV RNA. Species with northern native breeding range and birds >1 year of age were at significantly higher risk for WNV-related deaths. Species with northern native breeding range and of medium-to-large body size were at significantly higher risk for exposure to WNV. Taxonomic relations (at the subfamily level) did not significantly affect exposure to WNV or WNV-related deaths. Northern native breeding range and medium-to-large body size were associated with earlier death within the outbreak period. Of the survivors, 69 (75.8 %) of 91 were seropositive for WNV.

  14. Encephalitis, Ontario, Canada, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Parpia, Alyssa S; Li, Ye; Chen, Cynthia; Dhar, Badal; Crowcroft, Natasha S

    2016-03-01

    Encephalitis, a brain inflammation leading to severe illness and often death, is caused by >100 pathogens. To assess the incidence and trends of encephalitis in Ontario, Canada, we obtained data on 6,463 Ontario encephalitis hospitalizations from the hospital Discharge Abstract Database for April 2002-December 2013 and analyzed these data using multiple negative binomial regression. The estimated crude incidence of all-cause encephalitis in Ontario was ≈4.3 cases/100,000 persons/year. Incidence rates for infants <1 year of age and adults >65 years were 3.9 and 3.0 times that of adults 20-44 years of age, respectively. Incidence peaks during August-September in 2002 and 2012 resulted primarily from encephalitis of unknown cause and viral encephalitis. Encephalitis occurred more frequently in older age groups and less frequently in women in Ontario when compared to England, but despite differences in population, vector-borne diseases, climate, and geography, the epidemiology was overall remarkably similar in the two regions.

  15. Encephalitis, Ontario, Canada, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Parpia, Alyssa S.; Li, Ye; Chen, Cynthia; Dhar, Badal

    2016-01-01

    Encephalitis, a brain inflammation leading to severe illness and often death, is caused by >100 pathogens. To assess the incidence and trends of encephalitis in Ontario, Canada, we obtained data on 6,463 Ontario encephalitis hospitalizations from the hospital Discharge Abstract Database for April 2002–December 2013 and analyzed these data using multiple negative binomial regression. The estimated crude incidence of all-cause encephalitis in Ontario was ≈4.3 cases/100,000 persons/year. Incidence rates for infants <1 year of age and adults >65 years were 3.9 and 3.0 times that of adults 20–44 years of age, respectively. Incidence peaks during August–September in 2002 and 2012 resulted primarily from encephalitis of unknown cause and viral encephalitis. Encephalitis occurred more frequently in older age groups and less frequently in women in Ontario when compared to England, but despite differences in population, vector-borne diseases, climate, and geography, the epidemiology was overall remarkably similar in the two regions. PMID:26890626

  16. Outbreak investigation of porcine epidemic diarrhea in swine in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Pasma, Tim; Furness, Mary Catherine; Alves, David; Aubry, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus was first diagnosed in Ontario in January of 2014. An outbreak investigation was conducted and it was hypothesized that feed containing spray-dried porcine plasma contaminated with the virus was a risk factor in the introduction and spread of the disease in Ontario.

  17. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Breiner, Ari; Widdifield, Jessica; Katzberg, Hans D; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Tu, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and prevalence estimates in myasthenia gravis have varied widely. Recent studies based on administrative health data have large sample sizes but lack rigorous validation of MG cases, and have not examined the North American population. Our aim was to explore trends in MG incidence and prevalence for the years 1996-2013 in the province of Ontario, Canada (population 13.5 million). We employed a previously validated algorithm to identify MG cases. Linking with census data allowed for the calculation of crude- and age/sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates for the years 1996-2013. The regional distribution of MG cases throughout the province was examined. Mean age at the first myasthenia gravis encounter was 60.2 ± 17.1 years. In 2013, there were 3611 prevalent cases in Ontario, and the crude prevalence rate was 32.0/100,000 population. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates rose consistently over time from 16.3/100,000 (15.4-17.1) in 1996 to 26.3/100,000 (25.4-27.3) in 2013. Standardized incidence rates remained stable between 1996 (2.7/100,000; 95% CL 2.3-3.0) and 2013 (2.3/100,000; 2.1-2.6). Incidence was highest in younger women and older men, and geographic variation was evident throughout the province. In conclusion, this large epidemiological study shows rising myasthenia gravis prevalence with stable incidence over time, which is likely reflective of patients living longer, possibly due to improved disease treatment. Our findings provide accurate information on the Canadian epidemiology of myasthenia gravis and burden for health care resources planning for the province, respectively.

  18. An outbreak of cyclosporiasis in 1996 associated with consumption of fresh berries- Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, DG; Neamatullah, S; Shahin, R; Reymond, D; Keystone, J; Carlson, J; Le Ber, C; Herwaldt, BL; Werker, DH

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large foodborne outbreak of cyclosporiasis occurred in North America in 1996. An index cluster of cases associated with a catered event on May 11, 1996, in Ontario sparked the recognition of this outbreak in Canada. OBJECTIVES: To describe the Ontario experience with the North American outbreak of cyclosporiasis in 1996. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Public health units investigated the index and subsequent event-associated clusters. Investigations included retrospective cohort studies of clusters, traceback of suspect foods and a case-control study of sporadic cases. These activities, coordinated with those in the United States, were part of an international investigation. RESULTS: In Ontario, 232 cases of cyclosporiasis (20 laboratory-confirmed and 72 clinically defined cases associated with seven events plus 140 additional laboratory-confirmed sporadic cases) were identified between May 1 and July 30, 1996. For the index cluster, a strawberry flan with raspberries and blueberries was the only significant exposure (relative risk 2.16, P=0.02). Fresh berries were served at all seven events associated with clusters of cases. Raspberries were definitely served at three events, possibly served at three events, and not served at one event. Only imported berries were available in Ontario in May 1996, when initial clusters and sporadic cases were identified. The raspberries served at the two events with well documented traceback data came from Guatemala. Univariate analyses of the matched case-control study demonstrated that illness was associated with consumption of raspberries (matched odds ratio 21.0, 95% CI 3.48 to 448) and strawberries (matched odds ratio 28.5, 95% CI 4.02 to 478). Further evidence amassed by the international investigation compellingly implicated Guatemalan raspberries as the vehicle of the outbreak. CONCLUSION: Cyclosporiasis may be acquired domestically from the consumption of contaminated produce. The scope and vehicle of this

  19. A checklist of the 67 mosquito species of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Bryan V; Gasparotto, Alessio; Hunter, Fiona F

    2015-03-01

    We provide an updated checklist of 67 endemic mosquito species known from Ontario, Canada. Nine endemic species are added to the checklist found in Darsie and Ward (2005) : Aedes cantator, Ae. churchillensis, Ae. nigripes, Ae. pullatus, Anopheles perplexens, An. crucians, An. smaragdinus, Culex erraticus, and Cx. salinarius. Only 4 specimens of Ae. albopictus have been recorded in Ontario since 2001 despite concerted efforts to find this species; therefore, it is considered an "accidental" species and is excluded from the checklist.

  20. From Zero Tolerance to Student Success in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003, Ontario, Canada's high school graduation rates have increased 13% while suspensions and expulsion rates have simultaneously decreased. This article examines relationships between the province's safe school policy and Student Success/Learning to 18 (SS/L18), a policy designed to increase graduation rates. Analyses of teachers'…

  1. Character Development and Critical Democratic Education in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Ontario, Canada's new character education policy is analyzed to determine how it supports and undermines critical democratic commitments to diversity, dialogue, equity, critical mindedness, and social justice. While policies are always open to interpretation, recent reform policies requiring evidence of continual improvement in students' academic…

  2. Organizing Mathematics Courses for the Gifted in Ontario, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Robert

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses methods used to differentiate the presentation of mathematics to gifted students in Ontario, Canada. Activities are described that help students to develop structured inquiry, reinforce categorization skills, develop efficient study habits, and encourage probing and divergent questions. (JDD)

  3. From Zero Tolerance to Student Success in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003, Ontario, Canada's high school graduation rates have increased 13% while suspensions and expulsion rates have simultaneously decreased. This article examines relationships between the province's safe school policy and Student Success/Learning to 18 (SS/L18), a policy designed to increase graduation rates. Analyses of teachers'…

  4. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  5. Organizing Mathematics Courses for the Gifted in Ontario, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Robert

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses methods used to differentiate the presentation of mathematics to gifted students in Ontario, Canada. Activities are described that help students to develop structured inquiry, reinforce categorization skills, develop efficient study habits, and encourage probing and divergent questions. (JDD)

  6. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  7. Ontario Power Generation's Proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Tiverton, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, M.

    2009-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation is proposing to develop a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of its Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) at the Bruce site located near Tiverton, Ontario, 225 km northwest of Toronto. The shaft accessed repository, as envisioned, would accommodate 200,000 m3 (as packaged) of L&ILW in emplacement rooms excavated at a depth of 680 m within the Ordovician age argillaceous limestone Cobourg Formation. The Bruce site is underlain by an approximate 860 m thick Paleozoic sedimentary sequence comprised of near horizontally bedded carbonates, shales, evaporates and sandstones, Devonian to Cambrian in age, overlying crystalline basement rocks. Regional and site-specific geoscientific studies to verify the suitability of the Bruce site to host the DGR were initiated in 2006. The focus for the geoscientific investigations has been on gathering data to develop and test an understanding of the evolution and stability of the geologic, hydrogeologic, hydrogeochemical and geomechanical environ as it relates to demonstrating repository safety. Scheduled for completion in 2010, the interim results, which have included the drilling, coring and testing of 4 deep boreholes, are providing evidence of a predictable geosphere with a deep seated (>400 m), low permeability (K < 10-13 m sec-1), low porosity (0.01-0.08), saline (TDS > 250 gm l-1) groundwater regime that is ancient and resilient to external perturbations (e.g. glaciation). Work program activities in this regard have included, among others, detailed studies of rock core lithology, mineralogy and petrophysics, rock matrix pore fluid and groundwater characterisation, in-situ rock mass hydraulic testing, geomechanical rock core testing, 2-D seismic reflection surveys and long-term hydraulic borehole instrumentation. These data, in addition to regional and site-scale hydrogeologic modelling of the sedimentary sequence that among other aspects is examining groundwater

  8. Social network investigation of a syphilis outbreak in Ottawa, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo-Scott, H; Cutler, J; Friedman, D; Hendriks, A; Jolly, AM

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of syphilis in Ottawa, Ontario, has risen substantially since 2000 to six cases per 100,000 in 2003, again to nine cases per 100,000 in 2007, and recently rose to 11 cases per 100,000 in 2010. The number of cases reported in the first quarter of 2010 was more than double that in the first quarter of 2009. OBJECTIVE: In May 2010, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care requested the assistance of the Field Epidemiology Program to describe the increase in infectious syphilis rates and to identify social network sources and prevention messages. METHODS: Syphilis surveillance data were routinely collected from January 1, 2009 to July 15, 2010, and social networks were constructed from an enhanced social network questionnaire. Univariate comparisons between the enhanced surveillance group and the remaining cases from 2009 on non-normally distributed data were conducted using Kruskal-Wallis tests and χ2 tests. RESULTS: The outbreak cases were comprised of 89% men. Seventeen of the 19 most recent cases consented to answer the questionnaire, which revealed infrequent use of condoms, multiple sex partners and sex with a same-sex partner. Information regarding social venues where sex partners were met was plotted together with sexual partnerships, linking 18 cases and 40 contacts, representing 37% of the outbreak population and connecting many of the single individuals and dyads. CONCLUSION: Uncovering the places sex partners met was an effective proxy measure of high-risk activities shared with infected individuals and demonstrates the potential for focusing on interventions at one named bar and one Internet site to reach a high proportion of the population at risk. PMID:26600816

  9. Future changes of temperature and heat waves in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Huang, Wendy; Lin, Qianguo; Liao, Renfei; Fan, Yurui

    2017-05-01

    Apparent changes in the temperature patterns in recent years brought many challenges to the province of Ontario, Canada. As the need for adapting to climate change challenges increases, the development of reliable climate projections becomes a crucial task. In this study, a regional climate modeling system, Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS), is used to simulate the temperature patterns in Ontario. Three PRECIS runs with a resolution of 25 km × 25 km are carried out to simulate the present (1961-1990) temperature variations. There is a good match between the simulated and observed data, which validates the performance of PRECIS in reproducing temperature changes in Ontario. Future changes of daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures during the period 2071-2100 are then projected under the IPCC SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios using PRECIS. Spatial variations of annual mean temperature, mean diurnal range, and temperature seasonality are generated. Furthermore, heat waves defined based on the exceedance of local climatology and their temporal and spatial characteristics are analyzed. The results indicate that the highest temperature and the most intensive heat waves are most likely to occur at the Toronto-Windsor corridor in Southern Ontario. The Northern Ontario, in spite of the relatively low projected temperature, would be under the risk of long-lasting heat waves, and thus needs effective measures to enhance its climate resilience in the future. This study can assist the decision makers in better understanding the future temperature changes in Ontario and provide decision support for mitigating heat-related loss.

  10. Photonics education and training in Ontario, Canada: an integrated plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantel, Marc; Beda, Johann

    2002-05-01

    Canada has established itself as a leader in photonics. Ontario in particular - home of giants such as JDS Uniphase, Nortel Networks, GSI Lumonics and an increasing number of successful start-up companies - has seen the demand for highly-qualified personnel in photonics grow exponentially in the past few years. The scarcity of these photonics experts has become - recent market woes not withstanding - the single most important impediment to the further growth of photonics companies. Nonetheless, it is mostly at the graduate school level that lasers and photonics are introduced to students, with only very few thus being trained in the field. Photonics Research Ontario has put together an aggressive plan to change this situation and present Optics, Lasers and Photonics at all levels in the education system, from grade school to graduate school. This paper will present this Photonics Education and Training plan, as well as other efforts being undertaken across Canada to address this crucial issue. The paper will focus especially on the training of Photonics Technicians and Technologists in Ontario's Community Colleges. The new curriculum designed for these programs will be presented, and the importance of industry support will be emphasized.

  11. Job Satisfaction Among Gerontological Social Workers in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Simons, Kelsey; An, Sofiya

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about job satisfaction among Canada's social work workforce in aging, although social workers remain a key component of interdisciplinary care in health and social service settings. This study begins to address this gap in knowledge by examining individual, interpersonal, and job-design factors influencing the job satisfaction of gerontological social workers in Ontario. Data were collected via two online surveys with a sample drawn from the Ontario Association of Social Workers' membership list (N = 104). A multiple regression model explained 37% of the variance in job satisfaction, F = 5.47[10, 93], p < .001). Three independent variables were significant (positive affect, β = .21; promotional chances, β = .21; and client acuity, β = -.18). The results suggest the importance of promoting strategies for enhancing job satisfaction, advancing promotional opportunities for social work clinicians, and providing educational and clinical supports to clinicians.

  12. Behavior, movements, and demographics of rabid raccoons in Ontario, Canada: management implications.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, Rick; Sobey, Kirk; Donovan, Dennis; Bruce, Laura; Allan, Mike; Silver, Andrew; Bennett, Kim; Gibson, Mark; Simpson, Holly; Davies, Chris; Wandeler, Alex; Muldoon, Frances

    2006-07-01

    During 1999-2003, 127 cases of raccoon variant rabies were reported in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in Ontario, Canada. Raccoons accounted for 98% (125/127) of the reported cases with behaviors/conditions including aggression, fighting with dogs, ataxia, vocalizations, appearance of being sick, and the presence of porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. Seventy-eight percent of the rabid raccoons were adults. Juveniles were underrepresented (22%) compared with the adult/juvenile ratios found in nonrabid Ontario raccoon populations. Of the known aged raccoons, 83% were < or = 3 yr of age, and 22% of the rabid adult female raccoons had evidence of having had a litter during the year in which they were found to be rabid. The majority of rabid raccoons were reported during the fall, winter, and spring, suggesting a relationship between raccoon behavioral activities such as denning and breeding and the timing of rabies outbreaks. Multiple cases of raccoon rabies occurred at several barns, suggesting that those structures serve as focal points of rabies transmission as a result of denning activities. Movements of five rabid raccoons (range 1,564-4,143 m) were not different from movements of nonrabid raccoons in Ontario. Sixty-six percent of the rabid animals were submitted by government staff, stressing the importance of those agencies in rabies control and surveillance operations. Increased knowledge of the behaviors of rabid raccoons should assist in the development of management strategies for rabies.

  13. An outbreak of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in a standardbred herd in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    McGurrin, M. Kimberly J.; Vengust, Modest; Arroyo, Luis G.; Baird, John D.

    2007-01-01

    An outbreak of protein-losing enteropathy associated with Lawsonia intracelluaris infection was diagnosed in 6 standardbred foals from a farm in Ontario. Wildlife exposure may have been involved in the perpetuation of disease in this outbreak. The clinical presentation, treatment, outcomes, and pathological findings are described. PMID:17966333

  14. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Ellen Stephanie; Liberda, Eric Nicholas; Tsuji, Leonard James S

    2015-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT), other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling) from 3 plots (A, B, and C) in Fort Albany (on the mainland), subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes.

  15. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Ellen Stephanie; Liberda, Eric Nicholas; Tsuji, Leonard James S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT), other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling) from 3 plots (A, B, and C) in Fort Albany (on the mainland), subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusion Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes. PMID:26025557

  16. Competency Assessment of Microbiology Medical Laboratory Technologists in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Christine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Accreditation in Ontario, Canada, requires that licensed clinical laboratories participate in external quality assessment (also known as proficiency testing) and perform competency evaluation of their staff. To assess the extent of ongoing competency assessment practices, the Quality Management Program—Laboratory Services (QMP-LS) Microbiology Committee surveyed all 112 licensed Ontario microbiology laboratories. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 21 questions that included yes/no, multiple-choice, and short-answer formats. Participants were asked to provide information about existing programs, the frequency of testing, what areas are evaluated, and how results are communicated to the staff. Of the 111 responding laboratories, 6 indicated they did not have a formal evaluation program since they perform only limited bacteriology testing. Of the remaining 105 respondents, 87% perform evaluations at least annually or every 2 years, and 61% include any test or task performed, whereas 16% and 10% focus only on problem areas and high-volume complex tasks, respectively. The most common methods of evaluation were review of external quality assessment (EQA) challenges, direct observation, and worksheet review. With the exception of one participant, all communicate results to staff, and most take remedial action to correct the deficiencies. Although most accredited laboratories have a program to assess the ongoing competency of their staff, the methods used are not standardized or consistently applied, indicating that there is room for improvement. The survey successfully highlighted potential areas for improvement and allowed the QMP-LS Microbiology Committee to provide guidance to Ontario laboratories for establishing or improving existing microbiology-specific competency assessment programs. PMID:24899030

  17. Rates of Anomalous Bupropion Prescriptions in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Steele, Leah S; Macdonald, Erin M; Gomes, Tara; Hollands, Simon; Paterson, J Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N

    2015-01-01

    Reports of bupropion misuse have increased since it was first reported in 2002. The purpose of this study was to explore trends in bupropion prescribing suggestive of misuse or diversion in Ontario, Canada. A serial cross-sectional study was conducted of Ontarians aged younger than 65 years who received prescriptions under Ontario's public drug program from April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2013. We determined the number of potentially inappropriate prescriptions in each quarter, defined as early refills dispensed within 50% of the duration of the preceding prescription, as well as potentially duplicitous prescriptions, defined as similarly early refills originating from a different prescriber and different pharmacy. We replicated these analyses for citalopram and sertraline, antidepressants not known to be prone to abuse. We identified 1,780,802 prescriptions for bupropion, 3,402,462 for citalopram, and 1,775,285 for sertraline. Rates of early refills for bupropion declined during the study from 4.8% to 3.1%. In the final quarter, rates of early refills for bupropion were more common than for citalopram (3.1% vs 2.2%) (P <.001) but not for sertraline (3.1% vs 2.9%) (P =.16). Potentially duplicitous prescriptions for bupropion increased dramatically, from <0.05% of all prescriptions in early 2000 to 0.47% in early 2013 and by the final quarter were more common than both citalopram (0.11%) and sertraline (0.12%) (P <.001). Although no marked differences were seen for early refills of bupropion relative to its comparators, potentially duplicitous prescriptions have increased dramatically in Ontario, suggesting growing misuse of the drug. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  18. Competency assessment of microbiology medical laboratory technologists in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Marc; Fleming, Christine Ann

    2014-08-01

    Accreditation in Ontario, Canada, requires that licensed clinical laboratories participate in external quality assessment (also known as proficiency testing) and perform competency evaluation of their staff. To assess the extent of ongoing competency assessment practices, the Quality Management Program--Laboratory Services (QMP-LS) Microbiology Committee surveyed all 112 licensed Ontario microbiology laboratories. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 21 questions that included yes/no, multiple-choice, and short-answer formats. Participants were asked to provide information about existing programs, the frequency of testing, what areas are evaluated, and how results are communicated to the staff. Of the 111 responding laboratories, 6 indicated they did not have a formal evaluation program since they perform only limited bacteriology testing. Of the remaining 105 respondents, 87% perform evaluations at least annually or every 2 years, and 61% include any test or task performed, whereas 16% and 10% focus only on problem areas and high-volume complex tasks, respectively. The most common methods of evaluation were review of external quality assessment (EQA) challenges, direct observation, and worksheet review. With the exception of one participant, all communicate results to staff, and most take remedial action to correct the deficiencies. Although most accredited laboratories have a program to assess the ongoing competency of their staff, the methods used are not standardized or consistently applied, indicating that there is room for improvement. The survey successfully highlighted potential areas for improvement and allowed the QMP-LS Microbiology Committee to provide guidance to Ontario laboratories for establishing or improving existing microbiology-specific competency assessment programs.

  19. Characteristics of drug use on sheep farms in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Catherine S.; Berke, Olaf; Avery, Brent P.; McEwen, Scott A.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Scott, Lisa; Menzies, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of the use of drugs, especially antimicrobials, on Ontario sheep farms. Forty-nine sheep farms participated in a 12-month prospective study. Producers documented treatment events during the study period and drug use data from the records were summarized. The most frequently used drugs of the 15 drug categories used by producers belonged to the following categories: antimicrobial (40.7%, n = 2710), vitamin/mineral (12.0%), and biological (11.1%). Short-acting penicillin (27.2%, n = 1103), long-acting oxytetracycline (22.9%), and long-acting penicillin (21.9%) were the most frequently used antimicrobials. The drugs that were used most frequently on sheep farms were antimicrobials, of which 93% of treatments were extra-label. Extensive extra-label drug use may be the result of the limited number of drugs that are approved in Canada for use in sheep. PMID:21358930

  20. Meanings of Success and Successful Leadership in Ontario, Canada, in Neo-Liberal Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Pollock, Katina

    2016-01-01

    The provincial government of Ontario, Canada, has committed itself to raising student achievement, closing achievement gaps, and increasing the public's confidence in public education. It has introduced many policies, including the Ontario Leadership Strategy (OLS), to support these goals. Our study examined how teachers, administrators, support…

  1. Meanings of Success and Successful Leadership in Ontario, Canada, in Neo-Liberal Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Pollock, Katina

    2016-01-01

    The provincial government of Ontario, Canada, has committed itself to raising student achievement, closing achievement gaps, and increasing the public's confidence in public education. It has introduced many policies, including the Ontario Leadership Strategy (OLS), to support these goals. Our study examined how teachers, administrators, support…

  2. Potential impacts of a scenario of CO/sub 2/-induced climatic change on Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.J.; Allsopp, T.R.

    1988-07-01

    In 1984, Environment Canada, Ontario Region, with financial and expert support from the Canadian Climate Program, initiated an interdisciplinary pilot study to investigate the potential impact, on Ontario, of a climate scenario which might be anticipated under doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ conditions.

  3. Policy Advocacy, Inequity, and School Fees and Fundraising in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Milani, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Fundraising and collecting fees are ubiquitous in Ontario, Canada's public schools. Critics assert that these practices perpetuate and exacerbate inequities between schools and communities. In this article we present findings from a critical policy analysis of an advocacy group's efforts to change Ontario's fees and fundraising policies over the…

  4. Lagged cumulative spruce budworm defoliation affects the risk of fire ignition in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    James, Patrick M A; Robert, Louis-Etienne; Wotton, B Mike; Martell, David L; Fleming, Richard A

    2017-03-01

    Detailed understanding of forest disturbance interactions is needed for effective forecasting, modelling, and management. Insect outbreaks are a significant forest disturbance that alters forest structure as well as the distribution and connectivity of combustible fuels at broad spatial scales. The effect of insect outbreaks on fire activity is an important but contentious issue with significant policy consequences. The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is a native defoliating insect in eastern North America whose periodic outbreaks create large patches of dead fir and spruce trees. Of particular concern to fire and forest managers is whether these patches represent an increased fire risk, if so, for how long, and how the relationship between defoliation and fire risk varies through space and time. Previous work suggests a temporary increase in flammability in budworm-killed forests, but regional and seasonal variability in these relationships has not been examined. Using an extensive database on historical lightning-caused fire ignitions and spruce budworm defoliation between 1963 and 2000, we assess the relative importance of cumulative defoliation and fire weather on the probability of ignition in Ontario, Canada. We modeled fire ignition using a generalized additive logistic regression model that accounts for temporal autocorrelation in fire weather. We compared two ecoregions in eastern Ontario (Abitibi Plains) and western Ontario (Lake of the Woods) that differ in terms of climate, geomorphology, and forest composition. We found that defoliation has the potential to both increase and decrease the probability of ignition depending on the time scale, ecoregion, and season examined. Most importantly, we found that lagged spruce budworm defoliation (8-10 yr) increases the risk of fire ignition whereas recent defoliation (1 yr) can decrease this risk. We also found that historical defoliation has a greater influence on ignition risk during the

  5. Rates of Anomalous Bupropion Prescriptions in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Leah S.; Macdonald, Erin M.; Gomes, Tara; Hollands, Simon; Paterson, J. Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Reports of bupropion misuse have increased since it was first reported in 2002. The purpose of this study was to explore trends in bupropion prescribing suggestive of misuse or diversion in Ontario, Canada. METHODS A serial cross-sectional study was conducted of Ontarians aged younger than 65 years who received prescriptions under Ontario’s public drug program from April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2013. We determined the number of potentially inappropriate prescriptions in each quarter, defined as early refills dispensed within 50% of the duration of the preceding prescription, as well as potentially duplicitous prescriptions, defined as similarly early refills originating from a different prescriber and different pharmacy. We replicated these analyses for citalopram and sertraline, antidepressants not known to be prone to abuse. RESULTS We identified 1,780,802 prescriptions for bupropion, 3,402,462 for citalopram, and 1,775,285 for sertraline. Rates of early refills for bupropion declined during the study from 4.8% to 3.1%. In the final quarter, rates of early refills for bupropion were more common than for citalopram (3.1% vs 2.2%) (P <.001) but not for sertraline (3.1% vs 2.9%) (P =.16). Potentially duplicitous prescriptions for bupropion increased dramatically, from <0.05% of all prescriptions in early 2000 to 0.47% in early 2013 and by the final quarter were more common than both citalopram (0.11%) and sertraline (0.12%) (P <.001). CONCLUSIONS Although no marked differences were seen for early refills of bupropion relative to its comparators, potentially duplicitous prescriptions have increased dramatically in Ontario, suggesting growing misuse of the drug. PMID:26195679

  6. Regionalization and Outcomes of Lung Cancer Surgery in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bendzsak, Anna M; Baxter, Nancy N; Darling, Gail E; Austin, Peter C; Urbach, David R

    2017-08-20

    Purpose Regionalization of complex surgery to high-volume hospitals has been advocated based on cross-sectional volume-outcome studies. In April 2007, the agency overseeing cancer care in Ontario, Canada, implemented a policy to regionalize lung cancer surgery at 14 designated hospitals, enforced by economic incentives and penalties. We studied the effects of implementation of this policy. Methods Using administrative health data, we used interrupted time series models to analyze the immediate and delayed effects of implementation of the policy on the distribution of lung cancer surgery among hospitals, surgical outcomes, and health services use. Results From 2004 to 2012, 16,641 patients underwent surgery for lung cancer. The proportion of operations performed in designated hospitals increased from 71% to 89% after the policy was implemented. Although operative mortality decreased from 4.1% to 2.9% (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.81; P < .001), the reduction was due to a preexisting declining trend in mortality. In contrast, in the years after implementation of the policy, length of hospital stay decreased more than expected from the baseline trend by 7% per year (95% CI, 5% to 9%; P < .001), and the distance traveled by all patients to the hospital for surgery increased by 4% per year (95% CI, 0% to 8%; P = .03), neither of which were explained by preexisting trends. Analyses limited to patients ≥ 70 years of age demonstrated a reduction in operative mortality (odds ratio, 0.80 per year after regionalization; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.95; P = .01). Conclusion A policy to regionalize lung cancer surgery in Ontario led to increased centralization of surgery services but was not independently associated with improvements in operative mortality. Improvements in length of stay and in operative mortality among elderly patients suggest areas where regionalization may be beneficial.

  7. A descriptive study of reportable gastrointestinal illnesses in Ontario, Canada, from 2007 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal illnesses (GI) continue to pose a substantial burden in terms of morbidity and economic impact in Canada. We describe the epidemiology of reportable GI in Ontario by characterizing the incidence of each reportable GI, as well as associated demographics, clinical outcomes, seasonality, risk settings, and likely sources of infection. Methods Reports on laboratory confirmed cases of amebiasis, botulism, campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, giardiasis, hepatitis A, listeriosis, paratyphoid fever, salmonellosis, shigellosis, typhoid fever, illness due to verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC-illness), and yersiniosis, from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 were obtained from Ontario’s passive reportable disease surveillance system. Cases were classified by history of relevant travel, association with outbreaks, and likely source of infection, obtained through follow-up of reported cases by local health authorities. Results There were 29,897 GI reported by health authorities in Ontario from 2007 to 2009. The most frequently reported diseases were campylobacteriosis (10,916 cases or 36.5% of all GI illnesses) and salmonellosis (7,514 cases, 25.1%). Overall, 26.9% of GI cases reported travel outside of Ontario during the relevant incubation period. Children four years of age and younger had the highest incidence rate for most GI, and significantly more (54.8%, p<0.001) cases occurred among males than females. The most commonly reported sources of infections were food (54.2%), animals (19.8%), and contact with ill persons (16.9%). Private homes (45.5%) and food premises (29.7%) were the most commonly reported exposure settings. Domestic cases of campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, salmonellosis, and VTEC-illness showed seasonal patterns with incidence peaking in the summer months. Conclusions Reportable GI continues to be a burden in Ontario. Since more than one in four GI cases experienced in Ontario

  8. Sexual behaviors among women living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Samantha; Gardner, Sandra; Loutfy, Mona; Light, Lucia; Tharao, Wangari; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the sexual activities and partnerships of women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains important to promote healthy sexuality and to reduce the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. We described sexual behaviors of women living with HIV enrolled in an ongoing study in Ontario, Canada. Data were available from 582 women who self-completed a sexual behavior questionnaire between 2010 and 2012. Nearly half (46.1%) of women reported a sexual partner in the preceding three months; women less likely to be sexually active were older, Black/African, separated, divorced, widowed, single, and unemployed. Most sexually active women had one partner (76.4%), a regular partner (75.9%), male (96.2%) partner(s), and partners who were HIV-negative or unknown HIV status (75.2%). Women were more likely to use a condom with HIV-negative/status unknown partners (81.3%) than with HIV-positive partners (58.6%; p   =   .008). Only 8.0% of sexually active women reported condomless sex with a discordant HIV-negative/status unknown partner when their viral load was detectable. Overall, most women living with HIV were sexually inactive or engaged in sexual activities that were low risk for HIV transmission.

  9. Outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Linda; Johnson, Marcia; Chang, Nicholas; Rennie, Robert P.; Talbot, James A.

    2002-01-01

    From December 1999 to April 2001, the greater Edmonton region had 61 cases of invasive meningococcal infection, two fatal. The outbreak was due to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C, electrophoretic type 15, serotype 2a. Analysis of the strains showed that 50 of 56 culture-confirmed cases were due to a single clone and close relatives of this clone. This strain had not been previously identified in the province of Alberta dating back to January 1997 PMID:11996690

  10. Shocked lithologies at the Wanapitei impact structure, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieve, R. A. F.; Ber, T. J.

    1994-09-01

    The approx. 7.5 diameter Wanapitei impact structure (46 deg 45 min N; 80 deg 45 min W) lies entirely within Lake Wanapitei in central Ontario, Canada. Impact lithologies are known only from glacial float at the southern end of the lake. Over 50% of the impact lithologies recovered from this float can be classified as suevite, less than 20% as highly shocked and partially melted arkosic metasediments of the target rock Mississagi Formation or, possibly, the Serpent Formation and less than 20% as glassy impact melt rocks. An additional less than 5% of the samples have similarities to the suevite but have up to 50% glass clasts and are tentatively interpreted as fall-back material. The glassy impact melt rocks fall into two textural and mineralogical types: a perlitically fractured, colorless glass matrix variant, with microlites of hypersthene with up to 11.5% Al2O3 and a 'felted' matrix variant, with evidence of flow prior to the crystallization of tabular orthopyroxene. These melt glasses show chemical inhomogeneities on a microscopic scale, with areas of essentially SiO2, even when appearing optically homogeneous. They are similar in bulk composition for major elements, but the felted matrix variant is approx. 5x more enriched in Ni, Co and Cr, the interelement ratios of which are indicative of an admixture of a chondritic projectile. Mixing models suggest that the glassy impact melt rocks can be made from the target rocks in the proportions: approx. 55% Gowganda wacke, approx. 42% Serpent arkose and approx. 3% Nipissing intrusives. Geologic reconstructions suggest that this is a reasonable mixture of potential target rocks at the time of impact.

  11. Environmental and economic evaluation of bioenergy in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimin; Habibi, Shiva; MacLean, Heather L

    2007-08-01

    We examined life cycle environmental and economic implications of two near-term scenarios for converting cellulosic biomass to energy, generating electricity from cofiring biomass in existing coal power plants, and producing ethanol from biomass in stand-alone facilities in Ontario, Canada. The study inventories near-term biomass supply in the province, quantifies environmental metrics associated with the use of agricultural residues for producing electricity and ethanol, determines the incremental costs of switching from fossil fuels to biomass, and compares the cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions abatement achieved through the use of the bioenergy. Implementing a biomass cofiring rate of 10% in existing coal-fired power plants would reduce annual GHG emissions by 2.3 million metric tons (t) of CO2 equivalent (7% of the province's coal power plant emissions). The substitution of gasoline with ethanol/gasoline blends would reduce annual provincial lightduty vehicle fleet emissions between 1.3 and 2.5 million t of CO2 equivalent (3.5-7% of fleet emissions). If biomass sources other than agricultural residues were used, additional emissions reductions could be realized. At current crude oil prices ($70/barrel) and levels of technology development of the bioenergy alternatives, the biomass electricity cofiring scenario analyzed is more cost-effective for mitigating GHG emissions ($22/t of CO2 equivalent for a 10% cofiring rate) than the stand-alone ethanol production scenario ($92/t of CO2 equivalent). The economics of biomass cofiring benefits from existing capital, whereas the cellulosic ethanol scenario does not. Notwithstanding this result, there are several factors that increase the attractiveness of ethanol. These include uncertainty in crude oil prices, potential for marked improvements in cellulosic ethanol technology and economics, the province's commitment to 5% ethanol content in gasoline, the possibility of ethanol

  12. Role of comparative effectiveness research in cancer funding decisions in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Jeffrey S; Hodgson, David C; Earle, Craig C

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the evidence-based drug funding process in Ontario, Canada, was challenged by a young mother with a breast tumor too small, based on the evidence that existed at the time, to qualify for an expensive drug. In reality, this is only the latest in a number of challenges the publicly funded health care system has had to deal with in the face of an evolving drug policy landscape. This article defines comparative effectiveness research (CER), considering how it is viewed differently in the United States and Canada. It also reviews the role CER now plays in the Ontario drug funding process and concludes with a review of the challenges and opportunities of using observational data to conduct CER and incorporate it into policy making within a universal health care system. Many of the issues faced by Ontario are relevant beyond Canada, including in the United States during this period of health care reform.

  13. Mumps in prison: description of an outbreak in Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Walkty, Andrew; Van Caeseele, Paul; Hilderman, Tim; Buchan, Shelly; Weiss, Elise; Sloane, Marilyn; Fatoye, Bunmi

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of published information on the management of mumps in a prison setting. We describe an outbreak of mumps that occurred in a medium-security correctional centre (Milner Ridge) in Manitoba, Canada. A case definition of mumps consistent with that in the document "Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Mumps Outbreaks in Canada" was adopted. Cell culture, polymerase chain reaction, and serology were used for case confirmation. Five confirmed cases of mumps infection were identified at the Milner Ridge Correctional Centre between January 12 and February 5, 2009. One additional confirmed case and 3 additional probable cases were identified at a second correctional centre. Outbreak control at Milner Ridge was accomplished by cohorting the affected units of the centre, providing education on mumps, deferring transfers, and monitoring for further cases. Vaccination was offered to inmates and staff on the assumption, based on average inmate age, that the majority of inmates would have previously received, at most, a single dose of mumps-containing vaccine. An outbreak of mumps in a correctional setting was successfully contained via implementation and tailoring of basic infection control measures, and vaccination of inmates and staff. Given the relatively young age of many inmates and the parallels between prisons and dormitories, it could be argued that inmates may represent another group of individuals for whom a second dose of mumps vaccine (if not received in childhood) would be beneficial as primary prophylaxis.

  14. Construction fatality due to electrical contact in Ontario, Canada, 1997-2007.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwan; Lewko, John; Garritano, Enzo; Sharma, Bhanu; Moody, Joel; Colantonio, Angela

    2016-06-27

    Electrical contact is a leading cause of occupational fatality in the construction industry. However, research on the factors that contribute to electricity-related fatality in construction is limited. To characterize, using an adapted Haddon's Matrix, the factors that contribute to electricity-related occupational fatalities in the construction industry in Ontario, Canada. Coroner's data on occupational electricity-related fatalities between 1997-2007 in the construction industry were acquired from the Ontario Ministry of Labour. Using an adapted Haddon's Matrix, we characterized worker, agent, and environmental characteristics of electricity-related occupational fatalities in the province through a narrative text analysis. Electrical contact was responsible for 15% of all occupational fatalities among construction workers in Ontario. Factors associated with said occupational fatalities included direct contact with electrical sources, lower voltage sources, and working outdoors. This study provides a profile of electricity-related occupational fatalities among construction workers in Ontario, and can be used to inform safety regulations.

  15. Juggling Multiple Accountability Systems: How Three Principals Manage These Tensions in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Katina; Winton, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Accountability in education is not new. Schools have always been accountable in one way or another to the communities they serve, regardless of the policy environment of the time (Elmore, "The Educational Forum," 69:134-142, 2005). This article explores how three principals from Ontario, Canada manage the tensions of multiple…

  16. Juggling Multiple Accountability Systems: How Three Principals Manage These Tensions in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Katina; Winton, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Accountability in education is not new. Schools have always been accountable in one way or another to the communities they serve, regardless of the policy environment of the time (Elmore, "The Educational Forum," 69:134-142, 2005). This article explores how three principals from Ontario, Canada manage the tensions of multiple…

  17. Children's Perceptions of the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Beynon, Charlene E.; Gritke, Jennifer L.; Henderson, Michelle L.; Kurtz, Joanne M.; Sangster Bouck, Michelle; St. Onge, Renee L.; van Zandvoort, Melissa M.; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renee D.; Warren, Claire Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined students' perceptions of and suggestions for the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program, a free, school-based fruit and vegetable snack program implemented in elementary schools in 2 regions of northern Ontario, Canada. Methods: This was a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with students in 11 elementary…

  18. Discovery of the Western Palearctic bee, Megachile (Pseudomegachile) ericetorum, (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), in Ontario Canada

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bees of North America are very diverse, including over 3500 species. Approximately thirty of these bee species are not native to this continent. Recently another non-native bee, Megachile (Pseudomegachile) ericetorum, was found in a naturalized area in Ontario, Canada. This bee nests in holes...

  19. Views from the Blackboard: Neoliberal Education Reforms and the Practice of Teaching in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Sara; Weber, Nadya; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses findings from two case studies examining the impact of neoliberal education reform on the classroom practice of teachers and adult educators in Ontario, Canada. We asked educators to comment on the impacts of 20 years of policy shifts in their classrooms. Teachers in public schools and adult literacy programmes echoed each…

  20. Children's Perceptions of the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Beynon, Charlene E.; Gritke, Jennifer L.; Henderson, Michelle L.; Kurtz, Joanne M.; Sangster Bouck, Michelle; St. Onge, Renee L.; van Zandvoort, Melissa M.; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renee D.; Warren, Claire Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined students' perceptions of and suggestions for the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program, a free, school-based fruit and vegetable snack program implemented in elementary schools in 2 regions of northern Ontario, Canada. Methods: This was a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with students in 11 elementary…

  1. Mapping the Early Intervention System in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the wide range of early intervention services across the province of Ontario. The services are mapped across the province showing geographic information as well as the scope of services (clinical, family-based, resource support, etc.), the range of early intervention professionals, sources of funding and the populations served…

  2. Economic Cost of a Listeria monocytogenes Outbreak in Canada, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Vriezen, Rachael; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Currie, Andrea; Schlech, Walter; Fazil, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Estimates of the economic costs associated with foodborne disease are important to inform public health decision-making. In 2008, 57 cases of listeriosis and 24 deaths in Canada were linked to contaminated delicatessen meat from one meat processing plant. Costs associated with the cases (including medical costs, nonmedical costs, and productivity losses) and those incurred by the implicated plant and federal agencies responding to the outbreak were estimated to be nearly $242 million Canadian dollars (CAD, 2008). Case costs alone were estimated at approximately $2.8 million (CAD, 2008) including loss of life. This demonstrates the considerable economic burden at both the individual and population levels associated with foodborne disease and foodborne outbreaks in particular. Foodborne outbreaks due to severe pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes and those that result in product recalls, are typically the most costly from the individual and/or societal perspective. Additional economic estimates of foodborne disease would contribute to our understanding of the burden of foodborne disease in Canada and would support the need for ongoing prevention and control activities. PMID:26583272

  3. Salmonella in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-04-01

    Numerous serotypes of Salmonella have been detected in a variety of wild animals, including raccoons (Procyon lotor). Raccoons are common, mid-size omnivores that live in close association with people in urban and rural areas in Ontario. Although raccoons are known to shed Salmonella, little is known about their potential long-term role in maintaining Salmonella infections. We sampled feces from raccoons in three areas of Ontario: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and the grounds of the Toronto Zoo, in 2007 to identify which serotypes of Salmonella were commonly shed by raccoons in southern Ontario. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to determine if raccoons remain persistently infected with Salmonella. Salmonella was found in 45% of samples. The prevalence of Salmonella in raccoon feces ranged from 27% at the rural site to 65% at the urban site. We detected 16 serotypes of Salmonella in 83 positive samples. The most common serotype detected in raccoons from the rural and zoo sites was Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, whereas Salmonella Newport was detected most commonly in the urban site. Only one raccoon of 11 that were captured in four or more consecutive trapping sessions shed the same Salmonella serotype for two consecutive months, suggesting that raccoons regularly acquire new Salmonella serotypes from the environment.

  4. Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Pollari, Frank; Pintar, Katarina; Marshall, Barbara; Cook, Angela; Sargeant, Jan; Wilson, Jeff; Ribble, Carl; Knowles, Lewinda

    2008-01-01

    Background The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site) was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Results Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat) and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs). The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Conclusion Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations. PMID:18950509

  5. Characterization and virulence of Beauveria spp. recovered from emerald ash borer in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George; Gauthier, Debbie; Frankenhuyzen, Kees van; Krell, Peter J

    2012-09-15

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive wood boring beetle that is decimating North America's ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To find effective and safe indigenous biocontrol agents to manage EAB, we conducted a survey in 2008-2009 of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) infecting EAB in five outbreak sites in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A total of 78 Beauveria spp. isolates were retrieved from dead and mycosed EAB cadavers residing in the phloem tissues of dead ash barks, larval frass extracted from feeding galleries under the bark of dead trees. Molecular characterization using sequences of the ITS, 5' end of EF1-α and intergenic Bloc region fragments revealed that Beauveria bassiana and Beauveria pseudobassiana were commonly associated with EAB in the sampled sites. Based on phylogenetic analysis inferred from ITS sequences, 17 of these isolates clustered with B. bassiana, which further grouped into three different sub-clades. However, the combined EF1-α and Bloc sequences detected five genotypes among the three sub-clades. The remaining 61 isolates clustered with B. pseudobassiana, which had identical ITS sequences but were further subdivided into two genotypes by variation in the EF1-α and Bloc regions. Initial virulence screening against EAB adults of 23 isolates representing the different clades yielded 8 that produced more than 90% mortality in a single concentration assay. These isolates differed in virulence based on LC(50) values estimated from multiple concentration bioassay and based on mean survival times at a conidia concentration of 2×10(6) conidia/ml. B. bassiana isolate L49-1AA was significantly more virulent and produced more conidia on EAB cadavers compared to the other indigenous isolates and the commercial strain B. bassiana GHA suggesting that L49-1AA may have potential as a microbiological control agent against EAB. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) during an outbreak of the jack pine budworm in Ontario.

    PubMed

    van Frankenhuyzen, Kees; Ryall, Krista; Liu, Yuehong; Meating, Joe; Bolan, Paul; Scarr, Taylor

    2011-11-01

    Microsporidia are believed to play little or no role in outbreaks of the jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinuspinus Freeman (Lepidoptrera: Tortricidae), because the short duration (2-4 years) of those outbreaks may not permit significant build-up of the pathogen. We conducted the first survey of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) over the course of a recent jack pine budworm outbreak in Ontario. Between 2004 and 2010 the outbreak defoliated a cumulative total of 1.78 million ha. Microscopic examination of ~15,000 overwintering larvae collected over 6 years in sites with densities of 3 larvae per branch or more revealed widespread occurrence of Nosema at generally high infection intensities. The pathogen was present in 69.5% of the 518 plots that were monitored. Prevalence of infection was generally low (below 40% in 84% of plots with infected larvae) but reached high levels (80-95%) locally and increased rapidly in most infestations within 1-2 years of onset. We hypothesize that the habit of early-instar larvae to feed on developing male flowers (pollen cones) after spring emergence is critical in allowing rapid build-up of Nosema by increasing efficiency of horizontal transmission (higher density of both infected larvae and egested spores). Nosema infection may contribute to the complexity of jack pine budworm outbreak patterns by affecting egg recruitment and early-instar survival at the stand level in concert with known effects of budworm-induced reductions in pollen cone production on those processes.

  7. Simulation of between-farm transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Ontario, Canada using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Krishna K; Revie, Crawford W; Hurnik, Daniel; Poljak, Zvonimir; Sanchez, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a viral disease of swine, has major economic impacts on the swine industry. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM) is a spatial, stochastic, farm level state-transition modeling framework originally developed to simulate highly contagious and foreign livestock diseases. The objectives of this study were to develop a model to simulate between-farm spread of a homologous strain of PRRS virus in Ontario swine farms via direct (animal movement) and indirect (sharing of trucks between farms) contacts using the NAADSM and to compare the patterns and extent of outbreak under different simulated conditions. A total of 2552 swine farms in Ontario province were allocated to each census division of Ontario and geo-locations of the farms were randomly generated within the agriculture land of each Census Division. Contact rates among different production types were obtained using pig movement information from four regions in Canada. A total of 24 scenarios were developed involving various direct (movement of infected animals) and indirect (pig transportation trucks) contact parameters in combination with alternating the production type of the farm in which the infection was seeded. Outbreaks were simulated for one year with 1000 replications. The median number of farms infected, proportion of farms with multiple outbreaks and time to reach the peak epidemic were used to compare the size, progression and extent of outbreaks. Scenarios involving spread only by direct contact between farms resulted in outbreaks where the median percentage of infected farms ranged from 31.5 to 37% of all farms. In scenarios with both direct and indirect contact, the median percentage of infected farms increased to a range from 41.6 to 48.6%. Furthermore, scenarios with both direct and indirect contact resulted in a 44% increase in median epidemic size when compared to the direct contact scenarios. Incorporation of both animal

  8. ESEM Studies of Colloidal Sulfur Deposition in a Natural Microbial Community from a Cold Sulfide Spring Near Ancaster, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, S.; Douglas, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have used a relatively new microscopial technique, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and light microscopy to investigate a unique microbial community from a temperate climate, cold sulfide spring near Ancaster, Ontario, Canada.

  9. Task shifting policy in Ontario, Canada: does it help personal support workers' intention to stay?

    PubMed

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Plenderleith, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of task shifting policy on personal support workers' (PSWs) intention to stay in home care. Data were collected through interviews with 46 home care staff of a large home care organization in Ontario, Canada. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and a thematic analysis was conducted using a qualitative software package. Half of the study participants mentioned that task shifting increases PSWs' intention to stay in home care, while less than a quarter commented that task shifting increases PSWs intention to leave. Results show that the implementation of task shifting policy in Ontario, Canada may contribute to personal support workers' intention to stay; however, inadequate compensation may negatively affect intention to stay and should be addressed. We recommend policy-makers consider appropriate compensation to assist PSWs in effectively executing shifted tasks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Raising public awareness of aphasia in southern Ontario, Canada: A survey.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Ruth; Robert, Amélie; Berry, Richard; Cain, Mallory; Iqbal, Maryam; Code, Chris; Rochon, Elizabeth; Leonard, Carol

    2015-04-01

    Despite the relatively high prevalence of aphasia, research indicates that, world-wide, public awareness of aphasia is lacking. Of the surveys that have been conducted internationally, none has studied the Canadian public's awareness of aphasia. The purpose of the present survey was to assess public awareness and basic knowledge of aphasia of individuals in southern Ontario, Canada. Using the same questionnaire that has been used in other countries, face-to-face surveys were conducted in public places (e.g. parks) at various locations in southern Ontario. Respondents were asked questions pertaining to their awareness and knowledge of aphasia. The number of surveys retained for analysis was 831. In addition to an evaluation of public awareness and knowledge of aphasia, the potential influences of age, gender, and occupation were analysed. For those who had heard of aphasia, questions were asked to determine how or where they had heard of aphasia. Consistent with the literature, overall public awareness and basic knowledge of aphasia in southern Ontario was found to be limited. The factors of age, gender and occupation were found to influence the results. This investigation supports the need for better promotion of aphasia awareness to the public in southern Ontario and, by extension, in Canada.

  11. The Mapping and Evaluation of Groundwater Resources Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, C. L.

    2009-05-01

    To delineate and assess Ontario's overburden and bedrock aquifers the Ontario Geological Survey (OGS) has established a multifaceted groundwater mapping program to support sustainable resource development and effective watershed planning. The mapping program consists of five inter-related themes: GIS-based geoscience compilations; watershed-scale inventories; bedrock and surficial aquifer mapping; regional-scale data compilation; and thematic (research) investigations. Historic and/or previously existing geoscience mapping data has been digitized and integrated to form the foundation for additional work by the OGS and other public and private agencies. On-going components of the program involve the integrated use of geologic mapping, stratigraphic investigations, geochemical/geophysical surveys and numeric modelling. Primary thrusts of the program include: determining the regional extent and character of aquifers; identification of new potable groundwater sources; and understanding controls on water quality and quantity. The products and information generated by the program are fundamental to the implementation of provincial water management polices and strategies in that they directly contribute to the management of groundwater resources and an understanding of the physical environment. Outcomes of the groundwater program include: knowledge of aquifer-aquitard relationships allowing realistic vulnerability assessments and thus influencing land-use planning decisions; determination of groundwater withdrawals on the ability of aquifers to sustain production; and population growth centres targeting aquifers discovered by geologic investigations and modeling. Further, the geochemical survey components of the program are establishing regional ambient groundwater/stream sediment parameters to determine anthropogenic influences and delineate areas of potential health concerns and environmental impact. In order to maximize the value of the program and enable the

  12. The control of raccoon rabies in Ontario Canada: proactive and reactive tactics, 1994-2007.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, R C; Donovan, D; Allan, M; Bruce, L; Buchanan, T; Sobey, K; Stevenson, B; Gibson, M; MacDonald, T; Whalen, M; Davies, J C; Muldoon, F; Wandeler, A

    2009-07-01

    Proactive and reactive tactics have been utilized in Ontario, Canada, to prevent raccoon rabies from becoming established. A total of 96,621 raccoons (Procyon lotor) and 7,967 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were live captured using 1,221,044 trap nights, vaccinated against rabies by injection, and released, during proactive Trap-Vaccinate-Release (TVR) programs in southern Ontario during 1994-2007. During those years, on average, 43% to 83% of the raccoon populations were vaccinated against rabies. In addition, 20,129 raccoons and 2,735 skunks were vaccinated against rabies, and 8,311 raccoons and 1,449 skunks were euthanized, using 576,359 trap nights, during reactive Point Infection Control (PIC) operations in eastern Ontario during 1999-2005. A significant correlation was detected between trapping effort and the percentage of the raccoon population that was vaccinated. Between 1999 and 2007, 132 cases of raccoon variant rabies (130 raccoons, two striped skunks) were reported in eastern Ontario. The last case occurred on 23 September 2005 with Ontario being free of reported raccoon rabies to 10 November 2008, proving that TVR and PIC are effective tactics for the control of this disease.

  13. Sensitivity of GRACE-derived estimates of groundwater-level changes in southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachborn, Ellen; Berg, Aaron; Levison, Jana; Ambadan, Jaison Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Amidst changing climates, understanding the world's water resources is of increasing importance. In Ontario, Canada, low water conditions are currently assessed using only precipitation and watershed-based stream gauges by the Conservation Authorities in Ontario and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. Regional groundwater-storage changes in Ontario are not currently measured using satellite data by research institutes. In this study, contributions from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data are compared to a hydrogeological database covering southern Ontario from 2003 to 2013, to determine the suitability of GRACE total water storage estimates for monitoring groundwater storage in this location. Terrestrial water storage data from GRACE were used to determine monthly groundwater storage (GWS) anomaly values. GWS values were also determined by multiplying groundwater-level elevations (from the Provincial Groundwater Monitoring Network wells) by specific yield. Comparisons of GRACE-derived GWS to well-based GWS data determined that GRACE is sufficiently sensitive to obtain a meaningful signal in southern Ontario. Results show that GWS values produced by GRACE are useful for identifying regional changes in groundwater storage in areas with limited available hydrogeological characterization data. Results also indicate that GRACE may have an ability to forecast changes in groundwater storage, which will become useful when monitoring climate shifts in the near future.

  14. Focal mechanisms and variations in tectonic stress fields in eastern Canada (western Quebec and southern Ontario)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharzadeh Sadegh, Parisa

    Earthquakes in western Quebec and southern Ontario present a major contribution to the natural hazards in south eastern Canada due to their proximity to major population centres. However, the seismic characteristics of the events in these regions have not been well documented. Improved knowledge of earthquake distribution and seismic controlling mechanisms provides a great benefit for earthquake hazard analysis in eastern Canada. The available information about the tectonic stress indicators, including focal mechanisms, was compiled for Canada prior to 1994. The present research is concentrated mainly on determination of the focal mechanisms and hypocentre locations of the earthquakes after 1993 with M > 3.5 to characterize the present-day regional and local stress fields in southern Ontario and western Quebec. An attempt was also made to differentiate local zones with comparatively homogeneous tectonic stresses orientation and seismic regimes, thus providing information for future re-assessment of the seismic hazard in each region. Considering seismic parameters such as the trend of the epicentres, focal depths and the state of stress of the events along with their tectonic settings, ten distinct clusters have been proposed for western Quebec and two clusters of events were determined for southern Ontario with comparatively consistent focal mechanisms. The locations and characteristics of seismicity clusters appear to be consistent with the hypothesis that they are near the locations of large historic and prehistoric events, and represent exceptionally persistent aftershocks of past large earthquakes.

  15. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Pereira, Jennifer A; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L

    2014-06-05

    To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Descriptive qualitative study. Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age children, able to read/write English) on the basis of a screening questionnaire. We used stratified purposeful sampling to obtain maximum variation in two groups: parents who had ever immunised at least one child against influenza or who had never done so. We conducted focus groups (teleconference or internet forum) and individual interviews to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Ontario, Canada. Of the 55 participants, 16 took part in four teleconference focus groups, 35 in 6 internet forum focus groups and four in individual interviews conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Participants who stated that a school-based influenza immunisation programme would be worthwhile for their child valued its convenience and its potential to reduce influenza transmission without interfering with the family routine. However, most thought that for a programme to be acceptable, it would need to be well designed and voluntary, with adequate parental control and transparent communication between the key stakeholder groups of public health, schools and parents. These results will benefit decision-makers in the public health and education sectors as they consider the advantages and disadvantages of immunising children in schools as part of a system-wide influenza prevention approach. Further research is needed to assess the perceptions of school board and public health stakeholders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  16. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Pereira, Jennifer A; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Participants Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age children, able to read/write English) on the basis of a screening questionnaire. We used stratified purposeful sampling to obtain maximum variation in two groups: parents who had ever immunised at least one child against influenza or who had never done so. We conducted focus groups (teleconference or internet forum) and individual interviews to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Setting Ontario, Canada. Results Of the 55 participants, 16 took part in four teleconference focus groups, 35 in 6 internet forum focus groups and four in individual interviews conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Participants who stated that a school-based influenza immunisation programme would be worthwhile for their child valued its convenience and its potential to reduce influenza transmission without interfering with the family routine. However, most thought that for a programme to be acceptable, it would need to be well designed and voluntary, with adequate parental control and transparent communication between the key stakeholder groups of public health, schools and parents. Conclusions These results will benefit decision-makers in the public health and education sectors as they consider the advantages and disadvantages of immunising children in schools as part of a system-wide influenza prevention approach. Further research is needed to assess the perceptions of school board and public health stakeholders. PMID:24902736

  17. Isotope hydrology of the Chalk River Laboratories site, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Zell; Neymark, Leonid; King-Sharp, K.J.; Gascoyne, Mel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater (fracture water) and porewater, and physical property and water content measurements of bedrock core at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in Ontario. Density and water contents were determined and water-loss porosity values were calculated for core samples. Average and standard deviations of density and water-loss porosity of 50 core samples from four boreholes are 2.73 ± 12 g/cc and 1.32 ± 1.24 percent. Respective median values are 2.68 and 0.83 indicating a positive skewness in the distributions. Groundwater samples from four deep boreholes were analyzed for strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and uranium (234U/238U) isotope ratios. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses and selected solute concentrations determined by CRL are included for comparison. Groundwater from borehole CRG-1 in a zone between approximately +60 and −240 m elevation is relatively depleted in δ18O and δ2H perhaps reflecting a slug of water recharged during colder climatic conditions. Porewater was extracted from core samples by centrifugation and analyzed for major dissolved ions and for strontium and uranium isotopes. On average, the extracted water contains 15 times larger concentration of solutes than the groundwater. 234U/238U and correlation of 87Sr/86Sr with Rb/Sr values indicate that the porewater may be substantially older than the groundwater. Results of this study show that the Precambrian gneisses at Chalk River are similar in physical properties and hydrochemical aspects to crystalline rocks being considered for the construction of nuclear waste repositories in other regions.

  18. Glyphosate residues in rural groundwater, Nottawasaga River Watershed, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Spoelstra, John; Senger, Natalie D; Brown, Susan J; Post, Ryan; Struger, John

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of glyphosate residues (glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA) in shallow groundwater in a catchment dominated by agriculture, and to examine the potential for this groundwater to store and transmit these compounds to surface waters. Glyphosate residues were found in some of the groundwater samples collected in riparian (surface seeps), upland (mostly <20 m below ground) and wetland settings (<3 m below ground). Overall, glyphosate and AMPA were detected in 10.5 and 5.0%, respectively, of the groundwater samples analyzed as part of this study. All concentrations of glyphosate were well below Canadian guidelines for drinking water quality and for protection of aquatic life. Seasonal differences in concentrations in riparian seeps were possibly related to cycles of weather, herbicide application and degradation of glyphosate. Highest concentrations were at upland sites (663 ng L(-1) of glyphosate, 698 ng L(-1) of AMPA), apparently related to localized applications. Most glyphosate detections in wetlands were >0.5 km distant from possible areas of application, and, combined with other factors, suggest an atmospheric transport and deposition delivery mechanism. In both upland and wetland settings, highest glyphosate concentrations were sometimes not at the shallowest depths, indicating influence of hydrological factors. The glyphosate/AMPA detections in riparian seeps demonstrated that these compounds are persistent enough to allow groundwater to store and transmit glyphosate residues to surface waters. Detections in the wetlands support earlier evidence that atmospheric transport and deposition may lead to glyphosate contamination of environments not intended as targets of applications. This interpretation is further supported by detections of both glyphosate and AMPA in precipitation samples collected in the same watershed. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Pest Management Science © 2016

  19. GPS coordinate time series measurements in Ontario and Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi Alinia, Hadis; Tiampo, Kristy F.; James, Thomas S.

    2017-06-01

    New precise network solutions for continuous GPS (cGPS) stations distributed in eastern Ontario and western Québec provide constraints on the regional three-dimensional crustal velocity field. Five years of continuous observations at fourteen cGPS sites were analyzed using Bernese GPS processing software. Several different sub-networks were chosen from these stations, and the data were processed and compared to in order to select the optimal configuration to accurately estimate the vertical and horizontal station velocities and minimize the associated errors. The coordinate time series were then compared to the crustal motions from global solutions and the optimized solution is presented here. A noise analysis model with power-law and white noise, which best describes the noise characteristics of all three components, was employed for the GPS time series analysis. The linear trend, associated uncertainties, and the spectral index of the power-law noise were calculated using a maximum likelihood estimation approach. The residual horizontal velocities, after removal of rigid plate motion, have a magnitude consistent with expected glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The vertical velocities increase from subsidence of almost 1.9 mm/year south of the Great Lakes to uplift near Hudson Bay, where the highest rate is approximately 10.9 mm/year. The residual horizontal velocities range from approximately 0.5 mm/year, oriented south-southeastward, at the Great Lakes to nearly 1.5 mm/year directed toward the interior of Hudson Bay at stations adjacent to its shoreline. Here, the velocity uncertainties are estimated at less than 0.6 mm/year for the horizontal component and 1.1 mm/year for the vertical component. A comparison between the observed velocities and GIA model predictions, for a limited range of Earth models, shows a better fit to the observations for the Earth model with the smallest upper mantle viscosity and the largest lower mantle viscosity. However, the

  20. GPS coordinate time series measurements in Ontario and Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi Alinia, Hadis; Tiampo, Kristy F.; James, Thomas S.

    2017-01-01

    New precise network solutions for continuous GPS (cGPS) stations distributed in eastern Ontario and western Québec provide constraints on the regional three-dimensional crustal velocity field. Five years of continuous observations at fourteen cGPS sites were analyzed using Bernese GPS processing software. Several different sub-networks were chosen from these stations, and the data were processed and compared to in order to select the optimal configuration to accurately estimate the vertical and horizontal station velocities and minimize the associated errors. The coordinate time series were then compared to the crustal motions from global solutions and the optimized solution is presented here. A noise analysis model with power-law and white noise, which best describes the noise characteristics of all three components, was employed for the GPS time series analysis. The linear trend, associated uncertainties, and the spectral index of the power-law noise were calculated using a maximum likelihood estimation approach. The residual horizontal velocities, after removal of rigid plate motion, have a magnitude consistent with expected glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The vertical velocities increase from subsidence of almost 1.9 mm/year south of the Great Lakes to uplift near Hudson Bay, where the highest rate is approximately 10.9 mm/year. The residual horizontal velocities range from approximately 0.5 mm/year, oriented south-southeastward, at the Great Lakes to nearly 1.5 mm/year directed toward the interior of Hudson Bay at stations adjacent to its shoreline. Here, the velocity uncertainties are estimated at less than 0.6 mm/year for the horizontal component and 1.1 mm/year for the vertical component. A comparison between the observed velocities and GIA model predictions, for a limited range of Earth models, shows a better fit to the observations for the Earth model with the smallest upper mantle viscosity and the largest lower mantle viscosity. However, the

  1. Lottery promotions at the point-of-sale in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Planinac, Lynn C; Cohen, Joanna E; Reynolds, Jennifer; Robinson, Daniel J; Lavack, Anne; Korn, David

    2011-06-01

    We documented the extent of point-of-sale (POS) lottery promotions in Ontario, Canada and the relationship between lottery promotions and store and city characteristics. This is the first quantitative study of POS lottery promotions. A total of 366 stores-independent and chain convenience stores, gas stations and grocery stores-were visited across 20 cities in Ontario. Data collectors unobtrusively observed the type of lottery promotions in each store and completed a data collection checklist. A lottery promotion index was created and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was conducted to examine the relationship between extent of lottery promotions and independent variables such as neighbourhood socioeconomic status and city prevalence of lottery ticket purchasing. POS lottery promotions were widespread across Ontario, with the highest level of promotion found in independent convenience stores. In the multivariable HLM model, none of the remaining independent variables remained statistically significant, except for store type. Lottery promotions are extensive at the POS in Ontario. These findings can help initiate discussions around the appropriateness and possible future regulation of this form of advertising.

  2. Economic and resource status of the chiropractic profession in Ontario, Canada: a challenge or an opportunity.

    PubMed

    Mior, Silvano A; Laporte, Audrey

    2008-02-01

    Chiropractic is one of the most frequently sought nonphysician provider groups. Despite its apparent recognition, the profession faces numerous challenges, including the economic reality of an increasing supply within a market of questionable demand. This paper evaluates the chiropractic manpower status in Ontario, Canada. Data collected from administrative and education databases, insurance billing data, and population health survey data between 1990 and 2004 were analyzed. Between 1990 and 2004, the total number of chiropractic registrants in Ontario doubled, with an average annual rate of growth of about 5.4%; however, recent data suggest that the number of nonpracticing chiropractors is increasing, whereas the number of new registrants is decreasing. The rate of applications to a chiropractic institution rose sharply and peaked in 1996-1997, thereafter declining but leveling off in 2002-2003. Despite the continued growth in the number of practicing chiropractors, the utilization of chiropractic services among the Ontario population has remained relatively stable, resulting in a decline in the average net annual incomes adjusted for inflation to 2002 dollars. Our results support previous reports projecting an oversupply of chiropractors and suggest that the chiropractic profession in Ontario is in long-run oversupply. Competition from other providers, changing population demographics, and the recent loss of public funding for services may present significant future challenges to current practitioners. Opportunities related to participation in multidisciplinary environments and accessing unmet population health needs may contribute to influencing the demand for chiropractic services. A concerted effort by professional and educational institutions is required.

  3. The Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy: implementation of a population-based osteoporosis action plan in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hawker, G.; Cameron, C.; Canavan, J.; Beaton, D.; Bogoch, E.; Jain, R.; Papaioannou, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, there have been a number of action plans published to highlight the importance of preventing osteoporosis and related fractures. In the province of Ontario Canada, the Ministry of Health provided funding for the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy. The goal is to reduce morbidity, mortality, and costs from osteoporosis and related fractures through an integrated and comprehensive approach aimed at health promotion and disease management. This paper describes the components of the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy and progress on implementation efforts as of March 2009. There are five main components: health promotion; bone mineral density testing, access, and quality; postfracture care; professional education; and research and evaluation. Responsibility for implementation of the initiatives within the components is shared across a number of professional and patient organizations and academic teaching hospitals with osteoporosis researchers. The lessons learned from each phase of the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy provides a tremendous opportunity to inform other jurisdictions embarking on implementing similar large-scale bone health initiatives. PMID:20309525

  4. Feline onychectomy: Current practices and perceptions of veterinarians in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Lori R; Little, Susan E; Hellyer, Peter W; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the proportion of practitioners from Ontario, Canada who perform onychectomy, identify the techniques utilized, and obtain practitioners views on the procedure. An anonymous survey was distributed to Ontario Veterinary Medical Association members. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare responses of opinion questions related to declawing between respondents who indicated they perform declawing procedures and those who do not. Of 500 respondents, 75.8% reported performing onychectomy, with 60.1% of those reporting performing the procedure less than monthly and 73.3% only performing the procedure after recommending alternatives. Statistically significant differences were found between those who do and those who do not perform onychectomy for perception of procedural pain, concept of mutilation, perception of procedural necessity for behavior modification or prevention of euthanasia, and support of province-wide procedural bans.

  5. Feline onychectomy: Current practices and perceptions of veterinarians in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Lori R.; Little, Susan E.; Hellyer, Peter W.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the proportion of practitioners from Ontario, Canada who perform onychectomy, identify the techniques utilized, and obtain practitioners views on the procedure. An anonymous survey was distributed to Ontario Veterinary Medical Association members. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare responses of opinion questions related to declawing between respondents who indicated they perform declawing procedures and those who do not. Of 500 respondents, 75.8% reported performing onychectomy, with 60.1% of those reporting performing the procedure less than monthly and 73.3% only performing the procedure after recommending alternatives. Statistically significant differences were found between those who do and those who do not perform onychectomy for perception of procedural pain, concept of mutilation, perception of procedural necessity for behavior modification or prevention of euthanasia, and support of province-wide procedural bans. PMID:27587890

  6. Estimation of the Underlying Burden of Pertussis in Adolescents and Adults in Southern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Fisman, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Despite highly successful vaccination programs and high vaccine uptake, both endemic pertussis and periodic pertussis outbreaks continue to occur. The under-recognized role of adolescents and adults in disease transmission, due to waning immunity following natural infection and vaccination, and reduced likelihood of correct diagnosis, may contribute to pertussis persistence. We constructed a mathematical model to describe the transmission of pertussis in Southern Ontario in both pre-vaccine and vaccine eras, to estimate the underlying burden of pertussis in the population. The model was well calibrated using the best available data on pertussis in the pre-vaccination (1880–1929) and vaccination (1993–2004) eras in Ontario. Pertussis under-reporting by age group was estimated by comparing model-projected incidence to reported laboratory-confirmed cases for Greater Toronto. Best-fit model estimates gave a basic reproductive number of approximately 10.6, (seasonal range 9.9 to 11.5). Under-reporting increased with age, and approximately >95% of infections in children were caused by infections in persons with waning immunity to pertussis following prior infection or vaccination. A well-calibrated model suggests that under-recognized cases of pertussis in older individuals are likely to be an important driver of ongoing pertussis outbreaks in children. Model projections strongly support enhancement of booster vaccination efforts in adults. PMID:24376767

  7. Barriers to addressing the societal determinants of health: public health units and poverty in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2003-12-01

    Despite Canada's reputation as a leader in health promotion and population health concepts, actual public health practice for the most part remains wedded to downstream strategies focussed on behaviour change. In Canada's largest province this has led to the implementation of a heart health promotion approach focussed on diet, activity and tobacco use. This is so despite increasing evidence that these approaches are generally ineffective, particularly for those at greatest risk. In addition, these strategies appear to divert public and governmental attention away from addressing the broader societal determinants of health. Examples of Ontario public health units that have begun to address societal determinants of health provide a counterbalance to the dominant paradigm that frames health as an individual responsibility. These new approaches focus attention upon the health-threatening effects of governments' regressive social and economic policies in a manner consistent with the best principles of health promotion.

  8. Patterns of and reasons for tooth extractions in general dental practice in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Murray, H; Locker, D; Kay, E J

    1996-06-01

    While substantial proportions of the population of Ontario, Canada continue to have teeth extracted, little is known about the reasons for this loss. In this survey of Ontario general dental practitioners, 128 dentists provided information on 6143 patients they saw during a reference week. Approximately one-in-seven of these patients had or were going to have one or more extractions as part of their current course of treatment. The mean number of extractions for patients having at least one tooth taken out was 2.3 (SD = 2.5). Emergency patients were more likely than regular patients to have at least one extraction but, on average, had fewer teeth taken out. Orthodontic considerations were the main reason for tooth loss in childhood, caries continued to be an important cause of tooth loss at all ages and periodontal disease accounted for more teeth lost after 40 years of age than caries. This study differs from almost all others in finding that, overall, more permanent teeth were extracted because of periodontal disease than because of caries. The former accounted for 35.9% of teeth lost and the latter for 28.9%. While this may be due to methodological differences between this and other studies, it is consistent with epidemiological data on periodontal disease in the Ontario population and data showing that Ontarians receive little in the way of periodontal care.

  9. Smoking and binge-drinking among adolescents, Ontario, Canada: Does the school neighbourhood matter?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Kristian; To, Teresa; Irving, Hyacinth M; Boak, Angela; Hamilton, Hayley A; Mann, Robert E; Schwartz, Robert; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2017-09-01

    This study examines whether access to alcohol and tobacco around the school relates to higher or lower odds of cigarette smoking and binge-drinking among Ontario high school students. The 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey provides data on self-reported smoking and drinking, individual covariates and subjective socio-economic status for 6142 students (grades 9-12) in Ontario, Canada. Locations of schools were geocoded and 1.6km network buffers defined the school neighbourhoods. Multi-level logistic regression examines individual and school neighbourhood factors with smoking and binge drinking as the dependent variable. Higher density of retail outlets increased the odds of smoking, but not the odds of binge-drinking. Older age, lower SES and being male increased the odds of smoking; while older age and being male also increased the odds of binge-drinking. Lower SES and higher population density decreased the odds of binge-drinking. Proximity to tobacco and alcohol outlets was not significant. Findings showed that a greater number of outlets in the school neighbourhood is significantly associated with higher odds of smoking, but not binge-drinking. School neighbourhood access to tobacco outlets should be considered when formulating policy interventions to reduce smoking for adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tourism climatology for camping: a case study of two Ontario parks (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel; Gough, William A.

    2015-08-01

    Climate and weather act as central motivators for the travel decisions of tourists. Due to their seasonality, these factors determine the availability and quality of certain outdoor recreational activities. Park visitation in Ontario, Canada, has been identified as a weather sensitive tourism and recreation activity. This study used a survey-based approach to identify and compare stated weather preferences and thresholds, as well as weather-related decision-making for campers at two provincial parks in Ontario, Canada. The two parks were selected for differing physical and environmental characteristics (forested lake versus coastal beach). Statistically significant differences were detected between the two parks in relation to the importance of weather and weather-based decision-making. Specific temperatures that were considered ideal and thresholds that were too cool and too warm were identified for both parks, both during the day and the night. Heavy rain and strong winds were the most influential factors in weather-related decision-making and on-site behavioural adaptations. Beach campers placed greater importance on the absence of rain and the presence of comfortable temperatures compared to forest campers. In addition, beach campers were more likely to leave the park early due to incremental weather changes. The results of this study suggest that beach campers are more sensitive to weather than forest campers.

  11. Validation of Algorithms to Identify Invasive Electrophysiology Procedures Using Administrative Data in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheldon M; Webster, Lauren; Calzavara, Andrew; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    2017-06-01

    Administrative database research can provide insight into the real-world effectiveness of invasive electrophysiology procedures. However, no validated algorithm to identify these procedures within administrative data currently exists. To develop and validate algorithms to identify atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial flutter (AFL), supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) catheter ablation procedures, and diagnostic electrophysiology studies (EPS) within administrative data. Algorithms consisting of physician procedural billing codes and their associated most responsible hospital diagnosis codes were used to identify potential AF, AFL, SVT catheter ablation procedures and diagnostic EPS within large administrative databases in Ontario, Canada. The potential procedures were then limited to those performed between October 1, 2011 and March 31, 2013 at a single large regional cardiac center (Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center) in Ontario, Canada. These procedures were compared with a gold-standard cohort of patients known to have undergone invasive electrophysiology procedures during the same time period at the same institution. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of each algorithm was determined. Algorithms specific to each of AF, AFL, and SVT ablation were associated with a moderate sensitivity (75%-86%), high specificity (95%-98%), positive (95%-98%), and negative (99%) predictive values. The best algorithm to identify diagnostic EPS was less optimal with a sensitivity of 61% and positive predictive value of 88%. Algorithms using a combination of physician procedural billing codes and accompanying most responsible hospital diagnosis may identify catheter ablation procedures within administrative data with a high degree of accuracy. Diagnostic EPS may be identified with reduced accuracy.

  12. Planning for long, wide conservation corridors on private lands in the Oak Ridges Moraine, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, Graham S; Eagles, Paul F J

    2007-06-01

    We explored the role of conservation biology in the planning of a natural-heritage system that includes long, wide conservation corridors situated primarily on private lands, and established to connect natural core areas in the Oak Ridges Moraine of Ontario, Canada. We based our review on government documents, semi-structured interviews with participants involved in this land-use planning process, and our involvement with the issue from 1990 through 2002. Conservation biology had a major influence on the outcome of the land-use planning process for this moraine. The landform was identified as an area of value by the environmental movement within the context of a number of ongoing government studies that began in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Conservation biologists and planners in government, the environmental movement, and the private sector carried out work related to conservation biology, including inventories and the development and application of criteria for the delineation of core areas and conservation corridors. Once the political timing was favorable (2001-2002), decision makers linked the science of conservation biology to planning policies and law in Ontario. The Oak Ridges Moraine land-use planning process was precedent setting in Canada, and possibly internationally. To our knowledge this is the first time long, wide conservation corridors on private lands were regulated through land-use-planning legislation and led to restrictions on urban development and aggregate resource extraction.

  13. Availability, Location, and Format of Nutrition Information in Fast-food Chain Restaurants in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hobin, Erin; Lebenbaum, Michael; Rosella, Laura; Hammond, David

    2015-03-01

    To assess the availability, location, and format of nutrition information in fast-food chain restaurants in Ontario. Nutrition information in restaurants was assessed using an adapted version of the Nutrition Environment Measures Study for Restaurants (NEMS-R). Two raters independently visited 50 restaurants, 5 outlets of each of the top-10 fast-food chain restaurants in Canada. The locations of the restaurants were randomly selected within the Waterloo, Wellington, and Peel regions in Ontario, Canada. Descriptive results are presented for the proportion of restaurants presenting nutrition information by location (e.g., brochure), format (e.g., use of symbols), and then by type of restaurant (e.g., quick take-away, full-service). Overall, 96.0% (n = 48) of the restaurants had at least some nutrition information available in the restaurant. However, no restaurant listed calorie information for all items on menu boards or menus, and only 14.0% (n = 7) of the restaurants posted calorie information and 26.0% (n = 13) of restaurants posted other nutrients (e.g., total fat) for at least some items on menus boards or menus. The majority of the fast-food chain restaurants included in our study provided at least some nutrition information in restaurants; however, very few restaurants made nutrition information readily available for consumers on menu boards and menus.

  14. Ever Use of Nicotine and Nonnicotine Electronic Cigarettes Among High School Students in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Hayley A; Ferrence, Roberta; Boak, Angela; Schwartz, Robert; Mann, Robert E; O'Connor, Shawn; Adlaf, Edward M

    2015-10-01

    There are limited data on the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among youth, particularly with regard to the use of nicotine versus nonnicotine products. This study investigates ever use of nicotine and nonnicotine e-cigarettes and examines the demographic and behavioral correlates of e-cigarette use in Ontario, Canada. Data for 2,892 high school students were derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. This province-wide school-based survey is based on a 2-stage cluster design. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the factors associated with ever use of e-cigarettes. Ever use of e-cigarettes was derived from the question, "Have you ever smoked at least one puff from an electronic cigarette?" All analyses included appropriate adjustments for the complex study design. Fifteen percent of high school students reported using e-cigarettes in their lifetime. Most students who ever used e-cigarettes reported using e-cigarettes without nicotine (72%), but 28% had used e-cigarettes with nicotine. Male, White/Caucasian, and rural students, as well as those with a history of using tobacco cigarettes, were at greater odds of e-cigarette use. Seven percent of students who had never smoked a tobacco cigarette in their lifetime reported using an e-cigarette. Five percent of those who had ever used an e-cigarette had never smoked a tobacco cigarette. More students reported ever using e-cigarettes without nicotine than with nicotine in Ontario, Canada. This underscores the need for greater knowledge of the contents of both nicotine and nonnicotine e-cigarettes to better guide public health policies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Drug use among transgender people in Ontario, Canada: Disparities and associations with social exclusion.

    PubMed

    Scheim, Ayden I; Bauer, Greta R; Shokoohi, Mostafa

    2017-09-01

    We identified the prevalence and correlates of past-year illicit drug use among transgender people in Ontario, Canada, and disparities with the age-standardized non-transgender population. Data on transgender persons aged 16+ (n=406) were obtained from Trans PULSE, a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey (2009-2010). Overall and sex-specific estimates of past-year drug use (cocaine and amphetamines, based on data availability) in the reference population were obtained from Ontario residents aged 16+ (n=39, 980) in the Canadian Community Health Survey (2009-2010), and standardized to the overall and gender-specific transgender age distributions. For regression analyses with Trans PULSE data, past-year drug use included drug types associated with high risk of physical, psychological, and social harm to the user, and RDS-II weights were applied to frequencies and prevalence ratios (PR) derived from blockwise logistic regression models. An estimated 12.3% (95% CI: 7.7, 17.0) of transgender Ontarians had used at least one of the specified drugs in the past year, with no significant difference by gender identity. Transgender Ontarians were more likely to use both cocaine (standardized prevalence difference; SPD=6.8%; 95% CI=1.6, 10.9) and amphetamines (SPD=SPD=1.3%, 95% CI=0.2, 3.1) as compared to the age-standardized non-transgender population. History of transphobic assault, homelessness or underhousing, and sex work were associated with greater drug use among transgender persons. The prevalence of cocaine and amphetamine use among transgender people in Ontario, Canada was higher than in the age-standardized reference population. Social exclusion predicted within-group variation in drug use among transgender persons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Workplace System Factors of Obstetric Nurses in Northeastern Ontario, Canada: Using a Work Disability Prevention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; Larivère, Michel; Rukholm, Ellen; Belanger-Gardner, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship nursing personal and workplace system factors (work disability) and work ability index scores in Ontario, Canada. Methods A total of 111 registered nurses were randomly selected from the total number of registered nurses on staff in the labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum areas of four northeastern Ontario hospitals. Using a stratified random design approach, 51 participants were randomly selected in four northeastern Ontario cities. Results A total of 51 (45.9% response rate) online questionnaires were returned and another 60 (54.1% response rate) were completed using the paper format. The obstetric workforce in northeastern Ontario was predominately female (94.6%) with a mean age of 41.9 (standard deviation = 10.2). In the personal systems model, three variables: marital status (p = 0.025), respondent ethnicity (p = 0.026), and mean number of patients per shift (p = 0.049) were significantly contributed to the variance in work ability scores. In the workplace system model, job and career satisfaction (p = 0.026) had a positive influence on work ability scores, while work absenteeism (p = 0.023) demonstrated an inverse relationship with work ability scores. In the combined model, all the predictors were significantly related to work ability scores. Conclusion Work ability is closely related to job and career satisfaction, and perceived control at work among obstetric nursing. In order to improve work ability, nurses need to work in environments that support them and allow them to be engaged in the decision-making processes. PMID:26929842

  17. Workplace System Factors of Obstetric Nurses in Northeastern Ontario, Canada: Using a Work Disability Prevention Approach.

    PubMed

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; Larivère, Michel; Rukholm, Ellen; Belanger-Gardner, Diane

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship nursing personal and workplace system factors (work disability) and work ability index scores in Ontario, Canada. A total of 111 registered nurses were randomly selected from the total number of registered nurses on staff in the labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum areas of four northeastern Ontario hospitals. Using a stratified random design approach, 51 participants were randomly selected in four northeastern Ontario cities. A total of 51 (45.9% response rate) online questionnaires were returned and another 60 (54.1% response rate) were completed using the paper format. The obstetric workforce in northeastern Ontario was predominately female (94.6%) with a mean age of 41.9 (standard deviation = 10.2). In the personal systems model, three variables: marital status (p = 0.025), respondent ethnicity (p = 0.026), and mean number of patients per shift (p = 0.049) were significantly contributed to the variance in work ability scores. In the workplace system model, job and career satisfaction (p = 0.026) had a positive influence on work ability scores, while work absenteeism (p = 0.023) demonstrated an inverse relationship with work ability scores. In the combined model, all the predictors were significantly related to work ability scores. Work ability is closely related to job and career satisfaction, and perceived control at work among obstetric nursing. In order to improve work ability, nurses need to work in environments that support them and allow them to be engaged in the decision-making processes.

  18. Economic evaluation of an extended acellular pertussis vaccine programme for adolescents in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Iskedjian, Michael; Walker, John H; Hemels, Michiel E H

    2004-10-22

    Pertussis is a frequent cause of cough illness in adolescents. In Canada, until recently immunization against pertussis in public programmes has been restricted to children under the age of 7. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the health and economic impact of an additional booster dose of the acellular vaccine in adolescents in Ontario. We performed a cost effectiveness analysis, based on a predictive spreadsheet dynamic model following a cohort of 144,000 adolescents in Ontario from the age of 12 years over a 10-year-period from the Ontario Ministry of Health (MoH) and societal perspectives. The model was used to compare costs and benefits of a combined vaccination programme (CVP) including tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (dTacp) administered at age 12, compared to current practice. From the MoH perspective, booster vaccination of dacpT at 12 years via the CVP would produce a yearly additional expected cost of CAD $0.52 per adolescent in Ontario with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CAD $168 per pertussis case avoided based on a 10-year-period. If outcomes are discounted at 3%, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio rises to $188/discounted pertussis case avoided. From the societal perspective, the CVP would be cost saving CAD $858,106 at 10 years for the cohort. Over the 10-year-period, more than 4400 cases of pertussis would be prevented with approximately 50 hospital admissions averted. This study suggests that administering a booster dose of dTacp at 12 years of age to replace diphtheria and tetanus vaccination at 14 years may reduce the economic burden of pertussis treatment in the long term at a reasonable cost.

  19. High Incidence of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections in Remote Indigenous Communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Cai-lei; Loewen, Kassandra; Teatero, Sarah; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Gordon, Janet; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; McGeer, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Worldwide, indigenous populations appear to be at increased risk for invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections. Although there is empirical evidence that the burden of iGAS disease is significant among remote First Nations communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada, the epidemiology of iGAS infections in the area remains poorly characterized. Methods. Individuals that met case definition for iGAS disease and whose laboratory specimens were processed by Meno Ya Win Health Centre in Sioux Lookout, Canada or who were reported to Thunder Bay District Health Unit, Canada were identified for the period 2009 to 2014. Case demographics, clinical severity, comorbidities, and risk factors were collected through chart review. Strain typing and antibiotic susceptibility were determined when possible. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated. Results. Sixty-five cases of iGAS disease were identified, for an annualized incidence of 56.2 per 100 000. Primary bacteremia was present in 26.2% of cases, and cellulitis was identified in 55.4% of cases. The most common comorbidities identified were diabetes (38.5%) and skin conditions (38.5%). Prevalent risk factors included alcohol dependence (25%). Fourteen different emm types were identified among 42 isolates, with the most common being emm114 (17.4%), emm11 (15.2%), and emm118 (13.0%). Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was found in 24.6% of isolates. Conclusions. Rural and remote First Nations communities in Northwestern Ontario experience iGAS infections at a rate 10 times the provincial and national average. Compared with other North American series, a lower proportion of isolates causing infection were of emm types included in candidate GAS vaccines. PMID:28480241

  20. Deceased Organ Donation Registration and Familial Consent among Chinese and South Asians in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Li, Alvin Ho-ting; McArthur, Eric; Maclean, Janet; Isenor, Cynthia; Prakash, Versha; Kim, S. Joseph; Knoll, Greg; Shah, Baiju; Garg, Amit X.

    2015-01-01

    Objective For various reasons, people of Chinese (China, Hong Kong or Taiwan) and South Asian (Indian subcontinent) ancestry (the two largest ethnic minority groups in Ontario, Canada) may be less likely to register for deceased organ donation than the general public, and their families may be less likely to consent for deceased organ donation at the time of death. Methods We conducted two population-based studies: (1) a cross-sectional study of deceased organ donor registration as of May 2013, and (2) a cohort study of the steps in proceeding with deceased organ donation for patients who died in hospital from October 2008 to December 2012. Results A total of 49 938 of 559 714 Chinese individuals (8.9%) and 47 774 of 374 291 South Asians (12.8%) were registered for deceased organ donation, proportions lower than the general public (2 676 260 of 10 548 249 (25.4%). Among the 168 703 Ontarians who died in a hospital, the families of 33 of 81 Chinese (40.1%; 95% CI: 30.7%-51.6%) and 39 of 72 South Asian individuals (54.2%; 95% CI: 42.7-65.2%) consented for deceased organ donation, proportions lower than the general public (68.3%; 95% CI: 66.4%-70.0%). Conclusions In Ontario, Canada Chinese and South Asian individuals are less likely to register and their families are less likely to consent to deceased organ donation compared to the remaining general public. There is an opportunity to build support for organ and tissue donation in these two large ethnic communities in Canada. PMID:26230320

  1. Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Associated with Mussels, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Marsha; McIntyre, Lorraine; Ritson, Mark; Stone, Jason; Bronson, Roni; Bitzikos, Olga; Rourke, Wade; Galanis, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) outbreak occurred in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was associated with cooked mussel consumption. This is the first reported DSP outbreak in BC. Investigation of ill individuals, traceback of product and laboratory testing for toxins were used in this investigation. Sixty-two illnesses were reported. Public health and food safety investigation identified a common food source and harvest area. Public health and regulatory agencies took actions to recall product and notify the public. Shellfish monitoring program changes were implemented after the outbreak. Improved response and understanding of toxin production will improve management of future DSP outbreaks. PMID:23697950

  2. The epidemiology of travel-related Salmonella Enteritidis in Ontario, Canada, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Mary-Kathryn; Savage, Rachel; Vrbova, Linda; Toolan, Miriam; Whitfield, Yvonne; Varga, Csaba; Lee, Brenda; Allen, Vanessa; Maki, Anne; Walton, Ryan; Johnson, Caitlin; Dhar, Badal; Ahmed, Rafiq; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Middleton, Dean

    2012-05-18

    Increases in the number of salmonellosis cases due to Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in 2010 and 2011 prompted a public health investigation in Ontario, Canada. In this report, we describe the current epidemiology of travel-related (TR) SE, compare demographics, symptoms and phage types (PTs) of TR and domestically-acquired (DA) cases, and estimate the odds of acquiring SE by region of the world visited. All incident cases of culture confirmed SE in Ontario obtained from isolates and specimens submitted to public health laboratories were included in this study. Demographic and illness characteristics of TR and DA cases were compared. A national travel survey was used to provide estimates for the number of travellers to various destinations to approximate rates of SE in travellers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of acquiring SE when travelling to various world regions. Overall, 51.9% of SE cases were TR during the study period. This ranged from 35.7% TR cases in the summer travel period to 65.1% TR cases in the winter travel period. Compared to DA cases, TR cases were older and were less likely to seek hospital care. For Ontario travellers, the adjusted odds of acquiring SE was the highest for the Caribbean (OR 37.29, 95% CI 17.87-77.82) when compared to Europe. Certain PTs were more commonly associated with travel (e.g., 1, 4, 5b, 7a, Atypical) than with domestic infection. Of the TR cases, 88.9% were associated with travel to the Caribbean and Mexico region, of whom 90.1% reported staying on a resort. Within this region, there were distinct associations between PTs and countries. There is a large burden of TR illness from SE in Ontario. Accurate classification of cases by travel history is important to better understand the source of infections. The findings emphasize the need to make travellers, especially to the Caribbean, and health professionals who provide advice to travellers, aware of this risk. The findings may be generalized

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii seropositivity in small ruminant veterinarians and veterinary students in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Shannon L; Jones-Bitton, Andria; McEwen, Scott A; Jansen, Jocelyn; Patel, Samir N; Filejski, Catherine; Menzies, Paula

    2017-04-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic pathogen that causes Q fever in humans. Serological and questionnaire data on C. burnetii were obtained from 32 small ruminant veterinarians and veterinary students in Ontario, Canada, in February 2012. Overall, 59% of participants were seropositive; advanced stage of career and increased age were associated with seropositivity.

  4. Educators' Beliefs about Raising Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in the Schools: The Experience in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Margaret; Dimito, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the experiences of 132 LGBT and heterosexual teachers and school administrators in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed a survey that asked about their comfort addressing LGBT issues in the school setting, how safe they felt, how active they were, and their perceptions of barriers. There were few differences between the…

  5. Educators' Beliefs about Raising Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in the Schools: The Experience in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Margaret; Dimito, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the experiences of 132 LGBT and heterosexual teachers and school administrators in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed a survey that asked about their comfort addressing LGBT issues in the school setting, how safe they felt, how active they were, and their perceptions of barriers. There were few differences between the…

  6. A Bioecological Framework to Evaluate Communicative Participation Outcomes for Preschoolers Receiving Speech-Language Therapy Interventions in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Barbara J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Preschool Speech and Language Program (PSLP) in Ontario, Canada, is a publicly funded intervention service for children from birth to 5 years with communication disorders. It has begun a population-level programme evaluation of children's communicative participation outcomes following therapy. Data are currently being collected for…

  7. Microsatellite analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Asian Longhorned Beetles from an Invasive Population in Ontario, Canada

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asian Longhorned Beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) were discovered in Ontario, Canada in 2003 at a commercial warehouse site, where they likely arrived on solid wood packing materials from China. Trees in the area were heavily scarred with oviposition sites, and larvae and adult beetle...

  8. Long-term scientific benefits from preserving old-growth hemlock stands at Clear Lake near Minden, Ontario, Canada

    Treesearch

    R. A. Reid; K. M. Somers; J. E. Nighswander; A. M. Zobel

    2000-01-01

    Clear Lake is located in the centre of the 1300 ha Clear Lake Conservation Reserve in Haliburton County, Ontario, Canada. In 1988, the reserve was designated as a protected area representing undisturbed, old-growth ecosystems. The reserve includes several headwater lakes and their associated catchments which support old-growth hemlock stands that are estimated to be up...

  9. A Bioecological Framework to Evaluate Communicative Participation Outcomes for Preschoolers Receiving Speech-Language Therapy Interventions in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Barbara J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Preschool Speech and Language Program (PSLP) in Ontario, Canada, is a publicly funded intervention service for children from birth to 5 years with communication disorders. It has begun a population-level programme evaluation of children's communicative participation outcomes following therapy. Data are currently being collected for…

  10. Persistence of clinical signs associated with rotavirus following an outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) on a farrow-to-grow swine operation in southwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Tenbergen, Ryan; O’Sullivan, Terri; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Charbonneau, George

    2016-01-01

    Clinical signs attributed to porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) persisted for several months in a southwestern Ontario farm following an outbreak of PED. Extensive testing revealed rotavirus infection and absence of PED in nursing and nursery pigs, highlighting the importance of repeated diagnostic testing following a disease outbreak. PMID:27247460

  11. On-farm study of human contact networks to document potential pathways for avian influenza transmission between commercial poultry farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Burns, T E; Guerin, M T; Kelton, D; Ribble, C; Stephen, C

    2011-12-01

    Human movements associated with poultry farming create contact networks that might facilitate transmission of avian influenza (AI) between farms during outbreaks. In Canada, no information is available about how these networks connect poultry farms. The purpose of this study was to document human contacts between commercial poultry farms in Ontario, Canada, to learn how AI might be transmitted during outbreaks. We used face-to-face interviews with people entering the farm biosecurity perimeter on four layer, one turkey and three broiler breeder poultry farms in Ontario to collect information on between-farm contacts and biosecurity practices. Over a four-day study period on each farm, a median of 10.5 people entered the farm biosecurity perimeter (range 2-31). Ninety-six per cent (111/118) of people consented to be interviewed. Of these, fifty-three per cent (59/111) had contact with one or more (median 2, degree range 1-14) other poultry farms within 72 h. A median of 25 (range 7-65) human contacts linked study farms to other poultry farms. The mean distance of between-farm contacts was 53 km. Eighty-six per cent of people who answered the biosecurity questions (94/109) reported using one or more biosecurity practices. However, on 7/8 farms, at least one person reported that they did not use any biosecurity practices. Fifty per cent of social visitors used biosecurity, whereas 96% of all other people used biosecurity. Ninety-two per cent of people that entered the poultry barns (46/50) used one or more biosecurity practices, whereas 81% of people (48/59) that did not enter the poultry barns used one or more biosecurity practices. Because our study documented farm visitors who did not use any biosecurity practices and moved between commercial poultry farms, we suggest that rapid trace-out of human movements is as important as containment zoning to limiting disease spread during an outbreak of highly pathogenic AI in Ontario.

  12. Phase-specific and lifetime costs of cancer care in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Claire; Pataky, Reka; Bremner, Karen E; Rangrej, Jagadish; Chan, Kelvin K W; Cheung, Winson Y; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Peacock, Stuart; Krahn, Murray D

    2016-10-18

    Cancer is a major public health issue and represents a significant economic burden to health care systems worldwide. The objective of this analysis was to estimate phase-specific, 5-year and lifetime net costs for the 21 most prevalent cancer sites, and remaining tumour sites combined, in Ontario, Canada. We selected all adult patients diagnosed with a primary cancer between 1997 and 2007, with valid ICD-O site and histology codes, and who survived 30 days or more after diagnosis, from the Ontario Cancer Registry (N = 394,092). Patients were linked to treatment data from Cancer Care Ontario and administrative health care databases at the Institute for Clinical and Evaluative Sciences. Net costs (i.e., cost difference between patients and matched non-cancer control subjects) were estimated by phase of care and sex, and used to estimate 5-year and lifetime costs. Mean net costs of care (2009 CAD) were highest in the initial (6 months post-diagnosis) and terminal (12 months pre-death) phases, and lowest in the (3 months) pre-diagnosis and continuing phases of care. Phase-specific net costs were generally lowest for melanoma and highest for brain cancer. Mean 5-year net costs varied from less than $25,000 for melanoma, thyroid and testicular cancers to more than $60,000 for multiple myeloma and leukemia. Lifetime costs ranged from less than $55,000 for lung and liver cancers to over $110,000 for leukemia, multiple myeloma, lymphoma and breast cancer. Costs of cancer care are substantial and vary by cancer site, phase of care and time horizon analyzed. These cost estimates are valuable to decision makers to understand the economic burden of cancer care and may be useful inputs to researchers undertaking cancer-related economic evaluations.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of purchasing contraband cigarettes on First Nations reserves in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Luk, Rita; Cohen, Joanna E; Ferrence, Roberta; McDonald, Paul W; Schwartz, Robert; Bondy, Susan J

    2009-03-01

    Non-First Nations people purchasing cigarettes on First Nations reserves do not pay applicable taxes. We estimated prevalence and identified correlates of purchasing contraband cigarettes on reserves; we also quantified the share of contraband purchased on reserves relative to reported total cigarette consumption and the associated financial impact on taxation revenue. Data from the Ontario Tobacco Survey, a regionally stratified representative population telephone survey that over-samples smokers. Ontario, Canada. A total of 1382 adult current smokers. Reported status of purchasing cigarettes on reserves and the quantity of cigarettes bought on reserves. The prevalence of purchasing cigarettes on reserves was assessed with descriptive statistics. A two-part model was used to analyse correlates of having recently purchased contraband. A total of 25.8% reported recent purchasing and 11.5% reported usual purchasing. Heavy smoking, having no plans to quit and lower education were correlated with recent purchasing. Heavy smoking and not having plans to quit were also correlated with buying more packs of cigarettes on reserves. Contraband purchases on reserves accounted for 14.0% of the reported total cigarette consumption and resulted in an estimated tax loss of $122.2 million. There was substantial purchasing of contraband cigarettes on reserves in Ontario, resulting in significant losses in tax revenues. The availability of these cheap cigarettes undermines the effectiveness of tobacco taxation to reduce smoking. Wherever indicated, governments should strengthen their contraband prevention and control measures, as recommended by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, to ensure that tobacco taxation achieves its intended health benefits and that tax revenues are protected.

  14. Short range variability of soil chemistry in three acid soils in Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, R.E.; Morrison, I.K.; Hopkin, A.A. )

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of soil sampling and analysis methodologies used in Canada's Acid Rain National Early Warning System (ARNEWS). During July and August of 1992, twenty-five soil pits were sampled and analyzed for available phosphorus (P); exchangeable potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), sodium (Na), sulfate-sulfur (SO4-S), boron (B), and molybdenum (Mo); total nitrogen (N), P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Al, Na, sulfur (S), B, nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and organic matter (O.M.); pH; and cation exchange capacity (C.E.C.) at three ARNEWS sites across Ontario. The soils were: (i) a till-derived Ferro-Humic Podzol (Humic Haplorthod), (ii) a Humo-Ferric Podzol (Haplorthod) developed in coarse glaciofluvial sand, and (iii) a Dystric Brunisol (Dystrochrept). The three sites were similar in chemical composition except for available P, exchangeable Ca, Mn, total Mn, O.M., and pH. Sample numbers calculated to achieve [+-]10% error with 95% confidence were much higher in mineral horizons than in forest-floor horizons. Organic macro-elements and pH were found to be the least variable parameters while micro-elements were significantly more variable. Analyses are categorized into groups requiring similar numbers of samples. Other studies have found comparable levels of variability and their results are compared to coefficients of variation generated by the Ontario results. Variability within a pit was also observed and found to be less than that found across each 20- x 20-m site but still very significant. Overall, the variability results from other studies appear to be applicable to Ontario acid soils for common analyses. Investigations observing micro-elements, or which require high levels of accuracy, should incorporate pilot studies to ascertain the degree of variability for their location. 14 refs., 7 tabs.

  15. Trichonosema algonquinensis n. sp. (Phylum microsporidia) in Pectinatella magnifica (Bryozoa: phylactolaemata) from Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Desser, Sherwin S; Koehler, Anne; Barta, John R; Kamyab, Jubin; Ringuette, Maurice J

    2004-01-01

    A new species of microsporidian, Trichonosema algonquinensis, is described from a freshwater bryozoan, Pectinatella magnifica from Ontario, Canada. The parasite develops in epithelial cells and appears as white, spherical masses throughout the tissues. Trichonosema algonquinensis is diplokaryotic, diploblastic and undergoes development in direct contact with the cytoplasm of the host cell. Mature spores are ovoid, tapered at one end, and measure 8.5 +/- 0.3 x 4.4 +/- 0.1 microm. The polar filament is wound in 20 to 23 helical coils. Although the parasite resembles T. pectinatellae described from the same host in Michigan and Ohio, it differs in the length of the spore and number of coils of the polar filament. Analysis of 16S rDNA by maximum likelihood, parsimony and Baysian inference, complements the morphological data in supporting the placement of T. algonquinensis as a sister species of T. pectinatellae.

  16. Barriers to Walking: An Investigation of Adults in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew F.; Scott, Darren M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates perceived barriers to walking using data collected from 179 randomly-selected adults between the ages of 18 and 92 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey (Hamilton Active Living Study) asked questions about socio-demographics, walking, and barriers to walking. A series of binary logit models are estimated for twenty potential barriers to walking. The results demonstrate that different barriers are associated with different sub-groups of the population. Females, senior citizens, and those with a higher body mass index identify the most barriers to walking, while young adults, parents, driver’s license owners, and bus pass owners identify the fewest barriers. Understanding who is affected by perceived barriers can help policy makers and health promotion agencies target sub-groups of the population in an effort to increase walking. PMID:26840328

  17. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety.

  18. Distribution of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Nordic Uranium Tailings Deposit, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Silver, M.

    1987-01-01

    Iron-oxidizing bacteria are present within the top 2 m (but not always at the surface) and near the water table-capillary fringe of the vegetated Nordic uranium deposit, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. They are distributed uniformly in the top 0.5 m of unvegetated tailings. The locations of these bacteria correlate with zones of pyrite oxidation as delineated in previous studies by the formation of soluble iron and sulfate. Heterotrophic bacteria are also present in the tailings, with greatest concentrations at the surface and near the water table-capillary fringe. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected in the soil and peat at the base of the tailings. The results of this study suggest that the establishment of vegetation directly upon the tailings surface does not arrest bacterial pyrite oxidation. PMID:16347328

  19. Intestinal toxemia botulism in 3 adults, Ontario, Canada, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Yolanda D; Middleton, Dean; Whitfield, Yvonne; Tyndel, Felix; Haider, Shariq; Spiegelman, Jamie; Swartz, Richard H; Nelder, Mark P; Baker, Stacey L; Landry, Lisa; Maceachern, Ross; Deamond, Sherri; Ross, Lorrie; Peters, Garth; Baird, Michelle; Rose, David; Sanders, Greg; Austin, John W

    2012-01-01

    Five cases of intestinal toxemia botulism in adults were identified within an 18-month period in or near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We describe findings for 3 of the 5 case-patients. Clinical samples contained Clostridium botulinum spores and botulinum neurotoxins (types A and B) for extended periods (range 41-61 days), indicative of intestinal toxemia botulism. Patients' clinical signs improved with supportive care and administration of botulinum antitoxin. Peanut butter from the residence of 1 case-patient yielded C. botulinum type A, which corresponded with type A spores found in the patient's feces. The food and clinical isolates from this case-patient could not be distinguished by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Two of the case-patients had Crohn disease and had undergone previous bowel surgery, which may have contributed to infection with C. botulinum. These cases reinforce the view that an underlying gastrointestinal condition is a risk factor for adult intestinal toxemia botulism.

  20. Wait times for publicly funded addiction and problem gambling treatment agencies in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the definitions of wait times and intake processes used by drug and problem gambling treatment agencies in Ontario, Canada, as well as the various strategies employed to ameliorate client backlog. Methods An online survey was developed and distributed to 203 publicly-funded, provincial substance use and problem gambling treatment agencies from June to August, 2011. All aspects of the intake process were covered in the survey. Results Based on 139 responses, six different wait time periods were identified. Additional analyses were completed by type of service offered. Suggestions for effective interventions to shorten wait times and recommendations for future research are provided. Conclusion The results of this study highlight a need for standardized definitions of wait times across substance use and problem gambling treatment services. PMID:24252217

  1. Analysis of Anthraxolite and Precambrian Carbonates of Kakabeka Falls, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Anthraxolite is a solid mass of black organic material, often composed of bitumen, that is used as a biomarker formed by oxidation processes. Anthraxolite occurs in veins and fractures that contain cross cutting properties in the carbonate bedding located at Kakabeka Falls, Ontario, Canada. While the hydrocarbons are primarly distributed in the stromatolite bearing units of the Gunflint Formation in the Animikie Group, little information is currently available concerning the highly altered Precambrian metamorphosed oil. This research summarizes the hydrocarbon and microfossiliferous cherty stromatolite horizon in the Gunflint Formation that has been dated at 1.9 Ga. By utilizing a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to retrieve a chemical analysis of the organic molecule samples found at outcrops and in cores, the preserved anthraxolite and carbonate facies were discovered to contain similar compositions. These new results will help provide i) a further understanding Precambrian paleontology by identifying microfossils; ii) the ecology of the region, and iii) the origin of the hydrocarbons.

  2. Standards of education, regulation, and market control: perspectives on complementary and alternative medicine in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Shahjahan, Riyad

    2004-04-01

    This paper provides a contemporary analysis of the issues and questions surrounding the regulation and standardization of education with respect to two complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professions, namely Chinese traditional medicine and homeopath in Ontario, Canada. Rather than taking a standard of education for granted, the assumption that standardizing professional education is a positive move is critiqued because it is claimed to ensure public safety and uniformity within the profession. It is argued that such an assumption fails to deconstruct the power relations involved with setting a standard of education and continues to ignore the fact that setting a standard of education in CAM is part and parcel of biomedical dominance, competition, turf wars and survival. At the end of this paper, some critical questions regarding setting standards of education by the health professions in general are raised.

  3. Clinical and tree hollow populations of human pathogenic yeast in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada are different.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Chris; Yang, Jiaqi; Vogan, Aaron; Maganti, Harinad; Yamamura, Deborah; Xu, Jianping

    2014-05-01

    Yeast are among the most frequent pathogens in humans. The dominant yeast causing human infections belong to the genus Candida and Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species. However, several non-C. albicans species are becoming increasingly common in patients worldwide. The relationships between yeast in humans and the natural environments remain poorly understood. Furthermore, it is often difficult to identify or exclude the origins of disease-causing yeast from specific environmental reservoirs. In this study, we compared the yeast isolates from tree hollows and from clinics in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Our surveys and analyses showed significant differences in yeast species composition, in their temporal dynamics, and in yeast genotypes between isolates from tree hollows and hospitals. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that yeast from trees constitute a significant source of pathogenic yeast in humans in this region. Similarly, the yeast in humans and clinics do not appear to contribute to yeast in tree hollows.

  4. Barriers to Walking: An Investigation of Adults in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada).

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew F; Scott, Darren M

    2016-01-30

    This study investigates perceived barriers to walking using data collected from 179 randomly-selected adults between the ages of 18 and 92 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey (Hamilton Active Living Study) asked questions about socio-demographics, walking, and barriers to walking. A series of binary logit models are estimated for twenty potential barriers to walking. The results demonstrate that different barriers are associated with different sub-groups of the population. Females, senior citizens, and those with a higher body mass index identify the most barriers to walking, while young adults, parents, driver's license owners, and bus pass owners identify the fewest barriers. Understanding who is affected by perceived barriers can help policy makers and health promotion agencies target sub-groups of the population in an effort to increase walking.

  5. Peatlands as Dynamic Biogeochemical Ecotones: Elemental Concentrations, Stoichiometries and Accumulation in Peatland Soils of Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. R.; Wang, M.; Talbot, J.; Riley, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Peatlands act as biogeochemical interfaces between terrestrial and aquatic systems and are 'hotspots', particularly for carbon cycling and the accumulation of nutrients and other elements within the peat profile. This results in storage of substantial amounts of carbon, nutrients and metals, particularly in northern peatlands. Using a data base of over 400 peat profiles and 1700 individual peat samples from bog, fen and swamp sites in Ontario, Canada, we examine the profile concentrations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Hg, Pb, As, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe and Al, and estimate the storage and accumulation of these elements. We show how these profiles, spatial patterns, stoichiometries and accumulation rates are controlled by biogeochemical processes and influenced by geochemical setting, hydrology, atmospheric input and pollution, and ecological and microbial transformations.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in southern Ontario, Canada, green frogs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.W.; Gillan, K.A.; Haffner, G.D.

    1997-11-01

    Green frogs were collected from seven southern Ontario, Canada, locations and analyzed for chlorinated organic chemicals to establish the relative distribution of these chemicals at specific sites. At Hillman Marsh, a wildlife reserve in an agricultural area, green frogs accumulated significantly greater amount of highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) than green frogs from all other collection sites. The source of PCBs is unknown. At Ancaster, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) accumulated in green frogs to a significantly greater extent than at all other sites. This was attributed to the presence of agriculture at Ancaster and the historic use of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) in agriculture. Chemical concentrations measured in green frogs from all locations were considerably lower than reported levels in other species resulting in observable effects. Specific data relating chronic effects in amphibians to environmental exposure to DDE and PCBs is lacking. Contaminant accumulation in southern Ontario amphibians may be an important factor contributing to amphibian declines only at specific sites.

  7. Evolving trends in head and neck cancer epidemiology: Ontario, Canada 1993-2010.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, Matthew; Eskander, Antoine; Irish, Jonathan; Gullane, Patrick; Gilbert, Ralph; Brown, Dale; de Almeida, John R; Urbach, David R; Goldstein, David P

    2017-09-01

    Given the dramatic changes in global head and neck cancer epidemiology, the purpose of this study was to present the findings of our investigation on patterns of head and neck cancer incidence/survival within the province of Ontario, Canada. Temporal variations in age/sex adjusted incidence and survival were analyzed for all incident head and neck cancer cases (n = 20 781) managed within Ontario from 1993-2010. From 1993-2010, the incidence of oropharyngeal (average annual percentage change [AAPC] 4.56%; P < .001) and salivary gland (AAPC 4.99%; P < .001) carcinomas increased, whereas oral cavity (AAPC -1.44%; P < .001) and laryngeal/hypopharyngeal (AAPC -3.20%; P < .001) carcinomas declined, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remained static (AAPC 0.28%; P = .72). A general trend for improved 5-year overall survival (OS), was observed for all tumor sites. Consistent with previous studies, our results suggest a simultaneous decline in tobacco-associated and increase in human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated carcinomas. The rising incidence of salivary malignancy and improvement in 5-year OS are novel findings, in need of future investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Toft, Nils; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected from 29 randomly selected dairy goat herds and 21 convenience-selected dairy sheep flocks. Fecal samples were analyzed using bacterial culture (BD BACTEC MGIT 960) and polymerase chain reaction (Tetracore); serum samples were tested with the Prionics Parachek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using 3-test latent class Bayesian models, true farm-level prevalence was estimated to be 83.0% [95% probability interval (PI): 62.6% to 98.1%] for dairy goats and 66.8% (95% PI: 41.6% to 91.4%) for dairy sheep. The within-farm true prevalence for dairy goats was 35.2% (95% PI: 23.0% to 49.8%) and for dairy sheep was 48.3% (95% PI: 27.6% to 74.3%). These data indicate that a paratuberculosis control program for small ruminants is needed in Ontario. PMID:26834269

  9. Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of Ontario, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Jan E.; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people’s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities. PMID:19826558

  10. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal and haemophilus influenzae diseases in northwestern ontario, canada (2010-2015).

    PubMed

    Eton, Vic; Schroeter, Annette; Kelly, Len; Kirlew, Michael; Tsang, Raymond S W; Ulanova, Marina

    2017-09-22

    North American Indigenous populations experience a high burden of invasive bacterial infections. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) have multiple antigenic variants, the existing vaccines cannot prevent all cases. This study addresses current epidemiology of invasive Hi and pneumococcal disease (IPD) in a region of Northwestern Ontario, Canada with a relatively high (82%) Indigenous population. Data were retrieved from retrospective chart review at a hospital servicing a population of 29,000 (82% Indigenous), during January 2010-July 2015. Ten cases of invasive Hi disease and 37 cases of IPD were identified. Incidence of both in the study population (6.3 and 23.1/100,000/year, respectively) exceeded national rates (1.6 and 9.0/100,000/year). Hi serotype a (Hia) was the most common (50%), followed by non-typeable Hi (20%). In adults, 77% of IPD were caused by serotypes included in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. All paediatric IPD cases were caused by serotypes not included in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The case-fatality rates were 10% for invasive Hi and 2.7% for IPD. Most cases exhibited substantial co-morbidity. In Northwestern Ontario, invasive Hia disease incidence exceeds that of Hib in the pre-Hib vaccine era. This provides strong support for the development of a new Hia vaccine. Improved pneumococcal vaccination of high-risk adults in the region is warranted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Context and cardiovascular risk modification in two regions of Ontario, Canada: a photo elicitation study.

    PubMed

    Angus, Jan E; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P

    2009-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people's efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, "fast" food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities.

  12. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms.

  13. Paediatric meningococcaemia in northwestern Ontario, Canada: a case for publicly funded meningococcal B vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond S. W.; Ulanova, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is an important infectious agent in developed countries, including Canada. Infants are particularly susceptible to infection with serogroup B because of immature immune systems, pathogen virulence factors and changing serogroup dynamics in the post-vaccination era. Currently, the Ontario provincial government does not include serogroup B in its routine publicly funded meningococcal vaccination program. Case Presentation: A formerly well 14-month-old male presented to a tertiary hospital emergency department with fever, minor respiratory problems, diffuse purpuric rash, distended abdomen, tachycardia, and history of one episode of vomiting and melena each. Meningococcaemia was immediately suspected, and he was treated with ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and vancomycin before transfer to a different acute care facility within 12 h. N. meningitidis serogroup B, sensitive to ceftriaxone and penicillin, was identified in his blood. The patient developed gangrene of the lower legs and underwent bilateral below-knee amputation 8 days post-admission. Conclusion: This instance of meningococcaemia with extensive sequelae is an example of the various serious outcomes of meningococcal infection. It provides persuasive reason for routine publicly funded vaccination against N. meningitidis serogroup B in Ontario. PMID:28348748

  14. Switching to Daylight Saving Time and work injuries in Ontario, Canada: 1993-2007.

    PubMed

    Morassaei, Sara; Smith, Peter M

    2010-12-01

    To examine whether switching to and from Daylight Saving Time (DST)-1 h shift forward in the spring and 1 h shift back in the autumn-is associated with an increase in work injuries. Data on work-related injuries were obtained from compensation claim records from the Ontario Workplace Safety & Insurance Board for the period 1993-2007. A Poisson regression model was run separately comparing the number of no lost time claims and lost time claims during the week of DST change with the week following DST change, and the week preceding DST change. We also examined if differences in the relationship between DST and work injury claims were present across industry, age, gender and job tenure groups. The results of our regression model did not show an increase in the incidence of work injury claims in the days immediately following the spring shift to DST. There was a significant decrease in the number of claims on Thursday, Friday and Saturday following the spring transition to DST. However, this decline was solely due to the years when Good Friday occurred during DST week (1993, 1998 and 2004) when fewer people are at work. For the autumn transition from DST, no evidence was found that the gain of 1 h sleep results in a decrease or increase in work injury claims. Our findings show that the shift to and from DST had no detrimental effects on the incidence of claims for work injuries in Ontario, Canada.

  15. Restructuring home care in the 1990s: geographical differentiation in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allison M

    2006-06-01

    Through exploring the geographically differentiated effects of restructuring on the work of home care practitioners, labor process change is found to be spatially specific. It is through examining the spatiallity of labor process change that the differential impacts of health care restructuring on human health care resources can be determined. This has implications for human health care resource availability and service provision, which is particularly an issue for medically under-serviced regions. The restructuring approach, together with regulation theory, is used in this paper as tools for exploring the effects of health care reform on the local labor process. Both quantitative and qualitative data collected from home care practitioners in Ontario (Canada) show that the general trends in labor process change (work transfer down the home care hierarchy, increased time constraints, and enhanced job stress) are being similarly experienced, while shedding light on specific local differences. Findings show two working life factors to be differently experienced across the size of the place in which practitioners live and work. Two representative localities provide a closer examination of local differences in labor process change via the examination of local service cultures, local institutional practices, and local practitioner advocacy. The two sites are Sault Ste. Marie, located in northern Ontario's medically under-serviced northern health region, and Guelph, found in the province's well-serviced southern region.

  16. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms. PMID:27152042

  17. Examining non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents with mental health needs, in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Shannon L; Baiden, Philip; Theall-Honey, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents with mental health needs and specific factors associated with NSSI among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years who received mental health services in adult mental health facilities in Ontario, Canada. Data on 2,013 adolescents were obtained from the Ontario Mental Health Reporting System using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health (RAI-MH) and were analyzed using logistic regression. Approximately, 20.2% (407 adolescents) of the sample engaged in NSSI within the last 12 months. Results from multivariate logistic regression indicate that females were 2.19 times more likely to engage in NSSI than males. Intentional misuse of prescription medication emerged as the most important factor associated with NSSI. Other factors found to be associated with NSSI included multiple psychiatric admissions, sexual abuse, use of alcohol, mood disorders (e.g., depression), adjustment disorders, personality disorders and symptoms of depression. The article discusses the implications of the findings, with suggestions for future research.

  18. The burden of acute gastrointestinal illness in Ontario, Canada, 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    SARGEANT, J. M.; MAJOWICZ, S. E.; SNELGROVE, J.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY A retrospective, cross-sectional telephone survey (n=2090) was conducted in Ontario, Canada, between May 2005 and April 2006, to determine the burden of acute gastrointestinal illness in the population. The 4-week prevalence was 8·56% (95% CI 7·36–9·76); in households with more than one resident, 35% of cases reported someone else in their household had similar symptoms at the same time. The annual adjusted incidence rate was 1·17 (95% CI 0·99–1·35) episodes per person-year, with higher rates in females, rural residents, and in the winter and spring. Health care was sought by 22% of cases, of which 33% were asked to provide a stool sample. Interestingly, 2·2% of cases who did not visit a health-care provider reported self-administering antibiotics. Overall, acute gastrointestinal illness appears to pose a significant burden in the Ontario population. Further research into the specific aetiologies and risk factors is now needed to better target intervention strategies. PMID:17565767

  19. Mental Illness and Psychotropic Medication use Among People Assessed for Bariatric Surgery in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Jennifer; Selvadurai, Melanie; Anvari, Mehran; Taylor, Valerie

    2016-07-01

    Studies completed outside of Canada have reported a high rate of mental illness and psychotropic medication use among bariatric surgery candidates with variable impacts on surgical and mental health outcomes. To our knowledge, there has been no published Canadian data on this issue. We conducted a secondary analysis of de-identified data from the Ontario Bariatric Registry for all individuals who completed both a baseline and psychological assessment between April 1, 2010, and February 9, 2015 (N = 10,698). We determined the rates of reported mental illness and psychotropic medication use overall and by fiscal year of assessment. A past or present mental illness, most commonly depression, was recorded for 51 % of individuals. At baseline, 38 % were taking at least one psychotropic medication, most commonly antidepressants. Only a small proportion of the population were taking psychotropic medications known to be associated with high potential for weight gain. Although the prevalence of mental illness increased steadily from 35 % in 2010/2011 to 63 % in 2014/2015, there was no corresponding increase in reported medication use. Of those taking psychotropic medications, 13 % did not have a recorded history of mental illness. Consistent with other international studies, our results indicate a high prevalence of mental illness and psychotropic medication use among people referred for bariatric surgery in Ontario, Canada. This supports that accurate screening practices, knowledge about how to manage psychotropic medication pre- and post-operatively and recognition for opportunities to change medications that may be associated with weight gain are required.

  20. Social determinants of health and retention in HIV care in a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rachlis, Beth; Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra; Light, Lucia; Raboud, Janet; Antoniou, Tony; Bacon, Jean; Benoit, Anita; Cooper, Curtis; Kendall, Claire; Loutfy, Mona; Wobeser, Wendy; McGee, Frank; Rachlis, Anita; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-12-27

    Continuous HIV care supports antiretroviral therapy initiation and adherence, and prolongs survival. We investigated the association of social determinants of health (SDH) and subsequent retention in HIV care in a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada. The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study is a multi-site cohort of patients at 10 HIV clinics. Data were collected from medical charts, interviews, and via record linkage with the provincial public health laboratory for viral load tests. For participants interviewed in 2009, we used three-category multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of retention in 2010-2012, defined as (1) continuous care (≥2 viral loads ≥90 days in all years; reference category); (2) discontinuous care (only 1 viral load/year in ≥1 year); and (3) a gap in care (≥1 year in 2010-2012 with no viral load). In total, 1838 participants were included. In 2010-2012, 71.7% had continuous care, 20.9% had discontinuous care, and 7.5% had a gap in care. Discontinuous care in 2009 was predictive (p < .0001) of future retention. SDH associated with discontinuous care were Indigenous ethnicity, being born in Canada, being employed, reporting hazardous drinking, and non-injection drug use. Being a heterosexual male was associated with having a gap in care, and being single and younger were associated with discontinuous care and a gap in care. Various SDH were associated with retention. Care discontinuity was highly predictive of future gaps. Targeted strategic interventions that better engage those at risk of suboptimal retention merit exploration.

  1. Clinical outcomes after trans-catheter aortic valve replacement in men and women in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, Andrew; Qiu, Feng; Koh, Maria; Prasad, Treesa J; Cantor, Warren J; Cheema, Asim N; Chu, Michael W A; Feindel, Christopher; Fremes, Stephen E; Kingsbury, Kori; Natarajan, Madhu K; Peterson, Mark D; Ruel, Marc; Strauss, Bradley H; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Ko, Dennis T

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to evaluate sex-differences in outcomes after trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in a population-based cohort from Ontario, Canada. Prior studies comparing outcomes in men and women after TAVR have yielded divergent results. Some studies have suggested that women have better survival than men while others have not corroborated this finding. A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted using chart abstraction data on all TAVR procedures performed between 2007 and 2013 in Ontario, Canada. Patients who had emergency TAVR procedures were excluded. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 30-days and 1-year. Secondary outcomes included mortality at last follow-up, cause-specific, and all-cause hospital readmission. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using propensity score was used to adjust for baseline differences between men and women. The final study cohort consisted of 453 women and 546 men with a mean follow-up of 3.5 years. Women were generally older and more frail but had less comorbid conditions. Women had lower unadjusted mean EuroScores (7% ± 5% vs 8% ± 7%; P = 0.008), but underwent significantly more trans-apical procedures (26.5% vs 19.2%; P = 0.006) than men. After IPTW, the groups were well balanced. Although mortality was numerically higher for women at 30-days (7.2% vs 5.4%), this was not statistically significant (P = 0.34). At 1-year, there was no difference in mortality (18.2% vs 19.2%; P = 0.85). There were no significant differences in all-cause readmission. In this population-based cohort including all patients undergoing TAVR, mortality or all-cause readmission were not significantly different between men and women. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Integrating Hydrology and Historical Geography in an Interdisciplinary Environmental Masters Program in Northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Kirsten; James, April

    2016-04-01

    Research in hydrology and other sciences are increasingly calling for new collaborations that "…simultaneously explore the biogeophysical, social and economic forces that shape an increasingly human-dominated global hydrologic system…" (Vorosmarty et al. 2015, p.104). With many environmental programs designed to help students tackle environmental problems, these initiatives are not without fundamental challenges (for example, they are often developed around a single epistemology of positivism). Many environmental graduate programs provide narrow interdisciplinary training (within the sciences, or bridging to the social sciences) but do not necessarily engage with the humanities. Geography however, has a long tradition and history of bridging the geophysical, social sciences, and humanities. In this paper, we reflect on new programming in an Interdisciplinary Master's program in Northern Ontario, Canada, inspired by the rich tradition of geography. As Canada Research Chairs trained in different geographical traditions (historical geography and hydrology), we aim to bring together approaches in the humanities and geophysical sciences to understand hydrological and environmental change over time. We are teaching in a small, predominantly undergraduate University located in Northern Ontario, Canada, a region shaped significantly by colonial histories and resource development. The Masters of Environmental Studies/Masters of Environmental Sciences (MES/MESc) program was conceived from a decade of interdisciplinary dialogue across three undergraduate departments (Geography, Biology and Chemistry, History) to promote an understanding of both humanistic and scientific approaches to environmental issues. In the fall of 2015, as part of our 2015-2020 Canada Research Chair mandates, we introduced new initiatives to further address the integration of humanities and sciences to our graduate program. We believe the new generation of environmental scientists and practioners

  3. Alternative health care consultations in Ontario, Canada: A geographic and socio-demographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allison M; Kitchen, Peter; Eby, Jeanette

    2011-06-22

    An important but understudied component of Canada's health system is alternative care. The objective of this paper is to examine the geographic and socio-demographic characteristics of alternative care consultation in Ontario, Canada's largest province. Data is drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS Cycle 3.1, 2005) for people aged 18 or over (n = 32,598) who had a consultation with an alternative health care provider. Four groups of consultations are examined: (1) all consultations (2) massage therapy (3) acupuncture, and (4) homeopath/naturopath. Descriptive statistics, mapping and logistic regression modeling are employed to analyze the data and to compare modalities of alternative health care use. In 2005, more than 1.2 million adults aged 18 or over consulted an alternative health care provider, representing about 13% of the total population of Ontario. The analysis revealed a varied geographic pattern of consultations across the province. Consultations were fairly even across the urban to rural continuum and rural residents were just as likely to consult a provider as their urban counterparts. From a health perspective, people with a chronic condition, lower health status and self-perceived unmet health care needs were more likely to see an alternative health provider. Women with chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, high blood pressure, chronic fatigue syndrome and chemical sensitivities were more likely to see an alternative provider if they felt their health care needs were not being met. The analysis revealed that geography is not a factor in determining alternative health care consultations in Ontario. By contrast, there is a strong association between these consultations and socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, sex, education, health and self-perceived unmet health care needs. The results underscore the importance of women's health needs as related to alternative care use. The paper concludes that there is a need for

  4. Using geographic methods to inform cancer screening interventions for South Asians in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lofters, Aisha K; Gozdyra, Piotr; Lobb, Rebecca

    2013-04-26

    Literature suggests that South Asians in Ontario, Canada are under-screened for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. Accordingly, we are involved in a community-engaged multi-phase study aimed at increasing cancer screening for this vulnerable group. In the work described in this manuscript, we aimed to use visual displays of spatial analyses to identify the most appropriate small geographic areas in which to pilot targeted cancer screening interventions for Ontario's South Asian community. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS), including Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) using GeoDa software, and population-level administrative data to create multi-layered maps of: i) rates of appropriate cancer screening, ii) the percentage of residents of South Asian ethnicity, and iii) the locations of primary care practices and community health centres by census tract in the Peel Region of Ontario (population: 1.2 million). The maps were shared with partner health service and community service organizations at an intervention development workgroup meeting to examine face validity. The lowest rates of appropriate cancer screening for census tracts across the region were 51.1% for cervical cancer, 48.5% for breast cancer, and 42.5% for colorectal cancer. We found marked variation both in screening rates and in the proportion of South Asians residents by census tract but lower screening rates in the region were consistently associated with larger South Asian populations. The LISA analysis identified a high-risk area consisting of multiple neighbouring census tracts with relatively low screening rates for all three cancer types and with a relatively large South Asian population. Partner organizations recognized and validated the geographic location highlighted by the LISA analysis. Many primary care practices are located in this high-risk area, with one community health centre located very nearby. In this populous region of Ontario, South Asians are more

  5. Projecting Fish Mercury Levels in the Province of Ontario, Canada and the Implications for Fish and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Tang, Rex W K; Arhonditsis, George B

    2015-12-15

    Fish mercury levels appear to be increasing in Ontario, Canada, which covers a wide geographical area and contains about 250 000 lakes including a share of the North American Great Lakes. Here we project 2050 mercury levels in Ontario fish, using the recently measured levels and rates of changes observed during the last 15 years, and present potential implications for fish and human health. Percentage of northern Ontario waterbodies where sublethal effects of mercury on fish can occur may increase by 2050 from 60% to >98% for Walleye (WE), 44% to 59-70% for Northern Pike (NP), and 70% to 76-92% for Lake Trout (LT). Ontario waterbodies with unrestricted fish consumption advisories for the general population may deteriorate from 24-76% to <1-33% for WE, 40-95% to 1-93% for NP, and 39-89% to 18-86% for LT. Similarly, Ontario waterbodies with do not eat advisories for the sensitive population may increase from 32-84% to 73-100% for WE, 9-72% to 12-100% for NP, and 19-71% to 24-89% for LT. Risk to health of Ontario fish and humans consuming these fish may increase substantially over the next few decades if the increasing mercury trend continues and updated advisories based on continued monitoring are not issued/followed.

  6. Ecological structuring of yeasts associated with trees around Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Maganti, Harinad; Bartfai, David; Xu, Jianping

    2012-02-01

    This study seeks to determine the distribution and diversity of yeasts in and around the Hamilton area in Canada. In light of the increasing number of fungal infections along with rising morbidity and mortality rates, especially among the immunocompromised, understanding the diversity and distribution of yeasts in natural environments close to human habitations has become an increasingly relevant topic. In this study, we analyzed 1110 samples obtained from the hollows of trees, shrubs and avian droppings at 8 geographical sites in and around Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A total of 88 positive yeast strains were isolated and identified belonging to 20 yeast species. Despite the relative proximity of the sampling sites, our DNA fingerprinting results showed that the yeast populations were highly heterogenous. Among the 14 tree species sampled, cedar, cottonwood and basswood hollows had relatively high yeast colonization rates. Interestingly, Candida parapsilosis was isolated almost exclusively from Pine trees only. Our results are consistent with microgeographic and ecological differentiation of yeast species in and around an urban environment. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury in lake sediments of the Precambrian Shield near Huntsville, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, P.E.; Villard, D.J.; Fortescue, J.A.C.; Gardner, H.D.; Schiff, S.L.; Shilts, W.W.

    1998-01-01

    Long sediment cores (> 1 m) were collected from eight Precambrian Shield lakes in southern Ontario, Canada and analyzed for mercury (Hg), loss-on-ignition (LOI), and a suite of 36 other elements. Results indicated at least 100-fold variation in sediment Hg concentrations between lakes in close proximity (from 450 ppb), comparable to the variation reported for lakes across the whole of Canada. Strong areal correlations between Hg concentrations and LOI (r2=0.77), between Hg and other trace element concentrations (Pb, Zn, Cd, Sb, As, Br), and similarities in the vertical concentration profiles of Hg and LOI, all point to the importance of organic matter in the release, transport and redistribution of metals in watershed systems. The spatial pattern of Hg concentrations in deep, precolonial sediments (>20 cm) was found to mirror the pattern of Hg concentrations in modern surface sediments, an observation that was confirmed in a follow-up survey (r2= 0.85; n = 25 lakes), indicating that natural processes govern the unequal distribution of Hg among these lakes. Between-lake differences in surface sediment Hg concentrations normalized to organic carbon (Hg/C) were also reflected by Hg concentrations in small-mouth bass normalized to 35 cm length (R2=0.63; n= 15 lakes). The latter relationship suggests that small-mouth bass and lake sediment indicators provide mutually supportive information regarding Hg loading to the lacustrine environment from geological sources in the watershed system.

  8. Public opinion towards supervised injection facilities and heroin-assisted treatment in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Michelle Firestone; Patra, Jayadeep; Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen; Kalousek, Kate

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, controversial interventions such as 'heroin-assisted treatment' (HAT) and 'supervised injection facilities' (SIFs) have been established in attempts to minimise the high morbidity and mortality consequences of illicit drug use. This paper examines public opinion towards HAT and SIF using data from the 2003 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a representative population survey conducted among adults residing in Ontario, Canada. Data relating specifically to SIFs and HAT were isolated from the main database (n=885); agreement scores were collapsed to create a scale and analysed using independent sample t-tests and ANOVAs. Results revealed that 60 percent (n=530) of the sample agreed that SIFs should be made available to injection drug users, while 40 percent (n=355) disagreed. When asked about the provision of HAT, a similar pattern emerged. Variables significantly associated with positive opinions toward SIFs and HAT were: income; higher education; the use of cocaine or cannabis within the last 12 months; being in favour of cannabis decriminalisation; support of needle exchange in prison; view of illicit drug users as ill people; and agreement that drug users are in need of public support. Given the current political climate and the tentative position of SIFs and HAT in Canada, understanding the public's opinion is crucial for the feasibility and long-term sustainability of these interventions.

  9. Genomic Analysis of a Serotype 5 Streptococcus pneumoniae Outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ruth R.; Langille, Morgan G. I.; Montoya, Vincent; Crisan, Anamaria; Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Martin, Irene; Patrick, David M.; Romney, Marc; Tyrrell, Gregory; Jones, Steven J. M.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Tang, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background. Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause a wide spectrum of disease, including invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). From 2005 to 2009 an outbreak of IPD occurred in Western Canada, caused by a S. pneumoniae strain with multilocus sequence type (MLST) 289 and serotype 5. We sought to investigate the incidence of IPD due to this S. pneumoniae strain and to characterize the outbreak in British Columbia using whole-genome sequencing. Methods. IPD was defined according to Public Health Agency of Canada guidelines. Two isolates representing the beginning and end of the outbreak were whole-genome sequenced. The sequences were analyzed for single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and putative genomic islands. Results. The peak of the outbreak in British Columbia was in 2006, when 57% of invasive S. pneumoniae isolates were serotype 5. Comparison of two whole-genome sequenced strains showed only 10 SNVs between them. A 15.5 kb genomic island was identified in outbreak strains, allowing the design of a PCR assay to track the spread of the outbreak strain. Discussion. We show that the serotype 5 MLST 289 strain contains a distinguishing genomic island, which remained genetically consistent over time. Whole-genome sequencing holds great promise for real-time characterization of outbreaks in the future and may allow responses tailored to characteristics identified in the genome. PMID:27366170

  10. Women's Experiences of Publicly Funded Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in Ontario, Canada: Considerations for Health Technology Policy-Making.

    PubMed

    Vanstone, Meredith; Yacoub, Karima; Giacomini, Mita; Hulan, Danielle; McDonald, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) via fetal DNA in maternal blood has been publicly funded in Ontario, Canada, for high-risk women since 2014. We solicited women's experiences and values related to this new health technology to describe how this test is currently being used in Ontario and to provide information about patient priorities to inform future policy decisions about the use of NIPT. Guided by constructivist grounded theory methodology, we interviewed 38 women who had diverse personal experiences with NIPT. Participants' accounts of their values for decision making about NIPT heavily relied on three mutually modulating factors: timing, accuracy, and risk. The values expressed by women conflict with the way that publicly funded NIPT has typically been implemented in Ontario. We offer recommendations for how NIPT might be integrated into prenatal care pathways in a way more consistent with women's values.

  11. Signs and symptoms of methylmercury contamination in a First Nations community in Northwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Shigeru; Fujino, Tadashi; Hotta, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Keishi; Hanada, Masanobu; Tajiri, Masami; Inoue, Yukari

    2014-01-15

    In 1970, fish caught in the English-Wabigoon River system in northwestern Ontario, Canada, were found to be contaminated with mercury coming from a chlor-alkali plant in the province. In the 1970s, patients exhibiting some of the symptoms of the Hunter-Russell syndrome (e.g. paresthesias, visual field constriction, ataxia, impaired hearing, and speech impairment) were reported by some researchers. However attempts to diagnose the patients as suffering from methylmercury poisoning proved to be controversial. In order to research the presence of methylmercury contamination, and show that the patients, through eating contaminated fish, were suffering from methylmercury poisoning, we studied the results of subjective complaints, neurological findings, and quantitative somatosensory measurements gathered in Grassy Narrows Indian Reservation, Ontario, in March, 2010. At that time, the population of the Grassy Narrows settlement was around 900. Ninety-one residents volunteered to be examined. From them, we selected 80 people who were older than 15 years old, and divided them into two groups. Canadian Younger (CY): 36 residents who were from 16 to 45 years old. Canadian Older (CO): 44 residents who were from 46 to 76 years old. We compared them to Japanese Exposed (JE): 88 methylmercury exposed residents from the Minamata district in Japan, and Japanese Control (JC): 164 control residents from non-polluted areas in Japan. Complaints and abnormal neurological findings were more prevalent and quantitative sensory measurements were worse in the two Canadian groups and the Japanese Exposed group than in the Japanese Control group. Complaints, neurological findings and quantitative sensory measurements were similar in Canadian Older and Japanese Exposed. The results for Canadian Younger fell between those of Canadian Older and Japanese Control. These findings indicate that the clinical signs and symptoms of the residents of Grassy Narrows are almost the same as those recorded

  12. Examining local-level factors shaping school nutrition policy implementation in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Vine, Michelle M; Elliott, Susan J

    2014-06-01

    Increasing numbers of overweight and obese youth draw attention to the school as an important setting for targeted nutrition interventions, given that it is where they spend a majority of their waking time. The objective of the present study was to explore local-level factors shaping the implementation of a school nutrition policy. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in person or via the telephone (a maximum of 60 min). An interview guide was informed by the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework, research objectives and literature. Key themes centred on policy implementation, including facilitators and barriers (i.e. resources, capacity), user satisfaction (i.e. students) and communication strategies. Secondary schools in Ontario, Canada. Twenty-two participants from local agencies supporting school nutrition programming (n 8) and secondary-school principals, vice principals and teachers (n 14) from nine schools across three Ontario school boards. Results are organized according to environments outlined in the ANGELO framework. The cost of healthy food for sale, revenue loss (economic), proximity of schools to off-site food outlets (physical), the restrictive nature of policy, the role of key stakeholders (political), the role of stigma and school culture (sociocultural) act as local-level barriers to policy implementation. Gaps in policy implementation include the high cost of food for sale and subsequent revenue generation, the close proximity of internal and external food environments, the need for consultation and communication between stakeholders, and strategies to reduce stigma and improve the school nutrition culture.

  13. Fine-scale mercury trends in temperate deciduous tree leaves from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Siwik, Eden I H; Campbell, Linda M; Mierle, Gregory

    2009-12-01

    This study focused on the value of deciduous leaves as biomonitors of total mercury (THg). Leaf samples were collected from a range of deciduous species from five sampling sites in the province of Ontario, Canada. These included a site in the northwest (the Experimental Lakes Area, ELA), two sites in central Ontario (the town of Dorset and the Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, CARE), and two sites in the southeast (Sandbanks Provincial Park, SBPP and the City of Kingston). The sampled species exhibited distinctive species-specific differences with red oaks consistently having lower leaf THg concentrations than all maple species, while black and white ash leaves had the highest concentrations. Spatially, leaves collected across the distance between ELA and SBPP (approximately 1500 km apart) had overlapping THg concentrations between 20 and 40 ng/g. Unexpectedly, leaves from urban parks of Kingston had considerably lower THg concentrations (<25 ng/g) than the other sites, which suggested leaves may not reflect subtle gradients of atmospheric THg found under field conditions. Leaf THg increased with the growing season, with highest THg leaf concentrations found in early autumn just before senescence. Microspatial differences within a single tree, such as position on a branch are important, since higher mercury concentrations were associated with leaves positioned deeper into the canopy relative to outer leaves more exposed to wind turbulence and sunlight. Within any single leaf, THg concentrations were highest in the leaf tissue, and consistently distributed, while the vein and petiole tissue had lower THg concentrations. There was no relationship between THg concentrations and leaf area. Using deciduous tree leaves as regional temporal monitors of bioavailable mercury may be feasible, but careful selection of leaf sampling sites on the tree itself and the timing is of utmost importance for ensuring consistent and high quality biomonitoring data.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of natural products from the flora of Northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Vandal, Janique; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh M; Ferroni, Garry; Leduc, Leo G

    2015-06-01

    The number of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms is increasing and the antimicrobial resistance expressed by these pathogens is generating a rising global health crisis. In fact, there are only a few antimicrobial agents left that can be used against MDR bacteria and fungi. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of selected natural products from the flora of Northern Ontario against selected microorganisms are reported. Plants were collected from Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada, and ethanol extracts were prepared using EtOH:H2O (1:1, v/v). Fungal cultures used in this study were Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Schizosaccharomyces octosporus. Bacterial cultures employed included Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Mycobacterium phlei ATCC 11758, and Streptococcus lactis ATCC 19435. The microplate resazurin assay was used to screen for antimicrobial activity. Extracts of four plant species Chimaphila umbellata L. (Pyrolaceae), Betula papyrifera Marshall (Betulaceae), Rhus typhina L. (Anacardiaceae), and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall (Oleaceae), and six compounds (gallic acid, ethyl gallate, caffeic acid, sinapic acid, gentisic acid, and chlorogenic acid) demonstrated antibacterial or antifungal activities with MICs ranging from 62.5 to 1000 µg/mL, respectively, for a chemical fraction of an extract from Betula papyrifera against the bacterium S. aureus. The present study has shown that certain plant extracts and select fractions and standard chemical compounds exhibit antimicrobial effects. Prince's Pine, Chimaphila umbellate, White Birch, Betula papyrifera, Staghorn Sumac, Rhus typhina, and Green Ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica were the principal extracts exhibiting notable antibacterial and/or antifungal activities; while gallic acid, ethyl gallate, and caffeic acid demonstrated antibacterial activities and sinapic acid, gentisic acid, and chlorogenic acid demonstrated antifungal activities.

  15. Mental health and substance use among bisexual youth and non-youth in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lori E; Bauer, Greta R; MacLeod, Melissa A; Robinson, Margaret; MacKay, Jenna; Dobinson, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that bisexuals have poorer health outcomes than heterosexuals, gays, or lesbians, particularly with regard to mental health and substance use. However, research on bisexuals is often hampered by issues in defining bisexuality, small sample sizes, and by the failure to address age differences between bisexuals and other groups or age gradients in mental health. The Risk & Resilience Survey of Bisexual Mental Health collected data on 405 bisexuals from Ontario, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling, a network-based sampling method for hidden populations. The weighted prevalence of severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 20) was 4.7%, possible anxiety disorder (OASIS ≥ 8) was 30.9%, possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-C ≥ 50) was 10.8%, and past year suicide attempt was 1.9%. With respect to substance use, the weighted prevalence of problem drinking (AUDIT ≥ 5) was 31.2%, and the weighted prevalence of illicit polydrug use was 30.5%. Daily smoking was low in this sample, with a weighted prevalence of 7.9%. Youth (aged 16-24) reported significantly higher weighted mean scores on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and higher rates of past year suicidal ideation (29.7% vs. 15.2%) compared with those aged 25 and older. The burden of mental health and substance use among bisexuals in Ontario is high relative to population-based studies of other sexual orientation groups. Bisexual youth appear to be at risk for poor mental health. Additional research is needed to understand if and how minority stress explains this burden.

  16. Effective porosity of a carbonate aquifer with bacterial contamination: Walkerton, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Stephen R. H.; Smart, C. Christopher; Ruland, Wilf

    2012-09-01

    SummaryPreferential flow through solutionally enlarged fractures can be a significant influence on travel times and source area definition in carbonate aquifers. However, it has proven challenging to step beyond a conceptual model to implementing, parameterizing and testing an appropriate numerical model of preferential flow. Here both porous medium and preferential flow models are developed with respect to a deadly contamination of the municipal groundwater supply at Walkerton, Ontario, Canada. The preferential flow model is based on simple orthogonal fracture aperture and spacing. The models are parameterized from borehole, gamma, flow and video logs resulting in a two order of magnitude lower effective porosity for the preferential flow model. The observed hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity are used to predict groundwater travel times using a porous medium model. These model predictions are compared to a number of independent estimates of effective porosity, including three forced gradient tracer tests. The results show that the effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity values closely match the preferential flow predictions for an equivalent fracture network of ∼10 m spacing of 1 mm fractures. Three tracer tests resulted in groundwater velocities of hundreds of meters per day, as predicted when an effective porosity of 0.05% was used in the groundwater model. These velocities are consistent with a compilation of 185 tracer test velocities from regional Paleozoic carbonate aquifers. The implication is that carbonate aquifers in southern Ontario are characterized by relatively low-volume dissolutionally-enlarged fracture networks that dominate flow and transport. The porous matrix has large storage capacity, but contributes little to transport. Numerical models based on much higher porosities risk significantly underestimating capture zones in such aquifers. The hydraulic conductivity - effective porosity prediction framework provides a general

  17. Mortality trends in women and men with COPD in Ontario, Canada, 1996-2012.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Andrea; Hwee, Jeremiah; Victor, J Charles; Wilton, Andrew; Wu, Robert; Day, Anna; To, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Mortality trends offer an indication of how well a society is doing in fighting a disease. To examine trends in all-cause, lung cancer, cardiovascular and COPD mortalities in people with COPD, overall and in men and women. Population, cohort study using health administrative data from Ontario, Canada, 1996 to 2011. A previously validated COPD case definition was used to identify all people with COPD. All-cause, lung cancer, cardiovascular and COPD mortality rates were determined annually from 1996 to 2011 overall, and in men and women. All-cause trends were compared with all-cause trends in the non-COPD population. All rates were standardised to the 2006 Ontario population. The prevalence of COPD was 11.0% in 2011. Over the study period, all-cause mortality decreased significantly more in men with COPD than the non-COPD population. The same was not observed in women. COPD-specific and lung cancer mortalities, which started higher in men with COPD, decreased faster in them than in women with COPD with the two rates becoming more similar over time. Cardiovascular disease mortality declined at a relatively equal rate in both sexes. Mortality in people with COPD has decreased; however, the decrease has been greater in men than in women. Public health interventions and medical care appear to be improving mortality in individuals with COPD but more research is needed to determine if they are benefiting both sexes equally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Contraband tobacco on post-secondary campuses in Ontario, Canada: analysis of discarded cigarette butts.

    PubMed

    Barkans, Meagan; Lawrance, Kelli-an

    2013-04-11

    No studies to date have assessed young adults' use of First Nations/Native tobacco, a common form of contraband tobacco in Canada. This study examined the proportion of First Nations/Native cigarette butts discarded on post-secondary campuses in the province of Ontario, and potential differences between colleges and universities and across geographical regions. In 2009, discarded cigarette butts were collected from high-traffic smoking locations at 12 universities and 13 colleges purposively selected to represent a variety of institutions from all 7 health service regions across Ontario. Cigarette butts were identified as First Nations/Native tobacco if they were: known First Nations/Native brands; had names not matching domestic and international legally-manufactured cigarettes; had no visible branding or logos. Of 36,355 butts collected, 14% (95% CI = 9.75-19.04) were First Nations/Native. Use of this tobacco was apparent on all campuses, accounting for as little as 2% to as much as 39% of cigarette consumption at a particular school. Proportions of First Nations/Native butts were not significantly higher on colleges (M = 17%) than universities (M = 12%), but were significantly higher in the North region. The presence of cheap First Nations/Native (contraband) tobacco on post-secondary campuses suggests the need for regulation and public education strategies aimed to reduce its use. Strategies should account for regional variations, and convey messages that resonate with young adults. Care must be taken to present fair messages about First Nations/Native tobacco, and avoid positioning regulated tobacco as a healthier option than contraband.

  19. Contraband tobacco on post-secondary campuses in Ontario, Canada: analysis of discarded cigarette butts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background No studies to date have assessed young adults’ use of First Nations/Native tobacco, a common form of contraband tobacco in Canada. This study examined the proportion of First Nations/Native cigarette butts discarded on post-secondary campuses in the province of Ontario, and potential differences between colleges and universities and across geographical regions. Methods In 2009, discarded cigarette butts were collected from high-traffic smoking locations at 12 universities and 13 colleges purposively selected to represent a variety of institutions from all 7 health service regions across Ontario. Cigarette butts were identified as First Nations/Native tobacco if they were: known First Nations/Native brands; had names not matching domestic and international legally-manufactured cigarettes; had no visible branding or logos. Results Of 36,355 butts collected, 14% (95% CI = 9.75–19.04) were First Nations/Native. Use of this tobacco was apparent on all campuses, accounting for as little as 2% to as much as 39% of cigarette consumption at a particular school. Proportions of First Nations/Native butts were not significantly higher on colleges (M = 17%) than universities (M = 12%), but were significantly higher in the North region. Conclusions The presence of cheap First Nations/Native (contraband) tobacco on post-secondary campuses suggests the need for regulation and public education strategies aimed to reduce its use. Strategies should account for regional variations, and convey messages that resonate with young adults. Care must be taken to present fair messages about First Nations/Native tobacco, and avoid positioning regulated tobacco as a healthier option than contraband. PMID:23577796

  20. Molecular Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Ontario, Canada, 2008-2011

    PubMed Central

    Tijet, Nathalie; Sheth, Prameet M.; Lastovetska, Olga; Chung, Catherine; Patel, Samir N.; Melano, Roberto G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of detailed reports of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing enterobacteria in Ontario, Canada, we perform a molecular characterization of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae submitted to the provincial reference laboratory from 2008 to 2011. Susceptibility profiles were accessed by E-test. Molecular types of isolates were determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Screening of ß-lactamase genes was performed by multiplex PCR and alleles were identified by DNA sequencing. The genetic platform of blaKPC gene was analyzed by PCR. Plasmid replicons were typed using PCR-based typing approach. KPC-plasmids were also evaluated by S1 nuclease-PFGE and Southern blot. Thirty unique clinical isolates (26 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Citrobacter freundii and 1 Raoultella ornithinolytica) were identified as blaKPC positive: 4 in 2008, 3 in 2009, 10 in 2010 and 13 in 2011. The majority exhibited resistance to carbapenems, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and two isolates were also resistant to colistin. The isolates harbored blaKPC-2 (n = 23) or blaKPC-3 (n = 7). blaTEM-1 (n = 27) was commonly detected and occasionally blaOXA-1 (n = 3) and blaCTX-M-15 (n = 1). As expected, all K. pneumoniae isolates carried blaSHV-11. blaKPC genes were identified on Tn4401a (n = 20) or b (n = 10) isoforms, on plasmids of different sizes belonging to the incompatibility groups IncFIIA (n = 19), IncN (n = 3), IncI2 (n = 3), IncFrep (n = 2) and IncA/C (n = 1). The occurrence of KPC ß-lactamase in Ontario was mainly associated with the spread of the K. pneumoniae clone ST258. PMID:25549365

  1. Spatial analysis of drumlins within the Arran, Guelph, and Galt drumlin fields of southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclachlan, John

    2016-04-01

    Reconstruction of former ice conditions and glacier dynamics in previously glaciated terrains requires understanding of the processes and controls on the development of subglacial landforms such as drumlins. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of drumlins identified from digital elevation model (DEM) data within three drumlin fields in southern Ontario, Canada (the Arran, Galt and Guelph drumlin fields) formed in the Late Wisconsin by the Ontario and Georgian Bay ice lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Detailed field description of a partially excavated drumlin within the Guelph drumlin field provides firther insight to compliment the geomorphometric analysis. Drumlins are identified and their morphological parameters documented using a computer-based process that allows direct comparison of forms within and between individual fields. Statistical analysis of the morphological characteristics and spatial distribution of drumlins within each of the three drumlin fields, using kernel density and nearest neighbour analysis, indicates that drumlins of particular types show distinct patterns of clustering that appear to be are related to several different factors including length of time under ice, bedrock topography, and ice velocity. Sediments exposed in an excavated drumlin within the Guelph drumlin field show a relatively undisturbed older fluvial or glaciofluvial crudely stratified sands draped by a thin veneer of coarse grained deformation till. This stratigraphy is similar to that described from modern drumlins in Iceland and is consistent with models of drumlin formation by subglacial deformation processes. The methodology of drumlin analysis can be applied to the study of any drumlin field with an adequate coverage of digital spatial data. The ability to consistently identify and characterize drumlin morphology and distribution will allow more objective and systematic comparison of these landforms both within and between

  2. Mental Health and Substance Use among Bisexual Youth and Non-Youth in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lori E.; Bauer, Greta R.; MacLeod, Melissa A.; Robinson, Margaret; MacKay, Jenna; Dobinson, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that bisexuals have poorer health outcomes than heterosexuals, gays, or lesbians, particularly with regard to mental health and substance use. However, research on bisexuals is often hampered by issues in defining bisexuality, small sample sizes, and by the failure to address age differences between bisexuals and other groups or age gradients in mental health. The Risk & Resilience Survey of Bisexual Mental Health collected data on 405 bisexuals from Ontario, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling, a network-based sampling method for hidden populations. The weighted prevalence of severe depression (PHQ-9≥20) was 4.7%, possible anxiety disorder (OASIS≥8) was 30.9%, possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-C≥50) was 10.8%, and past year suicide attempt was 1.9%. With respect to substance use, the weighted prevalence of problem drinking (AUDIT≥5) was 31.2%, and the weighted prevalence of illicit polydrug use was 30.5%. Daily smoking was low in this sample, with a weighted prevalence of 7.9%. Youth (aged 16–24) reported significantly higher weighted mean scores on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and higher rates of past year suicidal ideation (29.7% vs. 15.2%) compared with those aged 25 and older. The burden of mental health and substance use among bisexuals in Ontario is high relative to population-based studies of other sexual orientation groups. Bisexual youth appear to be at risk for poor mental health. Additional research is needed to understand if and how minority stress explains this burden. PMID:25111292

  3. The presence, characteristics and earthquake implications of the St. Lawrence fault zone within and near Lake Ontario (Canada USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallach, J. L.

    2002-08-01

    Questions persist concerning the earthquake potential of the populous and industrial Lake Ontario (Canada-USA) area. Pertinent to those questions is whether the major fault zone that extends along the St. Lawrence River valley, herein named the St. Lawrence fault zone, continues upstream along the St. Lawrence River valley at least as far as Lake Ontario or terminates near Cornwall (Ontario, Canada)-Massena (NY, USA). New geological studies uncovered paleotectonic bedrock faults that are parallel to, and lie within, the projection of that northeast-oriented fault zone between Cornwall and northeastern Lake Ontario, suggesting that the fault zone continues into Lake Ontario. The aforementioned bedrock faults range from meters to tens of kilometers in length and display kinematically incompatible displacements, implying that the fault zone was periodically reactivated in the study area. Beneath Lake Ontario the Hamilton-Presqu'ile fault lines up with the St. Lawrence fault zone and projects to the southwest where it coincides with the Dundas Valley (Ontario, Canada). The Dundas Valley extends landward from beneath the western end of the lake and is marked by a vertical stratigraphic displacement across its width. The alignment of the Hamilton-Presqu'ile fault with the St. Lawrence fault zone strongly suggests that the latter crosses the entire length of Lake Ontario and continues along the Dundas Valley. The Rochester Basin, an east-northeast-trending linear trough in the southeastern corner of Lake Ontario, lies along the southern part of the St. Lawrence fault zone. Submarine dives in May 1997 revealed inclined layers of glaciolacustrine clay along two different scarps within the basin. The inclined layers strike parallel to the long dimension of the basin, and dip about 20° to the north-northwest suggesting that they are the result of rigid-body rotation consequent upon post-glacial faulting. Those post-glacial faults are growth faults as demonstrated by the

  4. Assessing health impacts of the December 2013 Ice storm in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Nikhil; Hohenadel, Karin; Gattoni, Laera; Khan, Yasmin; Birk-Urovitz, Elizabeth; Li, Lennon; Schwartz, Brian

    2016-07-11

    Ice, or freezing rain storms have the potential to affect human health and disrupt normal functioning of a community. The purpose of this study was to assess acute health impacts of an ice storm that occurred in December 2013 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Data on emergency department visits were obtained from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System. Rates of visits in Toronto during the storm period (December 21, 2013 - January 1, 2014) were compared to rates occurring on the same dates in the previous five years (historical comparison) and compared to those in a major unaffected city, Ottawa, Ontario (geographic comparison). Overall visits and rates for three categories of interest (cardiac conditions, environmental causes and injuries) were assessed. Rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regression with population counts as an offset. Absolute counts of carbon monoxide poisoning were compared descriptively in a sub-analysis. During the 2013 storm period, there were 34 549 visits to EDs in Toronto (12.46 per 1000 population) compared with 10 794 visits in Ottawa (11.55 per 1000 population). When considering year and geography separately, rates of several types of ED visits were higher in the storm year than in previous years in both Toronto and Ottawa. Considering year and geography together, rates in the storm year were higher for overall ED visits (RR: 1.10, 95 % CI: 1.09-1.11) and for visits due to environmental causes (RR: 2.52, 95 % CI: 2.21-2.87) compared to previous years regardless of city. For injuries, visit rates were higher in the storm year in both Toronto and Ottawa, but the increase in Toronto was significantly greater than the increase in Ottawa, indicating a significant interaction between geography and year (RR: 1.23, 95 % CI: 1.16-1.30). This suggests that the main health impact of the 2013 Ice Storm was an increase in ED visits for injuries, while other increases could have been due to severe weather across Ontario at that time

  5. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions across primary care models in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Maude; Wodchis, Walter P; Barnsley, Jan; Laporte, Audrey

    2017-03-22

    The study analyzes the relationship between the risk of a hospitalization for an ambulatory care sensitive condition (ACSC), and the primary care payment and the organizational model used by the patient (fee-for-service, enhanced fee-for-service, blended capitation, blended capitation with interdisciplinary teams). The study used linked patient-level health administrative databases and census data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences in Ontario. Since the province provides universal health care, the data capture all patients in Ontario, Canada's most populous province, with about 13 million inhabitants. All Ontario patients diagnosed with an ACSC prior to April 1, 2012, who had at least one visit with a physician between April 1, 2012, and March 31, 2013, were included in the study (n = 1,710,310). Each patient was assigned to the primary care model of his/her physician. The different models were categorized as Fee-for-Service (FFS), enhanced-FFS, blended capitation, and interdisciplinary team. A logistic regression was used to model the risk of having an ACSC hospitalization during the one-year observation period. Adjustments were made for patient characteristics (age, sex, health status, and socio-economic status) and for the geographic location of the practice. Using patients belonging to FFS models as the reference group, the risk of an ACSC hospitalization was higher for patients belonging to the blended-capitation model using interdisciplinary teams (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-1.12) and lower for enhanced-FFS (AOR = 0.78, CI = 0.74-0.82) and blended capitation patients (AOR = 0.91, CI = 0.86-0.96). Using patients with hypertension as the reference group, the odds of an ACSC hospitalization were much higher for patients with any other ACSC and increased with patients' morbidity. The risk was lower for patients of higher socio-economic status (AOR = 0.63, CI = 0.60-0.67) in the

  6. A Coupled Snow Operations-Skier Demand Model for the Ontario (Canada) Ski Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Marc; Scott, Daniel; Steiger, Robert; Rutty, Michelle; Johnson, Peter; Vilella, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar global ski industry is one of the tourism subsectors most directly impacted by climate variability and change. In the decades ahead, the scholarly literature consistently projects decreased reliability of natural snow cover, shortened and more variable ski seasons, as well as increased reliance on snowmaking with associated increases in operational costs. In order to develop the coupled snow, ski operations and demand model for the Ontario ski region (which represents approximately 18% of Canada's ski market), the research utilized multiple methods, including: a in situ survey of over 2400 skiers, daily operations data from ski resorts over the last 10 years, climate station data (1981-2013), climate change scenario ensemble (AR5 - RCP 8.5), an updated SkiSim model (building on Scott et al. 2003; Steiger 2010), and an agent-based model (building on Pons et al. 2014). Daily snow and ski operations for all ski areas in southern Ontario were modeled with the updated SkiSim model, which utilized current differential snowmaking capacity of individual resorts, as determined from daily ski area operations data. Snowmaking capacities and decision rules were informed by interviews with ski area managers and daily operations data. Model outputs were validated with local climate station and ski operations data. The coupled SkiSim-ABM model was run with historical weather data for seasons representative of an average winter for the 1981-2010 period, as well as an anomalously cold winter (2012-13) and the record warm winter in the region (2011-12). The impact on total skier visits and revenues, and the geographic and temporal distribution of skier visits were compared. The implications of further climate adaptation (i.e., improving the snowmaking capacity of all ski areas to the level of leading resorts in the region) were also explored. This research advances system modelling, especially improving the integration of snow and ski operations models with

  7. Detection and characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. on swine farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Abdolvahab; Parrington, Lorna; Coklin, Tatjana; Cook, Angela; Pintar, Katarina; Pollari, Frank; Friendship, Robert; Farber, Jeffrey; Dixon, Brent

    2011-11-01

    As part of the C-EnterNet surveillance program of the Public Health Agency of Canada, 122 pooled swine manure samples from 10 farms in Ontario, Canada were collected and tested for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected using immunofluorescence microscopy. Nested-polymerase chain reaction protocols were performed to amplify the small subunit rRNA gene and the β-giardin gene for G. duodenalis, and the small subunit rRNA gene and the heat shock protein-70 gene for Cryptosporidium spp. The DNA amplicons were sequenced to determine genotypes and species. A mixed multivariable method was used to compare the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in different stages of production. Both Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were present on all tested farms, with 50.8% of the samples positive for G. duodenalis and 44.3% positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by microscopy, and 66.4% and 55.7%, respectively, positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). No significant agreement was observed between microscopy and PCR method to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium (p<0.05). The prevalence of Giardia in manure pits and finisher pigs did not differ (p>0.05), however, it was less frequent (odds ratio, OR=0.21 [0.07, 0.63]) among sows. Cryptosporidium was more likely (OR=3.6 [1.3, 9.9]) to be detected in manure pits and weaners (OR=3.3 [1.1, 10.0]) compared to finisher pigs, and it was less frequent (OR=0.06 [0.007, 0.55]) in sows than in finishers (p<0.05). DNA sequencing demonstrated that 92.1% of the Giardia isolates were Assemblage B and 7.9% were Assemblage E. The most prevalent Cryptosporidium were Cryptosporidium parvum (55.4%), and Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II (37.5%). These findings indicate that the occurrence of zoonotic isolates of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium is very high on swine farms in southern Ontario, and that there is a potential for transmission between swine and humans by means of cyst

  8. Perinatal suicide in Ontario, Canada: a 15-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Grigoriadis, Sophie; Wilton, Andrew S; Kurdyak, Paul A; Rhodes, Anne E; VonderPorten, Emily H; Levitt, Anthony; Cheung, Amy; Vigod, Simone N

    2017-08-28

    Death by suicide during the perinatal period has been understudied in Canada. We examined the epidemiology of and health service use related to suicides during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. In this retrospective, population-based cohort study, we linked health administrative databases with coroner death records (1994-2008) for Ontario, Canada. We compared sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and health service use in the 30 days and 1 year before death between women who died by suicide perinatally, women who died by suicide outside of the perinatal period and living perinatal women. The perinatal suicide rate was 2.58 per 100 000 live births, with suicide accounting for 51 (5.3%) of 966 perinatal deaths. Most suicides occurred during the final quarter of the first postpartum year, with highest rates in rural and remote regions. Perinatal women were more likely to die from hanging (33.3% [17/51]) or jumping or falling (19.6% [10/51]) than women who died by suicide non-perinatally (p = 0.04). Only 39.2% (20/51) had mental health contact within the 30 days before death, similar to the rate among those who died by suicide non-perinatally (47.7% [762/1597]; odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-1.25). Compared with living perinatal women matched by pregnancy or postpartum status at date of suicide, perinatal women who died by suicide had similar likelihood of non-mental health primary care and obstetric care before the index date but had a lower likelihood of pediatric contact (64.5% [20/31] v. 88.4% [137/155] at 30 days; OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.58). The perinatal suicide rate for Ontario during the period 1994-2008 was comparable to international estimates and represents a substantial component of Canadian perinatal mortality. Given that deaths by suicide occur throughout the perinatal period, all health care providers must be collectively vigilant in assessing risk. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  9. Perinatal suicide in Ontario, Canada: a 15-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Grigoriadis, Sophie; Wilton, Andrew S.; Kurdyak, Paul A.; Rhodes, Anne E.; VonderPorten, Emily H.; Levitt, Anthony; Cheung, Amy; Vigod, Simone N.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Death by suicide during the perinatal period has been understudied in Canada. We examined the epidemiology of and health service use related to suicides during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. METHODS: In this retrospective, population-based cohort study, we linked health administrative databases with coroner death records (1994–2008) for Ontario, Canada. We compared sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and health service use in the 30 days and 1 year before death between women who died by suicide perinatally, women who died by suicide outside of the perinatal period and living perinatal women. RESULTS: The perinatal suicide rate was 2.58 per 100 000 live births, with suicide accounting for 51 (5.3%) of 966 perinatal deaths. Most suicides occurred during the final quarter of the first postpartum year, with highest rates in rural and remote regions. Perinatal women were more likely to die from hanging (33.3% [17/51]) or jumping or falling (19.6% [10/51]) than women who died by suicide non-perinatally (p = 0.04). Only 39.2% (20/51) had mental health contact within the 30 days before death, similar to the rate among those who died by suicide non-perinatally (47.7% [762/1597]; odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40–1.25). Compared with living perinatal women matched by pregnancy or postpartum status at date of suicide, perinatal women who died by suicide had similar likelihood of non–mental health primary care and obstetric care before the index date but had a lower likelihood of pediatric contact (64.5% [20/31] v. 88.4% [137/155] at 30 days; OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10–0.58). INTERPRETATION: The perinatal suicide rate for Ontario during the period 1994–2008 was comparable to international estimates and represents a substantial component of Canadian perinatal mortality. Given that deaths by suicide occur throughout the perinatal period, all health care providers must be collectively vigilant in assessing risk. PMID

  10. Efficacy of closantel against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp. in sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Westers, T; Jones-Bitton, A; Menzies, P; Van Leeuwen, J; Poljak, Z; Peregrine, A S

    2016-09-15

    In Ontario, Canada, widespread resistance to ivermectin and fenbendazole, the only readily available ovine anthelmintics, has been documented, primarily in Haemonchus sp. In other parts of the world, closantel has been used to control such infections; however, the drug was not currently licensed for use in Canada and the USA. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on six client-owned farms in Ontario in 2013 and 2014 to determine the efficacy of closantel (Flukiver(®) 5% Oral Suspension, Elanco Animal Health, 10mg/kg bodyweight) against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp. infections in periparturient ewes and grazing lambs. Three farms were randomly assigned to treat all ewes, and three farms were randomly assigned to selectively treat individual ewes at lambing, using predetermined criteria. Fecal samples were collected from a minimum of 15 randomly selected ewes and 13 lambs per group on each farm at the time of treatment and approximately 14days later. Trichostrongyle-type fecal egg counts (FEC) were performed using a modified McMaster technique with a lower detection limit of 8.3 eggs per gram of feces (epg). Haemonchus-specific FECs were determined by multiplying FECs by the proportion of Haemonchus sp. identified from coproculture for each farm; Haemonchus-specific FEC reductions were calculated for each farm. Twenty grazing lambs had FECs conducted monthly, and when mean monthly FECs surpassed 200 epg, all lambs were randomly allocated to either closantel, positive control (ivermectin, fenbendazole, or levamisole) or negative control groups. Pre-treatment Haemonchus-specific mean FECs ranged from 27 to 3359 epg in ewes and 0-5698 epg in lambs. Efficacy of closantel against Haemonchus sp. ranged from 99% (95% CI: 97%-99%) to 100% in recently lambed ewes on all farms in both years (total n=274 ewes), and from 99% (95% CI: 98%-99%) to 100% in grazing lambs in both years on all but one farm (total n=171 lambs). On the latter farm, a whole

  11. Household knowledge, attitudes and practices related to pet contact and associated zoonoses in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stull, Jason W; Peregrine, Andrew S; Sargeant, Jan M; Weese, J Scott

    2012-07-25

    Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the public's pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. The objective of this study was to characterize the general public's knowledge, attitudes and risks related to pet ownership and animal contact in southern Ontario, Canada. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. A single adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Seventy five percent (641/853) of individuals approached completed the questionnaire. Pet ownership and contact were common; 64% of participants had a pet in their household and 37% of non-pet owning households had a member with at least weekly animal contact outside the home. Pet ownership was high (55%) for households with individuals at higher risk for infections (i.e., < 5 yrs, ≥ 65 yrs, immunocompromised). Most respondents (64%) indicated that they had never received information regarding pet-associated disease risks. When given a list of 11 infectious pathogens, respondents were only able to correctly classify just over half on their potential to be transmitted from pets to people (mean 6.4); independently, pet owners and those who recalled receiving information in the past about this topic were able to make significantly more correct identifications. Pet (36%) and non-pet owning households (10%) reported dog or cat bites or scratches during the preceding year. Households with individuals at higher risk for an infection did not differ from the remaining households regarding their perceived disease risk of pets, zoonotic disease knowledge, recall of being asked by their medical provider if they owned any pets, or recall of having received information

  12. Pet husbandry and infection control practices related to zoonotic disease risks in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Despite this concern, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet husbandry and infection control practices. The objective of this study was to characterize zoonotic disease related-husbandry and infection preventive practices in pet-owning households in Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. One adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Four hundred one pet-owners completed the questionnaire. Households reported ownership of dogs (68%), cats (48%), fish (13%), exotic mammals (7%), such as hamsters, and reptiles and birds (each 6%). Across all species, individuals at higher risk of infections (i.e. < 5yrs, ≥ 65yrs, immunocompromised) were often (46-57%) present in households. Children < 16 yrs of age had close pet contact, as households reported dogs (13%) and cats (30%) usually slept in a child’s bed and dogs often licked a child’s face (24%). Household husbandry practices that increase zoonotic disease risk were frequently identified; some fed high-risk foods (i.e. raw eggs, raw meat, or raw animal product treats) to their dogs (28%) or cats (3%); 14% of reptile-owning households allowed the pet to roam through the kitchen or washed it in the kitchen sink. Reported hand washing by children was high for all species (> 76% washed hands sometimes or greater after touching the pet, its feces, or housing), although fewer reported children always washed their hands (3-57%; by species). With a few exceptions, practices were not associated with the presence of higher risk members in the household or recall of having previously received zoonotic disease education. Conclusions The results suggest there is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households

  13. Household knowledge, attitudes and practices related to pet contact and associated zoonoses in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. The objective of this study was to characterize the general public’s knowledge, attitudes and risks related to pet ownership and animal contact in southern Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. A single adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Seventy five percent (641/853) of individuals approached completed the questionnaire. Pet ownership and contact were common; 64% of participants had a pet in their household and 37% of non-pet owning households had a member with at least weekly animal contact outside the home. Pet ownership was high (55%) for households with individuals at higher risk for infections (i.e., < 5 yrs, ≥ 65 yrs, immunocompromised). Most respondents (64%) indicated that they had never received information regarding pet-associated disease risks. When given a list of 11 infectious pathogens, respondents were only able to correctly classify just over half on their potential to be transmitted from pets to people (mean 6.4); independently, pet owners and those who recalled receiving information in the past about this topic were able to make significantly more correct identifications. Pet (36%) and non-pet owning households (10%) reported dog or cat bites or scratches during the preceding year. Households with individuals at higher risk for an infection did not differ from the remaining households regarding their perceived disease risk of pets, zoonotic disease knowledge, recall of being asked by their medical provider if they owned any pets, or recall of

  14. Investigation of exposure to swine influenza viruses in Ontario (Canada) finisher herds in 2004 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; McNab, W Bruce; Dewey, Catherine E

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of influenza in the North American swine population has changed since the emergence of a triple-reassortant H3N2 influenza virus. Although seen previously in North America, the Ontario swine population had likely been free of viruses of the reassortant H3N2 lineage until 2005. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of exposure to H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in the Ontario finisher pig population prior to and after the H3N2 outbreak that occurred in 2005. This included investigating prevalence and spatial distribution of positive herds, assessing proportion of random variation at different hierarchical levels, and evaluating selected demographic factors and management procedures as potential risk factors. In total, 919 and 978 sera collected in cross-sectional studies from 46 and 49 finisher herds in 2004 and 2005 were tested by a H1N1 subtype-specific and a H3N2 subtype-specific commercial ELISA. For the H1N1 subtype, the point prevalence of positive herds (>3 reactors) was 19.5% and 30.6% in 2004 and 2005, respectively. For the H3N2 subtype the point prevalence of positive herds (>3 reactors) was 6.5% and 40.8% in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Sera from 2004 that were positive on H3N2 ELISA did not cross-react with any of the H3N2 variants used as antigen on a sequential HI test. Only herds positive for H3N2 subtype in 2005 clustered in space (P<0.01). The H1N1 status in 2005 was associated with the H1N1 status in 2004, and with reported distance to the nearest herd. The H3N2 status in 2005 was associated with reported distance to the nearest herd and a type of replacement gilt source. For H3N2, distance seemed to be important even after controlling for type of gilt source. Most variability in seropositivity was between herds with little variability between pens. This study confirms that in 2005, the epidemic H3N2 subtype co-circulated with endemic H1N1 subtype in the Ontario finisher herds. We concluded that in

  15. Transport of three herbicides in ground water at Twin Lake test site, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Maloszewski, P; Zuber, A; Bedbur, E; Matthess, G

    2003-01-01

    A field tracer test performed under natural flow conditions at the Twin Lake test site, Chalk River Laboratories of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. in Chalk River, Ontario, Canada, using tritium and three herbicides (Chlortoluron, Terbuthylazine, and Pendimethalin) was interpreted using the dispersion equation with a combined reaction model. The reaction model couples an instantaneous equilibrium reaction governed by a linear adsorption isotherm with a reversible or irreversible kinetic reaction of the first order, and decay. An improved interpretation method consists of a simultaneous fitting of theoretical concentration and mass-recovery curves to the experimental data, which leads to a more reliable determining of reaction models and improves the accuracy of fitting. Tritium served as the reference tracer to determine the flow velocity, dispersivity, and the recovery of the herbicides. Chlortoluron was slightly delayed by equilibrium exchange with strongly reduced concentration due to an irreversible kinetic reaction and/or decay. Terbuthilazine was slightly delayed by equilibrium exchange, with strongly reduced concentration due to a reversible kinetic reaction with some influence of decay. A strong equilibrium reaction and a strong reversible kinetic reaction without degradation governed the transport of Pendimethalin, reducing considerably its concentration. The results obtained show that simulations based only on Kd and decay constant, especially if these parameters are found in the laboratory, may considerably differ from those performed with reaction parameters determined in properly performed field tests. The dominant reaction types, and the values of parameters found in the study, supply useful information on the transport of the investigated herbicides in sandy aquifers under natural flow conditions.

  16. Molecular analysis of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Allen, Vanessa G; Farrell, David J; Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Tan, Jingyuan; Tijet, Nathalie; Perusini, Stephen J; Towns, Lynn; Lo, Stephen; Low, Donald E; Melano, Roberto G

    2011-02-01

    Surveillance of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance and the molecular characterization of the mechanisms underlying these resistance phenotypes are essential in order to establish correct empirical therapies, as well as to describe the emergence of new mechanisms in local bacterial populations. To address these goals, 149 isolates were collected over a 1-month period (October-November 2008) at the Ontario Public Health Laboratory, Toronto, Canada, and susceptibility profiles (8 antibiotics) were examined. Mutations in previously identified targets or the presence of some enzymes related to resistance (r), nonsusceptibility (ns) (resistant plus intermediate categories), or reduced susceptibility (rs) to the antibiotics tested were also studied. A significant proportion of nonsusceptibility to penicillin (PEN) (89.2%), tetracycline (TET) (72.3%), ciprofloxacin (CIP) (29%), and macrolides (erythromycin [ERY] and azithromycin; 22.3%) was found in these strains. Multidrug resistance was observed in 18.8% of the collection. Although all the strains were susceptible to spectinomycin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) (ceftriaxone and cefixime), 9.4% of them displayed reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. PBP 2 mosaic structures were found in all of these ESC(rs) isolates. Alterations in the mtrR promoter, MtrR repressor (TET(r), PEN(ns), ESC(rs), and ERY(ns)), porin PIB (TET(r) and PEN(ns)), and ribosomal protein S10 (TET(r)) and double mutations in gyrA and parC quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) (CIP(r)) were associated with and presumably responsible for the resistance phenotypes observed. This is the first description of ESC(rs) in Canada. The detection of this phenotype indicates a change in the epidemiology of this resistance and highlights the importance of continued surveillance to preserve the last antimicrobial options available.

  17. Canadian Rheumatology Association Meeting, The Westin Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, February 8-11, 2017.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Earl D

    2017-05-01

    The 72nd Annual Meeting of The Canadian Rheumatology Association (CRA) was held at The Westin Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, February 8-11, 2017. The program consisted of presentations covering original research, symposia, awards, and lectures. Highlights of the meeting include the following 2017 award winners: Dr. Vinod Chandran, Young Investigator; Dr. Jacques P. Brown, Distinguished Investigator; Dr. David Robinson, Teacher-Educator; Dr. Michel Zummer, Distinguished Rheumatologist; Ms. Rebecca Gole, Best Abstract on SLE Research by a Trainee - Ian Watson Award; Ms. Bailey Russell, Best Abstract on Clinical or Epidemiology Research by a Trainee - Phil Rosen Award; Dr. Sahil Koppikar and Dr. Henry Averns, Practice Reflection Award; Dr. Shirine Usmani, Best Abstract on Basic Science Research by a Trainee; Ms. Carol Dou, Best Abstract for Research by an Undergraduate Student; Dr. Dania Basodan, Best Abstract on Research by a Rheumatology Resident; Dr. Claire Barber, Best Abstract on Adult Research by Young Faculty; Ms. Audrea Chen, Best Abstract by a Medical Student; Dr. Kun Huang, Best Abstract by a Post-Graduate Resident; and Dr. Ryan Lewinson, Best Abstract by a Post-Graduate Research Trainee. Lectures and other events included a Keynote Lecture by Jonathon Fowles: Exercise is Medicine: Is Exercise a Good or Bad Thing for People with Arthritis?; State of the Art Lecture by Matthew Warman: Insights into Bone Biology and Therapeutics Gleaned from the Sustained Investigation of Rare Diseases; Dunlop-Dottridge Lecture by Allen Steere: Lyme Disease: A New Problem for Rheumatologists in Canada; and the Great Debate: Be it Resolved that the Least Expensive Treatment Should be Chosen. Switch, Switch, Switch! Arguing for: Jonathan Chan and Antonio Avina, and against: Marinka Twilt and Glen Hazlewood. Topics such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, Sjögren syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, spondyloarthritis, vasculitis, osteoarthritis

  18. Monitoring cover crops using radar remote sensing in southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, J.; Huang, X.; Liu, J.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Information on agricultural land surface conditions is important for developing best land management practices to maintain the overall health of the fields. The climate condition supports one harvest per year for the majority of the field crops in Canada, with a relative short growing season between May and September. During the non-growing-season months (October to the following April), many fields are traditionally left bare. In more recent year, there has been an increased interest in planting cover crops. Benefits of cover crops include boosting soil organic matters, preventing soil from erosion, retaining soil moisture, and reducing surface runoff hence protecting water quality. Optical remote sensing technology has been exploited for monitoring cover crops. However limitations inherent to optical sensors such as cloud interference and signal saturation (when leaf area index is above 2.5) impeded its operational application. Radar remote sensing on the other hand is not hindered by unfavorable weather conditions, and the signal continues to be sensitive to crop growth beyond the saturation point of optical sensors. It offers a viable means for capturing timely information on field surface conditions (with or without crop cover) or crop development status. This research investigated the potential of using multi-temporal RADARSAT-2 C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected in 2015 over multiple fields of winter wheat, corn and soybean crops in southern Ontario, Canada, to retrieve information on the presence of cover crops and their growth status. Encouraging results have been obtained. This presentation will report the methodology developed and the results obtained.

  19. Descriptive study of enteric zoonoses in Ontario, Canada, from 2010 - 2012.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Yvonne; Johnson, Karen; Hobbs, Leigh; Middleton, Dean; Dhar, Badal; Vrbova, Linda

    2017-02-21

    Contact with animals and their environment has long been recognized as an important source of enteric zoonoses. However, there are limited data available on the burden of illness associated with specific types of animals in Canada. This study describes the overall burden of enteric zoonoses in Ontario, Canada from 2010 to 2012. Confirmed cases of seven enteric zoonotic diseases (campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, listeriosis, salmonellosis, verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) infection, and yersiniosis) with episode dates from 2010 to 2012 were extracted from the integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS). Reported exposures were categorized as animal contact, foodborne, waterborne and 'other', with animal contact grouped into nine sub-categories based on the type of animal or transmission setting. Overall incidence rates and proportions by animal exposure categories, age and sex-specific incidence rates and hospitalization and death proportions were calculated and sex proportions compared. Our study found that approximately 26% of the enteric pathogens assessed during the 2010 to 2012 period reported contact with animals and their environments as the mode of transmission. Of enteric disease cases reporting animal contact, farm exposures were reported for 51.3%, dog or cat exposures for 26.3%, and reptile or amphibian exposures for 8.9%. Contact with animals was reported more frequently during the period 2010 to 2012 in comparison to the period 1997 to 2003 when 6% or less of enteric cases were associated with animal contact. Public health professionals, stakeholders associated with animals and their related industries (e.g., pet treats, mobile zoos, abattoirs), and the public should recognize that animal contact is an important source of enteric illnesses in order to take measures to reduce the burden of illness from animal sources.

  20. Promoting a smokers' quitline in Ontario, Canada: an evaluation of an academic detailing approach.

    PubMed

    Kirst, Maritt; Schwartz, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This study assesses the impact of an academic detailing quitline promotional outreach program on integration of patient referrals to the quitline by fax in healthcare settings and quitline utilization in Ontario, Canada. The study employed a mixed methods approach for evaluation, with trend analysis of quitline administrative data from the year before program inception (2005) to 2011 and qualitative interviews with quitline stakeholders. Participants in the qualitative interviews included academic detailing program staff, regional tobacco control stakeholders and quitline promotion experts. Quantitative outcomes included the number of fax referral partners and fax referrals received, and quitline reach. Trends in proximal and distal outreach program outcomes were assessed. The qualitative data were analysed through a process of data coding involving the constant comparative technique derived from grounded theory methods. The study identified that the outreach program has had some success in integrating the fax referral program in healthcare settings through evidence of increased fax referrals since program inception. However, organizational barriers to program partner engagement have been encountered. While referral from health professionals through the fax referral programs has increased since the inception of the outreach program, the overall reach of the quitline has not increased. The study findings highlight that an academic detailing approach to quitline promotion can have some success in achieving increased fax referral program integration in healthcare settings. However, findings suggest that investment in a comprehensive promotional strategy, incorporating academic detailing, media and the provision of free cessation medications may be a more effective approach to quitline promotion.

  1. Equid herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9) isolates from zebras in Ontario, Canada, 1989 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Ana Rita; Carman, Susy; Shapiro, Jan; van Dreumel, Tony; Hazlett, Murray; Nagy, Éva

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and partially characterize 3 equid herpesviruses that were isolated postmortem from zebras in Ontario, Canada in 1989, 2002, and 2007. These 3 virus isolates were characterized by plaque morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of their genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and sequence analyses of the full length of the glycoprotein G (gG) gene (ORF70) and a portion of the DNA polymerase gene (ORF30). The isolates were also compared to 3 reference strains of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1). Using rabbit kidney cells, the plaques for the isolates from the zebras were found to be much larger in size than the EHV-1 reference strains. The RFLP patterns of the zebra viruses differed among each other and from those of the EHV-1 reference strains. Real-time PCR and sequence analysis of a portion of the DNA polymerase gene determined that the herpesvirus isolates from the zebras contained a G at nucleotide 2254 and a corresponding N at amino acid position 752, which suggested that they could be neuropathogenic EHV-1 strains. However, subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the gG gene suggested that they were EHV-9 and not EHV-1.

  2. A Cohort Study of Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Jerrett, Michael; Finkelstein, Murray M.; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Arain, M. Altaf; Kanaroglou, Palvos; Stieb, Dave M.; Gilbert, Nicolas L.; Verma, Dave; Finkelstein, Norm; Chapman, Kenneth R.; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may contribute to premature mortality, but few studies to date have addressed this topic. Objectives In this study we assessed the association between TRAP and mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Methods We collected nitrogen dioxide samples over two seasons using duplicate two-sided Ogawa passive diffusion samplers at 143 locations across Toronto. We calibrated land use regressions to predict NO2 exposure on a fine scale within Toronto. We used interpolations to predict levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ozone levels. We assigned predicted pollution exposures to 2,360 subjects from a respiratory clinic, and abstracted health data on these subjects from medical billings, lung function tests, and diagnoses by pulmonologists. We tracked mortality between 1992 and 2002. We used standard and multilevel Cox proportional hazard models to test associations between air pollution and mortality. Results After controlling for age, sex, lung function, obesity, smoking, and neighborhood deprivation, we observed a 17% increase in all-cause mortality and a 40% increase in circulatory mortality from an exposure contrast across the interquartile range of 4 ppb NO2. We observed no significant associations with other pollutants. Conclusions Exposure to TRAP was significantly associated with increased all-cause and circulatory mortality in this cohort. A high prevalence of cardiopulmonary disease in the cohort probably limits inference of the findings to populations with a substantial proportion of susceptible individuals. PMID:19479020

  3. Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria–Associated Deaths, Ontario, Canada, 2001–2013

    PubMed Central

    Campitelli, Michael A.; Lu, Hong; Chung, Hannah; Brode, Sarah K.; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Gershon, Andrea S.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, Frances B.

    2017-01-01

    Survival implications of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) and NTM pulmonary isolation without disease (NTM-PI) are unclear. To study deaths associated with NTM-PD and NTM-PI and differences in survival between them, we conducted a population-based cohort study of persons with microbiologically defined NTM-PD or NTM-PI diagnosed during 2001–2013 in Ontario, Canada. We used propensity score matching and Cox proportional hazards models to compare survival. Among 9,681 NTM-PD patients and 10,936 NTM-PI patients, 87% and 91%, respectively, were successfully matched with unexposed controls. Both NTM-PD and NTM-PI were associated with higher rates of death for all species combined and for most individual species. Compared with NTM-PI, NTM-PD was associated with higher death rates for all species combined, Mycobacterium avium complex, and M. xenopi. NTM-PD and NTM-PI were significantly associated with death, NTM-PD more so than NTM-PI. PMID:28221106

  4. Which Factors Contribute to Environmental Behaviour of Landowners in Southwestern Ontario, Canada?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Silke; Brick, Jeff; Lantz, Van A.; Trenholm, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    Loss of natural heritage is a problem that is particularly prevalent in areas of high population density. We used a survey to understand the factors that drive environmental behavior of landowners in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The survey, which contained questions about environmental attitude, pro-environmental behavior and demographics, was mailed to 18,090 rural route addresses, and we received 3256 completed surveys (18% response rate). Two types of environmental behavior, namely voluntarily increasing the area of land set aside for conservation, and enrollment in a conservation stewardship program, were significantly correlated with a positive attitude towards conservation. Financial considerations also played a role. We showed that the biggest motivator to enroll in a wetland enhancement program was access to `more information on how the decline in wetland area affects them personally', while `public recognition' was the least motivating factor. We suggest that enrollment in voluntary land stewardship programs might be increased by providing information about the effects of ecosystem loss, and by providing financial incentives for participation. In a larger social context, outreach programs by government agencies could focus on improving pro-environmental attitudes, which in turn is likely to result in more pro-environmental behavior of landowners.

  5. Does Predation Influence the Seasonal and Diel Timing of Moose Calving in Central Ontario, Canada?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Brent R.; Mills, Kenneth J.; Middel, Kevin R.; Benson, John F.; Obbard, Martyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Birth synchrony is well documented among ungulates and is hypothesised to maximize neonate survival, either by minimizing the risk of predation through predator swamping or by synchronising birthing with increased seasonal food availability. We used encapsulated vaginal implant transmitters to locate and capture neonatal moose calves and document the seasonal and diel timing of parturition in two adjacent study areas with different predation pressure in central Ontario, Canada. We tested the hypothesis that predation promotes earlier and more synchronous birth of moose calves. Across both areas, proportionately more births occurred during the afternoon and fewer than expected occurred overnight. Mean date of calving averaged 1.5 days earlier and calving was also more synchronous in the study area with heavier predation pressure, despite average green-up date and peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index date occurring 2 days later in this study area than in the area receiving lighter predation pressure. We encourage analysis of data on timing of parturition from additional study areas experiencing varying degrees of predation pressure to better clarify the influence of predation in driving seasonal and diel timing of parturition in temperate ungulates. PMID:27082234

  6. Boiling over: A Descriptive Analysis of Drinking Water Advisories in First Nations Communities in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Galway, Lindsay P.

    2016-01-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is commonplace for most Canadians. However, the right to safe and reliable drinking water is denied to many First Nations peoples across the country, highlighting a priority public health and environmental justice issue in Canada. This paper describes trends and characteristics of drinking water advisories, used as a proxy for reliable access to safe drinking water, among First Nations communities in the province of Ontario. Visual and statistical tools were used to summarize the advisory data in general, temporal trends, and characteristics of the drinking water systems in which advisories were issued. Overall, 402 advisories were issued during the study period. The number of advisories increased from 25 in 2004 to 75 in 2013. The average advisory duration was 294 days. Most advisories were reported in summer months and equipment malfunction was the most commonly reported reason for issuing an advisory. Nearly half of all advisories occurred in drinking water systems where additional operator training was needed. These findings underscore that the prevalence of drinking water advisories in First Nations communities is a problem that must be addressed. Concerted and multi-faceted efforts are called for to improve the provision of safe and reliable drinking water First Nations communities. PMID:27196919

  7. Boiling over: A Descriptive Analysis of Drinking Water Advisories in First Nations Communities in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Galway, Lindsay P

    2016-05-17

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is commonplace for most Canadians. However, the right to safe and reliable drinking water is denied to many First Nations peoples across the country, highlighting a priority public health and environmental justice issue in Canada. This paper describes trends and characteristics of drinking water advisories, used as a proxy for reliable access to safe drinking water, among First Nations communities in the province of Ontario. Visual and statistical tools were used to summarize the advisory data in general, temporal trends, and characteristics of the drinking water systems in which advisories were issued. Overall, 402 advisories were issued during the study period. The number of advisories increased from 25 in 2004 to 75 in 2013. The average advisory duration was 294 days. Most advisories were reported in summer months and equipment malfunction was the most commonly reported reason for issuing an advisory. Nearly half of all advisories occurred in drinking water systems where additional operator training was needed. These findings underscore that the prevalence of drinking water advisories in First Nations communities is a problem that must be addressed. Concerted and multi-faceted efforts are called for to improve the provision of safe and reliable drinking water First Nations communities.

  8. Anatomy of amphibolite facies strain gradients in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Culshaw, Nicholas; Marsh, Jeffrey; Yates, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Observations of physical and chemical changes across strain gradients can provide information about the processes that lead to localization and therefore provide better tools for prediction of spatial and temporal strain patterns. Much of orogenic crust comprises granitoid lithologies, yet mechanisms for viscous localization at the kilometer scale in these rock types remain poorly documented. In contrast to mafic and pelitic compositions, granitoids have little capacity for changes in phase assemblage that can drive localization, so strain must focus due to other, mainly microstructural, factors. We describe microstructural and compositional data across several kilometer-scale amphibolite facies strain gradients from middle levels of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone, Ontario, Canada. Whole rock analyses reveal only minor heterogeneity in major element distribution in the granite - attributable to the protolith - and homogeneity in the trace elements, indicating that strain did not affect the bulk rock composition. In contrast, microstructures and mineral chemistry vary with strain, in particular biotite, hornblende, and plagioclase compositions, the fraction of recrystallized grains, and the development of a mixed-phase matrix. The spatial distribution of the microscale changes indicates an evolution of deformation mechanisms with increased localization. Stress concentrations at the unit boundaries were insufficient to cause the strain gradient alone, but were sufficient to initiate the microstructural processes leading to rheological change. Homogenization algorithms based on phase assemblage, phase morphology, and intracrystalline deformation mechanisms do not predict the strength reduction indicated from the macroscale strain patterns. Thus, dynamic rock strength is likely lower than is immediately apparent from exhumed tectonites.

  9. Does Predation Influence the Seasonal and Diel Timing of Moose Calving in Central Ontario, Canada?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brent R; Mills, Kenneth J; Middel, Kevin R; Benson, John F; Obbard, Martyn E

    2016-01-01

    Birth synchrony is well documented among ungulates and is hypothesised to maximize neonate survival, either by minimizing the risk of predation through predator swamping or by synchronising birthing with increased seasonal food availability. We used encapsulated vaginal implant transmitters to locate and capture neonatal moose calves and document the seasonal and diel timing of parturition in two adjacent study areas with different predation pressure in central Ontario, Canada. We tested the hypothesis that predation promotes earlier and more synchronous birth of moose calves. Across both areas, proportionately more births occurred during the afternoon and fewer than expected occurred overnight. Mean date of calving averaged 1.5 days earlier and calving was also more synchronous in the study area with heavier predation pressure, despite average green-up date and peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index date occurring 2 days later in this study area than in the area receiving lighter predation pressure. We encourage analysis of data on timing of parturition from additional study areas experiencing varying degrees of predation pressure to better clarify the influence of predation in driving seasonal and diel timing of parturition in temperate ungulates.

  10. Changes in enzymatic activities in metal contaminated and reclaimed lands in Northern Ontario (Canada).

    PubMed

    Narendrula-Kotha, Ramya; Nkongolo, Kabwe K

    2017-06-01

    Metal and sulfur dioxide (SO2) contaminations in Northern Ontario (Canada), especially in the Greater Sudbury Region (GSR) caused by mining activities have resulted in severe environmental degradations. A long term restoration program has led to significant landscape changes and healthy ecosystems. The objective of this study was to assess variation in enzymatic activities and soil respiration in metal contaminated and reclaimed ecosystems. Soil analysis revealed that respiration rates were higher in metal contaminated limed soils (65ppm) compared to adjacent unlimed areas (35ppm). The respiration rates in metal contaminated sites (55ppm) were significantly lower compared to reference (metal-uncontaminated) areas (90ppm). β-glucosidase (BG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGase), aryl sulfatase (AS), acid phosphatase (AP), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), glycine aminopeptidase (GAP), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activities were significantly higher in limed compared to unlimed sites. Metal contamination significantly reduced the activities of these enzymes with the exception of LAP. An opposite trend was observed for peroxidase (PER) activity that was lower in limed compared to corresponding unlimed areas. Likewise, PER activity values were significantly lower in metal contaminated than in uncontaminated reference sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The cost of medical management of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Leber, A; Marras, T K

    2011-05-01

    Treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection is complex, requiring multiple antibiotics and a prolonged treatment course. We determined the monthly cost of treating patients with pulmonary NTM infections in our clinic, a tertiary care centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We reviewed records of a single clinic at the University Health Network (Toronto) for all patients with pulmonary NTM isolates. Pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment costs were calculated using a number of Canadian references. 172 patients were reviewed, 91 of whom were treated pharmacologically. The median total duration and cost per treated patient were 14 months (interquartile range (IQR) 9-23 months) and CAD 4,916 (IQR CAD 2,934-9,063), respectively. Median monthly drug treatment cost was CAD 321 (IQR CAD 254-458) for all patients, CAD 289 (IQR CAD 237-341) for patients receiving exclusively oral antibiotics and CAD 1,161 (IQR CAD 795-1,646) for patients whose treatment included i.v. antibiotics. The most costly oral regiment consisted of a fluroquinolone, macrolide and rifampin. In multivariable analysis, Mycobacterium abscessus infection, i.v. therapy and Mycobacterium xenopi infection were all associated with increased monthly treatment costs. The direct medical costs of NTM infections are substantial. Less expensive alternative therapies might be most helpful for M. abscessus infection and when i.v. antibiotics are deemed necessary.

  12. Perceptions and experiences of environmental health risks among new mothers: a qualitative study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, E. J.; Brown, C.; Baxter, J.; Lemyre, L.; Masuda, J.R.; Ursitti, F.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness and concern in contemporary societies about potential health impacts of environmental contaminants on children. Mothers are traditionally more involved than other family members in managing family health and household decisions and thus targeted by public health campaigns to minimise risks. However little is known about how new mothers perceive and experience environmental health risks to their children. In 2010, we undertook a parallel case study using qualitative, in-depth interviews with new mothers and focus groups with public health key informants in two Public Health Units in Ontario Province, Canada. We found that the concern about environmental hazards among participants ranged from having no concerns to actively incorporating prevention into daily life. Overall, there was a common perception among participants that many risks, particularly in the indoor environment, were controllable and therefore of little concern. But environmental risks that originate outside the home were viewed as less controllable and more threatening. In response to such threats, mothers invoked coping strategies such as relying on the capacity of children's bodies to adapt. Regardless of the strategies adopted, actions (or inactions) were contingent upon active information seeking. We also found an optimistic bias in which new mothers reported that other children were at greater risk despite similar environmental circumstances. The findings suggest that risk communication experts must attend to the social and environmental contexts of risk and coping when designing strategies around risk reducing behaviours. PMID:23805055

  13. Rehabilitation services after total joint replacement in Ontario, Canada: can 'prehabilitation' programs mediate an increasing demand?

    PubMed

    Landry, Michel D; Jaglal, Susan B; Wodchis, Walter P; Cooper, Nicole S; Cott, Cheryl A

    2007-12-01

    Total joint replacements (TJR) have emerged as a critical health policy issue. In particular, Canadian demand for these surgeries is forecast to grow annually by 8.7% in the next decade. Although the medical and surgical aspects of TJR have received considerable attention, very little research has explored the impact of increased TJR on the demand for rehabilitation services. In this study, we conducted seven focus group discussions across the province of Ontario (Canada) with multiple stakeholders (n=50) ranging from clinicians and administrators, to policy makers and researchers. Our results indicate that demand for rehabilitation following TJR is rising sharply and that there are three primary factors affecting such demand: (i) increase in the absolute number of TJR surgeries is increasing demand across the continuum of care; (ii) changing profile of clients whereby 'younger and active' groups are more willing to undergo surgery, and 'older and complex' groups are presenting with increased rates of medical complications and comorbidities; and (iii) widespread use of clinical pathways has increased requirements within the rehabilitation sector, but often without corresponding adjustments in levels of human resources. To align increasing demand with supply in the long term, participants offered strong support for health promotion and prevention programs, but they also highlighted the short-term benefits of implementing 'prehabilitation' programs for clients waiting for surgery. Overall, our results indicate that the demand for rehabilitation services after TJR is increasing and that innovative approaches to care delivery are required to align increasing demand with supply.

  14. Equid herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9) isolates from zebras in Ontario, Canada, 1989 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Ana Rita; Carman, Susy; Shapiro, Jan; van Dreumel, Tony; Hazlett, Murray; Nagy, Éva

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and partially characterize 3 equid herpesviruses that were isolated postmortem from zebras in Ontario, Canada in 1989, 2002, and 2007. These 3 virus isolates were characterized by plaque morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of their genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and sequence analyses of the full length of the glycoprotein G (gG) gene (ORF70) and a portion of the DNA polymerase gene (ORF30). The isolates were also compared to 3 reference strains of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1). Using rabbit kidney cells, the plaques for the isolates from the zebras were found to be much larger in size than the EHV-1 reference strains. The RFLP patterns of the zebra viruses differed among each other and from those of the EHV-1 reference strains. Real-time PCR and sequence analysis of a portion of the DNA polymerase gene determined that the herpesvirus isolates from the zebras contained a G at nucleotide 2254 and a corresponding N at amino acid position 752, which suggested that they could be neuropathogenic EHV-1 strains. However, subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the gG gene suggested that they were EHV-9 and not EHV-1. PMID:25852233

  15. Social support factors and health among a senior center population in southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Tanya R; Gitelson, Richard J; Andereck, Kathleen L; Mesbur, Ellen Sue

    2005-01-01

    Past research on senior centers has mainly focused on utilization, frequency, duration of attendance, participation or various activities and services. This study strives to go beyond previous research by examining social support factors and their relationship to mental and physical health across a senior center population in southern Ontario, Canada. Data were collected at two large senior centers in the Kitchener, Waterloo area. We used a self-administered survey among a sample of older participants (n=186). One-way ANOVA with post-hoc Duncan's multiple range tests, t-tests, and linear regression analyses were used to examine the influence of social support (friendship, caregiving and advice) on mental and physical health. The results indicated that caregiving is significantly related to physical health, how respondents feel in general, and happiness with personal life. Advice from others is significantly related to perceptions of having a life full of interesting things. Additionally, respondents who are volunteers perceive better health and social support than non-volunteers, those who eat at the center perceive better health and caregiving support, and those that started a new activity perceived better health and social support from friendships. Implications for social work practice, policy and future research are discussed.

  16. Depression and discrimination in the lives of women, transgender and gender liminal people in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Williams, Charmaine C; Curling, Deone; Steele, Leah S; Gibson, Margaret F; Daley, Andrea; Green, Datejie Cheko; Ross, Lori E

    2017-05-01

    This article uses an intersectionality lens to explore how experiences of race, gender, sexuality, class and their intersections are associated with depression and unmet need for mental healthcare in a population of 704 women and transgender/gender liminal people from Ontario, Canada. A survey collecting demographic information, information about mental health and use of mental healthcare services, and data for the Everyday Discrimination Scale and the PHQ-9 Questionnaire for Depression was completed by 704 people via Internet or pen-and-paper between June 2011 and June 2012. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to assess group differences in depression and discrimination experiences, and predictors of depression and unmet need for mental healthcare services. Analyses revealed that race, gender, class and sexuality all corresponded to significant differences in exposure to discrimination, experiences of depression and unmet needs for mental healthcare. Use of interaction terms to model intersecting identities and exclusion contributed to explained variance in both outcome variables. Everyday discrimination was the strongest predictor of both depression and unmet need for mental healthcare. The results suggest lower income and intersections of race with other marginalised identities are associated with more depression and unmet need for mental healthcare; however, discrimination is the factor that contributes the most to those vulnerabilities. Future research can build on intersectionality theory by foregrounding the role of structural inequities and discrimination in promoting poor mental health and barriers to healthcare. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Medical physics staffing for radiation oncology: a decade of experience in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Battista, Jerry J; Clark, Brenda G; Patterson, Michael S; Beaulieu, Luc; Sharpe, Michael B; Schreiner, L John; MacPherson, Miller S; Van Dyk, Jacob

    2012-01-05

    The January 2010 articles in The New York Times generated intense focus on patient safety in radiation treatment, with physics staffing identified frequently as a critical factor for consistent quality assurance. The purpose of this work is to review our experience with medical physics staffing, and to propose a transparent and flexible staffing algorithm for general use. Guided by documented times required per routine procedure, we have developed a robust algorithm to estimate physics staffing needs according to center-specific workload for medical physicists and associated support staff, in a manner we believe is adaptable to an evolving radiotherapy practice. We calculate requirements for each staffing type based on caseload, equipment inventory, quality assurance, educational programs, and administration. Average per-case staffing ratios were also determined for larger-scale human resource planning and used to model staffing needs for Ontario, Canada over the next 10 years. The workload specific algorithm was tested through a survey of Canadian cancer centers. For center-specific human resource planning, we propose a grid of coefficients addressing specific workload factors for each staff group. For larger scale forecasting of human resource requirements, values of 260, 700, 300, 600, 1200, and 2000 treated cases per full-time equivalent (FTE) were determined for medical physicists, physics assistants, dosimetrists, electronics technologists, mechanical technologists, and information technology specialists, respectively.

  18. Sensitivity of Landsat MSS and TM to land cover change in the Golden Horseshoe, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGibbon, Jamie; Chen, Dongmei

    2008-10-01

    An ideal situation for conducting change detection is to use multi-temporal images acquired from the same sensor. However, many conditions (such as the discontinuity of sensors, weather conditions) would bring an end to the ideal temporal change detection. Imagery availability issues will force change detection studies in the future to increasingly incorporate multiple sensors. This study conducted change detection between Landsat TM (TM) and Landsat MSS (MSS) images from July 30, 1995 to June 2, 2003. The study area was centered on the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in south-central Ontario, Canada. Post-classification change detection was used to determine the type of change between the images. Results demonstrated that despite the different spatial resolution of the MSS and TM data, the change detection using both MSS and TM was similar in results to that of TM alone. A change detection where MSS is resampled to 30 meters was most effective in capturing the amount and type of change in the TM change study.

  19. Characteristics of urban natural areas influencing winter bird use in southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul G R

    2007-03-01

    Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28 urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land use and natural habitat in surrounding landscapes. Alien bird density and percent ground feeding species increased with percent surrounding urban land use. Higher percent forest cover was associated with higher percentages of forest, bark feeding, small (<20 g) and insectivorous species. Natural area size (ha) was related to higher species richness, lower evenness and higher percentages of insectivorous, forest interior, area-sensitive, upper canopy, bark feeding, and non-resident species. Higher number of habitat types within natural areas and percent natural habitat in surrounding landscapes were also associated with higher species richness. Common, resident bird species dominated small areas (<6.5 ha), while less common non-residents increased with area, indicative of a nested distribution. Areas at least 6.5 ha and more generally >20 ha start to support some area-sensitive species. Areas similar to rural forests had >25% insectivores, >25% forest interior species, >25% small species, and <5% alien species. Indicator species separated urban natural areas from rural habitats and ordination placed urban natural areas along a gradient between urban development and undisturbed, rural forests. More attention is needed on issues of winter bird conservation in urban landscapes.

  20. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    PubMed Central

    Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702

  1. Listeriosis outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, caused by soft ripened cheese contaminated from environmental sources.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  2. The antibiotic management of gonorrhoea in Ontario, Canada following multiple changes in guidelines: an interrupted time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Catherine; Taljaard, Monica; Friedman, Dara Spatz; Metz, Gila; Wong, Tom; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-08-26

    This study assessed adherence with first-line gonorrhoea treatment recommendations in Ontario, Canada, following recent guideline changes due to antibiotic resistance. We used interrupted times-series analyses to analyse treatment data for cases of uncomplicated gonorrhoea reported in Ontario, Canada, between January 2006 and May 2014. We assessed adherence with first-line treatment according to the guidelines in place at the time and the use of specific antibiotics over time. We used the introduction of new recommendations in the Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Infections in 2008 and 2011 and the release of the province of Ontario's Guidelines for the Treatment and Management of Gonococcal Infections in Ontario in 2013 as interruptions in the time-series analysis. Overall, 34 287 gonorrhoea cases were reported between 1 January 2006 and 31 May 2014. Treatment data were available for 32 312 (94.2%). Our analysis included 32 272 (94.1%) cases without either a conjunctival or disseminated infection. Following the release of the 2011 recommendations, adherence with first-line recommendations immediately decreased to below 30%. Adherence slowly increased but did not reach baseline levels before the 2013 guidelines were released. Following release of the 2013 guidelines, adherence again decreased; adherence is slowly recovering but by May 2014, was only approximately 60%. Due to concerns about antibiotic resistance, gonorrhoea treatment guidelines need to be updated regularly and rapidly adopted in practice. Our study showed poor adherence following dissemination of updated guidelines. Over a year after the latest Ontario guidelines were released, 40% of patients did not receive first-line treatment, putting them at risk of treatment failure and potentially promoting further drug resistance. Greater attention should be devoted to dissemination and implementation of new guidelines. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in

  3. Unusual Legionnaires' outbreak in cool, dry Western Canada: an investigation using genomic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Knox, N C; Weedmark, K A; Conly, J; Ensminger, A W; Hosein, F S; Drews, S J

    2017-01-01

    An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred in an inner city district in Calgary, Canada. This outbreak spanned a 3-week period in November-December 2012, and a total of eight cases were identified. Four of these cases were critically ill requiring intensive care admission but there was no associated mortality. All cases tested positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (LP1) by urinary antigen testing. Five of the eight patients were culture positive for LP1 from respiratory specimens. These isolates were further identified as Knoxville monoclonal subtype and sequence subtype ST222. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the isolates differed by no more than a single vertically acquired single nucleotide variant, supporting a single point-source outbreak. Hypothesis-based environmental investigation and sampling was conducted; however, a definitive source was not identified. Geomapping of case movements within the affected urban sector revealed a 1·0 km common area of potential exposure, which coincided with multiple active construction sites that used water spray to minimize transient dust. This community point-source Legionnaires' disease outbreak is unique due to its ST222 subtype and occurrence in a relatively dry and cold weather setting in Western Canada. This report suggests community outbreaks of Legionella should not be overlooked as a possibility during late autumn and winter months in the Northern Hemisphere.

  4. Measurement and Correlation of Ambient VOCs in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. J.; You, H.; Xu, X.; Molaroni, S.; Lemke, L.; Weglicki, L.; Krouse, H.; Krajenta, R.

    2009-05-01

    An air quality study has been carried out in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA as part of a pilot research study undertaken by the Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC), a multidisciplinary, international effort aimed at understanding the health effects of air pollution in urban environments. Exposure to volatile organic compounds has long been associated with adverse health conditions such as atrophy of skeletal muscles, loss of coordination, neurological damage, dizziness, throat, nose, and eye irritation, nervous system depression, liver damage, and respiratory symptoms. Twenty-six species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored during a 2-week period in September, 2008 at 100 sites across Windsor and Detroit, using 3M # 3500 Organic Vapour Monitors. Ten species with highest concentrations were selected for further investigation; Toluene (mean concentration =4.14 μm/m3), (m+p)-Xylene (2.30 μm/m3), Hexane (1.87 μm/m3), Benzene (1.37 μm/m3), 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (0.87 μm/m3), Dichloromethane (0.77 μm/m3), Ethylbenzene (0.68 μm/m3), o-Xylene (0.63 μm/m3), n-Decane (0.42 μm/m3), and 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (0.39 μm/m3). Comparison to a similar investigation in Sarnia, Ontario in October 2005 revealed that the mean concentrations of VOCs were higher in Windsor-Detroit for all species by a significant margin (31-958%), indicating substantial impact of local industrial and vehicular emissions in the WindsorVDetroit area. For most VOCs, the concentrations were higher in Detroit than in Windsor. The mean concentration of total VOC was 9.7 μm/m3 in Windsor, which is slightly higher than that in Sarnia in 2005 (7.9 um/m3), whilst total VOC concentration in Detroit was much higher (16.5 μm/m3). There were strong correlations among several of the 10 species, with the highest Pearson correlation coefficients (r=0.78 - 0.99, p<0.05) amongst the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) group

  5. Thyroid cancer incidence among Asian immigrants to Ontario, Canada: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Baiju R; Griffiths, Rebecca; Hall, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer. Individuals were followed from January 1997 or 5 years after they became eligible for health care coverage in Ontario, whichever came later. Patients were followed until March 2015 for incident-differentiated thyroid cancer, and then for recurrence. The study followed 14,659,733 individuals for a median of 17 years. Thyroid cancer incidence was 43.8 cases per 100,000 person-years among Southeast Asian immigrants, 28.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among East Asian immigrants, 21.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among other immigrants, and 14.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among nonimmigrants. Incidence was highest among immigrants from the Philippines (52.7 cases per 100,000 person-years), South Korea (33.5 cases per 100,000 person-years), and China (30.0 cases per 100,000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios for thyroid cancer compared with nonimmigrants were 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.48-2.84) for Southeast Asian immigrants, 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.00) for East Asian immigrants, and 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57) for other immigrants. Immigrants were more likely to have papillary histology and stage I cancer. East Asian immigrants, but not Southeast Asian immigrants, had a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.94] and 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.26], respectively). Immigrants from Southeast and East Asia had markedly higher thyroid cancer incidence than nonimmigrants. At particularly elevated

  6. Non-Growing Season Dynamics of Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Cropped Land in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbrigg, M. E.; Petrone, R. M.; English, M. C.; Spoelstra, J.; Macrae, M. L.

    2009-05-01

    As atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) is increasing at a rate of 0.3% per annum and has a global warming potential 300 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2), it is crucial to understand the dynamics of anthropogenic emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although agriculture represents a small proportion of Canadian land use, it is the most significant source of both human-derived and natural N2O emissions in this country. More than 50% of annual N2O emissions from agricultural soils in northern latitudes may take place in the non-growing season (NGS). Southern Ontario is one of the most intensively farmed regions of Canada. Greater understanding of NGS dynamics of N2O flux will help to develop more accurate N2O modeling methodologies for this region and may help in the refinement of agricultural practices which reduce N2O emissions. This study investigated field and lab NGS dynamics of agricultural N2O flux in southern Ontario, where anaerobic conditions, such as those caused by snowmelt, icemelt and rain, promote the reduction of soil nitrate (NO3-) to N2O. Gas samples were collected from permanent soil gas collars in nine field sites following winter and spring thaw events over the NGS of 2007-2008; otherwise samples were collected at biweekly intervals from these collars, or by means of snow gas chambers when the sites were snow-covered. The field sites were situated in three working farm fields where soils were subjected to typical tillage, amendment and cropping practices. Field data were supplemented by experimental results from soil cores taken from one of two fields previously seeded to corn, and subjected to simulated freeze-thaw cycles of average frequency, duration, and amplitude found in this region. The experimental data show a highly significant positive correlation between N2O flux and soil temperature at 5 cm depth (p < 0.0005). Overall, the field data show a positive correlation between N2O flux and soil temperature (p < 0.025). The less

  7. New species and distributional records of Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) from Ontario, Canada, with a checklist of recorded species

    PubMed Central

    Brunke, Adam J.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Dorval, Julie-Anne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paiero, Steven M.; Marshall, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of Ontario were reviewed in the context of recently studied material, primarily from insect surveys conducted by the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada). Aleochara daviesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Agaricomorpha websteri Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) alesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Dinaraea backusensis Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., and Strigota obscurata Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n. are described as new to science. We also report 47 new Ontario records and 24 new Canadian records. Callicerus rigidicornis (Erichson) and Alevonota gracilenta (Erichson) are newly reported from North America as adventive species. A checklist, with Canadian distributions by province, of the 224 species of Aleocharinae known from Ontario is given. The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Dexiogyia angustiventris (Casey): (Dexiogyia asperata (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia abscissa (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia tenuicauda (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia intenta (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia alticola (Casey) syn. n.). The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Acrotona subpygmaea (Bernhauer): (Acrotona avia (Casey) syn. n., Acrotona puritana (Casey) syn. n.). Lectotypes are designated for Thiasophila angustiventris Casey, Thiasophila asperata Casey, Ischnoglossa intenta Casey, Oxypoda rubescans Casey, Chilopora americana Casey, Chilopora fuliginosa Casey, Coprothassa smithi Casey, Atheta subpygmaea Bernhauer, Colpodota puritana Casey, Strigota seducens Casey, Trichiusa compacta Casey, Trichiusa hirsuta Casey and Trichiusa robustula Casey. PMID:22577320

  8. New species and distributional records of Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) from Ontario, Canada, with a checklist of recorded species.

    PubMed

    Brunke, Adam J; Klimaszewski, Jan; Dorval, Julie-Anne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paiero, Steven M; Marshall, Stephen A

    2012-01-01

    The Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of Ontario were reviewed in the context of recently studied material, primarily from insect surveys conducted by the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada). Aleochara daviesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Agaricomorpha websteri Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) alesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Dinaraea backusensis Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., and Strigota obscurata Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n. are described as new to science. We also report 47 new Ontario records and 24 new Canadian records. Callicerus rigidicornis (Erichson) and Alevonota gracilenta (Erichson) are newly reported from North America as adventive species. A checklist, with Canadian distributions by province, of the 224 species of Aleocharinae known from Ontario is given. The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Dexiogyia angustiventris (Casey): (Dexiogyia asperata (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia abscissa (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia tenuicauda (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia intenta (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia alticola (Casey) syn. n.). The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Acrotona subpygmaea (Bernhauer): (Acrotona avia (Casey) syn. n., Acrotona puritana (Casey) syn. n.). Lectotypes are designated for Thiasophila angustiventris Casey, Thiasophila asperata Casey, Ischnoglossa intenta Casey, Oxypoda rubescans Casey, Chilopora americana Casey, Chilopora fuliginosa Casey, Coprothassa smithi Casey, Atheta subpygmaea Bernhauer, Colpodota puritana Casey, Strigota seducens Casey, Trichiusa compacta Casey, Trichiusa hirsuta Casey and Trichiusa robustula Casey.

  9. Practice patterns in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer in Ontario Canada 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Hall, Stephen F; Irish, Jonathan C; Groome, Patti A; Urbach, David R

    2014-07-24

    The extent of treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer remains controversial. The objective of this study was to describe the variations in practice prior to diagnosis and for the first year after diagnosis, including the investigations, the extent of surgery and the use of RAI 131, for all patients with thyroid cancer (TC) treated Jan 1 2000 to Dec 2008 across Ontario Canada. Population-based study of all patients who had a therapeutic surgical procedure for TC based on the data holdings of the Institute of Clinical Investigative Sciences (ICES) linking the Ontario Cancer Registry to the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and to the Canadian Institutes of Health Information. The analysis includes comparisons between health care utilization/geographic regions and between treating specialties. The study population was 12957 patients. There was a 112% increase in case detection over 9 years. Overall the initial (index) surgery was less-than-total thyroidectomy (LTT) in 37.6% and 63.4% of the patients who had total thyroidectomy (TT) as an index surgery went on to adjuvant RAI, however there was wide variation in all aspects of patient care across the province, between Local Health Networks and between surgical specialties. In Ontario, there was wide variation for most aspects of the management of TC and, as the incidence of TC is increasing at least 7% per year in females, these data provide a foundation for future discussions, the provision of health care services and research.

  10. An analysis of the relationship between bulk tank milk quality and wash water quality on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Perkins, N R; Kelton, D F; Hand, K J; MacNaughton, G; Berke, O; Leslie, K E

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify regions at high risk for bacterial water or milk contamination, as well as risk factors associated with high bacteria counts in raw milk in Ontario, Canada. Between 2003 and 2004, the Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) tested water samples from 5,421 farms in Ontario for the presence of Escherichia coli and coliforms. The water samples were collected as "point-of-use" samples, meaning that each sample was taken from a tap or water hose in the milk house as soon as the water was turned on. Routine, monthly raw milk bacterial counts were determined by DFO using BactoScan (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark). BactoScan data were retrieved from DFO for all of the farms with water test results. The prevalence of samples with E. coli and coliforms in water and elevated bacteria counts in raw milk was 13.6, 53.8, and 2.8%, respectively. The spatial analysis, using a scan statistic, revealed 1 coliform and 3 E. coli clusters of contaminated water, but no clusters of elevated milk bacteria counts in raw milk in southern Ontario. The coliform water contamination cluster was the largest, with a radius of approximately 200 km. Regression analysis indicated that risk factors associated with the occurrence of high levels of bacteria in raw milk were elevated average monthly somatic cell count, increased total milk production, cooler seasons of the year, and the presence of E. coli in wash water.

  11. Sources of personal exposure to fine particles in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    David Kim; Andrea Sass-Kortsak; James T. Purdham; Robert E. Dales; Jeffrey R. Brook

    2005-08-01

    Individuals are exposed to particulate matter from both indoor and outdoor sources. The aim of this study was to compare the relative contributions of three sources of personal exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) by using chemical tracers. The study design incorporated repeated 24-hr personal exposure measurements of air pollution from 28 cardiac-compromised residents of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Each study participant wore the Rupprecht & Patashnick ChemPass Personal Sampling System 1 day a week for a maximum of 10 weeks. During their individual exposure measurement days the subjects reported to have spent an average of 89% of their time indoors. Particle phase elemental carbon, sulfate, and calcium personal exposure data were used in a mixed-effects model as tracers for outdoor PM2.5 from traffic-related combustion, regional, and local crustal materials, respectively. These three sources were found to contribute 13% {+-} 10%, 17% {+-}16%, and 7% {+-} 6% of PM2.5 exposures. The remaining fraction of the personal PM2.5 is hypothesized to be predominantly related to indoor sources. For comparison, central site outdoor PM2.5 measurements for the same dates as personal measurements were used to construct a receptor model using the same three tracers. In this case, traffic-related combustion, regional, and local crustal materials were found to contribute 19% {+-} 17%, 52% {+-} 22%, and 10% {+-} 7%, respectively. The results indicate that the three outdoor PM2.5 sources considered are statistically significant contributors to personal exposure to PM2.5. The results also suggest that among the Toronto subjects, who spent a considerable amount of time indoors, exposure to outdoor PM2.5 includes a greater relative contribution from combustion sources compared with outdoor PM2.5 measurements where regional sources are the dominant contributor. 56 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; Boerlin, Patrick; Chalmers, Gabhan; Kozak, Gosia; McEwen, Scott A; Reid-Smith, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living in Ontario, Canada. From June to October 2007, we trapped raccoons in three areas: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and one at the Toronto Zoo. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to investigate the temporal dynamics of fecal E. coli and AMR in raccoons. Reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent was detected in E. coli isolates from 19% of 16 raccoons at the urban site, 17% of 29 raccoons from the rural site, and 42% of 130 samples collected from 59 raccoons at the zoo site. Raccoons from the zoo site were significantly more likely to shed E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent than animals from the rural site (odds ratio [OR], 3.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 12.09; P = 0.02). Resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (and the associated bla(CMY-2) gene) was detected in two animals from the zoo site and one animal from the rural site. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis show that raccoons on the zoo grounds harbor a diverse assemblage of E. coli, with rapid bacterial turnover within individuals over time. Our study indicates that raccoons may shed resistant bacteria of public health significance and that raccoons have the potential to disseminate these bacteria throughout their environment.

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; Boerlin, Patrick; Chalmers, Gabhan; Kozak, Gosia; McEwen, Scott A.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living in Ontario, Canada. From June to October 2007, we trapped raccoons in three areas: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and one at the Toronto Zoo. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to investigate the temporal dynamics of fecal E. coli and AMR in raccoons. Reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent was detected in E. coli isolates from 19% of 16 raccoons at the urban site, 17% of 29 raccoons from the rural site, and 42% of 130 samples collected from 59 raccoons at the zoo site. Raccoons from the zoo site were significantly more likely to shed E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent than animals from the rural site (odds ratio [OR], 3.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 12.09; P = 0.02). Resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (and the associated blaCMY-2 gene) was detected in two animals from the zoo site and one animal from the rural site. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis show that raccoons on the zoo grounds harbor a diverse assemblage of E. coli, with rapid bacterial turnover within individuals over time. Our study indicates that raccoons may shed resistant bacteria of public health significance and that raccoons have the potential to disseminate these bacteria throughout their environment. PMID:22447599

  14. Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, M; Brophy, J

    2001-01-01

    The rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution in this relatively highly industrialized city. Mortality and morbidity rates from all causes were higher than in the rest of the province. Anomalously high rates of diseases included various cancers; endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and immunity disorders; diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, nervous system and sense organs, circulatory and respiratory systems, digestive system, genitourinary system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, musculoskeletal system and connective tissues; congenital anomalies, and infant mortality. Of particular concern was the early onset of the elevated rates of many of these diseases and conditions. Comparison of these incident rates with those in Hamilton, another industrial municipality in southern Ontario, suggested that in addition to a variety of local sources of industrial pollution from automobile manufacturing and use, transboundary air and water pollution from Detroit, Michigan, should be investigated as potentially important causes of these health outcomes in the Windsor Area of Concern. Some of the institutional and political trends of the past decade may need to be reversed before effective remedial programs are implemented for cleaning up contaminated sediments and for containment of leaking hazardous waste sites. This pilot project would seem to be a useful preliminary method of integrating human health concerns and of priority setting for the administration of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. PMID:11744501

  15. Publicly funded medical savings accounts: expenditure and distributional impacts in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Jeremiah; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Rynard, Vicki; Morgan, Steve

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the findings from simulations of the introduction of publicly funded medical savings accounts (MSAs) in the province of Ontario, Canada. The analysis exploits a unique data set linking population-based health survey information with individual-level information on all physician services and hospital services utilization over a four-year period. The analysis provides greater detail along three dimensions than have previous analyses: (1) the distributional impacts of publicly funded MSAs across individuals of differing health statuses, incomes, ages, and current expenditures; (2) the impact of differing degrees of risk adjustment for MSA contributions; and (3) the impact of MSA funding over multiple years, incorporating year-to-year variation in spending at the individual level. In addition, it analyses more plausible designs for publicly funded MSAs than the existing studies. Government uses information available from year t - 1 to allocate its budget for year t in a manner that is ex ante fiscally neutral for the public sector: the government first withholds funds equal to expected catastrophic insurance payments under the MSA plan, and then allocates only the balance to individual MSA accounts. The government captures the savings associated with reduced health-care utilization under MSAs and we examine deductibles that vary by income rather than by current health-care expenditures. The impacts on public expenditures under these designs are more modest than in the previous studies and under plausible assumptions MSAs are predicted to decrease public expenditures. MSAs, however, are also predicted to have unavoidable negative distributional consequences with respect to both public expenditures and out-of-pocket spending.

  16. Human Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Animal Rabies in Ontario, Canada, 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Middleton, D; Johnson, K O; Rosatte, R C; Hobbs, J L; Moore, S R; Rosella, L; Crowcroft, N S

    2015-08-01

    In Ontario, Canada, the implementation of an annual rabies control programme in wildlife that began in 1989 resulted in a marked, steady decrease in the number of animal rabies cases. The number of animal rabies cases decreased from 1870 in 1989 to 183 in 2000 (Nunan et al., 2002 Emerg Infect Dis 8, 214). In our study period, the number of animal rabies cases continued to decrease from 210 in 2001 to 28 in 2012. The marked decrease in animal rabies cases since 1989 has resulted in a decrease in the risk of human infection. A concomitant decrease in the number of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) administered was anticipated but failed to occur. The mean rate of RPEP, 13.9 RPEP administered per 100,000 persons, from 2001-2012 was approximately the same as the rate in the 1990 s. Two possible reasons that the rate of RPEP administration has not decreased include strict adherence to RPEP recommendations and administration of RPEP when it is not recommended. A reduction in the number of RPEP administered, consistent with the decrease in the animal rabies cases, would provide some financial savings for the government. Ideally, an increased use of the risk assessment approach in keeping with recent guidelines, rather than adhering to previous prescriptive recommendations for RPEP administration, coupled with a continuing low incidence of animal rabies cases will result in decreased, and yet appropriate, use of RPEP. Consideration should be given to identify how guidelines could be revised to more effectively target high-risk exposures and reduce the administration of RPEP for instances in which the risk of rabies virus exposure is exceedingly low.

  17. Integrative analysis of the Lake Simcoe watershed (Ontario, Canada) as a socio-ecological system.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Alex; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Perhar, Gurbir; Arhonditsis, George B

    2017-03-01

    Striving for long-term sustainability in catchments dominated by human activities requires development of interdisciplinary research methods to account for the interplay between environmental concerns and socio-economic pressures. In this study, we present an integrative analysis of the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario, Canada, as viewed from the perspective of a socio-ecological system. Key features of our analysis are (i) the equally weighted consideration of environmental attributes with socioeconomic priorities and (ii) the identification of the minimal number of key socio-hydrological variables that should be included in a parsimonious watershed management framework, aiming to establish linkages between urbanization trends and nutrient export. Drawing parallels with the concept of Hydrological Response Units, we used Self-Organizing Mapping to delineate spatial organizations with similar socio-economic and environmental attributes, also referred to as Socio-Environmental Management Units (SEMUs). Our analysis provides evidence of two SEMUs with contrasting features, the "undisturbed" and "anthropogenically-influenced", within the Lake Simcoe watershed. The "undisturbed" cluster occupies approximately half of the Lake Simcoe catchment (45%) and is characterized by low landscape diversity and low average population density <0.4 humans ha(-1). By contrast, the socio-environmental functional properties of the "anthropogenically-influenced" cluster highlight the likelihood of a stability loss in the long-run, as inferred from the distinct signature of urbanization activities on the tributary nutrient export, and the loss of subwatershed sensitivity to natural mechanisms that may ameliorate the degradation patterns. Our study also examines how the SEMU concept can augment the contemporary integrated watershed management practices and provides directions in order to promote environmental programs for lake conservation and to increase public awareness and engagement in

  18. Emerging pollutants in the North Sea in comparison to Lake Ontario, Canada, data.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Jens Arne; Muir, Derek; Ueno, Daisuke; Darling, Colin; Theobald, Norbert; Bester, Kai

    2007-06-01

    In the present study, the concentrations and fate of contaminants such as organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers, musk compounds such as galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN), musk ketone and musk xylene, the bactericide triclosan, as well as the metabolites HHCB-lactone and triclosan-methyl were compared in the aqueous phase of the German Bight (North Sea). The concentrations of these compounds were around 1 to 10 ng/L in nearshore areas, and the concentrations were lower in the more pristine areas. The highest concentrations were determined for tris-(2-chloro-isopropyl) phosphate in the North Sea with concentration exceeding 10 ng/L even for the offshore samples. The samples contained 1 to 20 ng/L chlorinated organophosphates, approximately 1 ng/L nonchlorinated organophosphates, and 0.3 to 3 ng/L fragrance compounds. Some samples from Lake Ontario (Canada) were analyzed in comparison. Per capita emissions were calculated for both regions. These emissions were compared and turned out to be very similar for the Canadian and German locations. For the North Sea, some observations concerning stability, dilution, and degradation, as well as sources of the respective substances, were performed. These data indicate that the chlorinated organophosphates and some musk fragrances exhibit half lives exceeding the residence times and thus can be considered to be persistent in this ecosystem. In the German Bight, the river Elbe is the dominating source for the more hydrophilic compounds, such as chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants, which are diluted only into the North Sea. However, for the more lipophilic compounds such as the musk fragrances, different input patterns as well as distribution patterns are relevant, though the river Elbe is still a major source of pollution to the German Bight of the North Sea. The data seem to indicate either relevant inputs further west of the sampling area or mobilization from the sediments.

  19. Transformation and Mobilization of Arsenic in the Historic Cobalt Mining Camp, Ontario, Canada.

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong,J.; Beauchemin, S.; Hossain, F.; Gould, D.

    2007-01-01

    More than eight decades of silver mining in the Cobalt mining camp of northern Ontario, Canada, have left large volumes of As-bearing mine wastes widely distributed in and along watercourses in the Cobalt area. Metal leaching from these mine wastes has led to the contamination of the area drainage with dissolved As concentrations at least an order of magnitude higher than the Canadian drinking water criterion of 0.025 mg l{sup -1}. To clarify the transformation and mobilization of arsenic in the historic mining camp, a portion of an extensive wetland located in northeast Cobalt and partially filled with historic tailings has been sampled for detailed characterization, chemical analysis and extraction tests. Field deployment of anionic exchange membranes, As sorption isotherm and desorption analyses in conjunction with chemical and mineralogical analyses indicate that: (1) the submerged tailings are likely a source instead of a sink of arsenic to the local streams; and (2) Al-minerals are the main sorbents for As with significant P competing for the available sorbing sites. Subjecting selected samples to a laboratory redox experiment complemented with X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses confirms that changes in arsenic speciation readily occur with changes in redox conditions in the surface sediments, resulting in rapid mobilization of arsenic. Preliminary enumeration of iron- and sulfur-reducing bacteria at selected sites coupled with scanning electron microscopic analyses show that microbial sulfate reduction occurs locally in the wetland, possibly leading to co-precipitation of arsenic as a sulfide in associated with framboidal pyrite. Further detailed study of the bacteria responsible for the arsenic transformation in conjunction with arsenic speciation analysis is recommended.

  20. Provenance of buried esker groundwater: the case of Vars-Winchester esker aquifer, Eastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauriol, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    An innovative mode of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer is considered. The current conceptual model affords a natural safeguard to underlying aquifers from the overlying muds. A hypothesis of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer via preferential pathways across its overlying muds is tested here by heuristic numerical one-dimensional and two-dimensional modeling simulations. The hypothesis has been tested against two other conventionally accepted scenarios involving: (1) distal esker outcrop areas and (2) remote shallow-bedrock recharge areas. The main evidence comes from documented recharge pressure pulses in the overlying mud aquitard and in the underlying esker hydraulic-head time series for the Vars-Winchester esker aquifer in Eastern Ontario, Canada. These perturbations to the potentiometric surface are believed to be the aquifer response to recharge events. The migration rate of these pressure pulses is directly related to the hydraulic diffusivity of the formation. The measured response time and response amplitude between singular radar precipitation events and well hydrographs constituted the heuristic model calibration targets. The main evidence also includes mud-layering deformation (water escape features) which was observed in seismic surveys of the over-esker muds. These disturbed stratigraphic elements provide a realistic mechanism for migrating water to transit through the muds. The effective hydraulic conductivities of these preferential pathways in the muds were estimated to be between 2 × 10-6 and 7 × 10-6 m/s. The implications of these findings relate to the alleged natural safeguard of these overlying muds.

  1. Transient bacterial contamination of the dual-porosity aquifer at Walkerton, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Stephen R. H.; Smart, C. Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer at Walkerton (Ontario, Canada) by pathogenic bacteria following heavy rain in May 2000 resulted in 2,300 illnesses and seven deaths. Subsequent tracer testing showed that there was rapid groundwater flow in the aquifer, and also rapid exchange between the aquifer and the ground surface. Electrical conductivity (EC) profiling during a 3-day pumping test showed that most flow was through bedding-plane fractures spaced about 10 m apart, that there were substantial contrasts in EC in the major fracture flows, and that there were rapid changes over time. Total coliform sampling revealed transient groundwater contamination, particularly after heavy rain and lasting up to a few days. These characteristics can be understood in terms of the dual-porosity nature of the aquifer. Most of the storage is in the matrix, but this can be considered to be static in the short term. Almost all transport is through the fracture network, which has rapid groundwater flow (˜100 m/day) and rapid transmission of pressure pulses due to the high hydraulic diffusivity. Rapid recharge can occur through thin and/or fractured overburden and at spring sites where flow is reversed by pumping during episodes of surface flooding. These characteristics facilitated the ingress of surface-derived bacteria into the aquifer, and their rapid transport within the aquifer to pumping wells. Bacterial presence is common in carbonate aquifers, and this can be explained by the well-connected, large-aperture fracture networks in these dual-porosity aquifers, even though many, such as at Walkerton, lack karst landforms.

  2. Predictors of caregiver burden across the home-based palliative care trajectory in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Guerriere, Denise; Husain, Amna; Zagorski, Brandon; Marshall, Denise; Seow, Hsien; Brazil, Kevin; Kennedy, Julia; Burns, Sheri; Brooks, Heather; Coyte, Peter C

    2016-07-01

    Family caregivers of patients enrolled in home-based palliative care programmes provide unpaid care and assistance with daily activities to terminally ill family members. Caregivers often experience caregiver burden, which is an important predictor of anxiety and depression that can extend into bereavement. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective cohort study to comprehensively assess modifiable and non-modifiable patient and caregiver factors that account for caregiver burden over the palliative care trajectory. Caregivers (n = 327) of patients with malignant neoplasm were recruited from two dedicated home-based palliative care programmes in Southern Ontario, Canada from 1 July 2010 to 31 August 2012. Data were obtained from bi-weekly telephone interviews with caregivers from study admission until death, and from palliative care programme and home-care agency databases. Information collected comprised patient and caregiver demographics, utilisation of privately and publicly financed resources, patient clinical status and caregiver burden. The average age of the caregivers was 59.0 years (SD: 13.2), and almost 70% were female. Caregiver burden increased over time in a non-linear fashion from study admission to patient death. Increased monthly unpaid care-giving time costs, monthly public personal support worker costs, emergency department visits and low patient functional status were associated with higher caregiver burden. Greater use of hospice care was associated with lower burden. Female caregivers tended to report more burden compared to men as death approached, and burden was higher when patients were male. Low patient functional status was the strongest predictor of burden. Understanding the influence of modifiable and non-modifiable factors on the experience of burden over the palliative trajectory is essential for the development and targeting of programmes and policies to support family caregivers and reduce burden. Supporting caregivers can have

  3. Quaternary Geologic Framework of the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, David S.; Denny, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    Concern about the effect of geomorphic changes in the St. Clair River on water levels in the Upper Great Lakes resulted in the need for information on the geologic framework of the river. A geophysical survey of the Upper St. Clair River between Port Huron, MI, and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, was conducted to determine the Quaternary geologic framework of the region. Previously available and new sediment samples and photographic and video data support the interpretation of the seismic stratigraphy and surficial geology. Three seismic stratigraphic units and two unconformities were identified. Glacial drift, consisting of interbedded till and glaciolacustrine deposits, overlies shale. Glaciofluvial and modern fluvial processes have eroded the glacial drift. Glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits overlie this unconformity. Seismic facies were interpreted to identify areas where these geologic facies exist; however, in the absence of distinct boundaries between facies, these deposits were mapped as one undifferentiated unit. This unit is thickest in the northernmost 3 kilometers of the river, where it consists of relatively coarse-grained fluvial, reworked glaciofluvial, and possibly glaciofluvial deposits. To the south, this coarse-grained unit thins or is absent. The undifferentiated unit comprises most of the surficial deposits in the northernmost river area. Some areas of glacial drift, predominantly till, are exposed at the lake and riverbed. The shale is not exposed anywhere in the region. Geophysical surveys at sites downriver, together with the results of previous studies, indicate that the geologic framework is similar to that in the northernmost river area except for the absence or reduced thickness of the coarse-grained fluvial deposits. Instead, glacial drift is exposed at the riverbed or is covered by a veneer of sediment. This information on the substrate is important for ongoing sediment transport studies.

  4. Transient bacterial contamination of the dual-porosity aquifer at Walkerton, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Stephen R. H.; Smart, C. Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer at Walkerton (Ontario, Canada) by pathogenic bacteria following heavy rain in May 2000 resulted in 2,300 illnesses and seven deaths. Subsequent tracer testing showed that there was rapid groundwater flow in the aquifer, and also rapid exchange between the aquifer and the ground surface. Electrical conductivity (EC) profiling during a 3-day pumping test showed that most flow was through bedding-plane fractures spaced about 10 m apart, that there were substantial contrasts in EC in the major fracture flows, and that there were rapid changes over time. Total coliform sampling revealed transient groundwater contamination, particularly after heavy rain and lasting up to a few days. These characteristics can be understood in terms of the dual-porosity nature of the aquifer. Most of the storage is in the matrix, but this can be considered to be static in the short term. Almost all transport is through the fracture network, which has rapid groundwater flow (˜100 m/day) and rapid transmission of pressure pulses due to the high hydraulic diffusivity. Rapid recharge can occur through thin and/or fractured overburden and at spring sites where flow is reversed by pumping during episodes of surface flooding. These characteristics facilitated the ingress of surface-derived bacteria into the aquifer, and their rapid transport within the aquifer to pumping wells. Bacterial presence is common in carbonate aquifers, and this can be explained by the well-connected, large-aperture fracture networks in these dual-porosity aquifers, even though many, such as at Walkerton, lack karst landforms.

  5. Clinical assessment of reactive postural control among physiotherapists in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sibley, K M; Inness, E L; Straus, S E; Salbach, N M; Jaglal, S B

    2013-09-01

    Reactive postural control, the ability to recover from an external perturbation to stability, ultimately determines whether an individual will fall following a loss of balance and should be routinely incorporated in balance assessment. The purpose of this study was to identify (1) methods used to assess reactive postural control in clinical practice and (2) factors associated with regular assessment of reactive postural control. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Three hundred and fifty-seven physiotherapists in Ontario, Canada who treated adults with balance impairments answered questions about the components of balance they assess and how they assess reactive control in their practice. Of the 273 respondents who assessed reactive postural control at least some of the time, 15.4% used a standardized measure, 79.1% used a non-standardized approach, and 5.5% used both. Forty-five methods of assessing reactive control were reported. The most common methods used were non-standardized perturbations (43.5%; 104/239 respondents) and movement observation (18.8%; 45/239). The remaining 43 methods were each used by less than 8% of respondents. Practice area had the strongest association with regular assessment of reactive postural control (>60% of the time), and respondents working with neurological disorders were more likely to regularly evaluate reactive control than those working with people with orthopedic conditions. Despite the availability of valid standardized measures to evaluate reactive postural control, respondents relied primarily on non-standardized approaches and observational assessment. Future work should examine the factors influencing choice of reactive control assessment tools and awareness of standardized measures for reactive postural control.

  6. Sleep-promoting medications in children: physician prescribing habits in Southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bock, Dirk E; Roach-Fox, Elizabeth; Seabrook, Jamie A; Rieder, Michael J; Matsui, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that physicians may frequently use pharmacotherapy to treat pediatric insomnia despite minimal safety data and very limited indications. Canadian data on the subject are lacking. This study aimed to determine physicians' views on and prescribing habits for sleep-promoting over-the-counter medication (OTCM) and prescription (RXM) medications for children. A modified 26-item version of the 'Pediatric Sleep Medication Survey', originally developed by Judith Owens and colleagues, was sent to 100 pediatricians and a random sample of 421 family physicians in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. A total of 67 returned surveys were sufficiently complete for analysis. Sixty-one respondents indicated their specialty (28 pediatricians, 33 family physicians). In a typical 6-month period, 89% and 66% of respondents have recommended OTCM and RXM, respectively, for children with sleep problems. Only 20% have received any formal training on pediatric sleep disorders. The most common circumstances and sleep problems for which OTCM or RXM were recommended were mood disorders, developmental delay and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (56, 40, and 39%, respectively), and insomnia, bedtime struggles/delayed sleep onset and circadian rhythm disorders (52, 48, and 28%, respectively). A total of 30% recommended OTCM or RXM to otherwise healthy children with sleep problems. Melatonin (73%), OTC antihistamines (41%), antidepressants (37%), and benzodiazepines (29%) were the most commonly recommended OTCM and RXM, respectively. Respondents in our sample frequently use pharmacotherapy to treat pediatric sleep problems; few have received any training in this area. Our findings indicate the need for evidence-based guidelines and regular physician training in the management of pediatric sleep disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Facebook use among early-career veterinarians in Ontario, Canada (March to May 2010).

    PubMed

    Weijs, Cynthia A; Coe, Jason B; Christofides, Emily; Muise, Amy; Desmarais, Serge

    2013-04-15

    To explore the nature and content of information publicly posted to Facebook by early-career veterinarians. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Sample-352 early-career veterinarians. Publicly accessible Facebook profiles were searched online from March to May 2010 for profiles of early-career veterinarians (graduates from 2004 through 2009) registered with the College of Veterinarians of Ontario, Canada. The content of veterinarians' Facebook profiles was evaluated and then categorized as low, medium, or high exposure in terms of the information a veterinarian had publicly posted to Facebook. Through the use of content analysis, high-exposure profiles were further analyzed for publicly posted information that may have posed risks to an individual's or the profession's public image. Facebook profiles for 352 of 494 (71%) registered early-career veterinarians were located. One-quarter (25%) of profiles were categorized as low exposure (ie, high privacy), over half (54%) as medium exposure (i.e., medium privacy), and 21% as high exposure (i.e., low privacy). Content analysis of the high-exposure profiles identified publicly posted information that may pose risks to an individual's or the profession's reputation, including breaches of client confidentiality, evidence of substance abuse, and demeaning comments toward others. Almost a quarter of veterinarians' Facebook profiles viewed in the present study contained publicly available content of a questionable nature that could pose a risk to the reputation of the individual, his or her practice, or the veterinary profession. The increased use of Facebook and all types of social media points to the need for raised awareness by veterinarians of all ages of how to manage one's personal and professional identities online to minimize reputation risks for individuals and their practices and to protect the reputation and integrity of the veterinary profession.

  8. Geophysical well-log analysis of fractured crystalline rocks at East Bull Lake, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hess, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Various conventional geophysical borehole measurements were made in conjunction with measurements using a recently designed, low-frequency, acoustic-waveform probe and slow velocity flowmeter for characterization of a fractured mafic intrusion in southern Ontario, Canada. Conventional geophysical measurements included temperature, caliper, gamma, acoustic, single-point resistance, and acoustic televiewer logs. Hole stability problems prevented the use of neutron and gamma-gamma logs, because these logs require that a radioactive source be lowered into the borehole. Measurements were made in three boreholes as much as 850 m deep and penetrating a few tens of meters into granitic basement. All rocks within the mafic intrusion were characterized by minimal gamma radiation and acoustic velocities of about 6.9 km/sec. The uniformity of the acoustic velocities and the character of acoustic-waveform logs made with a conventional high-frequency logging source correlated with the density of fractures evident on televiewer logs. Sample intervals of high-frequency waveform logs were transformed into interpretations of effective fracture opening using a recent model for acoustic attenuation in fractured rocks. The new low-frequency sparker source did not perform as expected at depths below 250 m because of previously unsuspected problems with source firing under large hydrostatic heads. A new heat-pulse, slow velocity flowmeter was used to delineate in detail the flow regime indicated in a general way by temperature logs. The flowmeter measurements indicated that water was entering 2 of the boreholes at numerous fractures above a depth of 200 m, with flow in at least 2 of the boreholes exiting through large isolated fractures below a depth of 400 m. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Geophysical well log analysis of fractured granitic rocks at Atikokan, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hess, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two boreholes, drilled to approximate depths of 750 and 1,260 m in a granitic intrusion located near Atikokan, Ontario, were studied by obtaining a full suite of conventional borehole geophysical logs. In addition, selected intervals in these boreholes were logged with a borehole acoustic televiewer that produces a high-resolution image of the borehole wall, an acoustic waveform-logging system using 34-kiloHertz magnetostrictive and 5-kiloHertz sparker sources, and a highly sensitive heat-pulse flowmeter. Emphasis was on identifying and characterizing fracture zones that represent groundwater conduits in deeper portions of the granite, and on characterizing the properties of the largest intervals of unfractured granite. Major fracture zones were indicated by correlating geophysical log anomalies detected on the suite of conventional logs (unpublished data from Atomic Energy of Canada). However, several other anomalies, were identified as mafic intrusions of approximately the same thickness as major fracture zones. Geophysical log anomalies were compared for all major fracture zones that could serve as significant groundwater conduits, and fracture zone permeability is estimated on the basis of acoustic tube-wave attenuation in these intervals. Acoustic televiewer logs obtained at depths below 1,000 m in the deeper well indicate that most of the few fractures identified on core at these depths do not remain open enough under in situ conditions to produce detectable anomalies in acoustic refraction. Flowmeter data indicate that some groundwater circulation occurs in the upper portion of both boreholes. Water in the shallower of the two holes was observed to flow at 2.0 L/min; most of this flow entered the borehole at a depth < 25 m, and no flow occurred below a depth of 100 m. Downflow at rates < 0.5 L/min was determined to enter the deeper borehole within 20 m of the surface, and to exist at various fractures down to a depth of 250 m. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Sex Differences in Outcomes after Stroke in Patients with Diabetes in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dhamoon, Mandip S; Liang, John W; Zhou, Limei; Stamplecoski, Melissa; Kapral, Moira K; Shah, Baiju R

    2017-09-13

    Outcomes after stroke in those with diabetes are not well characterized, especially by sex and age. We sought to calculate the sex- and age-specific risk of cardiovascular outcomes after ischemic stroke among those with diabetes. Using population-based demographic and administrative health-care databases in Ontario, Canada, all patients with diabetes hospitalized with index ischemic stroke between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2012, were followed for death, stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Fine-Gray competing risk models estimated hazards of outcomes by sex and age, unadjusted and adjusted for demographics and vascular risk factors. Among 25,495 diabetic patients with index ischemic stroke, the incidence of death was higher in women than in men (14.08 per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval [CI], 13.73-14.44] versus 11.89 [11.60-12.19]) but was lower after adjustment for age and other risk factors (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], .95 [.92-.99]). Recurrent stroke incidence was similar by sex, but men were more likely to be readmitted for MI (1.99 per 100 person-years [1.89-2.10] versus 1.58 [1.49-1.68] among females). In multivariable models, females had a lower risk of readmission for any event (HR, .96 [95% CI, .93-.99]). In this large, population-based, retrospective study among diabetic patients with index stroke, women had a higher unadjusted death rate but lower unadjusted incidence of MI. In adjusted models, females had a lower death rate compared with males, although the increased risk of MI among males persisted. These findings confirm and quantify sex differences in outcomes after stroke in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hf isotope evidence for effective impact melt homogenisation at the Sudbury impact crater, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, Gavin G.; Petrus, Joseph A.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Daly, J. Stephen; Kamber, Balz S.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the first zircon hafnium-oxygen isotope and trace element study of a transect through one of the largest terrestrial impact melt sheets. The differentiated melt sheet at the 1.85 Ga, originally ca. 200 km in diameter Sudbury impact crater, Ontario, Canada, yields a tight range of uniform zircon Hf isotope compositions (εHf(1850) of ca. -9 to -12). This is consistent with its well-established crustal origin and indicates differentiation from a single melt that was initially efficiently homogenised. We propose that the heterogeneity in other isotopic systems, such as Pb, in early-emplaced impact melt at Sudbury is associated with volatility-related depletion during the impact cratering process. This depletion leaves the isotopic systems of more volatile elements more susceptible to contamination during post-impact assimilation of country rock, whereas the systems of more refractory elements preserve initial homogeneities. Zircon oxygen isotope compositions in the melt sheet are also restricted in range relative to those in the impacted target rocks. However, they display a marked offset approximately one-third up the melt sheet stratigraphy that is interpreted to be a result of post-impact assimilation of 18O-enirched rocks into the base of the cooling impact melt. Given that impact cratering was a more dominant process in the early history of the inner Solar System than it is today, and the possibility that impact melt sheets were sources of ex situ Hadean zircon grains, these findings may have significance for the interpretation of the early zircon Hf record. We speculate that apparent εHf-time arrays observed in the oldest terrestrial and lunar zircon datasets may be related to impact melting homogenising previously more diverse crust. We also show that spatially restricted partial melting of rocks buried beneath the superheated impact melt at Sudbury provided a zircon crystallising environment distinct to the impact melt sheet itself.

  12. Rapid identification of herd effects with the introduction of serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine in Ontario, Canada, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Kinlin, Laura M; Jamieson, Frances; Brown, Elizabeth M; Brown, Shirley; Rawte, Prasad; Dolman, Sharon; Drews, Steven J; Fisman, David N

    2009-03-10

    In 2001, Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization endorsed a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine, which appears to provide durable serogroup-specific immunity while reducing nasopharyngeal carriage. With reference to direct and indirect effects on case occurrence, we sought to evaluate recent trends in the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Ontario. Analyses included all IMD cases reported between 2000 and 2006 to the Ontario Central Public Health Laboratory. Poisson models incorporating terms for age, sex and seasonal oscillation identified a significant downward trend in disease occurrence, which was strongest in serogroup C cases and not evident when serogroup C strains were excluded from the analysis. Among age groups not targeted by the vaccine program serogroup C, IMD displayed a pattern of decreasing incidence that was not present in non-serogroup C disease. These apparent dramatic effects of conjugate C vaccine (both direct and indirect) may be important in the implementation and evaluation of vaccine policy in other jurisdictions.

  13. Sources of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in urban and rural catchments in Ontario, Canada: Glyphosate or phosphonates in wastewater?

    PubMed

    Struger, J; Van Stempvoort, D R; Brown, S J

    2015-09-01

    Correlation analysis suggests that occurrences of AMPA in streams of southern Ontario are linked mainly to glyphosate in both urban and rural settings, rather than to wastewater sources, as some previous studies have suggested. For this analysis the artificial sweetener acesulfame was analyzed as a wastewater indicator in surface water samples collected from urban and rural settings in southern Ontario, Canada. This interpretation is supported by the concurrence of seasonal fluctuations of glyphosate and AMPA concentrations. Herbicide applications in larger urban centres and along major transportation corridors appear to be important sources of glyphosate and AMPA in surface water, in addition to uses of this herbicide in rural and mixed use areas. Fluctuations in concentrations of acesulfame and glyphosate residues were found to be related to hydrologic events.

  14. Prion protein genotypes of sheep as determined from 3343 samples submitted from Ontario and other provinces of Canada from 2005 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Colin; Bell-Rogers, Patricia; McDowall, Rebeccah; Rebelo, Ana R; Cai, Hugh Y

    2014-10-01

    This study analyzed sheep prion protein (PrP) genotypes of samples submitted from Ontario and other provinces of Canada to the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, between 2005 and 2012. In Ontario, the proportion of scrapie-resistant sheep increased from 2005 to 2012 as evidenced by an increase in the ARR haplotype. When Canadian provinces (Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia) were compared from 2008 to 2012, a high proportion of scrapie-resistant sheep was found in all the provinces. The proportions of resistant sheep were lower in Alberta and Quebec than in Ontario and Nova Scotia. Alberta had higher proportions of susceptible sheep and a higher frequency of VRQ alleles, and Quebec had a higher frequency of the ARQ allele.

  15. Prion protein genotypes of sheep as determined from 3343 samples submitted from Ontario and other provinces of Canada from 2005 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Colin; Bell-Rogers, Patricia; McDowall, Rebeccah; Rebelo, Ana R.; Cai, Hugh Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed sheep prion protein (PrP) genotypes of samples submitted from Ontario and other provinces of Canada to the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, between 2005 and 2012. In Ontario, the proportion of scrapie-resistant sheep increased from 2005 to 2012 as evidenced by an increase in the ARR haplotype. When Canadian provinces (Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia) were compared from 2008 to 2012, a high proportion of scrapie-resistant sheep was found in all the provinces. The proportions of resistant sheep were lower in Alberta and Quebec than in Ontario and Nova Scotia. Alberta had higher proportions of susceptible sheep and a higher frequency of VRQ alleles, and Quebec had a higher frequency of the ARQ allele. PMID:25355994

  16. Methane emissions from wetlands in the Midboreal region of northern Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bubier, J.L.; Moore, T.R. ); Roulet, N.T. )

    1993-12-01

    Methane (CH[sub 4]) fluxes were measured by a static chamber technique from May to October 1991 at 19 wetland sites near Cochrane, northern Ontario, representative of the Clay Belt Midboreal region of central Canada. Seasonal average fluxes of CH[sub 4] from the peatlands ranged from 0.4 to 67.5 mg[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]d[sup [minus]1] (0.06-10.1 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1]). Beaver ponds showed the highest fluxes of CH[sub 4], from both the open water section (seasonal average 290 mg[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]d[sup [minus]1], 44 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1]) and the adjacent marsh areas where the water table rose close to or above the soil surface (91-350 mg[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]d[sup [minus]1], 13-53 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1]). Seasonal mean water table position, particularly at the microtopographic scale of hummock and hollow, explained most of the variability in CH[sub 4] emission among wetlands (r[sup 2] = 0.74). Trophic status, such as pore-water Ca, Mg, and pH had little correlation with CH[sub 4] emissions. Broad-scale peatland classifications that do not account for hydrological differences at the microtopographic level are inadequate for predicting CH[sub 4] flux in boreal wetlands, particularly in forested ecosystems where conifer swamps are diverse and comprise the major peatland class. Based on areal estimates of the different wetland types in the Clay Belt, the authors estimate an annual CH[sub 4] flux of 3.4 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1], generally lower than that used in extrapolations to continental- or global-scale methane budgets. 68 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Breccia Formation at a Complex Impact Crater: Slate Islands, Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Slate Islands impact structure is the eroded remnant of a approximately 30-32 km-diameter complex impact structure located in northern Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. Target rocks are Archean supracrustal and igneous rocks and Proterozoic metavolcanics, metasediments, and diabase. A wide variety of breccias occurs on the islands, many of which contain fragments exhibiting shock metamorphic features. Aphanitic, narrow and inclusion-poor pseudotachylite veins, commonly with more or less parallel boundaries and apophyses branching off them, represent the earliest breccias formed during the compression stage of the impact process. Coarse-grained, polymictic elastic matrix breccias form small to very large, inclusion-rich dikes and irregularly shaped bodies that may contain altered glass fragments. These breccias have sharp contacts with their host rocks and include a wide range of fragment types some of which were transported over minimum distances of approximately 2 km away from the center of the structure. They cut across pseudotachylite veins and contain inclusions of them. Field and petrographic evidence indicate that these polymictic breccias formed predominantly during the excavation and central uplift stages of the impact process. Monomictic breccias, characterized by angular fragments and transitional contacts with their host rocks, occur in parautochthonous target rocks, mainly on the outlying islands of the Slate Islands archipelago. A few contain fragmented and disrupted, coarse-grained, polymictic clastic matrix breccia dikes. This is an indication that at least some of these monomictic breccias formed late in the impact process and that they are probably related to a late crater modification stage. A small number of relatively large occurrences of glass-poor, suevitic breccias occur at the flanks of the central uplift and along the inner flank of the outer ring of the Slate Islands complex crater. A coarse, glass-free, allogenic breccia, containing

  18. A cohort study relating urban green space with mortality in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Jerrett, Michael; Su, Jason G; Burnett, Richard T; Chen, Hong; Wheeler, Amanda J; Goldberg, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    Parks and green space areas are important to human health for psychological and physiological reasons. There have been few evaluations of access to green space on mortality. This paper describes a cohort study of approximately 575,000 adults, 35 years of age and older, who resided in 10 urban areas in Ontario, Canada, between 1982 and 1986. Individuals were identified from income tax filings, and vital status was determined up to December 31, 2004 through record linkage to the Canadian Mortality Data Base. Place of residence was defined by postal code data that were extracted from income tax filings. Urban green space was defined by Landsat satellite retrievals with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and this was assigned to individuals' place of residence at inception into the cohort using both a 30 m grid cell and a 500 m buffer. The proportional hazards model was used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for selected underlying causes of death. The rate ratios were adjusted for income, marital status, ambient air pollution, and contextual neighborhood characteristics. About 187,000 subjects died during follow-up. An increase in the interquartile range of green space, using a 500 m buffer, was associated with reduced non-accidental mortality (RR=0.95, 95% CI=0.94-0.96). Reductions in mortality with increased residential green space were observed for each underlying cause of death; the strongest association was found for respiratory disease mortality (RR=0.91, 95% CI=0.89-0.93). Risk estimates were essentially unchanged after adjusting for ambient air pollution. Our study suggests that green space in urban environments was associated with long-term reduction in mortality although this finding should be interpreted cautiously as this association may be influenced by residual confounding of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Further research is needed to: confirm these findings, better understand the

  19. Validation of international algorithms to identify adults with inflammatory bowel disease in health administrative data from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Eric I; Guttmann, Astrid; Mack, David R; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Marshall, John K; Gregor, James C; Wong, Jenna; Forster, Alan J; Manuel, Douglas G

    2014-08-01

    Health administrative databases can be used to track disease incidence, outcomes, and care quality. Case validation is necessary to ensure accurate disease ascertainment using these databases. In this study, we aimed to validate adult-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) identification algorithms. We used two large cohorts of incident patients from Ontario, Canada to validate algorithms. We linked information extracted from charts to health administrative data and compared the accuracy of various algorithms. In addition, we validated an algorithm to distinguish patients with Crohn's from those with ulcerative colitis and assessed the adequate look-back period to distinguish incident from prevalent cases. Over 5,000 algorithms were tested. The most accurate algorithm to identify patients 18 to 64 years at diagnosis was five physician contacts or hospitalizations within 4 years (sensitivity, 76.8%; specificity, 96.2%; positive predictive value (PPV), 81.4%; negative predictive value (NPV), 95.0%). In patients ≥65 years at diagnosis, adding a pharmacy claim for an IBD-related medication improved accuracy. Patients with adult-onset incident IBD can be accurately identified from within health administrative data. The validated algorithms will be applied to administrative data to expand the Ontario Crohn's and Colitis Cohort to all patients with IBD in the province of Ontario. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Descriptive epidemiology of detected anthrax outbreaks in wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) in northern Canada, 1962-2008.

    PubMed

    Salb, Amanda; Stephen, Craig; Ribble, Carl; Elkin, Brett

    2014-07-01

    We inventoried and assessed historical anthrax outbreak data from 1962-2008 in wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) in Wood Buffalo National Park and the Slave River Lowlands (SRL), Northwest Territories, Canada. We compared these results with a 2010 outbreak in the SRL. Anthrax outbreaks have occurred in 12 of the years between 1962 and 2008 in wild wood bison with 1,515 anthrax deaths detected. The average number of carcasses found each outbreak year was 126 (range 1-363), though local averages varied. The numbers of animals found dead per outbreak declined over the past four decades. Outbreaks varied in duration from 16-44 days (average length 25.5 days). The length of an outbreak was not a determinant of the number of dead bison found, but outbreaks starting in July had more deaths than those staring in June. Males were more likely to be detected in an outbreak, outbreaks were likely not random events, and there was no relationship between outbreak size or length and location. Future surveillance activities may benefit from targeting bulls and planning surveillance activities for more than 3 wk after outbreak detection. Coordinating data collecting and recording efforts between jurisdictions may overcome historical challenges in inconsistent record keeping.

  1. Early detection of emerald ash borer infestation using multisourced data: a case study in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kongwen; Hu, Baoxin; Robinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) poses a significant economic and environmental threat to ash trees in southern Ontario, Canada, and the northern states of the USA. It is critical that effective technologies are urgently developed to detect, monitor, and control the spread of EAB. This paper presents a methodology using multisourced data to predict potential infestations of EAB in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada. The information combined in this study includes remotely sensed data, such as high spatial resolution aerial imagery, commercial ground and airborne hyperspectral data, and Google Earth imagery, in addition to nonremotely sensed data, such as archived paper maps and documents. This wide range of data provides extensive information that can be used for early detection of EAB, yet their effective employment and use remain a significant challenge. A prediction function was developed to estimate the EAB infestation states of individual ash trees using three major attributes: leaf chlorophyll content, tree crown spatial pattern, and prior knowledge. Comparison between these predicted values and a ground-based survey demonstrated an overall accuracy of 62.5%, with 22.5% omission and 18.5% commission errors.

  2. Trends in the aggressiveness of end-of-life cancer care in the universal health care system of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ho, Thi H; Barbera, Lisa; Saskin, Refik; Lu, Hong; Neville, Bridget A; Earle, Craig C

    2011-04-20

    To describe trends in the aggressiveness of end-of-life (EOL) cancer care in a universal health care system in Ontario, Canada, between 1993 and 2004, and to compare with findings reported in the United States. A population-based, retrospective, cohort study that used administrative data linked to registry data. Aggressiveness of EOL care was defined as the occurrence of at least one of the following indicators: last dose of chemotherapy received within 14 days of death; more than one emergency department (ED) visit within 30 days of death; more than one hospitalization within 30 days of death; or at least one intensive care unit (ICU) admission within 30 days of death. Among 227,161 patients, 22.4% experienced at least one incident of potentially aggressive EOL cancer care. Multivariable analyses showed that with each successive year, patients were significantly more likely to encounter some aggressive intervention (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.02). Multiple emergency department (ED) visits, ICU admissions, and chemotherapy use increased significantly over time, whereas multiple hospital admissions declined (P < .05). Patients were more likely to receive aggressive EOL care if they were men, were younger, lived in rural regions, had a higher level of comorbidity, or had breast, lung, or hematologic malignancies. Chemotherapy and ICU utilization were lower in Ontario than in the United States. Aggressiveness of cancer care near the EOL is increasing over time in Ontario, Canada, although overall rates were lower than in the United States. Health system characteristics and patient or physician cultural factors may play a role in the observed differences.

  3. Assessment of the effect of cold and hot temperatures on mortality in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Jun; Li, Qiongsi; Yagouti, Abderrahmane; Lavigne, Eric; Foty, Richard; Burnett, Richard T.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Cakmak, Sabit; Copes, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ambient high temperature is associated with death; however, heat-related risk of death has not been quantified systematically in Ontario, the most populous province in Canada. Less is known about cold-related risk in this population. Our objective was to quantify the health impact from cold and hot temperatures in Ontario. Methods: The study population consisted of all residents of Ontario who died between Jan. 1, 1996, and Dec. 31, 2010, from any nonaccidental cause. A case-crossover analysis was applied to assess the relation between daily temperature fluctuation and deaths from nonaccidental and selected causes in cold (December-February) and warm (June-August) seasons, respectively, adjusting for various potential confounders. Risk estimates were obtained for each census division, then pooled across Ontario. We examined potential effect modification for selected comorbidities and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: In warm seasons, each 5°C increase in daily mean temperature was associated with a 2.5% increase in nonaccidental deaths (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3% to 3.8%) on the day of exposure (lag 0). In cold seasons, each 5°C decrease in daily temperature was associated with a 3.0% (95% CI 1.8% to 4.2%) increase in nonaccidental deaths, which persisted over 7 days (lag 0-6). The cold-related effects (lag 0-6) were stronger for cardiovascular-related deaths (any cardiovascular death: 4.1%, 95% CI 2.3% to 5.9%; ischemic heart disease: 5.8%, 95% CI 3.6% to 8.1%), especially among people less than 65 years of age (8.0%, 95% CI 3.0% to 13.0%). Conversely, heat most strongly increased respiratory-related deaths during admission to hospital (26.0%, 95% CI 0% to 61.4%). Across Ontario, each 5°C change in daily temperature was estimated to induce 7 excess deaths per day in cold seasons and 4 excess deaths in warm seasons. Interpretation: Heat contributed to excess deaths in Ontario, although the effect of cold weather appeared to be

  4. Use of the emergency room in Elliot Lake, a rural community of Northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Harris, L; Bombin, M; Chi, F; DeBortoli, T; Long, J

    2004-01-01

    There is ample documentation that use of hospital emergency facilities for reasons other than urgencies/emergencies results in clogged services in many urban centers. However, little has been published about similar misuse of emergency rooms/departments in rural and remote areas, where the situation is usually compounded by a scarcity of healthcare professionals. In Canada there is a shortage of physicians in rural and remote areas as a consequence of misdistribution (most physicians staying in southern urban centers after residence), and there is a chronic misuse of facilities meant for urgencies/emergencies to cope with primary healthcare needs. We address the problem in Elliot Lake, a rural Northern Ontario community of 12,000 people. The economy of Elliot Lake was based on uranium mining until the mid-1990s, when it drastically changed to become a center for affordable retirement and recreational tourism. As a consequence, at the present time the proportion of seniors in Elliot Lake doubles the Canadian average. Our objectives are to elucidate the demographics of emergency room (ER) clients and the effect of the elderly population; the nature of ER use; the perceived level of urgency of clients versus health professionals; and possible alternatives offered to non-urgent/emergency visits. This is the first study of the kind in Northern Ontario, a region the size of France. The study, conducted in July 2001, used a prospective survey, completed by patients and attending clinicians at the time of a patient's presentation to the ER of St Joseph's General Hospital. This hospital is staffed by family physicians, a nurse practitioner, and registered nurses (RNs). The catchment area population (town plus surrounding areas) of the hospital is approximately 18,000 people. ER clients were interviewed verbally, and the attending health professionals responded to written questionnaires. Demographics were recorded (age, sex, employment and marital status), as was each client

  5. Cancer prevalence, incidence and mortality in people who experience incarceration in Ontario, Canada: A population-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; Pivnick, Lucie; McIsaac, Kathryn E.; Wilton, Andrew S.; Lofters, Aisha; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that many risk factors for cancer are overrepresented in people who experience incarceration, and data on cancer epidemiology are limited for this population. We aimed to describe cancer prevalence, incidence and mortality in adults admitted to provincial custody in Ontario, Canada in 2000. Methods We linked data on 48,166 adults admitted to provincial custody in Ontario in 2000 with Ontario Cancer Registry data to 2012. We calculated cancer prevalence in the 10 years prior to admission to custody in 2000, incidence between 2000 and 2012 and mortality between 2000 and 2011. Standardized for age, we calculated incidence and mortality ratios by sex compared to the general population of Ontario. Results The 10-year cancer prevalence was 0.4% in men and 0.6% in women at admission to provincial custody in 2000. Between 2000 and 2012, 2.6% of men and 2.8% of women were diagnosed with new cancer. The standardized incidence ratio for cancer was 1.0 (95% CI 0.9–1.0) for men and 0.9 (95% CI 0.7–1.0) for women compared to the general population, and was significantly increased for cervical, head and neck, liver and lung cancers. The standardized mortality ratio was 1.6 (95% CI 1.4–1.7) in men and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0–1.9) in women, and was significantly increased for head and neck, liver, and lung cancers. Conclusions There is an excess burden of cancer in people who experience incarceration. Cancer prevention should include people who experience incarceration, and the period of incarceration may offer an opportunity for intervention. PMID:28225780

  6. Elk restoration in Ontario, Canada: infectious disease management strategy, 1998-2001.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, R; Hamr, J; Ranta, B; Young, J; Cool, N

    2002-10-01

    Ontario has embarked upon a program to restore elk (Cervus elaphus) that were once native to that province. A comprehensive disease-management strategy has ensured that elk are free of infectious diseases such as brucellosis and tuberculosis prior to shipment to Ontario. Postmortem analysis occurs on elk mortalities in Ontario to ensure that elk are not infected with diseases such as chronic wasting disease and tuberculosis. Between 1998 and 2001, a total of 443 elk were transported from Elk Island National Park, Alberta, and released in four different areas of Ontario. Cumulative mortality for elk in all areas was 26% from 1998 to January 2001. The primary causes of mortality were post-release stress-induced emaciation (21%), wolf predation (20%), transport/handling injuries (10%), bacterial infections (10%), and drowning (7%). Female calves had the highest mortality rates (37%) compared to the other sex and age cohorts (23-24%). Preliminary findings suggest an inverse correlation between the length of time elk are held in enclosures prior to release and the distance they disperse from the release site. The 2001 estimated population of elk in Ontario is about 400 individuals.

  7. A melt inclusion study of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (Ontario, Canada): preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Kathleen; Hanley, Jacob; Kontak, Daniel; Ames, Doreen

    2013-04-01

    The 1.85 Ga Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC), Ontario, Canada, is an intrusive complex representing the crystallized melt sheet that formed within a large impact crater. The SIC has been extensively studied due to its rich endowment in magmatic sulfide ores (Ni-Cu-PGEs). The nature and origin of the SIC melt sheet and its subsequent evolution still remain controversial. In this study, analyses of primary melt inclusions hosted in cumulus apatite within three mafic units of the SIC (gabbro, norite and sublayer quartz diorite) are used to decipher the thermometric and chemical characteristics of the evolving melt sheet as it crystallized. Apatite-hosted melt inclusions commonly display a negative crystal shape, occur parallel to the c-axis, and often occur within a central growth zone, which suggest a primary origin. The compositions of coeval (co-entrapped) melt inclusions are distinct and may represent either the products of immiscibility (low or high temperature field; c.f. the Skaergaard Intrusion: Jakobsen et al., Geology, 2005), or a product of early, high-temperature, impact-generated emulsification (prior to and independent of crystallization of the melt sheet). The compositions of homogenized (1100-1200oC for 3 hrs) melt inclusions, determined by SEM-EDS and EMP analyses of opened, homogenized melt inclusions, equate to two distinct compositions: (1) Type-I are SiO2-rich, ranging from tonalitic to granodioritic in composition (60-70 wt% SiO2, up to 11 wt% FeO); and (2) Type-II are Fe-rich with syenogabbroic to essexitic to alkali gabbroic compositions (27-49 wt% SiO2, 16-44 wt% FeO). Trace element data, obtained by LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions and surrounding host apatite, are used to infer D values between apatite and the two melt types, and between the coexisting melt types. Apparent Dap-melt values for both Type-I and Type-II inclusions show that the REE, Sr, and Y are compatible in apatite, and As is weakly compatible or incompatible in apatite

  8. Impact of long term wetting on pore water chemistry in a peat bog in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaper, Jonas; Blodau, Christian; Holger Knorr, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands of the northern hemisphere store a remarkable amount of carbon but also contribute to global methane emissions. As large areas in the boreal and subarctic zone are considered to undergo significant climate change it is necessary to understand how these ecosystems react to altered environmental conditions. Since not only temperatures but also precipitation is likely to increase in these regions, it is of particular interest to understand the impact of raised water tables and changing local hydrological flow patterns on peatlands' carbon cycle. We chose a pristine bog that was partly flooded by a reservoir lake created 60 years ago in Ontario, Canada. Water management in the reservoir resulted in seasonal flooding, shifting hydrological flow patterns and vegetation gradients. The impact of partial flooding on pore water chemistry and DIC and CH4 concentrations were studied within surface peat layers. Samples were taken with pore water peepers along the vegetation- and flooding gradient. Turnover rates of DIC and methane were calculated from obtained concentration profiles and peat porosity under the assumption that transport is dominated by diffusion. Values of pH changed remarkably from 4 within the undisturbed bog part to almost 8 at the lake shore. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the only ions that showed significant distribution patterns with readily increasing concentrations towards the lake water body. CH4 and DIC concentrations also increased towards the lake and peaked in around 100 cm depth right at the shore with maximum concentrations being 2766 μmol L-1 for CH4 and 7543 μmol L-1 for DIC, respectively. Turnover rates also increased towards the shore albeit some uncertainty lies in this finding as steady state condition required for calculations were probably not established and transport was not only dominated by diffusion. Maximum CH4 production rates were modeled to be 36 nmol cm-3 d-1 and maximum DIC production was calculated to 64 nmol cm-3 d-1. Ca2

  9. Physician diagnosed asthma, respiratory symptoms, and associations with workplace tasks among radiographers in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Liss, G; Tarlo, S; Doherty, J; Purdham, J; Greene, J; McCaskell, L; Kerr, M

    2003-01-01

    Background: Medical radiation technologists (MRTs) or radiographers have potential exposure to chemicals including sensitisers and irritants such as glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, sulphur dioxide, and acetic acid. Aims: To determine the prevalence of asthma and work related respiratory symptoms among MRTs compared with physiotherapists, and to identify work related factors in the darkroom environment that are associated with these outcomes. Methods: As part of a two component study, we undertook a questionnaire mail survey of the members of the professional associations of MRTs and physiotherapists in Ontario, Canada, to ascertain the prevalence of physician diagnosed asthma, and the prevalence in the past 12 months of three or more of the nine respiratory symptoms (previously validated by Venables et al to be sensitive and specific for the presence of self reported asthma). Information on exposure factors during the past 12 months, such as ventilation conditions, processor leaks, cleanup activities, and use of personal protective equipment was also collected. Results: The survey response rate was 63.9% among MRTs and 63.1% among physiotherapists. Most analyses were confined to 1110 MRTs and 1523 physiotherapists who never smoked. The prevalence of new onset asthma (since starting in the profession) was greater among never smoking MRTs than physiotherapists (6.4% v 3.95%), and this differed across gender: it was 30% greater among females but fivefold greater among males. Compared with physiotherapists, the prevalence of reporting three or more respiratory symptoms, two or more work related, and three or more work related respiratory symptoms in the past 12 months was more frequent among MRTs, with odds ratios (ORs) (and 95% confidence intervals) adjusted for age, gender, and childhood asthma, of 1.9 (1.5 to 2.3), 3.7 (2.6 to 5.3), and 3.2 (2.0 to 5.0), respectively. Analyses examining latex glove use indicated that this was not likely to account for these

  10. Assessing the Impact of Pilot School Snack Programs on Milk and Alternatives Intake in 2 Remote First Nation Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona M.; Gates, Allison; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Canadian Aboriginal youth have poorer diet quality and higher rates of overweight and obesity than the general population. This research aimed to assess the impact of simple food provision programs on the intakes of milk and alternatives among youth in Kashechewan and Attawapiskat First Nations (FNs), Ontario, Canada. Methods: A pilot…

  11. Assessing the Impact of Pilot School Snack Programs on Milk and Alternatives Intake in 2 Remote First Nation Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona M.; Gates, Allison; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Canadian Aboriginal youth have poorer diet quality and higher rates of overweight and obesity than the general population. This research aimed to assess the impact of simple food provision programs on the intakes of milk and alternatives among youth in Kashechewan and Attawapiskat First Nations (FNs), Ontario, Canada. Methods: A pilot…

  12. Contribution to the freshwater gastrotrich fauna of wetland areas of southwestern Ontario (Canada) with redescriptions of seven species and a check-list for North America.

    PubMed

    Schwank, Peter; Kånneby, Tobias

    2014-06-05

    This study gives additional, detailed information on the freshwater gastrotrich species described and reported from the southwestern regions of Ontario and New Brunswick, Canada by Schwank (1990). Aspidiophorus ontarioniensis, Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) furculatus, Chaetonotus (Chaetonotus) ontariensis, Chaetonotus (Primochaetus) annae, Ichthydium malleum, Lepidodermella forficulata and Setopus lemnicola are all redescribed. In addition, a complete list of freshwater species currently known from North America is given.

  13. A Social Pedagogy Approach to Residential Care: Balancing Education and Placement in the Development of an Innovative Child Welfare Residential Program in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras; Groskleg, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This paper chronicles the exploration and development of a residential program of the child welfare authority of Renfrew County in Ontario, Canada. Recognizing that virtually its entire population of youth in care was failing to achieve positive outcomes in education, Renfrew County Family and Children Services embarked on a program development…

  14. A Social Pedagogy Approach to Residential Care: Balancing Education and Placement in the Development of an Innovative Child Welfare Residential Program in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras; Groskleg, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This paper chronicles the exploration and development of a residential program of the child welfare authority of Renfrew County in Ontario, Canada. Recognizing that virtually its entire population of youth in care was failing to achieve positive outcomes in education, Renfrew County Family and Children Services embarked on a program development…

  15. Religious Education in Government--Run Primary and Secondary Schools in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec)--An International Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Teresa Ann; Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, Mary Alice; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare the teaching of religion in government-run primary and secondary educational institutions in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec). The theoretical framework for this work is supplied by the general idea that the school is an organization and social institution. It is concluded that religious instruction…

  16. Religious Education in Government-Run Primary and Secondary Schools in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec)--An International Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Teresa Anne; Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, Mary Alice; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the teaching of religion in government-run primary and secondary educational institutions in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec). The theoretical framework for this work is supplied by the general idea that the school is an organization and social institution. It is concluded that religious instruction in…

  17. Chlorine-bearing amphiboles from the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: Description and crystal chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, K.A.; McDonald, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Three chemically distinct populations of Cl-bearing amphibole have been recognized in association with contact Ni-Cu ore deposits in Footwall Breccia at the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario. The first population, defined as halogen-poor (700 ppm) and F (2500 ppm). These rocks thus may have been a significant contributor to the fluids.

  18. Identifying criteria and establishing parameters for forest-based ecotourism in Northern Ontario, Canada

    Treesearch

    Stephen W. Boyd; Richard W. Butler; Wolfgang Haider

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies the following criteria as indicators for ecotourism suitability within a Northern Ontario context: naturalness, wildlife, cultural heritage, landscape and community. A methodology is proposed which uses Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to identify ecotourism sites by linking criteria deemed important with actual landscape characteristics of...

  19. Hospital Utilization among Persons with an Intellectual Disability, Ontario, Canada, 1995-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Robert S.; Hunter, Duncan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that persons with an intellectual disability consume a disproportionate amount of hospital services. Policy changes in Ontario in the 1970s and 1980s made it necessary for community health services to accommodate this population that formerly received most of its medical care in the institutions where they lived.…

  20. An Overview of the Ontario Forest Bird Monitoring Program in Canada

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Welsh

    1995-01-01

    In 1987, the Canadian Wildlife Service (Ontario Region) initiated a program to inventory and monitor trends in forest birds. The Forest Bird Monitoring Program (FBMP) was designed to describe changes in numbers over time for all forest songbirds, to develop a habitat-specific baseline inventory of forest birds (species composition and relative abundance), and to...

  1. Youth Environmental Science Outreach in the Mushkegowuk Territory of Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Kozlovic, Daniel R.; De Iuliis, Gerry; Liberda, Eric N.; General, Zachariah; Liedtke, Jeff; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gomez, Natalya; Metatawabin, Daniel; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2011-01-01

    We connected youth of the Mushkegowuk Territory (specifically Fort Albany First Nation) with environmental science and technology mentors in an outreach program contextualized to subarctic Ontario that addressed some of the environmental concerns identified by members of Fort Albany First Nation. Most activities were community-based centering on…

  2. Show & Tell. Proceedings of the Ontario Universities' Conference (1st, Guelph, Canada, May 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Thom, Ed.

    Twenty-three conference papers focus on the use of information technology in Ontario's technical colleges and universities: "The Analytic Criticism Module--Authorial Structures & Design" (P. Beam); "Computing by Design" (R. D. Brown & J. D. Milliken); "Engineers and Computers" (P. S. Chisholm, M. Iwaniw, and…

  3. Assessments of the Value of Eighty Years of Formal and Practical Pharmacy Education in Ontario, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzzin, Linda J.; Hornosty, Roy W.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 302 pharmacy school graduates from the University of Toronto College of Pharmacists (Ontario) investigated perceptions of the adequacy of formal and clinical training for the practice of pharmacy. Assessments varied depending on time of training. All ratings suggest room for improvement and the need for special attention to the quality…

  4. Assessments of the Value of Eighty Years of Formal and Practical Pharmacy Education in Ontario, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzzin, Linda J.; Hornosty, Roy W.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 302 pharmacy school graduates from the University of Toronto College of Pharmacists (Ontario) investigated perceptions of the adequacy of formal and clinical training for the practice of pharmacy. Assessments varied depending on time of training. All ratings suggest room for improvement and the need for special attention to the quality…

  5. Youth Environmental Science Outreach in the Mushkegowuk Territory of Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Kozlovic, Daniel R.; De Iuliis, Gerry; Liberda, Eric N.; General, Zachariah; Liedtke, Jeff; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gomez, Natalya; Metatawabin, Daniel; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2011-01-01

    We connected youth of the Mushkegowuk Territory (specifically Fort Albany First Nation) with environmental science and technology mentors in an outreach program contextualized to subarctic Ontario that addressed some of the environmental concerns identified by members of Fort Albany First Nation. Most activities were community-based centering on…

  6. Era vaccine-derived cases of rabies in wildlife and domestic animals in Ontario, Canada, 1989-2004.

    PubMed

    Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Nadin-Davis, Susan; Armstrong, Janet; Muldoon, Frances; Bachmann, Peter; Wandeler, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    A vaccination program for the control of terrestrial rabies in the province of Ontario, Canada, began in 1989. During the period between 1989 and 2004, over 13 million baits containing the live, attenuated rabies virus ERA-BHK21 were distributed across the province, with the aim of immunizing foxes by the oral route. Animals recovered from bait distribution areas were assayed by fluorescent antibody test for rabies virus infection. Immunoreactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies that discriminate between ERA and rabies virus variants known to circulate in Ontario, and molecular genetic analyses were used to identify animals infected with ERA. Nine cases of ERA variant rabies were identified over the 16-yr period of study; these did not appear to be stratified by species, year of discovery, or location of capture. The ERA-positive animals were found across the province in eight counties, all of which had been baited in the year of case discovery. The nine ERA-positive cases included four red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two raccoons (Procyon lotor), two striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and one bovine calf (Bos taurus). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the partial N gene sequences generated from these isolates indicated that these nine cases were due to infection with the ERA variant. The glycoprotein sequences were predicted from G gene sequencing of all nine field isolates and two laboratory stock ERA viruses. This revealed some heterogeneity at residue 120 (either arginine or histidine) in both field and laboratory stocks as well as a few other mutations in field isolates. The significance of this heterogeneity remains unclear. Our data demonstrate that the ERA vaccine distributed in Ontario carried residual pathogenicity; however, there does not appear to be any evidence of ERA establishment in wildlife populations over the 16-yr period. These results are consistent with previous reports of the rare detection of ERA vaccine-induced rabies and with

  7. Primary care physician referral patterns in Ontario, Canada: a descriptive analysis of self-reported referral data.

    PubMed

    Liddy, Clare; Arbab-Tafti, Sadaf; Moroz, Isabella; Keely, Erin

    2017-08-22

    In many countries, the referral-consultation process faces a number of challenges from inefficiencies and rising demand, resulting in excessive wait times for many specialties. We collected referral data from a sample of family doctors across the province of Ontario, Canada as part of a larger program of research. The purpose of this study is to describe referral patterns from primary care to specialist and allied health services from the primary care perspective. We conducted a prospective study of patient referral data submitted by primary care providers (PCP) from 20 clinics across Ontario between June 2014 and January 2016. Monthly referral volumes expressed as a total number of referrals to all medical and allied health professionals per month. For each referral, we also collected data on the specialty type, reason for referral, and whether the referral was for a procedure. PCPs submitted a median of 26 referrals per month (interquartile range 11.5 to 31.8). Of 9509 referrals eligible for analysis, 97.8% were directed to medical professionals and 2.2% to allied health professionals. 55% of medical referrals were directed to non-surgical specialties and 44.8% to surgical specialties. Medical referrals were for procedures in 30.8% of cases and non-procedural in 40.9%. Gastroenterology received the largest share (11.2%) of medical referrals, of which 62.3% were for colonoscopies. Psychology received the largest share (28.3%) of referrals to allied health professionals. We described patterns of patient referral from primary care to specialist and allied health services for 30 PCPs in 20 clinics across Ontario. Gastroenterology received the largest share of referrals, nearly two-thirds of which were for colonoscopies. Future studies should explore the use of virtual care to help manage non-procedural referrals and examine the impact that procedural referrals have on wait times for gastroenterology.

  8. Validation of diagnostic codes for intussusception and quantification of childhood intussusception incidence in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Robin; Benchimol, Eric I; Deeks, Shelley L; Hawken, Steven; Fergusson, Dean A; Wilson, Kumanan

    2013-10-01

    To validate an algorithm to identify cases of intussusception using the health administrative data of Ontario, Canada, and to apply the algorithm to estimate provincial incidence of intussusception, preceding the introduction of the universal rotavirus vaccination program. We determined the accuracy of various combinations of diagnostic, procedural, and billing codes using the chart-abstracted diagnoses of patients of the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario as the reference standard. We selected an algorithm that maximized positive predictive value while maintaining a high sensitivity and used it to ascertain annual incidence of intussusception for fiscal years 1995-2010. We explored temporal trends in incidence using Poisson regression. The selected algorithm included only the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 code for intussusception in the hospitalization database and was sensitive (89.3%) and highly specific (>99.9%). The positive predictive value of the ICD code was 72.4%, and the negative predictive value was >99.9%. We observed the highest mean incidence (34 per 100000) in male children <1 year of age. Temporal trends in incidence varied by age group. There was a significant mean decrease in incidence of 4% per year in infants (<1 year) until 2004 and rates stabilized thereafter. We have demonstrated that intussusception can be accurately identified within health administrative data using validated algorithms. We have described changes in temporal trends in intussusception incidence in Ontario and established a baseline to allow ongoing monitoring as part of vaccine safety surveillance. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporal and spatial trends of mercury in fish collected in the English-Wabigoon river system in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, April; Solomon, Patricia; Chan, Hing Man

    2007-01-01

    The First Nations communities of Grassy Narrows and Wabaseemong (Ontario, Canada) have been impacted by mercury pollution since the 1960s. This study was implemented with the objective of providing these communities with information on current mercury concentrations in their catch, in order to make appropriate fish consumption choices. A total of 851 fish samples, including Walleye, Northern Pike, Large-mouth Bass, and Whitefish, were collected from thirteen lakes and rivers. Total mercury was measured and the relationship between fish length, mercury concentration, and lake of origin were assessed. It was found that fish from most of the lakes exhibit a positive relationship between length and mercury accumulation. Mercury concentrations in fish collected from Clay Lake, closest to the original source of contamination, are higher than those from other lakes. Mercury concentrations have declined over the last 25 years but the gradient of contamination was still observed. Results were communicated to the communities for public health purposes.

  10. The effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater on fish communities of a small river tributary in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carolyn J M; Knight, Brendan W; McMaster, Mark E; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Oakes, Ken D; Tetreault, Grald R; Servos, Mark R

    2011-07-01

    Fish community changes associated with a tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent outfall in the Speed River, Ontario, Canada, were evaluated at nine sites over two seasons (2008) using standardized electrofishing. Habitat evaluations were conducted to ensure that the riffle sites selected were physically similar. The fish community was dominated by several species of darters that differed in their response to the effluent outfall. There was a significant decrease in Greenside Darter (Etheostoma blennioides) but an increase in Rainbow Darter (E. caeruleum) abundance directly downstream of the outfall. Stable isotope signatures (δ(13)C and δ(15)N), which indicate shifts in energy utilization and flow, increased in Rainbow Darter downstream, but showed no change in Greenside Darter. Rainbow Darter may be exploiting a food source that is not as available at upstream sites giving them a competitive advantage over the Greenside Darter immediately downstream of the outfall. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Negotiating public and professional interests: a rhetorical analysis of the debate concerning the regulation of midwifery in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Spoel, Philippa; James, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the uneasy process of integrating midwifery's alternative, women-centered model of childbirth care within the medically-dominated healthcare system in Canada. It analyses the impure processes of rhetorical identification and differentiation that characterized the debate about how to regulate midwifery in Ontario by examining a selection of submissions from diverse health care groups with vested interest in the debate's outcome. In divergent ways, these groups strategically appeal to the value of the "public interest" in order to advance professional concerns. The study considers the implications of this rhetorical process for re-defining midwifery's distinctive professional identity in relation to other health professions, to the state, and to the women for whom midwives care. Likewise, it suggests the relevance of rhetorical analysis for understanding the discursive formation and re-formation of health models, values, and professions in Western culture.

  12. Determinants of variation in food cost and availability in two socioeconomically contrasting neighbourhoods of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Latham, Jim; Moffat, Tina

    2007-03-01

    This study addresses links between economic and nutritional variation in an urban North American setting. We employed a mixed-methods approach including mapping, semi-structured interviews, and food outlet surveys to investigate the public health impact of variation in the cost and availability of food between two socioeconomically distinct neighbourhoods of the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Food cost in supermarkets was not found to be higher in the low-income neighbourhood, though it was much higher in the variety stores that predominate in the low-income neighbourhood. Moreover, there was a very low availability of produce in the variety stores. Reduced fresh produce availability and lower incomes have the potential to negatively influence public health in the less-affluent study area by increasing the difficulty of acquiring healthy foods.

  13. Sexual Health of Trans Men Who Are Gay, Bisexual, or Who Have Sex with Men: Results from Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Nik; Bradley, Kaitlin; Scheim, Ayden I.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent reports have addressed the sexual health of female-to-male transgender or transsexual people who are gay, bisexual, and/or have sex with men (trans GB-MSM) using urban convenience samples. The Trans PULSE Project conducted a multimode, respondent-driven sampling survey in Ontario, Canada, in 2009–2010. Weighted estimates were calculated for trans GB-MSM (n = 173) for sexual orientation, behavior, partners, and HIV-related risk, as well as for psychosocial stressors and sexual satisfaction. An estimated 63.3% (95% CI [50.4, 73.5]) of trans men were GB-MSM (173/227). Results indicate great diversity in sexual behavior and experiences. Implications for sexual health promotion, counseling, and medical care are addressed. PMID:24971043

  14. Substance Use, Health, and Functioning Characteristics of Medical Marijuana Program Participants Compared to the General Adult Population in Ontario (Canada).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Ialomiteanu, Anca R; Aeby, Samantha; Rudzinski, Katherine; Kurdyak, Paul; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Existent profiles of Medical Marijuana Program (MMP) participants indicate common and co-morbid chronic diseases, yet evidence on disability or functioning as well as comparisons with general populations are largely lacking. This study compared health, substance use, and functioning status among formally approved MMP participants with the general adult population in Ontario (Canada). A community-recruited sample (n = 53) of MMP participants was compared to a sub-sample (n = 510) of the representative Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor (2015 cycle) survey of Ontario general population adults (ages 18+) based on identical telephone-based interviews regarding substance use, health, and functioning measures. Means and standard deviations for all indicators were computed by sex, controlled for age and education, and compared by regression techniques. MMP participants were more likely to be male, younger, and less socio-economically integrated; they indicated more common psychoactive substance (e.g., tobacco, daily cannabis) and psychotropic medication use, as well as overall worse physical and mental health and functioning status. Marked differences between MMP participants and general population adults were observed. MMPs appear to attract individuals with complex chronic health problems; however, little is known about the impact of MMP participation on these.

  15. Modelling phosphorus dynamics in multi-branch river systems: a study of the Black River, Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Jin, L; Baulch, H M; Butterfield, D A; Oni, S K; Dillon, P J; Futter, M; Wade, A J; North, R; O'Connor, E M; Jarvie, H P

    2011-12-15

    High rates of nutrient loading from agricultural and urban development have resulted in surface water eutrophication and groundwater contamination in regions of Ontario. In Lake Simcoe (Ontario, Canada), anthropogenic nutrient contributions have contributed to increased algal growth, low hypolimnetic oxygen concentrations, and impaired fish reproduction. An ambitious programme has been initiated to reduce phosphorus loads to the lake, aiming to achieve at least a 40% reduction in phosphorus loads by 2045. Achievement of this target necessitates effective remediation strategies, which will rely upon an improved understanding of controls on nutrient export from tributaries of Lake Simcoe as well as improved understanding of the importance of phosphorus cycling within the lake. In this paper, we describe a new model structure for the integrated dynamic and process-based model INCA-P, which allows fully-distributed applications, suited to branched river networks. We demonstrate application of this model to the Black River, a tributary of Lake Simcoe, and use INCA-P to simulate the fluxes of P entering the lake system, apportion phosphorus among different sources in the catchment, and explore future scenarios of land-use change and nutrient management to identify high priority sites for implementation of watershed best management practises.

  16. Assessment of benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus in sheep flocks in Ontario, Canada: comparison of detection methods for drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Barrere, V; Falzon, L C; Shakya, K P; Menzies, P I; Peregrine, A S; Prichard, R K

    2013-11-15

    In 2011, a field study was conducted to assess drug resistance of gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep flocks in Ontario, Canada. Benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus was assessed by genetic analysis of eggs; measurement of resistant allele percentages at codons 167, 198 and 200 in the β-tubulin gene was determined on pools of H. contortus eggs using pyrosequencing. Susceptibility to benzimidazoles in gastro-intestinal nematodes was also determined using a Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT) and a Larval Development Assay (LDA). In total, 16 farms were assessed with the genetic test. Based on resistant allele frequencies, all of the farms (16/16) tested had benzimidazole resistance in H. contortus; the overall percentage of benzimidazole-resistant H. contortus (estimated prior to treatment using the Hardy-Weinberg formula) was 68.5%. The FECRT and LDA were performed on 11 and 13 farms, respectively. Resistance to fenbendazole was detected on 100% (11/11) of the farms where the FECRT was performed. The LDA revealed the presence of thiabendazole resistance in H. contortus in 92% (12/13) of the farms. Estimated percentages of resistant parasites in H. contortus populations obtained with the two biological tests and the genetic test were compared. The results of the genetic test were in agreement with the biological tests and confirmed that benzimidazole resistance in H. contortus is present in Ontario sheep flocks. Differences between the different methods of drug resistance detection are discussed in terms of cost, time and sampling.

  17. Biotinidase deficiency: Spectrum of molecular, enzymatic and clinical information from newborn screening Ontario, Canada (2007-2014).

    PubMed

    Gannavarapu, Srinitya; Prasad, Chitra; DiRaimo, Jennifer; Napier, Melanie; Goobie, Sharan; Potter, Murray; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Karaceper, Maria; Munoz, Tatiana; Schulze, Andreas; MacKenzie, Jennifer; Li, Lihua; Geraghty, Michael T; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Rupar, C Anthony

    2015-11-01

    Untreated profound biotinidase deficiency results in a wide range of clinical features, including optic atrophy, cutaneous abnormalities, hearing loss and developmental delay. Ontario, Canada incorporated this treatable deficiency in newborn screening over the past 8years. This study elucidates the molecular, biochemical, and clinical findings from the pilot project. Information from initial screens, serum biotinidase activity level assays, molecular testing, and family history for 246 positive newborns screens were analyzed. A mutation spectrum was created for the province of Ontario, including common mutations such as D444H, D444H/A171T, Q456H, C33fs, and R157H. Individuals with partial deficiency were separated into 3 groups: D444H homozygotes (Group 1); compound heterozygotes for D444H with another profound allele (Group 2); compound heterozygotes with two non-D444H alleles (Group 3). Biochemical phenotype-genotype associations in partial deficiency showed a significant difference in serum biotinidase activity in between any given two groups. Three children with partial deficiency discontinued biotin for varied lengths of time. Two of whom became symptomatic with abnormal gait, alopecia, skin rashes and developmental delay. A need for more congruency in diagnostic, treatment and educational practices was highlighted across the province. Heterogeneity and variation in clinical presentations and management was observed in patients with the partial deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. State risk discourse and the regulatory preservation of traditional medicine knowledge: The case of acupuncture in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, Nadine; Boon, Heather; Muzzin, Linda; Welsh, Sandy

    2016-12-01

    Several United Nations bodies have advised countries to actively preserve Traditional Medicine (TM) knowledge and prevent its misappropriation in regulatory structures. To help advance decision-making around this complex regulatory issue, we examine the relationship between risk discourse, epistemology and policy. This study presents a critical, postcolonial analysis of divergent risk discourses elaborated in two contrasting Ontario (Canada) government reports preceding that jurisdiction's regulation of acupuncture, the world's most widely practised TM therapy. The earlier (1996) report, produced when Ontario's regulatory lobby was largely comprised of Chinese medicine practitioners, presents a risk discourse inclusive of biomedical and TM knowledge claims, emphasizing the principle of regulatory 'equity' as well as historical and sociocultural considerations. Reflecting the interests of an increasingly biomedical practitioner lobby, the later (2001) report uses implicit discursive means to exclusively privilege Western scientific perspectives on risk. This report's policy recommendations, we argue, suggest misappropriation of TM knowledge. We advise regulators to consider equitable adaptations to existing policy structures, and to explicitly include TM evidentiary perspectives in their pre-regulatory assessments.

  19. Risk factors for sporadic domestically acquired Salmonella serovar Enteritidis infections: a case-control study in Ontario, Canada, 2011.

    PubMed

    Middleton, D; Savage, R; Tighe, M K; Vrbova, L; Walton, R; Whitfield, Y; Varga, C; Lee, B; Rosella, L; Dhar, B; Johnson, C; Ahmed, R; Allen, V G; Crowcroft, N S

    2014-07-01

    In Ontario, Canada, the number of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) cases increased over the years 2005-2010. A population-based case-control study was undertaken from January to August 2011 for the purpose of identifying risk factors for acquiring illness due to SE within Ontario. A total of 199 cases and 241 controls were enrolled. After adjustment for confounders, consuming any poultry meat [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·31-3·83], processed chicken (aOR 3·32, 95% CI 1·26-8·76) and not washing hands following handling of raw eggs (OR 2·82, 95% CI 1·48-5·37) were significantly associated with SE infection. The population attributable fraction was 46% for any poultry meat consumption and 10% for processed chicken. Poultry meat continues to be identified as a risk factor for SE illness. Control of SE at source, as well as proper food handling practices, are required to reduce the number of SE cases.

  20. Road-impacted sediment and water in a Lake Ontario watershed and lagoon, City of Pickering, Ontario, Canada: An example of urban basin analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nick; Meriano, Mandana

    2010-03-01

    The world is increasingly urban but there are few studies of how contaminated water and sediment move through urban basins with their built landscapes and complexly disturbed geology. The central Canadian city of Pickering, Ontario sprawls across a small (27 km 2) densely urbanized (pop: 53,000) watershed and is underlain by Pleistocene glacial sediments and thick artificial fill deposits. Almost 80% of the area is hardened by impervious cover; road and rail lines cover 40% and include Canada's busiest highway (12-lane Highway 401: 177,000 vehicles per day in 2003). The basin discharges to Lake Ontario through a small (85 ha) shallow (< 3.5 m) lagoon (Frenchman's Bay). A 3-D steady state finite element groundwater numerical model (FEFLOW) was applied to 200 cored and geophysically-logged (gamma and resistivity) boreholes and 3400 digital water wells. It identifies the subsurface stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphic function of deposits and the rates of groundwater flow. Year-round monitoring of groundwater, creek and lagoon water quality shows that transportation infrastructure is the primary source of contaminated water and sediment. Some 7600 tonnes of de-icing salt are applied to watershed roads each year; 52% accumulates in groundwater where it continues to be released as brackish baseflow to creeks in summer. The remainder is rapidly delivered by surface runoff to Frenchman's Bay where chloride contents are more than double the average values in waters across the Great Lakes. Highway 401 is the largest single source of salt contamination to the lagoon; it receives 26% of all road salt applied to the watershed but covers just 1.3% of its area. Prominent spikes in chloride content (> 2000 mg L - 1 ) occur during winter thaws in creeks downstream of the highway. Enhanced stream bank erosion as a consequence of flashy storm runoff from road surfaces moves ˜ 100 tonnes of contaminated sediment to Frenchman's Bay each year. Instantaneous suspended sediment

  1. Network analysis of swine shipments in Ontario, Canada, to support disease spread modelling and risk-based disease management.

    PubMed

    Dorjee, S; Revie, C W; Poljak, Z; McNab, W B; Sanchez, J

    2013-10-01

    Understanding contact networks are important for modelling and managing the spread and control of communicable diseases in populations. This study characterizes the swine shipment network of a multi-site production system in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Data were extracted from a company's database listing swine shipments among 251 swine farms, including 20 sow, 69 nursery and 162 finishing farms, for the 2-year period of 2006 to 2007. Several network metrics were generated. The number of shipments per week between pairs of farms ranged from 1 to 6. The medians (and ranges) of out-degree were: sow 6 (1-21), nursery 8 (0-25), and finishing 0 (0-4), over the entire 2-year study period. Corresponding estimates for in-degree of nursery and finishing farms were 3 (0-9) and 3 (0-12) respectively. Outgoing and incoming infection chains (OIC and IIC), were also measured. The medians (ranges) of the monthly OIC and IIC were 0 (0-8) and 0 (0-6), respectively, with very similar measures observed for 2-week intervals. Nursery farms exhibited high measures of centrality. This indicates that they pose greater risks of disease spread in the network. Therefore, they should be given a high priority for disease prevention and control measures affecting all age groups alike. The network demonstrated scale-free and small-world topologies as observed in other livestock shipment studies. This heterogeneity in contacts among farm types and network topologies should be incorporated in simulation models to improve their validity. In conclusion, this study provided useful epidemiological information and parameters for the control and modelling of disease spread among swine farms, for the first time from Ontario, Canada. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Practices for the disbudding and dehorning of dairy calves by veterinarians and dairy producers in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Winder, Charlotte B; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Haley, Derek B; Lissemore, Kerry D; Godkin, M Ann; Duffield, Todd F

    2016-12-01

    Disbudding and dehorning dairy calves is very common, despite the introduction of polled genetics to most dairy breeds. Appropriate pain-control practices for these procedures affect both calf welfare and public perception of the dairy industry. Previously published work has shown that North American dairy producers have not widely adopted use of these medications for disbudding or dehorning. However, since the last published work examining these practices in Canada, changes regarding awareness, availability, and future requirements for pain control have occurred in the industry. With this in mind, online and telephone surveys of both veterinarians (n=238) and dairy producers (n=603) in Ontario, Canada, were conducted in the fall of 2014 with a goal of describing current disbudding and dehorning practices and examining factors associated with the adoption of pain control use. Approximately three-quarters of dairy producers reported performing disbudding or dehorning themselves, whereas the remainder used a veterinarian or technician. Almost all (97%) of the veterinarians surveyed reported using local anesthetic, 62% used sedation, and 48% used a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Producer use of local anesthetic was 62%, 38% used sedation and 24% used a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Seventy-eight percent of veterinarian disbudding or dehorning was done before 8wk of age, whereas 64% of dairy producers performed this procedure before 8wk of age. Seventy-two percent of veterinarians and 63% of producers reported changing their disbudding or dehorning practices over the past 10 yr; of producers that changed their practices, 73% cited their herd veterinarian as influential. The use of pain control described in these surveys is higher than previously reported in Ontario. Identification of factors associated with best practices, or the lack of adoption of these practices, may help veterinarians target appropriate educational opportunities for their dairy clients.

  3. Domestic impact of tuberculosis screening among new immigrants to Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamran; Hirji, M Mustafa; Miniota, Jennifer; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jun; Gardam, Michael; Rawal, Sameer; Ellis, Edward; Chan, Angie; Creatore, Maria I; Rea, Elizabeth

    2015-11-03

    All Canadian immigrants undergo screening for tuberculosis (TB) before immigration, and selected immigrants must undergo postimmigration surveillance for the disease. We sought to quantify the domestic health impact of screening for TB in all new immigrants and to identify mechanisms to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of this screening. We linked preimmigration medical examination records from 944,375 immigrants who settled in Ontario between 2002 and 2011 to active TB reporting data in Ontario between 2002 and 2011. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we measured birth country-specific rates of active TB detected through preimmigration screening and postimmigration surveillance. We then quantified the proportion of active TB cases among residents of Ontario born abroad that were detected through postimmigration surveillance. Using Cox regression, we identified independent predictors of active TB postimmigration. Immigrants from 6 countries accounted for 87.3% of active TB cases detected through preimmigration screening, and 10 countries accounted for 80.4% of cases detected through postimmigration surveillance. Immigrants from countries with a TB (all-sites) incidence rate of less than 30 cases per 100 000 persons resulted in pre- and postimmigration detection of 2.4 and 0.9 cases per 100 000 immigrants, respectively. Postimmigration surveillance detected 2.6% of active TB cases in Ontario residents born abroad, and TB was detected a median of 18 days earlier in those undergoing surveillance than in those who were not referred to surveillance or who did not comply. Predictors of active TB postimmigration included radiographic markers of old TB, birth country, immigration category, location of application for residency, immune status and age. Universal screening for TB in new immigrants has a modest impact on the domestic burden of active TB and is highly inefficient. Focusing preimmigration screening in countries with high incidence rates and revising

  4. Domestic impact of tuberculosis screening among new immigrants to Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kamran; Hirji, M. Mustafa; Miniota, Jennifer; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jun; Gardam, Michael; Rawal, Sameer; Ellis, Edward; Chan, Angie; Creatore, Maria I.; Rea, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background: All Canadian immigrants undergo screening for tuberculosis (TB) before immigration, and selected immigrants must undergo postimmigration surveillance for the disease. We sought to quantify the domestic health impact of screening for TB in all new immigrants and to identify mechanisms to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of this screening. Methods: We linked preimmigration medical examination records from 944 375 immigrants who settled in Ontario between 2002 and 2011 to active TB reporting data in Ontario between 2002 and 2011. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we measured birth country–specific rates of active TB detected through preimmigration screening and postimmigration surveillance. We then quantified the proportion of active TB cases among residents of Ontario born abroad that were detected through postimmigration surveillance. Using Cox regression, we identified independent predictors of active TB postimmigration. Results: Immigrants from 6 countries accounted for 87.3% of active TB cases detected through preimmigration screening, and 10 countries accounted for 80.4% of cases detected through postimmigration surveillance. Immigrants from countries with a TB (all-sites) incidence rate of less than 30 cases per 100 000 persons resulted in pre- and postimmigration detection of 2.4 and 0.9 cases per 100 000 immigrants, respectively. Postimmigration surveillance detected 2.6% of active TB cases in Ontario residents born abroad, and TB was detected a median of 18 days earlier in those undergoing surveillance than in those who were not referred to surveillance or who did not comply. Predictors of active TB postimmigration included radiographic markers of old TB, birth country, immigration category, location of application for residency, immune status and age. Interpretation: Universal screening for TB in new immigrants has a modest impact on the domestic burden of active TB and is highly inefficient. Focusing preimmigration screening in

  5. Osteoporosis management and fractures in the Métis of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jandoc, Racquel; Jembere, Nathaniel; Khan, Saba; Russell, Storm J; Allard, Yvon; Cadarette, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Half of Métis citizens, compared to less than 10 % of the general population of Ontario, reside in northern regions, with little access to bone mineral density (BMD) testing. Métis citizens had lower sex-specific and age-standardized rates of BMD testing, yet similar rates of fracture (both sexes) and pharmacotherapy (women only). To examine osteoporosis management and common osteoporosis-related fractures among Métis citizens compared to the general population of older adults residing in Ontario. We linked healthcare (medical and pharmacy) utilization and administrative (demographic) databases with the Métis Nation of Ontario citizenship registry to estimate osteoporosis management (bone mineral density [BMD] testing, pharmacotherapy) and fractures (hip, humerus, radius/ulna) among adults aged ≥50 years, from April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2011. Pharmacotherapy data were limited to residents aged ≥65 years. Sex-specific and age-standardized rates were compared between the Métis and the general population. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare rates of BMD testing after controlling for differences in age and region of residence between the Métis and the general population. We studied 4219 Métis citizens (55 % men), and 140 (3 %) experienced a fracture. Half of Métis citizens, compared to less than 10 % of the general population of Ontario, resided in northern regions. We identified significantly lower sex-specific and age-standardized rates of BMD testing among Métis compared to the general population, yet found little difference in fracture rates (both sexes) or pharmacotherapy (women only). Differences in BMD testing disappeared after adjusting for region of residence among women yet remained significant among men. Despite finding significantly lower rates of osteoporosis management among men, Métis men and women were found to have similar age-standardized fracture rates to the general population.

  6. Multi-Province Listeriosis Outbreak Linked to Contaminated Deli Meat Consumed Primarily in Institutional Settings, Canada, 2008.

    PubMed

    Currie, Andrea; Farber, Jeffrey M; Nadon, Céline; Sharma, Davendra; Whitfield, Yvonne; Gaulin, Colette; Galanis, Eleni; Bekal, Sadjia; Flint, James; Tschetter, Lorelee; Pagotto, Franco; Lee, Brenda; Jamieson, Fred; Badiani, Tina; MacDonald, Diane; Ellis, Andrea; May-Hadford, Jennifer; McCormick, Rachel; Savelli, Carmen; Middleton, Dean; Allen, Vanessa; Tremblay, Francois-William; MacDougall, Laura; Hoang, Linda; Shyng, Sion; Everett, Doug; Chui, Linda; Louie, Marie; Bangura, Helen; Levett, Paul N; Wilkinson, Krista; Wylie, John; Reid, Janet; Major, Brian; Engel, Dave; Douey, Donna; Huszczynski, George; Di Lecci, Joe; Strazds, Judy; Rousseau, Josée; Ma, Kenneth; Isaac, Leah; Sierpinska, Urszula

    2015-08-01

    A multi-province outbreak of listeriosis occurred in Canada from June to November 2008. Fifty-seven persons were infected with 1 of 3 similar outbreak strains defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 24 (42%) individuals died. Forty-one (72%) of 57 individuals were residents of long-term care facilities or hospital inpatients during their exposure period. Descriptive epidemiology, product traceback, and detection of the outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes in food samples and the plant environment confirmed delicatessen meat manufactured by one establishment and purchased primarily by institutions was the source of the outbreak. The food safety investigation identified a plant environment conducive to the introduction and proliferation of L. monocytogenes and persistently contaminated with Listeria spp. This outbreak demonstrated the need for improved listeriosis surveillance, strict control of L. monocytogenes in establishments producing ready-to-eat foods, and advice to vulnerable populations and institutions serving these populations regarding which high-risk foods to avoid.

  7. Body weight perceptions and eating-related weight control behaviors of on-reserve First Nations youth from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gates, Allison; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D; Gates, Michelle; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating the body weight perceptions and eating-related weight control behaviors of First Nations (FN) youth living on reserve in Canada has been scarce. Knowledge of body weight perceptions may help to improve the relevance of initiatives promoting healthy weights. The purpose of this study was to examine the body weight perceptions and eating-related weight control behaviors of grade 6-8 on-reserve FN youth from seven Ontario communities. Data were collected from December 2003 to June 2010 from a convenience sample of FN youth (aged 10-14 years) using the Waterloo Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Participants were categorized into body mass index (BMI) categories based on International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut points. Frequency statistics were computed in the comparison of measured BMI and weight perceptions and weight control behaviors. Differences by BMI category were tested using Pearson Χ2 tests. A total of 267 youth from seven Ontario FN communities participated in the study (48.6% male). Overall, 36.3% of youth were overweight and 21.3% were obese (combined total of 57.6%). Similar to non-Aboriginal youth, a greater proportion of FN girls who were at a normal weight were concerned that their weight was too high compared to boys. However, one-third of normal weight boys were currently trying to lose weight. A greater proportion of obese girls were trying to lose weight compared to boys. Overall, a large proportion of both overweight boys and girls were attempting to gain weight. The present study provides a unique investigation into the weight perceptions and weight control behaviors of on-reserve FN youth living in isolated communities in Ontario, Canada. Many of the perceptions elucidated in this study are similar to those observed in non-Aboriginal youth, while others differed. The knowledge of these perceptions and further research to investigate what factors influences them will help to customize health promoting

  8. Exploring relationships between whole carcass condemnation abattoir data, non-disease factors and disease outbreaks in swine herds in Ontario (2001-2007).

    PubMed

    Thomas-Bachli, Andrea L; Pearl, David L; Friendship, Robert M; Berke, Olaf

    2014-03-28

    Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 - 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 - 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale

  9. Microstructural analysis of calcite-filled fractures inherited from basement structures, southern Ontario, Canada: long term instability of the craton?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalding, Jennifer; Schneider, David

    2016-04-01

    Intra-cratonic regions are generally characterized by tectonic stability and low seismicity. In southern Ontario, Canada, moderate levels of seismicity have been recorded over the last few decades reaching magnitudes of 5 MN, indicating that the geosphere is not as stable as predicted. The stratigraphy of the region consists of Ordovician limestone with a thickness of ~200 m that unconformably overlays the Mesoproterozoic crystalline Grenville Province. Subsequent tectonism including repeated Paleozoic orogenies and rifting along the east coast of North America has reactivated Proterozoic structures that have propagated into the overlying carbonate platform forming mesoscopic-scale brittle structures. Exposed along the shores of Lake Ontario are decameter-scale fracture zones, with a fracture spacing of 0.5 to 10 meters. The dominant fracture set trends E-W, and often forms conjugate sets with less prominent NNE-oriented fractures. More locally, an older NW-oriented fracture set is cross cut by the E-W and NNE oriented fractures. Regionally, there have been six directions of maximum horizontal stress in southern Ontario since the Precambrian, with the current orientation of maximum stress oriented ENE as a consequence of far field Atlantic ridge-push forces generated at distant plate boundaries. Calcite mineralization along fractured surfaces locally form sub-horizontal slickenside fabrics which are covered by a layer of euhedral calcite crystals, suggesting that fracture dilation (and fluid flow) occurred after fracture slip to allow the growth of calcite crystals. Due to the proximity of the carbonate units to the crystalline basement, we expect the calcitic veins to be enriched in rare earth elements and are presently conducting geochemical analyses. The calcite veins and surfaces vary from 2.5 cm to 1 mm thicknesses, often with larger calcite crystals in the center of the vein and smaller crystals at the vein boundaries, likely representing nucleation on small

  10. The Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network

    Treesearch

    Chris Jones; Brian Craig; Nicole Dmytrow

    2006-01-01

    Canada’s Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Environment Canada (Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network) are developing an aquatic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring network for Ontario’s lakes, streams, and wetlands. We are building the program, called the Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network (OBBN), on the principles of partnership, free data sharing, and...

  11. Utilization of cardiac computed tomography angiography and outpatient invasive coronary angiography in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Roifman, Idan; Rezai, Mohammad R; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Chow, Benjamin J W; Wright, Graham A; Tu, Jack V

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA) has emerged as a non-invasive method of diagnosing coronary artery disease. The extent of utilization and uptake of this technology since initiation of its funding by the government of Ontario is unknown. The aim of our study was to examine coronary CTA utilization and the rates of elective invasive coronary angiography and revascularization before and after funding initiation. We studied all coronary CTAs performed on adults in Ontario after initiation of funding. We also used an interrupted time series analysis to compare the average monthly rates of invasive angiography and revascularization before and after initiation of funding. There was an initial steep increase in age-and sex-standardized rates of coronary CTA from 5.0 to 11.4/100,000 over the first two quarters after funding initiation. Afterwards, there was a gradual increase in utilization from 11.4 to 17.1/100,000 over two subsequent calendar years. There was a significant reduction in both the mean monthly outpatient invasive coronary angiography (from 20.7 to 19.9 per 100,000 (p = 0.0004)) and revascularization (from 4.9 to 4.4 per 100,000 (p < 0.0001)) rates in the three years following introduction of the coronary CTA billing code as compared to the three prior to its introduction. Since the introduction of coronary CTA funding in Ontario, there has been a steady and controlled increase in its utilization. The increasing use of coronary CTA was associated with a reduction in both the rates of invasive angiography and revascularization. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reported municipal costs from outdoor smoke-free by-laws-experience from Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2006, enclosed public and workplaces in Ontario were made smoke-free by the Smoke-free Ontario Act (SFOA). Numerous area municipalities across the province have since developed local by-laws that are more restrictive than the SFOA and ban smoking in outdoor environments including parks, beaches, and patios. The current study measured reported costs associated with the implementation and enforcement of smoke-free outdoor municipal by-laws including materials and staffing costs. The study also assessed the number of warnings or tickets issued to smokers. Ontario communities with a by-law in force for at least 2 years were included in the sample (n = 42). The study was completed by 88% of area municipalities (n = 37). Municipal staff and managers completed a survey by telephone between June-September 2012. Findings No area municipality surveyed reported that they hired additional enforcement staff as a result of their community’s smoke-free by-law. Most municipalities (95%) posted signage to support awareness of their by-law; signs costs ranged from $40-$150/sign with most municipalities reporting signs were made in-house. Most communities reported actively enforcing the by-law; six communities reported they had issued tickets to people not in compliance with outdoor smoking restrictions. Conclusions The implementation, promotion, and enforcement of outdoor smoke-free by-laws have required municipal staff time and in most cases have promotional costs, but these have come from existing budgets and using existing staff. Outdoor smoke-free by-laws have not created significant burdens on municipal enforcement staff or on municipal budgets. PMID:24581326

  13. Lung cancer risk from radon in Ontario, Canada: how many lung cancers can we prevent?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Emily; Aker, Amira; Kim, JinHee; Li, Ye; Brand, Kevin; Copes, Ray

    2013-11-01

    To calculate the burden of lung cancer illness due to radon for all thirty-six health units in Ontario and determine the number of radon-attributable lung cancer deaths that could be prevented. We calculated the population attributable risk percent, excess life-time risk ratio, life-years lost, the number of lung cancer deaths due to radon, and the number of deaths that could be prevented if all homes above various cut-points were effectively reduced to background levels. It is estimated that 13.6 % (95 % CI 11.0, 16.7) of lung cancer deaths in Ontario are attributable to radon, corresponding to 847 (95 % CI 686, 1,039) lung cancer deaths each year, approximately 84 % of these in ever-smokers. If all homes above 200 Bq/m(3), the current Canadian guideline, were remediated to background levels, it is estimated that 91 lung cancer deaths could be prevented each year, 233 if remediation was performed at 100 Bq/m(3). There was important variation across health units. Radon is an important contributor to lung cancer deaths in Ontario. A large portion of radon-attributable lung cancer deaths are from exposures below the current Canadian guideline, suggesting interventions that install effective radon-preventive measures into buildings at build may be a good alternative population prevention strategy to testing and remediation. For some health units, testing and remediation may also prevent a portion of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Regional attributable risk estimates can help with local public health resource allocation and decision making.

  14. Specialized multi-disciplinary heart failure clinics in Ontario, Canada: an environmental scan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multi-disciplinary heart failure (HF) clinics have been shown to improve outcomes for HF patients in randomized clinical trials. However, it is unclear how widely available specialized HF clinics are in Ontario. Also, the service models of current clinics have not been described. It is therefore uncertain whether the efficacy of HF clinics in trials is generalizable to the HF clinics currently operating in the province. Methods As part of a comprehensive evaluation of HF clinics in Ontario, we performed an environmental scan to identify all HF clinics operating in 2010. A semi-structured interview was conducted to understand the scope of practice. The intensity and complexity of care offered were quantified through the use of a validated instrument, and clinics were categorized as high, medium or low intensity clinics. Results We identified 34 clinics with 143 HF physicians. We found substantial regional disparity in access to care across the province. The majority of HF physicians were cardiologists (81%), with 81% of the clinics physically based in hospitals, of which 26% were academic centers. There was a substantial range in the complexity of services offered, most notably in the intensity of education and medication management services offered. All the clinics focused on ambulatory care, with only one having an in-patient focus. None of the HF clinics had a home-based component to care. Conclusions Multiple HF clinics are currently operating in Ontario with a wide spectrum of care models. Further work is necessary to understand which components lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:22863276

  15. Carbon isotopic composition of deep carbon gases in an ombrogenous peatland, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Aravena, R. . Center for Groundwater Research and Wetlands Research Center); Warner, B.G. . Wetlands Research Center and Dept. of Geography); Charman, D.J. . Dept. of Geographical Sciences); Belyea, L.R. . School of Biological Sciences); Mathur, S.P. ); Dinel, H. )

    1993-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and carbon isotope analyses of deep peat and gases in a small ombrogenous peatland in northwestern Ontario reveals the presence of old gases at depth that are 1000-2000 yr younger than the enclosing peat. The authors suggest that the most likely explanation to account for this age discrepancy is the downward movement by advection of younger dissolved organic carbon for use by fermentation and methanogens bacteria. This study identifies a potentially large supply of old carbon gases in peatlands that should be considered in global carbon models of the terrestrial biosphere.

  16. A study on the levels of radioactivity in fish samples from the experimental lakes area in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Rennie, Michael D; Sadi, Baki; Zhang, Weihua; St-Amant, Nadereh

    2016-03-01

    To better understand background radiation levels in country foods, a total of 125 fish samples were collected from three lakes (Lake 226, Lake 302 and Lake 305) in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario of Canada during the summer of 2014. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) as well as anthropogenic radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured. This study confirmed that (210)Po is the dominant contributor to radiation doses resulting from fish consumption. While concentrations of (210)Pb and (226)Ra were below conventional detection limits, (210)Po was measured in almost all fish samples collected from the ELA. The average concentration was about 1.5 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw). None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs. An average (137)Cs level of 6.1 Bq/kg fw was observed in freshwater fishes harvested in the ELA, almost twice that of samples measured in the National Capital Region of Canada in 2014 and more than 20 times higher than the levels observed in marine fish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 and 2014. However, it is important to note that the concentrations of (137)Cs in fish samples from these inland lakes are considered very low from a radiological protection perspective. The resulting radiation dose for people from fish consumption would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. The results indicate that fishes from inland lakes do not pose a radiological health concern. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Histoplasmosis outbreak associated with the renovation of an old house - Quebec, Canada, 2013.

    PubMed

    2014-01-03

    On May 19, 2013, a consulting physician contacted the Laurentian Regional Department of Public Health (Direction de santé publique des Laurentides [DSP]) in Quebec, Canada, to report that two masons employed by the same company to do demolition work were experiencing cough and dyspnea accompanied by fever. Other workers also were said to be ill. DSP initiated a joint infectious disease, environmental health, and occupational health investigation to determine the extent and cause of the outbreak. The investigation identified 14 persons with respiratory symptoms among 30 potentially exposed persons. A strong correlation was found between exposure to demolition dust containing bat or bird droppings and a diagnosis of histoplasmosis. Temporary suspension of construction work at the demolition site in Saint-Eustache, Quebec, northwest from Montreal, and transport of the old masonry elements to a secure site for burial were ordered, and information about the disease was provided to workers and residents. To prevent future outbreaks, recommendations included disinfection of any contaminated material, disposal of waste material with proper control of aerosolized dust, and mandatory use of personal protective equipment such as gloves, protective clothing, and adequate respirators.

  18. Hidden plastics of Lake Ontario, Canada and their potential preservation in the sediment record.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Norris, Todd; Ceccanese, Trevor; Walzak, Mary Jane; Helm, Paul A; Marvin, Chris H

    2015-09-01

    Microplastics are a source of environmental pollution resulting from degradation of plastic products and spillage of resin pellets. We report the amounts of microplastics from various sites of Lake Ontario and evaluate their potential for preservation in the sediment record. A total of 4635 pellets were sampled from the Humber Bay shoreline on three sampling dates. Pellet colours were similar to those from the Humber River bank, suggesting that the river is a pathway for plastics transport into Lake Ontario. Once in the lake, high density microplastics, including mineral-polyethylene and mineral-polypropylene mixtures, sink to the bottom. The minerals may be fillers that were combined with plastics during production, or may have adsorbed to the surfaces of the polymers in the water column or on the lake bottom. Based on sediment depths and accumulation rates, microplastics have accumulated in the offshore region for less than 38 years. Their burial increases the chance of microplastics preservation. Shoreline pellets may not be preserved because they are mingled with organic debris that is reworked during storm events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experience, training and confidence among small, non-community drinking water system operators in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pons, Wendy; McEwen, Scott A; Pintar, Katarina; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Young, Ian; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The water operator plays an important role in water safety; however, little published research exists that has examined this role. The purpose of this study was to develop a greater understanding of the experience, existing knowledge, confidence and future training needs of the small, non-community drinking water operator in Ontario in order to help guide future outreach and training opportunities. A cross-sectional telephone survey of 332 small, non-community drinking water operators in Ontario was conducted in July and August 2011. Survey questions pertained to respondents' experience as operators, formal training, perceived importance of water safety issues, confidence in handling water safety issues, and future training needs. Approximately 16% (54/330) of respondents had one year or less experience as a water operator, and 60% (199/332) reported that being a water operator was not a chosen profession. Only 37% (124/332) of operators reported completing operator training. Respondents reported a preference for online training courses or on-site training (compared with a classroom setting). Low training rates, inexperience, and in certain situations, low confidence, among many small water system operators highlight a need to provide continued support to the development of ongoing training opportunities in this population.

  20. Monitoring wood shaving litter and animal products for polychlorophenols residues, Ontario, Canada 1978-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Stonefield, K.I.; Luyken, H.

    1988-03-01

    Timber is extensively treated with the wood preservative pesticides collectively called the polychlorophenols (PxCP) which include tri-(T3CP), tetra-(T4CP), and pentachlorophenol (P5CP). These treatments are intended to protect lumber against the attacks of wood eating or boring insects and the wood decaying and staining fungi. Wood shavings are a by-product of the lumber industry that have been utilized widely in agriculture for many years as a major bedding litter for poultry, swine, and cattle and a minor litter for other domestic animals. Complaints were lodged within the Province of Ontario of off-flavors in locally produced poultry meat. Many local poultry producers reported having difficulties with (1) the fertility of their breeding flocks and (2) the ineffectiveness of vaccines among poultry raised on wood shavings but which disappeared when raised on cereal straw. An Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food service was offered whereby producers could have their wood shavings analyzed and receive guidance on the advisability of use. This paper reports on this service started in 1978 for wood shavings, and on a follow-up monitoring program to determine residues of PxCP in domestic animal products.

  1. Lead isotope identification of sources of galena from some prehistoric Indian sites in Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Farquhar, R.M.; Fletcher, I.R.

    1980-02-08

    Lead isotopic compositions of 12 galenas from five late Archaic-initial Woodland grave and habitation sites in southern Ontario have made it possible to determine the most likely source areas for the galenas. For one of the oldest sites (Finlan), the most likely source is in the southwestern Upper Mississippi Valley (Wisconsin-Illinois-Iowa) mineral district. The seven Finlan galenas exhibit a range of isotopic ratios; three of the largest specimens have substantial isotopic variations (up to 1.8% in the ratio of lead-207 to lead-206) on a scale of a few centimeters. This suggests that the lead isotopic zoning ascribed to the Upper Mississippi Valley area is not sufficiently well defined to enable us to determine if all the Finlan samples were derived from a single mineral deposit. Galenas from the other sites (Constance Bay, Hind, Bruce Boyd, and Picton) most probably originated in the southeastern Ontario-northwestern New York area. Isotopic differences among the Constance Bay, Hind, and Bruce Boyd galenas, on the one hand, and the Picton galena, on the other, suggest that at least two distinct sources in that region were exploited.

  2. Lead isotope identification of sources of galena from some prehistoric Indian sites in ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, R M; Fletcher, I R

    1980-02-08

    Lead isotopic compositions of 12 galenas from five late Archaic-initial Woodland grave and habitation sites in southern Ontario have made it possible to determine the "most likely" source areas for the galenas. For one of the oldest sites (Finlan), the most likely source is in the southwestern Upper Mississippi Valley (Wisconsin-Illinois-Iowa) mineral district. The seven Finlan galenas exhibit a range of isotopic ratios; three of the largest specimens have substantial isotopic variations (up to 1.8 percent in the ratio of lead-207 to lead-206) on a scale of a few centimeters. This suggests that the lead isotopic zoning ascribed to the Upper Mississippi Valley area is not sufficiently well defined to enable us to determine if all the Finlan samples were derived from a single mineral deposit. Galenas from the other sites (Constance Bay, Hind, Bruce Boyd, and Picton) most probably originated in the southeastern Ontario-northwestern New York area. Isotopic differences among the Constance Bay, Hind, and Bruce Boyd galenas, on the one hand, and the Picton galena, on the other, suggest that at least two distinct sources in that region were exploited.

  3. Pleistocene glacio-lacustrine deltaic deposits of the Scarborough Formation, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, R. I.; Martini, I. P.

    1986-04-01

    The late Pleistocene Scarborough Formation of the Lake Ontario Basin represents a lacustrine-deltaic sequence strongly affected by a nearby glacier. It shows gradual upward coarsening and thickening of layers from varve-like, clay-rich rhythmites at the base to channelized cross-bedded sands at the top. Thick, lensing, "massive" layers (Cm) of silty sand are found interstratified with thin layers of silt and clay in the lower and middle parts of the sequence. These "massive" layers were probably formed by subaqueous gravity flows of material in part derived directly from a glacier. Absence of pebbles and of other features such as glacial silt-pellets suggests dispersal away from the foot of the glacier rather than deposition under floating ice. Varve-like rhythmites, pollen and insect fauna indicate subarctic to arctic climatic conditions at the time of sediment deposition. The large amount of sand in the upper part of the formation is best explained as derived from active outwash fans. Similar fans were formed during the last deglaciation in southern Ontario and can be observed on the landscape.

  4. Factors influencing the occurrence and distribution of neonicotinoid insecticides in surface waters of southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Struger, John; Grabuski, Josey; Cagampan, Steve; Sverko, Ed; McGoldrick, Daryl; Marvin, Christopher H

    2017-02-01

    The widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides and recent increased regulatory scrutiny requires the generation of monitoring data with sufficient scope and resolution to provide decision makers with a better understanding of occurrence and distribution in the environment. This study presents a wide-scale investigation of neonicotinoid insecticides used across the range of agricultural activities from fifteen surface water sites in southern Ontario. Using statistical analysis, the correlation of individual compounds with land use was investigated, and the relationship between neonicotinoid occurrence and hydrologic parameters in calibrated water courses was also assessed. Of the five neonicotinoids studied, imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiamethoxam exhibited detection rates above 90% at over half the sites sampled over a three year period (2012-2014). At two sites in southwestern Ontario, the Canadian Federal freshwater guideline value for imidacloprid (230 ng/L) was exceeded in roughly 75% of the samples collected. For some watersheds, there were correlations between the occurrence of neonicotinoids and precipitation and/or stream discharge. Some watersheds exhibited seasonal maxima in concentrations of neonicotinoids in spring and fall, particularly for those areas where row crop agriculture is predominant; these seasonal patterns were absent in some areas characterized by a broad range of agricultural activities.

  5. Mercury exposure in breeding common loons (Gavia immer) in central Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Evers, D.C.; Atchison, C.M.; Wong, A.H.K.

    1998-02-01

    Total Hg concentrations were determined in blood and feather samples of breeding common loons (Gavia immer) and their chicks from 24 lakes in Ontario with a range of water chemistry and fish Hg concentrations. In paired comparisons, males had significantly higher blood and feather concentrations than their female mates. Sex differences in Hg concentrations were attributable to size differences between the two sexes and to the possible transfer of Hg to eggs by females during egg-laying. Significantly higher blood and feather Hg concentrations were found in adult loons compared to their chicks. Adult blood Hg concentrations were significantly correlated with those of their chicks. Adult blood concentrations averaged about 13 times those of corresponding chicks. Both adult and chick blood Hg concentrations were positively correlated with fish Hg concentrations, indicating that adult loons in central Ontario, like their chicks, probably feed mainly on their breeding lakes and reflect the fish Hg concentrations of those lakes. Three of 24 lakes had 20- to 50-g fish with Hg concentrations at or exceeding the critical concentration reported to cause reproductive impairment in loons. Monitoring Hg in blood (adult and chick) and feathers (chicks only) is useful for assessing the local bioavailability of methylmercury and the degree of current dietary Hg exposure in loons and other piscivorous birds.

  6. Lead in the tissues of terrestrial raptors in southern Ontario, Canada, 1995-2001.

    PubMed

    Martin, Pamela A; Campbell, Douglas; Hughes, Kimberley; McDaniel, Tana

    2008-02-25

    Terrestrial raptors which feed on upland hunted game species may increase their risk to lead exposure and lead poisoning by ingesting lead shot found in the tissues of prey. Lead exposure in 225 individuals of nineteen species of terrestrial raptors, collected as carcasses in southern Ontario from 1995-2001, was examined through the analysis of bone, liver and kidney tissues. In this study, one red-tailed hawk contained liver lead concentrations and exhibited signs consistent with lead poisoning. Liver and kidney concentrations of one turkey vulture were also significantly higher than that associated with subclinical effects. This same bird, plus another turkey vulture and a northern harrier, had elevated bone lead concentrations (>10 microg/g dw) associated with possible toxicity. Turkey vultures had the highest mean concentrations of lead in bone and kidney compared to other raptor species. While it appeared only a single bird suffered acute lead poisoning, lead levels exceeded threshold concentrations associated with subclinical or acute toxicity in 4 of 225, almost 2%, of terrestrial raptors assessed. Given the association between lead exposure in raptors and hunting of game species reported in other studies, the continued use of lead shot for upland hunting in Ontario likely remains as one of the primary sources of lead and a continued risk to these birds of prey.

  7. BIOLOGY OF THE LEECH ACTINOBDELLA INEQUIANNULATA MOORE, 1901 (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: RHYNCHOBDELLIDA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE), PARASITIC ON THE WHITE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS COMMERSONI LACEPEDE, 1803 AND THE LONGNOSE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS CATOSTOMUS FORSTER, 1773, IN ALGONQUIN PROVINCIAL PARK, ONTARIO, CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actinobdella inequiannulata was found on the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and less frequently on the longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus, in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Catostomus commersoni parasitized with Act. inequiannulata was collected from July ...

  8. BIOLOGY OF THE LEECH ACTINOBDELLA INEQUIANNULATA MOORE, 1901 (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: RHYNCHOBDELLIDA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE), PARASITIC ON THE WHITE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS COMMERSONI LACEPEDE, 1803 AND THE LONGNOSE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS CATOSTOMUS FORSTER, 1773, IN ALGONQUIN PROVINCIAL PARK, ONTARIO, CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actinobdella inequiannulata was found on the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and less frequently on the longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus, in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Catostomus commersoni parasitized with Act. inequiannulata was collected from July ...

  9. Reading the Urban Landscape: The Case of a Campus Tour at York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardekjian, Adrina; Classens, Michael; Sandberg, L. Anders

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a campus tour assignment in a first-year undergraduate environmental studies course at York University, Toronto, Canada. As a pedagogical tool, the assignment enables students to interrogate the dominant narratives of a university's immediate physical spaces and to apply broader theoretical and practical concepts to their…

  10. Canadian Distance Educators Meeting (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, July 8-9, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver (British Columbia).

    The Commonwealth of Learning (COL), in cooperation with Laurentian University, convened a 2-day meeting of some 30 Canadian educators to ascertain through discussion and dialogue how best and to what purposes COL might cooperate with institutions and associations involved in distance education in Canada. This report summarizes six presentations…

  11. Reading the Urban Landscape: The Case of a Campus Tour at York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardekjian, Adrina; Classens, Michael; Sandberg, L. Anders

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a campus tour assignment in a first-year undergraduate environmental studies course at York University, Toronto, Canada. As a pedagogical tool, the assignment enables students to interrogate the dominant narratives of a university's immediate physical spaces and to apply broader theoretical and practical concepts to their…

  12. Canadian Distance Educators Meeting (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, July 8-9, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver (British Columbia).

    The Commonwealth of Learning (COL), in cooperation with Laurentian University, convened a 2-day meeting of some 30 Canadian educators to ascertain through discussion and dialogue how best and to what purposes COL might cooperate with institutions and associations involved in distance education in Canada. This report summarizes six presentations…

  13. First report of QoI insensitive Cercospora beticola on sugarbeet in Ontario, Canada

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cercospora beticola causes Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) and is the most destructive foliar disease of sugarbeet worldwide. The QoI fungicide pyraclostrobin has been an important management tool for CLS in Canada since 2003. Beginning in 2010 some growers reported unsatisf...

  14. Report on the Directory of Library Collections in Ethnocultural Organizations in Canada: Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliferis, Isabella; Wierucki, Karen

    This report discusses the methodology, problems, follow-up procedures, recommendations, and benefits involved in the compilation of a directory which will identify library collections held by ethnocultural clubs, federations, organizations, community centers, and language schools in Canada. Appendices contain samples of a form letter,…

  15. Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever) Seropositivity and Associated Risk Factors in Sheep and Goat Farm Workers in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Shannon; Jones-Bitton, Andria; McEwen, Scott A; Jansen, Jocelyn; Patel, Samir N; Filejski, Catherine; Menzies, Paula

    2016-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium that causes Q fever, a potentially severe disease of humans. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in sheep and goat farm workers in Ontario, Canada. Between August 2010 and March 2012, 172 farm workers from 78 sheep and goat farms were surveyed regarding demographics, lifestyle, farm practices, and medical history. Sera from these people were collected and analyzed for Q fever titers using the immunofluorescence assay. A mixed multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to identify risk factors for seropositivity. Individual-level and farm-level seroprevalence for C. burnetii were 64.5% (111/172, 95% CI = 57.2-71.4) and 74.4% (58/78, 95% CI = 63.2-83.6), respectively. Farm worker seropositivity was positively associated with an increasing proportion of seropositivity of sheep/goats on farm (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.07). A higher odds of seropositivity was also observed for people working on dairy goat farms compared to the odds on dairy sheep (OR = 0.04; 95% CI 0.003-0.53) or meat goat (OR = 0.09; 95% CI 0.01-0.67) farms. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity was common in workers on sheep and goat farms in Ontario. Given the significant risk of morbidity associated with this infection, early recognition and treatment of Q fever are important. The risk factors identified provide insight into disease transmission between animals and people, which is particularly important for farmers, researchers, medical doctors, veterinarians, and public health professionals. Physicians practicing in rural areas should consider Q fever infection when patients present with atypical pneumonia and suggestive risk factors.

  16. Modeling Phosphorus Dynamics in Multi-branched River and Lake Systems in the Lake Simcoe Catchment, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Whitehead, P. G.; Baulch, H. M.; Butterfield, D.; Crossman, J.; Dillon, P.; Oni, S. K.; Futter, M.; O'Connor, E.

    2011-12-01

    Nutrient enrichment has long been recognized as a major cause of impaired water quality. In southern Ontario, Canada, high rates of agricultural and urban nutrient loading, particularly phosphorus (P), have contributed to serious problems of surface water eutrophication and groundwater contamination. In Lake Simcoe, the second largest lake in southern Ontario, anthropogenic nutrients have contributed to increased algal growth, low hypolimnetic oxygen concentrations and impaired fish reproduction. Even though efforts in recent years have reduced P loads to the lake and led to improved water quality, the improvement is not yet sufficient and continuing efforts are required. An ambitious water quality management program has been initiated to reduce phosphorus loads by 40% to the lake by 2045. Increasing population growth within the catchment, superimposed on increased climate variability and future climate change may make this P load reduction even more challenging to achieve. The main P sources to Lake Simcoe are tributaries and atmospheric deposition. Because atmospheric inputs are difficult to control, a significant focus must be on reducing loading from the tributaries of Lake Simcoe. To improve the understanding of the phosphorus delivery, storage and transport within the Lake Simcoe catchment, a new version of integrated catchment phosphorus model (INCA-P) with the full-branched river network has been applied to the Black River, a tributary of Lake Simcoe. The model simulates the fluxes of P entering the lake and apportions P among different sources in the catchment. The model can be used independently to explore impacts of increased sewage loads due to population growth, land use change, climate change as well as to assess different management practices and remediation strategies. The multi-branched nature of the new version of the model enables concurrent modelling of all tributaries (>20), which will facilitate large-scale assessment of growth and climate

  17. Detecting the transport of toxic pesticides from golf courses into watersheds in the Precambrian Shield region of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Tracy L; Dillon, Peter J; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2008-04-01

    Golf courses impact the environment through alterations to habitat and through the release of nutrients and pesticides. The Precambrian Shield region of central Ontario, Canada, which is a major recreational area, is especially susceptible to the impacts of golf courses as a result of the geology and hydrology of the region. In a monitoring program at two golf courses in the Muskoka region conducted during the spring, summer, and fall of 2002, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed into streams that drain the golf courses. The extracts from the SPMDs were tested for toxicity using bioassays with early life stages of an aquarium fish, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Toxicity was assessed using a scoring system developed for the present study. The bioassays with medaka indicated that toxicity was highest in extracts from SPMDs deployed during the spring and the fall. The peaks in toxicity for the SPMDs deployed at the two golf courses corresponded with the presence in the SPMD extracts of pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) at concentrations up to 334 ng/SPMD. Quintozene is the turfgrass fungicide in which PCNB is the active ingredient. Pentachlorothioanisole, an anaerobic degradation product of PCNB, also was detected in the SPMDs deployed during the spring. Extracts prepared from SPMDs with high toxicity contained residues of a surfactant used in pesticide formulations, nonylphenol, at concentrations up to approximately 20 microg/SPMD. Overall, these data indicate that some pesticides applied to golf courses in the Precambrian Shield of central Ontario may have the potential to cause toxic impacts to aquatic organisms in adjacent watersheds.

  18. Mode shifting in school travel mode: examining the prevalence and correlates of active school transport in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies examining the correlates of school transport commonly fail to make the distinction between morning and afternoon school trips. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mode shift from passive in the morning to active in the afternoon among elementary and secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. Methods Data were derived from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). 3,633 students in grades 7 through 12 completed self-administered questionnaires. Socio-demographic, behavioural, psychological, and environmental predictors of active school transport (AST) were assessed using logistic regression. Results Overall, 47% and 38% of elementary school students reported AST to and from school, respectively. The corresponding figures were 23% and 32% for secondary school students. The prevalence of AST varied temporarily and spatially. There was a higher prevalence of walking/biking found for elementary school students than for secondary school students, and there was an approximate 10% increase in AST in the afternoon. Different correlates of active school transport were also found across elementary and secondary school students. For all ages, students living in urban areas, with a shorter travel time between home and school, and having some input to the decision making process, were more likely to walk to and from school. Conclusions Future research examining AST should continue to make the analytic distinction between the morning and afternoon trip, and control for the moderating effect of age and geography in predicting mode choice. In terms of practice, these variations highlight the need for school-specific travel plans rather than 'one size fits all' interventions in promoting active school transport. PMID:21812976

  19. Attitudes of oncologists towards palliative care and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) at an Ontario cancer center in Canada.

    PubMed

    Chasen, Martin; Bhargava, Ravi; Dalzell, Catherine; Pereira, José Luis

    2015-03-01

    Cancer Care Ontario promotes the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) for standardized systematic screening and assessment of symptoms across cancer centers in Ontario, Canada. Attitudes of medical oncologists (MOs), radiation oncologists (ROs), and general practitioners in oncology (GPOs) toward palliative care, and the ESAS were surveyed in Ottawa. A four-part questionnaire was developed, drawing on items from similar studies. Forty respondents (17 MOs, 16 ROs, and 7 GPOs) were interviewed. Attitudes to palliative care: regarding coordination of care across the illness trajectory including end of life by MOs, all ROs disagreed while 71.4 % of GPOs and 41.2 % of MOs agreed that this was the MO's role. Most respondents supported palliative care alongside concurrent anti-tumor therapies (82.4 % MOs, 62.5 % ROs, and 100 % GPOs). Attitudes to ESAS: respondents agreed that the ESAS enhances care and assessment of symptom severity. ROs felt that reviewing the ESAS histogram was less useful than did MOs (42.9 versus 76.5 %, respectively); 56.3 % of ROs and 88.2 % of MOs agreed that the ESAS is useful for follow-up (p < 0.08); 64.7 % of MOs, 88.3 % of GPOs, and 6.3 % of ROs agreed with ESAS completion at every visit (p < 0.00). Frequency of use of the ESAS: 62.5 % of respondents reported inspecting the ESAS "most of the time or always," while 17.5 % reported "never" or "rarely." MOs and GPOs appear more positive than ROs toward regular use of ESAS. There is discordance between what is perceived to be a useful beneficial instrument versus actual use of the instrument in daily practice. The reasons for this gap need to be better understood in future studies.

  20. Attractiveness of employment sectors for physical therapists in Ontario, Canada (1999-2007): implication for the long term care sector.

    PubMed

    Landry, Michel D; Hastie, Robyn; Oñate, Känecy; Gamble, Brenda; Deber, Raisa B; Verrier, Molly C

    2012-05-29

    Recruiting and retaining health professions remains a high priority for health system planners. Different employment sectors may vary in their appeal to providers. We used the concepts of inflow and stickiness to assess the relative attractiveness of sectors for physical therapists (PTs) in Ontario, Canada. Inflow was defined as the percentage of PTs working in a sector who were not there the previous year. Stickiness was defined as the transition probability that a physical therapist will remain in a given employment sector year-to-year. A longitudinal dataset of registered PTs in Ontario (1999-2007) was created, and primary employment sector was categorized as 'hospital', 'community', 'long term care' (LTC) or 'other.' Inflow and stickiness values were then calculated for each sector, and trends were analyzed. There were 5003 PTs in 1999, which grew to 6064 by 2007, representing a 21.2% absolute growth. Inflow grew across all sectors, but the LTC sector had the highest inflow of 32.0%. PTs practicing in hospitals had the highest stickiness, with 87.4% of those who worked in this sector remaining year-to-year. The community and other employment sectors had stickiness values of 78.2% and 86.8% respectively, while the LTC sector had the lowest stickiness of 73.4%. Among all employment sectors, LTC had highest inflow but lowest stickiness. Given expected increases in demand for services, understanding provider transitional probabilities and employment preferences may provide a useful policy and planning tool in developing a sustainable health human resource base across all employment sectors.

  1. Attractiveness of employment sectors for physical therapists in Ontario, Canada (1999-2007): implication for the long term care sector

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recruiting and retaining health professions remains a high priority for health system planners. Different employment sectors may vary in their appeal to providers. We used the concepts of inflow and stickiness to assess the relative attractiveness of sectors for physical therapists (PTs) in Ontario, Canada. Inflow was defined as the percentage of PTs working in a sector who were not there the previous year. Stickiness was defined as the transition probability that a physical therapist will remain in a given employment sector year-to-year. Methods A longitudinal dataset of registered PTs in Ontario (1999-2007) was created, and primary employment sector was categorized as ‘hospital’, ‘community’, ‘long term care’ (LTC) or ‘other.’ Inflow and stickiness values were then calculated for each sector, and trends were analyzed. Results There were 5003 PTs in 1999, which grew to 6064 by 2007, representing a 21.2% absolute growth. Inflow grew across all sectors, but the LTC sector had the highest inflow of 32.0%. PTs practicing in hospitals had the highest stickiness, with 87.4% of those who worked in this sector remaining year-to-year. The community and other employment sectors had stickiness values of 78.2% and 86.8% respectively, while the LTC sector had the lowest stickiness of 73.4%. Conclusion Among all employment sectors, LTC had highest inflow but lowest stickiness. Given expected increases in demand for services, understanding provider transitional probabilities and employment preferences may provide a useful policy and planning tool in developing a sustainable health human resource base across all employment sectors. PMID:22643111

  2. High-risk driving attitudes and everyday driving violations of car and racing enthusiasts in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yildirim-Yenier, Zümrüt; Vingilis, Evelyn; Wiesenthal, David L; Mann, Robert E; Seeley, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes and individual difference variables of car and racing enthusiasts regarding high-risk behaviors of street racing and stunt driving have recently been investigated. Positive attitudes toward high-risk driving, personality variables such as driver thrill seeking, and other self-reported risky driving acts were associated with these behaviors. However, probable relationships among high-risk driving tendencies, everyday driving behaviors, and negative road safety outcomes have remained largely unexamined. This study aimed to investigate the associations among car and racing enthusiasts' high-risk driving attitudes, self-reported everyday driving violations (i.e., ordinary and aggressive violations), and self-reported negative outcomes (i.e., collisions and driving offense citations). A web-based survey was conducted with members and visitors of car club and racing websites in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from 366 participants. The questionnaire included 4 attitude measures-(1) attitudes toward new penalties for Ontario's Street Racers, Stunt and Aggressive Drivers Legislation; (2) attitudes toward new offenses of stunt driving under the same legislation; (3) general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving; (4) comparison of street racing with other risky driving behaviors-self-reported driving violations (i.e., ordinary and aggressive violations); self-reported collisions and offense citations; and background and driving questions (e.g., age, driving frequency). Results revealed that attitudes toward stunt driving offenses negatively and general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving positively predicted ordinary violations, which, in turn, predicted offense citations. Moreover, general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving positively predicted aggressive violations, which, in turn, predicted offense citations. The findings indicate that positive high-risk driving attitudes may be transferring to driving violations in

  3. Demographic and clinical factors correlating with high levels of psychological distress in HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Anita C; Light, Lucia; Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra; Rourke, Sean B; Wobeser, Wendy; Loutfy, Mona R

    2014-01-01

    The concept of psychological distress includes a range of emotional states with symptoms of depression and anxiety and has yet to be reported in HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada, who are known to live with contributing factors. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychological distress among women accessing HIV care participating in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). The K10 is a 10-item, five-level response scale. K10 values range from 10 to 50 with values less than or equal to 19 categorized as not clinically significant, scores between 20 and 24 as moderate levels, 25-29 as high, and 30-50 as very high psychological distress. Correlates of psychological distress were assessed using the Pearson's chi-square test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moderate, high, and very high levels of psychological distress were experienced by 16.9, 10.4, and 15.1% of the 337 women in our cohort, respectively, with 57.6% reporting none. Psychological distress levels greater than 19, correlated with being unemployed (vs. employed/student/retired; AOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.83), living in a household without their child/children (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.33-4.52), CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm(3) (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 0.89-4.80), and to a lesser degree an education of some college or less (vs. completed college or higher; AOR=1.71, 95% CI: 0.99-2.95). Age and ethnicity, a priori variables of interest, did not correlate with psychological distress. Findings suggest that socioeconomic factors which shape the demography of women living with HIV in Ontario, low CD4 counts, and losing the opportunity to care for their child/children has a significant relationship with psychological distress. Approaches to manage psychological distress should address and make considerations for the lived experiences of women since they can act as potential barriers to

  4. Incidence, distribution, seasonality, and demographic risk factors of Salmonella Enteritidis human infections in Ontario, Canada, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Canada, surveillance systems have highlighted the increasing trend of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections. Our study objectives were to evaluate the epidemiology of S. Enteritidis infections in Ontario using surveillance data from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2009. Methods Annual age-and-sex-adjusted incidence rates (IRs), annual and mean age-adjusted sex-specific IRs, and mean age-and-sex-adjusted IRs by public health unit (PHU), were calculated for laboratory-confirmed S. Enteritidis cases across Ontario using direct standardization. Multivariable Poisson regression with PHU as a random effect was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of S. Enteritidis infections among years, seasons, age groups, and sexes. Results The annual age-and-sex-adjusted IR per 100,000 person-years was 4.4 [95% CI 4.0-4.7] in 2007, and 5.2 [95% CI 4.8-5.6] in both 2008 and 2009. The annual age-adjusted sex-specific IRs per 100,000 person-years ranged from 4.5 to 5.5 for females and 4.2 to 5.2 for males. The mean age-adjusted sex-specific IR was 5.1 [95% CI 4.8-5.4] for females and 4.8 [95% CI 4.5-5.1] for males. High mean age-and-sex-adjusted IRs (6.001-8.10) were identified in three western PHUs, one northern PHU, and in the City of Toronto. Regression results showed a higher IRR of S. Enteritidis infections in 2009 [IRR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.32; P = 0.003] and 2008 [IRR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.31; P = 0.005] compared to 2007. Compared to the fall season, a higher IRR of S. Enteritidis infections was observed in the spring [IRR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.29; P = 0.040]. Children 0–4 years of age (reference category), followed by children 5–9 years of age [IRR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.52-0.78; P < 0.001] had the highest IRRs. Adults ≥ 60 years of age and 40–49 years of age [IRR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.26-0.37; P < 0.001] had the lowest IRRs. Conclusions The study findings suggest that there was an increase in the incidence of S

  5. Lake sediment records of industrialization in the Sudbury area of Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Huhn, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The smelting of nickel and copper sulfide ores has drastically modified the original landscape around Sudbury, Ontario. A record of this impact exists in the sediments of local lakes. Changes in the annual fallout of heavy metals, identifiable smoke particulates, and pollen grains reflect the changes that occurred in the sedimentation rate and the vegetation. A year by year chronology for the last 300 years was provided by meromictic lake sediments containing countable seasonal laminations, obtained by a freezing technique that kept the sediments and sediment/water interface undisturbed. Results indicate that: correspondences of vegetation changes, and sedimentation rates with metal residues and smoke particulates in the sediments, and with published smelter records are good; annual laminations in meromictic lakes provided an excellent chronology, as checked against known dates for settlement and the onset of smelting; identifiable smoke particulates provided a good record of smelter activity, and were also a check on metal residue mobility in the sediments.

  6. SO2 damage to forests recorded by ERTS-1. [Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murtha, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide fumes have been affecting the forests around Wawa, Ontario, which have been under surveillance for a number of years and were recently covered by ultra-small-scale (1:160,000) air photography for damage-assessment purposes. Image interpretation supported by electronic color enhancement was used to delineate on ERTS imagery three damage zones (total-kill, heavy-kill and medium-damage zones). The zones delineated on ERTS imagery are similar to the results of aerial sketch-mapping and air photo interpretation. Band 5 provided the greatest detail for assessing the damage to the forests, followed in successive order by bands 4, 6 and 7. Comparison with ERTS images obtained in the winter showed that even though the total-kill could be separated from heavy-kill damage zones, total-kill could not be consistently separated from clear-cut logging, burned areas, frozen lakes and bogs.

  7. Forecasting the Need for Dialysis Services in Ontario, Canada to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Robert R.; Laupacis, Andreas; Hux, Janet E.; Moineddin, Rahim; Paterson, Michael; Oliver, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Careful projections of the demand for dialysis services are important to assist healthcare planners in forecasting the need for equipment, facilities and personnel. We used time series techniques to model the historical incidence and prevalence counts and to forecast the predicted number of patients requiring dialysis in the province of Ontario to 2011. We showed that the incidence and prevalence of dialysis patients continues to grow rapidly. More importantly, traditional definitions of “chronic dialysis” capture only 52% of all incident patients and ignore the acute dialysis population. Projections about the need for dialysis services based on these definitions may result in underestimation of the resources required to care for the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. PMID:20436799

  8. Floodplain management: Land acquisition versus preservation of historic buildings in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Wendy J.; Mitchell, Bruce

    1983-07-01

    Non-structural adjustments in floodplain management are often avoided because they are seen to infringe on personal rights, adversely affect property values and restrict local tax bases. Land acquisition programs in urban areas encounter a further problem when they lead to demolition of buildings and other structures considered to have historical or architectural value. An experience in Cambridge, Ontario demonstrates that the potential conflict between flood damage reduction and historical preservation objectives can be exacerbated as a result of uncoordinated planning efforts, inflexibility in interpreting mandates, unclear roles for participating agencies, and lack of cooperation Many of these dilemmas can be resolved through consultation and discussion early in the planning process as well as through a willingness to be flexible and to search for a compromise

  9. Metal burdens in two species of fiddleheads growing near the ore smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, L.V.; Parker, G.H. )

    1988-06-01

    The usefulness of selected plant species as potential bioindicators of environmental metal pollution has been clearly demonstrated. High levels of contamination within soils of the Sudbury, Ontario region are characteristically reflected in elevated plant burdens reported for the area. Previous studies investigating plant uptake of metals from Sudbury-area soils have been complicated, however, by the contribution of direct atmospheric deposition onto the foliage. The present study examines metal burdens in two fern species, Interrupted fern and Ostrich fern, resulting solely via root uptake from the soil, thus seeking to assess the indirect influences of the Sudbury-area smelters. The above condition was ensured by collecting the ferns immediately after appearance in the spring while they were still tightly curled and protected from aerial contamination of by the external wooly pubescence.

  10. Field evaluation of an inactivated vaccine to control raccoon rabies in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sobey, K G; Rosatte, R; Bachmann, P; Buchanan, T; Bruce, L; Donovan, D; Brown, L; Davies, J C; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Wandeler, A

    2010-07-01

    Since raccoon rabies first appeared in Ontario in 1999, >90,000 raccoons (Procyon lotor) have received IMRAB3 inactivated rabies vaccine via intramuscular (IM) injection and were released at the point of capture as part of a multiyear rabies control program, trap-vaccinate-release (TVR). Of the 132 confirmed cases infected with raccoon-variant rabies virus in Ontario between 1999 and 2005, two were from that vaccinated group, as indicated by the presence of identifying ear tags. During ongoing rabies control programs in 2003, sera were collected from 172 wild raccoons that had received IMRAB3 and tested for rabies-virus antibodies. Raccoons had one of three histories: 1) vaccinated in the current year only (to examine the response to primary vaccination), 2) vaccinated in the previous year only (to determine the duration of the primary antibody response), and 3) vaccinated in the previous year and current year (to examine antibody response to booster vaccination). Seroconversion in primary vaccinates could be detected as early as 1 wk postvaccination when sera were measured with the use of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) with a cutoff value established to correspond to a neutralizing titer of 0.5 IU/ml. During weeks three and four postvaccination, 94% of sampled raccoons had detectable antibodies to rabies virus and 31% were still antibody positive the following year. Differences in the kinetics of the immune response were found in raccoons sampled from the two different TVR areas of the province. A strong anamnestic response was detected after booster vaccinations. IMRAB3 by IM injection was found to be an efficacious vaccine for rabies control in raccoons.

  11. Patterns of physician prescribing for opioid maintenance treatment in Ontario, Canada in 2014.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qi; Khuu, Wayne; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kiran, Tara; Kahan, Meldon; Tadrous, Mina; Martins, Diana; Leece, Pamela; Gomes, Tara

    2017-08-01

    Despite concerns surrounding high patient volumes in methadone clinics, little is known about the practice patterns of opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) providers in Ontario. We examined the distribution of these services and how physician characteristics differ based on prescribing volume. We conducted a cross-sectional study among prescribers of methadone or buprenorphine to Ontario public drug beneficiaries in 2014 by stratifying physicians into low- (lower 50%), moderate- (51-89%) and high-volume (top 10%) prescribers. We summarized the distribution of OMT prescription days dispensed and urine drug screens (UDS) ordered using Lorenz curves and examined physician characteristics using descriptive statistics. We identified 893 OMT prescribers in 2014. Physicians were mostly male (67.5%; N=603), and middle-aged (median was 50). High-volume methadone providers (N=57) prescribed approximately 56% (N=4,115,322) of the total days of methadone (Gini coefficient=0.76, 95% CI 0.74-0.79) while high-volume buprenorphine providers (N=64) prescribed 61% (N=589,463) of the total days of buprenorphine (Gini coefficient=0.78, 95% CI 0.75-0.80). On average, each high-volume methadone prescriber treated 435 OMT patients and billed 43 UDS per patient, while each high-volume buprenorphine prescriber treated 64 OMT patients and billed 22 UDS per patient. Daily OMT patient volume was on average 74 for high-volume methadone prescribers and 6 for high-volume buprenorphine prescribers. OMT services are highly concentrated among a small portion of OMT providers who carry high daily patient volumes. Future research should examine the quality of primary care received by their patients to better elucidate the possible consequences of this highly unequal distribution of services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution of learning styles and preferences for learning environment characteristics among Emergency Medical Care Assistants (EMCAs) in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Campeau, A G

    1998-01-01

    In Ontario, Canada, Emergency Medical Care Assistants (EMCAs) have many opportunities for continuing education. However, little is known about how EMCAs learn. The intent of this study was to explore the distribution of learning styles, preferences for major learning environment characteristics, and the associations between these two factors among the EMCA population in Ontario, Canada. Following review of the literature, a 32-item survey of learning environment characteristics was constructed to measure the respondents' preferences. Using a random number generator, 386 EMCAs were selected for participation. Each received: a) an explanatory cover letter; b) a copy of the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI) questionnaire; c) a second questionnaire consisting of learning environment characteristics; and d) a stamped, return addressed envelope. Completed surveys were scored to determine the respondent's Learning Style. The LSI and Learning Environment survey results were entered into a data base and subjected to Dual Scaling analysis in order to 1) Identify the distribution of learning styles; and 2) Explore associations between styles and environmental characteristics. A total of 75 completed surveys were returned, each of the four styles of learning (Converger; Diverger; Assimilator; and Accommodator) were identified in the sample. Dual Scaling analysis indicated a noteworthy association (R(jt) correlation > 0.300) between learning style and 10 of the 32 environmental characteristics. The data describe the usefulness of each of the learning styles. Accommodators believed courses with a strong emphasis on practical applications and working in groups to be very useful, but were less interested in courses with a strong emphasis on theory. Assimilators felt lectures and courses with a strong emphasis on theory very useful, but were less interested in providing input into course objectives. Divergers found that a lot of verbal explanation is useful, but were less

  13. The impact of multiple chronic diseases on ambulatory care use; a population based study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Muggah, Elizabeth; Graves, Erin; Bennett, Carol; Manuel, Douglas G

    2012-12-10

    The prevalence of multiple chronic diseases is increasing and is a common problem for primary health care providers. This study sought to determine the patient and health system burden of multiple chronic diseases among adults in Ontario, Canada, with a focus on the ambulatory health care system (outpatient primary health care and specialist services). This population-based study used linked health administrative data from Ontario, Canada. Individuals, aged 20 years or older, who had a valid health card, were included. Validated case definitions were used to identify persons with at least one of the following nine chronic diseases: diabetes, congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, peripheral vascular disease and end stage renal failure. Prevalence estimates for chronic diseases were calculated for April 1, 2009. Ambulatory physician billing records for the two-year period, April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2010, were used to identify the number of outpatient ambulatory care visits. In 2009, 26.3% of Ontarians had one chronic disease, 10.3% had two diseases, and 5.6% had three or more diseases. Annual mean primary health care use increased significantly with each additional chronic disease. Overall, there were twice as many patient visits to primary health care providers compared to specialists across all chronic disease counts. Among those with multiple diseases, primary health care visits increased with advancing age, while specialist care dropped off. While persons with three or more diseases accounted for a disproportionate share of primary health care visits, the largest number of visits were made by those with no or one chronic disease. The burden of care for persons with multiple chronic diseases is considerable and falls largely on the primary health care provider. However persons with no or one chronic disease are responsible for the largest number of ambulatory health care visits

  14. Migraine headache and risk of self-harm and suicide: A population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Colman, Ian; Kingsbury, Mila; Sareen, Jitender; Bolton, James; van Walraven, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Migraine has been associated with mental illness, and may also be associated with increased risk of suicidal behavior. The aim of this article was to examine the association between migraine headache and self-harm and suicide mortality using population-based health administrative data from Ontario, Canada. The sample included 101,114 participants in a population-based health survey in the province of Ontario, Canada, who responded to the survey in 2003, 2005, or 2007, and provided health card numbers for linkage to population-based health administrative data. Participants self-reported a physician diagnosis of migraine headache. Heath administrative data were used to calculate (1) Follow-up time until first presentation to the emergency department for intentional self-harm; (2) Follow-up time until death by suicide. Proportional subdistribution hazards regression was used to compare time until death among those with and without history of migraine, after accounting for competing risks of death and adjusting for confounders. Physician diagnosis of migraine was reported by 11.2% of the sample (11,314 individuals). Mean follow-up time was 7.3 years. Emergency department visits for self-harm during the follow-up period were almost 50% more likely in those with migraine (76.4 vs 35.7 per 100,000 person years; adjusted hazard ratio = 1.48; 95%CI: 1.11,1.96). Death by suicide was rare with only 55 suicides in the follow-up period (7.45 per 100,000 person-years). Risk of suicide was similar for both those with and without history of migraine headache (adjusted hazard ratio=0.60; 95%CI: 0.22,1.65). Physician diagnosis of migraine headache was found to be prospectively associated with increased risk of deliberate self-harm, but there was no evidence linking it to suicide mortality. Definitively linking migraine to death by suicide may require very large samples. Health care professionals should consider monitoring suicidal risk in individuals with migraine headache.

  15. Chronic disease management and the home-care alternative in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tsasis, Peter

    2009-08-01

    The pressure on our health-care system to deliver efficient, quality and cost-effective care is increasing. The debate on its sustainability is also expanding. These challenges can be managed with revisions to our health-care policy frameworks governing how and what public health-care services are delivered. Chronic disease management and home care can together ease many of the present and future pressures facing the health-care system. However, the current level of investment and the present policy are not effectively supporting movement in this direction. Updating the Canada Health Act to reflect the realities of our health-care system, and developing policies to support the areas of interdisciplinary teamwork and system integration are needed to facilitate chronic disease management and home care in Canada. This article lays out the challenges, highlights the impending issues and suggests a framework for moving forward.

  16. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in goats in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium, and infection in goats with this bacterium can result in abortion, stillbirth or birth of non-viable kids. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in Ontario goats. Sera were collected between August 2010 and February 2012, and tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX). Overall, 63.2% (48/76, 95% CI=51.9-73.4) of farms had one or more seropositive goats. A higher farm-level seroprevalence of 78.6% (33/42) was found on dairy goat farms, compared to 44.1% (15/34) on meat goat farms (p<0.01). At the overall individual-animal level, 32.5% (714/2195, 95% CI=30.6-34.5) of goats were seropositive. Similarly, a higher individual-level seroprevalence was identified for dairy goats (43.7%, 633/1447) compared to meat goats (10.8%, 81/748) (p<0.001). A mixed multivariable logistic model that controlled for farm-level clustering identified risk factors associated with seropositivity (p<0.05). Increases in the female herd size (logarithmic scale) were associated with increased odds of seropositivity, while increases in male herd size had a negative association with seropositivity. If other sheep or goat farms were located in a 5-km radius, goats had 5.6 times (95% CI=1.01-30.8) times the odds of seropositivity compared to those that were not. Relative to goats from farms where all kidding pen hygiene was practiced (adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection after kidding), goats from farms which only added bedding and removed birth materials had a higher odds of seropositivity (OR=19.3, 95% CI=1.1-330.4), as did goats from farms which practiced none of these measures (OR=161.0, 95% CI=2.4-10822.2). An interaction term revealed kidding outdoors when there were no swine on farm had a protective effect on seropositivity compared to kidding indoors, or kidding outdoors with swine on the farm. These

  17. Evaluation of the Johne's disease risk assessment and management plan on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor J; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David F

    2015-10-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a production-limiting gastrointestinal disease in cattle. To minimize the effects of JD, the Ontario dairy industry launched the Ontario Johne's Education and Management Assistance Program in 2010. As part of the program, trained veterinarians conducted a risk assessment and management plan (RAMP), an on-farm questionnaire where high RAMP scores are associated with high risk of JD transmission. Subsequently, veterinarians recommended farm-specific management practices for JD prevention. Milk or serum ELISA results from the milking herd were used to determine the herd ELISA status (HES) and within-herd prevalence. After 3.5 yr of implementation of the program, the aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among RAMP scores, HES, and recommendations. Data from 2,103 herds were available for the analyses. A zero-inflated negative binomial model for the prediction of the number of ELISA-positive animals per farm was built. The model included individual RAMP questions about purchasing animals in the logistic portion, indicating risks for between-herd transmission, and purchasing bulls, birth of calves outside the designated calving area, colostrum and milk feeding management, and adult cow environmental hygiene in the negative binomial portion, indicating risk factors for within-herd transmission. However, farms which fed low-risk milk compared with milk replacer had fewer seropositive animals. The model additionally included the JD herd history in the negative binomial and the logistic portion, indicating that herds with a JD herd history were more likely to have at least 1 positive animal and to have a higher number of positive animals. Generally, a positive association was noted between RAMP scores and the odds of receiving a recommendation for the respective risk area; however, the relationship was not always linear. For general JD risk and calving area risk, seropositive herds had higher odds of receiving recommendations compared

  18. Polychlorinated dioxins and furans in sediments at a site colonized by Dreissena in western Lake Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, C.H.; Howell, E.T.; Reiner, E.J.

    2000-02-01

    Potential impacts of Dreissena on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in sediment were investigated by comparing PCDD/PCDF levels in colonized sediment with levels in sediment in the same area that was not colonized but that was exposed to similar environmental conditions. Levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were also determined in Dreissena tissues. The particle size distribution of colonized sediment was characterized by silt-size material with peak abundance in the range of 7.5 to 20 {micro}m, whereas noncolonized sediment was coarser in nature (30--60 {micro}m). Total organic carbon (TOC) and concentrations of the PCDD/PCDF congener groups and individual 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers were greater in colonized sediment. A trend was observed toward decreasing concentrations of PCDF congener groups with increased chlorine substitution in mussel tissues in contrast to increasing concentrations of PCDF congener groups with increased chlorination in sediments. The trend in the PCDD congener group profile in mussel tissues appeared more similar to the profile in sediments. Areal estimates of toxicity equivalents (TEQ) in Dreissena biomass at Port Dalhousie, Ontario, Canada (approx. 1,300 pg/m{sup 2}) were about 0.9% of the TEQ in the top 3 cm of sediment (approx. 135,000 pg/m{sup 2}). Differences in particle size distribution and PCDD/PCDF levels between colonized and noncolonized sediment suggest that Dreissena may influence chemical and physical properties of sediment they colonize.

  19. Acidification and recovery of aquatic ecosystems in south central Ontario, Canada: regional application of the MAGIC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aherne, J.; Dillon, P. J.; Cosby, B. J.

    The dynamic model MAGIC was applied to 25 lakes in south-central Ontario, Canada using a regional modelling methodology. Soil and lake water chemistry for each lake catchment was simulated for the period 1850-2050. Sulphate (SO42-) deposition forecasts were derived from recently proposed emission reductions, which correspond roughly to a 50% reduction in SO42- deposition by 2010 from the 2000 baseline. Changes in SO42- deposition had a significant impact on lake chemistry. Simulated lake water chemistry showed a recovery potential under the current deposition scenario; by 2050 concentration levels recovered to values predicted for the early 1900s. Moreover, simulated future lake water chemistry showed significant recovery compared to 1975 levels. However, although regional simulations predict that base cation losses have decreased in recent years, soils in the region will continue to acidify with Ca2+ losses dominating depletion of the exchangeable pool. Base cation losses from the exchangeable pool are currently buffering lakes against the impacts of acid deposition; ultimately base cation inputs into the lakes will decrease as exchangeable base cation pools become depleted. Further emission reductions are necessary to ensure continued recovery from acidification.

  20. Seasonal influences on the ecology of testate amoebae (Protozoa) in a small Sphagnum peatland in southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Warner, Barry G; Asada, Taro; Quinn, Noel P

    2007-07-01

    Testate amoebae (Protozoa) were studied in spring, summer, and fall from the same microhabitats in a small Sphagnum-dominated peatland in southern Ontario, Canada. A total of 32 sampling stations were established in two wetland plant communities, 19 in an open Ericaceae low-shrub community and 13 in a closed Picea mariana and Larix laricina swamp community. Sphagnum was collected in each station for analysis of testate amoebae and measurement of soil water content parameters and water table depth in May, August, and October 2001. pH and dissolved oxygen of the groundwater under the Sphagnum were measured also. A total of 52 taxa including the rotifer, Habrotrocha angusticollis, were identified. Soil water content and water table variables emerged as the primary factors separating testate amoebae between the open bog/fen community and swamp community. Testate amoebae in the open bog/fen community showed a clear separation between the May sampling period and the August and October sampling periods. Sampling stations in May had much higher water table and were wetter than those in August and October. Conversely, testate amoebae in the swamp community did not show a clear difference between sampling periods. Soil moisture and water tables appear to be more constant in the swamp communities. Biological factors or other microscale environmental factors may need to be considered to explain seasonal changes in testate amoebae. A greater understanding of relationships between testate amoebae and microenvironmental factors is necessary to track seasonality in testate amoebae distributions.

  1. Gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma experienced by people living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Loutfy, Mona R; Logie, Carmen H; Zhang, Yimeng; Blitz, Sandra L; Margolese, Shari L; Tharao, Wangari E; Rourke, Sean B; Rueda, Sergio; Raboud, Janet M

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma experienced by 1026 HIV-positive individuals living in Ontario, Canada that were enrolled in the OHTN Cohort Study. Total and subscale HIV-related stigma scores were measured using the revised HIV-related Stigma Scale. Correlates of total stigma scores were assessed in univariate and multivariate linear regression. Women had significantly higher total and subscale stigma scores than men (total, median = 56.0 vs. 48.0, p<0.0001). Among men and women, Black individuals had the highest, Aboriginal and Asian/Latin-American/Unspecified people intermediate, and White individuals the lowest total stigma scores. The gender-ethnicity interaction term was significant in multivariate analysis: Black women and Asian/Latin-American/Unspecified men reported the highest HIV-related stigma scores. Gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma were identified in our cohort. Findings suggest differing approaches may be required to address HIV-related stigma based on gender and ethnicity; and such strategies should challenge racist and sexist stereotypes.

  2. Northward migrating trees establish in treefall gaps at the northern limit of the temperate-boreal ecotone, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Leithead, Mark D; Anand, Madhur; Silva, Lucas C R

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is expected to promote migration of species. In ecotones, areas of ecological tension, disturbances may provide opportunities for some migrating species to establish in otherwise competitive environments. The size of and time since disturbance may determine the establishment ability of these species. We investigated gap dynamics of an old-growth red pine (Pinus resinosa Sol. ex Aiton) forest in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence forest in northern Ontario, Canada, a transition zone between temperate and boreal forest. We investigated the effects of gaps of different sizes and ages on tree species abundance and basal area. Our results show that tree species from the temperate forest further south, such as red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and white pine (Pinus strobus L.), establish more often in large, old gaps; however, tree species that have more northern distributions, such as black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and red pine show no difference in establishment ability with gap size or age. These differences in composition could not be attributed to autogenic succession. We conclude that treefall gaps in this forest facilitate the establishment of northward migrating species, potentially providing a pathway for future forest migration in response to recent changes in climate.

  3. Smoke-free spaces over time: a policy diffusion study of bylaw development in Alberta and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Eyles, John; Campbell, H Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Policy diffusion is a process whereby political bodies 'learn' policy solutions to public health problems by imitating policy from similar jurisdictions. This suggests that diffusion is a critical element in the policy development process, and that its role must be recognised in any examination of policy development. Yet, to date, no systematic work on the diffusion of smoke-free spaces bylaws has been reported. We examined the diffusion of municipal smoke-free bylaws over a 30-year period in the provinces of Alberta and Ontario, Canada, to begin to address this gap and to determine whether spatial patterns could be identified to help explain the nature of policy development. Bylaw adoption and change were analysed within local, regional, and provincial contexts. Geographical models of hierarchical and expansion diffusion in conjunction with the diffusion of innovations framework conceptually guided the analyses. Study findings contribute to a broader understanding of how and why health policies diffuse across time and place. Policy development can be a powerful mechanism for creating environments that support healthy decisions; hence, an understanding of policy diffusion is critical for those interested in policy interventions aimed at improving population health in any jurisdiction.

  4. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Gracilacus wuae n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematoidea) Associated with Cow Parsnip (Heracleum maximum) in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing; Ye, Weimin; Powers, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Gracilacus wuae n. sp. from soil associated with cow parsnip in Ontario, Canada is described and illustrated. Morphologically, females have a long stylet ranging from 80 to 93 µm long, the lip region not offset from the body contour, without lateral lips but with large and flat submedian lobes, the mouth opening slit-like elongated laterally and surrounded by lateral flaps, the excretory pore is anterior to the knobs of the stylet; males without stylet and the pharynx degenerated. The fourth-stage juveniles lack a stylet, the pharynx degenerated, and can be differentiated into preadult females and males based on the position of the genital primordia. The third-stage juveniles are similar to females but smaller. Phylogenetic studies using the rDNA small subunit 18S, large subunit 28S D2/D3, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences collectively provide evidence of a grouping with other Gracilacus and some species of Paratylenchus with stylet length of females longer than 41 µm deposited in GenBank. PMID:27765994

  5. Challenges of Diabetes Self-Management in Adults Affected by Food Insecurity in a Large Urban Centre of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chan, Justine; DeMelo, Margaret; Gingras, Jacqui; Gucciardi, Enza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how food insecurity affects individuals' ability to manage their diabetes, as narrated by participants living in a large, culturally diverse urban centre. Design. Qualitative study comprising of in-depth interviews, using a semistructured interview guide. Setting. Participants were recruited from the local community, three community health centres, and a community-based diabetes education centre servicing a low-income population in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants. Twenty-one English-speaking adults with a diagnosis of diabetes and having experienced food insecurity in the past year (based on three screening questions). Method. Using six phases of analysis, we used qualitative, deductive thematic analysis to transcribe, code, and analyze participant interviews. Main Findings. Three themes emerged from our analysis of participants' experiences of living with food insecurity and diabetes: (1) barriers to accessing and preparing food, (2) social isolation, and (3) enhancing agency and resilience. Conclusion. Food insecurity appears to negatively impact diabetes self-management. Healthcare professionals need to be cognizant of resources, skills, and supports appropriate for people with diabetes affected by food insecurity. Study findings suggest foci for enhancing diabetes self-management support.

  6. Aerial distribution of ONRAB baits as a tactic to control rabies in raccoons and striped skunks in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, R C; Donovan, D; Davies, J C; Allan, M; Bachmann, P; Stevenson, B; Sobey, K; Brown, L; Silver, A; Bennett, K; Buchanan, T; Bruce, L; Gibson, M; Beresford, A; Beath, A; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Lawson, K

    2009-04-01

    During August 2006 and 2007, baits containing oral rabies vaccine, live adenovirus vector, known as ONRAB , were aerially distributed in SW Ontario, Canada. Bait acceptance during 2006 was 62 and 74% in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in areas baited at 150 baits/km(2) and 75 and 77% in plots baited at 300 baits/km(2). During 2007, bait acceptance for raccoons ranged between 59% and 80%, and 83% and 87%, in areas baited at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Bait acceptance by skunks varied among plots (5-24%). Rabies virus-specific seroconversion during 2006 averaged 66 and 81% in raccoons in areas baited at 150 and 300 baits/km(2), respectively. During 2007, seroconversion by raccoons was 76 and 84% in areas baited at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Seroconversion by skunks varied among plots (17-51%). Vaccine efficacy, as judged by the percentage of animals that consumed a bait and seroconverted, averaged 79 and 87% during 2006 for raccoons in areas baited at 150 and 300 baits/km(2), respectively, and 81 and 90% in areas baited during 2007 at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. Because tetracycline marking was poor in skunks, an estimate of vaccine efficacy was not possible. Aerial distribution of ONRAB vaccine baits seems to be a feasible tactic for controlling rabies in skunks and raccoons.

  7. Gender and Ethnicity Differences in HIV-related Stigma Experienced by People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona R.; Logie, Carmen H.; Zhang, Yimeng; Blitz, Sandra L.; Margolese, Shari L.; Tharao, Wangari E.; Rourke, Sean B.; Rueda, Sergio; Raboud, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma experienced by 1026 HIV-positive individuals living in Ontario, Canada that were enrolled in the OHTN Cohort Study. Total and subscale HIV-related stigma scores were measured using the revised HIV-related Stigma Scale. Correlates of total stigma scores were assessed in univariate and multivariate linear regression. Women had significantly higher total and subscale stigma scores than men (total, median = 56.0 vs. 48.0, p<0.0001). Among men and women, Black individuals had the highest, Aboriginal and Asian/Latin-American/Unspecified people intermediate, and White individuals the lowest total stigma scores. The gender-ethnicity interaction term was significant in multivariate analysis: Black women and Asian/Latin-American/Unspecified men reported the highest HIV-related stigma scores. Gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma were identified in our cohort. Findings suggest differing approaches may be required to address HIV-related stigma based on gender and ethnicity; and such strategies should challenge racist and sexist stereotypes. PMID:23300514

  8. Harvest date and storage effect on fruit size, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of wild blueberries of NW Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mallik, A U; Hamilton, J

    2017-05-01

    Blueberries are eaten fresh or after storing at room temperature, refrigerator or freezer but little is known about changes in food values of wild blueberries due to harvest dates and storage conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of harvest date and storage conditions of wild blueberries on berry quality and health related chemistry. We analyzed Vaccinium angustifolium, V. angustifolium var. nigrum, and V. myrtilloides native to NW Ontario, Canada harvested early and late in the season for total phenol (TP), anthocyanin contents (AC), and soluble solids to titratable acidity ratio storing at room temperature, refrigerator and freezer temperature. We also determined their antioxidant content and activity (ORAC). Late harvest and low temperature storage significantly increased TP and AC for most genotypes. In V. myrtilloides TP increased by 50, 44 and 45% respectively at late harvest, 14 days refrigerator and 90 days freezer storage. It also had significantly higher ORAC (22 and 33%) than the other two genotypes. Wild blueberry pickers and consumers can optimize health benefits and quality attributes of blueberries by customizing harvest protocols and choice of cultivar and storage in household fridge and freezer. Blueberry storage, at household fridge and freezer temperature, does not reduce its health benefits.

  9. Challenges of Diabetes Self-Management in Adults Affected by Food Insecurity in a Large Urban Centre of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Justine; DeMelo, Margaret; Gingras, Jacqui; Gucciardi, Enza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how food insecurity affects individuals' ability to manage their diabetes, as narrated by participants living in a large, culturally diverse urban centre. Design. Qualitative study comprising of in-depth interviews, using a semistructured interview guide. Setting. Participants were recruited from the local community, three community health centres, and a community-based diabetes education centre servicing a low-income population in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants. Twenty-one English-speaking adults with a diagnosis of diabetes and having experienced food insecurity in the past year (based on three screening questions). Method. Using six phases of analysis, we used qualitative, deductive thematic analysis to transcribe, code, and analyze participant interviews. Main Findings. Three themes emerged from our analysis of participants' experiences of living with food insecurity and diabetes: (1) barriers to accessing and preparing food, (2) social isolation, and (3) enhancing agency and resilience. Conclusion. Food insecurity appears to negatively impact diabetes self-management. Healthcare professionals need to be cognizant of resources, skills, and supports appropriate for people with diabetes affected by food insecurity. Study findings suggest foci for enhancing diabetes self-management support. PMID:26576154

  10. Temporal changes in mercury concentrations of large-bodied fishes in the boreal shield ecoregion of northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rex W K; Johnston, Thomas A; Gunn, John M; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2013-02-01

    Much of the mercury (Hg) in freshwater fish of the boreal shield ecoregion is believed to originate from atmospheric deposition. As such, declines in fish Hg concentrations would be expected in response to recent declines in atmospheric Hg deposition in this ecoregion. We compared recent (2005-2010) and historic (1974-1981) muscle total mercury concentrations ([THg], standardized to a fish body mass of 1 kg) in seven fish species (five piscivores, two benthivores) from 73 lakes in northern Ontario (Canada) using a paired-comparisons approach. The rate of bioaccumulation (i.e., slopes of log(e)[THg] vs log(e) total length relationship) increased for walleye (Sander vitreus) but did not change significantly for any other species. There was no significant decline in mean [THg] between recent and historic time periods for any species. In fact, recent mean [THg] were slightly higher (<0.08 ppm) than historic mean [THg] for all species, and this difference was significant for northern pike (Esox lucius). The magnitude of the temporal change in northern pike declined significantly from south to north over the study area but there were no discernible geographic patterns in the temporal change in [THg] for any other species. This study shows that [THg] of most large-bodied fish species in boreal shield lakes are not declining in response to the decline in atmospheric Hg deposition.

  11. HIV-related stigma in pregnancy and early postpartum of mothers living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ion, Allyson; Wagner, Anne C; Greene, Saara; Loutfy, Mona R

    2017-02-01

    HIV-related stigma is associated with many psychological challenges; however, minimal research has explored how perceived HIV-related stigma intersects with psychosocial issues that mothers living with HIV may experience including depression, perceived stress and social isolation. The present study aims to describe the correlates and predictors of HIV-related stigma in a cohort of women living with HIV (WLWH) from across Ontario, Canada during pregnancy and early postpartum. From March 2011 to December 2012, WLWH ≥ 18 years (n = 77) completed a study instrument measuring independent variables including sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, depression symptoms, social isolation, social support and perceived racism in the third trimester and 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Multivariable linear regression was employed to explore the relationship between HIV-related stigma and multiple independent variables. HIV-related stigma generally increased from pregnancy to postpartum; however, there were no significant differences in HIV-related stigma across all study time points. In multivariable regression, depression symptoms and perceived racism were significant predictors of overall HIV-related stigma from pregnancy to postpartum. The present analysis contributes to our understanding of HIV-related stigma throughout the pregnancy-motherhood trajectory for WLWH including the interactional relationship between HIV-related stigma and other psychosocial variables, most notably, depression and racism.

  12. Examining job tenure and lost-time claim rates in Ontario, Canada, over a 10-year period, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Morassaei, Sara; Breslin, F Curtis; Shen, Min; Smith, Peter M

    2013-03-01

    We sought to examine the association between job tenure and lost-time claim rates over a 10-year period in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from workers' compensation records and labour force survey data from 1999 to 2008. Claim rates were calculated for gender, age, industry, occupation, year and job tenure group. A multivariate analysis and examination of effect modification were performed. Differences in injury event and source of injury were also examined by job tenure. Lost-time claim rates were significantly higher for workers with shorter job tenure, regardless of other factors. Claim rates for new workers differed by gender, age and industry, but remained relatively constant at an elevated rate over the observed time period. This study is the first to examine lost-time claim rates by job tenure over a time period during which overall claim rates generally declined. Claim rates did not show a convergence by job tenure. Findings highlight that new workers are still at elevated risk, and suggest the need for improved training, reducing exposures among new workers, promoting permanent employment, and monitoring work injury trends and risk factors.

  13. Tracking Crop Leaf Area Index and Chlorophyll Content Using RapidEye Data in Northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, J.; Liu, J.; Ma, B.; Zhao, T.; Kovacs, J. M.; Jiao, X.; Dong, T.; Huffman, T.; Geng, X.; Walters, D.

    2014-12-01

    Information on crop phenological state such as flowering, maturing, drying, senescence, and harvesting is essential for crop production surveillance and yield prediction. Earth Observation data provide an important information source for monitoring crop development at various temporal and spatial scales. In particular, the availability of many high-spatial-resolution space sensors offers a powerful tool for precision farming. This study reports the results of a two-year (2012, 2013) study over spring wheat and canola fields using six different vegetation indices derived from the high-resolution (6.5m) RapidEye optical satellite data in northern Ontario, Canada. The study revealed that for both wheat and canola, significant relationships were observed between the ground-derived leaf area index (LAI) and all 6 vegetation indices tested. For spring wheat, the strongest relationship was found between LAI and the Modified Triangular Vegetation Index 2 (MTVI2), with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.95. For canola, a R2 of 0.92 was achieved. Strong relationships were also found between all six vegetation indices and the chlorophyll concentration index (CCI) measured in the fields using a CCM-200 device. The strongest correlation exists between CCI and the ratio of Modified the Chlorophyll Absorption Reflected Index (MCARI) and the Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI), with an R2 of 0.86. It suggests that RapidEye data can be used to track field-scale crop LAI and monitor crop chlorophyll content.

  14. Trends in the seasonal length and opening dates of a winter road in the western James Bay region, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Yukari; Gough, William A.; Butler, Ken; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2017-08-01

    In northern Canada, winter roads are essential for communities. The duration of the winter road season depends on particular meteorological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether there is a temporal relationship between seasonal weather trends and the historical opening dates of the James Bay Winter Road in Ontario's Far North. The statistical significance of the temporal trends and their magnitude are determined by the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen method. Results showed that decreasing trends in the freezing degree-days (FDDs) are statistically significant, along with the statistically significant increasing trends of monthly averages of both T min and T mean during the winter months in the western James Bay region for the 1961-2014 period. However, there were no statistically significant linkages between opening dates and FDDs detected, perhaps due to the paucity of opening dates data, although early opening dates in the last 10 years may be the result of larger FDDs. The FDDs during the months of October through December were more closely linked to opening dates than FDDs that were calculated up the opening date (including January dates), suggesting the key role of preconditioning during late fall and early winter. The lowest FDDs for the months of October to December that resulted in a viable winter road were 380 degree-days (°C). This threshold can be potentially used as a lower threshold for winter roads.

  15. Are clinicians being prepared to care for abused women? A survey of health professional education in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wathen, C Nadine; Tanaka, Masako; Catallo, Cristina; Lebner, Adrianne C; Friedman, M Kinneret; Hanson, Mark D; Freeman, Clare; Jack, Susan M; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2009-01-01

    Background The current project undertook a province-wide survey and environmental scan of educational opportunities available to future health care providers on the topic of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Methods A team of experts identified university and college programs in Ontario, Canada as potential providers of IPV education to students in health care professions at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. A telephone survey with contacts representing these programs was conducted between October 2005 and March 2006. The survey asked whether IPV-specific education was provided to learners, and if so, how and by whom. Results In total, 222 eligible programs in dentistry, medicine, nursing and other allied health professions were surveyed, and 95% (212/222) of programs responded. Of these, 57% reported offering some form of IPV-specific education, with undergraduate nursing (83%) and allied health (82%) programs having the highest rates. Fewer than half of undergraduate medical (43%) and dentistry (46%) programs offered IPV content. Postgraduate programs ranged from no IPV content provision (dentistry) to 41% offering content (nursing). Conclusion Significant variability exists across program areas regarding the methods for IPV education, its delivery and evaluation. The results of this project highlight that expectations for an active and consistent response by health care professionals to women experiencing the effects of violence may not match the realities of professional preparation. PMID:19575776

  16. A Content Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of the Seasonal Flu Vaccine in Ontario, Canada, October 2001 to March 2011.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Samantha B; Lu, Stephanie K; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Smale, Bryan; MacDougall, Heather; Pearce, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    Seasonal flu vaccine uptake has fallen dramatically over the past decade in Ontario, Canada, despite promotional efforts by public health officials. Media can be particularly influential in shaping the public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. We therefore sought to identify the nature of the relationship between risk messages about getting the seasonal flu vaccine in newspaper coverage and the uptake of the vaccine by Ontarians between 2001 and 2010. A content analysis was conducted to quantify risk messages in newspaper content for each year of analysis. The quantification allowed us to test the correlation between the frequency of risk messages and vaccination rates. During the time period 2001-2010, vaccination rates were positively and significantly related to the frequency of risk messages in newspaper coverage (r = .691, p < .05). The most commonly identified risk messages related to the flu vaccine being ineffective, the flu vaccine being poorly understood by science, and the flu vaccine causing harm. Newspaper coverage plays an important role in shaping public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. Public health officials should work alongside media to ensure that the public are exposed to information necessary for making informed decisions regarding vaccination.

  17. Airborne Pollen Concentrations and Emergency Room Visits for Myocardial Infarction: A Multicity Case-Crossover Study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Scott; Lavigne, Eric; Villeneuve, Paul J; Reeves, François

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have examined the acute cardiovascular effects of airborne allergens. We conducted a case-crossover study to evaluate the relationship between airborne allergen concentrations and emergency room visits for myocardial infarction (MI) in Ontario, Canada. In total, 17,960 cases of MI were identified between the months of April and October during the years 2004-2011. Daily mean aeroallergen concentrations (pollen and mold spores) were assigned to case and control periods using central-site monitors in each city along with daily measurements of meteorological data and air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and ozone). Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusting for time-varying covariates. Risk of MI was 5.5% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4, 7.6) on days in the highest tertile of total pollen concentrations compared with days in the lowest tertile, and a significant concentration-response trend was observed (P < 0.001). Higher MI risk was limited to same-day pollen concentrations, with the largest risks being observed during May (odds ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.35) and June (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.22), when tree and grass pollen are most common. Mold spore concentrations were not associated with MI. Our findings suggest that airborne pollen might represent a previously unidentified environmental risk factor for myocardial infarction.

  18. THE OCCURRENCE OF PATHOGENS IN AN ENDANGERED POPULATION OF AMERICAN BADGERS (TAXIDEA TAXUS JACKSONI) IN ONTARIO, CANADA.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Danielle M; Sayers, Joshua B; Kyle, Christopher J; Nocera, Joseph J; Ojkic, Davor; Campbell, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    American badgers ( Taxidea taxus jacksoni) at the periphery of the species' range in Ontario, Canada, are listed as endangered because of an estimated population size of <200 mature individuals. The main threats faced by this population include habitat loss and road mortality. However, on 18 November 2013, a radio-implanted badger was found nonresponsive in an agricultural field with signs consistent with canine distemper virus infection, which was subsequently confirmed. This prompted our investigation into the occurrence of pathogens in this endangered carnivore to better quantify the level of risk infectious disease poses to population persistence. We examined serum samples from nine live-trapped individuals and 27 whole badger specimens submitted for postmortem examination. We found evidence of exposure to canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, and leptospires. However, infection associated with disease was not the leading cause of mortality. Future research into the effects of disease on kit survival and a comprehensive understanding of disease severity and spread from reservoir populations (e.g., raccoons [ Procyon lotor ] and striped skunks [ Mephitis mephitis ]) to badgers will be of particular importance to the conservation of this endangered population.

  19. Nonprescribed Hormone Use and Self-Performed Surgeries: “Do-It-Yourself” Transitions in Transgender Communities in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Greta R.; Scanlon, Kyle; Kaay, Matthias; Travers, Robb; Travers, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the extent of nonprescribed hormone use and self-performed surgeries among transgender or transsexual (trans) people in Ontario, Canada. Methods. We present original survey research from the Trans PULSE Project. A total of 433 participants were recruited from 2009 to 2010 through respondent-driven sampling. We used a case series design to characterize those currently taking nonprescribed hormones and participants who had ever self-performed sex-reassignment surgeries. Results. An estimated 43.0% (95% confidence interval = 34.9, 51.5) of trans Ontarians were currently using hormones; of these, a quarter had ever obtained hormones from nonmedical sources (e.g., friend or relative, street or strangers, Internet pharmacy, herbals or supplements). Fourteen participants (6.4%; 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 9.0) reported currently taking nonprescribed hormones. Five indicated having performed or attempted surgical procedures on themselves (orchiectomy or mastectomy). Conclusions. Past negative experiences with providers, along with limited financial resources and a lack of access to transition-related services, may contribute to nonprescribed hormone use and self-performed surgeries. Promoting training initiatives for health care providers and jurisdictional support for more accessible services may help to address trans people’s specific needs. PMID:23948009

  20. Spring flood analysis using the flood-duration-frequency approach: application to the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javelle, Pierre; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Bobée, Bernard

    2003-12-01

    Most often, flood frequency analysis describes a flood event only by its peak. However, the true flood severity is also defined by its volume and duration. This paper presents an approach allowing flood events to be considered in a more complete way: the flood-duration-frequency (QdF) approach. In a similar manner to the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency analysis, averaged discharges are computed over different fixed durations d. For each duration a frequency distribution of maximum averaged discharges is studied. Finally, a continuous formulation is fitted, as a function of the return period T and the duration d over which discharges have been averaged. The proposed model has been tested for 169 catchments in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada. The shapes of the QdF curves enabled us to define different types of flood behaviour and to identify the corresponding geographic regions. This mapping of flood behaviour was the basis for the delineation of seven homogeneous geographical regions, containing catchments having the same hydrological behaviour as is required for regional flood frequency analysis. Copyright

  1. The use of 'arms-length' organizations for health system change in Ontario, Canada: some observations by insiders.

    PubMed

    Pink, George H; Leatt, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been substantial health system reform in the United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand, and many other countries. For the most part, Canada has not pursued 'big bang' health system change but rather a variety of strategies to achieve incremental change. In this paper, we present the ways in which three arms-length organizations have been used by government to effect incremental system change in Ontario during the past several years. We observe that, (1) the influence of politics and political interference can be reduced through an arms-length organization; (2) an arms-length organization with the power to make decisions entails more political risk for government and encounters more scrutiny and criticism by providers and the media than an organization with the power to recommend only; (3) an arms-length organization with a limited lifespan faces more delaying tactics by adversely affected parties than an organization without a limited lifespan; (4) an arms-length organization with perceived influence may attract causes that are not related to its mandate; (5) the importance and difficulty of communicating complex information about system change to a wide variety of audiences cannot be overstated; (6) system change informed by the use of expert opinion encounters less provider resistance and may result in better decisions; and (7) the reputation of the Chair and the perceived competence and experience of the CEO are critical success factors in the success of an arms-length organization.

  2. Exploring the Concern about Food Allergies among Secondary School and University Students in Ontario, Canada: A Descriptive Analysis.

    PubMed

    Majowicz, Shannon E; Jung, James K H; Courtney, Sarah M; Harrington, Daniel W

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the perceived risk of food allergies among students in Ontario, Canada. We analyzed blinding questions ("I am concerned about food allergies"; "food allergies are currently a big threat to my health") from three existing food safety surveys, given to high school and university undergraduate students (n = 3,451) circa February 2015, using descriptive analysis, and explored how concern related to demographics and self-reported cooking ability using linear regression. Overall, high school students were neutral in their concern, although Food and Nutrition students specifically were significantly less concerned (p = 0.002) than high school students overall. University undergraduates were moderately unconcerned about food allergies. Concern was highest in younger students, decreasing between 13 and 18 years of age and plateauing between 19 and 23 years. Among students aged 13-18 years, concern was higher among those who worked or volunteered in a daycare and who had previously taken a food preparation course. Among students aged 19-23 years, concern was higher among females and those with less advanced cooking abilities. Concern was significantly correlated with perceiving food allergies as a personal threat. This study offers a first exploration of perceived risk of food allergies among this demographic and can guide future, more rigorous assessments.

  3. Exploring the Concern about Food Allergies among Secondary School and University Students in Ontario, Canada: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, James K. H.; Courtney, Sarah M.; Harrington, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the perceived risk of food allergies among students in Ontario, Canada. We analyzed blinding questions (“I am concerned about food allergies”; “food allergies are currently a big threat to my health”) from three existing food safety surveys, given to high school and university undergraduate students (n = 3,451) circa February 2015, using descriptive analysis, and explored how concern related to demographics and self-reported cooking ability using linear regression. Overall, high school students were neutral in their concern, although Food and Nutrition students specifically were significantly less concerned (p = 0.002) than high school students overall. University undergraduates were moderately unconcerned about food allergies. Concern was highest in younger students, decreasing between 13 and 18 years of age and plateauing between 19 and 23 years. Among students aged 13–18 years, concern was higher among those who worked or volunteered in a daycare and who had previously taken a food preparation course. Among students aged 19–23 years, concern was higher among females and those with less advanced cooking abilities. Concern was significantly correlated with perceiving food allergies as a personal threat. This study offers a first exploration of perceived risk of food allergies among this demographic and can guide future, more rigorous assessments. PMID:28592973

  4. Accumulated organic debris in catch basins improves the efficacy of S-methoprene against mosquitoes in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stacey L; Yan, Norman D

    2010-06-01

    To control West Nile Virus in the greater Toronto area of Ontario, Canada, S-methoprene (Altosid XRbriquets 2.1% AI) is applied each year to storm water catch basins. Because the efficacy of the XRbriquets to reduce adult mosquito populations had not been evaluated locally and was influenced by organic debris in a pilot study, we compared the efficacy of the briquets in 17 sediment and debris-filled catch basins versus 20 catch basins that were vacuumed free of debris. Emergence rates approached 100% in the 5 untreated control catch basins. Emergence rates were significantly lower, and S-methoprene was detected more often and at higher levels, in debris-filled basins versus cleaned catch basins. Overall, 20% of pupae emerged from clean catch basins versus only 3% from debris-filled ones, the difference between treatments becoming significant after 26 days. S-methoprene and total organic carbon concentrations in the catch basins were positively correlated (P < 0.001). We hypothesize that S-methoprene is binding to the organic fraction in the water and sediment in the debris-filled basins, prolonging S-methoprene doses, which are reflected in lower mosquito emergence rates.

  5. Discharge of adolescents with mental health problems against medical advice: findings from adult mental health inpatient facilities across Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; den Dunnen, Wendy; Stewart, Shannon L

    2013-12-30

    Little is known about discharge against medical advice (DAMA) among adolescents with mental health problems. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of DAMA and provide some insight into the factors that influence DAMA among adolescents with mental health problems using a large dataset from Ontario, Canada. Data on 1811 adolescents aged 14-18 years who were discharged from adult mental health beds between October 2005 and March 2010 were analyzed using logistic regression. Of the 1811 discharges in the sample, 78(4.3%) were against medical advice. In the multivariate model, older age, having limited insight or no insight into mental illness, provisional DSM-IV diagnoses of substance-related disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders increased the odds of DAMA. Length of stay was negatively associated with DAMA. The findings of this study highlight the importance of completing comprehensive assessments at the time of admission to identify adolescents who are at risk of treatment refusal and provide timely intervention to prevent DAMA. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of feeder location on pollen collection by bumble bees in a tomato greenhouse in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Orbán, Levente L; Plowright, C M S; Plowright, R C

    2012-02-01

    The foraging behavior of bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) was examined as a function of feeder location containing sugar solution in a commercial tomato greenhouse in Manotick, Ontario, Canada. The feeders were located within the nest-box (fed-close) or placed 1.5 m away (fed-far) and the placement of the two types of colonies was counterbalanced over time. No effect of feeder location was found in colony activity levels or in pollen load size. A foraging trade-off between sugar solution and pollen collection, however, was found: the proportion of foraging trips in which pollen was brought back was significantly reduced for fed-far colonies, which contrasts with our laboratory study in which the opposite effect was found. We interpret our findings as possibly reflecting a limitation in pollen supply in the greenhouse: an already possibly strained ability to find and bring back pollen to the colony was accentuated by increasing the task demands of collecting sugar solution.

  7. Clay mineralogical evidence of a bioclimatically-affected soil, Rouge River basin, South-Central Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Holocene soils in drainage basins of South-Central Ontario, Canada, are generally Fluvisols (Entisols) in floodplains transitioning to Brunisols (Inceptisols), Luvisols (Alfisols) and Podzols (Spodosols) in older terraces and in the glaciated tableland. A single landslide sourced from the highest fluvial terrace in the Rouge basin, with a rubble drop of ~ 12 m emplaced a lobe-shaped mass of reworked stream gravel, glaciolacustrine sediment and till, emplaced approximately 6 m above mean water level at a height roughly equivalent to previously dated mid-Holocene terraces and soils. Clay mineralogy of the soil formed in this transported regolith produced the usual semi-detrital/pedogenic distribution of 1:1 (Si:Al = 1:1), 2:1 and 2:1:1 clay minerals as well as primary minerals consisting of plagioclase feldspar, quartz, mica and calcite. Unexpectedly, the presence of moderate amounts of Ca-smectite in the Bk and Ck horizons, relative to a clay-mineral depleted parent material (Cuk), argues for a soil hydrological change affecting the wetting depth in the deposit. The presence of the uncommon 'maidenhair fern' (Adiantum pedantum) in the mass wasted deposit, a plant capable of high evapotranspiration, is interpreted as producing a bioclimatic disruption limiting soil water penetration to near root depth (wetting depth), thus producing a clay mineral anomaly.

  8. Lake-based magnetic mapping of urban-sourced contaminated sediment, Lake Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, J. I.; Pozza, M. R.; Morris, W. A.

    2003-04-01

    The remediation of toxic sediments in harbours and urban waterways requires detailed mapping of contaminated sediment distribution and thickness. Conventional methods rely on interpolation of pollutant concentrations from widely spaced core samples but can lead to significant errors in estimating sediment distribution. An improved approach, as demonstrated by recent work in Hamilton Harbour in Lake Ontario, is to estimate pollutant levels from 'proxy' measurements of sediment magnetic properties. Measurements from 40 core samples collected within the harbour show that the magnetic susceptibility of a contaminated upper layer of sediment is one to two orders of magnitude greater than in the underlying uncontaminated 'pre-colonial' sediments. The susceptibility contrast results from elevated levels of urban-sourced magnetic oxides and is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 5-40 nT) that can be measured with a towed magnetometer. Systematic lake-based magnetic surveying (> 500 line km) of the harbour using a towed Overhauser marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of well defined magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated sediments on the harbour bottom. Apparent susceptibility maps calculated from total field data show a close spatial correspondence with core-derived susceptibility values and provide a means for identifying areas of urban impacted sediments. Detection of low amplitude magnetic anomalies is dependent upon a closely spaced survey grid (< 70 m line spacing) and careful post-cruise processing to remove diurnal, regional and water-depth related variations in the magnetic field intensity.

  9. Intake of phytoestrogen foods and supplements among women recently diagnosed with breast cancer in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Beatrice A; Cotterchio, Michelle; Curca, Ioan A; Kreiger, Nancy; Harris, Shelley A; Kirsh, Victoria A; Goodwin, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are found in foods such as soy (isoflavones) and flaxseed (lignans), and certain botanical supplements. Their role in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer recurrence and treatment is controversial, and it is unknown how this affects intake among patients. The Ontario Cancer Registry was used to identify 417 population-based breast cancer cases (mean time from diagnosis was 57 days). A questionnaire was mailed to determine intake of phytoestrogen foods and supplements in the last 2 mo, changes since diagnosis and differences by ER tumor status or hormonal treatment. Of 278 (67%) respondents, 56% consumed soy foods, 39% consumed isoflavone-rich foods (tofu, soybeans, soy milk, soy nuts), and 70% ate lignan-rich foods, including flaxseed (33%). Only soy milk, flaxseed, and flaxseed bread were commonly consumed more than once/wk. Few patients (4%) took isoflavone (soy, red clover, kudzu, licorice, isoflavones) or lignan/flaxseed supplements. Since diagnosis, 17% started or stopped soy foods (most stopped); this was more prevalent among those receiving hormonal treatment (20%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 14, 26) than not (6%; 95% CI: 1, 12). No other differences by ER status or hormonal treatment were observed. Research is needed to confirm this and to explore influencing factors.

  10. Search for chronic beryllium disease among sarcoidosis patients in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcos; Fritscher, Leandro G; Al-Musaed, Ahmed M; Balter, Meyer S; Hoffstein, Victor; Mazer, Bruce D; Maier, Lisa A; Liss, Gary M; Tarlo, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clinically similar to other granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis. It is often misdiagnosed if a thorough occupational history is not taken. When appropriate, a beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeLPT) need to be performed. We aimed to search for CBD among currently diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis patients and to identify the occupations and exposures in Ontario leading to CBD. Questionnaire items included work history and details of possible exposure to beryllium. Participants who provided a history of previous work with metals underwent BeLPTs and an ELISPOT on the basis of having a higher pretest probability of CBD. Among 121 sarcoid patients enrolled, 87 (72%) reported no known previous metal dust or fume exposure, while 34 (28%) had metal exposure, including 17 (14%) with beryllium exposure at work or home. However, none of these 34 who underwent testing had positive test results. Self-reported exposure to beryllium or metals was relatively common in these patients with clinical sarcoidosis, but CBD was not confirmed using blood assays in this population.

  11. Environmental influences on healthcare expenditures: an exploratory analysis from Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Jerrett, M; Eyles, J; Dufournaud, C; Birch, S

    2003-01-01

    Design: The authors used a sequential two stage regression model to control for variables that may influence HCEs and for the possibility of endogenous relations. The analysis relies on cross sectional ecological data from the 49 counties of Ontario. Main results: The results show that, after control for other variables that may influence health expenditures, both total toxic pollution output and per capita municipal environmental expenditures have significant associations with health expenditures. Counties with higher pollution output tend to have higher per capita HCEs, while those that spend more on defending environmental quality have lower expenditures on health care. Conclusions: The implications of our findings are twofold. Firstly, sound investments in public health and environmental protection have external benefits in the form of reduced HCEs. Combined with the other benefits such as recreational values, investments in environmental protection probably yield net social benefits. Secondly, health policy that excludes consideration of environmental quality may eventually result in increased expenditures. These results suggest a need to broaden the cost containment debate to ensure environmental determinants of health receive attention as potential complements to conventional cost control policies. PMID:12700215

  12. Variation in Emergency Department Transfer Rates from Nursing Homes in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bronskill, Susan E.; Newman, Alice; Bell, Chaim M.; Gozdyra, Peter; Anderson, Geoffrey M.; Rochon, Paula A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nursing home (NH) residents are frequently transferred to the emergency department (ED) but there is little data on inter-facility variation, which has implications for intervention planning and implementation. Objectives: To describe variation in ED transfer rates (TRs) across NHs and the association with NH characteristics. Design/setting: Retrospective cohort study using linked administrative data from Ontario. Participants: 71,780 residents of 604 NHs in 2010 and followed for one year. Measurements: Funnel plots were used to identify high transfer NHs and logistic regression to test the association with NH location, size, ownership and historical ED transfer rate. Results: One-year ED transfer rates ranged from 4.3% to 58.6% (mean 28.4%); 115 (19%) NHs were considered high. Being within five minutes of an ED, larger size and high historical ED transfer rate were associated with being a high ED transfer home. Conclusion: There was substantial variation across NHs. Consideration of characteristics such as proximity to an ED may be important in the development and targeting of different interventions for NHs. PMID:28032826

  13. Cystotomy practices and complications among general small animal practitioners in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Appel, Sherry; Otto, Simon J; Weese, J Scott

    2012-03-01

    Cystotomy is a common surgical procedure in small animal veterinary medicine, yet common pre-, intra-, and post-operative practices have not been described. This survey evaluated cystotomy practices of 106 veterinarians in Ontario. The majority of respondents reported practices consistent with standard recommendations, but some deficiencies in antimicrobial and analgesic use, as well as intra- and post-operative practices, were identified. Some factors associated with the likelihood that practitioners reported recurrent urolithiasis or urinary tract infection are contrary to typical recommendations, such as the association of the use of absorbable, multifilament suture or a dorsal (versus ventral) incision and a lesser likelihood of reporting post-operative urinary tract infections. While care must be taken interpreting these statistical associations, the results suggest that objective assessment of common cystotomy recommendations (use of monofilament, absorbable suture) is required. Re-assessment of certain peri-operative practices, such as analgesic and antimicrobial administration, and post-operative testing, is required for a minority of practitioners.

  14. A Preliminary Assessment of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data. [Windsor, Ontario and Medicine Hat areas, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodenough, D. G.; Fleming, E. A.; Dickinson, K.

    1985-01-01

    The geometric errors for image to map rectification of one Thematic Mapper (TM) scene of an area near Windsor, Ontario were studied. The scene had been produced on computer compatible tape by NASA and contained radiometric and system corrections for geometric distortions. The geometric properties of TM photographic imagery permitted very good fitting to map detail using simple scaling techniques to localized areas and, using simple scaling, the overall geometry remained with 500 meters or 0.4 mm at the image scale of 1:1,141,600. An affine transformation, permitting differential scaling, slightly improves the fit to about 400 meters or 0.35 mm at image scale. The imagery shows promise of having the needed additional resolution and spectral discrimination to provide map revision information in urban-rural areas where the MSS sensor is considered inadequate. The late-season prairie image, however, did not hold such promise, and judgement must be reserved until images are acquired at other seasons in this particular geographic area.

  15. The effect of temperature on arson incidence in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Kielasinska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Studies of crime and weather have largely excluded arson from empirical and theoretical consideration, yet weather could influence arson frequency over short time frames, influencing the motivation and activity of potential arsonists, as well as the physical possibility of fire ignition. This study aims to understand the role of weather on urban arson in order to determine its role in explaining short-term variations in arson frequency. We use data reported to the Ontario Fire Marshall's office of arson events in the City of Toronto between 1996 and 2007 to estimate the effect of temperature, precipitation, wind conditions and air pressure on arson events while controlling for the effects of holidays, weekends and other calendar-related events. We find that temperature has an independent association with daily arson frequency, as do precipitation and air pressure. In this study area, cold weather has a larger influence on arson frequency than hot weather. There is also some evidence that extremely hot and cold temperatures may be associated with lower day-time arson frequency, while night-time arson seems to have a simpler positive linear association with temperature.

  16. Nonfinancial factors associated with decreased plasma viral load testing in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Raboud, Janet M; Abdurrahman, Zainab B; Major, Carol; Millson, Peggy; Robinson, Greg; Rachlis, Anita; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2005-07-01

    To examine whether individual characteristics were associated with differential use of viral load testing when testing is available without charge to all HIV-positive patients with provincial health insurance. Individuals enrolled in the HIV Ontario Observational Database with complete medication records and health insurance numbers for linkage were studied. Generalized estimating equation regression models were used to examine the relationship between time-varying covariates such as plasma viral load levels, CD4 counts, and antiretroviral regimen characteristics and the number of days between viral load tests and the occurrence of an interval of >or=6 or 9 months between tests. A total of 1032 individuals were included in the analysis with a median follow-up of 4.6 years and a median of 18 viral load tests. In multivariate analyses, clinically important gaps in viral load testing were more likely among injection drug users (odds ratio [OR]=1.86, P<0.0001), in more recent years (P<0.01) and for individuals not using antiretrovirals (OR=1.70, P<0.0001) and less likely among individuals using >4 antiretrovirals (OR=0.62, P<0.0001). Results were similar when the outcome was the number of days between tests. Injection drug users, younger individuals, and residents of Toronto used fewer viral load tests than other individuals, even when financial barriers to testing were removed.

  17. Saturation of ecosystems with toxic metals in Sudbury basin, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nriagu, J O; Wong, H K; Lawson, G; Daniel, P

    1998-11-10

    Mining and resource recovery activities have not been kind to ecosystems in the Sudbury basin, Ontario. The combination of logging, smelting, fires and erosion resulted in an unusual anthropogenic ecosystem of denuded barren land with lifeless lakes, or a micro-desert. Since the 1970s, however, the concerted efforts made to reduce the emissions and rehabilitate parts of the degraded ecosystem have resulted in improvements in water quality, and recoveries in phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and fish communities but have had little impact on toxic metal concentrations in many lakes. We show that most of the catchments in the Sudbury basin have become saturated with Cu and Ni, and some with Zn and Pb. It is estimated that mobilization of metals stored in soils and glacial overburden by surface runoff, groundwater drainage and wind re-working of tailings can sustain the high concentrations of Cu and Ni in many lakes for well over 1000 years. Strategies to immobilize the pollutant metals in the watershed rather than further emission controls may be required for dealing with high levels of toxic metals in surface waters of the saturated ecosystems.

  18. The effect of temperature on arson incidence in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Kielasinska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Studies of crime and weather have largely excluded arson from empirical and theoretical consideration, yet weather could influence arson frequency over short time frames, influencing the motivation and activity of potential arsonists, as well as the physical possibility of fire ignition. This study aims to understand the role of weather on urban arson in order to determine its role in explaining short-term variations in arson frequency. We use data reported to the Ontario Fire Marshall's office of arson events in the City of Toronto between 1996 and 2007 to estimate the effect of temperature, precipitation, wind conditions and air pressure on arson events while controlling for the effects of holidays, weekends and other calendar-related events. We find that temperature has an independent association with daily arson frequency, as do precipitation and air pressure. In this study area, cold weather has a larger influence on arson frequency than hot weather. There is also some evidence that extremely hot and cold temperatures may be associated with lower day-time arson frequency, while night-time arson seems to have a simpler positive linear association with temperature.

  19. Seasonal variation in mercury and food web biomagnification in Lake Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Campbell, Linda M; Johnson, Timothy B

    2012-02-01

    Seasonal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations and food web structure was assessed for eastern Lake Ontario. Hg concentrations, measured in 6 species of invertebrates and 8 species of fishes, tended to be highest in the spring and lowest in the summer for most biota. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exhibited significant ontogenetic shifts in diet and Hg, although such patterns were not evident for other species. Food web structure, as indicated by stable isotope values (δ(15)N, δ(13)C) was not static. Log-transformed Hg data were strongly and consistently correlated with δ(15)N values for the whole food web in each of the three seasons (slopes, 0.17-0.24) and across the entire year (slope, 0.2). While significantly different between seasons, the regression slope values are still consistent with published global Hg biomagnification rates. Our results indicate that the assessment of Hg trends in Great Lakes must take into account seasonal patterns and time of sampling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  1. Spring-harvested game birds from the western James Bay region of northern Ontario, Canada: organochlorine concentrations in breast muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Martin, Emily S; LeBlanc, Alain; Dumas, Pierre

    2007-10-15

    Although studies have assessed organochlorine concentration in breast tissue (pectoral muscle) of fall-harvested game birds in Canada, data for spring-harvested game birds are limited, especially for remote sub-arctic areas. Taking into account that most traditional Aboriginal diets include a large number of spring-harvested game birds, there is a need to assess organochlorine concentration in spring-harvested water birds with respect to suitability for human consumption. We examined organochlorine concentrations in breasts of 20 mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), 20 northern pintails (A. acuta), 21 Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior), and 20 lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) harvested in the spring; summer-harvested shorebirds (godwits; Limosa spp.) were also assessed as these water birds are an important part of the game bird harvest for First Nation Cree of the western James Bay region of Ontario, Canada. The most frequently detected organochlorines in striated (pectoral) muscle were SigmaPCBs (sum of 14 congeners [CBs]) and SigmaDDT (sum of DDE and DDT) followed by SigmaCHL (sum of oxy-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor) and hexachlorobenzene with beta-hexachlorocyclohexane being the least frequently detected. For organochlorines that had < or =70% of the samples with detectable concentrations of an organochlorine (i.e., CBs 105, 128, 156, 170, 180, 183, cis-nonachlor, DDT, and mirex), log-linear contingency modelling revealed that the dabbling ducks had significantly more than expected detectable concentrations of most organochlorines; by contrast, geese and shorebirds had significantly less than expected detectable concentrations of most organochlorines. ANOVA for organochlorines with frequency of detection > or =70% (i.e., Aroclor 1260, SigmaPCBs, CBs 118, 138, 153, 187, DDE, hexachlorobenzene, oxy-chlordane and trans-nonachlor) revealed significant differences between bird species: Breast tissue in snow geese contained significantly

  2. First Report of the Fig Cyst Nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, on Fig Tree, Ficus carica, in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fengcheng; Henry, Neil; Yu, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Although fig trees are a popular ornamental fruit tree in subtropical regions, some hardy species, such as Ficus carica, have been grown in the west coast of British Columbia and southern Ontario in Canada. The fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, is a pest on fig plants, and the heavy infestation can cause retarded growth and yellowing of leaves (Maqbool et al., 1987). In the spring of 2016, a sample of rhizosphere from a potted fig (F. carica) seedling was submitted to the Nematology Laboratory, Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The sample was collected from a nursery in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, during an inspection to support export certification. The fig trees in the nursery had been grown in the outside fields during the growing seasons and potted and moved to indoor during the winters for last 3 years. The sample was subjected to a nematode extraction process, including decanting and sieving and misting, and lemon-shaped cysts and second-stage juveniles of Heterodera sp. were recovered from the sample examined. The morphological and molecular analyses of the cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles from both the roots and the crushed cysts identified the species as Heterodera fici Kirjanova. The cysts were characterized by their dark brown color and lemon shape, as well as distinct necks and vulval cones. The vulval cones were observed having an ambifenestrate fenestra (Fig. 1AFig. 1Photomicrographs of Heterodera fici on fig tree from Ontario, Canada. A, B. Cyst vulval cones with the ambifenestrate fenestra in A) and well-developed underbridge and bullae in B). C-E. The second-stage juveniles from a crushed cyst with the whole body in C), the anterior region in D) and the posterior region in E).), dome-shaped bullae scattered around the underbridge plane (Fig. 1B), well-developed underbridge (Fig. 1B), and coarse zig-zag ridges surrounding the fenestra on the surface. The cyst measurements (n = 3) were length 608.7 ± 91.6 (506

  3. First Report of the Fig Cyst Nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, on Fig Tree, Ficus carica, in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fengcheng; Henry, Neil; Yu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Although fig trees are a popular ornamental fruit tree in subtropical regions, some hardy species, such as Ficus carica, have been grown in the west coast of British Columbia and southern Ontario in Canada. The fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, is a pest on fig plants, and the heavy infestation can cause retarded growth and yellowing of leaves (Maqbool et al., 1987). In the spring of 2016, a sample of rhizosphere from a potted fig (F. carica) seedling was submitted to the Nematology Laboratory, Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The sample was collected from a nursery in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, during an inspection to support export certification. The fig trees in the nursery had been grown in the outside fields during the growing seasons and potted and moved to indoor during the winters for last 3 years. The sample was subjected to a nematode extraction process, including decanting and sieving and misting, and lemon-shaped cysts and second-stage juveniles of Heterodera sp. were recovered from the sample examined. The morphological and molecular analyses of the cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles from both the roots and the crushed cysts identified the species as Heterodera fici Kirjanova. The cysts were characterized by their dark brown color and lemon shape, as well as distinct necks and vulval cones. The vulval cones were observed having an ambifenestrate fenestra (Fig. 1AFig. 1Photomicrographs of Heterodera fici on fig tree from Ontario, Canada. A, B. Cyst vulval cones with the ambifenestrate fenestra in A) and well-developed underbridge and bullae in B). C–E. The second-stage juveniles from a crushed cyst with the whole body in C), the anterior region in D) and the posterior region in E).), dome-shaped bullae scattered around the underbridge plane (Fig. 1B), well-developed underbridge (Fig. 1B), and coarse zig-zag ridges surrounding the fenestra on the surface. The cyst measurements (n = 3) were length 608.7 ± 91.6 (506

  4. Lake-based magnetic mapping of contaminated sediment distribution, Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozza, M. R.; Boyce, J. I.; Morris, W. A.

    2004-12-01

    The remediation of toxic sediment in harbours and urban waterways requires detailed mapping of contaminated sediment distribution and thickness. Conventional methods rely on interpolation of pollutant concentrations from widely spaced core samples but can lead to significant errors in estimating sediment distribution. An improved approach, as demonstrated by recent work in Hamilton Harbour in Lake Ontario, is to estimate pollutant levels from proxy measurements of sediment magnetic properties. Measurements from 40 core samples collected within the harbour show that the magnetic susceptibility of a contaminated upper layer of sediment is one to two orders of magnitude greater than in the underlying uncontaminated 'pre-colonial' sediments. The susceptibility contrast results from elevated levels of urban-source magnetic oxides and is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 5-40 nT) that can be measured with a towed magnetometer. Systematic lake-based magnetic surveying (>500 line km) of the harbour using an Overhauser marine magnetometer identifies well-defined positive magnetic anomalies that coincide with mapped accumulations of contaminated sediments on the harbour bottom. Forward modelling of the anomalies shows that the magnetic response is consistent with a contaminated upper layer thickness of up to 5 m. Apparent susceptibility maps calculated from magnetic survey data show a close spatial correspondence with core-derived magnetic susceptibilities and provide a rapid means for classifying contaminated sediments. Detection of shallow magnetic anomalies is dependent upon a closely spaced survey grid (<75 m line spacing) and careful post-cruise processing to remove diurnal, regional and water-depth related variations in the magnetic field intensity.

  5. The effectiveness and resilience of phosphorus management practices in the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossman, J.; Futter, M. N.; Palmer, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Baulch, H. M.; Woods, D.; Jin, L.; Oni, S. K.; Dillon, P. J.

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty surrounding future climate makes it difficult to have confidence that current nutrient management strategies will remain effective. This study used monitoring and modeling to assess current effectiveness (% phosphorus reduction) and resilience (defined as continued effectiveness under a changing climate) of best management practices (BMPs) within five catchments of the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario. The Integrated Catchment Phosphorus model (INCA-P) was used, and monitoring data were used to calibrate and validate a series of management scenarios. To assess current BMP effectiveness, models were run over a baseline period 1985-2014 with and without management scenarios. Climate simulations were run (2070-2099), and BMP resilience was calculated as the percent change in effectiveness between the baseline and future period. Results demonstrated that livestock removal from water courses was the most effective BMP, while manure storage adjustments were the least. Effectiveness varied between catchments, influenced by the dominant hydrological and nutrient transport pathways. Resilience of individual BMPs was associated with catchment sensitivity to climate change. BMPs were most resilient in catchments with high soil water storage capacity and small projected changes in frozen-water availability and in soil moisture deficits. Conversely, BMPs were less resilient in catchments with larger changes in spring melt magnitude and in overland flow proportions. Results indicated that BMPs implemented are not always those most suited to catchment flow pathways, and a more site-specific approach would enhance prospects for maintaining P reduction targets. Furthermore, BMP resilience to climate change can be predicted from catchment physical properties and present-day hydrochemical sensitivity to climate forcing.

  6. Attitudes toward waste to energy facilities and impacts on diversion in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Jamie; Ho, Yvonne; Rollins, Yvonne; Maclaren, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Despite progress in residential waste diversion, residual waste - that fraction which cannot be recycled or composted - must continue to be managed by municipalities. Zero waste and environmental groups worry that waste-to-energy (WtE) incinerators discourage diversion, while both incineration and landfill have been stigmatized in the popular consciousness such that WtE incinerators in particular are being cancelled more often than they are approved. We conducted a mail-back survey of 217 residents in Toronto, Durham and Peel, Ontario, to understand attitudes toward diversion, levels of support for WtE incineration and WtE landfill (landfill gas recovery) facilities, and predictors of facility support. Contrary to experiences elsewhere, diversion seems threatened by WtE when measured as attitudes with 18%, and 14% agreeing that they would be less inclined to divert recyclable/compostable materials if they knew materials went to a WtE landfill or incinerator. When forced to choose between four options landfill or incineration with and without energy recovery, WtE incineration is most preferred (65%) and landfill without WtE is the least preferred option (61%). However, measurement has a large influence on public opinion results in the sense that support for WtE incineration drops to 43% when asked as a "vote in favor" question and to only 36% when measured as a 4-item index of support. When the indexes of support for landfill and WtE incineration are modeled, the prominence of odor in the landfill model distinguishes it from the WtE incinerator model which is dominated more by community and concern about health effects. Implications for policy are discussed, particularly mandatory diversion targets to accompany WtE.

  7. Climate-diameter growth relationships of black spruce and jack pine trees in boreal Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Nirmal; Sharma, Mahadev

    2013-02-01

    To predict the long-term effects of climate change - global warming and changes in precipitation - on the diameter (radial) growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) trees in boreal Ontario, we modified an existing diameter growth model to include climate variables. Diameter chronologies of 927 jack pine and 1173 black spruce trees, growing in the area from 47°N to 50°N and 80°W to 92°W, were used to develop diameter growth models in a nonlinear mixed-effects approach. Our results showed that the variables long-term average of mean growing season temperature, precipitation during wettest quarter, and total precipitation during growing season were significant (alpha = 0.05) in explaining variation in diameter growth of the sample trees. Model results indicated that higher temperatures during the growing season would increase the diameter growth of jack pine trees, but decrease that of black spruce trees. More precipitation during the wettest quarter would favor the diameter growth of both species. On the other hand, a wetter growing season, which may decrease radiation inputs, increase nutrient leaching, and reduce the decomposition rate, would reduce the diameter growth of both species. Moreover, our results indicated that future (2041-2070) diameter growth rate may differ from current (1971-2000) growth rates for both species, with conditions being more favorable for jack pine than black spruce trees. Expected future changes in the growth rate of boreal trees need to be considered in forest management decisions. We recommend that knowledge of climate-growth relationships, as represented by models, be combined with learning from adaptive management to reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with forest management decisions.

  8. Geology, geochemistry, and geochronology of the East Bay gold trend, Red Lake, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Shaun; Camacho, Alfredo; Fayek, Mostafa; Epp, Mark; Spell, Terry L.; Armstrong, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Red Lake greenstone belt is situated in northwestern Ontario within the Uchi Subprovince, Superior Province. Most gold deposits therein are associated with major deformation corridors; the east-west oriented "Mine trend" hosts most of the large deposits and the northeast-southwest "East Bay trend" hosts several small deposits and showings. Gold along the East Bay trend typically occurs in quartz replacement veins that were emplaced into pre-existing quartz-carbonate veins. Gold can occur as free gold or along vein margins associated with pyrite and pyrrhotite. Most primary fluid inclusions, preserved in relatively undeformed portions of veins, are carbonaceous with lesser quantities of aqueous inclusions. The average homogenization temperature of aqueous fluids is 250 °C; however, the abundance of three-phase inclusions, variation in liquid-vapor ratios, and a wide range in homogenization temperatures indicate that immiscibility, effervescence, and fluid mixing are mechanisms associated with gold deposition. The age ( 2550 Ma) of alteration minerals in the Abino area is considerably younger (by 100 Myr) than alteration minerals in other deposits in the Red Lake district, indicating that the mineralizing fluid history was more protracted than previously thought. Along the East Bay trend, barren veins generally have lower δ18OVSMOW values (0.0 to 8.5‰) relative to auriferous veins (9.6 and 13.1‰). Consequently, the oxygen isotopic composition of quartz could be used as a vector for gold mineralization. The genetic model for the East Bay trend involves several stages of vein formation. Auriferous veins formed near the upper boundary of the mesozonal regime (depth of 5-6 km).

  9. Spatial and seasonal variations in atrazine and metolachlor surface water concentrations in Ontario (Canada) using ELISA.

    PubMed

    Byer, Jonathan D; Struger, John; Sverko, Ed; Klawunn, Paul; Todd, Aaron

    2011-02-01

    Concerns regarding the impacts of pesticides on aquatic species and drinking water sources have increased demands on water quality monitoring programs; however the costs of sample analysis can be prohibitive. In this study we investigated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a cost-effective, high through-put method for measuring pesticide concentrations in surface waters. Seven hundred and thirty-nine samples from 158 locations throughout Ontario were analysed for atrazine and metolachlor from April to October 2007. Concentrations ranged from <0.1 to 3.91 μg L(-1) (median=0.12 μg L(-1)) for atrazine and from <0.1 to 1.83 μg L(-1) (median=0.09 μg L(-1)) for metolachlor. Peak concentrations occurred in late spring/early summer, in rural agricultural locations, and decreased over the remainder of the growing season for both herbicides. About 3% of the samples that had ELISA results occurring above the limit of quantification (0.10 μg L(-1)) were evaluated against gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear regression analysis revealed a R(2) value of 0.88 and 0.39, for atrazine and metolachlor, respectively. ELISA tended to overestimate concentrations for atrazine and metolachlor, most likely because the ELISA kits also detect their metabolites. Atrazine data suggest that ELISA may be used complementary with GC-MS analysis to enhance the spatial and temporal resolution of a water quality monitoring study. The commercially available metolachlor ELISA kit requires further investigation. ELISA may be used to detect atrazine and metolachlor in surface water samples, but it is not recommended as a quantitative replacement for traditional analytical methods.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of opioid-related deaths involving alcohol in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Tara; Juurlink, David N; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Paterson, J Michael; van den Brink, Wim

    2017-10-01

    While it is well known that patients receiving opioids should refrain from alcohol consumption, little is known about the involvement of alcohol in opioid-related deaths. We conducted a population-based analysis of opioid-related deaths in Ontario with and without alcohol involvement between 1993 and 2013, and reported rates overall and stratified by manner of death. We compared the characteristics of individuals who died of an opioid overdose based on the presence or absence of alcohol involvement. The rate of opioid-related deaths increased 288% from 11.9 per million (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.8-13.9 per million) in 1993-46.2 per million (95% CI 42.6-49.8 per million) in 2013. The rate of opioid-related deaths without alcohol involvement increased 388% from 7.4 per million to 36.1 per million, while deaths involving alcohol increased by 125% from 4.5 per million to 10.1 per million. Therefore, although the annual number of opioid-related deaths involving alcohol rose, the proportion of opioid-related deaths involving alcohol declined from 37.8% in 1993-21.9% by 2013. Generally, opioid-related deaths involving alcohol were less likely to involve other central nervous system depressants, and more likely to occur among men and those with a history of alcohol use disorder. Although the relative contribution of alcohol in opioid-related deaths has declined, 1 in 5 fatal opioid overdoses still involved alcohol in 2013. Our findings highlight the ongoing need for targeted messaging around risks of opioids alone, and in combination with alcohol and other CNS depressants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Costs of cancer care in children and adolescents in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Claire; Bremner, Karen E; Liu, Ning; Greenberg, Mark L; Nathan, Paul C; McBride, Mary L; Krahn, Murray D

    2017-11-01

    Cancer in children and adolescents presents unique issues regarding treatment and survivorship, but few studies have measured economic burden. We estimated health care costs by phase of cancer care, from the public payer perspective, in population-based cohorts. Children newly diagnosed at ages 0 days-14.9 years and adolescents newly diagnosed at 15-19.9 years, from January 1, 1995 to June 30, 2010, were identified from Ontario cancer registries, and each matched to three noncancer controls. Data were linked with administrative records describing resource use for cancer and other health care. Total and net (patients minus controls) resource-specific costs ($CAD2012) were estimated using generalized estimating equations for four phases of care: prediagnosis (60 days), initial (360 days), continuing (variable), final (360 days). Mean ages at diagnosis were 6 years for children (N = 4,606) and 17 years for adolescents (N = 2,443). Mean net prediagnosis phase 60-day costs were $6,177 for children and $1,018 for adolescents. Costs for initial, continuing, and final phases were $138,161, $15,756, and $316,303 per 360 days for children, and $62,919, $7,071, and $242,008 for adolescents. The highest initial phase costs were for leukemia patients ($156,225 per 360 days for children and $171,275 for adolescents). The final phase was the most costly ($316,303 per 360 days for children and $242,008 for adolescents). Costs for children with cancer are much higher than for adolescents and much higher than those reported in adults. Comprehensive population-based long-term estimates of cancer costs are useful for health services planning and cost-effectiveness analysis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Modeling seasonal to annual carbon balance of Mer Bleue Bog, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolking, Steve; Roulet, Nigel T.; Moore, Tim R.; Lafleur, Peter M.; Bubier, Jill L.; Crill, Patrick M.

    2002-07-01

    Northern peatlands contain enormous quantities of organic carbon within a few meters of the atmosphere and play a significant role in the planetary carbon balance. We have developed a new, process-oriented model of the contemporary carbon balance of northern peatlands, the Peatland Carbon Simulator (PCARS). Components of PCARS are (1) vascular and nonvascular plant photosynthesis and respiration, net aboveground and belowground production, and litterfall; (2) aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of peat; (3) production, oxidation, and emission of methane; and (4) dissolved organic carbon loss with drainage water. PCARS has an hourly time step and requires air and soil temperatures, incoming radiation, water table depth, and horizontal drainage as drivers. Simulations predict a complete peatland C balance for one season to several years. A 3-year simulation was conducted for Mer Bleue Bog, near Ottawa, Ontario, and results were compared with multiyear eddy covariance tower CO2 flux and ancillary measurements from the site. Seasonal patterns and the general magnitude of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 were similar for PCARS and the tower data, though PCARS was generally biased toward net ecosystem respiration (i.e., carbon loss). Gross photosynthesis rates (calculated directly in PCARS, empirically inferred from tower data) were in good accord, so the discrepancy between model and measurement was likely related to autotrophic and/or heterotrophic respiration. Modeled and measured methane emission rates were quite low. PCARS has been designed to link with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) land surface model and a global climate model (GCM) to examine climate-peatland carbon feedbacks at regional scales in future analyses.

  13. Late Wisconsinan sub-glacial clastic intrusive sheets along Lake Erie bluffs, at Bradtville, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreimanis, Aleksis; Rappol, Martin

    1997-07-01

    Numerous clastic intrusive sheets, a few decimetres to more than 16 m long, 1-120 cm thick, and extending one to more than 25 m laterally, occur along a 350 m long section of the late Wisconsinan Catfish Creek Drift in the Lake Erie bluffs at Bradtville, southwestern Ontario. Most of them are downglacier-dipping dikes, the largest one terminating in the underlying middle Wisconsinan Tyrconnell Formation. Most dikes strike NNE-SSW, at right angles to the local direction of glacier movement during the deposition of Catfish Creek Drift. The tops of some of them are truncated or displaced downglacier by shearing. The main concentration of clastic intrusive sheets is on the upglacier side of a glaciotectonically folded anticline of Tyrconnell Formation clays and silts underlying the Catfish Creek Drift. The host sediments are Catfish Creek till, gravel, sand and silt, and Tyrconnell Formation silt and clay. Most intrusive sheets, particularly the small to medium ones, consist of massive to crudely laminated sand and silt, intruded from below by a dewatering process. The largest dike reflects in its composition mainly the adjoining or higher-lying host-sediment materials, and its main part was formed by downward infilling, or by gravity flows into an open fracture. The large dike is flanked by small laminated silty sand sheets and several small apophyses, some of them injected downward and sideways, others upward by dewatering. The clastic intrusive sheets were formed under a moving glacier, the Erie lobe, probably both at the beginning and towards the end of the deposition of Catfish Creek till. Their location and position was predetermined by glaciotectonically induced listric planar structures and zones of weakness, mainly tension fractures, that strike transverse to glacier movement and dip downglacier and also by confinement of pore-water in a permeable sediment wedge between the less pervious Tyrconnell Formation and massive Catfish Creek basal till.

  14. Radiochemistry Lab Decommissioning and Dismantlement. AECL, Chalk River Labs, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Stephen

    2008-01-15

    Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) was originally founded in the mid 1940's to perform research in radiation and nuclear areas under the Canadian Defense Department. In the mid 50's The Canadian government embarked on several research and development programs for the development of the Candu Reactor. AECL was initially built as a temporary site and is now faced with many redundant buildings. Prior to 2004 small amounts of Decommissioning work was in progress. Many reasons for deferring decommissioning activities were used with the predominant ones being: 1. Reduction in radiation doses to workers during the final dismantlement, 2. Development of a long-term solution for the management of radioactive wastes in Canada, 3. Financial constraints presented by the number of facilities shutdown that would require decommissioning funds and the absence of an approved funding strategy. This has led to the development of a comprehensive decommissioning plan that is all inclusive of AECL's current and legacy liabilities. Canada does not have a long-term disposal site; therefore waste minimization becomes the driving factor behind decontamination for decommissioning before and during dismantlement. This decommissioning job was a great learning experience for decommissioning and the associated contractors who worked on this project. Throughout the life of the project there was a constant focus on waste minimization. This focus was constantly in conflict with regulatory compliance primarily with respect to fire regulations and protecting the facility along with adjacent facilities during the decommissioning activities. Discrepancies in historical documents forced the project to treat every space as a contaminated space until proven differently. Decommissioning and dismantlement within an operating site adds to the complexity of the tasks especially when it is being conducted in the heart of the plant. This project was very successful with no lost time accidents in over one hundred

  15. Analyzing remote sensing geobotanical trends in Quetico Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada, using digital elevation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Timothy A.; Campagna, David J.; Levandowski, Don W.; Cetin, Haluk; Evans, Carla S.

    1991-01-01

    A 10 x 13-km area in Quetico Provincial Park, Canada has been studied using a digital elevation model to separate different drainage classes and to examine the influence of site factors and lithology on vegetation. Landsat Thematic Mapper data have been classified into six forest classes of varying deciduous-coniferous cover through nPDF, a procedure based on probability density functions. It is shown that forests growing on mafic lithologies are enriched in deciduous species, compared to those growing on granites. Of the forest classes found on mafics, the highest coniferous component was on north facing slopes, and the highest deciduous component on south facing slopes. Granites showed no substantial variation between site classes. The digital elevation derived site data is considered to be an important tool in geobotanical investigations.

  16. Analyzing remote sensing geobotanical trends in Quetico Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada, using digital elevation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Timothy A.; Campagna, David J.; Levandowski, Don W.; Cetin, Haluk; Evans, Carla S.

    1991-01-01

    A 10 x 13-km area in Quetico Provincial Park, Canada has been studied using a digital elevation model to separate different drainage classes and to examine the influence of site factors and lithology on vegetation. Landsat Thematic Mapper data have been classified into six forest classes of varying deciduous-coniferous cover through nPDF, a procedure based on probability density functions. It is shown that forests growing on mafic lithologies are enriched in deciduous species, compared to those growing on granites. Of the forest classes found on mafics, the highest coniferous component was on north facing slopes, and the highest deciduous component on south facing slopes. Granites showed no substantial variation between site classes. The digital elevation derived site data is considered to be an important tool in geobotanical investigations.

  17. Population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0-9 years old) and older adults (55-74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases.

  18. Population-Based Passive Tick Surveillance and Detection of Expanding Foci of Blacklegged Ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme Disease Agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Nelder, Mark P.; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N.; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0–9 years old) and older adults (55–74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases. PMID:25171252

  19. Carbon dynamics on agricultural land reverting to woody land in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Voicu, Mihai F; Shaw, Cindy; Kurz, Werner A; Huffman, Ted; Liu, Jiangui; Fellows, Max

    2017-02-21

    The 2015 Paris Agreement reinforces the importance of the land sector and its contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. Thus, there is growing interest in improving estimates of the GHG balance in response to land-use changes (LUCs) involving agriculture and forestry, for national-scale reporting, and for carbon (C) offsets. Large agricultural areas in Europe, Russia and North America are reverting to forest, either naturally or through planting, after abandonment of agricultural land, and this trend may have a substantial impact on carbon budgets. We report results of a pilot project in the Mixedwood Plains ecozone of eastern Canada to analyze the change in the C budget on a landscape over 15 years on abandoned cropland where woody vegetation is regenerating. Thirty-six plots (2 km × 2 km) with paired aerial photographs taken circa 1994 and circa 2008 at a scale of 1:10,000 or larger were randomly selected from the 20 km × 20 km National Forest Inventory (NFI) grid. A spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) was used to estimate impacts of LUC on C stocks and fluxes. Polygons identifying areas of LUC within each photo plot were delineated, classified, and evaluated to provide input data for the model. The rate of C accumulation in our study area was found to be relatively constant over the entire simulation period, at 1.07 Mg C/ha/yr. Abandoned agricultural land reverting to woody lands could play an important role in regional and national C sequestration in Canada, but more research is required to quantify the areal extent of this LUC.

  20. Potential near-future carbon uptake overcomes losses from a large insect outbreak in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Vivek K.; Peng, Yiran; Kurz, Werner A.; Fyfe, John C.; Hawkins, Barbara; Werner, Arelia T.

    2016-03-01

    The current capacity of northern high-latitude forests to sequester carbon has been suggested to be undermined by the potential increase in fire and insect outbreaks. Here we investigate the response of the terrestrial ecosystems in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada, to the recent large mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreak that started in 1999 as well as changing climate and continually increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration up to 2050, in a combined framework, using a process-based model. Model simulations suggest that the recent MPB outbreak results in BC's forests accumulating 328 Tg less carbon over the 1999-2020 period. Over this same period changing climate and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, however, yield enhanced carbon uptake equal to a cumulative sink of around 900-1060 Tg C, depending on the future climate change scenario, indicating that the reduced carbon uptake by land due to the MPB disturbance may already be surpassed by 2020.

  1. Effects of geodemographic profiles on healthcare service utilization: a case study on cardiac care in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although literature has associated geodemographic factors with healthcare service utilization, little is known about how these factors — such as population size, age profile, service accessibility, and educational profile — interact to influence service utilization. This study fills this gap in the literature by examining both the direct and the moderating effects of geodemographic profiles on the utilization of cardiac surgery services. Methods We aggregated secondary data obtained from Statistics Canada and Cardiac Care Network of Ontario to derive the geodemographic profiles of Ontario and the corresponding cardiac surgery service utilization in the years between 2004 and 2007. We conducted a two-step test using Partial Least Squares-based structural equation modeling to investigate the relationships between geodemographic profiles and healthcare service utilization. Results Population size and age profile have direct positive effects on service utilization (β=0.737, p<0.01; β=0.284, p<0.01, respectively), whereas service accessibility is negatively associated with service utilization (β=−0.210, p<0.01). Service accessibility decreases the effect of population size on service utilization (β=−0.606, p<0.01), and educational profile weakens the effects of population size and age profile on service utilization (β=−0.595, p<0.01; β=−0.286, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions In this study, we found that (1) service accessibility has a moderating effect on the relationship between population size and service utilization, and (2) educational profile has moderating effects on both the relationship between population size and service utilization, and the relationship between age profile and service utilization. Our findings suggest that reducing regional disparities in healthcare service utilization should take into account the interaction of geodemographic factors such as service accessibility and education. In addition, the allocation of

  2. Supportive but "worried": perceptions of naturopaths, homeopaths and Chinese medicine practitioners through a regulatory transition in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, Nadine; Boon, Heather; Welsh, Sandy; Meads, Allison

    2015-09-07

    In line with recent World Health Organization recommendations, many jurisdictions are taking steps to regulate practitioners of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM). Previous studies have examined TCAM practitioners' generally-supportive views about professional regulation; however, little research has been conducted on TCAM practitioners' experiences and perspectives amidst an active regulatory process. In 2006 and 2007, the province of Ontario, Canada announced it would grant self-regulatory status to three TCAM practitioner groups--homeopaths, naturopaths and Chinese medicine practitioners/acupuncturists. In 2011 and 2012, part-way through each group's regulatory process, we surveyed all practitioners from these three groups (n=1047) that could be identified from public registries and professional associations. The data presented here are derived from the sub-sample of homeopaths (n=234), naturopaths (n=273) and Chinese medicine practitioners/acupuncturists (n=181) who provided answers to an open-ended question about their opinions of the regulatory process at the end of the survey. An inductive, thematic analysis of qualitative survey responses was conducted. Survey responses affirmed a pro-regulatory stance across all groups, but revealed considerable 'worry' amongst practitioners as to how the regulations might be implemented. Four primary 'worry-related' themes emerged: a) regulation's potential administrative and financial burden on practitioners; b) scope-related concerns; c) implementation of fair registration standards; and d) whether regulation might erode the groups' distinctive worldviews. Some occupationally-specific concerns appeared related to each group's particular stage of professionalization. Other 'worries' may be related to the relative marginality of TCAM practitioner groups within biomedically-dominant national health care systems, and the possibility that inter-professional hierarchies may be emerging between

  3. Identification of potential regional sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Windsor, Ontario, Canada using hybrid receptor modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Akhtar, U. S.

    2009-11-01

    Windsor (Ontario) - the automotive capital of Canada does not have any significant mercury (Hg) sources. However, Windsor experiences trans-boundary air pollution as it is located immediately downwind of industrialized regions of the United States of America. A study was conducted in 2007 aimed to identify the potential regional sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and investigate the effects of regional sources and other factors on seasonal variability of TGM concentrations in Windsor. TGM concentration was measured at the University of Windsor campus using a Tekran® 2537A Hg vapour analyzer. An annual mean of 2.02±1.63 ng/m3 was observed in 2007. The average TGM concentration was high in the summer (2.48 ng/m3) and winter (2.17 ng/m3), compared to spring (1.88 ng/m3) and fall (1.76 ng/m3). Hybrid receptor modeling potential source contribution function (PSCF) was used by incorporating 72-h backward trajectories and measurements of TGM in Windsor. The results of PSCF were analyzed in conjunction with the Hg emissions inventory of North America (by state/province) to identify regions affecting Windsor. In addition to annual modeling, seasonal PSCF modeling was also conducted. The potential source region was identified between 24-61° N and 51-143° W. Annual PSCF modeling identified major sources southwest of Windsor, stretching from Ohio to Texas. The emissions inventory also supported the findings, as Hg emissions were high in those regions. Results of seasonal PSCF modeling were analyzed to find the combined effects of regional sources, meteorological conditions, and surface reemissions, on intra-annual variability of Hg concentrations. It was found that the summer and winter highs of atmospheric Hg can be attributed to areas where large numbers of coal fired power plants are located in the USA. Weak atmospheric dispersion due to low winds and high reemission from surfaces due to higher temperatures contributed to high concentrations in the summer. In the

  4. Uncovering the hidden part of a large ice stream of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillette, J. J.; Roy, M.; Paulen, R. C.; Ménard, M.; St-Jacques, G.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation was prompted by an enigmatic ice-flow anomaly (Area A) on the Glacial Map of Canada which covers about 10 000 km2 in the Hearst/Kapuskasing area of northeastern Ontario. It consists of streamlined landforms and striations indicative of a major ice flow toward 130° oriented at right angle to another toward 220°. Both are late glacial flows but long-lasting disagreement exists regarding their relative age. The analysis of aerial photographs and satellite images in conjunction with a detailed survey of bedrock cross-striated surfaces over an area of about 30 000 km2 within and around Area A clearly indicate that the 130° flow preceded the 220° flow. The earlier conflicting interpretations within Area A are attributed mainly to the sporadic occurrence of relict striated surfaces formed by older southwestward (220°-240°) Wisconsinan ice flows that have locally escaped destruction by late glacial flows, with the result that the southwestward flows are older (Wisconsinan) at some sites and younger (late glacial 220°) at others relative to the 130° flow. When considered with other factors such as the maximum elevation reached by the youngest late glacial flow, these ice-flow relationships indicate that Area A is the outcropping southern part of a much larger ESE ice-flow system, which is probably related to a large fluted belt located to the north and that was identified as the Winisk Ice Stream. The distal part of the ice stream, except for Area A, escaped detection by remote sensing mapping methods because depositional and erosional features associated with it are masked by deposits laid down by the younger (220°, Cochrane) ice flow and/or by postglacial marine and organic deposits (or were destroyed by the younger ice flow). The only reliable indicators of the passage of the ice stream in this "buried" section are ESE relict striations crossed by SW striations. The advancing ice stream toward the ESE not only preceded the late Cochrane 220

  5. Enigmatic diamonds in Archean calc-alkaline lamprophyres of Wawa, southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Stefano, Andrea; Lefebvre, Nathalie; Kopylova, Maya

    2006-02-01

    A suite of 80 macrodiamonds recovered from volcaniclastic breccia of Wawa (southern Ontario) was characterized on the basis of morphology, nitrogen content and aggregation, cathodoluminescence (CL), and mineral inclusions. The host calc-alkaline lamprophyric breccias were emplaced at 2.68-2.74 Ga, contemporaneously with voluminous bimodal volcanism of the Michipicoten greenstone belt. The studied suite of diamonds differs from the vast majority of diamond suites found worldwide. First, the suite is hosted by calc-alkaline lamprophyric volcanics rather than by kimberlite or lamproite. Second, the host volcanic rock is amongst the oldest known diamondiferous rocks on Earth, and has experienced regional metamorphism and deformation. Finally, most diamonds show yellow-orange-red CL and contain mineral inclusions not in equilibrium with each other or their host diamond. The majority of the diamonds in the Wawa suite are colorless, weakly resorbed, octahedral single crystals and aggregates. The diamonds contain 0-740 ppm N and show two modes of N aggregation at 0-30 and 60-95% B-centers suggesting mantle storage at 1,100-1,170°C. Cathodoluminescence and FTIR spectroscopy shows that emission peaks present in orange CL stones do not likely result from irradiation or single substitutional N, in contrast to other diamonds with red CL. The diamonds contain primary inclusions of olivine (Fo92 and Fo89), omphacite, orthopyroxene (En93), pentlandite, albite, and An-rich plagioclase. These peridotitic and eclogitic minerals are commonly found within single diamonds in a mixed paragenesis which also combines shallow and deep phases. This apparent disequilibrium can be explained by effective small-scale mixing of subducted oceanic crust and mantle rocks in fast “cold” plumes ascending from the top of the slabs in convergent margins. Alternatively, the diamonds could have formed in the pre-2.7-2.9 Ga cratonic mantle and experienced subsequent alteration of syngenetic inclusions

  6. Modeling regional groundwater flow in a peat bog complex in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durejka, Stefan; Knorr, KLaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian; Frei, Sven

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands are important ecohydrological systems and contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle. They function as carbon sinks through CO2-sequestration but also emit methane depending i.a. on the prevailing hydrological structures. Knowledge of their hydrology including exchange between the groundwater and surface water domain is thus necessary to understand wetland environments and to determine their vulnerability to climate changes. The impact of proposed wetter conditions on wetland hydrological homeostastis in northern bogs is uncertain to this date. Elevated water tables due to changing hydrological flow patterns may affect the characteristics of wetlands as a carbon reservoir. Modeling approaches allow quantifying and qualifying of these flow patterns on a longer time scale. Luther Bog is located in Southern Ontario. The ombotrophic bog to poor fen is partially bordered by Luther Lake which inundates the area since its creation in 1952. In this study the interaction between the wetland and the adjacent lake is modeled using the fully-integrated HydroGeoSphere model. A transient three-dimensional groundwater mode is set up for a small catchment with the lake level implemented as a constant-head boundary condition. Hydraulic properties of the peat were estimated executing bail tests on multilevel piezometers at different sites within the wetland. The first hypothesis is that the wet conditions in the runoff network keep the water table in the wetland high over a specific transition zone. The Second is that there may be a reversal of flow directions over the hydrological year, due to varying boundary conditions, e.g. evapotranspiration and precipitation. First results indicate that exchange rates may be very slow. This is supported by manual measurements of little hydraulic gradients and little topographic gradients. The results also show a seasonal effect in flow directions in both, the groundwater and the surface water domain. The model will be tested

  7. Element mobility and partitioning along a soil acidity gradient in central Ontario forests, Canada.

    PubMed

    Watmough, Shaun A

    2008-10-01

    The potential environmental risk posed by metals in forest soils is typically evaluated by modeling metal mobility using soil-solution partitioning coefficients (K(d)), although such information is generally restricted to a few well-studied metals. Soil-solution partitioning coefficients were determined for 17 mineral elements (Al, As, Be, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Rb, Sr, Tl, U and V) in A-horizon (0-5 cm) soil at 46 forested sites that border the Precambrian Shield in central Ontario, where soil pH(aq) varied from 3.9 to 8.1. Sites were dominated by mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) or white pine (Pinus strobus L.). Log K(d) values for all elements could be predicted by empirical linear regression with soil pH (r(2) = 0.17-0.77) independent of forest type, although this relationship was greatly affected by positive relationships between acid-extractable metal concentration and pH(aq) for 13 of the 17 elements. Elements that exhibited strong or moderate (r(2) > 0.29; p < 0.001) relationships with soil pH(aq) in soil water extracts include Al, Ba, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Rb, Tl, V (negative) and Ca (positive). Elemental partitioning in mineral soil was independent of forest type; tree species differed in their response to chemical differences in mineral soil. For example, Rb, Ba, and Sr concentrations in foliage of sugar maple and white birch significantly increased with increasing soil acidity, whereas Rb, Ba, and Sr concentrations in balsam fir and white pine foliage exhibited no response to soil pH(aq). While K(d) values can provide useful information on the potential mobility and bioavailability of mineral elements in forest soils, care must be used when interpreting the relative contribution of solid and aqueous phases to this relationship and the differing responses of vegetation in elemental cycling in forests must also be considered.

  8. A Systematic Review of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Small Non-Community Drinking Water Systems in Canada and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Bitton, Andria; McEwen, Scott; Pintar, Katarina; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Reports of outbreaks in Canada and the United States (U.S.) indicate that approximately 50% of all waterborne diseases occur in small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs). Summarizing these investigations to identify the factors and conditions contributing to outbreaks is needed in order to help prevent future outbreaks. Objectives The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify published reports of waterborne disease outbreaks involving SDWSs in Canada and the U.S. since 1970; 2) summarize reported factors contributing to outbreaks, including water system characteristics and events surrounding the outbreaks; and 3) identify terminology used to describe SDWSs in outbreak reports. Methods Three electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched for outbreak reports involving SDWSs throughout Canada and the U.S. from 1970 to 2014. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data related to water system characteristics and outbreak events. The data were analyzed descriptively with ‘outbreak’ as the unit of analysis. Results From a total of 1,995 citations, we identified 50 relevant articles reporting 293 unique outbreaks. Failure of an existing water treatment system (22.7%) and lack of water treatment (20.2%) were the leading causes of waterborne outbreaks in SDWSs. A seasonal trend was observed with 51% of outbreaks occurring in summer months (p<0.001). There was large variation in terminology used to describe SDWSs, and a large number of variables were not reported, including water source and whether water treatment was used (missing in 31% and 66% of reports, respectively). Conclusions More consistent reporting and descriptions of SDWSs in future outbreak reports are needed to understand the epidemiology of these outbreaks and to inform the development of targeted interventions for SDWSs. Additional monitoring of water systems that are used on a seasonal or infrequent basis would be worthwhile to inform future protection

  9. The Ontario Secondary Education Review Project: An Analysis of a Provincial Strategy for Educational Change in the 1980's in the Province of Ontario, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nediger, W. G.

    A study was developed in an effort to generate a series of reports dealing with assessment, evaluation, reaction, and design of secondary education programs in the Canadian province of Ontario. The study objectives included: (1) defining educational goals commensurate with student ability; (2) preparing students for the future; (3) reassessing…

  10. Muslim immigrant women's views on cervical cancer screening and HPV self-sampling in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha

    2016-08-24

    Canada has observed significant decreases in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in recent decades, and this has been attributed to appropriate screening (i.e., the Pap test). However, certain subgroups including Muslim immigrants show higher rates of cervical cancer mortality despite their lower incidence. Low levels of screening have been attributed to such barriers as lack of a family physician, inconvenient clinic hours, having a male physician, and cultural barriers (e.g., modesty, language). HPV self -sampling helps to alleviate many of these barriers. However, little is known about the acceptability of this evidence-based strategy among Muslim women. This study explored Muslim immigrant women's views on cervical cancer screening and the acceptability of HPV self-sampling. An exploratory community-based mixed methods design was used. A convenience sample of 30 women was recruited over a 3-month period (June-August 2015) in the Greater Toronto Area. All were between 21 and 69 years old, foreign-born, self-identified as Muslim, and had good knowledge of English. Data were collected through focus groups. This study provides critical insights about the importance of religious and cultural beliefs in shaping the daily and health care experiences of Muslim women and their cancer screening decisions. Our study showed the deterring impact of beliefs and health practices in home countries on Muslim immigrant women's utilization of screening services. Limited knowledge about cervical cancer and screening guidelines and need for provision of culturally appropriate sexual health information were emphasized. The results revealed that HPV self-sampling provides a favorable alternative model of care to the traditional provider-administered Pap testing for this population. To enhance Muslim immigrant women screening uptake, efforts should made to increase 1) their knowledge of the Canadian health care system and preventive services at the time of entry to Canada, and

  11. Leprosy-like illness in a patient with Mycobacterium lepromatosis from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jessamine, Peter G; Desjardins, Marc; Gillis, Tom; Scollard, David; Jamieson, Frances; Broukhanski, George; Chedore, Pam; McCarthy, Anne

    2012-02-01

    Here we present the first case of a patient from Ottawa Canada, presenting with leprosy-like illness associated with Mycobacterium lepromatosis. The patient had no history of travel to leprosy-endemic areas or any obvious risk factors. Clinically, the patient presented with an anesthetic maculopapular rash on the trunk, back, and extremities. A skin biopsy of a lesion revealed a dermal lymphohistiocytic infiltration involving the vessels with an inflammatory process extending to the nerves. A neurological exam also identified a severe sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Concurrently, the patient was diagnosed with non-resectable, non small cell carcinoma of the lung, further complicating his clinical presentation. A Kinyoun stain of nasal blows and a Fite stain of the skin biopsy revealed few to moderate acid fast bacilli respectively. Cultures of the skin biopsy and multiple nasal blows were negative. Molecular studies of a skin biopsy sample including sequence analysis of a 765 bp region of the 16s rRNA gene eventually identified the organism with 100% homology to M. lepromatosis. The patient was treated for leprosy and appeared to improve slightly on therapy but died as a result of his malignancy approximately five months after the initiation of therapy. This represents the first case of a patient with M. lepromatosis like illness outside of Mexico and Singapore.

  12. Active Tuberculosis among Homeless Persons, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1998–2007

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Elizabeth; McDermaid, Cameron; Stuart, Rebecca; Chambers, Catharine; Wang, Jun; Chan, Angie; Gardam, Michael; Jamieson, Frances; Yang, Jae; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) in Canadian cities is increasingly affecting foreign-born persons, homeless persons remain at high risk. To assess trends in TB, we studied all homeless persons in Toronto who had a diagnosis of active TB during 1998–2007. We compared Canada-born and foreign-born homeless persons and assessed changes over time. We identified 91 homeless persons with active TB; they typically had highly contagious, advanced disease, and 19% died within 12 months of diagnosis. The proportion of homeless persons who were foreign-born increased from 24% in 1998–2002 to 39% in 2003–2007. Among foreign-born homeless persons with TB, 56% of infections were caused by strains not known to circulate among homeless persons in Toronto. Only 2% of infections were resistant to first-line TB medications. The rise in foreign-born homeless persons with TB strains likely acquired overseas suggests that the risk for drug-resistant strains entering the homeless shelter system may be escalating. PMID:21392424

  13. Active tuberculosis among homeless persons, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamran; Rea, Elizabeth; McDermaid, Cameron; Stuart, Rebecca; Chambers, Catharine; Wang, Jun; Chan, Angie; Gardam, Michael; Jamieson, Frances; Yang, Jae; Hwang, Stephen W

    2011-03-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) in Canadian cities is increasingly affecting foreign-born persons, homeless persons remain at high risk. To assess trends in TB, we studied all homeless persons in Toronto who had a diagnosis of active TB during 1998-2007. We compared Canada-born and foreign-born homeless persons and assessed changes over time. We identified 91 homeless persons with active TB; they typically had highly contagious, advanced disease, and 19% died within 12 months of diagnosis. The proportion of homeless persons who were foreign-born increased from 24% in 1998-2002 to 39% in 2003-2007. Among foreign-born homeless persons with TB, 56% of infections were caused by strains not known to circulate among homeless persons in Toronto. Only 2% of infections were resistant to first-line TB medications. The rise in foreign-born homeless persons with TB strains likely acquired overseas suggests that the risk for drug-resistant strains entering the homeless shelter system may be escalating.

  14. Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum Type E Associated with a Large Outbreak of Botulism in Wildlife from Lake Erie and Lake Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Hannett, George E.; Stone, Ward B.; Davis, Stephen W.; Wroblewski, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of Clostridium botulinum type E isolates associated with an outbreak of wildlife botulism was studied using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Specimens were collected from November 2000 to December 2008 during a large outbreak of botulism affecting birds and fish living in and around Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. In our present study, a total of 355 wildlife samples were tested for the presence of botulinum toxin and/or organisms. Type E botulinum toxin was detected in 110 samples from birds, 12 samples from fish, and 2 samples from mammals. Sediment samples from Lake Erie were also examined for the presence of C. botulinum. Fifteen of 17 sediment samples were positive for the presence of C. botulinum type E. Eighty-one C. botulinum isolates were obtained from plants, animals, and sediments; of these isolates, 44 C. botulinum isolates produced type E toxin, as determined by mouse bioassay, while the remaining 37 isolates were not toxic for mice. All toxin-producing isolates were typed by RAPD; that analysis showed 12 different RAPD types and multiple subtypes. Our study thus demonstrates that multiple genetically distinct strains of C. botulinum were involved in the present outbreak of wildlife botulism. We found that C. botulinum type E is present in the sediments of Lake Erie and that a large range of bird and fish species is affected. PMID:21115703

  15. An Archean Primary Pyroclastic Flow Erupted and Deposited Underwater, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. R.; Richard, D.; Fowler, A. D.

    2001-12-01

    The volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Hurd Property, located in northeastern Ontario, are within the Kinojévis Group of the Abitibi Greenstone Belt. These Archean rocks are of tholeiitic affinity ranging from intermediate to mafic in composition. Despite a low greenschist grade overprint primary volcanic textures are well preserved. The study area consists of three lithofacies, which from oldest to youngest are: (1) an intermediate lava; (2) volcaniclastic deposit; and (3) mafic lava. The underlying intermediate lava is a dark grey and massive lithofacies that becomes flow banded and lobate within a few meters of the sharp, but undulatory contact with the overlying volcaniclastic lithofacies. The 10-15 m-thick volcaniclastic deposit is subdivided into lower and upper divisions based on flow characteristics and a sharp internal contact. The lower division is characterized by conspicuous m-wide columnar joints within the central part of the deposit, along with a possible gas segregation pipe. Observed fragments range from tuff to breccia in size, comprising glass shards, flow banded clasts, pumice, and fragments containing perlitic cracks and spherulites, all of which are non-sorted. The discontinuously exposed, subordinate upper division forms a graded unit composed of conspicuously large (up to 1m x 10cm in section) imbricated fragments that are massive to flow banded. The contact between the upper volcaniclastic lithofacies and the mafic lithofacies is sharp, but irregular, typically marked by pseudo-pillow like shapes within the mafic unit. Only the lower 25 m of this massive, amphibole-rich mafic lithofacies is exposed in the study area. Lobate features, along with imbrication within the upper volcaniclastic lithofacies suggest a subaqueous environment of deposition consistent with observed pillows and interflow chert locally. Nonetheless, the succeeding volcaniclastic deposit appears to have been emplaced under high temperatures based on columnar joints

  16. Retrograde fluids in the Archean Shawmere anorthosite, Kapuskasing Structural Zone, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, William M.; Morrison, Jean

    The Archean Shawmere anorthosite lies within the granulite facies portion of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone (KSZ), Ontario, and is crosscut by numerous linear alteration veins containing calcite+quartz+/- dolomite+/-zoisite+/-clinozoisite+/-margarite+/-paragonite+/-chlorite. These veins roughly parallel the trend of the Ivanhoe Lake Cataclastic Zone. Equilibria involving clinozoisite+margarite+quartz+/-calcite +/-plagioclase show that the vein minerals were stable at T<600°C, XCO2<0.4 at P 6kbar. The stabilities of margarite and paragonite in equilibrium with quartz are also consistent with T<600°C and XCO2<0.4 at 6kbar. Additional assemblages consisting of calcite+ clinochlore+quartz+talc+margarite indicate T<500°C with XCO2>0.9. Thus, vein formation, while clearly retrograde, spanned a range of temperatures, and fluid compositions evolved from H2O-rich to CO2-rich. The calcite in the retrograde veins has δ18O values that range from 8.4 to 11.2‰ (average=+9.7+/-0.9‰) and δ13C values that range from -3.9 to -1.6‰ (average=-3.1+/-0.6‰). These values indicate that the fluids from which calcite precipitated underwent extensive exchange with the anorthosite and other crustal lithologies. The fluids may have been initially derived either from devolatilization of metamorphic rocks or crystallization of igneous rocks in the adjacent Abitibi subprovince. Vein quartz contains CO2-rich fluid inclusions (final melting T=-57.0 to -58.7°C) that range in size from 5 to 17 μm. Measured homogenization temperatures (T h) range from -44.0 to 14.5°C, however for most inclusions (46 of S1), T h=-44.0 to -21.1°C (ρCO2 1.13 to 1.05g/cm3). At 400 to 600°C, these densities correspond to pressures of 3.5 to 7 kbar, which is the best estimate of pressures of vein formation. It has been argued that some high density CO2-rich fluid inclusions found in the KSZ were formed during peak metamorphism and thus document the presence of a CO2-rich fluid during peak granulite

  17. Task shifting in the provision of home and social care in Ontario, Canada: implications for quality of care.

    PubMed

    Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Zeytinoglu, Isik; Plenderleith, Jennifer; Barken, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Growing healthcare costs have caused home-care providers to look for more efficient use of healthcare resources. Task shifting is suggested as a strategy to reduce the costs of delivering home-care services. Task shifting refers to the delegation or transfer of tasks from regulated healthcare professionals to home-care workers (HCWs). The purpose of this paper is to explore the impacts of task shifting on the quality of care provided to older adults from the perspectives of home healthcare workers. This qualitative study was completed in collaboration with a large home and community care organisation in Ontario, Canada, in 2010-2011. Using a purposive sampling strategy, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 46 home healthcare workers including HCWs, home-care worker supervisors, nurses and therapists. Study participants reported that the most common skills transferred or delegated to HCWs were transfers, simple wound care, exercises, catheterisation, colostomies, compression stockings, G-tube feeding and continence care. A thematic analysis of the data revealed mixed opinions on the impacts of task shifting on the quality of care. HCWs and their supervisors, more often than nurses and therapists, felt that task shifting improved the quality of care through the provision of more consistent care; the development of trust-based relationships with clients; and because task shifting reduced the number of care providers entering the client's home. Nurses followed by therapists, as well as some supervisors and HCWs, expressed concerns that task shifting might compromise the quality of care because HCWs lacked the knowledge, training and education necessary for more complex tasks, and that scheduling problems might leave clients with inconsistent care once tasks are delegated or transferred. Policy implications for regulating bodies, employers, unions and educators are discussed.

  18. Drivers of Change in a 7300-Year Holocene Diatom Record from the Hemi-Boreal Region of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kristen K.; Medeiros, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    A Holocene lake sediment record spanning the past 7300 years from Wishart Lake in the Turkey Lakes Watershed in the Hemi-Boreal of central Ontario, Canada, was used to evaluate the potential drivers of long-term change in diatom assemblages at this site. An analysis of diatom assemblages found that benthic and epiphytic taxa dominated the mid-Holocene (7300–4000 cal yr BP), indicating shallow, oligotrophic, circum-neutral conditions, with macrophytes present. A significant shift in diatom assemblages towards more planktonic species (mainly Cyclotella sensu lato, but also several species of Aulacoseira, and Tabellaria flocculosa) occurred ~4000 cal yr BP. This change likely reflects an increase in lake level, coincident with the onset of a more strongly positive moisture balance following the drier climates of the middle Holocene, established by numerous regional paleoclimate records. Pollen-inferred regional changes in vegetation around 4000 yrs BP, including an increase in Betula and other mesic taxa, may have also promoted changes in diatom assemblages through watershed processes mediated by the chemistry of runoff. A more recent significant change in limnological conditions is marked by further increases in Cyclotella sensu lato beginning in the late 19th century, synchronous with the Ambrosia pollen rise and increases in sediment bulk density, signaling regional and local land clearance at the time of Euro-Canadian settlement (1880 AD). In contrast to the mid-Holocene increase in planktonic diatoms, the modern increase in Cyclotella sensu lato likely indicates a response to land use and vegetation change, and erosion from the watershed, rather than a further increase in water level. The results from Wishart Lake illustrate the close connection between paleoclimate change, regional vegetation, watershed processes, and diatom assemblages and also provides insight into the controls on abundance of Cyclotella sensu lato, a diatom taxonomic group which has shown

  19. Differences in the importance of weather and weather-based decisions among campers in Ontario parks (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel J.; Gough, William A.

    2017-05-01

    Parks and protected areas represent an important resource for tourism in Canada, in which camping is a common recreational activity. The important relationship between weather and climate with recreation and tourism has been widely acknowledged within the academic literature. Howbeit, the need for activity-specific assessments has been identified as an on-going need for future research in the field of tourism climatology. Furthermore, very little is known about the interrelationships between personal characteristics and socio-demographics with weather preferences and behavioural thresholds. This study uses a stated climate preferences approach (survey responses) to explore differences in the importance of weather and related weather-based decisions among summer campers in Ontario parks. Statistically significant differences were found among campers for each of the four dependent variables tested in this study. Physically active campers placed greater importance on weather but were still more tolerant of adverse weather conditions. Older campers placed greater importance on weather. Campers travelling shorter distances placed greater importance on weather and were more likely to leave the park early due to adverse weather. Campers staying for longer periods of time were less likely to leave early due to weather and were willing to endure longer durations of adverse weather conditions. Beginner campers placed greater importance on weather, were more likely to leave early due to weather and recorded lower temporal weather thresholds. The results of this study contribute to the study of tourism climatology by furthering understanding of how personal characteristics such as gender, age, activity selection, trip duration, distance travelled, travel experience and life cycles affect weather preferences and decisions, focusing this time on recreational camping in a park tourism context.

  20. How do people attribute income-related inequalities in health? A cross-sectional study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lofters, Aisha; Slater, Morgan; Kirst, Maritt; Shankardass, Ketan; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities. We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities. There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1%) than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3%) or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%). A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support for equity-focused public policy, and knowledge

  1. Health and safety matters! Associations between organizational practices and personal support workers' life and work stress in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Davies, Sharon; Sayin, Firat K

    2017-06-21

    The home and community care sector is one of the fastest growing sectors globally and most prominently in mature industrialized countries. Personal support workers (PSWs) are the largest occupational group in the sector. This paper focuses on the emotional health of PSWs working in the home and community care sector in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this paper is to present evidence on the associations between PSWs' life and work stress and organizational practices of full-time and guaranteed hours, and PSWs' perceptions of support at work and preference for hours. Data come from our 2015 survey of 1543 PSWs. Dependent variables are life and work stress. Independent variables are: objective organizational practices of full-time and guaranteed hours, and subjective organizational practices of perceived support at work, and preferred hours of work. Descriptive statistics, correlations and ordinary least square regression analyses with collinearity tests are conducted. Organizational practices of employing PSWs in full-time or guaranteed hours are not associated with their life and work stress. However, those who perceive support from their organizations are also the ones reporting lower life and work stress. In addition, those PSWs perceiving support from their supervisor report lower work stress. PSWs would like to work in their preferred hours, and those who prefer to work more hours report lower life and work stress, and conversely, those who prefer to work less hours report life and work stress. For PSWs in home and community care, perceived support from their organizations and supervisors, and employment in preferred hours are important factors related to their life and work stress.

  2. Effect of question design on dietary information solicited during veterinarian-client interactions in companion animal practice in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    MacMartin, Clare; Wheat, Hannah C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L

    2015-06-01

    To establish the types of initial questions used by veterinarians in companion animal practice to solicit nutritional history information from owners of dogs and cats, the dietary information elicited, and the relationship between initial question-answer sequences and later nutrition-related questions. Cross-sectional qualitative conversation analytic study. 98 appointments featuring 15 veterinarians drawn from an observational study of 284 videotaped veterinarian-client-patient visits involving 17 veterinarians in companion animal practices in eastern Ontario, Canada. Veterinarian and client talk related to patient nutrition was identified and transcribed; conversation analysis was then used to examine the orderly design and details of talk within and across turns. Nutrition-related discussions occurred in 172 visits, 98 of which contained veterinarian-initiated question-answer sequences about patient nutritional history (99 sequences in total, with 2 sequences in 1 visit). The predominant question format used by veterinarians was a what-prefaced question asking about the current content of the patient's diet (75/99). Overall, 63 appointments involved a single what-prefaced question in the first turn of nutrition talk by the veterinarian (64 sequences in total). Dietary information in client responses was typically restricted to the brand name, the subtype (eg, kitten), or the brand name and subtype of a single food item. When additional diet questions were subsequently posed, they typically sought only clarification about the food item previously mentioned by the client. Results suggested that question design can influence the accuracy and completeness of a nutritional history. These findings can potentially provide important evidence-based guidance for communication training in nutritional assessment techniques.

  3. Geography, Deer, and Host Biodiversity Shape the Pattern of Lyme Disease Emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K.; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K.; Leighton, Patrick A.; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Jardine, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America. PMID:24416435

  4. Modest rise in chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing did not increase case detection in a clinical HIV cohort in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Ann N; Grewal, Ramandip; Allen, Vanessa G; Gardner, Sandra L; Moravan, Veronika; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; McGee, Frank; Millson, Margaret Peggy E; Remis, Robert S; Raboud, Janet; Mazzulli, Tony; Rourke, Sean B

    2014-12-01

    We described patterns of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among persons in specialty HIV care in Ontario, Canada, from 2008 to 2011. We analysed data from 3165 participants in the OHTN Cohort Study attending one of seven specialty HIV care clinics. We obtained chlamydia and gonorrhoea test results via record linkage with the provincial public health laboratory. We estimated the proportion of participants who underwent testing annually, the positivity rate among those tested and the proportion diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhoea among all under observation. We explored risk factors for testing and diagnosis using multiple logistic regression analysis. The proportion tested annually rose from 15.2% (95% CI 13.6% to 16.7%) in 2008 to 27.0% (95% CI 25.3% to 28.6%) in 2011 (p<0.0001). Virtually all were urine-based nucleic acid amplification tests. Testing was more common among men who have sex with men (MSM), younger adults, Toronto residents, persons attending primary care clinics and persons who had tested in the previous year or who had more clinic visits in the current year. We observed a decrease in test positivity rates over time. However, the annual proportion diagnosed remained stable and in 2011 this was 0.97% (95% CI 0.61% to 1.3%) and 0.79% (95% CI 0.46% to 1.1%) for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, respectively. Virtually all cases were among MSM. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing increased over time while test positivity rates declined and the overall proportion diagnosed remained stable, suggesting that the modest increase in testing did not improve case detection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli isolated from retail grain-fed veal meat from Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cook, Angela; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Irwin, Rebecca J; McEwen, Scott A; Young, Virginia; Ribble, Carl

    2011-08-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli isolates in fresh retail grain-fed veal obtained in Ontario, Canada. The prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns were examined for points of public health significance. Veal samples (n = 528) were collected from February 2003 through May 2004. Twenty-one Salmonella isolates were recovered from 18 (4%) of 438 samples and underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was found in 6 (29%) of 21 Salmonella isolates; 5 (24%) of 21 isolates were resistant to five or more antimicrobials. No resistance to antimicrobials of very high human health importance was observed. Ampicillin-chloramphenicolstreptomycin-sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline resistance was found in 5 (3%) of 21 Salmonella isolates. Campylobacter isolates were recovered from 5 (1%) of 438 samples; 6 isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was documented in 3 (50%) of 6 Campylobacter isolates. No Campylobacter isolates were resistant to five or more antimicrobials or category I antimicrobials. E. coli isolates were recovered from 387 (88%) of 438 samples; 1,258 isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was found in 678 (54%) of 1,258 E. coli isolates; 128 (10%) of 1,258 were resistant to five or more antimicrobials. Five (0.4%) and 7 (0.6%) of 1,258 E. coli isolates were resistant to ceftiofur and ceftriaxone, respectively, while 34 (3%) of 1,258 were resistant to nalidixic acid. Ciprofloxacin resistance was not detected. There were 101 different resistance patterns observed among E. coli isolates; resistance to tetracycline alone (12.7%, 161 of 1,258) was most frequently observed. This study provides baseline prevalence and antimicrobial resistance data and highlights potential public health concerns.

  6. Impact of air pollution on hospital admissions in Southwestern Ontario, Canada: Generating hypotheses in sentinel high-exposure places

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Karen Y; Luginaah, Isaac N; Gorey, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Background Southwestern Ontario (SWO) in Canada has been known as a 'hot spot' in terms of environmental exposure and potential effects. We chose to study 3 major cities in SWO in this paper. We compared age-standardized hospital admission ratios of Sarnia and Windsor to London, and to generate hypotheses about potential pollutant-induced health effects in the 'Chemical Valley', Sarnia. Methods The number of daily hospital admissions was obtained from all hospitals in London, Windsor and Sarnia from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2000. We used indirect age adjustment method to obtain standardized admissions ratios for males and females and we chose London as the reference population. This process of adjustment was to apply the age-specific admission rates of London to the population of Sarnia and Windsor in order to yield expected admissions. The observed number of admissions was then compared to the expected admissions in terms of a ratio. These standardized admissions ratios and their corresponding confidence intervals were calculated for Sarnia and Windsor. Results Our findings showed that Sarnia and Windsor had significantly higher age-adjusted hospital admissions rates compared to London. This finding was true for all admissions, and especially pronounced for cardiovascular and respiratory admissions. For example, in 1996, the observed number of admissions in Sarnia was 3.11 (CI: 2.80, 3.44) times for females and 2.83 (CI: 2.54, 3.14) times for males as would be expected by using London's admission rates. Conclusion Since hospital admissions rates were significantly higher in 'Chemical Valley' as compared to both London and Windsor, we hypothesize that these higher rates are pollution related. A critical look at the way ambient air quality and other pollutants are monitored in this area is warranted. Further epidemiological research is needed to verify our preliminary indications of harmful effects in people living in 'Chemical Valley'. PMID:17612400

  7. Geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of Lyme disease emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Jardine, Claire M

    2014-01-01

    In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America.

  8. Drivers of Change in a 7300-Year Holocene Diatom Record from the Hemi-Boreal Region of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kristen K; Medeiros, Andrew S; Finkelstein, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    A Holocene lake sediment record spanning the past 7300 years from Wishart Lake in the Turkey Lakes Watershed in the Hemi-Boreal of central Ontario, Canada, was used to evaluate the potential drivers of long-term change in diatom assemblages at this site. An analysis of diatom assemblages found that benthic and epiphytic taxa dominated the mid-Holocene (7300-4000 cal yr BP), indicating shallow, oligotrophic, circum-neutral conditions, with macrophytes present. A significant shift in diatom assemblages towards more planktonic species (mainly Cyclotella sensu lato, but also several species of Aulacoseira, and Tabellaria flocculosa) occurred ~4000 cal yr BP. This change likely reflects an increase in lake level, coincident with the onset of a more strongly positive moisture balance following the drier climates of the middle Holocene, established by numerous regional paleoclimate records. Pollen-inferred regional changes in vegetation around 4000 yrs BP, including an increase in Betula and other mesic taxa, may have also promoted changes in diatom assemblages through watershed processes mediated by the chemistry of runoff. A more recent significant change in limnological conditions is marked by further increases in Cyclotella sensu lato beginning in the late 19th century, synchronous with the Ambrosia pollen rise and increases in sediment bulk density, signaling regional and local land clearance at the time of Euro-Canadian settlement (1880 AD). In contrast to the mid-Holocene increase in planktonic diatoms, the modern increase in Cyclotella sensu lato likely indicates a response to land use and vegetation change, and erosion from the watershed, rather than a further increase in water level. The results from Wishart Lake illustrate the close connection between paleoclimate change, regional vegetation, watershed processes, and diatom assemblages and also provides insight into the controls on abundance of Cyclotella sensu lato, a diatom taxonomic group which has shown

  9. Life cycle emissions and cost of producing electricity from coal, natural gas, and wood pellets in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimin; McKechnie, Jon; Cormier, Denis; Lyng, Robert; Mabee, Warren; Ogino, Akifumi; Maclean, Heather L

    2010-01-01

    The use of coal is responsible for (1)/(5) of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Substitution of coal with biomass fuels is one of a limited set of near-term options to significantly reduce these emissions. We investigate, on a life cycle basis, 100% wood pellet firing and cofiring with coal in two coal generating stations (GS) in Ontario, Canada. GHG and criteria air pollutant emissions are compared with current coal and hypothetical natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) facilities. 100% pellet utilization provides the greatest GHG benefit on a kilowatt-hour basis, reducing emissions by 91% and 78% relative to coal and NGCC systems, respectively. Compared to coal, using 100% pellets reduces NO(x) emissions by 40-47% and SO(x) emissions by 76-81%. At $160/metric ton of pellets and $7/GJ natural gas, either cofiring or NGCC provides the most cost-effective GHG mitigation ($70 and $47/metric ton of CO2 equivalent, respectively). The differences in coal price, electricity generation cost, and emissions at the two GS are responsible for the different options being preferred. A sensitivity analysis on fuel costs reveals considerable overlap in results for all options. A lower pellet price ($100/metric ton) results in a mitigation cost of $34/metric ton of CO2 equivalent for 10% cofiring at one of the GS. The study results suggest that biomass utilization in coal GS should be considered for its potential to cost-effectively mitigate GHGs from coal-based electricity in the near term.

  10. Distribution and Diversity of Escherichia coli Populations in the South Nation River Drainage Basin, Eastern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lyautey, Emilie; Lu, Zexun; Lapen, David R.; Wilkes, Graham; Scott, Andrew; Berkers, Tanya; Edge, Thomas A.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and diversity of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface waters from multiple watersheds within the South Nation River basin in eastern Ontario, Canada. The basin is composed of mixed but primarily agricultural land uses. From March 2004 to November 2007, a total of 2,004 surface water samples were collected from 24 sampling sites. E. coli densities ranged from undetectable to 1.64 × 105 CFU 100 ml−1 and were correlated with stream order and proximity to livestock production systems. The diversity of 21,307 E. coli isolates was characterized using repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR), allowing for the identification of as many as 7,325 distinct genotypes, without capturing all of the diversity. The community was temporally and spatially dominated by a few dominant genotypes (clusters of more than 500 isolates) and several genotypes of intermediary abundance (clustering between 10 and 499 isolates). Simpson diversity indices, assessed on a normalized number of isolates per sample, ranged from 0.050 to 0.668. Simpson indices could be statistically discriminated on the basis of year and stream order, but land use, discharge, weather, and water physical-chemical properties were not statistically important discriminators. The detection of Campylobacter species was associated with statistically lower Simpson indices (greater diversity; P < 0.05). Waterborne E. coli isolates from genotypes of dominant and intermediary abundance were clustered with isolates obtained from fecal samples collected in the study area over the same period, and 90% of the isolates tested proved to share genotypes with fecal isolates. Overall, our data indicated that the densities and distribution of E. coli in these mixed-use watersheds were linked to stream order and livestock-based land uses. Waterborne E. coli populations that were distinct from fecal isolates were detected and, on this basis, were possibly naturalized E. coli strains. PMID

  11. Primary Care Physician Panel Size and Quality of Care: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Dahrouge, Simone; Hogg, William; Younger, Jaime; Muggah, Elizabeth; Russell, Grant; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the number of patients under a primary care physician’s care (panel size) and primary care quality indicators. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of fee-for-service and capitated interprofessional and non-interprofessional primary health care practices in Ontario, Canada between April 2008 and March 2010, encompassing 4,195 physicians with panel sizes ≥1,200 serving 8.3 million patients. Data was extracted from multiple linked, health-related administrative databases and covered 16 quality indicators spanning 5 dimensions of care: access, continuity, comprehensiveness, and evidence-based indicators of cancer screening and chronic disease management. RESULTS The likelihood of being up-to-date on cervical, colorectal, and breast cancer screening showed relative decreases of 7.9% (P <.001), 5.9% (P = .01), and 4.6% (P <.001), respectively, with increasing panel size (from 1,200 to 3,900). Eight chronic care indicators (4 medication-based and 4 screening-based) showed no significant association with panel size. The likelihood of individuals with a new diagnosis of congestive heart failure having an echocardiogram, however, increased by a relative 8.1% (P <.001) with higher panel size. Increasing panel size was also associated with a 10.8% relative increase in hospitalization rates for ambulatory-care–sensitive conditions (P = .04) and a 10.8% decrease in non-urgent emergency department visits (P = .004). Continuity was highest with medium panel sizes (P <.001), and comprehensiveness had a small decrease (P = .03) with increasing panel size. CONCLUSIONS Increasing panel size was associated with small decreases in cancer screening, continuity, and comprehensiveness, but showed no consistent relationships with chronic disease management or access indicators. We found no panel size threshold above which quality of care suffered. PMID:26755780

  12. Impact of long-term flooding on the hydrology and carbon biogeochemistry of a northern bog in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodau, Christian; Welchering, Lieselotte; Kasparbauer, Klaus; Durejka, Stefan; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2014-05-01

    Climate change and impoundment construction may lead to rising water tables in many northern peatlands. In this study the hydrological and biogeochemical effects of flooding were analyzed at a peatland in southern Ontario, Canada, that was partly flooded 60 years ago. By a comparison of sites of increasing distance to the lake, the effects of inundation on the peatland biogeochemistry were identified. The approximate range of lake water intrusion into the peatland was determined using 18O in water. Furthermore the local hydrology was analyzed by quantifying distributions of hydraulic conductivity and small-scale groundwater flow patterns. By measuring nitrate, phosphate, ammonium, sulfate and DIC, CH4 and DOC in the lake and groundwater the chemical and biogeochemical influence of the inundation was determined. Gas fluxes of CO2 and CH4 at the site were quantified using a static chamber approach. The findings indicate that the infiltration of water from the lake at these sites occurred in time periods of higher lake levels. During summer these locations were only fed by precipitation and the previously infiltrated surface water was diluted or replaced. Nutrient concentrations in the lake water were generally lower compared to the peat pore water. The main solute entering the peatland with the intrusion was sulfate, which also influenced methane concentration patterns. Vertical flow seemed to be an important hydraulic process and control on solute transport at the study site, which has not been described to this extent previously. Additionally, indications for a discharge of groundwater into the peat during a flow reversal were found, though the assumed low permeability of underlying layers should not allow for this process. While the impact of reservoir creation on hydrologic processes appeared to be limited, the changes in water table, soil moisture and vegetation patterns had large impacts on trance gas fluxes to the atmosphere, especially on methane, whose

  13. Modest rise in chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing did not increase case detection in a clinical HIV cohort in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, Ann N; Grewal, Ramandip; Allen, Vanessa G; Gardner, Sandra L; Moravan, Veronika; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; McGee, Frank; Millson, Margaret (Peggy) E; Remis, Robert S; Raboud, Janet; Mazzulli, Tony; Rourke, Sean B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We described patterns of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among persons in specialty HIV care in Ontario, Canada, from 2008 to 2011. Methods We analysed data from 3165 participants in the OHTN Cohort Study attending one of seven specialty HIV care clinics. We obtained chlamydia and gonorrhoea test results via record linkage with the provincial public health laboratory. We estimated the proportion of participants who underwent testing annually, the positivity rate among those tested and the proportion diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhoea among all under observation. We explored risk factors for testing and diagnosis using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The proportion tested annually rose from 15.2% (95% CI 13.6% to 16.7%) in 2008 to 27.0% (95% CI 25.3% to 28.6%) in 2011 (p<0.0001). Virtually all were urine-based nucleic acid amplification tests. Testing was more common among men who have sex with men (MSM), younger adults, Toronto residents, persons attending primary care clinics and persons who had tested in the previous year or who had more clinic visits in the current year. We observed a decrease in test positivity rates over time. However, the annual proportion diagnosed remained stable and in 2011 this was 0.97% (95% CI 0.61% to 1.3%) and 0.79% (95% CI 0.46% to 1.1%) for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, respectively. Virtually all cases were among MSM. Conclusions Chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing increased over time while test positivity rates declined and the overall proportion diagnosed remained stable, suggesting that the modest increase in testing did not improve case detection. PMID:25178285

  14. Primary Care Physician Panel Size and Quality of Care: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dahrouge, Simone; Hogg, William; Younger, Jaime; Muggah, Elizabeth; Russell, Grant; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the number of patients under a primary care physician's care (panel size) and primary care quality indicators. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of fee-for-service and capitated interprofessional and non-interprofessional primary health care practices in Ontario, Canada between April 2008 and March 2010, encompassing 4,195 physicians with panel sizes ≥1,200 serving 8.3 million patients. Data was extracted from multiple linked, health-related administrative databases and covered 16 quality indicators spanning 5 dimensions of care: access, continuity, comprehensiveness, and evidence-based indicators of cancer screening and chronic disease management. The likelihood of being up-to-date on cervical, colorectal, and breast cancer screening showed relative decreases of 7.9% (P <.001), 5.9% (P = .01), and 4.6% (P <.001), respectively, with increasing panel size (from 1,200 to 3,900). Eight chronic care indicators (4 medication-based and 4 screening-based) showed no significant association with panel size. The likelihood of individuals with a new diagnosis of congestive heart failure having an echocardiogram, however, increased by a relative 8.1% (P <.001) with higher panel size. Increasing panel size was also associated with a 10.8% relative increase in hospitalization rates for ambulatory-care-sensitive conditions (P = .04) and a 10.8% decrease in non-urgent emergency department visits (P = .004). Continuity was highest with medium panel sizes (P <.001), and comprehensiveness had a small decrease (P = .03) with increasing panel size. Increasing panel size was associated with small decreases in cancer screening, continuity, and comprehensiveness, but showed no consistent relationships with chronic disease management or access indicators. We found no panel size threshold above which quality of care suffered. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  15. Biogeochemical factors influencing net mercury methylation in contaminated freshwater sediments from the St. Lawrence River in Cornwall, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Avramescu, Mary-Luyza; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Hintelmann, Holger; Ridal, Jeff; Fortin, Danielle; Lean, David R S

    2011-02-01

    The activity of various anaerobic microbes, including sulfate reducers (SRB), iron reducers (FeRP) and methanogens (MPA) has been linked to mercury methylation in aquatic systems, although the relative importance of each microbial group in the overall process is poorly understood in natural sediments. The present study focused on the biogeochemical factors (i.e. the relative importance of various groups of anaerobic microbes (FeRP, SRB, and MPA) that affect net monomethylmercury (MMHg) formation in contaminated sediments of the St. Lawrence River (SRL) near Cornwall (Zone 1), Ontario, Canada. Methylation and demethylation potentials were measured separately by using isotope-enriched mercury species ((200)Hg(2+) and MM(199)Hg(+)) in sediment microcosms treated with specific microbial inhibitors. Sediments were sampled and incubated in the dark at room temperature in an anaerobic chamber for 96h. The potential methylation rate constants (K(m)) and demethylation rates (K(d)) were found to differ significantly between microcosms. The MPA-inhibited microcosm had the highest potential methylation rate constant (0.016d(-1)), whereas the two SRB-inhibited microcosms had comparable potential methylation rate constants (0.003d(-1) and 0.002d(-1), respectively). The inhibition of methanogens stimulated net methylation by inhibiting demethylationand by stimulating methylation along with SRB activity. The inhibition of both methanogens and SRB was found to enhance the iron reduction rates but did not completely stop MMHg production. The strong positive correlation between K(m) and Sulfate Reduction Rates (SRR) and between K(d) and Methane Production Rates (MPR) supports the involvement of SRB in Hg methylation and MPA in MMHg demethylation in the sediments. In contrast, the strong negative correlation between K(d) and Iron Reduction Rates (FeRR) shows that the increase in FeRR corresponds to a decrease in demethylation, indicating that iron reduction may influence net

  16. Paleomagnetism of the ~1.1 Ga Coldwell Complex (Ontario, Canada): Implications for Proterozoic geomagnetic field morphology and plate velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulakov, Evgeniy V.; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Diehl, Jimmy F.

    2014-12-01

    We report new paleomagnetic data from the ~1108 Ma intrusive Coldwell Complex (Ontario, Canada) to investigate the apparent reversal asymmetry observed in some Midcontinent Rift (MCR) rocks. The rocks of eastern and central part of the complex are reversely magnetized with a group mean direction of D = 114.8°, I = -63.7° (α95 = 3.6°, N = 30). The corresponding paleomagnetic pole at Plat = 47.2°N, Plong = 206.5°E (A95 = 4.8°) is located close to the paleomagnetic poles from nearly coeval reversely magnetized rocks of the MCR system, including the lower lava flows at Mamainse Point. The rocks of western part of the complex are normally magnetized with a group mean direction (D = 298.0°, I = 56.9°, α95 = 5.8°, N = 10) that passes the reversal test with respect to the reversed group mean direction. Our results do not support the previous model in which the complex was emplaced during two periods of reversed geomagnetic field polarity separated by a period of normal polarity and hence encompasses two geomagnetic reversals. Instead, our new data indicate that the Coldwell Complex records only two polarity intervals separated by a symmetrical reversal at ~1102-1105 Ma. This reversal is likely equivalent to the lowermost reversal recorded at Mamainse Point and provides further evidence that the apparent reversal asymmetry reflects a plate motion rather than a persistent nondipole field geometry. Together with a high-quality data from the ~1098 Ma North Shore Volcanics, our data indicate a rapid velocity of Laurentia at ~25 ± 4 cm/yr. The fast plate motion may reflect a decreased mantle drag due to vigorous mantle indicated by widespread intraplate magmatism at ~1.1 Ga.

  17. Geophysical data collected from the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada (2008-016-FA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, Jane F.; Foster, D.S.; Worley, C.R.; Irwin, Barry J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a geophysical and sampling survey of the riverbed of the Upper St. Clair River between Port Huron, Mich., and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. The objectives were to define the Quaternary geologic framework of the riverbed of the St. Clair River to evaluate the relationship between morphologic change of the riverbed and underlying stratigraphy. This report presents the geophysical and sample data collected from the St. Clair River, May 29-June 6, 2008, as part of the International Upper Great Lakes Study, a 5-year project funded by the International Joint Commission of the United States and Canada to examine whether physical changes in the St. Clair River are affecting water levels within upper Great Lakes, to assess regulation plans for outflows from Lake Superior, and to examine the potential effect of climate change on the Great Lakes water levels (http://www.iugls.org). This document makes available the data that were used in a separate report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1137, which detailed the interpretations of the Quaternary geologic framework of the region. This report includes a description of the high-resolution acoustic and sediment-sampling systems that were used to map the morphology, surficial sediment distribution, and underlying geology of the Upper St. Clair River during USGS field activity 2008-016-FA (http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/cgi-bin/datasource/public_ds_info.pl?fa=2008-016-FA). Video and photographs of the riverbed were also collected and are included in this data release. Future analyses will be focused on substrate erosion and its effects on river-channel morphology and geometry. Ultimately, the International Upper Great Lakes Study will attempt to determine where physical changes in the St. Clair River affect water flow and, subsequently, water levels in the Upper Great

  18. Intervenable factors associated with suicide risk in transgender persons: a respondent driven sampling study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Greta R; Scheim, Ayden I; Pyne, Jake; Travers, Robb; Hammond, Rebecca

    2015-06-02

    Across Europe, Canada, and the United States, 22-43 % of transgender (trans) people report a history of suicide attempts. We aimed to identify intervenable factors (related to social inclusion, transphobia, or sex/gender transition) associated with reduced risk of past-year suicide ideation or attempt, and to quantify the potential population health impact. The Trans PULSE respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey collected data from trans people age 16+ in Ontario, Canada, including 380 who reported on suicide outcomes. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were weighted using RDS II methods. Counterfactual risk ratios and population attributable risks were estimated using model-standardized risks. Among trans Ontarians, 35.1 % (95 % CI: 27.6, 42.5) seriously considered, and 11.2 % (95 % CI: 6.0, 16.4) attempted, suicide in the past year. Social support, reduced transphobia, and having any personal identification documents changed to an appropriate sex designation were associated with large relative and absolute reductions in suicide risk, as was completing a medical transition through hormones and/or surgeries (when needed). Parental support for gender identity was associated with reduced ideation. Lower self-reported transphobia (10(th) versus 90(th) percentile) was associated with a 66 % reduction in ideation (RR = 0.34, 95 % CI: 0.17, 0.67), and an additional 76 % reduction in attempts among those with ideation (RR = 0.24; 95 % CI: 0.07, 0.82). This corresponds to potential prevention of 160 ideations per 1000 trans persons, and 200 attempts per 1,000 with ideation, based on a hypothetical reduction of transphobia from current levels to the 10(th) percentile. Large effect sizes were observed for this controlled analysis of intervenable factors, suggesting that interventions to increase social inclusion and access to medical transition, and to reduce transphobia, have the potential to contribute to substantial reductions in the

  19. High-density baiting with ONRAB® rabies vaccine baits to control Arctic-variant rabies in striped skunks in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, R C; Donovan, D; Davies, J C; Brown, L; Allan, M; von Zuben, V; Bachmann, P; Sobey, K; Silver, A; Bennett, K; Buchanan, T; Bruce, L; Gibson, M; Purvis, M; Beresford, A; Beath, A; Fehlner-Gardiner, C

    2011-04-01

    The Arctic variant of rabies virus has been maintained in striped skunks in small foci in southwestern Ontario, Canada, despite the control of the disease in red foxes. To control the disease in skunks, high-density baiting with ONRAB(®) oral rabies vaccine baits was conducted by air and by hand distribution of baits in the vicinity of skunk cases. During 2009, antibody prevalences in skunks were higher in areas baited at a density of 300 baits/km(2) and flight-line spacing of 0.25 km than at 0.5-km spacing. Once an area containing Arctic-variant cases was treated with high densities of ONRAB baits, the disease did not reoccur in skunks in those areas. During 2009, only eight skunks were diagnosed with the Arctic variant of rabies virus in Ontario.

  20. A social pedagogy approach to residential care: balancing education and placement in the development of an innovative child welfare residential program in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras; Groskleg, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This paper chronicles the exploration and development of a residential program of the child welfare authority of Renfrew County in Ontario, Canada. Recognizing that virtually its entire population of youth in care was failing to achieve positive outcomes in education, Renfrew County Family and Children Services embarked on a program development process that included many unique elements within the Ontario child welfare context. This process introduced the theoretical framework of social pedagogy to the provision of residential care, and it replaced the idea of psychotherapy as the primary agent of change for youth with the concept of living and learning. The result is a template for the Ottawa River Academy, a living and learning program for youth in care that exemplifies the possibilities embedded in creative thought, attention to research and evidence, and a preparedness to transcend traditional assumptions with respect to service designs and business models for residential care in child welfare.

  1. Building Ontario: Ontario Colleges' Contribution and Investment. Revised. Briefing Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, Toronto.

    This paper addresses the issue of educational budgets for Ontario's Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (Canada). Colleges have supported a 35% increase in enrollment, with a 40% decrease in funding, over the last ten years, while operating costs have increased. In addition, Ontario eliminated the secondary school Ontario Academic Courses…

  2. Accessibility to Ontario Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christine K.

    Accessibility to a college education in Ontario, Canada, was assessed by studying the pattern of acceptances and rejections of various choices made by unregistered college applicants. Study concerns included: total offers to programs of choice from any college and from an Ontario college only; offers by institution type and program type for first…

  3. Sulfur Isotopic Compositions of Sulfides From the Lower Huronian Supergroup, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, S.; Hirai, T.; Goto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Isozaki, Y.; Tada, R.; Tajika, E.; Shimoda, G.; Morishita, Y.; Kita, N. T.

    2004-12-01

    Mass-independent isotopic fractionation (MIF) of sulfur found in sedimentary rocks older than 2470 Ma implies that the atmospheric oxygen level was lower than 10-5 PAL (present atmospheric level) in the Archean atmosphere [e.g., 1, 2]. Sulfides from the Rooihoogte and Timeball Hill Formations, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa, (2316 Ma [3]) show only a small degree of MIF [4], which suggests that the atmospheric oxygen level reached 10-5 PAL by 2316 Ma [4]. The Huronian Supergroup in E. Canada recording three Paleoproterozoic glaciatial events between 2450 and 2220 Ma is correlated with the Rooihootge and Timeball Hill Formations, and may record the evidence of the great oxygenation event. The sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfides in the Matinenda to Gordon Lake Formations of the Huronian Supergroup exhibit D33S, deviation from a mass-dependent fractionation line, of less than 0.5 permil [e.g., 1]. This suggests that the atmospheric oxygen reached a level high enough to vanish the MIF signature before the Matinenda deposition. Here we report sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfides from the Livingstone Creek, Thessalon, and Matinenda Formations of the Lower Huronian Supergroup in the Elliot lake area. The Livingstone Creek and Thessalon Formations underlie the uraniferous Matinenda Formation. In-situ ion microprobe measurements showed that most of sulfides have a small degree of sulfur MIF, as seen in other formations, except for clastic sulfide blocks in the polymictic conglomerates of the Livingstone Creek Formation, the lowermost Huronian Supergroup. The sulfides in the Livingstone sulfide blocks show a clear evidence of MIF (D33S = -1.7 to +3.6 permil) with d34S of _|4 to +2 permil. The range of MIF from the sulfide blocks is an order of magnitude larger than that for other sulfides from the Huronian Supergroup. This indicates that the atmospheric oxygen may have started to increase after the formation of the sulfide blocks and before the deposition of the

  4. Pharmacy practice in times of civil crisis: The experience of SARS and the blackout in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Austin, Zubin; Martin, J Craig; Gregory, Paul A M

    2007-09-01

    Crises affecting civilian infrastructure (including electricity supply, clean water, and access to institutional health services) may have an effect on the delivery of pharmacy services in the community. The objectives were to describe and analyze the impact of 2 major crises (the severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS] outbreak, and the electrical system failure ["blackout"]) on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in Toronto, Canada. An exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken. Pharmacists were recruited, provided informed consent, and were interviewed. Data from transcripts were coded and categorized to identify themes related to adaptive strategies undertaken by pharmacists during times of civil crisis. Five key themes emerged from this research: (1) during times of crisis, pharmacies become frontline health care facilities, (2) a vacuity of leadership/lack of utility of emergency preparedness guidelines and policies, (3) role of and reliance on experience and professional judgment, (4) importance of documentation, and (5) the importance of "teamness" in enabling successful adaptation during times of crisis. Emergencies and civil crises will continue to occur. Findings of this study include the importance of effective documentation systems and teamwork practices, as well as confident reliance on professional judgment and experience, as determinants of successful adaptation to civil crises.

  5. Geostatistical mapping of leakance in a regional aquitard, Oak Ridges Moraine area, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The Newmarket Till forms a regionally extensive aquitard separating two major aquifer systems in the Greater Toronto area, Canada. The till is incised, and sometimes eroded entirely, by a network of sand- and gravel-filled channels forming productive aquifers and, locally, high-conductivity windows between aquifer systems. Leakage through the till may also be substantial in places. This study investigates the spatial variability of aquitard leakance in order to assess the relative importance of recharge processes to the lower aquifers. With a large database derived from water-well records and containing both hard and soft information, the Sequential Indicator Simulation method is used to generate maps of aquitard thickness and window probability. These can be used for targeting channel aquifers and for identifying potential areas of recharge to the lower aquifers. Conductivities are modeled from sparse data assuming that their correlation range is much smaller than the grid spacing. Block-scale leakances are obtained by upscaling nodal values based on simulated conductivity and thickness fields. Under the "aquifer-flow'' assumption, upscaling is performed by arithmetic spatial averaging. Histograms and maps of upscaled leakances show that heterogeneities associated with aquitard windows have the largest effect on regional groundwater flow patterns. Résumé. La moraine glaciaire de Newmarket constitue un imperméable d'extension régionale séparant deux systèmes aquifères dans la région du Grand Toronto (Canada). La moraine est entaillée, et parfois entièrement érodée, par un réseau de chenaux comblés de sables et de graviers formant des aquifères productifs et, localement, des «fenêtres», zones à forte conductivité hydraulique reliant les systèmes aquifères. Une drainance au travers de la moraine peut également être significative par endroits. Cette étude s'intéresse à la variabilité spatiale de la drainance au travers de l

  6. Health service utilisation for anogenital warts in Ontario, Canada prior to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme introduction: a retrospective longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fiona M; Rosella, Laura C; Dunn, Sheila; Wilson, Sarah E; Chen, Cynthia; Deeks, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trends in occurrence of anogenital warts (AGWs) can provide early evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme impact on preventing HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions. The objective of this study was to provide a baseline of AGW epidemiology in Ontario prior to the introduction of the publicly-funded school-based HPV vaccination programme in September 2007. Setting and participants As a retrospective longitudinal population-based study, we used health administrative data as a proxy to estimate incident AGWs and total health service utilisation (HSU) for AGWs for all Ontario residents 15 years and older with valid health cards between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2007. Outcome measures The outcome of interest was AGW healthcare utilisation identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnostic code for AGWs, as well as an algorithm for identifying AGW physician office visits in a database with a unique system of diagnostic and procedural codes. An AGW case was considered incident if preceded by 12 months without HSU for AGWs. Time trends by age group and sex were analysed. Results Between fiscal years 2003 and 2006, we identified 123 247 health service visits for AGWs by 51 436 Ontario residents 15 years and older. Incident AGWs peaked in females and males in the 21–23 year age group, at 3.74 per 1000 and 2.81 per 1000, respectively. HSU for AGWs peaked in females and males within the 21–23 year age group, at 9.34 per 1000 and 7.22 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of AGW incidence and HSU in Ontario. The sex and age distribution of individuals with incident and prevalent AGWs in Ontario was similar to that of other provinces before HPV vaccine programme implementation in Canada. PMID:26966057

  7. Diamonds in an Archean greenstone belt: Diamond suites in unconventional rocks of Wawa, Northern Ontario (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, Maya; Bruce, Loryn; Ryder, John

    2010-05-01

    Diamonds typically are found on Archean cratons entrained by younger Phanerozoic kimberlites. In contrast, Wawa diamonds are hosted in "unconventional", non-kimberlitic rocks that formed contemporaneously with the mafic and sedimentary rocks of the Archean Michipicoten Greenstone Belt (MGB). We studied two diamond suites that occur within the 2.9-2.7 Ga greenschist facies rocks of MGB located in the southwest portion of the Superior Craton (E. Canada). The first diamond suite henceforth referred to as the Wawa breccia diamonds (384 stones), are hosted in the 2618-2744 Ma calc-alkaline lamprophyres and volcaniclastic breccias, contemporaneous with pillow basalts and felsic volcanics of MGB. The second suite, the Wawa conglomerate diamonds (80 crystals), are hosted in the 2697-2700 Ma poorly sorted sedimentary polymictic conglomerate which is interpreted as a proximal alluvial fan debris flow in a fan-delta environment. The majority of the diamonds was found within the matrix of the conglomerate. The diamondiferous breccia occurs 20 km north of the town of Wawa, whereas the conglomerate is found 12 km northeast of Wawa. Diamonds from the 2 occurrences were characterized and described for provenance studies. Both the breccia and conglomerate diamonds show similar crystal habits, with the predominance of octahedral single crystals and ~ 10% of cubes. The conglomerate diamonds are significantly less resorbed (no resorbtion in 43% of the stones) than the breccia diamonds (8% non-resorbed stones). In both suites, only 21-24% show high degrees of resorption. The majority of crystals in both suites are colourless, with some yellow, brown and grey stones. Conglomerate diamonds had a wider variety of colours that were not seen in the breccia diamonds, including green and pink. The breccia diamonds contain 0-740 ppm N and show two modes of N aggregation at 0-30 and 60-95%. Among the breccia diamonds, Type IaA stones comprise 17%, whereas IaAB stones make up 49% of the

  8. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2011-11-01

    HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and discrimination

  9. Permineralized Callixylon woods from the Late Devonian Cleveland Shale of Ohio, U.S.A. and that of Kettle Point, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chitaley, S; Cai, C

    2001-03-01

    Two permineralized woods are described in this paper, one from the Late Devonian Cleveland Shale of Ohio, USA and the other from the Late Devonian Huron Shale of Kettle Point, Ontario, Canada. Both samples of wood are satisfactorily preserved with primary and secondary xylem but without cortex and bark. Both are identified as Callixylon. They differ in specific characters from each other and from other described species. Hence two new species are designated, Callixylon beckii and Callixylon huronensis, respectively, to accommodate them in the class Progymnospermopsida (Progymnospermophyta) under the group Archaeopteridales.

  10. Infectious disease outbreaks related to drinking water in Canada, 1974-2001.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Corinne J; Ellis, Andrea G; Robertson, William J; Charron, Dominique F; Aramini, Jeff J; Marshall, Barbara J; Medeiros, Diane T

    2005-01-01

    Recent public attention on drinking water supplies in the aftermath of waterborne infection outbreaks in Walkerton and North Battleford raises questions about safety. We analyzed information on waterborne outbreaks occurring between 1974 and 2001 in order to identify apparent trends, review the current status of monitoring and reporting, and gain a better understanding of the impact of drinking water quality on public health and disease burden. Data from outbreak investigations, published and unpublished, were categorized by the type of drinking water provider and were assessed to be definitely, probably or possibly waterborne in nature. The final data set consisted of 288 outbreaks of disease linked to a drinking water source. There were 99 outbreaks in public water systems, 138 outbreaks in semi-public systems and 51 outbreaks in private systems. The main known causative agents of waterborne disease outbreaks were (in descending frequency of occurrence) Giardia, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Norwalk-like viruses, Salmonella and hepatitis A virus. We found that severe weather, close proximity to animal populations, treatment system malfunctions, poor maintenance and treatment practices were associated with the reported disease outbreaks resulting from drinking water supplies. However, issues related to the accuracy, co-ordination, compatibility and detail of data exist. A systematic and coordinated national surveillance system for comparison purposes, trend identification and policy development is needed so that future waterborne disease outbreaks can be avoided.

  11. Subtyping of a Large Collection of Historical Listeria monocytogenes Strains from Ontario, Canada, by an Improved Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA)

    PubMed Central

    Saleh-Lakha, S.; Allen, V. G.; Li, J.; Pagotto, F.; Odumeru, J.; Taboada, E.; Lombos, M.; Tabing, K. C.; Blais, B.; Ogunremi, D.; Downing, G.; Lee, S.; Gao, A.; Nadon, C.

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for severe and often fatal food-borne infections in humans. A collection of 2,421 L. monocytogenes isolates originating from Ontario's food chain between 1993 and 2010, along with Ontario clinical isolates collected from 2004 to 2010, was characterized using an improved multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). The MLVA method was established based on eight primer pairs targeting seven variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci in two 4-plex fluorescent PCRs. Diversity indices and amplification rates of the individual VNTR loci ranged from 0.38 to 0.92 and from 0.64 to 0.99, respectively. MLVA types and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were compared using Comparative Partitions analysis involving 336 clinical and 99 food and environmental isolates. The analysis yielded Simpson's diversity index values of 0.998 and 0.992 for MLVA and PFGE, respectively, and adjusted Wallace coefficients of 0.318 when MLVA was used as a primary subtyping method and 0.088 when PFGE was a primary typing method. Statistical data analysis using BioNumerics allowed for identification of at least 8 predominant and persistent L. monocytogenes MLVA types in Ontario's food chain. The MLVA method correctly clustered epidemiologically related outbreak strains and separated unrelated strains in a subset analysis. An MLVA database was established for the 2,421 L. monocytogenes isolates, which allows for comparison of data among historical and new isolates of different sources. The subtyping method coupled with the MLVA database will help in effective monitoring/prevention approaches to identify environmental contamination by pathogenic strains of L. monocytogenes and investigation of outbreaks. PMID:23956391

  12. Influence of Antecedent Hydrologic Conditions on Nitrate and Phosphorus Export from a Small Agricultural Catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, M. L.; English, M. C.; Schiff, S. L.; Stone, M.

    2009-04-01

    The ability of the scientific community to quantify and predict discharge and nutrient transport in a range of settings is confounded by the effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions in upland areas. Previous work has empirically linked spatial variables such as land use, soil type, topography, and drainage characteristics to hydrochemical export from various landscapes (e.g. MCDOWELL et al., 2001; ARHEIMER and LIDEN, 2000; STAMM et al., 1998; JORDAN et al., 1997; WELSCH et al., 2001). However, the specific reasons why similar types of events produce different nutrient export patterns are poorly understood. Nutrient (nitrate, soluble and total phosphorus) transport from agricultural catchments is difficult to quantify and predict because of the influence of variable hydrologic flowpaths and their interaction with varying nutrient pools. This research examines the role of antecedent hydrologic conditions on stream discharge and nitrate (NO3-), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) export from a small (2.7 km2) first-order agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada. During 59 events occurring over a two-year sampling period (year-round), runoff ratios ranged from 0-0.99). Runoff ratios increased throughout successive events as conditions became wetter although key indices of antecedent wetness such as water table position, pre-event streamflow and soil moisture did no