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Sample records for outdoor winter environment

  1. Winter Outdoor Education Activities: Snowshoes and Exploring the Winter Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.; And Others

    Designed as a resource base upon which elementary school educators can build outdoor learning experiences, this resource packet contains a basic, multidisciplinary snowshoeing lesson plan, pre- and post-trip suggestions, and suggestions for further winter outdoor study on snowshoes. Specifically, there are narratives and illustrations addressed at…

  2. Effect of the Environmental Stimuli upon the Human Body in Winter Outdoor Thermal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach. PMID:23861691

  3. Effect of the environmental stimuli upon the human body in winter outdoor thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach.

  4. Outdoor Environments. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents seven articles on outdoor play environments: "Are We Losing Ground?" (Greenman); "Designing and Creating Natural Play Environments for Young Children" (Keeler); "Adventure Playgrounds and Outdoor Safety Issues" (McGinnis); "Trust, the Earth and Children: Birth to Three" (Young); "Outdoor Magic…

  5. Influence of outdoor winter environment on the course of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kopecky, K.E.; Pugh, G.W. Jr.; McDonald, T.J.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of environmental conditions on the onset, severity, and duration of Moraxella bovis infection and subsequent clinical disease was studied. Twelve calves were used; 6 were maintained under usual isolated experimental conditions (inside), and 6 were kept under normal feedlot conditions (outside) during the winter (-20 to +15 C). The cattle housed inside had a higher infection rate, a milder disease, and longer duration of infection than did the cattle kept out side. Seemingly, the stress of the cold weather caused a more severe disease of shorter duration.

  6. Children and the Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niklasson, Laila; Sandberg, Anette

    2010-01-01

    In this article we will discuss the outdoor environment for younger children with the help of two different concepts. The first concept, affordance, is well known in the discussion about outdoor environments. What the affordance in the outdoor environment is perceived as can differ between actors. How the affordance is used can be another source…

  7. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk for damage. Both snow and strong wind can wear away sunscreen and reduce its effectiveness, ... protect your skin from the bitter cold, heavy winds and winter sun, follow these important sun protection ...

  8. Aeromycological profile of indoor and outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Ribeiro, Helena; Delgado, José Luís; Abreu, Ilda

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the differences between indoor and outdoor aeromicological composition. The aerobiological study was performed, from 15 January to 14 April 2008, using two volumetric spore traps, one placed indoors and another positioned outdoors on the roof of the Faculdade de Ciências building. A total of 23 000 spores were sampled outdoors and 15 500 spores were identified indoors. In both environments, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Aspergillus/Penicillium, Agaricus, Rusts, Agrocybe and Lepthosphaeria. Moreover, Alternaria, Botrytis, Coprinus, Fusarium and Ganoderma spores were also detected in the outdoor air. The outdoor maximum (858 spores m(-3) day(-1)) was registered on the 9 February whereas the indoor peak (614 spores m(-3) day(-1)) was reached two days later. Qualitative similarities were found between the indoor and outdoor aeromicological content however quantitatively spore concentrations differed, suggesting the existence of airflows between the two environments due to ventilation, inefficient isolation or passive transport of spores. The majority of the selected fungal types were night sporulators, the exceptions were Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium, with daily maximum values during the morning and the afternoon, respectively. Several of the identified spores have been proved as causal agents of respiratory problems. Therefore, it is important to know the microbial composition of indoor air in order to take measures to improve air quality helping to reduce health problems related to respiratory allergic diseases in sensitized patients.

  9. Evaluation of the thermal insulation of clothing of infants sleeping outdoors in Northern winter.

    PubMed

    Tourula, Marjo; Fukazawa, Takako; Isola, Arja; Hassi, Juhani; Tochihara, Yutaka; Rintamäki, Hannu

    2011-04-01

    It is a common practice in Northern countries that children aged about 2 weeks to 2 years take their daytime sleep outdoors in prams in winter. The aim was to evaluate the thermal insulation of clothing of infants sleeping outdoors in winter. Clothing data of infants aged 3.5 months was collected, and sleep duration, skin and microclimate temperatures, humidity inside middle wear, air temperature and velocity of the outdoor environment were recorded during sleep taken outdoors (n = 34) and indoors (n = 33) in families' homes. The insulation of clothing ensembles was measured by using a baby-size thermal manikin, and the values were used for defining clothing insulation of the observed infants. Required clothing insulation for each condition was estimated according to ISO 11079. Clothing insulation did not correlate with ambient air temperature. The observed and required insulation of the study group was equal at about -5 °C, but overdressing existed in warmer and deficiency in thermal insulation in colder temperatures (r (s) 0.739, p < 0.001). However, even at -5 °C a slow cooling (ca. 0.012 °C/min) of mean skin temperature (T (sk)) was observed. When the difference between observed and required insulation increased, the cooling rate of T (sk) increased linearly (r (s) 0.605, p < 0.001) and the infants slept for a shorter period (r (s) 0.524, p = 0.001). The results of this study show the difficulty of adjusting systematically the optimal thermal insulation for outdoor sleeping infants during northern winter. Therefore, the necessity for guidelines is obvious. The study provides information for adequate cold protection of infants sleeping in cold conditions.

  10. Children's Outdoor Environment in Icelandic Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norðdahl, Kristín; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate what characterizes the discourse on the role of the outdoor environment in young children's learning in educational policy documents in Iceland. Policy documents, laws and regulations, national curriculum guides for pre- and compulsory school levels, and documents from municipalities were analyzed. A…

  11. Some Assistance with Winter Activities and Resources for the Outdoors. 3rd Edition, 1973-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, B. Wayne

    The booklet discusses winter outdoor education in Canada. The first section explains how to use snowshoes, followed by the use of the thematic approach with winter and snow. The thematic approach to snowmobiling gives both the pros and cons, and the outward spiraling effect of the popular sport. In discussing a winter field trip, activities are…

  12. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),<1 h/week (2 h men, 0 h women) at work, 4 h/week (5 h men, 4 h women) during leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  13. Determining optimal clothing ensembles based on weather forecasts, with particular reference to outdoor winter military activities.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Marco; Pavlinic, Daniela Z; Crisci, Alfonso; Capecchi, Valerio; Orlandini, Simone; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2011-07-01

    Military and civil defense personnel are often involved in complex activities in a variety of outdoor environments. The choice of appropriate clothing ensembles represents an important strategy to establish the success of a military mission. The main aim of this study was to compare the known clothing insulation of the garment ensembles worn by soldiers during two winter outdoor field trials (hike and guard duty) with the estimated optimal clothing thermal insulations recommended to maintain thermoneutrality, assessed by using two different biometeorological procedures. The overall aim was to assess the applicability of such biometeorological procedures to weather forecast systems, thereby developing a comprehensive biometeorological tool for military operational forecast purposes. Military trials were carried out during winter 2006 in Pokljuka (Slovenia) by Slovene Armed Forces personnel. Gastrointestinal temperature, heart rate and environmental parameters were measured with portable data acquisition systems. The thermal characteristics of the clothing ensembles worn by the soldiers, namely thermal resistance, were determined with a sweating thermal manikin. Results showed that the clothing ensemble worn by the military was appropriate during guard duty but generally inappropriate during the hike. A general under-estimation of the biometeorological forecast model in predicting the optimal clothing insulation value was observed and an additional post-processing calibration might further improve forecast accuracy. This study represents the first step in the development of a comprehensive personalized biometeorological forecast system aimed at improving recommendations regarding the optimal thermal insulation of military garment ensembles for winter activities.

  14. Determining optimal clothing ensembles based on weather forecasts, with particular reference to outdoor winter military activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, Marco; Pavlinic, Daniela Z.; Crisci, Alfonso; Capecchi, Valerio; Orlandini, Simone; Mekjavic, Igor B.

    2011-07-01

    Military and civil defense personnel are often involved in complex activities in a variety of outdoor environments. The choice of appropriate clothing ensembles represents an important strategy to establish the success of a military mission. The main aim of this study was to compare the known clothing insulation of the garment ensembles worn by soldiers during two winter outdoor field trials (hike and guard duty) with the estimated optimal clothing thermal insulations recommended to maintain thermoneutrality, assessed by using two different biometeorological procedures. The overall aim was to assess the applicability of such biometeorological procedures to weather forecast systems, thereby developing a comprehensive biometeorological tool for military operational forecast purposes. Military trials were carried out during winter 2006 in Pokljuka (Slovenia) by Slovene Armed Forces personnel. Gastrointestinal temperature, heart rate and environmental parameters were measured with portable data acquisition systems. The thermal characteristics of the clothing ensembles worn by the soldiers, namely thermal resistance, were determined with a sweating thermal manikin. Results showed that the clothing ensemble worn by the military was appropriate during guard duty but generally inappropriate during the hike. A general under-estimation of the biometeorological forecast model in predicting the optimal clothing insulation value was observed and an additional post-processing calibration might further improve forecast accuracy. This study represents the first step in the development of a comprehensive personalized biometeorological forecast system aimed at improving recommendations regarding the optimal thermal insulation of military garment ensembles for winter activities.

  15. Outdoor Education in an Urban Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beedie, Paul

    In 1995 the streamlined British national curriculum defined outdoor education as "outdoor and adventurous activities" (OAA) and placed it within the physical education (PE) curriculum. However, many PE teachers lack a knowledge of outdoor education and, when faced with limitations in time, resources, facilities, and expertise, may choose…

  16. Paul Winter, Sun Singer...He Talks about Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslav, Marc

    1984-01-01

    Interviews Paul Winter, well-known musical emissary for the Earth and its wildlife among the environmental community. Incorporating voices of wolves, whales, and other creatures as accompanists to an uncategorizable blend of symphonic, jazz, African and Latin musical traditions, Winter's sound involves listeners in a guided experience of…

  17. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Sakoi, Tomonori; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2014-07-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relationship between the physiological and psychological responses of humans and the enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETFe). Subjective experiments were conducted in an outdoor environment. Subjects were exposed to the thermal environment in a standing posture. Air temperature, humidity, air velocity, short wave solar radiation, long wave radiation, ground surface temperature, sky factor, and the green solid angle were measured. The temperatures of skin exposed to the atmosphere and in contact with the ground were measured. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured by means of rating the whole-body thermal sensation (cold-hot) and the whole body thermal comfort (comfortable-uncomfortable) on a linear scale. Linear rating scales are given for the hot (100) and cold (0), and comfortable (100) and uncomfortable (0) directions only. Arbitrary values of 0 and 100 were assigned to each endpoint, the reported values read in, and the entire length converted into a numerical value with an arbitrary scale of 100 to give a linear rating scale. The ETFe considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 35.9 °C, with 32.3 °C and 42.9 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the ETFe considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The mean skin temperature considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 33.3 °C, with 31.0 °C and 34.3 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the mean skin temperature considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The

  18. Winter Outdoor Trekking: Spiritual Aspects of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirásek, Ivo; Veselský, Pavel; Poslt, Jirí

    2017-01-01

    This text deals with the potential spiritual aspects of being outdoors within the framework of non-formal and informal education. The course being examined was organized by the Vacation School of Lipnice--Outward Bound Czech Republic, and the participants in this course made up the research sample. While the research was not directly focused on…

  19. Rain and Romanticism: The Environment in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education provides an opportunity to engage with natural environments in ways that are distinct from other physical education teacher education (PETE) courses. This research examines how pre-service teachers (PSTs) within a PETE degree experienced "environment" on an outdoor education camp. Using self-study methodology and…

  20. Teaching Science in an Outdoor Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Phyllis; Railton, Esther P.

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide suggestions for teaching science outdoors through the use of the California Natural History Guides. Specific references to the Guides are made throughout the handbook. Learning activities related to outdoor science education are grouped under the following topics: objectives, suggested activities,…

  1. Challenging Opportunities for Special Populations in Aquatic, Outdoor and Winter Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC. Information and Research Utilization Center.

    The resource guide provides information on challenging and adventurous physical activities for handicapped persons. References for printed materials, audiovisual materials, and special equipment or assistive devices are listed for aquatics, winter activities, and outdoor activities (bicycling, fishing, hiking and nature trails, horseback riding,…

  2. Gaseous chemical compounds in indoor and outdoor air of 602 houses throughout Japan in winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Tomizawa, Takuya; Tokoro, Asumo; Aoki, Manami; Hishiki, Mayu; Yamada, Tomomi; Tanaka, Reiko; Sakamoto, Hironari; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    A nationwide survey of indoor air quality in Japan was conducted using four types of diffusive samplers. Gaseous chemical compounds such as carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOC), acid gases, basic gases, and ozone were measured in indoor and outdoor air of 602 houses throughout Japan in winter and summer. Four kinds of diffusive samplers were used in this study: DSD-BPE/DNPH packed with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine and trans-1,2-bis(2-pyridyl)ethylene coated silica for ozone and carbonyls; VOC-SD packed with Carboxen 564 particles for volatile organic compounds; DSD-TEA packed with triethanolamine impregnated silica for acid gases; and DSD-NH3 packed with phosphoric acid impregnated silica for basic gases. These samplers are small and lightweight and do not require a power source, hence, it was possible to obtain a large number of air samples via mail from throughout Japan. Almost all compounds in indoor air were present at higher levels in summer than in winter. In particular, formaldehyde, toluene, and ammonia were strongly dependent on temperature, and their levels increased with temperature. The nitrogen dioxide concentration in indoor air particularly increased only during winter and was well correlated with the formic acid concentration (correlation coefficient=0.959). Ozone concentrations in indoor air were extremely low compared with the outdoor concentrations. Ozone flowing from outdoor air may be decomposed quickly by chemical compounds in indoor air; therefore, it is suggested that the indoor/outdoor ratio of ozone represents the ventilation of the indoor environment.

  3. Observed decreases in the Canadian outdoor skating season due to recent winter warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damyanov, Nikolay N.; Damon Matthews, H.; Mysak, Lawrence A.

    2012-03-01

    Global warming has the potential to negatively affect one of Canada’s primary sources of winter recreation: hockey and ice skating on outdoor rinks. Observed changes in winter temperatures in Canada suggest changes in the meteorological conditions required to support the creation and maintenance of outdoor skating rinks; while there have been observed increases in the ice-free period of several natural water bodies, there has been no study of potential trends in the duration of the season supporting the construction of outdoor skating rinks. Here we show that the outdoor skating season (OSS) in Canada has significantly shortened in many regions of the country as a result of changing climate conditions. We first established a meteorological criterion for the beginning, and a proxy for the length of the OSS. We extracted this information from daily maximum temperature observations from 1951 to 2005, and tested it for significant changes over time due to global warming as well as due to changes in patterns of large-scale natural climate variability. We found that many locations have seen a statistically significant decrease in the OSS length, particularly in Southwest and Central Canada. This suggests that future global warming has the potential to significantly compromise the viability of outdoor skating in Canada.

  4. Effects of Wintering Environment and Parasite-Pathogen Interactions on Honey Bee Colony Loss in North Temperate Regions.

    PubMed

    Desai, Suresh D; Currie, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. We monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors) and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and Nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. Samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. Although fall parasite and pathogen loads were similar in outdoor and indoor-wintered colonies, the outdoor-wintered colonies had greater relative reductions in bee population score over winter. Seasonal patterns in deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema level also differed with the wintering environment. DWV and Nosema levels decreased over winter for indoor-wintered colonies but BQCV did not. Both BQCV and Nosema concentration increased over winter in outdoor-wintered colonies. The mean abundance of Varroa decreased and concentration of Sacbrood virus (SBV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) increased over winter but seasonal patterns were not affected by wintering method. For most viruses, either entrance or brood area samples were reasonable predictors of colony virus load but there were significant season*sample location interactions for Nosema and BQCV, indicating that care must be taken when selecting samples from a single location. For Nosema spp., the fall entrance samples were better predictors of future infestation levels than were fall brood area samples. For indoor-wintered colonies, Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV concentration was negatively correlated with spring population size. For outdoor-wintered hives, spring Varroa abundance and DWV concentration were positively correlated with bee loss and negatively correlated with spring population size. Multivariate analyses for fall collected samples indicated higher DWV was

  5. Effects of Wintering Environment and Parasite–Pathogen Interactions on Honey Bee Colony Loss in North Temperate Regions

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. We monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors) and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and Nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. Samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. Although fall parasite and pathogen loads were similar in outdoor and indoor-wintered colonies, the outdoor-wintered colonies had greater relative reductions in bee population score over winter. Seasonal patterns in deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema level also differed with the wintering environment. DWV and Nosema levels decreased over winter for indoor-wintered colonies but BQCV did not. Both BQCV and Nosema concentration increased over winter in outdoor-wintered colonies. The mean abundance of Varroa decreased and concentration of Sacbrood virus (SBV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) increased over winter but seasonal patterns were not affected by wintering method. For most viruses, either entrance or brood area samples were reasonable predictors of colony virus load but there were significant season*sample location interactions for Nosema and BQCV, indicating that care must be taken when selecting samples from a single location. For Nosema spp., the fall entrance samples were better predictors of future infestation levels than were fall brood area samples. For indoor-wintered colonies, Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV concentration was negatively correlated with spring population size. For outdoor-wintered hives, spring Varroa abundance and DWV concentration were positively correlated with bee loss and negatively correlated with spring population size. Multivariate analyses for fall collected samples indicated higher DWV was

  6. Respiratory Health among Korean Pupils in Relation to Home, School and Outdoor Environment

    PubMed Central

    Elfman, Lena; Wieslander, Gunilla; Ferm, Martin; Torén, Kjell; Norbäck, Dan

    2011-01-01

    There are few studies about school-environment in relation to pupils' respiratory health, and Korean school-environment has not been characterized. All pupils in 4th grade in 12 selected schools in three urban cities in Korea received a questionnaire (n = 2,453), 96% participated. Gaseous pollutants and ultrafine particles (UFPs) were measured indoors (n = 34) and outdoors (n = 12) during winter, 2004. Indoor dampness at home was investigated by the questionnaire. To evaluate associations between respiratory health and environment, multiple logistic- and multi-level regression models were applied adjusting for potential confounders. The mean age of pupils was 10 yr and 49% were boys. No school had mechanical ventilation and CO2-levels exceeded 1,000 ppm in all except one of the classrooms. The indoor mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, O3 and formaldehyde were 0.6 µg/m3, 19 µg/m3, 8 µg/m3 and 28 µg/m3, respectively. The average level of UFPs was 18,230 pt/cm3 in the classrooms and 16,480 pt/cm3 outdoors. There were positive associations between wheeze and outdoor NO2, and between current asthma and outdoor UFPs. With dampness at home, pupils had more wheeze. In conclusion, outdoor UFPs and even low levels of NO2 may adversely contribute to respiratory health in children. High CO2-levels in classrooms and indoor dampness/mold at home should be reduced. PMID:21286005

  7. Chemical and morphological characteristics of indoor and outdoor particulate matter in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, V. S.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

    2013-10-01

    Chemical characterization of suspended particulate matter (SPM) measured inside a naturally ventilated school building (indoor) and at an adjacent roadway (outdoor) in Chennai city was performed during monsoon, winter and summer seasons. The daily average indoor SPM concentrations in monsoon, winter and summer seasons were 158.18, 170.08 and 149.63 μg m-3, respectively. Indoor and outdoor samples were analyzed for 11 inorganic ions using ion chromatography and 28 elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results indicated the dominance of SO (10.89 μg m-3) followed by NH (5.62 μg m-3), NO (5.35 μg m-3), Na+ (4.35 μg m-3) Ca2+ (4.08 μg m-3) and Cl- (3.47 μg m-3) ions in the indoor SPM. In the outdoor SPM, SO, NO and NH ions concentration were slightly higher while Ca2+, K+ and Mg2+ ions concentrations were higher in indoors. Among the elements, crustal element (Al, Fe, Ca, K, Mg and Na) concentrations were much higher (92.7% of the total elemental concentration) in indoor environment than those of toxic elements (Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) emitted from vehicles. Analysis of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) components in indoor and outdoor PM indicated the predominance of OC. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios for EC = 0.70 and OC = 0.82, indicating no significant indoor emission sources of OC and EC. To characterize the morphology, indoor and outdoor filters were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Soot and Al-Si rich particles were mostly found in indoor and outdoor SPM. The presence of toxic elements and soot particles in the indoor PM confirms the contributions of vehicular emissions from the adjacent motorway.

  8. Children's Views and Preferences Regarding Their Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norðdahl, Kristín; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to enhance awareness of what young children want to do outside and their preferences regarding their outdoor environment. Views of children as active participants, the affordance of the environment and the importance of place for children's learning constitute the theoretical background of the study. The study was part of a…

  9. The Role of the Environment in Adventure and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Todd

    2003-01-01

    Decreasing emphasis on the environment in outdoor and adventure education is resulting in ecologically less knowledgeable participants. It is critical that the environment continue to be part of these programs for three reasons: citizenship and stewardship; empathy and counterbalancing a narcissistic focus on thrills; and opportunities to get in…

  10. Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenow, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

  11. Planning an Outdoor Learning Environment for a Small School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keats, C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Developed to provide an outdoor learning environment for a small school which had relatively undeveloped grounds, these plans are aimed toward providing: physical activity (climbing, running, jumping, and games); imaginative activity; social learning; environmental study; mathematics and science; exploring materials, e.g., water and soil; and the…

  12. Keeping display visibility in outdoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donval, Ariela; Dotan, Ido; Gross, Noam; Partouche, Eran; Lipman, Ofir; Oron, Moshe

    2015-05-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one's current perception of reality. Artificial information about the environment and its objects can be overlaid on the real world, using a special optics and display. When using such a device at a very bright day, the display image risks vanishing due to the sun illumination. However, at a very cloudy day, one needs all the light to pass through the display to the user eye. The need to control the amount of sunlight passes through the AR device in a passive way was the trigger for our effort in developing Dynamic Sunlight Filter (DSF™). DSF™ is a passive solution which is dedicated to regulate sunlight overpower events.

  13. Spatial reference frame of attention in a large outdoor environment

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Won, Bo-Yeong; Swallow, Khena M.; Mussack, Dominic M.

    2014-01-01

    A central question about spatial attention is whether it is referenced relative to the external environment or to the viewer. This question has received great interest in recent psychological and neuroscience research, with many but not all, finding evidence for a viewer-centered representation. However, these previous findings were confined to computer-based tasks that involved stationary viewers. Because natural search behaviors differ from computer-based tasks in viewer mobility and spatial scale, it is important to understand how spatial attention is coded in the natural environment. To this end, we created an outdoor visual search task in which participants searched a large (690 square feet), concrete, outdoor space to report which side of a coin on the ground faced up. They began search in the middle of the space and were free to move around. Attentional cuing by statistical learning was examined by placing the coin in one quadrant of the search space on 50% of the trials. As in computer-based tasks participants learned and used these regularities to guide search. However, cuing could be referenced to either the environment or the viewer. The spatial reference frame of attention shows greater flexibility in the natural environment than previously found in the lab. PMID:24842066

  14. Spatial reference frame of attention in a large outdoor environment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Won, Bo-Yeong; Swallow, Khena M; Mussack, Dominic M

    2014-08-01

    A central question about spatial attention is whether it is referenced relative to the external environment or to the viewer. This question has received great interest in recent psychological and neuroscience research, with many but not all, finding evidence for a viewer-centered representation. However, these previous findings were confined to computer-based tasks that involved stationary viewers. Because natural search behaviors differ from computer-based tasks in viewer mobility and spatial scale, it is important to understand how spatial attention is coded in the natural environment. To this end, we created an outdoor visual search task in which participants searched a large (690 square ft), concrete, outdoor space to report which side of a coin on the ground faced up. They began search in the middle of the space and were free to move around. Attentional cuing by statistical learning was examined by placing the coin in 1 quadrant of the search space on 50% of the trials. As in computer-based tasks, participants learned and used these regularities to guide search. However, cuing could be referenced to either the environment or the viewer. The spatial reference frame of attention shows greater flexibility in the natural environment than previously found in the lab.

  15. Bibliography on Children and the Physical Environment: Child Care Centers, Outdoor Play Environments, and Other Children's Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.; And Others

    A comprehensive and systematic search was conducted for all literature pertaining to the planning and design of children's indoor and outdoor facilities. Emphasis was placed on compiling a list of empirical and professional literature on child care facilities and outdoor play environments dealing with the following issues: (1) the role of the…

  16. Cultivating Outdoor Classrooms: Designing and Implementing Child-Centered Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Create an outdoor learning program for young children. Transform outdoor spaces into learning environments where children can enjoy a full range of activities as they spend quality time in nature. This book is filled with guidance to help you plan, design, and create an outdoor learning program that is a rich, thoughtfully equipped, natural…

  17. Disturbance of wildlife by outdoor winter recreation: allostatic stress response and altered activity-energy budgets.

    PubMed

    Arlettaz, Raphaël; Nusslé, Sébastien; Baltic, Marjana; Vogel, Peter; Palme, Rupert; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Patthey, Patrick; Genoud, Michel

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance of wildlife is of growing conservation concern, but we lack comprehensive approaches of its multiple negative effects. We investigated several effects of disturbance by winter outdoor sports on free-ranging alpine Black Grouse by simultaneously measuring their physiological and behavioral responses. We experimentally flushed radio-tagged Black Grouse from their snow burrows, once a day, during several successive days, and quantified their stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites in feces [FCM] collected. from individual snow burrows). We also measured feeding time allocation (activity budgets reconstructed from radio-emitted signals) in response to anthropogenic disturbance. Finally, we estimated the related extra energy expenditure that may be incurred: based on activity budgets, energy expenditure was modeled from measures of metabolism obtained from captive birds subjected to different ambient temperatures. The pattern of FCM excretion indicated the existence of a funneling effect as predicted by the allostatic theory of stress: initial stress hormone concentrations showed a wide inter-individual variation, which decreased during experimental flushing. Individuals with low initial pre-flushing FCM values augmented their concentration, while individuals with high initial FCM values lowered it. Experimental disturbance resulted in an extension of feeding duration during the following evening foraging bout, confirming the prediction that Black Grouse must compensate for the extra energy expenditure elicited by human disturbance. Birds with low initial baseline FCM concentrations were those that spent more time foraging. These FCM excretion and foraging patterns suggest that birds with high initial FCM concentrations might have been experiencing a situation of allostatic overload. The energetic model provides quantitative estimates of extra energy expenditure. A longer exposure to ambient temperatures outside the shelter of snow

  18. The Winter Environment. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Winter seems to hold more mysteries than any other season. It changes the behavior of wildlife and also brings about drastic changes in plant life. This unit, designed around the following two ideas: (1) to develop an appreciation and understanding of the winter season and (2) to understand how plants and wildlife are affected by the winter…

  19. Ecosystems in the Backyard: Preparing a Diverse Outdoor Environment for Primary (Ages Three to Six) Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuur, Mary B.

    2003-01-01

    Chronicles the outdoor work of Lincoln Montessori School in Nebraska in prairie, forest, and indoor greenhouse environments, highlighting the application of prepared environment principles to the natural world. Highlights how implicit to the design are opportunities for caring, including practical life exercises with outdoor tools. Shows how…

  20. Ecosystems in the Backyard: Preparing a Diverse Outdoor Environment for Primary (Ages Three to Six) Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuur, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    Mary Verschuur chronicles the outdoor work of Lincoln Montessori School in prairie, forest, and indoor greenhouse environments, pointing out the application of the prepared environment principles to the natural world. Implicit to the design are opportunities for caring, including various practical life exercises with outdoor tools blended into…

  1. Winter performance of an outdoor biofloc production system for channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the tropics, outdoor biofloc technology production systems are operated year-round. While channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have been grown successfully in an outdoor biofloc production system, these studies were conducted only during the growing season and production tanks were idled for the...

  2. Effects of Nanoparticles on the Environment and Outdoor Workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Sayed Mohammad; Momenpour, Mahdiye; Azarian, Maryam; Ahmadian, Mohammad; Souri, Faramarz; Taghavi, Sayed Ali; Sadeghain, Marzieh; Karchani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Today, most parts of different nanotechnologies are growing and developing without any special rules and regulations. This could result in undesirable changes in the environment and affect workers in indoor and outdoor workplaces. Carbon-based nanoparticles, such as fullerenes, nanotubes, the oxides of metals such as iron and titanium, and natural inorganic compounds, including asbestos and quartz, can have biological effects on the environment and human health. The risk assessment of such nanoparticles requires evaluation of their mobility, reactivity, environmental toxicity, and stability. With the increasing use of nanoparticles for commercial and industrial purposes, the debate becomes whether the numerous benefits of nanoparticles can overcome the economic costs, environmental impacts, and unknown risks resulting from their use. To date, few studies have been conducted on the toxic and environmental effects that result from direct and indirect exposure to nanoparticles, and there are no clear standards to determine their effects. Lack of technical information in this regard has provided an appropriate context for supporters and opponents of nanoparticles to present contradictory and ill-considered results. Such an uncertain atmosphere has caused increased concerns about the effects of nanoparticles. Therefore, adequate studies to determine the exact, real risks of the use of nanoparticles are required. The information resulting from these studies can be useful in minimizing the environmental hazards that could arise from the use of nanoparticles. Thus, this paper briefly explains the classification of environmental nanoparticles and how to deal with their formation, diffusion, environmental fate and impacts, and our exposure to them. PMID:26120406

  3. Growth reponses of eggplant and soybean seedlings to mechanical stress in greenhouse and outdoor environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Pappas, T.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum 'Burpee's Black Beauty') and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. 'Wells II'] seedlings were assigned to a greenhouse or a windless or windy outdoor environment. Plants within each environment received either periodic seismic (shaking) or thigmic (flexing or rubbing) treatment, or were left undisturbed. Productivity (dry weight) and dimensional (leaf area and stem length) growth parameters generally were reduced more by mechanical stress in the greenhouse (soybean) or outdoor-windless environment (eggplant) than in the outdoor windy environment. Outdoor exposure enhanced both stem and leaf specific weights, whereas mechanical stress enhanced only leaf specific weight. Although both forms of controlled mechanical stress tended to reduce node and internode diameters of soybean, outdoor exposure increased stem diameter.

  4. Experiencing Spiritual Aspects Outdoors in the Winter: A Case Study from the Czech Republic Using the Method of Systemic Constellations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirásek, Ivo; Jirásková, Miroslava; Majewská, Petra; Bolcková, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    The article focuses on spirituality on two semantic levels: the first one analyses participants' experiences during a winter expeditionary course on snowshoes and considers the question of whether residing in the winter landscape with a community of other people may acquire a spiritual dimension in spite of the non-religious environment. The…

  5. The Outdoor Environment in Norwegian Kindergartens as Pedagogical Space for Toddlers' Play, Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Thomas; Martinsen, Marianne T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some characteristics of the outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens. Understood as pedagogical space, outdoor conditions may enhance or restrict the youngest children's possibilities for play, learning and development. In 117 of 133 kindergartens (response rate: 87 %) participating in a longitudinal study, the heads of…

  6. Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Views and Roles Regarding Children's Outdoor Play Environments in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore kindergarten teachers' views and roles regarding outdoor play environments in Omani kindergartens. Thirty kindergarten teachers from 15 private kindergartens were observed and interviewed. The results indicated that teachers recognize the importance of outdoor play in children's development and learning.…

  7. Association between Outdoor Fungal Concentrations during Winter and Pulmonary Function in Children with and without Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Hantan, Degejirihu; Burioka, Naoto; Nakamoto, Sachiko; Sano, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Jumpei; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor fungi are important components of airborne particulate matter (PM). However, the associations between pulmonary function and outdoor fungi are less well known compared to other airborne PM constituents. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between outdoor fungi and pulmonary function in children. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) rates were measured daily in 339 schoolchildren (including 36 with asthma), aged 10 to 12, 2 to 27 February 2015. Airborne PM was collected on filters, using a high volume air sampler, each day during the study period. The daily concentration of outdoor fungi-associated PM was calculated using a culture-based method. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF values and daily concentrations of outdoor fungi, and the daily levels of suspended PM (SPM) and PM ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). An increase in the interquartile range (46.2 CFU/m3) for outdoor fungal concentration led to PEF changes of −1.18 L/min (95% confidence interval, −2.27 to −0.08) in all children, 1.22 L/min (−2.96 to 5.41) in children without asthma, and −1.44 L/min (−2.57 to −0.32) in children with asthma. Outdoor fungi showed a significant negative correlation with PM2.5 levels (r = −0.4, p = 0.04), but not with SPM (r = ‒0.3, p = 0.10) levels. Outdoor fungi may be associated with pulmonary dysfunction in children. Furthermore, children with asthma may show greater pulmonary dysfunction than those without asthma. PMID:27136569

  8. Prediction and reduction of aircraft noise in outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Bao N.

    absorption mechanism due to the source's motion. To help mitigate the noise that propagates to the ground, multi-layered acoustic treatments can be applied to provide good performance over a wide range of frequencies. An accurate representation of material properties for each of the constituent layers is needed in the design of such treatments. The parameter of interest is the specific acoustic impedance, which can be obtained via inversion of acoustic transfer function measurements. However, several different impedance values can correspond to the same sound field predictions. The boundary loss factor F (associated with spherical wave reflection) is the source of this ambiguity. A method for identifying the family of solutions and selecting the physically meaningful branch is proposed to resolve this non-uniqueness issue. Accurate deduction of the acoustic impedance depends on precise measurements of the acoustic transfer function. However, measurement uncertainties exists in both the magnitude and the phase of the acoustic transfer function. The ASA/ANSI S1.18 standard impedance deduction method uses phase information, which can be unreliable in many outdoor environments. An improved technique which only relies on magnitude information is developed in this dissertation. A selection of optimal geometries become necessary to reduce the sensitivity of the deduced impedance to small variations in the measured data. A graphical approach is provided which offers greater insight into the optimization problem. A downhill simplex algorithm has been implemented to automate the impedance deduction procedure. Physical constraints are applied to limit the search region and to eliminate rogue solutions. Several case studies consisting of both indoor and outdoor acoustical measurements are presented to validate the proposed technique. The current analysis is limited to locally reacting materials where the acoustic impedance does not depend on the incidence angle of the reflected wave.

  9. Preschool Teachers' Views on Schools' Indoor and Outdoor Environment Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konakli, Tugba; Ülçetin, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze opinions of teachers who work in preschool education institutions concerning precautions that should be taken for indoor and outdoor security. Study group of this research is determined by criterion sampling from purposeful sampling techniques. The study group of this research is consist of eight preschool…

  10. Go outside to Learn: The Value of Outdoor Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Robin R.

    2012-01-01

    Outdoors opens up endless possibilities. Every place and space people experience offers an opportunity to learn. Accepted educational research first theorized by social scientist and author, Howard Gardner, shows that learners have nine multiple intelligences--visual, logical, intrapersonal, musical, body-kinesthetic, linguistic, interpersonal,…

  11. The transformation of outdoor ammonium nitrate aerosols in theindoor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Littlejohn, David; Fischer, Marc L.; Hering, Susanne V.; Sextro, Richard G.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2002-01-31

    Recent studies associate particulate air pollution with adverse health effects; however, the exposure to indoor particles of outdoor origin is not well characterized, particularly for individual chemical species. In response to this, a field study in an unoccupied, single-story residence in Clovis, California has been conducted. Real-time particle monitors were used both outdoors and indoors to quantify PM2.5 nitrate, sulfate, and carbon. The results show that reduced indoor sulfate and carbon levels are primarily due to deposition and penetration losses. However, measured indoor ammonium nitrate levels were often observed to be at significantly lower levels than expected based solely on penetration and deposition losses. The additional reduction appears to be due to the transformation of ammonium nitrate into ammonia and nitric acid indoors, which are subsequently lost by deposition and sorption to indoor surfaces. The size of the effect is dependent upon factors such as temperature, relative humidity, and ventilation rate.

  12. The Relationship between Perceived Health and Physical Activity Indoors, Outdoors in Built Environments, and Outdoors in Nature

    PubMed Central

    Pasanen, Tytti P; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Korpela, Kalevi M

    2014-01-01

    Background: A body of evidence shows that both physical activity and exposure to nature are connected to improved general and mental health. Experimental studies have consistently found short term positive effects of physical activity in nature compared with built environments. This study explores whether these benefits are also evident in everyday life, perceived over repeated contact with nature. The topic is important from the perspectives of city planning, individual well-being, and public health. Methods: National survey data (n = 2,070) from Finland was analysed using structural regression analyses. Perceived general health, emotional well-being, and sleep quality were regressed on the weekly frequency of physical activity indoors, outdoors in built environments, and in nature. Socioeconomic factors and other plausible confounders were controlled for. Results: Emotional well-being showed the most consistent positive connection to physical activity in nature, whereas general health was positively associated with physical activity in both built and natural outdoor settings. Better sleep quality was weakly connected to frequent physical activity in nature, but the connection was outweighed by other factors. Conclusion: The results indicate that nature provides an added value to the known benefits of physical activity. Repeated exercise in nature is, in particular, connected to better emotional well-being. PMID:25044598

  13. Recognition of traversable areas for mobile robotic navigation in outdoor environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Scott Alan; Davidson, James C.

    2003-06-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of automatically determining whether regions in an outdoor environment can be traversed by a mobile robot. We propose a two-level classifier that uses data from a single color image to make this determination. At the low level, we have implemented three classifiers based on color histograms, directional filters and local binary patterns. The outputs of these low level classifiers are combined using a voting scheme that weights the results of each classifier using an estimate of its error probability. We present results from a large number of trials using a database of representative images acquired in real outdoor environments.

  14. Reaerosolization of Bacillus spp. in Outdoor Environments: A Review of the Experimental Literature

    PubMed Central

    Layshock, Julie A.; Pearson, Brooke; Crockett, Kathryn; Brown, Michael J.; Van Cuyk, Sheila; Daniel, W. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Reaerosolization or resuspension—that is, the reintroduction of previously airborne particles into the atmosphere—is a complex phenomenon. Microbial reaerosolization is particularly poorly understood because few studies have been done in this area, and many of the studies that have been performed are not in the peer-reviewed literature. The reaerosolization of Bacillus anthracis in outdoor environments is of particular concern because of its stability and potential for use as a biological weapon. This review pulls together data from more than 30 publications, spanning field and laboratory experiments, to summarize the current state of our understanding of Bacillus spp. reaerosolization in outdoor environments. PMID:22871211

  15. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people in outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2007-05-01

    Current thermal comfort indices do not take into account the effects of wind and body movement on the thermal resistance and vapor resistance of clothing. This may cause public health problem, e.g. cold-related mortality. Based on the energy balance equation and heat exchanges between a clothed body and the outdoor environment, a mathematical model was developed to determine the air temperature at which an average adult, wearing a specific outdoor clothing and engaging in a given activity, attains thermal comfort under outdoor environment condition. The results indicated low clothing insulation, less physical activity and high wind speed lead to high air temperature prediction for thermal comfort. More accurate air temperature prediction is able to prevent wearers from hypothermia under cold conditions.

  16. Influence of sky view factor on outdoor thermal environment and physiological equivalent temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaodong; Miao, Shiguang; Shen, Shuanghe; Li, Ju; Zhang, Benzhi; Zhang, Ziyue; Chen, Xiujie

    2015-03-01

    Sky view factor (SVF), which is an indicator of urban canyon geometry, affects the surface energy balance, local air circulation, and outdoor thermal comfort. This study focused on a continuous and long-term meteorological observation system to investigate the effects of SVF on outdoor thermal conditions and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) in the central business district (CBD) of Beijing (which is located within Chaoyang District), specifically addressed current knowledge gaps for SVF-PET relationships in cities with typical continental/microthermal climates. An urban sub-domain scale model and the RayMan model were used to diagnose wind fields and to calculate SVF and long-term PET, respectively. Analytical results show that the extent of shading contributes to variations in thermal perception distribution. Highly shaded areas (SVF <0.3) typically exhibit less frequent hot conditions during summer, while enduring longer periods of cold discomfort in winter than moderately shaded areas (0.3< SVF <0.5) and slightly shaded areas (SVF >0.5), and vice versa. Because Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate with hot summers and long, cold, windy, and dry winters, a design project that ideally provides moderate shading should be planned to balance hot discomfort in summer and cold discomfort in winter, which effectively prolongs the comfort periods in outdoor spaces throughout the entire year. This research indicate that climate zone characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and thermal comfort requirements of residents must be accounted for in local-scale scientific planning and design, i.e., for urban canyon streets and residential estates.

  17. Development and Evaluation of an RFID-Based Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Liu, Tsung-Yu; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Many issues have been identified in outdoor teaching, especially in places that lack the capacity to effectively present information about such subjects as historical relics, rare animals, and geological landscapes. This study proposes an Environment of Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources (EULER) based on radio frequency identification…

  18. Views from inside the Shed: Young Children's Perspectives of the Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Alison

    2007-01-01

    This article examines messages from participatory research about young children's perspectives of early childhood environments and outdoor spaces in particular. The studies chosen have been carried out in England with children under six years old using the Mosaic approach and are compared with findings from an Icelandic study using the same…

  19. Nature and the Outdoor Learning Environment: The Forgotten Resource in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies now confirm the economic, academic, and social importance of high-quality early childhood education. At the same time, a substantial body of research indicates that an outdoor learning and play environment with diverse natural elements advances and enriches all of the domains relevant to the development, health, and well-being…

  20. Clinical use of sensory gardens and outdoor environments in norwegian nursing homes: a cross-sectional e-mail survey.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Kirkevold, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Gardens and outdoor environments offer multiple therapeutic possibilities for the residents in nursing homes. Web-based questionnaires were sent to 488 nursing home leaders and 121 leaders responded. The clinical impressions of the leaders and staff regarding the benefits of sensory gardens (SGs) to the residents were consistent with previous research. SGs facilitated taking residents outdoors, offered convenient topics for communication and facilitated social privacy for relatives. For improved clinical use of SGs and outdoor environments, systematic assessment of residents' interests, performance and experiences when outdoors, implementation of seasonal clinical programmes and educational programmes for leaders and staff are recommended.

  1. Variation of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in different outdoor and indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Stojanovska, Zdenka; Boev, Blazo; Zunic, Zora S; Ivanova, Kremena; Ristova, Mimoza; Tsenova, Martina; Ajka, Sorsa; Janevik, Emilija; Taleski, Vaso; Bossew, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Subject of this study is an investigation of the variations of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in outdoor and indoor environments of 40 dwellings, 31 elementary schools and five kindergartens. The buildings are located in three municipalities of two, geologically different, areas of the Republic of Macedonia. Indoor radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track detectors, deployed in the most occupied room of the building, between June 2013 and May 2014. During the deploying campaign, indoor and outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were measured simultaneously at the same location. It appeared that the measured values varied from 22 to 990 Bq/m(3) for indoor radon concentrations, from 50 to 195 nSv/h for outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates, and from 38 to 184 nSv/h for indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. The geometric mean value of indoor to outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates was found to be 0.88, i.e. the outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were on average higher than the indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. All measured can reasonably well be described by log-normal distributions. A detailed statistical analysis of factors which influence the measured quantities is reported.

  2. Environmental Cues to Ultraviolet Radiation and Personal Sun Protection In Outdoor Winter Recreation

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Maloy, Julie A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of ultraviolet radiation (UV) at North American ski resorts was predicted using temporal, seasonal, altitudinal, and meteorological factors and associated with a set of adult sun protection behaviors. Design UV observations and cross-sectional survey of adults on sun protection were collected. Setting Data were collected at 32 high-altitude ski areas located in Western North America in 2001–03. Participants The sample consisted of 3,937 adult skier or snowboarders. Main Outcome Measures Measurements of direct, reflected, and diffuse UV were performed at 487 measurement points using handheld meters and combined with self-reported and observed sun protection assessed for adults interviewed on chair lifts. Results The strongest predictors of UV were temporal proximity to noon, deviation from winter solstice, and clear skies. By contrast, altitude and latitude had more modest associations with UV and temperature had a small positive relationship with UV. Guest sun safety was inconsistently associated with UV: UV was positively related to adults wearing more sunscreen, reapplying it after two hours, and wearing protective eyewear but fewer adults exhibited many of the other sun protection behaviors, such as hats, protective clothing or lip balm, on days when UV was elevated. Guests took more sun safety precautions on clear-sky days but took steps to maintain body warmth on inclement days. Conclusions In future sun safety promotions, adults should be encouraged to wear sunscreen on cloudy days because UV is still high and conditions can change rapidly. They need reminders to rely more on season and time of day when judging UV and the need for sun safety. PMID:21079060

  3. Bibliography on Children and the Physical Environment. Child Care Centers, Outdoor Play Environments, and Other Children’s Environments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Psychology, 1976, 12, 93-97. F-m Brazelton, T.B., Koslowski, In M. Lewis & L. Rosenblum (Eds’)hTbe Effect & Main (1974) of the Infant on its earegiver...Ed.). Hand- book of Child Psychology. Worcester, Mass.: Clark University Press, 1933, Chapter 14. Lewis , C. A. (1976) People-plant interaction: a man...environment relationship. Arboretum Bulletin (University of Washington), Winter 1976, 39(1), 2-10. Lewis , R. B. (1975) The Wildwood School. Paper

  4. Measuring Physical Activity in Outdoor Community Recreational Environments: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice.

    PubMed

    Aytur, Semra A; Jones, Sydney A; Stransky, Michelle; Evenson, Kelly R

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major contributors to escalating health care costs in the USA. Physical activity is an important protective factor against CVD, and the National Prevention Strategy recognizes active living (defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into everyday routines) as a priority for improving the nation's health. This paper focuses on developing more inclusive measures of physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, specifically parks and trails, to enhance their usability for at-risk populations such as persons with mobility limitations. We develop an integrated conceptual framework for measuring physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, describe examples of evidence-based tools for measuring physical activity in these settings, and discuss strategies to improve measurement of physical activity for persons with mobility limitations. Addressing these measurement issues is critically important to making progress towards national CVD goals pertaining to active community environments.

  5. Measuring Physical Activity in Outdoor Community Recreational Environments: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sydney A.; Stransky, Michelle; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major contributors to escalating health care costs in the USA. Physical activity is an important protective factor against CVD, and the National Prevention Strategy recognizes active living (defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into everyday routines) as a priority for improving the nation’s health. This paper focuses on developing more inclusive measures of physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, specifically parks and trails, to enhance their usability for at-risk populations such as persons with mobility limitations. We develop an integrated conceptual framework for measuring physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, describe examples of evidence-based tools for measuring physical activity in these settings, and discuss strategies to improve measurement of physical activity for persons with mobility limitations. Addressing these measurement issues is critically important to making progress towards national CVD goals pertaining to active community environments. PMID:26005510

  6. Physical activity in light of affordances in outdoor environments: qualitative observation studies of 3-5 years olds in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Bjørgen, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the characteristic of affordances of different outdoor environments, related to the influences of children's physical activity levels. Qualitative observation studies in a Norwegian kindergarten were conducted of 3- to 5-year-olds into the natural environment and in the kindergarten's outdoor area. An ecological approach was important from both an analytical and theoretical point of view, using concepts from Gibson's (The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin Company, Bosten, 1979) theory of affordances. The concepts of affordances in an environment can explain children's movement behaviour. The findings reveal that situations with high physical activity levels among the children are more often created in natural environments than in the kindergarten's outdoor environment. Natural environments offer potential qualities that are a catalyst for physical activity. The study shows that certain characteristic of the physical outdoor environment are important for children's opportunities and inspiration for physical active play. The findings also show that social possibilities and opportunities, human interactions, in the environment have the greatest influence on the duration and intensity of physically active play. The need for knowledge on physical and social opportunities in outdoor environments, educational practice and the content of outdoor time in kindergartens should be given greater attention.

  7. A first overview of textile fibers, including microplastics, in indoor and outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Dris, Rachid; Gasperi, Johnny; Mirande, Cécile; Mandin, Corinne; Guerrouache, Mohamed; Langlois, Valérie; Tassin, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Studies about microplastics in various environments highlighted the ubiquity of anthropogenic fibers. As a follow-up of a recent study that emphasized the presence of man-made fibers in atmospheric fallout, this study is the first one to investigate fibers in indoor and outdoor air. Three different indoor sites were considered: two private apartments and one office. In parallel, the outdoor air was sampled in one site. The deposition rate of the fibers and their concentration in settled dust collected from vacuum cleaner bags were also estimated. Overall, indoor concentrations ranged between 1.0 and 60.0 fibers/m(3). Outdoor concentrations are significantly lower as they range between 0.3 and 1.5 fibers/m(3). The deposition rate of the fibers in indoor environments is between 1586 and 11,130 fibers/day/m(2) leading to an accumulation of fibers in settled dust (190-670 fibers/mg). Regarding fiber type, 67% of the analyzed fibers in indoor environments are made of natural material, primarily cellulosic, while the remaining 33% fibers contain petrochemicals with polypropylene being predominant. Such fibers are observed in marine and continental studies dealing with microplastics. The observed fibers are supposedly too large to be inhaled but the exposure may occur through dust ingestion, particularly for young children.

  8. Outdoor Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    One of the most interesting developments in teaching has been the growing importance of the outdoor environment. Whether it be playground, garden or field, the outdoors offers a range of challenging experiences, especially in the delivery of early mathematics. Oral feedback to parents, together with photographic displays, can show them that…

  9. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  10. Outdoor Environment and Pediatric Asthma: An Update on the Evidence from North America

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Jenna; Gimbel, Ronald W.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The evidence about the association between asthma and outdoor environmental factors has been inadequate for certain allergens. Even less is known about how these associations vary across seasons and climate regions. We reviewed recent literature from North America for research related to outdoor environmental factors and pediatric asthma, with attention to spatial-temporal variations of these associations. Method. We included indexed literature between years 2010 and 2015 on outdoor environmental factors and pediatric asthma, by searching PubMed. Results. Our search resulted in 33 manuscripts. Studies about the link between pediatric asthma and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) consistently confirmed the correlation between TRAP and asthma. For general air pollution, the roles of PM2.5 and CO were consistent across studies. The link between asthma and O3 varied across seasons. Regional variation exists in the role of SO2. The impact of pollen was consistent across seasons, whereas the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon was less consistent. Discussion. Recent studies strengthened the evidence about the roles of PM2.5, TRAP, CO, and pollen in asthma, while the evidence for roles of PM10-2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in asthma was less consistent. Spatial-temporal details of the environment are needed in future studies of asthma and environment. PMID:28239256

  11. Preliminary data on carrion insects in urban (indoor and outdoor) and periurban environments in central Spain.

    PubMed

    Baz, Arturo; Botías, Cristina; Martín-Vega, Daniel; Cifrián, Blanca; Díaz-Aranda, Luisa M

    2015-03-01

    Although most cases involving entomological evidence occur in urban environments and under indoor conditions, there is a lack of studies determining the insect fauna of forensic importance in those environments. In the current paper we provide the first data on the composition of the forensically important insect species occurring in periurban and both indoor and outdoor urban environments in central Spain. Insects were collected fortnightly by means of carrion-baited traps, uninterruptedly during one year. Most species and individuals were collected in the periurban site, whereas the indoor urban site showed the lowest number of species and captures. Moreover, the composition of species differed among environments and seasons. A few species occurred under both indoor and outdoor conditions, including the blowfly Calliphora vicina and some Sarcophagidae species. These preliminary results suggest interesting differences in the insect composition between environments and conditions which may be of forensic importance, and represent a first step to further research into the application of insects to forensic investigations in urban environments of central Spain.

  12. The great outdoors: how a green exercise environment can benefit all

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The studies of human and environment interactions usually consider the extremes of environment on individuals or how humans affect the environment. It is well known that physical activity improves both physiological and psychological well-being, but further evidence is required to ascertain how different environments influence and shape health. This review considers the declining levels of physical activity, particularly in the Western world, and how the environment may help motivate and facilitate physical activity. It also addresses the additional physiological and mental health benefits that appear to occur when exercise is performed in an outdoor environment. However, people’s connectedness to nature appears to be changing and this has important implications as to how humans are now interacting with nature. Barriers exist, and it is important that these are considered when discussing how to make exercise in the outdoors accessible and beneficial for all. The synergistic combination of exercise and exposure to nature and thus the ‘great outdoors’ could be used as a powerful tool to help fight the growing incidence of both physical inactivity and non-communicable disease. PMID:23849478

  13. Non-minor injuries among children sustained in an outdoor environment--a retrospective register study.

    PubMed

    Gyllencreutz, Lina; Rolfsman, Ewa; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate non-minor injuries sustained during outdoor activities among 0-12 year old children and to explore self-reported circumstances surrounding these incidents. During 2007-2009, the Umeå University Hospital injury database (IDB) registered 795 children with moderate (n = 778) and serious (n = 17) injuries, such as fractures. The IDB includes data from a questionnaire completed in the emergency department by the injured child or a parent. The open-ended questions catch the injured child's description of what circumstances precede the injury incident. The most commonly reported activities contributing to injuries were play, sport, and transport. Surface impacts were also reported as contributing factors along with products such as trampolines, bicycles, and downhill skis. By achieving a deeper knowledge about the activities and circumstances that precede non-minor injury incidents, creating safer outdoor environments may be feasible.

  14. Residential Environment for Outdoor Play Among Children in Latino Farmworker Families.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Suerken, Cynthia K; Ip, Edward H; Moore, Justin B; Quandt, Sara A

    2017-04-01

    Child health and development benefit from physical activity. This analysis describes the residential play environment for children aged 2-4 years in farmworker families, their parent-reported levels of play and media time, and the association of residential environment with play and media time. Mothers with a child aged 2-4 years in farmworker families (n = 248) completed interviews over 2 years. Outcome measures were daily outdoor play time and media time. Measures of the residential environment included physical and social components. The mean min/day for outdoor play was 81.8 (SD 57.3) at baseline, 111.4 (SD 90.1) at year 1 follow-up, and 103.6 (SD 76.2) at year 2 follow-up. The mean media min/day at baseline was 83.8 (SD 64.3), 93.7 (SD 80.3) min/day at year 1 follow-up, and 59.9 min/day (SD (45.6) at year 2 follow-up. One additional person per bedroom was associated with 6 fewer min/day with media. The addition of each age appropriate toy was associated with an additional 12.3 min/day of outdoor play. An additional type of inappropriate media was associated with 6.8 more min/day with media. These results suggest changes to the residential environment to improve physical activity among children in Latino farmworker families.

  15. Relationships between middle childhood outdoor experiences and an adult individual's knowledge of the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Brandon A.

    During the last several decades, the nature of childhood has changed. There is not much nature in it anymore. Numerous studies in environmental education, environmental psychology, and conservation psychology show that the time children spend outdoors encourages healthy physical development, enriches creativity and imagination, and enhances classroom performance. Additional research shows that people's outdoor experiences as children, and adults can lead to more positive attitudes and behavior towards the environment, along with more environmental knowledge with which to guide public policy decisions. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of middle childhood (age 6-11) outdoor experiences on an individual's current knowledge of the environment. This correlational study evaluated the following potential relationships: 1) The effect of "outdoorsiness" (defined as a fondness or enjoyment of the outdoors and related activities) on an individual's environmental knowledge; 2) The effect of gender on an individual's level of outdoorsiness; 3) The effect of setting (urban, suburban, rural, farm) on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; 4) The effect of formal [science] education on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; and 5) The effect of informal, free-choice learning on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge. Outdoorsiness was measured using the Natural Experience Scale (NES), which was developed through a series of pilot surveys and field-tested in this research study. Participants included 382 undergraduate students at the University of Kansas with no preference or bias given to declared or undeclared majors. The information from this survey was used to analyze the question of whether outdoor experiences as children are related in some way to an adult's environmental knowledge after accounting for other factors of knowledge acquisition such as formal education

  16. Outdoor Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Teachers' Federation, Toronto.

    A guide and introduction to outdoor education for the classroom teacher, the manual lists 5 aims and objectives of outdoor education and discusses the means for reaching these objectives through field trips, camping, outdoor learning centers, and outdoor teaching in school environs. Selected activities are described by subject area: arts and…

  17. Modeling the effect of outdoor particle concentrations on indoor concentrations in a heated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pandian, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Exposure to suspended particulate mater in the home or workplace can produce adverse human health effects. Sources of suspended particulate matter include cigarette smoke, consumer spray products, and dust from cement manufacture, metal processing, and coal-fired power generation. The particle concentrations in these indoor environments can be determined from experimental studies or modeling techniques. Many experimental studies have been conducted to determine the mass concentration of total suspended particulate matter, usually expressed in {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and the elemental composition of particulate matter in these environments. However, there is not much reported data on particle size distributions in indoor environments. One of the early indoor modeling efforts was undertaken by Shair and Heitner, who conducted a theoretical analysis for relating indoor pollutant concentrations to those outdoors. The author describes the theoretical analysis and compared it to results obtained from experiments on conditioned cigarette smoke particle concentrations in a room at 20{degrees}C and 60 {percent}.

  18. The characteristics of the outdoor school environment associated with physical activity.

    PubMed

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Sallis, James F; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-04-01

    The school is an important setting for physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between physical environmental characteristics and participation in daily physical activity during school breaks. Data from 130 schools and 16 471 students (Grades 4-10) in Norway were obtained in 2004 through self-administered questionnaires to principals and students. Multilevel logistic regression models revealed that boys at secondary level with a larger number of outdoor facilities at school had 2.69 times [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21-5.98] and girls 2.90 times (95% CI = 1.32-6.37) higher odds of being physically active compared with students in schools with fewer facilities. Boys at secondary level with areas for hopscotch/skipping rope had 2.53 times (95% CI = 1.55-4.13), with a soccer field 1.68 times (95% CI = 1.15-2.45), with playground equipment 1.66 times (95% CI = 1.16-2.37) and with a sledding hill 1.70 times (95% CI = 1.23-2.35) higher odds to be physically active compared with students in schools without these facilities. A sledding hill was also associated with girls' physical activity participation in secondary school (odds ratio = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.11-2.24). Outdoor facilities in secondary schools are associated with students' daily physical activity participation during school breaks. Therefore, improving the outdoor environment should be considered in physical activity promotion school programs in secondary schools.

  19. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling.

  20. Weight losses of marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environments in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, K.J.

    1991-09-01

    Gravimetric changes in marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environment at five sites in the eastern United States have been monitored since 1984. An earlier report describes procedures and results obtained in 1984--1988. This report presents the results of the exposure period 1984--1988 and reviews and summarizes those of prior years. A linear relationship was found between cumulative gravimetric losses and exposure period or rain depth. These losses resulted in an average recession rate of 14 to 24 {mu}m/yr for marble and twice that for limestone. Variations in recession among the various exposure sites can be ascribed to differences in rain depth and hydrogen ion concentration. The annual recession rates obtained from gravimetry yielded rates that were for marble twice those obtained from runoff experiments, and more than three times those for limestone; this indicates that physical erosion plays an important role. Gravimetric monitoring of exposed briquettes is continuing in a planned 10-yr program.

  1. Weight losses of marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environments in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Youngdahl, C.A.

    1987-08-01

    Weight losses of marble and limestone samples exposed to outdoor environments at field sites in the eastern United States have been monitored in studies initiated in 1984. The prodcedures are described, and the results are tabulated and discussed. A rate of marble loss approximately equivalent to 16 ..mu..m of surface recession per year was found in North Carolina, and losses of this order were also observed in New Jersey, New York, and Washington, DC. Limestone weight losses were much higher than for marble in the first year; loss of extraneous materials from the porous limestone appeared to be a likely contributor to the overall loss. The rate of limestone loss diminished in the second year, though it continued to be higher than for marble. Exposures are continuing in a planned 10-yr program of tests. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Indoor and outdoor sources and infiltration processes of PM 1 and black carbon in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Díez, S.; Reche, C.

    2011-11-01

    Ambient air emissions of sub-micron particles infiltrate into indoor environments and play a major role in indoor air quality. Discriminating between particles of indoor vs. outdoor origin is therefore essential when assessing indoor air pollutant levels and characteristics. Outdoor/indoor relationships of traffic-derived nanoscaled particulates (PM 1 and black carbon) were determined in a typical Mediterranean environment. Results evidenced the major impact of outdoor vehicular traffic emissions on indoor particulates: despite windows remaining closed at all times, 70% of indoor BC and 73% of indoor PM 1 originated from outdoor emissions. This was probably due to due to inadequate insulation of the building. Outdoor/indoor penetration ratios were relatively constant for BC (1.29 ± 0.08) but not for PM 1 (1.95 ± 0.38), suggesting it is advisable to monitor the variability of penetration factors over time. Particle infiltration seemed to depend not only on physical barriers (building envelope, ventilation systems, etc.), but also on the physico-chemical properties of the particulates. Printing and photocopying contributed with 25-30% (546 ng m -3) of total indoor BC. Dust re-suspension by worker passage was the main indoor source of PM 1 (15-20%, 1.1 μg m -3).

  3. Socio-Technical Dimensions of an Outdoor Mobile Learning Environment: A Three-Phase Design-Based Research Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Susan M.; Zimmerman, Heather Toomey

    2015-01-01

    This design-based research project examines three iterations of Tree Investigators, a learning environment designed to support science learning outdoors at an arboretum and nature center using mobile devices (iPads). Researchers coded videorecords and artifacts created by children and parents (n = 53) to understand how both social and…

  4. What's so Interesting Outside? A Study of Child-Initiated Interaction with Teachers in the Natural Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Jane; Maynard, Trisha

    2010-01-01

    The research question addressed in this paper is: What specific elements in the outdoor environment draw children's attention? The new approach to Welsh early years education--the "Foundation Phase: Framework for children aged 3-7 years in Wales" (DCELLS 2008)--requires the inclusion of both teacher-led and child-initiated activities and…

  5. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Rough-and-Tumble Play (R&T) in Indoor and Outdoor Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storli, Rune; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores teacher-reported prevalence of rough-and-tumble play (R&T) in preschool and investigates how their restriction to such play varies in different play environments (indoor and outdoor). An electronic questionnaire exploring preschool teachers' beliefs and practices regarding children's dramatic play themes was conducted by…

  6. A Movement-Assisted Deployment of Collaborating Autonomous Sensors for Indoor and Outdoor Environment Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz, Ewa; Sikora, Andrzej; Marks, Michał

    2016-09-14

    Using mobile robots or unmanned vehicles to assist optimal wireless sensors deployment in a working space can significantly enhance the capability to investigate unknown environments. This paper addresses the issues of the application of numerical optimization and computer simulation techniques to on-line calculation of a wireless sensor network topology for monitoring and tracking purposes. We focus on the design of a self-organizing and collaborative mobile network that enables a continuous data transmission to the data sink (base station) and automatically adapts its behavior to changes in the environment to achieve a common goal. The pre-defined and self-configuring approaches to the mobile-based deployment of sensors are compared and discussed. A family of novel algorithms for the optimal placement of mobile wireless devices for permanent monitoring of indoor and outdoor dynamic environments is described. They employ a network connectivity-maintaining mobility model utilizing the concept of the virtual potential function for calculating the motion trajectories of platforms carrying sensors. Their quality and utility have been justified through simulation experiments and are discussed in the final part of the paper.

  7. A Movement-Assisted Deployment of Collaborating Autonomous Sensors for Indoor and Outdoor Environment Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz, Ewa; Sikora, Andrzej; Marks, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Using mobile robots or unmanned vehicles to assist optimal wireless sensors deployment in a working space can significantly enhance the capability to investigate unknown environments. This paper addresses the issues of the application of numerical optimization and computer simulation techniques to on-line calculation of a wireless sensor network topology for monitoring and tracking purposes. We focus on the design of a self-organizing and collaborative mobile network that enables a continuous data transmission to the data sink (base station) and automatically adapts its behavior to changes in the environment to achieve a common goal. The pre-defined and self-configuring approaches to the mobile-based deployment of sensors are compared and discussed. A family of novel algorithms for the optimal placement of mobile wireless devices for permanent monitoring of indoor and outdoor dynamic environments is described. They employ a network connectivity-maintaining mobility model utilizing the concept of the virtual potential function for calculating the motion trajectories of platforms carrying sensors. Their quality and utility have been justified through simulation experiments and are discussed in the final part of the paper. PMID:27649186

  8. The effect of farrowing environment and previous experience on the maternal behaviour of sows in indoor pens and outdoor huts.

    PubMed

    Wülbers-Mindermann, M; Berg, C; Illmann, G; Baulain, U; Algers, B

    2015-04-01

    Outdoor farrowing huts facilitate a less restricted maternal behaviour in sows compared with sows kept indoors in farrowing pens. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there are behavioural differences between primiparous sows kept outdoors in farrowing huts and indoors in pens, and whether the maternal behaviour during the second parity, when all sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts, would differ between sows that have experienced the indoor or the outdoor environment, respectively, during their first parturition. A total of 26 Yorkshire×Swedish Landrace sows were studied. Of these, 11 sows were housed outdoors in farrowing huts during both parturitions (group=OUTOUT). The other 15 sows were kept indoors in a barn with single farrowing pens during their first parturition. During their second parturition, sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts (group=INOUT). The behaviour was video recorded from 2 h prepartum to 48 h postpartum. The sows' responsiveness to playbacks of a piglet's screams was tested on days 2 to 3 postpartum. Parity 1: during the last 2 h prepartum, OUTOUT sows had a higher proportion of observations in the sternal lying position (P<0.01). During parturition, OUTOUT sows changed posture more often (P<0.05) and were lying less (P<0.05) than INOUT sows. All sows in both groups responded with 'lifting head' towards the playback of piglet scream, whereas 100% of OUTOUT sows and only 43% of INOUT sows thereafter were 'getting up' (P <0.01). Parity 2: There were no behavioural differences between INOUT and OUTOUT sows. In conclusion, it is not problematic for a second parity sow with initial maternal experience from an indoor farrowing pen to be kept outdoors in farrowing huts during its following farrowing.

  9. Suberythemal Sun Exposures at Swedish Schools Depend on Sky Views of the Outdoor Environments - Possible Implications for Pupils' Health.

    PubMed

    Pagels, Peter; Wester, Ulf; Söderström, Margareta; Lindelöf, Bernt; Boldemann, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2(nd) , 5(th) and 8(th) graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor environments differing in amount of shade, vegetation, and peripheral city-scape quantified as percentage of free sky view calculated from fish-eye photographs. Exposures correlated with the sky views (with exceptions in May) and were suberythemal. The exposures were also below the threshold limit of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for hazard evaluation of UVR but were potentially enough for adequate vitamin D formation according to a cited model calculation - as illustrated in the results and discussed. The school environments, typical in southern and middle Sweden, offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils' outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR-protective environment.

  10. The Effect of Priming with Photographs of Environmental Settings on Walking Speed in an Outdoor Environment

    PubMed Central

    Franěk, Marek; Režný, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of priming with photographs of various environmental settings on the speed of a subsequent outdoor walk in an urban environment. Either photographs of urban greenery, conifer forests, or shopping malls were presented or no prime was employed. Three experiments were conducted (N = 126, N = 88, and N = 121). After being exposed to the priming or no-priming conditions, the participants were asked to walk along an urban route 1.9 km long with vegetation and mature trees (Experiment 1, Experiment 3) or along a route in a modern suburb (Experiment 2). In accord with the concept of approach-avoidance behavior, it was expected that priming with photographs congruent with the environmental setting of the walking route would result in slower walking speed. Conversely, priming with photographs incongruent with the environmental setting should result in faster walking speed. The results showed that priming with the photographs with vegetation caused a decrease in overall walking speed on the route relative to other experimental conditions. However, priming with incongruent primes did not lead to a significant increase in walking speed. In all experimental conditions, the slowest walking speed was found in sections with the highest natural character. The results are explained in terms of congruency between the prime and the environment, as well as by the positive psychological effects of viewing nature. PMID:28184208

  11. The Effect of Priming with Photographs of Environmental Settings on Walking Speed in an Outdoor Environment.

    PubMed

    Franěk, Marek; Režný, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of priming with photographs of various environmental settings on the speed of a subsequent outdoor walk in an urban environment. Either photographs of urban greenery, conifer forests, or shopping malls were presented or no prime was employed. Three experiments were conducted (N = 126, N = 88, and N = 121). After being exposed to the priming or no-priming conditions, the participants were asked to walk along an urban route 1.9 km long with vegetation and mature trees (Experiment 1, Experiment 3) or along a route in a modern suburb (Experiment 2). In accord with the concept of approach-avoidance behavior, it was expected that priming with photographs congruent with the environmental setting of the walking route would result in slower walking speed. Conversely, priming with photographs incongruent with the environmental setting should result in faster walking speed. The results showed that priming with the photographs with vegetation caused a decrease in overall walking speed on the route relative to other experimental conditions. However, priming with incongruent primes did not lead to a significant increase in walking speed. In all experimental conditions, the slowest walking speed was found in sections with the highest natural character. The results are explained in terms of congruency between the prime and the environment, as well as by the positive psychological effects of viewing nature.

  12. Testing and evaluation of a wearable augmented reality system for natural outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Cook, James; Sherrill, Todd; Snarski, Stephen; Russler, Pat; Clipp, Brian; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Bennett, Matthew; Mauger, Jennifer; Church, William; Towles, Herman; MacCabe, Stephen; Webb, Jeffrey; Lupo, Jasper; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Dunn, Enrique; Leslie, Christopher; Welch, Greg

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes performance evaluation of a wearable augmented reality system for natural outdoor environments. Applied Research Associates (ARA), as prime integrator on the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program, is developing a soldier-worn system to provide intuitive `heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a novel pose estimation capability, a helmet-mounted see-through display, and a wearable processing unit to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (e.g., navigation waypoints, sensor points of interest, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. We achieve accurate pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, terrain data, and computer-vision inputs. We leverage a helmet-mounted camera and custom computer vision algorithms to provide terrain-based measurements of absolute orientation (i.e., orientation of the helmet with respect to the earth). These orientation measurements, which leverage mountainous terrain horizon geometry and mission planning landmarks, enable our system to operate robustly in the presence of external and body-worn magnetic disturbances. Current field testing activities across a variety of mountainous environments indicate that we can achieve high icon geo-registration accuracy (<10mrad) using these vision-based methods.

  13. Incorporating a Wheeled Vehicle Model in a New Monocular Visual Odometry Algorithm for Dynamic Outdoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanhua; Xiong, Guangming; Chen, Huiyan; Lee, Dah-Jye

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a monocular visual odometry algorithm that incorporates a wheeled vehicle model for ground vehicles. The main innovation of this algorithm is to use the single-track bicycle model to interpret the relationship between the yaw rate and side slip angle, which are the two most important parameters that describe the motion of a wheeled vehicle. Additionally, the pitch angle is also considered since the planar-motion hypothesis often fails due to the dynamic characteristics of wheel suspensions and tires in real-world environments. Linearization is used to calculate a closed-form solution of the motion parameters that works as a hypothesis generator in a RAndom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) scheme to reduce the complexity in solving equations involving trigonometric. All inliers found are used to refine the winner solution through minimizing the reprojection error. Finally, the algorithm is applied to real-time on-board visual localization applications. Its performance is evaluated by comparing against the state-of-the-art monocular visual odometry methods using both synthetic data and publicly available datasets over several kilometers in dynamic outdoor environments. PMID:25256109

  14. Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tsung-Yu; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chu, Yu-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context-aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are…

  15. Primary and Initial Experiences in Outdoor Environments. It's Close and Single.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, B. Wayne

    One major intent of learning in the outdoors is to integrate intellectual and emotional understanding. In this light, the outdoor education activities suggested in this document may be artificial unless they are incorporated within the child's discovery of his role in the total, natural scheme of things. The introductory section of the document…

  16. Linking Outdoor School with the Home Environment. A Follow-Up Resource Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Wallace H.; Gilfillan, Warren C.

    A source of ideas and direction for follow-up to the Multnomah County Outdoor School program, the guide identifies concepts generally common to all outdoor school sites from year to year: the water cycle; watershed; water as a habitat for plants and animals, an oxygen supplier, and a producer of usable power; sun energy; plants as producers and…

  17. Leave No Trace! An Outdoor Ethic: A Program To Teach Skills for Protecting the Wilderness Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This document consists of two brochures that were developed as part of a land ethics training program for outdoor recreationists. The brochures provide information about techniques that outdoor practitioners can use to help minimize disturbance to backcountry and wilderness areas. Heavy use of popular camping areas can create problems such as…

  18. Dehydration from outdoor work and urinary stones in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Pin, N T; Ling, N Y; Siang, L H

    1992-02-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of urinary stone disease in 406 male workers in several occupations. There were 119 quarry drilling and crusher workers (outdoor, physically active), 77 quarry truck and loader drivers (outdoor, physically inactive), 92 postal deliverymen (outdoor, physically active), 75 postal clerks (indoor, physically inactive), and 43 hospital maintenance workers (indoor, physically active). The prevalence of urinary stone disease was five times higher in outdoor workers (5.2 per cent) compared to indoor workers (0.85 per cent, P less than 0.05). Contrary to expectation, no increased risk of urolithiasis was apparent in physically inactive workers. Chronic dehydration is likely to be the most important risk factor for the increased risk of urolithiasis in outdoor workers in the tropics, and should be easily prevented by increased water intake.

  19. Outdoor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatarchuk, Shawna; Eick, Charles

    2011-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is an exciting way to connect the learning of science to nature and the environment. Many school grounds include gardens, grassy areas, courtyards, and wooded areas. Some even have nearby streams or creeks. These are built-in laboratories for inquiry! In the authors' third-grade classroom, they align and integrate…

  20. Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Twenty-four activities suitable for outdoor use by elementary school children are outlined. Activities designed to make children aware of their environment include soil painting, burr collecting, insect and pond water collecting, studies of insect galls and field mice, succession studies, and a model of natural selection using dyed toothpicks. A…

  1. Initial corrosion behavior of a copper-clad plate in typical outdoor atmospheric environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Pan; Xiao, Kui; Ding, Kangkang; Yan, Lidan; Dong, Chaofang; Li, Xiaogang

    2016-01-01

    A copper-clad printed circuit board (PCB-Cu) was subjected to long-term exposure test under typical Chinese atmospheric environments to study corrosion failure mechanisms. The corrosion behavior was investigated by analyzing electrochemical impedance, scanning Kelvin probes, stereo and scanning electron microscopes, and energy-dispersive spectra. Results showed that the initial surface potential was unevenly distributed. The outdoor PCB-Cu samples suffered severe corrosion caused by dust particles, contaminated media, and microorganisms after long-term atmospheric exposure. The initial localized corrosion was exacerbated and progressed to general corrosion for samples in Turpan, Beijing, and Wuhan under prolonged exposure, whereas PCB-Cu in Xishuangbanna was only slightly corroded. The tendency for electrochemical migration (ECM) of PCB-Cu was relatively low when applied with a bias voltage of 12 V. ECM was only observed in the PCB-Cu samples in Beijing. Contaminated medium and high humidity synergistically affected ECM corrosion in PCB-Cu materials. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Hot environment and health problems of outdoor workers at a construction site.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Ikuharu; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this research was to understand hot working environment at a construction site in summer and its effects on health of workers. In the subjective construction site, some measures, such as taking a break during work, setting tents and electric fans, and drinking cool water, had already been taken to reduce heat stress. Twelve male workers were examined. The WBGT outdoors during work varied from 23 to 34 degrees C. The time-motion study revealed that one subject worked exceeding 7 hours, and that the other one had little rest time and drank little water during work. Few items of subjective symptoms increased after work compared with before work. In blood chemical data, electrolytes and blood urea nitrogen did not change. Blood sugar before work was significantly higher than before lunch and after work. Two subjects showed serum osmotic pressures increased after work. Two had the tendency to increase the blood pressure during work. The measures seemed effective, because the effects of work were not remarkable in general. However, some problems were still pointed out. Thus, stricter work control and health care for workers are necessary, such as controlling working hours strictly and monitoring the water intake during work.

  3. Thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and perceptual responses to intermittent cooling during exercise in a hot, humid outdoor environment.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle A; Toy, Michelle G; Lopez, Rebecca M

    2014-03-01

    Decreasing core body temperature during exercise may improve exercise tolerance, facilitate acclimatization, and prevent heat illness during summer training. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of intermittent superficial cooling on thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot humid environment. We used a randomized, counterbalanced, repeated measures investigation with 2 conditions (control and cooling) during exercise and recovery outdoors on artificial turf in a hot, humid tropical climate in the sun (wet bulb globe temperature outdoors [WBGTo], 27.0 ± 0.8° C; range, 25.8-28.1° C) and in the shade (WBGTo, 25.4 ± 0.9° C; range, 24.3-26.8° C). Participants were 10 healthy males (age, 22.6 ± 1.6 years; height, 176.0 ± 6.9 cm; mass, 76.5 ± 7.8 kg; body fat, 15.6 ± 5.4%) who wore shorts and T-shirt (control) or "phase change cooling" vest (cooling) during 5-minute rest breaks during 60 minutes of intense American football training and conditioning exercises in the heat and 30 minutes of recovery in the shade. Throughout, we measured core (Tgi) and skin (Tchest) temperature, heart rate (HR), thermal and thirst sensations, and rating of perceived exertion. We found significant (p ≤ 0.001) hypohydration (-2.1%); for Tgi, we found no significant differences between conditions (p = 0.674) during exercise and progressive decreases during recovery (p < 0.001). For [INCREMENT]Tg,i we found no significant (p = 0.090) differences. For Tchest, we found significantly (p < 0.001) decreased skin temperature in the cooling condition (Tchest, 31.85 ± 0.43° C) compared with the control condition (Tchest, 34.38 ± 0.43° C) during exercise and significantly (p < 0.001) lower skin temperature in the cooling condition (Tchest, 31.24 ± 0.47° C) compared with the control condition (Tchest, 33.48 ± 0.47° C) during recovery. For HR, we found no significant difference (p = 0.586) between the conditions during exercise; however, we

  4. Social Contexts of Development in Natural Outdoor Environments: Children's Motor Activities, Personal Challenges and Peer Interactions at the River and the Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Cara; Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of spending time outdoors on young children's physical and socioemotional development. We observed preschoolers' activities in two naturally provisioned outdoor environments over the course of one year. Eleven preschoolers were videotaped continuously for 16 days at a local river and 9 days at a creek adjacent to…

  5. Magnetometer-enhanced personal locator for tunnels and GPS-denied outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwanmuang, Surat; Ojeda, Lauro; Borenstein, Johann

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes recent advances with our earlier developed Personal Dead-reckoning (PDR) system for GPS-denied environments. The PDR system uses a foot-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) that also houses a three axismagnetometer. In earlier work we developed methods for correcting the drift errors in the accelerometers, thereby allowing very accurate measurements of distance traveled. In addition, we developed a powerful heuristic method for correcting heading errors caused by gyro drift. The heuristics exploit the rectilinear features found in almost all manmade structures and therefore limit this technology to indoor use only. Most recently we integrated a three-axis magnetometer with the IMU, using a Kalman Filter. While it is well known that the ubiquitous magnetic disturbances found in most modern buildings render magnetometers almost completely useless indoors, these sensors are nonetheless very effective in pristine outdoor environments as well as in some tunnels and caves. The present paper describes the integrated magnetometer/IMU system and presents detailed experimental results. Specifically, the paper reports results of an objective test conducted by Firefighters of California's CAL-FIRE. In this particular test, two firefighters in full operational gear and one civilian hiked up a two-mile long mountain trail over rocky, sometimes steeply inclined terrain, each wearing one of our magnetometer-enhanced PDR systems but not using any GPS. During the hour-long hike the average position error was about 20 meters and the maximum error was less than 45 meters, which is about 1.4% of distance traveled for all three PDR systems.

  6. Thermal comfort modelling of body temperature and psychological variations of a human exercising in an outdoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal comfort assessments pertaining to exercise while in outdoor environments can improve urban and recreational planning. The current study applied a simple four-segment skin temperature approach to the COMFA (COMfort FormulA) outdoor energy balance model. Comparative results of measured mean skin temperature ( {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{Msk}} ) with predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} indicate that the model accurately predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} , showing significantly strong agreement ( r = 0.859, P < 0.01) during outdoor exercise (cycling and running). The combined 5-min mean variation of the {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} RMSE was 1.5°C, with separate cycling and running giving RMSE of 1.4°C and 1.6°C, respectively, and no significant difference in residuals. Subjects' actual thermal sensation (ATS) votes displayed significant strong rank correlation with budget scores calculated using both measured and predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} ( r s = 0.507 and 0.517, respectively, P < 0.01). These results show improved predictive strength of ATS of subjects as compared to the original and updated COMFA models. This psychological improvement, plus {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} and T c validations, enables better application to a variety of outdoor spaces. This model can be used in future research studying linkages between thermal discomfort, subsequent decreases in physical activity, and negative health trends.

  7. Indoor-outdoor relationships of PM2.5 in four residential dwellings in winter in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Meng, Dan; Li, Xiuwei; Tan, Junjie

    2016-08-01

    Indoor and outdoor air PM2.5 concentrations in four residential dwellings characterized with different building envelope air tightness levels and HVAC-filter configurations in Yangtze River Delta (YRD) were measured during winter periods in 2014-2015. Steady-state models for indoor PM2.5 were developed for each of the tested dwellings, based on mass balance equation. The indoor air PM2.5 concentrations in the four tested apartments were significantly different. The lowest geometric mean values of indoor air PM2.5 concentrations, I/O ratios, and infiltration factor were observed in D3 with high air tightness and without HVAC-filter system (26.0 μg/m(3), 0.197, and 0.167, respectively), while the highest geometric mean values of indoor air PM2.5 concentrations, I/O ratios, and infiltration factor were observed in D1 (64.9 μg/m(3), 0.876, and 0.867, respectively). For apartment D1 with normal air tightness and without any HVAC-filter system, indoor air PM2.5 concentrations were significantly correlated with outdoor PM2.5 concentrations, especially in severe ambient pollution days, when closed windows can only play a very weak role on the decline of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. With the enhancement of building air tightness, the indoor air PM2.5 concentrations can be decreased effectively and don't vary as much in response to fluctuations in ambient concentrations. For buildings with normal air tightness, the use of HVAC-filter combinations will decrease the indoor PM2.5 significantly. However, for buildings with enhanced air tightness, the only use of fresh makeup air supply system with filter may increase the indoor PM2.5 concentrations. The improvement of filter efficiency for both fresh makeup air and indoor recirculated air are very important. However, purifiers for indoor recirculated air were highly recommended for all buildings.

  8. Determination of ozone in outdoor and indoor environments using nitrite-impregnated passive samplers followed by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Sathrugnan; Perumal, Sundararajan Venkatesa; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Zuraimi, Mohammed Sultan; Tham, Kwok Wai

    2007-08-01

    An improved ion chromatographic (IC) method has been developed for the separation of nitrate in filter extracts in the presence of high concentrations of nitrite. This analytical method was successfully used for an indirect measurement of ozone (O3) in outdoor and indoor air, following its collection using a nitrite-impregnated passive sampler. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification, using the modified IC method, were 6 microg l(-1) (3sigma) and 20 microg l(-1) (10sigma), respectively. Improved detection limits and low baseline noise were obtained with the use of eluent generator and high-capacity ion exchange column. The optimized method was used for assessing O3 concentration in both indoor and outdoor environments of 28 child care centers (CCCs) located in different parts of Singapore. The O3 concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 11.95 parts per billion (ppb) in indoor and from 3.2 to 21.7 ppb in outdoor environments during the study period. It was found that, among the CCCs investigated in this study, air-conditioned CCCs and those located in close proximity to traffic emissions had significantly lower O3 concentrations indoors.

  9. Outdoor Play and Play Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Heather

    1985-01-01

    Discusses aspects of the play environment and its effect on children's play behavior. Indoor and outdoor play spaces are considered along with factors affecting the use of outdoor environments for play. Children's preferences for different outdoor play environments and for various play structures are explored. Guides for choosing play equipment…

  10. Strategies to Affect Student Awareness of Natural and Social Environments in Outdoor Education: A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    Several instructional strategies have been developed and employed to affect student awareness of natural and social environmental settings. Three instructional strategy orientations have been structured for affecting student conceptual learning and values acquisition-clarification: affective, cognitive, and affective-cognitive. Outdoor education…

  11. Individual Differences in Children's Risk Perception and Appraisals in Outdoor Play Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    Child characteristics including age, gender, risk-taking behaviour and sensation seeking are thought to influence children's ability to appraise risks. The present study investigated children's risk perceptions and appraisals in the context of common outdoor physical play activities. Risk perceptions and appraisal of four- and five-year olds were…

  12. Dynamic modeling of human thermal comfort after the transition from an indoor to an outdoor hot environment.

    PubMed

    Katavoutas, George; Flocas, Helena A; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Thermal comfort under non-steady-state conditions primarily deals with rapid environmental transients and significant alterations of the meteorological conditions, activity, or clothing pattern within the time scale of some minutes. In such cases, thermal history plays an important role in respect to time, and thus, a dynamic approach is appropriate. The present study aims to investigate the dynamic thermal adaptation process of a human individual, after his transition from a typical indoor climate to an outdoor hot environment. Three scenarios of thermal transients have been considered for a range of hot outdoor environmental conditions, employing the dynamic two-node IMEM model. The differences among them concern the radiation field, the activity level, and the body position. The temporal pattern of body temperatures as well as the range of skin wettedness and of water loss have been investigated and compared among the scenarios and the environmental conditions considered. The structure and the temporal course of human energy fluxes as well as the identification of the contribution of body temperatures to energy fluxes have also been studied and compared. In general, the simulation results indicate that the response of a person, coming from the same neutral indoor climate, varies depending on the scenario followed by the individual while being outdoors. The combination of radiation field (shade or not) with the kind of activity (sitting or walking) and the outdoor conditions differentiates significantly the thermal state of the human body. Therefore, 75% of the skin wettedness values do not exceed the thermal comfort limit at rest for a sitting individual under the shade. This percentage decreases dramatically, less than 25%, under direct solar radiation and exceeds 75% for a walking person under direct solar radiation.

  13. Winter Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

    Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

  14. Winter Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Outdoor Educators of Quebec, Montreal.

    Materials on 11 topics presented at a winter workshop for Quebec outdoor educators have been compiled into this booklet. Action story, instant replay, shoe factory, sound and action, and find an object to fit the description are described and recommended as group dynamic activities. Directions for five games (Superlative Selection; Data…

  15. Raising of Operating a Motor Vehicle Effects on Environment in Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertman, S. A.; Ertman, J. A.; Zakharov, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    Severe low-temperature conditions, in which considerable part of Russian Motor Park is operated, affect vehicles negatively. Cold weather causes higher fuel consumption and C02 emissions always. It is because of temperature profile changing of automobile motors, other systems and materials. For enhancement of car operation efficiency in severe winter environment the dependency of engine warm-up and cooling time on ambient air temperature and wind speed described by multifactorial mathematical models is established. -On the basis of experimental research it was proved that the coolant temperature constitutes the engine representative temperature and may be used as representative temperature of engine at large. The model of generation of integrated index for vehicle adaptability to winter operating conditions by temperature profile of engines was developed. the method for evaluation of vehicle adaptability to winter operating conditions by temperature profile of engines allows to decrease higher fuel consumption in cold climate.

  16. Seasonal differences in thermal sensation in the outdoor urban environment of Mediterranean climates - the example of Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseliou, Areti; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor urban areas are very important for cities and microclimate is a critical parameter in the design process, contributing to thermal comfort which is important for urban developments. The research presented in this paper is part of extensive field surveys conducted in Athens aimed at investigating people's thermal sensation in a Mediterranean city. Based on 2313 questionnaires and microclimatic data the current work focuses on the relative frequencies of people's evaluation of the thermal along with the sun and wind sensations between two seasons trying to identify the seasonal differences in thermal sensation. The impact of basic meteorological factors on thermal discomfort with respect to season are also examined, as well as the use of the outdoor environment. Results show that psychological adaptation is an important contributing factor influencing perception of the thermal environment between seasons. In addition, the thermal sensation votes during the cool months show that individuals are satisfied to a great extend with the thermal environment whereas the combination of high air temperature, strong solar radiation and weak wind lead to thermal discomfort during summertime. As far as the appropriate urban design in the Mediterranean climate is concerned, priority should be given to the warm months of the year.

  17. Seasonal differences in thermal sensation in the outdoor urban environment of Mediterranean climates - the example of Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tseliou, Areti; Tsiros, Ioannis X; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2017-01-19

    Outdoor urban areas are very important for cities and microclimate is a critical parameter in the design process, contributing to thermal comfort which is important for urban developments. The research presented in this paper is part of extensive field surveys conducted in Athens aimed at investigating people's thermal sensation in a Mediterranean city. Based on 2313 questionnaires and microclimatic data the current work focuses on the relative frequencies of people's evaluation of the thermal along with the sun and wind sensations between two seasons trying to identify the seasonal differences in thermal sensation. The impact of basic meteorological factors on thermal discomfort with respect to season are also examined, as well as the use of the outdoor environment. Results show that psychological adaptation is an important contributing factor influencing perception of the thermal environment between seasons. In addition, the thermal sensation votes during the cool months show that individuals are satisfied to a great extend with the thermal environment whereas the combination of high air temperature, strong solar radiation and weak wind lead to thermal discomfort during summertime. As far as the appropriate urban design in the Mediterranean climate is concerned, priority should be given to the warm months of the year.

  18. Disease transmission in an extreme environment: nematode parasites infect reindeer during the Arctic winter.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anja M; Justin Irvine, R; Wilson, Kenneth; Piertney, Stuart B; Halvorsen, Odd; Coulson, Stephen J; Stien, Audun; Albon, Steve D

    2012-07-01

    Parasitic nematodes are found in almost all wild vertebrate populations but few studies have investigated these host-parasite relationships in the wild. For parasites with free-living stages, the external environment has a major influence on life-history traits, and development and survival is generally low at sub-zero temperatures. For reindeer that inhabit the high Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, parasite transmission is expected to occur in the summer, due to the extreme environmental conditions and the reduced food intake by the host in winter. Here we show experimentally that, contrary to most parasitic nematodes, Marshallagia marshalli of Svalbard reindeer is transmitted during the Arctic winter. Winter transmission was demonstrated by removing parasites in the autumn, using a novel delayed-release anthelmintic bolus, and estimating re-infection rates in reindeer sampled in October, February and April. Larval stages of nematodes were identified using molecular tools, whereas adult stages were identified using microscopy. The abundance of M. marshalli adult worms and L4s increased significantly from October to April, indicating that reindeer were being infected with L3s from the pasture throughout the winter. To our knowledge, this study is the first to experimentally demonstrate over-winter transmission of a gastro-intestinal nematode parasite in a wild animal. Potential mechanisms associated with this unusual transmission strategy are discussed in light of our knowledge of the life-history traits of this parasite.

  19. Free range hens use the range more when the outdoor environment is enriched.

    PubMed

    Nagle, T A D; Glatz, P C

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the role of using forage, shade and shelterbelts in attracting birds into the range, three trials were undertaken with free range layers both on a research facility and on commercial farms. Each of the trials on the free range research facility in South Australia used a total of 120 laying hens (Hyline Brown). Birds were housed in an eco-shelter which had 6 internal pens of equal size with a free range area adjoining the shelter. The on-farm trials were undertaken on commercial free range layer farms in the Darling Downs in Southeast Queensland with bird numbers on farms ranging from 2,000-6,800 hens. The first research trial examined the role of shaded areas in the range; the second trial examined the role of forage and the third trial examined the influence of shelterbelts in the range. These treatments were compared to a free range area with no enrichment. Aggressive feather pecking was only observed on a few occasions in all of the trials due to the low bird numbers housed. Enriching the free range environment attracted more birds into the range. Shaded areas were used by 18% of the hens with a tendency (p = 0.07) for more hens to be in the paddock. When forage was provided in paddocks more control birds (55%) were observed in the range in morning than in the afternoon (30%) while for the forage treatments 45% of the birds were in the range both during the morning and afternoon. When shelterbelts were provided there was a significantly (p<0.05) higher % of birds in the range (43% vs. 24%) and greater numbers of birds were observed in areas further away from the poultry house. The results from the on-farm trials mirrored the research trials. Overall 3 times more hens used the shaded areas than the non shaded areas, with slightly more using the shade in the morning than in the afternoon. As the environmental temperature increased the number of birds using the outdoor shade also increased. Overall 17 times more hens used the shelterbelt areas than the

  20. Is the OJIP Test a Reliable Indicator of Winter Hardiness and Freezing Tolerance of Common Wheat and Triticale under Variable Winter Environments?

    PubMed Central

    Rapacz, Marcin; Sasal, Monika; Kalaji, Hazem M.; Kościelniak, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    OJIP analysis, which explores changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemical performance, has been used as a measure of plant susceptibility to stress. However, in the case of freezing tolerance and winter hardiness, which are highly environmentally variable, the use of this method can give ambiguous results depending on the species as well as the sampling year and time. To clarify this issue, we performed chlorophyll fluorescence measurements over three subsequent winters (2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13) on 220 accessions of common winter wheat and 139 accessions of winter triticale. After freezing, leaves were collected from cold-acclimated plants in the laboratory and field-grown plants. Observations of field survival in seven locations across Poland and measurements of freezing tolerance of the studied plants were also recorded. Our results confirm that the OJIP test is a reliable indicator of winter hardiness and freezing tolerance of common wheat and triticale under unstable winter environments. Regardless of species, the testing conditions giving the most reliable results were identical, and the reliability of the test could be easily checked by analysis of some relationships between OJIP-test parameters. We also found that triticale is more winter hardy and freezing tolerant than wheat. In addition, the two species were characterized by different patterns of photosynthetic apparatus acclimation to cold. PMID:26230839

  1. Degradation Physics of High Power LEDs in Outdoor Environment and the Role of Phosphor in the degradation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Preetpal; Tan, Cher Ming

    2016-04-01

    A moisture- electrical – temperature (MET) test is proposed to evaluate the outdoor reliability of high power blue LEDs, with and without phosphor, and to understand the degradation physics of LEDs under the environment of combined humidity, temperature and electrical stresses. The blue LEDs with phosphor will be the high power white LEDs. Scanning acoustic microscopy is used to examine the resulted delamination during this test for the LEDs. The degradation mechanisms of blue LEDs (LEDs without phosphor) and white LEDs (LEDs with phosphor) are found to be different, under both the power on (i.e. with 350 mA through each LED) and power off (i.e. without current supply) conditions. Difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the molding part and the lens material as well as the heat generated by the phosphor layer are found to account for the major differences in the degradation mechanisms observed. The findings indicate that the proposed MET test is necessary for the LED industry in evaluating the reliability of LEDs under practical outdoor usage environment.

  2. Degradation Physics of High Power LEDs in Outdoor Environment and the Role of Phosphor in the degradation process.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preetpal; Tan, Cher Ming

    2016-04-07

    A moisture- electrical - temperature (MET) test is proposed to evaluate the outdoor reliability of high power blue LEDs, with and without phosphor, and to understand the degradation physics of LEDs under the environment of combined humidity, temperature and electrical stresses. The blue LEDs with phosphor will be the high power white LEDs. Scanning acoustic microscopy is used to examine the resulted delamination during this test for the LEDs. The degradation mechanisms of blue LEDs (LEDs without phosphor) and white LEDs (LEDs with phosphor) are found to be different, under both the power on (i.e. with 350 mA through each LED) and power off (i.e. without current supply) conditions. Difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the molding part and the lens material as well as the heat generated by the phosphor layer are found to account for the major differences in the degradation mechanisms observed. The findings indicate that the proposed MET test is necessary for the LED industry in evaluating the reliability of LEDs under practical outdoor usage environment.

  3. Degradation Physics of High Power LEDs in Outdoor Environment and the Role of Phosphor in the degradation process

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Preetpal; Tan, Cher Ming

    2016-01-01

    A moisture- electrical – temperature (MET) test is proposed to evaluate the outdoor reliability of high power blue LEDs, with and without phosphor, and to understand the degradation physics of LEDs under the environment of combined humidity, temperature and electrical stresses. The blue LEDs with phosphor will be the high power white LEDs. Scanning acoustic microscopy is used to examine the resulted delamination during this test for the LEDs. The degradation mechanisms of blue LEDs (LEDs without phosphor) and white LEDs (LEDs with phosphor) are found to be different, under both the power on (i.e. with 350 mA through each LED) and power off (i.e. without current supply) conditions. Difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the molding part and the lens material as well as the heat generated by the phosphor layer are found to account for the major differences in the degradation mechanisms observed. The findings indicate that the proposed MET test is necessary for the LED industry in evaluating the reliability of LEDs under practical outdoor usage environment. PMID:27052103

  4. Aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment: Part I. Indoor versus outdoor sources, the influence of traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgen, Elke; Karfich, Natascha; Levsen, Karsten; Angerer, Jürgen; Schneider, Peter; Heinrich, Joachim; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Dunemann, Lothar; Begerow, Jutta

    Six aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in the indoor and outdoor air of 115 private non-smoker homes (˜380 rooms), about half of which were located in two city streets in Hannover (Northern Germany) with high traffic density, the other half in rural areas with hardly any traffic at all. This environmental monitoring was complemented by human biomonitoring (i.e. the determination of aromatic hydrocarbons in blood and exhaled air). Particular attention was paid to benzene as a result of its carcinogenicity. In the city streets with high traffic density, an average benzene concentration of 3.1 μg m -3 and in the rural areas of 1.8 μg m -3 was found in these non-smoker homes (all data=geometric means), which reflects the influence of the traffic (automobile exhaust) on the benzene level found indoors. Source identification is also possible by determining the indoor/outdoor ( I/ O) concentration ratio. For the rooms facing the city street, this I/ O ratio is close to 1 for all aromatic hydrocarbons studied with the exception of toluene ( I/ O=3.5), while in the rural areas I/ O ratios for the individual compounds ranging in 6-9 were determined, with the exception of benzene where the I/ O ratio is only 1.5. These I/ O ratios in the city street with high traffic density indicate that an equilibrium between indoor and outdoor air is almost reached. Indoor sources prevail only in the case of toluene. In contrast, in the rural area, indoor sources dominate for all aromatic hydrocarbons except benzene, the indoor level of which is mainly influenced by the outdoor air even in areas of very low traffic density. However, weak indoor sources must exist also for this compound even in non-smoker homes. The internal exposure of the non-smoking inhabitants of these homes to benzene is very low. Depending on the living area, mean values of 61-67 ng l -1 benzene in blood and 0.9-1.2 μg m -3 in the exhaled air were

  5. Fundamentals of Outdoor Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Fear, Gene

    The purpose of this preventive search and rescue teachers guide is to help high school aged youth understand the complexities and priorities necessary to manage a human body in outdoor environments and the value of planning ahead to have on hand the skills and equipment needed for outdoor survival, comfort, and enjoyment. Separate sections present…

  6. Outdoor Classroom Coordinator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Everybody loves the idea of children playing outdoors. Outside, children get to experience the seasons, challenge their minds and bodies, connect with the natural world, and form a special relationship with the planet. But in order for children to get the most of their outdoor time it is important that the environment be prepared by caring adults…

  7. Outdoor Recreation Space Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    With increased concern in recent years for the quality of our cultural and physical environment, there has been a corresponding increase in the need for information on standards used for planning playgrounds and parks, sports facilities, and outdoor areas for camping and hiking. Standards for various types of outdoor recreational facilities as…

  8. A portable system for recording neural activity in indoor and outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Baluch, Farhan; Itti, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    We present a self-contained portable USB based device that can amplify and record small bioelectric signals from insects and animals. The system combines a purpose built low noise amplifier with off the shelf components to provide a low cost low power system for recording electrophysiological signals. Using open source software the system is programmed as a simple USB device and can be connected to any USB capable computer for recording data. This simple and universal interface provides the ability to connect to a variety of systems. Open source acquisition software was also written to record signals under the linux operating system. Performance analysis shows that our device is able to record good quality signals both indoors and outdoors and delivers this performance at a very low cost. Compared to larger systems our device provides the additional advantage of portability given that it can fit into a pocket and costs a fraction of large systems used in electrophysiology labs.

  9. Preserving older adults' routine outdoor activities in contrasting neighborhood environments through a physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Salvo, Deborah; Banda, Jorge A; Ahn, David K; Chapman, James E; Gill, Thomas M; Fielding, Roger A; Demons, Jamehl; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Rosso, Andrea; Pahor, Marco; Frank, Lawrence D

    2017-03-01

    While neighborhood design can potentially influence routine outdoor physical activities (PA), little is known concerning its effects on such activities among older adults attempting to increase their PA levels. We evaluated the effects of living in neighborhoods differing in compactness on changes in routine outdoor activities (e.g., walking, gardening, yard work) among older adults at increased mobility disability risk participating in the LIFE-Pilot PA trial (2003-07; ages 70-89years; from Dallas, TX, San Francisco Bay area, Pittsburgh, PA, and Winston-Salem, NC). Analyses were conducted on the 400 LIFE-Pilot participants randomized to a one-year endurance-plus-strengthening PA intervention or health education control that completed one-year PA assessment (CHAMPS questionnaire). Outcomes of interest were exercise and leisure walking, walking for errands, and moderate-intensity gardening. Neighborhood compactness was assessed objectively using geographic information systems via a subsequent grant (2008-12). PA increased weekly exercise and leisure walking relative to control, irrespective of neighborhood compactness. However, walking for errands decreased significantly more in PA relative to control (net mean [SD] difference=16.2min/week [7.7], p=0.037), particularly among those living in less compact neighborhoods (net mean [SD] difference=29.8 [10.8] minutes/week, p=0.006). PA participants living in less compact neighborhoods maintained or increased participation in gardening and yard work to a greater extent than controls (net mean [SD] difference=29.3 [10.8] minutes/week, p=0.007). The results indicate that formal targeting of active transport as an adjunct to structured PA programs may be important to diminish potential compensatory responses in functionally impaired older adults. Structured endurance-plus-strengthening PA may help older adults maintain or increase such routine activities over time.

  10. Stations Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, John P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Described is a program of outdoor education utilizing activity-oriented learning stations. Described are 13 activities including: a pond study, orienteering, nature crafts, outdoor mathematics, linear distance measurement, and area measurement. (SL)

  11. Methods of chemical analysis for selected species in marble and limestone surfaces exposed to the acidic outdoor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, K.J.; Williams, F.L.; Huff, E.A.; Youngdahl, C.A.

    1986-03-01

    There is concern for marble and limestone exposed to the acidic outdoor environment because they are widely used as the exterior structures of buildings and monuments and because the calcium carbonate stones are especially sensitive to acid. Field tests of these building materials under carefully monitored environmental conditions are being conducted to measure damage rates and ultimately to quantify the individual effects of the important damage mechanisms. The development of further quantitative understanding will provide an improved basis for control strategies. The demonstration, verification, and application of a technique to measure selected surface anionic and cationic species are important contributions to this study. These methods of stone surface chemical analysis, developed for and applied in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), are appropriate to monitor selected species of program interest and are sufficient to determine surface sulfate and nitrate reaction products.

  12. K-Pg extinction patterns in marine and freshwater environments: The impact winter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Douglas S.; Lewis, William M.; Sheehan, Peter M.; Toon, Owen B.

    2013-07-01

    Chicxulub asteroid impact produced massive extinction in terrestrial environments most likely through an intense heat pulse and subsequent widespread fires. Aquatic environments were shielded from this heat and fire but nevertheless showed massive extinction in marine environments and, for reasons unexplained, far less extinction in freshwater environments. Extinction in marine environments resulted from the effects of an "impact winter" caused by dust and smoke in the atmosphere that extinguished sunlight at the Earth's surface for a period of months to years. The resulting cessation of photosynthesis caused a globally extensive extinction of phytoplankton taxa. Because aquatic ecosystems, unlike terrestrial environments, are strongly dependent on daily photosynthetic output by autotrophs, loss of phytoplankton likely caused catastrophic mortality and extinction in aquatic ecosystems. Other potential causes of mortality in aquatic ecosystems include lower ambient temperatures and anoxia due to the lack of photosynthetic oxygen. Inland waters, although probably subject to high mortality, showed lower proportionate extinction than marine environments probably because of the greater potential among the freshwater taxa for dormancy, the greater efficiency of reaeration by rapid flow to offset oxygen demand, abundant thermal refugia fed by groundwater at moderate temperatures, and preadaptation of freshwater taxa to a great degree of environmental variability. In addition, detrital feeders appear to have had low extinction rates in either marine or freshwater environments, but again freshwater taxa would have been favored by higher renewal rates of detrital organic matter as a result of their direct hydrologic contact with soil.

  13. Air quality perception of pedestrians in an urban outdoor Mediterranean environment: A field survey approach.

    PubMed

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon; Psiloglou, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Perception plays a significant role on people's response to preventive measures. In the view of public awareness, the aim of this study was to explore factors that affect air quality perception and to reveal its potential patterns. Air quality perception of individuals, in terms of dust and overall air quality, was examined in relation to air pollutants concentrations, meteorological variables, personal characteristics as well as their thermal sensation and health condition. The data used were obtained from environmental measurements, in situ and from stations, and questionnaire surveys conducted in an outdoor urban Mediterranean area, Athens, Greece. The participants were asked to report their air quality perception and thermal sensation based on predefined scales. A thermal index, Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), was estimated to obtain an objective measure of thermal sensation. Particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were associated with dust perception. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) were associated to air quality perception. Age, area of residence, health symptoms and thermal sensation also affected the perception of air quality. Dusty or poor air quality conditions were more likely to be reported when pollutants' concentrations were increased. Younger people, participants residing in the city center, experiencing health symptoms or warm thermal sensation showed a trend towards reporting more unfavorable air quality conditions.

  14. Laser-based pedestrian tracking in outdoor environments by multiple mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-29

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  15. Detection, Location and Grasping Objects Using a Stereo Sensor on UAV in Outdoor Environments.

    PubMed

    Ramon Soria, Pablo; Arrue, Begoña C; Ollero, Anibal

    2017-01-07

    The article presents a vision system for the autonomous grasping of objects with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in real time. Giving UAVs the capability to manipulate objects vastly extends their applications, as they are capable of accessing places that are difficult to reach or even unreachable for human beings. This work is focused on the grasping of known objects based on feature models. The system runs in an on-board computer on a UAV equipped with a stereo camera and a robotic arm. The algorithm learns a feature-based model in an offline stage, then it is used online for detection of the targeted object and estimation of its position. This feature-based model was proved to be robust to both occlusions and the presence of outliers. The use of stereo cameras improves the learning stage, providing 3D information and helping to filter features in the online stage. An experimental system was derived using a rotary-wing UAV and a small manipulator for final proof of concept. The robotic arm is designed with three degrees of freedom and is lightweight due to payload limitations of the UAV. The system has been validated with different objects, both indoors and outdoors.

  16. Detection, Location and Grasping Objects Using a Stereo Sensor on UAV in Outdoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ramon Soria, Pablo; Arrue, Begoña C.; Ollero, Anibal

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a vision system for the autonomous grasping of objects with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in real time. Giving UAVs the capability to manipulate objects vastly extends their applications, as they are capable of accessing places that are difficult to reach or even unreachable for human beings. This work is focused on the grasping of known objects based on feature models. The system runs in an on-board computer on a UAV equipped with a stereo camera and a robotic arm. The algorithm learns a feature-based model in an offline stage, then it is used online for detection of the targeted object and estimation of its position. This feature-based model was proved to be robust to both occlusions and the presence of outliers. The use of stereo cameras improves the learning stage, providing 3D information and helping to filter features in the online stage. An experimental system was derived using a rotary-wing UAV and a small manipulator for final proof of concept. The robotic arm is designed with three degrees of freedom and is lightweight due to payload limitations of the UAV. The system has been validated with different objects, both indoors and outdoors. PMID:28067851

  17. Laser-Based Pedestrian Tracking in Outdoor Environments by Multiple Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures. PMID:23202171

  18. COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OUTDOOR SITES ASSOCIATED WITH THE NORTH CAROLINA ASTHMA AND CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENT STUDIES (NC-ACES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) concentration data from residential outdoor sites were collected using portable samplers as part of an exposure assessment for the North Carolina Asthma and Children's Environment Study (NC-ACES). PMcoarse values were estimated usi...

  19. Statistical perturbations in personal exposure meters caused by the human body in dynamic outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Begoña; Blas, Juan; Lorenzo, Rubén M; Fernández, Patricia; Abril, Evaristo J

    2011-04-01

    Personal exposure meters (PEM) are routinely used for the exposure assessment to radio frequency electric or magnetic fields. However, their readings are subject to errors associated with perturbations of the fields caused by the presence of the human body. This paper presents a novel analysis method for the characterization of this effect. Using ray-tracing techniques, PEM measurements have been emulated, with and without an approximation of this shadowing effect. In particular, the Global System for Mobile Communication mobile phone frequency band was chosen for its ubiquity and, specifically, we considered the case where the subject is walking outdoors in a relatively open area. These simulations have been contrasted with real PEM measurements in a 35-min walk. Results show a good agreement in terms of root mean square error and E-field cumulative distribution function (CDF), with a significant improvement when the shadowing effect is taken into account. In particular, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test provides a P-value of 0.05 when considering the shadowing effect, versus a P-value of 10⁻¹⁴ when this effect is ignored. In addition, although the E-field levels in the absence of a human body have been found to follow a Nakagami distribution, a lognormal distribution fits the statistics of the PEM values better than the Nakagami distribution. As a conclusion, although the mean could be adjusted by using correction factors, there are also other changes in the CDF that require particular attention due to the shadowing effect because they might lead to a systematic error.

  20. Outdoor Experiences for Young Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary S.

    This digest examines the value of outdoor experience for young children, reasons for its decline, ways to enhance school play spaces, and aspects of developmentally appropriate outdoor environments. Young children appear to benefit from being outdoors and especially need the broad experiential base provided by being outdoors. The richness and…

  1. Outdoor Education and Troubled Youth. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    This digest briefly summarizes the parallel development of outdoor education and outdoor therapeutic programs for troubled and adjudicated youth, describes the rationale supporting outdoor approaches, and reports related research and evaluation findings. First attempts to use the outdoors as a healing environment were "tent therapy"…

  2. Using narrative-based design scaffolds within a mobile learning environment to support learning outdoors with young children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Brian J.

    This study aims to advance learning outdoors with mobile devices. As part of the ongoing Tree Investigators design-based research study, this research investigated a mobile application to support observation, identification, and explanation of the tree life cycle within an authentic, outdoor setting. Recognizing the scientific and conceptual complexity of this topic for young children, the design incorporated technological and design scaffolds within a narrative-based learning environment. In an effort to support learning, 14 participants (aged 5-9) were guided through the mobile app on tree life cycles by a comic-strip pedagogical agent, "Nutty the Squirrel", as they looked to explore and understand through guided observational practices and artifact creation tasks. In comparison to previous iterations of this DBR study, the overall patterns of talk found in this study were similar, with perceptual and conceptual talk being the first and second most frequently coded categories, respectively. However, this study coded considerably more instances of affective talk. This finding of the higher frequency of affective talk could possibly be explained by the relatively younger age of this iteration's participants, in conjunction with the introduced pedagogical agent, who elicited playfulness and delight from the children. The results also indicated a significant improvement when comparing the pretest results (mean score of .86) with the posttest results (mean score of 4.07, out of 5). Learners were not only able to recall the phases of a tree life cycle, but list them in the correct order. The comparison reports a significant increase, showing evidence of increased knowledge and appropriation of scientific vocabulary. The finding suggests the narrative was effective in structuring the complex material into a story for sense making. Future research with narratives should consider a design to promote learner agency through more interactions with the pedagogical agent and a

  3. Definitions of Outdoor Recreation and Other Associated Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maurice L.

    This document defines terms related to outdoor recreation: (1) outdoor recreation includes activities that occur outdoors in an urban and man-made environment as well as those activities traditionally associated with the natural environment; (2) outdoor education is education in, about, and for the outdoors; (3) environmental education is an…

  4. Evaluation of cleaners for photovoltaic modules exposed in an outdoor environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Power recovery of silicone encapsulated and glass covered photovoltaic modules, exposed for two years to a suburban environment, was measured after washing with a variety of cleaners including detergents, abrasive soap, and hydrocarbon solvents. Silicone encapsulated modules in operating environments may experience significant power losses or require extensive periodic cleaning. Glass front-faced modules in similar situations are much less affected. Organic hydrocarbon solvents or abrasives were found to be about five times more effective than mild detergents in cleaning encapsulated modules.

  5. The roles of the outdoors and occupants in contributing to a potential pan-microbiome of the built environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Leung, Marcus H Y; Lee, Patrick K H

    2016-05-24

    Recent high-throughput sequencing technology has led to an expansion of knowledge regarding the microbial communities (microbiome) across various built environments (BEs). The microbiome of the BE is dependent upon building factors and conditions that govern how outdoor microbes enter and persist in the BE. Additionally, occupants are crucial in shaping the microbiome of the BE by releasing human-associated microorganisms and resuspending microbes on floors and surfaces. Therefore, both the outdoors and occupants act as major sources of microorganisms found in the BE. However, most characterizations of the microbiome of the BE have been conducted in the Western world. Notably, outdoor locations and population groups present geographical variations in outdoor and human microbiomes, respectively. Given the influences of the outdoor and human microbiomes on BE microbiology, and the geographical variations in outdoor and human microbiomes, it is likely that the microbiomes of BEs also vary by location. The summation of microbiomes between BEs contribute to a potential BE pan-microbiome, which will both consist of microbes that are ubiquitous in indoor environments around the world, and microbes that appear to be endemic to particular geographical locations. Importantly, the BE pan-microbiome can potentially question the global application of our current views on indoor microbiology. In this review, we first provide an assessment on the roles of building and occupant properties on shaping the microbiome of the BE. This is then followed by a description of geographical variations in the microbiomes of the outdoors and humans, the two main sources of microbes in BEs. We present evidence of differences in microbiomes of BEs around the world, demonstrating the existence of a global pan-microbiome of the BE that is larger than the microbiome of any single indoor environment. Finally, we discuss the significance of understanding the BE pan-microbiome and identifying universal

  6. Seasonal distribution of microbial activity in bioaerosols in the outdoor environment of the Qingdao coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xi; Qi, Jianhua; Li, Hongtao; Dong, Lijie; Gao, Dongmei

    2016-09-01

    Microbial activities in the atmosphere can indicate the physiological processes of microorganisms and can indirectly affect cloud formation and environmental health. In this study, the microbial activity in bioaerosols collected in the Qingdao coastal region was investigated using the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis method to detect the enzyme activity of microorganisms. The results showed that the microbial activity ranged from 5.49 to 102 ng/m3 sodium fluorescein from March 2013 to February 2014; the average value was 34.4 ng/m3. Microbial activity has no statistical correlation with total microbial quantity. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that meteorological factors such as atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and wind speed accounted for approximately 35.7% of the variation of the microbial activity, although their individual impacts on microbial activity varied. According to the correlation analysis, atmospheric temperature and wind speed had a significant positive and negative influence on microbial activity, respectively, whereas relative humidity and wind direction had no significant influence. The seasonal distribution of microbial activity in bioaerosols was in the order of summer > autumn > winter > spring, with high fluctuations in the summer and autumn. Microbial activity in bioaerosols differed in different weather conditions such as the sunny, foggy, and hazy days of different seasons. Further in situ observations in different weather conditions at different times and places are needed to understand the seasonal distribution characteristics of microbial activity in bioaerosols and the influence factors of microbial activity.

  7. Environmental Outdoor Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D.

    2004-05-01

    Lighting for the outdoor environment presents challenges not usually found in interior lighting. Outdoors, the universal standard is the daytime sun, yet nighttime electric lighting falls far short of daylight. This presentation provides guidance in dealing with these shortcomings, allowing electric lighting systems to solve multiple needs while being responsive to the need for quality exterior lighting. Main aspects include visual issues, ordinances, sources, energy conservation, structure, softscape and hardscape, roadways and walkways, retail and parking lots, sports, and outdoor hospitality lighting. We will review many of the present recommendations for such lighting applications, ones designed to minimize any adverse effects.

  8. Using Narrative-Based Design Scaffolds within a Mobile Learning Environment to Support Learning Outdoors with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seely, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to advance learning outdoors with mobile devices. As part of the ongoing Tree Investigators design-based research study, this research investigated a mobile application to support observation, identification, and explanation of the tree life cycle within an authentic, outdoor setting. Recognizing the scientific and conceptual…

  9. Developmentally Appropriate Outdoor Play Environments for Infants and Toddlers. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, Number 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolley, Jimi

    In preschools caring for infants and toddlers, outdoor play space is often limited and underdeveloped. When outdoor play space is developed, it is usually geared towards older toddlers, and infants' time in this space is often limited. Measures can be taken to give both infants and toddlers access, in safe and appropriate ways, to the valuable…

  10. Comparison of light scattering devices and impactors for particulate measurements in indoor, outdoor, and personal environments.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J Sally; Slaughter, James C; Larson, Timothy V

    2002-07-01

    Short-term monitoring of individual particulate matter (PM) exposures on subjects and inside residences in health effect studies have been sparse due to the lack of adequate monitoring devices. The recent development of small and portable light scattering devices, including the Radiance nephelometer (neph) and the personal DataRAM (pDR) has made this monitoring possible. This paper evaluates the performance of both the passive pDR and neph (without any size fractionation inlet) against measurements from both Harvard impactors (HI2.5) and Harvard personal environmental monitors (HPEM2.5) for PM2.5 in indoor, outdoor, and personal settings. These measurements were taken at the residences and on the person of nonsmoking elderly subjects across the metropolitan Seattle area and represent a wide range of light scattering measurements directly related to exposures and health effects. At low PM levels, nephs provided finer resolution and more precise measurements (precision = 3-8% and uncertainty = 2.8 x 10(-7) m(-1) or <1 microg/m3) than the pDRs. The unbiased precision of pDRs above 10 microg/m3 is around 5% (with an unbiased uncertainty of 4.4 microg/m3). The 24-h average responses of the pDR and neph, as compared to 24-h integrated gravimetric measurements, are not affected by indoor sources of PM. When regressed against 24-h gravimetric measurements, nephs showed higher coefficients of determination (R2 = 0.81-0.93) than pDRs (R2 = 0.77-0.84). The default mass calibration on the pDRs generally overestimated indoor HI2.5 measurements by 56%. When carried by subjects, the pDR overestimated the HPEM2.5 measurements by approximately 27%. Collocated real-time indoor nephs and pDRs at diverse residential sites had varied coefficients of determination across homes (R2 = 0.75-0.96), and the difference between pDR and neph responses increased during cooking hours. This difference was larger during baking or frying episodes than during other cooking or cleaning activities

  11. Differential use of fresh water environments by wintering waterfowl of coastal Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; James, D.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study of the environmental relationships among 14 species of wintering waterfowl was conducted at the Welder Wildlife Foundation, San Patricia County, near Sinton, Texas during the fall and early winter of 1973. Measurements of 20 environmental factors (social, vegetational, physical, and chemical) were subjected to multivariate statistical methods to determine certain niche characteristics and environmental relationships of waterfowl wintering in the aquatic community.....Each waterfowl species occupied a unique realized niche by responding to distinct combinations of environmental factors identified by principal component analysis. One percent confidence ellipses circumscribing the mean scores plotted for the first and second principal components gave an indication of relative niche width for each species. The waterfowl environments were significantly different interspecifically and water depth at feeding site and % emergent vegetation were most important in the separation. This was shown by subjecting the transformed data to multivariate analysis of variance with an associated step-down procedure. The species were distributed along a community cline extending from shallow water with abundant emergent vegetation to open deep water with little emergent vegetation of any kind. Four waterfowl subgroups were significantly separated along the cline, as indicated by one-way analysis of variance with Duncan?s multiple range test. Clumping of the bird species toward the middle of the available habitat hyperspace was shown in a plot of the principal component scores for the random samples and individual species.....Naturally occurring relationships among waterfowl were clarified using principal comcomponent analysis and related multivariate procedures. These techniques may prove useful in wetland management for particular groups of waterfowl based on habitat preferences.

  12. Outdoor Built Environment Barriers and Facilitators to Activity among Midlife and Older Adults with Mobility Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Huang, Deborah L.; Simonovich, Shannon D.; Belza, Basia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To gain better understanding of how the built environment impacts neighborhood-based physical activity among midlife and older adults with mobility disabilities. Design and methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 adults over age 50, which used an assistive device and lived in King County, Washington, U.S. In addition,…

  13. Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morag, Orly; Tal, Tali

    2012-01-01

    The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature--the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework--is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4-6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the…

  14. Radar micro-Doppler based human activity classification for indoor and outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenaldin, Matthew; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of our experimental investigation into how different environments impact the classification of human motion using radar micro-Doppler (MD) signatures. The environments studied include free space, through-thewall, leaf tree foliage, and needle tree foliage. Results on presented on classification of the following three motions: crawling, walking, and jogging. The classification task was designed how to best separate these movements. The human motion data were acquired using a monostatic coherent Doppler radar operating in the C-band at 6.5 GHz from a total of six human subjects. The received signals were analyzed in the time-frequency domain using the Short-time Fourier Transform (STFT) which was used for feature extraction. Classification was performed using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) using a Radial Basis Function (RBF). Classification accuracies in the range 80-90% were achieved to separate the three movements mentioned.

  15. Outdoor Built Environment Barriers and Facilitators to Activity among Midlife and Older Adults with Mobility Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To gain better understanding of how the built environment impacts neighborhood-based physical activity among midlife and older adults with mobility disabilities. Design and methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 adults over age 50, which used an assistive device and lived in King County, Washington, U.S. In addition, participants wore Global Positioning Systems (GPS) devices for 3 days prior to the interview. The GPS maps were used as prompts during the interviews. Open coding of the 35 interviews using latent content analysis resulted in key themes and subthemes that achieved consensus between coders. Two investigators independently coded the text of each interview. Results: Participants were on average of 67 years of age (range: 50–86) and predominantly used canes (57%), walkers (57%), or wheelchairs (46%). Key themes pertained to curb ramp availability and condition, sidewalk availability and condition, hills, aesthetics, lighting, ramp availability, weather, presence and features of crosswalks, availability of resting places and shelter on streets, paved or smooth walking paths, safety, and traffic on roads. Implications: A variety of built environment barriers and facilitators to neighborhood-based activity exist for midlife and older adults with mobility disabilities. Preparing our neighborhood environments for an aging population that uses assistive devices will be important to foster independence and health. PMID:23010096

  16. OBIS: Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.; Richmond, Robert F.

    The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project began in 1972 to enable non-school youth groups (aged 10-15) to gain firsthand experiences in outdoor environments. This descriptive paper explains the program including its purpose and historical background. Specific objectives are to: (1) stimulate curiosity about local environments;…

  17. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  18. Effects of climate change on the persistence and dispersal of foodborne bacterial pathogens in the outdoor environment: A review.

    PubMed

    Hellberg, Rosalee S; Chu, Eric

    2016-08-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), warming of the climate system is unequivocal. Over the coming century, warming trends such as increased duration and frequency of heat waves and hot extremes are expected in some areas, as well as increased intensity of some storm systems. Climate-induced trends will impact the persistence and dispersal of foodborne pathogens in myriad ways, especially for environmentally ubiquitous and/or zoonotic microorganisms. Animal hosts of foodborne pathogens are also expected to be impacted by climate change through the introduction of increased physiological stress and, in some cases, altered geographic ranges and seasonality. This review article examines the effects of climatic factors, such as temperature, rainfall, drought and wind, on the environmental dispersal and persistence of bacterial foodborne pathogens, namely, Bacillus cereus, Brucella, Campylobacter, Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio and Yersinia enterocolitica. These relationships are then used to predict how future climatic changes will impact the activity of these microorganisms in the outdoor environment and associated food safety issues. The development of predictive models that quantify these complex relationships will also be discussed, as well as the potential impacts of climate change on transmission of foodborne disease from animal hosts.

  19. Comparison of different active polarimetric imaging modes for target detection in outdoor environment.

    PubMed

    Vannier, Nicolas; Goudail, François; Plassart, Corentin; Boffety, Matthieu; Feneyrou, Patrick; Leviandier, Luc; Galland, Frédéric; Bertaux, Nicolas

    2016-04-10

    We address the detection of manufactured objects in different types of environments with active polarimetric imaging. Using an original, fully adaptive imager, we compare several imaging modes having different numbers of polarimetric degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the efficiency of active polarimetric imaging for decamouflage and hazardous object detection, and underline the characteristics that a polarimetric imager aimed at this type of application should possess. We show that in most encountered scenarios the Mueller matrices are nearly diagonal, and sufficient detection performance can be obtained with simple polarimetric imaging systems having reduced degrees of freedom. Moreover, intensity normalization of images is of paramount importance to better reveal polarimetric contrast.

  20. Seasonality and indoor/outdoor relationships of flame retardants and PCBs in residential air.

    PubMed

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Kukučka, Petr; Vojta, Šimon; Kalina, Jiří; Čupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2016-11-01

    This study is a systematic assessment of different houses and apartments, their ages and renovation status, indoors and outdoors, and in summer vs. winter, with a goal of bringing some insight into the major sources of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and their variability. Indoor and outdoor air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel flame retardants (NFRs) were determined at 17-20 homes in Czech Republic in winter and summer. Indoor concentrations were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for all compounds; indoor/outdoor ratios ranged from 2-20, with larger differences for the current use NFRs than for legacy PCBs. Seasonal trends differed according to the use status of the compounds: the PCBs had higher summer concentrations both indoors and outdoors, suggesting volatilization as a source of PCBs to air. PBDEs had no seasonal trends indoors, but higher summer concentrations outdoors. Several NFRs (TBX, PBT, PBEB) had higher indoor concentrations in winter relative to summer. The seasonal trends in the flame retardants suggest differences in air exchange rates due to lower building ventilation in winter could be driving the concentration differences. Weak relationships were found with building age for PCBs, with higher concentrations indoors in buildings built before 1984, and with the number of electronics for PBDEs, with higher concentrations in rooms with three or more electronic items. Indoor environments are the primary contributor to human inhalation exposure to these SVOCs, due to the high percentage of time spent indoors (>90%) combined with the higher indoors levels for all the studied compounds. Exposure via the indoor environment contributed ∼96% of the total chronic daily intake via inhalation in summer and ∼98% in winter.

  1. A T-DMB navigation system for seamless positioning in both indoor and outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Gong Bo; Chun, Se Bum; Hur, Moon Beom; Jee, Gyu-In

    2014-12-01

    The conventional global positioning system (GPS) can often fail to provide position determination for a mobile user in indoor and urban environments. To cope with GPS failure in such environments, a new navigation system which utilizes a terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting (T-DMB) signal to obtain the mobile user's position is presented. Since the T-DMB transmitters in Korea construct a single frequency network (SFN), which forces the transmitters to be synchronized, the mobile user can measure a time difference of arrival (TDOA) for all audible T-DMB transmitter pairs. The time difference between T-DMB transmitters is converted to a distance difference by multiplying the time difference by the speed of light. Using these measurements and a TDOA positioning method, the mobile user position can be estimated. An experiment with a T-DMB receiver and a data acquisition (DAQ) board is performed in Seoul to analyze the error characteristic of TDOA measurements. It is certified that the measurement error is bounded under 300 m and can be used to determine the mobile user's position with a small standard deviation.

  2. Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  3. An experimental study on Sokkuram Cave Temple dome's indoor environment using a miniature model in winter season

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, S.H.; Chung, K.S.; Park, J.S.; Shin, I.S.; Han, H.T.

    1999-07-01

    Currently, there are many researches on the analysis of indoor environment in Sokkuram Cave Temple. However, there is not enough researches about an experimental study on the dome's indoor environment in Sokkuram Cave Temple using a miniature model. The purpose of this investigation is to measure and analyze characteristics of indoor environment such as relative humidity, dry bulb temperature and air velocity in the miniature model of Sokkuram Cave dome during winter season.

  4. On the outdoor annoyance from scooter and motorbike noise in the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Paviotti, Marco; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-15

    The health impacts of environmental noise are a growing concern amongst both the general public and policy-makers in Europe. Environmental noise - especially from road transportation - is widely accepted as an important environmental impact factor that can be taken as a start for the process of evaluating the impact of annoyance on the exposed urban population. Extensive urbanisation and the increase of road transport define the main driving forces for the environmental noise exposure of the population. In urban conditions, it is rather common, regarding road transportation noise, to hear from people that, especially, PTW (Powered Two Wheelers) are annoying, and many times are actually the most annoying environmental noise sources introducing a degradation of the urban environment. In this research, in Athens city centre, both scooters and motorbikes operation patterns are analysed, in the basis of their environmental impact through ad-hoc tests to establish if specific features of their emitted noise are annoying and affect the quality of life. It resulted that PTW are a relevant cause of specific environmental annoyance on pedestrians when low background noise levels and sparse traffic flow allow identifying the PTW. Based on the results of a measurement campaign, both L(max) and roughness indices are identified as characteristic noise signatures of the PTW. Results are compared to laboratory studies on annoyance found in literature and to a specific set of interviews with a large number of pedestrians in selected sites. Annoyance caused by scooters and motorbikes is analysed in the findings and conclusions.

  5. Aerosol transport simulations in indoor and outdoor environments using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landazuri, Andrea C.

    This dissertation focuses on aerosol transport modeling in occupational environments and mining sites in Arizona using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The impacts of human exposure in both environments are explored with the emphasis on turbulence, wind speed, wind direction and particle sizes. Final emissions simulations involved the digitalization process of available elevation contour plots of one of the mining sites to account for realistic topographical features. The digital elevation map (DEM) of one of the sites was imported to COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSRTM for subsequent turbulence and particle simulations. Simulation results that include realistic topography show considerable deviations of wind direction. Inter-element correlation results using metal and metalloid size resolved concentration data using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) under given wind speeds and directions provided guidance on groups of metals that coexist throughout mining activities. Groups between Fe-Mg, Cr-Fe, Al-Sc, Sc-Fe, and Mg-Al are strongly correlated for unrestricted wind directions and speeds, suggesting that the source may be of soil origin (e.g. ore and tailings); also, groups of elements where Cu is present, in the coarse fraction range, may come from mechanical action mining activities and saltation phenomenon. Besides, MOUDI data under low wind speeds (<2 m/s) and at night showed a strong correlation for 1 mum particles between the groups: Sc-Be-Mg, Cr-Al, Cu-Mn, Cd-Pb-Be, Cd-Cr, Cu-Pb, Pb-Cd, As-Cd-Pb. The As-Cd-Pb correlates strongly in almost all ranges of particle sizes. When restricted low wind speeds were imposed more groups of elements are evident and this may be justified with the fact that at lower speeds particles are more likely to settle. When linking these results with CFD simulations and Pb-isotope results it is concluded that the source of elements found in association with Pb in the fine fraction come from the ore that is subsequently processed

  6. Outdoor NO 2 and benzene exposure in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Asturias cohort (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Estarlich, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguirre-Alfaro, Amelia; Herce-Garraleta, Ma Dolores; Tardón, Adonina

    2011-09-01

    Air pollution exposure during pregnancy has been linked to a wide range of negative health effects. NO 2, a traffic pollution marker, and benzene, an industrial pollution indicator, stand out among the types of air pollution linked to these effects. The aim of this work is to show the methodology used to assign exposure levels for both pollutants and preliminary reports in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Asturias cohort in Spain. This cohort consists of 494 pregnant women and their children, who have been recruited and followed since 2004. Air pollution levels were measured at 67 points by means of passive samplers. The mean NO 2 measured value was 21.2 μg m -3 (range 3.5 μg m -3 to 44.5 μg m -3), and the mean benzene value was 2.72 μg m -3 (range 0.18 μg m -3 to 9.17 μg m -3) at urban sampling points and 0.64 μg m -3 (range 0.04 μg m -3 to 2.62 μg m -3) in rural locations. The Pearson correlation coefficient among pollutants was 0.42. Land Use Regression models were built to predict exposure at the homes of pregnant women. Altitude, road distances and land use were part of the models. The percent of explained variance was 52% for NO 2 and 73% for benzene in the urban zones. No residual autocorrelation was found. Predictions were corrected based on the Air Quality Network of the Principality of Asturias taking into account pregnancy seasonality. Exposure indicators were determined for each term and for the entire pregnancy for each woman. Values for urban locations were higher than those for rural and benzene estimations for 5% of the cohort women were above the European Union annual limit value. Air pollution exposure for the INMA-Asturias cohort clearly depends on the place of residence. In particular, benzene concentrations are remarkably high if an individual lives in an urban and industrial area, which is an issue of management intervention and regulatory concern. Exposure assessment for different pollutants will allow us to evaluate potential

  7. Black spruce growth forms as a record of a changing winter environment at treeline, Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Lavoie, C.; Payette, S. )

    1992-02-01

    The environmental conditions prevailing at treeline in subarctic Quebec have been reconstructed over the past 400 yr through a comparative analysis of tree rings and growth forms of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.). Because black spruce growth forms are closely associated with the winter environment, they are a direct response to conditions of low temperature and windblown snow abrasion affecting living tissues at the snow-air interface. The age structure of supranival shoot populations was closely associated with periods of higher stem survival in winter most likely under snowier and windless conditions. Spruce growth on slopes and in the valley revealed periods of low tree-ring growth between 1601 and 1663 and between 1700 and 1904, respectively. A long-lasting period of low radial growth 1697 and 1939 prevailed in the hilltop site. During the 20th century, spruce height increased from 0.8 to 1.6 m on slopes and in the valley, while the basal level of abrasion from windblown snow increased from 0.1 to 0.5 m, suggesting an increasing trend towards warmer and snowier conditions. Abraded spruces growing during the Little Ice Age (1570-1880) were replaced by symmetrical trees during the 20th century. Supranival skirted and whorled spruces which dominated on the hilltop site during the 16th century reverted to infranival cushion and mat growth forms during the Little Ice Age. These stunted spruces were unable to recover during the recent warming because of their inability to catch enough drifting snow to allow vertical growth.

  8. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Sparks, Tim H; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Hetmański, Tomasz; Martyka, Rafał; Skórka, Piotr; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Myczko, Łukasz; Kunysz, Przemysław; Kawa, Piotr; Czyż, Stanisław; Czechowski, Paweł; Polakowski, Michał; Zduniak, Piotr; Jerzak, Leszek; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Goławski, Artur; Duduś, Leszek; Nowakowski, Jacek J; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Wysocki, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas). The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE) 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

  9. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Sparks, Tim H.; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Hetmański, Tomasz; Martyka, Rafał; Skórka, Piotr; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Myczko, Łukasz; Kunysz, Przemysław; Kawa, Piotr; Czyż, Stanisław; Czechowski, Paweł; Polakowski, Michał; Zduniak, Piotr; Jerzak, Leszek; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Goławski, Artur; Duduś, Leszek; Nowakowski, Jacek J.; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Wysocki, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas). The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (±SE) 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments. PMID:26086819

  10. The effect of randomised exposure to different types of natural outdoor environments compared to exposure to an urban environment on people with indications of psychological distress in Catalonia

    PubMed Central

    Gidlow, Christopher J.; Martínez, David; de Bont, Jeroen; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Martínez-Íñiguez, Tania; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Seto, Edmund; Jones, Marc V.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Experimental studies have reported associations between short-term exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) and health benefits. However, they lack insight into mechanisms, often have low external and ecological validity, and have rarely focused on people with some psycho-physiological affection. The aim of this study was to use a randomized, case-crossover design to investigate: (i) the effects of unconstrained exposure to real natural and urban environments on psycho-physiological indicators of people with indications of psychological distress, (ii) the possible differential effects of 30 and 30+180 minutes exposures, and (iii) the possible mechanisms explaining these effects. Material and methods People (n = 26) with indications of psychological distress were exposed to green (Collserola Natural Park), blue (Castelldefels beach) and urban (Eixample neighbourhood) environments in Catalonia. They were exposed to all environments in groups for a period of 30+180 minutes between October 2013 and January 2014. During the exposure period, participants were instructed to do what they would usually do in that environment. Before, during (at 30 and 30+180 minutes) and after each exposure, several psycho-physiological measures were taken: mood (measured as Total Mood Disturbance, TMD), attention capacity (measured as backwards digit-span task), stress levels (measures as salivary cortisol), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, autonomous nervous system (assessed as heart rate variability and the indicators: low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), ratio between LF and HF (LF:HF), and coefficients of component variance of LF, HF, and LF:HF). We also measured several potential mediators: air pollution, noise, physical activity, social interactions, and self-perceived restoration experience. Results When compared with responses to urban environment, we found statistically significantly lower TMD [-4.78 (-7.77, -1.79) points

  11. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  12. Wide variability in physical activity environments and weather-related outdoor play policies in child-care centers within a single county of Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Kristen A; Sherman, Susan N; Khoury, Jane C; Foster, Karla E; Saelens, Brian E; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the variability of physical activity environments and outdoor play-policies in child-care centers, and to determine if they are associated with center demographic characteristics Design Telephone survey—the Early Learning Environments Physical Activity and Nutrition Telephone Survey (ELEPhANTS) Setting Child-care centers in Hamilton County (Cincinnati area), Ohio, 2008–9. Participants Directors of all 185 licensed full-time child-care centers in Hamilton County. Outcome Measures Descriptive measures of center playground and indoor physical activity environments, and weather-related outdoor-play policies. Results 162 (88%) centers responded. Most (93%) centers reported an on-site playground, but only half reported their playgrounds as large, at least 1/3rd covered in shade, or having a variety of portable play equipment. Only half reported having a dedicated indoor gross-motor room where children could be active during inclement weather. Only 20% of centers allowed children to go outside in temperatures below 32°F, and 43% of centers reported allowing children outdoors during light rain. A higher percent of children receiving tuition-assistance was associated with lower quality physical activity facilities and stricter weather-related practices. National accreditation was associated with more physical-activity promoting practices. Conclusion We found considerable variability in the indoor and outdoor playground offerings among child-care centers, even within a single county of Ohio. Per center policy and limited inside options, children’s active opportunities are curtailed due to sub-freezing temperatures or light rain. Policy change and parent/teacher education may be needed to ensure children achieve ample opportunity for daily physical activity. PMID:21199969

  13. How incense and joss paper burning during the worship activities influences ambient mercury concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments of an Asian temple?

    PubMed

    Shen, Huazhen; Tsai, Cheng-Mou; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Jen, Yi-Hsiu; Ie, Iau-Ren

    2017-01-01

    This study firstly investigated the species, concentration variation, and emission factors of mercury emitted from the burning of incenses and joss papers in an Asian temple. Both indoor and outdoor speciated mercury (GEM, GOM, and PHg) were sampled by manual samplers, while ambient GEM at an indoor site was in-situ monitored by a continuous GEM monitor. Field measurement results showed that the total atmospheric mercury (TAM) concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments were in the range of 8.03-35.72 and 6.03-31.35 ng/m(3), respectively. The indoor and outdoor ratios (I/O) of TAM in the daytime and at nighttime were in the range of 0.64-0.90 and 1.50-2.04, respectively. The concentrations of GEM, GOM, and PHg during the holiday periods were approximately 1-4 times higher than those during the non-holiday periods. GEM was the dominant mercury species in the indoor and outdoor environments and accounted for 63-81% of TAM, while the oxidized mercury accounted for 19-37% of TAM. Burning incenses and joss papers in a combustion chamber showed that the concentration of GEM from joss paper burning ranged from 4.07 to 11.62 μg/m(3), or about 13.97 times higher than that of incense burning, while the concentration of PHg from incense burning ranged from 95.91 to 135.07 ng/m(3), or about 3.29 times higher than that of joss paper burning. The emission factors of incense burning were 10.39 ng/g of GEM and 1.40 ng/g of PHg, while those of joss paper burning were 12.65 ng/g of GEM and 1.27 ng/g of PHg, respectively. This study revealed that speciated mercury emitted from worship activities had significant influence on the indoor and outdoor mercury concentrations in an Asian temple. Higher intensity of worship activities during holidays resulted in a higher concentration of speciated mercury in indoor and outdoor air, which might cause health threats to worshipers, staffs, and surrounding inhabitants through long-term exposure.

  14. Outdoor Education as Wilderness Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    Presents outline for introductory course designed to allow student exploration of outdoor opportunities and instill interest and basic knowledge. Includes nature trail development, edible wild plants, Adirondack/St. Lawrence geology, mountain climbing, fall camping, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, winter camping, ice fishing, knots,…

  15. Positive health effects of the natural outdoor environment in typical populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE): a study programme protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Antó, Josep Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Danileviciute, Asta; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Garcia, Judith; Jerrett, Michael; Jones, Marc; Julvez, Jordi; van Kempen, Elise; van Kamp, Irene; Maas, Jolanda; Seto, Edmund; Smith, Graham; Triguero, Margarita; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Wright, John; Zufferey, Joris; van den Hazel, Peter Jan; Lawrence, Roderick; Grazuleviciene, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Growing evidence suggests that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and well-being, but the proposed mechanisms are still not well understood and the associations with health remain uncertain. The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in Typical Populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) project investigates the interconnections between natural outdoor environments and better human health and well-being. Aims and methods The PHENOTYPE project explores the proposed underlying mechanisms at work (stress reduction/restorative function, physical activity, social interaction, exposure to environmental hazards) and examines the associations with health outcomes for different population groups. It implements conventional and new innovative high-tech methods to characterise the natural environment in terms of quality and quantity. Preventive as well as therapeutic effects of contact with the natural environment are being covered. PHENOTYPE further addresses implications for land-use planning and green space management. The main innovative part of the study is the evaluation of possible short-term and long-term associations of green space and health and the possible underlying mechanisms in four different countries (each with quite a different type of green space and a different use), using the same methodology, in one research programme. This type of holistic approach has not been undertaken before. Furthermore there are technological innovations such as the use of remote sensing and smartphones in the assessment of green space. Conclusions The project will produce a more robust evidence base on links between exposure to natural outdoor environment and human health and well-being, in addition to a better integration of human health needs into land-use planning and green space management in rural as well as urban areas. PMID:24740979

  16. Outing Activities and Winter Sports Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knierim, Helen, Ed.; Hobson, Barbara B., Ed.

    This guide contains articles on outdoor recreational activities and official winter sports rules for girls and women. The articles on outdoor activities include the techniques, teaching, and organization of camping, canoeing, competitive cycling, and riflery. Four pages of references on nature and outdoor activities are presented along with two…

  17. Special Education in the Natural Environment: A Resource Guide in Providing Outdoor Education, Recreation and Camping for Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Gary M.; And Others

    The resource guide for use with personnel concerned with outdoor education for handicapped children provides a guide to activities, techniques, resources, and equipment. The first section consists of analyzed activities as they relate to individual education plans and treatment plan objectives. Provided for each activity is a description of the…

  18. COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OUTDOOR SITES ASSOCIATED WITH THE NORTH CAROLINA ASTHMA AND CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENT STUDIES (NC - ACES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential outdoor monitoring was performed at 26 homes in the RTP area of NC from September 2003 to June 2004. PM10-2.5 values were estimated using the differential between independent PM10 and PM2.5 collocated MiniVol measurements. The dichot...

  19. Outdoor Creative Play Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peggy L.

    Guidelines are given for the development of outdoor play areas on school sites to provide children with natural areas and simple facilities for creative play. Site selection, analysis, and development are discussed. Natural, topographical features of the environment and natural play equipment are suggested. Illustrations are also presented to aid…

  20. Your Brain Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEachren, Zabe

    2012-01-01

    The way technology influences a person's cognition is seldom recognized, but is of increasing interest among brain researchers. Outdoor educators tend to pay attention to the way different activities offer different perceptions of an environment. When natural spaces can no longer be accessed, they adapt and simulate natural activities in available…

  1. Field Studies: One Step into the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tony

    Outdoor education, which should be complementary to classroom work, is all of that learning which takes place in and about the outdoors. This book, which is aimed primarily at teachers and student groups, is a useful aid to those who may wish to investigate and explore the rich natural outdoor environment and consists of investigations which are…

  2. Dependence of photosynthesis and energy dissipation activity upon growth form and light environment during the winter.

    PubMed

    Adams, W W; Demmig-Adams, B; Rosenstiel, T N; Ebbert, V

    2001-01-01

    Two very distinctive responses of photosynthesis to winter conditions have been identified. Mesophytic species that continue to exhibit growth during the winter typically exhibit higher maximal rates of photosynthesis during the winter or when grown at lower temperatures compared to individuals examined during the summer or when grown at warmer temperatures. In contrast, sclerophytic evergreen species growing in sun-exposed sites typically exhibit lower maximal rates of photosynthesis in the winter compared to the summer. On the other hand, shaded individuals of those same sclerophytic evergreen species exhibit similar or higher maximal rates of photosynthesis in the winter compared to the summer. Employment of the xanthophyll cycle in photoprotective energy dissipation exhibits similar characteristics in the two groups of plants (mesophytes and shade leaves of sclerophytic evergreens) that exhibit upregulation of photosynthesis during the winter. In both, zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin (Z + A) are retained and PS II remains primed for energy dissipation only on nights with subfreezing temperatures, and this becomes rapidly reversed upon exposure to increased temperatures. In contrast, Z + A are retained and PS II remains primed for energy dissipation over prolonged periods during the winter in sun leaves of sclerophytic evergreen species, and requires days of warming to become fully reversed. The rapid disengagement of this energy dissipation process in the mesophytes and shade sclerophytes apparently permits a rapid return to efficient photosynthesis and increased activity on warmer days during the winter. This may be associated with a decreasing opportunity for photosynthesis in source leaves relative to the demand for photosynthesis in the plant's sinks. In contrast, the sun-exposed sclerophytes - with a relatively high source to sink ratio - maintain PS II in a state primed for high levels of energy dissipation activity throughout much of the winter. Independent

  3. Dynamics of Weight Change and Temperature of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Wintering Building With Controlled Temperature.

    PubMed

    Stalidzans, E; Zacepins, A; Kviesis, A; Brusbardis, V; Meitalovs, J; Paura, L; Bulipopa, N; Liepniece, M

    2017-01-04

    Honey bee wintering in a wintering building (indoors) with controlled microclimate is used in some cold regions to minimize colony losses due to the hard weather conditions. The behavior and possible state of bee colonies in a dark room, isolated from natural environment during winter season, was studied by indirect temperature measurements to analyze the expression of their annual rhythm when it is not affected by ambient temperature, rain, snow, wind, and daylight. Thus, the observed behavior in the wintering building is initiated solely by bee colony internal processes. Experiments were carried out to determine the dynamics of temperature above the upper hive body and weight dynamics of indoors and outdoors wintered honey bee colonies and their brood-rearing performance in spring. We found significantly lower honey consumption-related weight loss of indoor wintered colonies compared with outdoor colonies, while no significant difference in the amount of open or sealed brood was found, suggesting that wintering building saves food and physiological resources without an impact on colony activity in spring. Indoor wintered colonies, with or without thermal insulation, did not have significant differences in food consumption and brood rearing in spring. The thermal behavior and weight dynamics of all experimental groups has changed in the middle of February possibly due to increased brood-rearing activity. Temperature measurement above the upper hive body is a convenient remote monitoring method of wintering process. Predictability of food consumption in a wintering building, with constant temperature, enables wintering without oversupply of wintering honey.

  4. Attached and unattached fractions of short-lived radon decay products in outdoor environments: effect on the human respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Amrane, M; Oufni, L; Misdaq, M A

    2014-12-01

    The authors developed a model for determining the alpha- and beta-activities per unit volume of air due to radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their decay products attached and unattached to the aerosol in the outdoor air at the workplace in natural conditions at different locations in Morocco by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors. In addition, the percentage of (218)Po, (214)Pb and (214)Po radionuclides attached to the aerosols and the unattached fraction f(j) for different values of the attachment rate were evaluated. Radon and thoron concentrations in outdoor air of the studied different locations were found to vary from 9.20±0.8 to 16.30±1.50 Bq m(-3) and 0.22±0.02 to 1.80±0.20 Bq m(-3), respectively. The committed equivalent doses due to the radon short-lived progeny (218)Po and (214)Po attached and unattached to the aerosol air were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of outdoor air.

  5. Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thompson Coon, J; Boddy, K; Stein, K; Whear, R; Barton, J; Depledge, M H

    2011-03-01

    Our objective was to compare the effects on mental and physical wellbeing, health related quality of life and long-term adherence to physical activity, of participation in physical activity in natural environments compared with physical activity indoors. We conducted a systematic review using the following data sources: Medline, Embase, Psychinfo, GreenFILE, SportDISCUS, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index--Science and BIOSIS from inception to June 2010. Internet searches of relevant Web sites, hand searches of relevant journals, and the reference lists of included papers and other review papers identified in the search were also searched for relevant information. Controlled trials (randomized and nonrandomized) were included. To be eligible trials had to compare the effects of outdoor exercise initiatives with those conducted indoors and report on at least one physical or mental wellbeing outcome in adults or children. Screening of articles for inclusion, data extraction, and quality appraisal were performed by one reviewer and checked by a second with discrepancies resolved by discussion with a third if necessary. Due to the heterogeneity of identified studies a narrative synthesis was performed. Eleven trials (833 adults) were included. Most participants (6 trials; 523 adults) were young students. Study entry criteria and methods were sparsely reported. All interventions consisted of a single episode of walking or running indoors with the same activity at a similar level conducted outdoors on a separate occasion. A total of 13 different outcome measures were used to evaluate the effects of exercise on mental wellbeing, and 4 outcome measures were used to assess attitude to exercise. Most trials (n = 9) showed some improvement in mental wellbeing on one or other of the outcome measures. Compared with exercising indoors, exercising in

  6. Aerosol optical and physical properties during winter monsoon pollution transport in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Verma, S; Bhanja, S N; Pani, S K; Misra, A

    2014-04-01

    We analysed aerosol optical and physical properties in an urban environment (Kolkata) during winter monsoon pollution transport from nearby and far-off regions. Prevailing meteorological conditions, viz. low temperature and wind speed, and a strong downdraft of air mass, indicated weak dispersion and inhibition of vertical mixing of aerosols. Spectral features of WinMon aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed larger variability (0.68-1.13) in monthly mean AOD at short-wavelength (SW) channels (0.34-0.5 μm) compared to that (0.28-0.37) at long-wavelength (LW) channels (0.87-1.02 μm), thereby indicating sensitivity of WinMon AOD to fine aerosol constituents and the predominant contribution from fine aerosol constituents to WinMon AOD. WinMon AOD at 0.5 μm (AOD 0. 5) and Angstrom parameter ( α) were 0.68-0.82 and 1.14-1.32, respectively, with their highest value in December. Consistent with inference from spectral features of AOD, surface aerosol loading was primarily constituted of fine aerosols (size 0.23-3 μm) which was 60-70 % of aerosol 10- μm (size 0.23-10 μm) concentration. Three distinct modes of aerosol distribution were obtained, with the highest WinMon concentration at a mass median diameter (MMD) of 0.3 μm during December, thereby indicating characteristics of primary contribution related to anthropogenic pollutants that were inferred to be mostly due to contribution from air mass originating in nearby region having predominant emissions from biofuel and fossil fuel combustion. A relatively higher contribution from aerosols in the upper atmospheric layers than at the surface to WinMon AOD was inferred during February compared to other months and was attributed to predominant contribution from open burning emissions arising from nearby and far-off regions. A comparison of ground-based measurements with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data showed an underestimation of MODIS AOD and α values for most of the days. Discrepancy in

  7. Increasing Sun Protection in Winter Outdoor Recreation

    PubMed Central

    Walkosz, Barbara J.; Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Scott, Michael D.; Dignan, Mark B.; Cutter, Gary R.; Maloy, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Unprotected and excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the primary risk factor for skin cancer. Design A pair-matched, group-randomized, pre-test/post-test, quasi-experimental design, with ski resorts as the unit of randomization, tested the effectiveness of Go Sun Smart, a multi-channel skin cancer prevention program. Independent samples of guests were taken at baseline (2001) and follow-up (2002); data were analyzed in 2006. Setting and Participants A total of 6516 adult guests at 26 ski resorts in the western U.S. and Canada were recruited, consented, and interviewed on chairlifts. This study was nested within an occupational intervention for ski resort workers. Intervention Ski resorts were pair-matched and randomized to receive Go Sun Smart, which consisted of print, electronic, visual, and interpersonal skin cancer prevention messages. Main Outcome Measures Sun-protection behaviors, sunburning, recall of sun-protection messages, and the association of message exposure to sun protection. Results The difference in recall of all sun-protection messages, messages on signs and posters, and the Go Sun Smart logo was significant between the intervention and control resorts. Reported use of sun-protection practices was higher by guests at intervention ski areas using more (a higher dose of) Go Sun Smart materials. Intervention-group guests who recalled a sun-safety message were more likely to practice sun safety than intervention-group guests who did not recall a message and control-group guests. Conclusions While the mere implementation of Go Sun Smart did not produce sun-safety improvements, Go Sun Smart appeared to be effective for guests who encountered and remembered it. Many factors can work against message exposure. Signage seemed to produce the greatest increase in exposure to sun-safety messages. PMID:18471586

  8. Outdoor Education -- Edinburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Terry

    1974-01-01

    In Scotland, outdoor education is seen as a combination of outdoor pursuits and environmental studies. The article describes various centres in the Edinburgh area, outdoor education expeditions, and programs, such as mountaineering, rock climbing, orienteering, and canoeing. (KM)

  9. Teaching in the Field: What Teacher Professional Life Histories Tell About How They Learn to Teach in the Outdoor Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feille, Kelly K.

    2016-06-01

    This research investigates the professional life histories of upper elementary science teachers who were identified as effective both within the classroom and in the outdoor learning environment (OLE). The narratives of five teachers, collected through semistructured and open-ended interviews, provided the data for the study. Professional life histories were constructed for each teacher participant and an analysis of the teacher narratives identified the themes of teacher development across the voices of the participants. Narrative reasoning was used to unify those themes into a hypothetical professional life history as reported in this manuscript. Implications of this research can be realized for stakeholders in the preparation of pre-service teachers as well as the development of in-service teachers. Future research regarding the early induction years of new teachers, impacts of inclusion of the OLE in pre-service teacher instruction, and teacher experiences regarding professional development relating to efforts to include the OLE in formal education should be investigated.

  10. Weight losses of marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environments in the eastern United States. Results of exposures, 1984--1988

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, K.J.

    1991-09-01

    Gravimetric changes in marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environment at five sites in the eastern United States have been monitored since 1984. An earlier report describes procedures and results obtained in 1984--1988. This report presents the results of the exposure period 1984--1988 and reviews and summarizes those of prior years. A linear relationship was found between cumulative gravimetric losses and exposure period or rain depth. These losses resulted in an average recession rate of 14 to 24 {mu}m/yr for marble and twice that for limestone. Variations in recession among the various exposure sites can be ascribed to differences in rain depth and hydrogen ion concentration. The annual recession rates obtained from gravimetry yielded rates that were for marble twice those obtained from runoff experiments, and more than three times those for limestone; this indicates that physical erosion plays an important role. Gravimetric monitoring of exposed briquettes is continuing in a planned 10-yr program.

  11. Weight losses of marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environment in the eastern United States: Results of exposure 1988--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, K.J.

    1995-04-01

    Monitoring continued on weight changes in marble and limestone briquettes exposed to the outdoor environment at sites in the eastern US. This report presents data for the exposure period 1988--1992 and summarizes results for the entire period from 1984. Since 1989, only three exposure sites have remained active, but briquettes from preexposed material were added at those sites. A linear relationship was found between cumulative gravimetric losses and exposure period. These losses resulted in an average recession rate of 11 to 21 {micro}m/yr for marble and 21 to 45 {micro}m/yr for limestone. The recession rates are site-dependent and can be described with respect to rain depth and other atmospheric conditions, as evidenced by the very low rates at the Ohio site on the movable rack, dry regime. Weight monitoring is continuing in a planned 10-year program.

  12. Human adaptation to isolated and confined environments: Preliminary findings of a seven month Antarctic winter-over human factors study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sybil

    1988-01-01

    This field study was conducted during the last decade of an austral winter-over at Palmer Station in the Antarctic. The purpose of the study was to understand temporal patterns in physiological arousal and psychological mood over the course of the mission. The investigators were principally interested in how people adapted over time to chronic and acute stressors, and how people use and modify their built environment. Physiological and psychological data were collected several times a week, and information on behavior and the use of physical facilities was collected monthly. Physiological and psychological data were compared with social changes in the setting toward the development of a sequential model of human-environment transactional relationships. Based on the study results, guidelines for design of future isolated and confined environments (ICEs) included: plan space for items which make people feel at home, provide materials to allow people to personalize their environment, allow for flexible environments, provide areas for visual and auditory privacy, equip areas for socializing and remove them from private areas, and provide facilities for exercise and for projects involving physical activity. The study offers guidelines about patterns of adaption that could be expected in an ICE, discusses how these settings can be programmed to facilitate successful adjustment, and provides information about how to design future ICE habitats to maximize a healthy living environment.

  13. Calculation of passive sampling rates from both native PCBs and depuration compounds in indoor and outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Persoon, Carolyn; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-02-01

    Passive sampling has become a practical way of sampling persistent organic pollutants over large spatial and remote areas; however, its ease in use is also coupled with some uncertainty in calculating air concentrations from accumulated mass. Here we report a comparison study of polyurethane-foam-based passive samplers (PUF-PAS) for quantitatively determining the sampling rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from air. We measured both uptake of native PCBs and loss of depuration compounds and determined the sampling rates (R-values) for multiple samplers harvested at three different time periods. The uptake of native PCBs in the linear phase was similar to the loss of depuration compounds for indoor air and behaved as predicted. A single R-value of 2.6m(3)d(-1) was calculated from the mean of 12 samplers deployed indoors from three harvest dates with a range of 2.0-3.4m(3)d(-1) for both uptake of native PCBs and loss of depuration compounds. Loss of depuration compounds in outdoor air also followed the predicted linear behavior with a range of calculated R-value of 4.4-8.4m(3)d(-1). Uptake of native PCBs behavior was extremely variable, probably due to changes in ambient air concentrations and resulted in R-values of 1.6-11.5m(3)d(-1) with greater variation seen in higher chlorinated homolog groups.

  14. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  15. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Alan J.

    1974-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project. This program has as its rationale the idea that a basic understanding of ecosystems, populations, communities, food chains, and interactions of organisms with the environment is essential in making intelligent decisions about the environment. (PEB)

  16. Bet hedging in desert winter annual plants: optimal germination strategies in a variable environment.

    PubMed

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Venable, D Lawrence

    2014-03-01

    In bet hedging, organisms sacrifice short-term success to reduce the long-term variance in success. Delayed germination is the classic example of bet hedging, in which a fraction of seeds remain dormant as a hedge against the risk of complete reproductive failure. Here, we investigate the adaptive nature of delayed germination as a bet hedging strategy using long-term demographic data on Sonoran Desert winter annual plants. Using stochastic population models, we estimate fitness as a function of delayed germination and identify evolutionarily stable strategies for 12 abundant species in the community. Results indicate that delayed germination meets the criteria as a bet hedging strategy for all species. Density-dependent models, but not density-independent ones, predicted optimal germination strategies that correspond remarkably well with observed patterns. By incorporating naturally occurring variation in seed and seedling dynamics, our results present a rigorous test of bet hedging theory within the relevant environmental context.

  17. Some Outdoor Educators' Experiences of Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Terry

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenological study presented in this paper attempts to determine, from outdoor educators, what it meant for them to be teaching outdoor education in Victorian secondary schools during 2004. In 1999, Lugg and Martin surveyed Victorian secondary schools to determine the types of outdoor education programs being run, the objectives of those…

  18. Influence of food hoarding behavior on the over-winter survival of pikas in strongly seasonal environments.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shawn F; Pelchat, Graeme; Donahue, Aaron; Hik, David S

    2009-02-01

    Food hoarding is a behavioral adaptation of some herbivores to manage food availability through time and space. In strongly seasonal environments, where summer growing seasons are short relative to winter, an earlier start to hoarding should increase the amount of vegetation stored for winter and improve subsequent survival. We examined hoarding behavior ('haying') and its impact on survival for a small alpine lagomorph, the collared pika (Ochotona collaris) in Yukon, Canada. We used a combination of video surveillance, haypile measurements, and survival data from marked individuals of known age and sex. Annual haypile initiation was strongly influenced by age and year. Adult pikas began haying an average of 16 days earlier in 2004 relative to 2005, whereas young of the year (juveniles) did not vary in the timing of haypile initiation. The mean haying rate per hour increased monthly from 3.7 +/- 0.7 trips in June to 6.6 +/- 0.8 trips in August. Simulation analysis estimated the median haypile mass (dry weight) by mid-September to be 5.5 kg. At least 75% of simulated haypiles had a minimum of 90 days (3 months) of food reserves, and 50% of simulated haypiles had a minimum of 177 days (5.9 months) of food reserves by mid-September, supporting the hypothesis that haypiles serve as the primary source of food during winter. Survival was greatest for pikas in 2005 when they began haying prior to 31 July, but the benefits of earlier accumulation of vegetation on survival also varied between years. The implications of earlier spring snowmelt are discussed with respect to pika foraging and overwinter survival.

  19. Winter is coming: How humans forage in a temporally structured environment

    PubMed Central

    Fougnie, Daryl; Cormiea, Sarah M.; Zhang, Jinxia; Alvarez, George A.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Much is known about visual search for single targets, but relatively little about how participants “forage” for multiple targets. One important question is how long participants will search before moving to a new display. Evidence suggests that participants should leave when intake drops below the average rate (“optimal foraging,” Charnov, 1976). However, the real world has temporal structure (e.g., seasons) that could influence behavior. Does it matter if winter is coming and the next display will be worse than the last? We gave participants a series of search displays and asked them to collect targets as fast as possible. Target density was structured—rising and falling systematically across trials. We measured the duration for which participants foraged in each display (trials were terminated by participants). Foraging behavior was affected by temporal structure—counter to a simple optimal foraging account, observers searched displays longer when quality was falling compared to rising (Experiments 1 and 2). Additionally, we found that temporal structure altered explicit predictions about display quality (Experiment 2). These results demonstrate that foraging theories need to consider richer models of observers' representations of the world. PMID:26237297

  20. The Outdoor Programming Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Ron

    This manual provides guidelines for developing outdoor recreation programs. The manual was prepared for adult outdoor recreation programs, but could be useful for other age groups as well. The following topics are discussed: (1) the historical perspectives of outdoor recreation programming; (2) outdoor programming models, including the club model,…

  1. Outdoor Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    Creative ways to use the outdoors as a part of the regular school curriculum are outlined in this teacher's manual for the elementary grades. Presented for consideration are the general objectives of outdoor education, suggestions for evaluating outdoor education experiences, and techniques for teaching outdoor education. The purpose and functions…

  2. Recovery kinetics of photochemical efficiency in winter stressed conifers: the effects of growth light environment, extent of the season and species.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Amy S

    2013-02-01

    Evergreens undergo reductions in maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) during winter due to increases in sustained thermal energy dissipation. Upon removing winter stressed leaves to room temperature and low light, F(v)/F(m) recovers and can include both a rapid and a slow phase. The goal of this study was to determine whether the rapid component to recovery exists in winter stressed conifers at any point during the season in a seasonally extreme environment. Additional goals were to compare the effects of species, growth light environment and the extent of the winter season on recovery kinetics in conifers. Four species (sun and shade needle) were monitored during the winter of 2007/2008: eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Taxus cuspidata and white spruce (Picea glauca). F(v)/F(m) was measured in the field, and then monitored indoors at room temperature and low light for 6 days. The results showed that all species showed a rapid component to recovery in early winter that disappeared later in the season in sun needles but was present in shade needles on most days monitored during winter. There were differences among species in the recovery kinetics across the season, with pine recovering the most slowly and spruce the most quickly. The results suggest an important role for the rapidly reversible form of energy dissipation in early winter, as well as important differences between species in their rate of recovery in late winter/early spring which may have implications for spring onset of photosynthesis.

  3. Outdoor Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Connie L.

    Outdoor education is an informal method of teaching and learning which offers opportunities for elementary school students, regardless of intellectual abilities, to learn about and appreciate their environment and acquire skills with which to enjoy a lifetime of creative, productive, and healthful living. Outdoor education can enrich, vitalize,…

  4. The Natural Environment as a Playground for Children: The Impact of Outdoor Play Activities in Pre-Primary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjortoft, Ingunn

    2001-01-01

    Investigated how play in the natural environment of three Norwegian kindergartens might stimulate 5- to 7-year-olds' motor fitness, focusing on the affordances of the landscape for versatile play. Found that children using the forest as a playscape performed better in motor skills than children on a traditional playground. Play activities related…

  5. Applying outdoor environment to develop health, comfort, and energy saving in the office in hot-humid climate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Sung, Wen-Pei; Chang, Hung-Chang; Chi, Yi-Rou

    2013-01-01

    A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1) measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2) implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people's environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3) constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV), two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2-23.9°C) indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1~0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement.

  6. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Sung, Wen-Pei; Chang, Hung-Chang; Chi, Yi-Rou

    2013-01-01

    A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1) measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2) implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people's environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3) constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV), two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C) indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1 ~ 0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement. PMID:24311976

  7. Indoor-outdoor levels of size segregated particulate matter and mono/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among urban areas using solid fuels for heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliucininkas, Linas; Krugly, Edvinas; Stasiulaitiene, Inga; Radziuniene, Inga; Prasauskas, Tadas; Jonusas, Arunas; Kauneliene, Violeta; Martuzevicius, Dainius

    2014-11-01

    Emissions from the fuel combustion in the energy production are causes of concern due to associated health risks, but little information is available on the impact of residential fuel burning on indoor air quality, where most of the human exposure occurs. In this complex study, concentrations of size-segregated particulate matter (PM), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic compounds (MAHs and PAHs) at indoor and outdoor sites in six urban homes in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, were determined over winter and summer sampling campaigns, specifically targeting the impact of the local fuel burning to the indoor air quality. PM levels observed in Kaunas during winter measurement campaign were higher compared to those in many other European settlements utilizing biomass for energy production. The particle size distribution analysis revealed that the major part of the PM mass in winter period consisted of fine particles (PM2.5). Both MAH and PAH levels were higher in winter. The indoor to outdoor ratios (I/O) of MAHs and PAHs revealed specific patterns depending on the presence of emissions sources indoors. Irrespectively of the season, I/O values were <1, suggesting that in case of the absence of an indoor pollution, the dominant source of organic compounds was from the outdoor environment. In homes with no PAH source inside, the I/O ratio equalled ranged from 0.05 to 0.36, suggesting the penetrated portion of outdoor combustion particles to the indoor air.

  8. Outdoor Activities for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    This booklet is a compilation of field-tested outdoor activities introducing basic projects for small group or individualized study in monitoring certain aspects of the environment. Its purpose is to provide teachers with new ways to involve children directly in meaningful and developmental learning activities and to help students become more…

  9. Universal Design and Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Helene Arbouet

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in the natural environment provides authentic and concrete opportunities for children to enhance development in all domains (Bailie, 2010). As children play and explore in nature they build gross motor development moving through the outdoors. Learning outside and in nature not only allows for learning across subject areas and…

  10. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…

  11. Outdoors classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  12. Education in and for the Outdoors. Report of the National Conference on Outdoor Education (Kellogg Gull Lake Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Michigan, May 2-4, 1962).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The two board aspects of outdoor education considered in this document are education in the outdoors, using the natural environment as a laboratory for learning, and education for the outdoors, with a focus on teaching skills and appreciations for outdoor recreation. Conference procedures, keynote addresses, current practices, contributions to…

  13. A Three Year Study on 14 VOCs at One Site in Rome: Levels, Seasonal Variations, Indoor/Outdoor Ratio and Temporal Trends

    PubMed Central

    Fuselli, Sergio; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs)—twelve hydrocarbons and two organochlorine compounds—were monitored both outdoors and indoors for three years at one site in Rome. Results showed that 118 out of 168 indoor seasonal mean values were higher than the corresponding outdoor concentrations. The most relevant source of outdoor hydrocarbons was automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the enforcement of various measures to protect health and the environment, outdoor levels of monoaromatic hydrocarbons decreased about ten fold over 15 years, and aliphatic hydrocarbons also decreased. With the decrease in these outdoor concentrations, indoor air sources are likely to be more relevant for indoor air exposures. Winter outdoor values for monoaromatic hydrocarbons were generally markedly higher than the summer ones. The gradual replacement of the current fleet of circulating cars with new cars complying with EURO 5 standards, further reducing hydrocarbon emissions, may possibly lead to an increase in the observed indoor/outdoor ratios. It is indeed more difficult to remove indoor sources, some of which are still unknown. PMID:21139860

  14. A three year study on 14 VOCs at one site in Rome: levels, seasonal variations, indoor/outdoor ratio and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Fuselli, Sergio; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi

    2010-10-01

    Fourteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs)-twelve hydrocarbons and two organochlorine compounds-were monitored both outdoors and indoors for three years at one site in Rome. Results showed that 118 out of 168 indoor seasonal mean values were higher than the corresponding outdoor concentrations. The most relevant source of outdoor hydrocarbons was automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the enforcement of various measures to protect health and the environment, outdoor levels of monoaromatic hydrocarbons decreased about ten fold over 15 years, and aliphatic hydrocarbons also decreased. With the decrease in these outdoor concentrations, indoor air sources are likely to be more relevant for indoor air exposures. Winter outdoor values for monoaromatic hydrocarbons were generally markedly higher than the summer ones. The gradual replacement of the current fleet of circulating cars with new cars complying with EURO 5 standards, further reducing hydrocarbon emissions, may possibly lead to an increase in the observed indoor/outdoor ratios. It is indeed more difficult to remove indoor sources, some of which are still unknown.

  15. Assistive peripheral prosthetic vision aids perception and mobility in outdoor environments: A virtual-reality simulation study.

    PubMed

    Zapf, Marc Patrick H; Boon, Mei-Ying; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2015-08-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) causes visual field (VF) constriction due to progressive loss of photoreceptors, typically from the retinal periphery to the fovea. Retinal prostheses offer vision restoration via electrode implantation and stimulation near the fovea, thereby eliciting articifial percepts, so-called phosphenes in the center VF. Although foveal photoreceptors can persist for prolonged periods of time, bionic therapy is usually restricted to stages of RP with complete vision loss. However, persons with RP experience mobility impairment from peripherally restricted VFs much earlier. Consequently, the amount of visual scanning necessary for navigation is increased, and maintaining a steady pace is challenging. Receiving a retinal implant at this early stage might be feasible. We investigated the potential of a peripheral visual prosthesis coexisting with central residual vision to facilitate scene perception and mobility. Simulating prosthetic and residual vision in a virtual mobility environment, we found that assistive phosphene layouts were associated with reductions in visual scanning-related head movements of up to 42.1%, body rotations of up to 30%, and up to 45% lower frequency of stopping when circumventing low-lying obstacles, pedestrians and following a path. Further research on early implantation of retinal prostheses for the peripheral VF is therefore advised.

  16. GPS-Supported Visual SLAM with a Rigorous Sensor Model for a Panoramic Camera in Outdoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yun; Ji, Shunping; Shi, Zhongchao; Duan, Yulin; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2013-01-01

    Accurate localization of moving sensors is essential for many fields, such as robot navigation and urban mapping. In this paper, we present a framework for GPS-supported visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Bundle Adjustment (BA-SLAM) using a rigorous sensor model in a panoramic camera. The rigorous model does not cause system errors, thus representing an improvement over the widely used ideal sensor model. The proposed SLAM does not require additional restrictions, such as loop closing, or additional sensors, such as expensive inertial measurement units. In this paper, the problems of the ideal sensor model for a panoramic camera are analysed, and a rigorous sensor model is established. GPS data are then introduced for global optimization and georeferencing. Using the rigorous sensor model with the geometric observation equations of BA, a GPS-supported BA-SLAM approach that combines ray observations and GPS observations is then established. Finally, our method is applied to a set of vehicle-borne panoramic images captured from a campus environment, and several ground control points (GCP) are used to check the localization accuracy. The results demonstrated that our method can reach an accuracy of several centimetres. PMID:23344377

  17. Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Phil

    1996-01-01

    The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)

  18. Education and Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Responsibility for meeting the needs and demands of the public for outdoor recreation has led the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to cooperate with educational institutions and others in order to assist in establishing education programs and activities and to encourage public use and benefits from outdoor recreation. To this end the Bureau conducts…

  19. Injury causation in the great outdoors: A systems analysis of led outdoor activity injury incidents.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Goode, Natassia; Lenné, Michael G; Finch, Caroline F; Cassell, Erin

    2014-02-01

    Despite calls for a systems approach to assessing and preventing injurious incidents within the led outdoor activity domain, applications of systems analysis frameworks to the analysis of incident data have been sparse. This article presents an analysis of 1014 led outdoor activity injury and near miss incidents whereby a systems-based risk management framework was used to classify the contributing factors involved across six levels of the led outdoor activity 'system'. The analysis identified causal factors across all levels of the led outdoor activity system, demonstrating the framework's utility for accident analysis efforts in the led outdoor activity injury domain. In addition, issues associated with the current data collection framework that potentially limited the identification of contributing factors outside of the individuals, equipment, and environment involved were identified. In closing, the requirement for new and improved data systems to be underpinned by the systems philosophy and new models of led outdoor activity accident causation is discussed.

  20. Pupil Size in Outdoor Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-06

    336-347. 2000. Blackwell Science Ltd. Fox , Stuart Ira . Human Physiology. 1999. New York, WCB McGraw-Hill. Haines, Richard F. Dimensions of the...13 (Adrian 2003, 235-238) 14 (Adrian 2003, 235-238) 15 ( Fox 1999) 16 (Adrian 2003, 235-238) 17 (Adrian 2003, 235-238) 18 (Adrian 2003, 235-238

  1. PM 2.5, soot and NO 2 indoor-outdoor relationships at homes, pre-schools and schools in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, J.; Lind, T.; Nilsson, M. A.-M.; Bellander, T.

    2010-11-01

    In developed nations people spend about 90% of their time indoors. The relationship between indoor and outdoor air pollution levels is important for the understanding of the health effects of outdoor air pollution. Although other studies describe both the outdoor and indoor atmospheric environment, few excluded a priori major indoor sources, measured the air exchange rate, included more than one micro-environment and included the presence of human activity. PM 2.5, soot, NO 2 and the air exchange rate were measured during winter and summer indoors and outdoors at 18 homes (mostly apartments) of 18 children (6-11-years-old) and also at the six schools and 10 pre-schools that the children attended. The three types of indoor environments were free of environmental tobacco smoke and gas appliances, as the aim was to asses to what extent PM 2.5, soot and NO 2 infiltrate from outdoors to indoors. The median indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 levels were 8.4 μg m -3 and 9.3 μg m -3, respectively. The median indoor levels for soot and NO 2 were 0.66 m -1 × 10 -5 and 10.0 μg m -3, respectively. The respective outdoor levels were 0.96 m -1 × 10 -5 and 12.4 μg m -3. The median indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios were 0.93, 0.76 and 0.92 for PM 2.5, soot and NO 2, respectively. Their infiltration factors were influenced by the micro-environment, ventilation type and air exchange rate, with aggregated values of 0.25, 0.55 and 0.64, respectively. Indoor and outdoor NO 2 levels were strongly associated ( R2 = 0.71), followed by soot ( R2 = 0.50) and PM 2.5 ( R2 = 0.16). In Stockholm, the three major indoor environments occupied by children offer little protection against combustion-related particles and gases in the outdoor air. Outdoor PM 2.5 seems to infiltrate less, but indoor sources compensate.

  2. Prairie Winter Play Patterns: (b) Winter and Play. Research Project 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Charles H.; Borowiecka, Alexandra

    This guidebook provides an empirically-based set of planning and design guidelines for the construction of winter play facilities for Canadian youth residing in locations where outdoor play in winter is curtailed for approximately 4 months of the year. Information used in developing the guidelines was derived from field observations, a literature…

  3. Vitamin D-binding protein, vitamin D status and serum bioavailable 25(OH)D of young Asian Indian males working in outdoor and indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Ravinder; Saha, Soma; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Singh, Namrata; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan

    2017-03-01

    Urban Asian Indians generally have low serum 25(OH)D. Information on serum bioavailable 25(OH)D and the effect of prolonged sun-exposure in them is not known. We assessed serum 25(OH)D and bioavailable 25(OH)D in males with varying durations of sun-exposure in Delhi during August-September. Serum 25(OH)D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), bioavailable 25(OH)D, free 25(OH)D index, iPTH, ionized calcium and sun-index were assessed in outdoor, mixed outdoor-indoor and indoor workers (n = 88, 32 and 74, respectively). The mean sun-index (12.0 ± 6.25, 4.3 ± 2.20 and 0.7 ± 0.62, respectively; P < 0.001) was highest outdoors and lowest indoors. Serum 25(OH)D (29.0 ± 8.61, 19.1 ± 5.73 and 10.9 ± 4.19 ng/ml, respectively; P < 0.001), bioavailable 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D index were maximum in outdoor workers followed by mixed-exposure and indoor workers. Their mean serum DBP levels (241.2 ± 88.77, 239.3 ± 83.40 and 216.6 ± 63.93 µg/ml, respectively; P = 0.12) were comparable. Mean serum iPTH was significantly lower in outdoor than indoor workers and showed inverse correlations with serum 25(OH)D, bioavailable 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D index (r = -0.401, -0.269 and -0.236, respectively; P < 0.001 in all). Daily dietary-calorie intake was higher and calcium lower in outdoor than indoor workers. On regression analysis, sun-exposure was the only significant variable, increasing serum 25(OH)D by 2.03 ng/ml per hour of sun-exposure (95 % confidence interval 1.77-2.28; P < 0.001). Outdoor workers with prolonged sun-exposure were vitamin D-sufficient, with higher serum bioavailable 25(OH)D than the indoor workers during summer. Use of serum DBP levels did not affect the interpretation of their vitamin D status.

  4. Outdoor Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooyers, Cobina; And Others

    Designed for teachers to provide students with an awareness of the world of nature which surrounds them, the manual presents the philosophy of outdoor education, goals and objectives of the school program, planning for outdoor education, the Wildwood Programs, sequential program planning for students, program booking and resource list. Content…

  5. Outdoor Recreation Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubenville, Alan

    The complex problems facing the manager of an outdoor recreation area are outlined and discussed. Eighteen chapters cover the following primary concerns of the manager of such a facility: (1) an overview of the management process; (2) the basic outdoor recreation management model; (3) the problem-solving process; (4) involvement of the public in…

  6. Outdoor Education Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's County Board of Education, Upper Marlboro, MD.

    Developed primarily as a source of information for teachers planning outdoor education experiences, the material in this resource book can be used by any teacher in environmental studies. Subjects and activities most often taught as part of the outdoor education program are outlined both as resource (basic information) and teaching units. The…

  7. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to threaten the lives and health of ... sources such as fires and dust contribute to air pollution. Learn more Fighting for Healthy Air The American ...

  8. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  9. Photography in Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Cornelius; And Others

    The use of photography to add a new dimension to outdoor education activities is described in this paper. It is noted that photography can be an aid to outdoor education in a number of ways: students learn to communicate ideas visually, students learn to think through problems and find ways of solving them, students gain increased appreciation of…

  10. Hunting and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

  11. Effective Thinking Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Rod

    1997-01-01

    Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

  12. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  13. Outdoor Education: Resource Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    Compiled to serve as a reference to help teachers locate outdoor education materials available from Canadian government and private agencies, this catalogue lists services and publications which can be utilized by educators in planning and implementing outdoor education programs. Among the services listed is a sampling of organizations,…

  14. The Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Dorothy E.

    An Outdoor Classroom to prepare pre-service and in-service teachers to utilize vital natural resources as an outdoor laboratory was established in 1974 by Elizabeth City State University. Because of its proximity to the Great Dismal Swamp and the Atlantic, the university's geographical location made it especially suitable for such a course of…

  15. Indoor air quality in homes, offices and restaurants in Korean urban areas—indoor/outdoor relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Kim, Yoon-Shin; Perry, Roger

    Air quality monitoring was carried out to collect data on the levels of various indoor and ambient air constituents in two cities in Korea (Seoul and Taegu). Sampling was conducted simultaneously indoors and outdoors at six residences, six offices and six restaurants in each city during summer 1994 and winter 1994-1995. Measured pollutants were respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition, in order to evaluate the effect of smoking on indoor air quality, analyses of parameters associated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were undertaken, which are nicotine, ultraviolet (UVPM), fluorescence (FPM) and solanesol particulate matter (SolPM). The results of this study have confirmed the importance of ambient air in determining the quality of air indoors in two major Korean cities. The majority of VOCs measured in both indoor and outdoor environments were derived from outdoor sources, probably motor vehicles. Benzene and other VOC concentrations were much higher during the winter months than the summer months and were not significantly greater in the smoking sites examined. Heating and cooking practices, coupled with generally inadequate ventilation, also were shown to influence indoor air quality. In smoking sites, ETS appears to be a minor contributor to VOC levels as no statistically significant relationships were identified with ETS components and VOCs, whereas very strong correlations were found between indoor and outdoor levels of vehicle-related pollutants. The average contribution of ETS to total RSP concentrations was estimated to range from 10 to 20%.

  16. Expert Opinions on Postsecondary Outdoor Adventure Risk Management Curriculum Design: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Nevin

    2007-01-01

    A study of outdoor adventure risk management education was conducted in the fall of 2003 following the devastating avalanche season of winter 2002-2003, which took close to 50 lives in North America. The study was guided by the desire to better understand effective risk management training of outdoor adventure leaders in postsecondary…

  17. Indoor/outdoor relationships of quasi-ultrafine, accumulation and coarse mode particles in school environments in Barcelona: chemical composition and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Rivas, I.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Bouso, L.; Sioutas, C.

    2013-12-01

    The mass concentration, chemical composition and sources of quasi-ultrafine (quasi-UFP, PM0.25), accumulation (PM0.25-2.5) and coarse mode (PM2.5-10) particles were determined in indoor and outdoor air at 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain). Quasi-UFP mass concentrations measured (25.6 μg m-3 outdoors, 23.4 μg m-3 indoors) are significantly higher than those reported in other studies, and characterised by higher carbonaceous and mineral matter contents and a lower proportion of secondary inorganic ions. Results suggest that quasi-UFPs in Barcelona are affected by local sources in the schools, mainly human activity (e.g. organic material from textiles, etc.; contributing 23-46% to total quasi-UFP mass) and playgrounds (in the form of mineral matter, contributing about 9% to the quasi-UFP mass). The particle size distribution of toxicologically relevant metals and major aerosol components was characterised, displaying bimodal size distributions for most elements and components, and a unimodal distribution for inorganic salts (ammonium nitrate and sulphate) and elemental carbon (EC). Regarding metals, Ni and Cr were partitioned mainly in quasi-UFPs and could thus be of interest for epidemiological studies, given their high redox properties. Children exposure to quasi-UFP mass and chemical species was assessed by comparing the concentrations measured at urban background and traffic areas schools. Finally, three main indoor sources across all size fractions were identified by assessing indoor/outdoor ratios (I/O) of PM species used as their tracers: human activity (organic material), cleaning products, paints and plastics (Cl- source), and a metallic mixed source (comprising combinations of Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, As, V and Cr).

  18. Assessment of cold stress in outdoor work.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, H; Virokannas, H

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of cold stress in working life was done in 13, mainly outdoor, occupations and 143 workers using local temperatures, body cooling and thermal sensations. The subjects in the study were young, healthy men and they wore the type of winter clothing generally used in those ambient temperatures (+6...-29 degrees C), for in a work load of from 112 to 480 W. Local temperatures on finger skin indicated that manual dexterity was often reduced in outdoor work. A risk of frostbite was frequently found on the cheek and the wind chill index predicted the risk quite well. Body cooling was often temporarily too high when measured by heat debt and mean skin temperature. Thermal sensations were cool or cold occasionally in 28% of the workers interviewed. The insulation of clothing worn was often lower than the IREQmin-value recommends. The results showed that in outdoor work in winter time cold stress frequently reduced (70%) working ability at least for a short period. Mean skin temperature seems to be, in practice, a useful indicator for body cooling and the IREQmin-value was suitable, especially in light work, to indicate body cooling. A very sensitive factor for the expression of cold stress was finger temperature, at least as an indicator of finger dexterity. Due to the adverse health effects found the cold stress should also be evaluated more systematically in occupational health and safety with health examinations, with protective clothing and technical preventive means.

  19. Outdoor fitness routine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000891.htm Outdoor fitness routine To use the sharing features on this ... you and is right for your level of fitness. Here are some ideas: Warm up first. Get ...

  20. Take Your Class Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellenberger, Barbara R.

    1981-01-01

    Offers suggestions for designing outdoor activities to provide students with opportunities for exploring, observing, and discovering. Outlines several science activities for each of the following topics: trees, rocks, soil, insects, wild flowers, grasses, lichens, and clouds. (DS)

  1. Environmental temperature influence on behaviors of outdoor gestating sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of seasonal air temperatures on behavior of outdoor pregnant sows was evaluated and modeled using 91 sows during 24-h observations in winter, spring, and summer seasons. Minimum and maximum temperatures ranged between –10.7 to 39.2 degree C, respectively, during data collection. Each...

  2. Perspectives of Elementary School Teachers on Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palavan, Ozcan; Cicek, Volkan; Atabay, Merve

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor education stands out as one of the methods to deliver the desired educational outcomes taking the needs of the students, teachers and the curricular objectives into consideration. Outdoor education focuses on experimental, hands-on learning in real-life environments through senses, e.g., through visual, auditory, and tactile means,…

  3. Playing with Nature: Supporting Preschoolers' Creativity in Natural Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiewra, Christine; Veselack, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Conducted at two separate natural outdoor classrooms with preschool-aged children from three to five years old, this qualitative research study investigated how outdoor environments supported children's creativity and imagination. Although many studies have explored the development of creative arts in the young children, few have focused on…

  4. Incorporating Outdoor and Environmental Ethics in Your Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    Outdoor ethics are primarily concerned with appropriate behaviors of participants as they pursue outdoor recreation activities. Environmental ethics are primarily concerned with developing a more personal sense of stewardship by all members of society, individually and collectively, regarding the use of the environment. The four general categories…

  5. Developing an Outdoor Education Program for Public Schools. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, James S.

    Education in, for, and about the outdoors is an effective way to develop students' knowledge and appreciation of their environment, to stimulate their curiosity, and to motivate them to learn. Steps involved in establishing an outdoor education program for public schools include: (1) gaining support of school teachers and administrators, parents,…

  6. Environment and Women's Health Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... How can the environment affect older women? Outdoor air pollution What is outdoor air pollution and how can ... reduce outdoor air pollution and global warming? Indoor air pollution What is indoor air pollution and how can ...

  7. Winter Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Lois

    1981-01-01

    Try to learn all you can about a plant in the winter. As the season changes, you can see what the dried seed pod is like in bloom. You are a convert if you notice a spectacular show of summer wildflowers and wonder what sort of winter weed will result. (Author/CM)

  8. Winter Secrets: An Instant Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, Cam

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor lesson plan aims to stimulate student interest in animals' adaptations to winter and the various signs and clues to animal behavior. Includes questions for class discussion, tips for guiding the hike, and instructions for two games that illustrate the predator-prey relationship. Notes curriculum connections to the East York (Ontario) Board…

  9. Winterization strategies for bulk storage of pickles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are commercially fermented and stored in bulk in outdoor open top fiberglass tanks. During winter, snow and ice accumulates around and on top of tanks influencing heat transfer in an unpredictable manner, often compromising the fruit quality. This study evaluates the performance of inexpen...

  10. Sustainable winter cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressman, Norman E. P.

    Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "winter cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that winter-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of winter must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during winter, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "winter city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy winter periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.

  11. Camping Out: An Outdoor Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Mark

    Camping Out is an outdoor education program designed to meet the needs of hearing-impaired, mentally retarded children. The program aims to help children overcome language deficits and restrictions of their limited environments while learning recreation skills which can enhance their motor, cognitive, and affective skills. The program covers seven…

  12. Respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.E.; Levin, J.L. )

    1989-10-01

    Outdoor air pollution adversely affects human health and the quality of the environment. However, epidemiologic studies of these effects are difficult to control because of confounding variables such as age and cigarette smoking and the difficulty in estimating doses of pollutants. Drs Griffith and Levin discuss the relationship between major types of pollutants and increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory disease.35 references.

  13. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  14. The Outdoor Classroom Ages 3-7: Using Ideas from Forest Schools to Enrich Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constable, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The outdoor area is now an integral part of many early years settings and schools, but is it being used to its full potential? This book clearly explains the learning potential of the outdoor environment and practically demonstrates how the "Outdoor Classroom" can be developed in early years settings and schools. Drawing on the Forest…

  15. Becoming Animate in Education: Immanent Materiality and Outdoor Learning for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David A. G.; Mcphie, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor environmental education has long postulated a link between experiences outdoors in "natural" environments and environmental concern. This paper suggests a straightforward relationship is problematic due to its implicit assumption of a nature/culture divide. Critical outdoor education has sought to overcome this dualism by…

  16. Parents’ perceptions of preschool activities: exploring outdoor play

    PubMed Central

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings Outdoor play is important for children’s health and development, yet many preschool-aged children in childcare settings do not receive the recommended 60 minutes/day of outdoor play. Childcare providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate clothing for their children and parents’ preference for academics over active play. This study explored parent perceptions and knowledge of outdoor playtime in childcare environments. On average, parents reported wanting their child to spend significantly more time playing outside during a full day of childcare than the recommended minimum. However, over one-half of parents reported that they did not know how much time their child actually spent playing outside and 43% reported that they did not know their childcare center’s outdoor play policies. Practice or Policy Childcare providers may over-perceive parent-related barriers to outdoor play. Parents generally support outdoor play for their preschooler during center-based childcare but are not well informed about outdoor playtime and policies. Encouraging communication between parents and early childhood educators about these topics could lead to more universal support and strategies for promoting outdoor and active play opportunities for children which are important for their health and development.

  17. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  18. Outdoor PV Degradation Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Smith, R. M.; Osterwald, C. R.; Gelak, E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output; may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined; accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more than 40 modules from more than 10 different manufacturers; were compared for their long-term outdoor stability. Because it can accommodate a large variety of modules in a; limited footprint the PERT system is ideally suited to compare modules side-by-side under the same conditions.

  19. Outdoor Warning Systems Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Fig. 3, it is recommended I i | that the device carry a large sign advising bystanders to leave the immediate area when the warning device begins to...Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. l-- AA 016 LEVEL I Report No. 4100 I I I Outdoor Warning Systems Guide (Approved and Cleared Final Report) I I Contract...2234E *5~**5 E~34*CAQ~E4. T IT L E (and " #,,h s, S. T Y P E O F’ R E PO ,,T & P E RIO D C O V E R E D OUTDOOR WARNING SYSTEMS GUIDE p FINAL

  20. Outdoor Recreation, Outdoor Education and the Economy of Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Interviews and a literature review found that outdoor recreation contributes significantly to Scotland's tourist income, particularly in rural areas; outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas; the provision of outdoor education by secondary schools has decreased in the last 20 years; and therapeutic outdoor…

  1. Measurements of benzene and formaldehyde in a medium sized urban environment. Indoor/outdoor health risk implications on special population groups.

    PubMed

    Pilidis, Georgios A; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Kazos, Elias A; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, the results of a measurement campaign aiming to assess cancer risk among two special groups of population: policemen and laboratory technicians exposed to the toxic substances, benzene and formaldehyde are presented. The exposure is compared to general population risk. The results show that policemen working outdoor (traffic regulation, patrol on foot or in vehicles, etc.) are exposed at a significantly higher benzene concentration (3-5 times) than the general population, while the exposure to carbonyls is in general lower. The laboratory technicians appear to be highly exposed to formaldehyde while no significant variation of benzene exposure in comparison to the general population is recorded. The assessment revealed that laboratory technicians and policemen run a 20% and 1% higher cancer risk respectively compared to the general population. Indoor working place air quality is more significant in assessing cancer risk in these two categories of professionals, due to the higher Inhalation Unit Risk (IUR) of formaldehyde compared to benzene. Since the origin of the danger to laboratory technicians is clear (use of chemicals necessary for the experiments), in policemen the presence of carbonyls in indoor air concentrations due to smoking or used materials constitute a danger equal to the exposure to traffic originated air pollutants.

  2. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  3. Persistence Testing of Brucella suis on Outdoor Materials ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report This report presents the results of an investigation to evaluate Brucella suis persistence on five materials (typically found in the outdoor environment) under various environmental conditions and exposure durations.

  4. Activation of photoprotective winter photoinhibition in plants from different environments: a literature compilation and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Míguez, Fátima; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    Overwintering plants face a pronounced imbalance between light capture and use of that excitation for photosynthesis. In response, plants upregulate thermal dissipation, with concomitant reductions in photochemical efficiency, in a process characterized by a slow recovery upon warming. These sustained depressions of photochemical efficiency are termed winter photoinhibition (WPI) here. WPI has been extensively studied in conifers and in few overwintering crops, but other plant species have received less attention. Furthermore, the literature shows some controversies about the association of WPI with xanthophylls and the environmental conditions that control xanthophylls conversion. To overview current knowledge and identify knowledge gaps on WPI mechanisms, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of literature published over the period 1991-2011. All publications containing measurements of Fv/Fm for a cold period and a corresponding warm control were included in our final database of 190 studies on 162 species. WPI was estimated as the relative decrease in Fv/Fm. High WPI was always accompanied by a high (A + Z)/(V + A + Z). Activation of lasting WPI was directly related to air temperature, with a threshold of around 0°C. Tropical plants presented earlier (at a temperature of >0°C) and higher WPI than non-tropical plants. We conclude that (1) activation of a xanthophyll-dependent mechanism of WPI is a requisite for maintaining photosynthetic structures at sub-zero temperatures, while (2) absence (or low levels) of WPI is not necessarily related to low (A + Z)/(V + A + Z); and (3) the air temperature that triggers lasting WPI, and the maximum level of WPI, do not depend on plant growth habit or bioclimatic origin of species.

  5. Vehicles for Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Wheelchair Motorcycle Association tests various motorized vehicles that might help the physically disabled child get about outdoors. Vehicles found to be practical for older children and adolescents include three-wheeled motorcycles and customized go-carts. An address for obtaining more information on the association is provided. (SW)

  6. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  7. Outdoors at Grassroots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linck, David B.

    1981-01-01

    The Grassroots Project provides a one-year, college level program in the conservation occupations of agriculture, forestry, and wildlife management. Each year, 75 young men and women who wish to pursue outdoor careers are selected to study conservation in a small rural community in Vermont. (JN)

  8. Recreative Arts Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray

    Emphasizing an interdisciplinary, experiential learning approach, this curriculum guide is designed for a one year recreative arts-outdoor education course for high school students in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. The course objective is to develop the skills and knowledge necessary for fostering responsible behavior in an…

  9. Outdoor Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet Home Central School District 7, Buffalo, NY.

    Guidelines for an entire school system to implement an outdoor education program in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades are presented in this 1968 document. General and specific objectives are given, followed by concepts and suggested learning experiences for use in the areas of science (including living things, weather, and conservation), math, language…

  10. Outdoor Adventure Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Howard L.

    1978-01-01

    Outdoor adventure training resulted in increased sensitivity, self-confidence, carry-over into intellectual activities, and pro-social change in a variety of university, juvenile, and penal institutional settings. Modifications for urban adventure training opportunities have also been developed but not yet evaluated. (MJB)

  11. Take Math Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Scavenger hunts, collecting bottle caps, observing shadows, and other outdoor activities can be developed into a mathematics unit that motivates students to acquire basic mathematical skills. A variety of natural ways to collect data are offered to help foster learning. (DF)

  12. Outdoor Ecology School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Anna Gahl

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her high school environmental science students led third graders on a dynamic learning adventure as part of their first annual Outdoor Ecology School. At the water-monitoring site in a nearby national forest, the elementary students conducted field research and scavenger hunts, discovered animal habitats,…

  13. Technology and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Technology is influencing the evolution of adventure and outdoor education. Technology can negate adventure by dispelling the need of skill and mastery for attainment and by fostering a consumer mentality. Technology can enhance adventure by creating new experiences and suggesting that more is now possible. The challenge is to embody appropriate…

  14. [Science in the Outdoors].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarage, Joe; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, this resource guide presents science activities and concepts relative to rural and urban outdoor education. Included are 25 different articles, varying from broadly generalized to highly specific concept/activity suggestions which include film and book bibliographies and…

  15. Outdoor Education in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    Providing an overview of the Outdoor Education Workshop provided by the Georgia Migrant Education Program to give migrant students and staff an opportunity to learn new skills which they can then share with other migrant children upon their return to the regular school setting, the paper briefly discusses the administrative steps necessary when…

  16. Women Outdoor Leaders Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Wilma; Yerkes, Rita

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaire responses of 130 women outdoor leaders representing Outward Bound, all-women groups, university recreation instructors, and primary/secondary school teachers were compared as to background, income, motivations, and leadership perceptions. Essential leadership qualities were identified: effective communication skills and knowledge of…

  17. Journey to the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    A keen personal interest in natural history, involvement in environmental organisations, and experience, first as a secondary biology teacher and later as a field teacher, means that this author has spent many years working outdoors. Any part of the curriculum involving ecological concepts would lead her to open the door and go outside. She…

  18. The Values of Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes outdoor play as a solid foundation and a central vehicle of knowledge about the real world. Outdoor play is important to all age levels, but particularly in early childhood and the elementary years. Children's outdoor play is not a luxury. It is critical in children's ability to learn about the world, others, and themselves.…

  19. Vision + Community = Outdoor Learning Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Charles; Tatarchuk, Shawna; Anderson, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor learning areas are becoming more popular as a means for community-based, cross-curricular learning where children study issues of local relevance (Sobel 2004). Outdoor learning areas, any place outside of the school building where children can observe and interact with the natural world around them, include outdoor structures for seating…

  20. INDOOR/OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS MEASURED IN SELECT HOMES IN THE RALEIGH-DURHAM-CHAPEL HILL, NC AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle size distributions were measured indoors and outdoors of six residences in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC area to characterize the factors affecting particle concentrations in the indoor environment, including infiltration of outdoor aerosols. Size resolved partic...

  1. Passive Sampling for Indoor and Outdoor Exposures to Chlorpyrifos, Azinphos-Methyl, and Oxygen Analogs in a Rural Agricultural Community

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Jenna L.; Yost, Michael G.; Negrete, Maria; Fenske, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs of organophosphorus pesticides. These pesticides and oxygen analogs have previously been identified in the atmosphere following spray applications in the states of California and Washington. Objectives: We used two passive sampling methods to measure levels of the ollowing organophosphorus pesticides: chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, and their oxygen analogs at 14 farmworker and 9 non-farmworker households in an agricultural region of central Washington State in 2011. Methods: The passive methods included polyurethane foam passive air samplers deployed outdoors and indoors and polypropylene deposition plates deployed indoors. We collected cumulative monthly samples during the pesticide application seasons and during the winter season as a control. Results: Monthly outdoor air concentrations ranged from 9.2 to 199 ng/m3 for chlorpyrifos, 0.03 to 20 ng/m3 for chlorpyrifos-oxon, < LOD (limit of detection) to 7.3 ng/m3 for azinphos-methyl, and < LOD to 0.8 ng/m3 for azinphos-methyl-oxon. Samples from proximal households (≤ 250 m) had significantly higher outdoor air concentrations of chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and azinphos-methyl than did samples from nonproximal households (p ≤ 0.02). Overall, indoor air concentrations were lower than outdoors. For example, all outdoor air samples for chlorpyrifos and 97% of samples for azinphos-methyl were > LOD. Indoors, only 78% of air samples for chlorpyrifos and 35% of samples for azinphos-methyl were > LOD. Samples from farmworker households had higher indoor air concentrations of both pesticides than did samples from non-farmworker households. Mean indoor and outdoor air concentration ratios for chlorpyrifos and azinphos-methyl were 0.17 and 0.44, respectively. Conclusions: We identified higher levels in air and on surfaces at both proximal and farmworker households. Our findings further confirm the presence of pesticides and their

  2. Effect of genotype, environment, and their interaction on phytochemical compositions and antioxidant properties of soft winter wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Lv, Junli; Lu, Yingjian; Niu, Yuge; Whent, Monica; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Costa, Jose; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-05-01

    The effect of genotype (G), growing environment (E), and their interaction (G×E) on the antioxidant properties and chemical compositions were investigated using the flour samples of 10 wheat varieties grown in four different locations in Maryland. Lutein content of wheat flour ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 μg/g, and α-tocopherol ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 μg/g. Total carotenoids were primarily affected by E (45.7%), while G×E interaction had a larger effect on the level of total tocopherols (71.6%). E had the largest effect on antioxidant activity against oxygen, hydroxyl, and ABTS(·+) radicals. G had the least influence on the measured phytochemicals and antioxidant activity assays. Total carotenoids had a significant correlation with average low air temperature (r=0.359, p<0.01) as well as precipitation level (r=0.214, p<0.01). ABTS(·+) radical scavenging capacity had a positive correlation with average air temperature (r=0.705, p<0.01), while hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity had a negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.269. p<0.01). These results show that environment, genotype, and their interaction could influence the levels of lipophilic antioxidants and antioxidant activities of wheat flour.

  3. Environment sensing in spring-dispersed seeds of a winter annual Arabidopsis influences the regulation of dormancy to align germination potential with seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Footitt, Steven; Clay, Heather A; Dent, Katherine; Finch-Savage, William E

    2014-05-01

    Seed dormancy cycling plays a crucial role in the lifecycle timing of many plants. Little is known of how the seeds respond to the soil seed bank environment following dispersal in spring into the short-term seed bank before seedling emergence in autumn. Seeds of the winter annual Arabidopsis ecotype Cvi were buried in field soils in spring and recovered monthly until autumn and their molecular eco-physiological responses were recorded. DOG1 expression is initially low and then increases as dormancy increases. MFT expression is negatively correlated with germination potential. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) signalling responds rapidly following burial and adjusts to the seasonal change in soil temperature. Collectively these changes align germination potential with the optimum climate space for seedling emergence. Seeds naturally dispersed to the soil in spring enter a shallow dormancy cycle dominated by spatial sensing that adjusts germination potential to the maximum when soil environment is most favourable for germination and seedling emergence upon soil disturbance. This behaviour differs subtly from that of seeds overwintered in the soil seed bank to spread the period of potential germination in the seed population (existing seed bank and newly dispersed). As soil temperature declines in autumn, deep dormancy is re-imposed as seeds become part of the persistent seed bank.

  4. Winter Wonderlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  5. Winter observations of CO2 exchange between sea-ice and the atmosphere in a coastal fjord environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievers, J.; Sørensen, L. L.; Papakyriakou, T.; Sejr, M. K.; Søgaard, D. H.; Barber, D.; Rysgaard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Eddy covariance observations of CO2-fluxes were conducted during March-April 2012 in a temporally sequential order at three locations on fast sea-ice and on newly formed polynya ice in a coastal fjord environment in North East Greenland. CO2 fluxes at the three sites, ICEI, POLYI and DNB, were found to increase over time in accordance with the progression of springtime warming: FCO2ICE1 =1.4 ± 4.9 mmol m-2 d-1, FCO2POLY1 =-3.4 ± 31.4 mmol m-2 d-1 and FCO2DNB =36.7 ± 72.8 mmol m-2 d-1, where values given are the mean and SD, and negative/positive values indicate uptake/outgassing respectively. Observations were carried out at the three sites for 8, 4 and 30 days respectively. A correlation analysis indicates a strong connection between net radiative forcing, wind-speed and CO2-fluxes. Correlations between latent heat fluxes and CO2-fluxes were found for the first time and support the presence of adsorption/desorption processes of CO2 in moist snow.

  6. Interrelationships Between Aerosol Characteristics and Light Scattering During Late-winter in a Eastern Mediterranean Arid Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.; Schebeske, G.; Formenti, P.; Maenhaut, W.; Cafmeyer, J.; Ptasinski, J.; Karnieli, A.; Orlovsky, L.

    1999-01-01

    An intensive field campaign involving measurement of various aerosol physical, chemical, and radiative properties was conducted at Sde Boker in the Negev Desert of Israel, from 18 February to 15 March 1997. Nephelometer measurements gave average background scattering coefficient values of about 25 M/m at 550 nm wavelength, but strong dust events caused the value of this parameter to rise up to about 800 M/m Backscattering fractions did not depend on aerosol loading, and generally fell in the range of 0.1 to 0.25, comparable to values reported for marine and Arctic environments. Chemical analysis of the aerosol revealed that, in the coarse size range (2 - 10 micrometer equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD)), calcium (Ca) was by far the most abundant element followed by silicon (Si), both of which are indicators for mineral dust. In the fine size fraction (< 2 micrometers EAD), sulfur (S) generally was the dominant element, except during high dust episodes when Ca and Si were again the most abundant. Furthermore, fine black carbon (BC) correlates with S, suggesting that they may have originated from the same sources or source regions. An indication of the short-term effect of aerosol loading on radiative forcing was provided by measurements of global and diffuse solar radiation, which showed that during high turbidity periods (strong dust events) almost all of the solar radiation reaching the area is scattered or absorbed.

  7. Winter observations of CO2 exchange between sea ice and the atmosphere in a coastal fjord environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievers, J.; Sørensen, L. L.; Papakyriakou, T.; Else, B.; Sejr, M. K.; Haubjerg Søgaard, D.; Barber, D.; Rysgaard, S.

    2015-08-01

    Eddy covariance observations of CO2 fluxes were conducted during March-April 2012 in a temporally sequential order for 8, 4 and 30 days, respectively, at three locations on fast sea ice and on newly formed polynya ice in a coastal fjord environment in northeast Greenland. CO2 fluxes at the sites characterized by fast sea ice (ICEI and DNB) were found to increasingly reflect periods of strong outgassing in accordance with the progression of springtime warming and the occurrence of strong wind events: FCO2ICE1 = 1.73 ± 5 mmol m-2 day-1 and FCO2DNB = 8.64 ± 39.64 mmol m-2 day-1, while CO2 fluxes at the polynya site (POLYI) were found to generally reflect uptake FCO2POLY1 = -9.97 ± 19.8 mmol m-2 day-1. Values given are the mean and standard deviation, and negative/positive values indicate uptake/outgassing, respectively. A diurnal correlation analysis supports a significant connection between site energetics and CO2 fluxes linked to a number of possible thermally driven processes, which are thought to change the pCO2 gradient at the snow-ice interface. The relative influence of these processes on atmospheric exchanges likely depends on the thickness of the ice. Specifically, the study indicates a predominant influence of brine volume expansion/contraction, brine dissolution/concentration and calcium carbonate formation/dissolution at sites characterized by a thick sea-ice cover, such that surface warming leads to an uptake of CO2 and vice versa, while convective overturning within the sea-ice brines dominate at sites characterized by comparatively thin sea-ice cover, such that nighttime surface cooling leads to an uptake of CO2 to the extent permitted by simultaneous formation of superimposed ice in the lower snow column.

  8. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (p<.05). The choice of tool for assessment of attention is discussed in relation to outdoor stay and play characteristics in Swedish preschool settings. The results indicate that the restorative potential of green outdoor environments applies also to preschool children and that environmental assessment tools as OPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.

  9. Developing an audit checklist to assess outdoor falls risk

    PubMed Central

    Curl, Angela; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Aspinall, Peter; Ormerod, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Falls by older people (aged 65+) are linked to disability and a decrease in mobility, presenting a challenge to active ageing. As such, older fallers represent a vulnerable road user group. Despite this there is little research into the causes and prevention of outdoor falls. This paper develops an understanding of environmental factors causing falls or fear of falling using a walk-along interview approach with recent fallers to explore how older people navigate the outdoor environment and which aspects of it they perceived facilitate or hinder their ability to go outdoors and fear of falling. While there are a number of audit checklists focused on assessing the indoor environment for risk or fear of falls, nothing exists for the outdoor environment. Many existing street audit tools are focused on general environmental qualities and have not been designed with an older population in mind. We present a checklist that assesses aspects of the environment most likely to encourage or hinder those who are at risk of falling outdoors, developed through accounting for the experiences and navigational strategies of elderly individuals. The audit checklist can assist occupational therapists and urban planners, designers and managers in working to reduce the occurrence of outdoor falls among this vulnerable user group. PMID:27166968

  10. Developing an audit checklist to assess outdoor falls risk.

    PubMed

    Curl, Angela; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Aspinall, Peter; Ormerod, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    Falls by older people (aged 65+) are linked to disability and a decrease in mobility, presenting a challenge to active ageing. As such, older fallers represent a vulnerable road user group. Despite this there is little research into the causes and prevention of outdoor falls. This paper develops an understanding of environmental factors causing falls or fear of falling using a walk-along interview approach with recent fallers to explore how older people navigate the outdoor environment and which aspects of it they perceived facilitate or hinder their ability to go outdoors and fear of falling. While there are a number of audit checklists focused on assessing the indoor environment for risk or fear of falls, nothing exists for the outdoor environment. Many existing street audit tools are focused on general environmental qualities and have not been designed with an older population in mind. We present a checklist that assesses aspects of the environment most likely to encourage or hinder those who are at risk of falling outdoors, developed through accounting for the experiences and navigational strategies of elderly individuals. The audit checklist can assist occupational therapists and urban planners, designers and managers in working to reduce the occurrence of outdoor falls among this vulnerable user group.

  11. What to Do When Winter Has You in its Icy Grip

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions are caused by excessive exposure to low temperatures, wind or moisture. Cold weather can be dangerous ... outside in winter, be sure to: Check the temperature and limit your time outdoors if it's very ...

  12. Indoor and outdoor bioaerosol levels at recreation facilities, elementary schools, and homes.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Seo, Young-Jun

    2005-12-01

    One major deficiency in linking environmental exposure to health effects is the current lack of data on environmental exposure. Therefore, to address this issue, the present study measured the bacterial and fungal concentrations in the indoor and outdoor air from two types of recreation facility (42 bars and 41 Internet cafes), 44 classrooms at 11 elementary schools, and 20 homes under uncontrolled environmental conditions during both summer and winter. No major environmental problems were reported at the four microenvironments being investigated during the entire study period. Bacteria and fungi were found in all the air samples, and the environmental occurrence of individual fungi was in the order of Cladosprium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Alternaria. The six parameters surveyed in the present study were all found to influence the indoor and outdoor bioaerosol levels: microenvironment type, sampling time in elementary school classrooms, agar type for measuring the fungal species, seasonal variation, facility location, and summer survey periods. The indoor and outdoor air concentrations of bacteria and fungi found in this study were comparable to those in other reports, with GM values for the total bacteria and total fungi between 10 and 10(3) colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m(-3)). The fungal concentrations found at most of the indoor environments fell within the specified guidelines of the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), between 100 and 1000 CFU m(-3) for the total fungi. However, the indoor bioaerosol concentrations at most of the surveyed environments exceeded the Korean indoor bioaerosol guideline (800 CFU m(-3)). Consequently, the current findings suggest the need for reducing strategy for indoor microorganisms at the surveyed microenvironments.

  13. Suitability of different comfort indices for the prediction of thermal conditions in tree-covered outdoor spaces in arid cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, María Angélica; Correa, Erica Norma

    2015-10-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort is one of the most influential factors in the habitability of a space. Thermal level is defined not only by climate variables but also by the adaptation of people to the environment. This study presents a comparison between inductive and deductive thermal comfort models, contrasted with subjective reports, in order to identify which of the models can be used to most correctly predict thermal comfort in tree-covered outdoor spaces of the Mendoza Metropolitan Area, an intensely forested and open city located in an arid zone. Interviews and microclimatic measurements were carried out in winter 2010 and in summer 2011. Six widely used indices were selected according to different levels of complexity: the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI), Vinje's Comfort Index (PE), Thermal Sensation Index (TS), the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), the COMFA model's energy balance (S), and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results show that the predictive models evaluated show percentages of predictive ability lower than 25 %. Despite this low indicator, inductive methods are adequate for obtaining a diagnosis of the degree and frequency in which a space is comfortable or not whereas deductive methods are recommended to influence urban design strategies. In addition, it is necessary to develop local models to evaluate perceived thermal comfort more adequately. This type of tool is very useful in the design and evaluation of the thermal conditions in outdoor spaces, based not only to climatic criteria but also subjective sensations.

  14. Residential indoor and outdoor coarse particles and associated endotoxin exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Amanda J.; Dobbin, Nina A.; Lyrette, Ninon; Wallace, Lance; Foto, Mark; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Kearney, Jill; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Gilbert, Nicolas L.; Harrison, Ian; Rispler, Kathleen; Héroux, Marie-Eve

    2011-12-01

    There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that coarse particles (PM 10-2.5) have detrimental impacts upon health, especially for respiratory effects. There are limited data available for indoor residential exposures. Some data exist regarding the composition of this PM size fraction with emphasis on crustal elements and biological components. This study includes data from 146 homes sampled in Regina, Saskatchewan (SK) where 5-day integrated concurrent monitoring of indoor and outdoor coarse particles was conducted during the winter and summer of 2007. The coarse particle filters were subsequently analysed for endotoxin content to determine the contribution of this compound. Winter indoor geometric mean concentrations of coarse particles exceeded outdoor concentrations (3.73 μg m -3 vs 2.49 μg m -3; paired t-test p < 0.0001); however the reverse was found in summer (4.34 μg m -3 vs 8.82 μg m -3; paired t-test p < 0.0001). Linear regression indicated that winter predictors of indoor coarse particles were outdoor coarse particles, ventilation and presence of at least two or more occupants. During the summer, increased use of central air conditioning was associated with reduced coarse particles, while smoking and the presence of two or more occupants resulted in increased coarse particles. Endotoxin concentrations (EU μg -1) were lower indoors than outdoors in both seasons. Spatial variability of ambient coarse particles was assessed to determine the suitability of using a single monitoring station within a city to estimate exposure. The coefficients of variation between homes sampled simultaneously and the central monitoring station were calculated (median COV in summer = 15% and winter = 24%) and showed significant variability by week, especially during the summer months, suggesting a single site may be insufficient for characterizing exposure. Future studies should consider daily measurements per home to understand shorter term exposures and day to day

  15. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy.

  16. Assessing the contribution of combustion-derived contaminants to a remote subarctic environment from traffic on the Tibbitt to Contwoyto winter road (Northwest Territories, Canada).

    PubMed

    Korosi, Jennifer B; Eickmeyer, David C; Thienpont, Joshua R; Palmer, Michael J; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2016-05-15

    Remote mining operations in Canada's Northwest Territories and Nunavut are supported by a 600 km winter road, which spans the transition from subarctic boreal forest in Yellowknife to low Arctic tundra. Each year, thousands of truckloads of fuel, large equipment, and other heavy loads are hauled up the winter road. We investigated whether diesel emissions from commercial truck traffic is a major source of metals and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to aquatic ecosystems along the winter road. In March 2014, at the end of the hauling season, we collected integrated snow samples, water, and sediment from nine lakes located along the winter road, as well as from six lakes located within the city of Yellowknife. Examination of PAC composition and diagnostic ratios in snow samples showed that wildfires are an important source of PACs to lakes along the winter road, while anthropogenic sources are more prevalent in snow from Yellowknife lakes. Concentrations of PACs, including those associated with diesel emissions, were variable in snow, water, and sediment across all sites. The highest concentrations of PACs in snow were reported in winter road lakes located in the subarctic boreal forest, where forest fires are common. No compositional differences were observed for PACs in sediment and water samples between Yellowknife and winter road lakes. We did not observe any evidence of metal contamination in snow collected along the winter road, and metal concentrations in snow from winter road sites were consistently lower than Yellowknife sites. Our results show that a high contribution of PACs from natural sources can obscure potential contributions from diesel traffic emissions along the winter road.

  17. The Short Term Effectiveness of an Outdoor Environmental Education on Environmental Awareness and Sensitivity of In-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okur-Berberoglu, Emel; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Yalcin-Ozdilek, Sükran

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education is mostly mentioned in terms of environmental education. The aim of this research is to determine the short term effectiveness of an outdoor environmental education program on biodiversity awareness, environmental awareness and sensitivity to natural environment. The data is collected from an outdoor environmental education…

  18. Voices in the Park: Researching the Participation of Young Children in Outdoor Play in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article critically reflects on the participation of young children aged 3-4 years in an ongoing outdoor learning project started in 2004. The aims of the research are to investigate children's dispositions within the outdoor environment, to elicit children's perspectives of their outdoor experiences and to investigate the relationship between…

  19. Inglemoor High School Curriculum Guide for Outdoor Recreation & Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Jim

    Descriptions of 12-week courses in hunting and fishing and in outdoor activities for male and female students at Inglemoor High School in Bothell, Washington, are presented in this curriculum guide for outdoor education and recreation. Offering both classroom and field experience, each of the two courses meets 55 minutes daily; recommended class…

  20. Indoor and Outdoor Mobility following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Ava S.T.; Myrah, Ainslie M.; Bauck, Robyn A.; Brinkman, Danielle M.; Friess, Shawn N.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the relationship between indoor and outdoor mobility capacity in older adults with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and, secondarily, to determine walking intensity in the same population and to compare all outcomes to a control group of older adults without knee pathology. Method: In this cross-sectional study, participants (TKA=16, mean 22.9 (SD 9.7) mo post TKA; control=22) completed indoor walking tests and a 580 m outdoor course that included varying terrain (e.g., curbs, grass, sidewalk) and frequent changes in direction. Walking capacity was assessed using stopwatches, global positioning system watches and accelerometers. Results: Outdoor walking time was moderately correlated (p<0.05) with the timed up-and-go (TUG) test (r=0.65), stair-climb test (SCT) (r=0.67 ascending, r=0.79 descending), 10 m walk test (10 mWT) (r=0.73), and 6-minute walk test (6 MWT) (r=−0.75). Based on activity counts, walking intensity levels for participants in both groups were moderate (outdoor walk and 6 MWT). There was no significant difference in walking capacity between groups (TUG, SCT, 10 mWT, 6 MWT, outdoor walk). Conclusions: Common clinical walking tests are moderately correlated with outdoor mobility. Mobility capacity of individuals post TKA was similar to controls in both indoor and outdoor environments, and participants in both groups achieved moderate physical activity levels with walking. PMID:24403699

  1. Outdoor Education and Mobile Learning: An Autobiographical Narrative Using Application-Based Information and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaeff, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Although mobile learning using smartphones and applications or apps have the potential to inform and educate individuals in an outdoor environment, users may find that connectivity issues and basic knowledge of outdoor environments, including both physical and emotional, could be limited by what this technology provided. This study provided my…

  2. Independent Study: A Planning Booklet for an Educational Weekend. Emphasis: Winter Weekend. Taft Campus Occasional Paper No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Deborah Lee

    A Winter Weekend experiential learning seminar was organized in 1980 by 13 graduate assistants at the Northern Illinois University Taft Campus, for college outdoor education students to learn winter activities (sleigh rides, cross-country skiing, snow shoeing and snow shoe making, winter animal track and habitat identification, igloo building,…

  3. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities...

  4. Color measurements on marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environment in the Eastern United States. Volume I: Results of exposure 1984-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, K.J.

    1994-04-01

    In a long-term program that began in 1984, limestone and marble briquettes have been exposed to both anthropogenic acid deposition and natural weathering at four field sites in the eastern United States. Similar tests began at an Ohio site in 1986. Effects of exposure on the briquettes and other materials at the sites are evaluated periodically by several federal agencies cooperating in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). One of the primary contributions of Argonne National Laboratory to the NAPAP has been the measurement of tristimulus color change on samples exposed to the environment. Results from the first six years indicate a yellowing of the marble and a darkening of limestone on both the skyward and groundward surfaces of fresh and preexposed briquettes. The relationship between discoloration and exposure period appears to be linear. Discoloration rates as a function of a cumulative exposure time are almost constant for marble and slightly decreasing for limestone Dark spots on groundward surfaces were measured with tristimulus color equipment prior to chemical analysis to determine if a correlation exists between darkening (change in reflectance) and SO{sub 4} concentration. Taking exposure time into consideration, and assuming that the airborne concentration of dark particles, which cause darkening, is proportional to airborne SO{sub 2} concentration, one can establish a linear relationship between exposure time, darkening, and SO{sub 2} concentration. The program is continuing so that additional data can be obtained.

  5. A Manual of Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rex A.

    Within the realm of outdoor education, there are as many definitions of what it is or what it isn't as there are books. One definition is that outdoor education is teaching outside the classroom. It combines with and blends as part of the total curriculum. This handbook is designed as a manual to help train and support staff related to outdoor…

  6. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  7. Wilderness Survival and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Matt

    Outdoor education is often delivered through games and activities such as nature hikes or observing an ecosystem within a 1-foot circle on the ground. Often, participants look closely at the earth only for that brief moment. Wilderness survival is another way to teach about the outdoors. It offers skills that encourage participants to become more…

  8. Cultural Diversity in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Graham; Horvath, Erin

    2007-01-01

    At first glance Sioux Lookout is a typical northern Ontario town, situated within an intricate lake and river system, socially focused on year-round outdoor activities, and enveloped by kilometres and more kilometres of undomesticated Canadian Shield landscape. One might think this would be an ideal spot for outdoor education, just as these…

  9. Outdoor Education Areas and Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The facilities described for outdoor education and camping areas are designed to be an integral part of the large college or university campus, and to serve the educational and recreational programs of the educational institution and the total community. The establishment of an outdoor resident center is followed from the rationale for site…

  10. Selected Bibliography for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    Sixty-one books and articles published between 1940 and 1967 are listed. Although the major portion of the bibliography is devoted to outdoor education, also included are publications on recreational activities, conservation, national and state parks, camping, and outdoor crafts. (SW)

  11. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  12. Technology Works in the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zita, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Technology is all around us and no matter how hard educators promote the value of outdoor and experiential education (OEE) to adults and children alike, they are pulled away by a different reality--one might say, a virtual reality. Even when one is engaged in the outdoors either through a night hike or a stream study, technology is lingering…

  13. Outdoor Education: Definition and Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Phyllis

    Because outdoor education programs occur in every geographic location, are sponsored by all levels of educational institutions, state and local government agencies, and private entrepreneurs, and have no nationally standardized curriculum or measures of competency or knowledge, outdoor education may best be defines as "education in, about, and for…

  14. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance winter survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-wintered and indoor-wintered colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be wintered either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve wintering performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor wintering improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor wintering (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor wintering). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through winter and improve colony wintering performance. Overall, colony wintering success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were wintered indoors than when colonies were wintered outdoors.

  15. An approach to precise nitrogen management using hand-held crop sensor measurements and winter wheat yield mapping in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Quebrajo, Lucía; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lizana, Antonio; Agüera, Juan

    2015-03-06

    Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa) as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1) to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index-NDVI) at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer; and (2) evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter) installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha(-1) and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm(-1) (field 1) and 3221 ± 531 kg ha(-1) and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm(-1) (field 2) were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with r(xy) = 0.64 and p < 10(-4) in field 1 and r(xy) = 0.78 and p < 10(-4) in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis.

  16. Numerical simulation of the impact of reforestation on winter meteorology and environment in a semi-arid urban valley, Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ye; He, Jianjun; Zhao, Suping; Liu, Na; Chen, Jinbei; Mao, Hongjun; Wu, Lin

    2016-11-01

    Since 1999 Chinese government has made great effort to reforest the south and north mountains surrounding urban Lanzhou - a city located in a river valley, Northwestern China. Until 2009 obvious land use change occurred, with 69.2% of the reforested area been changed from grasslands, croplands, barren or sparsely vegetated land to closed shrublands and 20.6% from closed shrublands, grasslands, and croplands to forests. Reforestation changes land-surface properties, with possible impact on the evolution of atmospheric variables. To understand to what extent the local meteorology and environment could be affected by reforestation in winter, and through what processes, two sets of simulations were conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) dispersion model for a control case with high-resolution remotely sensed land cover data for 2009 and a scenario assuming no reforestation since 1999. Results suggested that the changes in albedo, surface exchange coefficient and surface soil heat conductivity related to reforestation led to the changes in surface net radiation and surface energy partitioning, which in turn affected the meteorological fields and enhanced the mountain-valley wind circulation. Replacement of shrublands and grassland with forest in the south mountain through reforestation play a dominant role in the enhancement of mountain-valley wind circulation. Reforestation increased the amount of air exchanged between the valley and the outside during the day, with the largest hourly increase of 10% on calm weather days and a monthly mean hourly increase of 2% for the study period (Dec. 2009). Reforestation affected the spatial distribution of pollutants and slightly improved the urban air quality, especially in the eastern valley. Results from this study provide useful information for future urban air quality management and reforestation plan, and some experience for cities with similar situations in the

  17. An Approach to Precise Nitrogen Management Using Hand-Held Crop Sensor Measurements and Winter Wheat Yield Mapping in a Mediterranean Environment

    PubMed Central

    Quebrajo, Lucía; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lizana, Antonio; Agüera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa) as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1) to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index—NDVI) at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer; and (2) evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter) installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha−1 and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm−1 (field 1) and 3221 ± 531 kg ha−1 and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm−1 (field 2) were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with rxy = 0.64 and p < 10−4 in field 1 and rxy = 0.78 and p < 10−4 in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis. PMID:25756861

  18. [Outdoor and indoor allergens and the respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Kanceljak-Macán, B; Macan, J; Plavec, D

    2000-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of common outdoor and indoor allergens which cause sensitisation of the respiratory tract and considers relevant biological and ecological hallmarks and symptoms of allergies. Grass, tree, and weed pollens as well as moulds (Cladosporium and Alternaria species) are a major source of allergens in the outdoor environment whereas mites (Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, and Glycyphagidae), animals (pets, rodents, and insects), and moulds (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor species) are a major source in the indoor environment. The paper pays attention to the seasonal, geographical, and climatic influence on the concentration of allergen in the environment. The authors discuss differences between exposure to outdoor and indoor allergens, as well as the impact of pollutants on sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The paper proceeds with a short description of the primary prevention measures such as avoidance of the allergens and the secondary measures which are intended to prevent the occurrence or deterioration of respiratory symptoms in sensitised persons.

  19. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiping; Chang, Qiang; Li, Qun; Shi, Zesen; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS) have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL) has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users’ current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication cellular base station’s signal strength in different environments, and identified the users’ current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability. PMID:27669252

  20. Biofloc production technology promising in temperate zones – Channel catfish perform during winter months

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility to grow Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in an outdoor biofloc system during winter in a temperate zone. High biomasses of market-size channel catfish were successfully maintained through the winter with high survival and in good condition in both...

  1. Characterizing and predicting ultrafine particle counts in Canadian classrooms during the winter months: Model development and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Weichenthal, Scott Dufresne, Andre; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Joseph, Lawrence

    2008-03-15

    School classrooms are potentially important micro-environments for childhood exposures owing to the large amount of time children spend in these locations. While a number of airborne contaminants may be present in schools, to date few studies have examined ultrafine particle (0.02-1 {mu}m) (UFP) levels in classrooms. In this study, our objective was to characterize UFP counts (cm{sup -3}) in classrooms during the winter months and to develop a model to predict such exposures based on ambient weather conditions and outdoor UFPs, as well as classroom characteristics such as size, temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide levels. In total, UFP count data were collected on 60 occasions in 37 occupied classrooms at one elementary school and one secondary school in Pembroke, Ontario. On average, outdoor UFP levels exceeded indoor measures by 8989 cm{sup -3} (95% confidence interval (CI): 6382, 11 596), and classroom UFP counts were similar at both schools with a combined average of 5017 cm{sup -3} (95% CI: 4300, 5734). Of the variables examined only wind speed and outdoor UFPs were important determinants of classrooms UFP levels. Specifically, each 10 km/h increase in wind speed corresponded to an 1873 cm{sup -3} (95% CI: 825, 2920) decrease in classroom UFP counts, and each 10 000 cm{sup -3} increase in outdoor UFPs corresponded to a 1550 cm{sup -3} (95% CI: 930, 2171) increase in classroom UFP levels. However, high correlations between these two predictors meant that the independent effects of wind speed and outdoor UFPs could not be separated in multivariable models, and only outdoor UFP counts were included in the final predictive model. To evaluate model performance, classroom UFP counts were collected for 8 days at two new schools and compared to predicted values based on outdoor UFP measures. A moderate correlation was observed between measured and predicted classroom UFP counts (r=0.63) for both schools combined, but this relationship was not valid on

  2. Characterizing and predicting ultrafine particle counts in Canadian classrooms during the winter months: model development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Scott; Dufresne, André; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Joseph, Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    School classrooms are potentially important micro-environments for childhood exposures owing to the large amount of time children spend in these locations. While a number of airborne contaminants may be present in schools, to date few studies have examined ultrafine particle (0.02-1 microm) (UFP) levels in classrooms. In this study, our objective was to characterize UFP counts (cm(-3)) in classrooms during the winter months and to develop a model to predict such exposures based on ambient weather conditions and outdoor UFPs, as well as classroom characteristics such as size, temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide levels. In total, UFP count data were collected on 60 occasions in 37 occupied classrooms at one elementary school and one secondary school in Pembroke, Ontario. On average, outdoor UFP levels exceeded indoor measures by 8989 cm(-3) (95% confidence interval (CI): 6382, 11596), and classroom UFP counts were similar at both schools with a combined average of 5017 cm(-3) (95% CI: 4300, 5734). Of the variables examined only wind speed and outdoor UFPs were important determinants of classrooms UFP levels. Specifically, each 10 km/h increase in wind speed corresponded to an 1873 cm(-3) (95% CI: 825, 2920) decrease in classroom UFP counts, and each 10000 cm(-3) increase in outdoor UFPs corresponded to a 1550 cm(-3) (95% CI: 930, 2171) increase in classroom UFP levels. However, high correlations between these two predictors meant that the independent effects of wind speed and outdoor UFPs could not be separated in multivariable models, and only outdoor UFP counts were included in the final predictive model. To evaluate model performance, classroom UFP counts were collected for 8 days at two new schools and compared to predicted values based on outdoor UFP measures. A moderate correlation was observed between measured and predicted classroom UFP counts (r=0.63) for both schools combined, but this relationship was not valid on days in which a strong

  3. The "Nutritional Value" of the Outdoor Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, James E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the incorporation of nature into Asia's urban areas and discusses the philosophy of Jens Jensen, a landscape architect who advocated use of native plants and small, scattered parks. Explores implications for campus facilities managers. (EV)

  4. Perceived impact on student engagement when learning middle school science in an outdoor setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbatiello, James

    Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes outdoors for regular classroom instruction. This study identified the potential impacts that learning in an outdoor setting might have on student engagement when learning middle school science. One sixth-grade middle school class participated in this case study, and students participated in outdoor intervention lessons where the instructional environment was a courtyard on the middle school campus. The outdoor lessons consisted of the same objectives and content as lessons delivered in an indoor setting during a middle school astronomy unit. Multiple sources of data were collected including questionnaires after each lesson, a focus group, student work samples, and researcher observations. The data was triangulated, and a vignette was written about the class' experiences learning in an outdoor setting. This study found that the feeling of autonomy and freedom gained by learning in an outdoor setting, and the novelty of the outdoor environment did increase student engagement for learning middle school science. In addition, as a result of this study, more work is needed to identify how peer to peer relationships are impacted by learning outdoors, how teachers could best utilize the outdoor setting for regular science instruction, and how learning in an outdoor setting might impact a feeling of stewardship for the environment in young adults.

  5. Recommended Competencies for Outdoor Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Michelle; Simmons, Deborah

    This digest provides a framework for professional development of outdoor educators. Outdoor and environmental educators share similar principles of outdoor learning. Thus, the performance standards recently drafted by the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE) can serve as a useful guide for outdoor education generally.…

  6. Definition: Conservation Education, Environmental Education, Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…

  7. The Cost of Becoming an Outdoor Instructor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashel, Chris

    This article describes instructor criteria in three outdoor organizations: Outward Bound (OB), the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), and the Wilderness Education Association (WEA). Common requirements for outdoor leadership programs are outdoor experience and skills, advanced first aid, CPR, and a minimum age requirement. Traditionally…

  8. Factsheet about Anacostia's Great Outdoors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In partnership with the federal government, the District ofColumbia and State of Maryland are working to restore theAnacostia River and provide safe and convenient means forpeople to access the Anacostia River and enjoy the outdoors.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR-OUTDOOR AEROSOL CONCENTRATION RELATIONSHIPS DURING THE FRESNO PM EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle size distributions were measured indoors and outdoors of a single, detached residence during the Fresno particulate matter exposure studies in winter (February 1-28, 1999) and spring (April 18-May 16, 1999). Data was collected for particle sizes ranging from about 0....

  10. The Top Rental Items for University Outdoor Programs and Effective Buying Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, David J.

    This paper discusses the most frequently used rental items for university outdoor programs and describes strategies for saving money in purchasing equipment. A 1983 survey of 11 university programs indicated that the most frequently available rental items for summer and winter were sleeping bags, tents, backpacks, cross-country skis, and…

  11. Using the Outdoors to Teach Social Studies: Grades 3-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford C.; And Others

    Third in a series on utilizing outdoor education methodologies to enhance the academic curriculum, the guide contains lesson plans and case studies for teaching grades 3-10 social studies. The lessons are designed to further student awareness of personal and social responsibility toward the environment through the use of outdoor experiences which…

  12. Exploring Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs and Practices about Preschool Outdoor Play: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintic, Sandra; Petty, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored how early childhood teachers' beliefs and practices influence the function of preschool outdoor play. Teachers believed that supervision was paramount. They perceived that the physical design of the outdoor environment posed limitations for planning, preparation, and implementation. Teachers' recollections of…

  13. Whose Place, Whose History? Outdoor Environmental Education Pedagogy as "Reading" the Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor education practice around the world occurs in diverse circumstances, environments and cultures. The application of outdoor education to specific cultural and environmental issues in particular places and communities has received little attention in research. While research in fields such as cultural geography has addressed the…

  14. Cultivating Lived-Body Consciousness: Enhancing Cognition and Emotion through Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Malcolm; Marshall, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Through using school-based outdoor learning as the research context, the paper analyses the connections between bodily experiences and the embodied mind. Recent theorizing in outdoor learning, in reflecting phenomenology and Deweyian influences, has teased out how the relationships between the self, others and nature (environment) can be extended…

  15. Supporting Outdoor Play for Young Children: The Zone Model of Playground Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Petra; Wakeford, Linn

    2007-01-01

    Staff at the Frank Porter Graham (FPG) Child Care Program developed the zone model of playground supervision (ZoMPS) to ensure a safe environment for outdoor play and enhance playground time for all children. In addition to the social and free-play elements of outdoor play, they wanted to provide activities that support learning and development.…

  16. A Teacher's Manual for Outdoor Classrooms -- How to Plan, Develop, and Use Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, E. Wayne, Comp.; Waters, Robert E., Comp.

    Using experience gained while helping elementary, junior high, and high school teachers plan, develop, and use thousands of outdoor classrooms, the Alabama Soil Conservation Service (SCS) produced this teacher's manual for outdoor classrooms. Emphasis is on conservation education and the environment and man's relationship to it. Rationale for…

  17. Conviction of the Heart: Implementing Leave-No-Trace Principles in Outdoor Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Laurie; Chase, Matthew R.; Day, Ralph W.; Lawhon, Ben

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the increased interest in nontraditional activities, such as mountain biking and backpacking, many public schools are incorporating outdoor education into their curriculum. However, little attention has been given to educating students about the impacts that outdoor activities can have on the environment. It is important that…

  18. Conceptualizing Skill within a Participatory Ecological Approach to Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    To answer calls for an ecological approach to outdoor adventure that can respond to the crisis of sustainability, this paper suggests greater theoretical and empirical attention to skill and skill development as shaping participant interactions with and experiences of environments, landscapes, places, and inhabitants. The paper reviews calls for…

  19. Outdoor Recreation Participation and Environmental Concern: A Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Gretchen Newhouse; Simpson, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Many experiential educators assume that participation in outdoor recreation creates an awareness and commitment to the environment through direct experience. This research summary looks to whether the research supports such an assumption. Specifically it reviews the key literature on this topic, examines the various classifications of outdoor…

  20. Supporting the Outdoor Classroom: An Archaeo-Astronomy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel; Francis, Robert; Alder, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Field trips and the outdoor classroom are a vital part of many areas of education. Ideally, the content should be taught within a realistic environment rather than just by providing a single field trip at the end of a course. The archaeo-astronomy project located at Nottingham Trent University envisages the development of a virtual environment…

  1. A Teacher's Guide To: Indians and the Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, C. M.

    As a basic teacher's guide to the study of plants in their environment, this document serves primarily as a starting point for outdoor education with an American Indian emphasis in the State of South Dakota. The State is divided into three broad environmental categories or "biotic communities" (Prairie and Plains, Woodlands, and Wet…

  2. A Socio-Environmental Case for Skill in Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the crisis of sustainability, this paper revisits understandings of human--environment relations established through skill-based outdoor activities that are used commonly among adventure recreation, education, and tourism. Reconsidering a predominant focus on risk and a persistent tension between technical and environmental…

  3. Comparing Outward Bound and National Outdoor Leadership School Participant Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Marni; Russell, Keith C.; Soule, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This study explores differences between Outward Bound (OB) and National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) participant perspectives on programmatic factors and their relation to outcomes. Although OB and NOLS are assumed to be similar in many ways, as each program offers wilderness expeditions for students in backcountry environments, the mission…

  4. Incorporating Outdoor Education into the Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Nhu

    2015-01-01

    Low motivation to participate in traditional or team sports, apathy toward competitive environments, and a low rate of transfer of skills to lifetime activities and wellness can be barriers for student pursuits of lifelong fitness. Adding an outdoor component can be a solution for some of these problems, while still accomplishing the National…

  5. Outdoor Day-Care Centres--A Culturalization of Nature: How Do Children Relate to Nature as Educational Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melhuus, E. Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    This article will discuss how children and adults experience a certain outdoor environment as part of an educational practice, through the activities the adults and children have. It will further discuss how these activities realize cultural values through the educators' and children's activities. In Norway the use of outdoor environments has…

  6. Diversity of winter photoinhibitory responses: A case study in co-occurring lichens, mosses, herbs and woody plants from subalpine environments.

    PubMed

    Míguez, Fátima; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José-María; García-Plazaola, José-Ignacio

    2017-02-14

    Winter evergreens living in mountainous areas have to withstand a harsh combination of high light levels and low temperatures in wintertime. In response, evergreens can activate a photoprotective process that consists of the down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiency, referred to as winter photoinhibition (WPI). WPI has been studied mainly in woody evergreens and crops even when, in many instances, other functional groups such as lichens or bryophytes dominate in alpine and boreal habitats. Thus, we aimed to (1) assess the occurrence of WPI within overwintering evergreens comprising woody species, herbs, mosses and lichens; (2) compare the recovery kinetics among those groups; and (3) clarify the role of thylakoid proteins and pigments in both processes: WPI and recovery. With this aim, WPI was analyzed in 50 species in the field and recovery kinetics were studied in one model species from each functional group. Results showed that high levels of WPI are much more frequent among woody plants than in any other group, but are also present in some herbs, lichens and mosses. Winter conditions almost always led to the de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle. Nevertheless, changes in the de-epoxidation level were not associated with the activation/deactivation of WPI in the field and did not match changes in photochemical efficiency during recovery treatments. Seasonal changes in thylakoid proteins (mainly D1 and PsbS) were dependent on the functional group. The results highlight the diversity of physiological solutions and suggest a physical-mechanical reason for the more conservative strategy of woody species compared to other groups.

  7. Hierarchical loop detection for mobile outdoor robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Dagmar; Winkens, Christian; Häselich, Marcel; Paulus, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Loop closing is a fundamental part of 3D simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) that can greatly enhance the quality of long-term mapping. It is essential for the creation of globally consistent maps. Conceptually, loop closing is divided into detection and optimization. Recent approaches depend on a single sensor to recognize previously visited places in the loop detection stage. In this study, we combine data of multiple sensors such as GPS, vision, and laser range data to enhance detection results in repetitively changing environments that are not sufficiently explained by a single sensor. We present a fast and robust hierarchical loop detection algorithm for outdoor robots to achieve a reliable environment representation even if one or more sensors fail.

  8. Production of Spirulina biomass: maintenance of Monoalgal culture outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Vonshak, A.; Abeliovich, A.; Boussiba, S.; Richmond, A.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration, population density, and temperature on the maintenance of an outdoor monoculture of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were studied. A clear response by Spirulina to the concentration of bicarbonate was evident, with 0.2M bicarbonate representing the lowest concentration in which a monoculture could be maintained. When the temperatures fell during the winter period to some 20-25/sup 0/C below the optimum for Spirulina. Chlorella sp. gradually increased and became the dominant species in the culture. Raising the temperature by covering the pond with transparent polyethylene resulted in a sharp decline in the population of Chlorella, and a gradual resumption of species dominance by Spirulina. In winter, there was an inverse relationship in the pond between the population density of Spirulina and the extent of contamination by Chlorella sp., but no such effect was observed under field conditions at temperatures higher than 25/sup 0/C.

  9. Tobacco control policies in outdoor areas of high volume American transit systems.

    PubMed

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Kennedy, Ryan David; Berman, Micah

    2014-08-01

    Very little is known about how smoking and other tobacco use is regulated in outdoor and semi-enclosed spaces across transit systems. The purpose of this study was to understand how American transit systems are regulating cigarettes and other tobacco products, including smokeless tobacco and e-cigarettes, in outdoor or quasi-outdoor spaces. Within four regions of the United States, a purposive convenience sample was taken of the top five volume American transit systems (n = 20) based on annual ridership. Each transit authority website was systematically reviewed to produce a cross-sectional study of the published policies regarding tobacco product use for indoor, outdoor, and quasi-outdoor spaces of transit property; rules regarding cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes were identified. Policies regulating tobacco use were enacted by transit systems and/or the cities and states in which transit systems are located. The majority (80%) of transit systems banned smoking in outdoor areas; few prohibited smokeless tobacco use (15%, n = 3) and some disallowed e-cigarettes (30%, n = 6). Violation consequences ranged widely from none to verbal warnings, ejection from transit property, fines, and imprisonment. Regulating smoking in outdoor or quasi-outdoor environments is common in American transit environments. These policies can help protect vulnerable populations from exposure to secondhand smoke and communicate a tobacco-free norm.

  10. Outdoors America: recreational opportunites on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    What comes to your mind when you think of outdoor recreation? Boating? Camping? Hiking or backpacking? Horse-back riding? Hunting or fishing? Chances are, if you can name an outdoor activity, you can do it on public lands.

  11. Outdoor Education and Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alistair

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the importance of increasing effective communication in outdoor education programs. Examines sensory preferences and how they affect vocabulary, voice tone, and body language. Describes ways that outdoor educators can use this information to improve their communication skills. (LP)

  12. OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although working outdoors has frequently been considered more healthful than working indoors, a growing literature suggests that outdoor air exposures increase the risk for a variety of diseases, such as asthma, heart disease, and lung cancer). Consistent with these epidemiologic...

  13. LED Outdoor Area Lighting Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-01

    This fact sheet reviews the major design and specification concerns for outdoor area lighting, and discusses the potential for LED luminaires to save energy while providing high quality lighting for outdoor areas.

  14. Social Justice in Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Russek, Angel

    Equitable outdoor leadership responsive to social justice issues has historically been absent in the field of adventure education. The call for social justice in the field has been hampered by lack of information, negligible programmatic support, personal conditioning and bias, resistance to reform from those in power, and firmly established…

  15. Outdoor Learning and Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret; Dawson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A shared conference presentation describes two ways of bringing education for sustainable development into education. The first part concentrated on putting science into outdoor learning backed up by a series of mind-mapping activities. The second was about linking schools with their surrounding communities to develop ways of working together. An…

  16. Outdoor Recreation Activities at Cispus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cispus Environmental Center, Randle, WA.

    Most of the activities in this booklet have been developed around skills related to the outdoors and, in particular, to the logging industry and forest fire fighting. The activities attempt to develop muscles, coordination skills, and teamwork. They also give the students (junior high school or high school) and staff the opportunity to do…

  17. Leptospirosis Risk in Outdoor Activities

    MedlinePlus

    ... deposited or drains into a body of fresh water (lake, river, stream, etc.) or soil, the bacteria can survive there for weeks to months. Leptospirosis exists worldwide, but it is more likely to be found in tropical climates. The ... close contact with fresh water or wet soil when they participate in outdoor ...

  18. An Outdoor Workshop: Raku Firing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siver, David

    1978-01-01

    The process of building and firing a raku kiln is a memorable happening. The cost is low and students learn to appreciate the work involved in firing a kiln while the pots are a pleasant reminder of an outdoor workshop. (Author/RK)

  19. Families Discover the Outdoors Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Polly

    1980-01-01

    An idea for hands-on activities for families to use in discovering the outdoors together when visiting parks is described. Family packs contain discovery and natural history cards, thermometers, magnifiers, insect boxes, photographs of animals and plants, a pencil, and a feedback form. (SA)

  20. Pathways to the Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. Bureau of Information and Education.

    This bibliography is designed to assist educators in establishing an outdoor classroom for environmental education. A process is detailed by which school districts can effectively and efficiently develop a site on or near the school. The first step involves organizing a planning committee, enlisting administrative support, and developing a budget.…

  1. Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Carolyn L.

    This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

  2. TEACHER'S GUIDE TO OUTDOOR EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RYAN, ARTHUR J.

    INCLUDED ARE (1) A DESCRIPTIVE BROCHURE, AND (2) A TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR THE UNION COUNTY OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER. THE PROGRAM CONSISTS OF A DAY CENTER, WHICH PROVIDES ONE- AND TWO-DAY SESSIONS OF AT LEAST FOUR HOURS DURATION FOR GRADE 5 STUDENTS FROM PUBLIC AND NON-PROFIT SCHOOLS IN UNION COUNTY. THE DESCRIPTIVE BROCHURE RELATES (1) THE LOCATION…

  3. Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsey, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor…

  4. Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

  5. Trust Development in Outdoor Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Establishing trusting relationships between leaders and participants is one way that outdoor leaders can create an emotionally safe and productive milieu that supports the attainment of desirable outcomes. Multidisciplinary literature offers considerable insight into leader trust development and the outcomes that are linked to trust in a leader.…

  6. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  7. [Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Carin; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

  8. Women Outdoors: Who Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerkes, Rita; Miranda, Wilma

    1985-01-01

    Questionnaires were distributed to participants in all-women outdoor programs to discover why these women chose an all-women program, how the experience influenced their lives, and if they planned to continue with this type of program. Findings are discussed. (DF)

  9. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  10. Instructional Program Planning for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others

    A guide on instructional program planning for outdoor education, prepared for Oakland County (Michigan) teachers, contains suggestions for program planning and lists information sources on suitable outdoor activities. The purpose of outdoor education is defined as being: "to enrich, vitalize and complement content areas of the school…

  11. Resident Program Guide: Hillside Outdoor Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Bonnie

    Founded in 1972 as part of the private, non-profit Edwin Gould Outdoor Education Centers, the Hillside Outdoor Education Center offers services to various educational groups by providing residential experiences for students and faculty, day-visit programs, school-site outdoor education programs, teacher workshops, college courses in outdoor…

  12. The Student's Handbook for the Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; Burgess, Robert A.

    Directed to the Multnomah County (Oregon) sixth grade students participating in the Outdoor School program, the handbook serves as an introduction to the week-long, resident outdoor education experience which focuses on four natural resources: soil, water, plants, and animal life. Information is provided on the Outdoor School site and staff;…

  13. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities...

  14. 75 FR 32077 - Great Outdoors Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8528 of May 28, 2010 Great Outdoors Month, 2010 By the President of the United... friends. During Great Outdoors Month, we renew our enduring commitment to protect our natural landscapes... the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim June 2010 as Great Outdoors Month. I urge...

  15. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8833 of June 1, 2012 Great Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the..., trials, and triumphs. During Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate our long legacy of environmental... Outdoors Month is a time for all Americans to share in the natural splendor of which we are all...

  16. How Effective Are Outdoor Education Centres?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    Twelve classes of students in grades 4 through 6 studied beaver ecology, either at an outdoor-education center near Toronto or in the classroom. Results indicate that outdoor education was more effective in promoting students' cognitive achievement than classroom study, but did not confirm the popular belief that outdoor programs influence…

  17. The OBIS Story. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairwell, Kay, Ed.

    Active participation in a variety of outdoor activities by small groups of youngsters aged 10 to 15 is the focus of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project, designed to provide the firsthand outdoor experience necessary for understanding biological relationships. OBIS provides community-sponsored youth organizations and schools…

  18. Outdoor Play and Learning: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burriss, Kathleen; Burriss, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes national school district policy and practice regarding elementary school children's outdoor learning and play. District representatives from 173 randomly selected school districts completed questionnaires describing policy and practice related to recess, outdoor play, outdoor curricular studies, playground materials, ADA…

  19. Outdoor urban nanomaterials: The emergence of a new, integrated, and critical field of study.

    PubMed

    Baalousha, Mohammed; Yang, Yi; Vance, Marina E; Colman, Benjamin P; McNeal, Samantha; Xu, Jie; Blaszczak, Joanna; Steele, Meredith; Bernhardt, Emily; Hochella, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently widely incorporated in the outdoor urban environmental fabric and numerous new applications and products containing ENMs are expected in the future. As has been shown repeatedly, products containing ENMs have the potential, at some point in their lifetime, to release ENMs into their surrounding environment. However, the expanding body in environmental nanomaterial research has not yet shifted toward ENMs in the context of the complex outdoor urban environment. This is especially surprising because the world's human populations are on a steady march toward more and more urbanization and technological development, accompanied with increased applications for ENMs in the outdoor urban environment. Our objective for this paper is therefore to review, assess, and provide new information in this emerging field. We provide an overview of nanomaterials (NMs, encompassing both ENMs and incidental nanomaterials, INMs) that are likely to be released in the urban environment from outdoor sources by discussing 1) the applications of ENMs that may lead to release of ENMs in urban areas, 2) the recently published data on the release of ENMs from novel nano-enabled applications in the outdoor urban environment, 3) the available literature on the occurrence of INMs in the atmosphere and within/on dust particles, and 4) the potential pathways and fate of NMs in the outdoor urban environment. This review is then followed by three case studies demonstrating the importance of NMs in the outdoor urban environment. The first and second case studies illustrate the occurrence of NMs in urban dust and stormwater ponds, respectively, whereas the third case study discusses the lessons learned from the release of NMs (e.g. Pt, ph and Rh) from automotive vehicle catalytic convertors. This article ends with a discussion of the research priorities needed to advance this emerging field of "outdoor urban nanomaterials" and to assess the potential risks

  20. Seasonal variations in vitamin D status in indoor and outdoor female athletes

    PubMed Central

    MARUYAMA-NAGAO, ASAKO; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU; SUZUKI, YOSHIO

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D (VD) insufficiency is a concern, particularly among young females. The VD status shows seasonal variations, since it correlates with duration of sunlight exposure. VD insufficiency in indoor athletes is therefore suggested in winter. The aim of the present study was to determine seasonal variations in VD and bone status among indoor and outdoor female athletes. The prospective study was conducted in participants aged 20–22 years old. The participants comprised of 15 indoor and 15 outdoor athletes. The biochemical markers and bone parameters were measured in March, June, September and December. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VD) concentration showed a seasonal oscillation, with a nadir in March (indoor, 19±4.0 ng/ml; outdoor, 32±2.7 ng/ml) and a peak in September (indoor, 32±6.6 ng/ml; outdoor, 39±5.7 ng/ml). The amplitude of oscillation was greater in the indoor compared to the outdoor athletes. Seasonal variations in serum calcium exhibited a similar pattern, while the parathyroid hormone showed an inverse pattern to serum 25-OH-VD. The nadir in bone mass, measured as speed of sound, occurred in June after peaking in December among the indoor and outdoor athletes. The pattern followed 3 months after the changes in 25-OH-VD. Indoor sports athletes are more susceptible to VD insufficiency compared to outdoor sports athletes. Insufficiency is most likely to arise in winter, and could affect bone mineralization observed 3 months after. PMID:27347414

  1. Health effects of outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

  2. Impact of Photovoltaic Canopy Shade on Outdoor Thermal Comfort in a Hot Desert City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-04-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade on thermal comfort through microclimate observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. Six stationary sensors under solar canopies and in nearby sun-exposed and tree-shaded locations monitored 5-min temperature and humidity for a year. On selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly microclimate transects from 7:00AM to 6:00PM and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on the Likert scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. The shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shade are equally efficient in semi-arid desert environments. Globe temperature explained 50% of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors include adaptation level, gender, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, season, and time of day. A regression of perceived comfort on Physiological Equivalent Temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6°C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1°C-38.1°C with a preferred temperature of 20.8°C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperatures felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 minutes prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas.

  3. A Winter Survival Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    The article is a condensation of materials from the winter survival unit of a Canadian snow ecology course. The unit covers: cold physiology, frostbite, snowblindness, hypothermia, winter campout, and survival strategies. (SB)

  4. Winter Weather Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  5. Personal exposures to volatile organic compounds among outdoor and indoor workers in two Mexican cities.

    PubMed

    Tovalin-Ahumada, Horacio; Whitehead, Lawrence

    2007-04-15

    There are limited data on exposures to ambient air toxics experienced by inhabitants of urban areas in developing countries that have high levels of outdoor air pollution. In particular, little is known about exposures experienced by individuals working outdoors - typically as part of the informal sector of the economy - as compared to workers in office-type environments that approach the indoor air quality conditions of the more developed countries. The objective of this study is to explore these differences in personal exposures using a convenience sample of 68 outdoor and indoor workers living in Mexico City (higher outdoor air pollution) and Puebla (lower outdoor air pollution), Mexico. Occupational and non-occupational exposures to airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored during a 2 day period, monitoring 2 consecutives occupational and non-occupational periods, using organic vapor monitors (OVMs). Socio-demographic and personal time-location-activity information were collected by means of questionnaires and activity logs. Outdoor workers experienced significantly higher exposures to most VOCs compared to indoor workers in each of these cities. The outdoor workers in Mexico City had the highest exposures both during- and off-work, with maximum occupational exposures for toluene, MTBE, n-pentane, and d-limonene exceeding 1 mg/m(3). The inter-city pattern of exposures between the outdoor workers is consistent with the higher outdoor air pollution levels in Mexico City, and is above exposures reported for urban areas of the more developed countries. Results from this study suggest that elevated outdoor air pollution concentrations have a larger impact on outdoor workers' personal exposures compared to the contribution from indoor pollution sources. This contrasts with the more dominant role of indoor air VOC contributions to personal exposures typically reported for urban populations of the more developed countries.

  6. Applying indoor and outdoor modeling techniques to estimate individual exposure to PM2.5 from personal GPS profiles and diaries: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gerharz, Lydia E; Krüger, Antonio; Klemm, Otto

    2009-09-01

    Impacts of individual behavior on personal exposure to particulate matter (PM) and the associated individual health effects are still not well understood. As outdoor PM concentrations exhibit highly temporal and spatial variations, personal PM exposure depends strongly on individual trajectories and activities. Furthermore, indoor environments deserve special attention due to the large fraction of the day people spend indoors. The indoor PM concentration in turn depends on infiltrated outdoor PM and indoor particle sources, partially caused by the activities of people indoor. We present an approach to estimate PM2.5 exposure levels for individuals based upon existing data sources and models. For this pilot study, six persons kept 24-hour diaries and GPS tracks for at least one working day and one weekend day, providing their daily activity profiles and the associated geographical locations. The survey took place in the city of Münster, Germany in the winter period between October 2006 and January 2007. Environmental PM2.5 exposure was estimated by using two different models for outdoor and indoor concentrations, respectively. For the outdoor distribution, a dispersion model was used and extended by actual ambient fixed site measurements. Indoor concentrations were modeled using a simple mass balance model with the estimated outdoor concentration fraction infiltrated and indoor activities estimated from the diaries. A limited number of three 24-hour indoor measurements series for PM were performed to test the model performance. The resulting average daily exposure of the 14 collected profiles ranged from 21 to 198 microg m(-3) and showed a high variability over the day as affected by personal behavior. Due to the large contribution of indoor particle sources, the mean 24-hour exposure was in most cases higher than the daily means of the respective outdoor fixed site monitors. This feasibility study is a first step towards a more comprehensive modeling approach for

  7. Winter leaf reddening in 'evergreen' species.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicole M

    2011-05-01

    Leaf reddening during autumn in senescing, deciduous tree species has received widespread attention from the public and in the scientific literature, whereas leaf reddening in evergreen species during winter remains largely ignored. Winter reddening can be observed in evergreen herbs, shrubs, vines and trees in Mediterranean, temperate, alpine, and arctic regions, and can persist for several months before dissipating with springtime warming. Yet, little is known about the functional significance of this colour change, or why it occurs in some species but not others. Here, the biochemistry, physiology and ecology associated with winter leaf reddening are reviewed, with special focus on its possible adaptive function. Photoprotection is currently the favoured hypothesis for winter reddening, but alternative explanations have scarcely been explored. Intraspecific reddening generally increases with sunlight incidence, and may also accompany photosynthetic inferiority in photosynthetically 'weak' (e.g. low-nitrogen) individuals. Red leaves tend to show symptoms of shade acclimation relative to green, consistent with a photoprotective function. However, winter-red and winter-green species often cohabitate the same high-light environments, and exhibit similar photosynthetic capacities. The factors dictating interspecific winter leaf colouration therefore remain unclear. Additional outstanding questions and future directions are also highlighted, and possible alternative functions of winter reddening discussed.

  8. Outdoor sports and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Moehrle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such as skiing, mountaineering, cycling, or triathlon has been documented in a series of dosimetric studies. Sweating because of physical exercise may contribute to UV-related skin damage as it increases the individual photosensitivity of the skin, facilitating the risk of sunburns. Large epidemiological studies showed that recreational activities such as sun exposure on the beach or during water sports were associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, whereas skiing has been shown to be at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors of cutaneous melanoma such as the number of melanocytic nevi and solar lentigines have been found to be more frequent in subjects practicing endurance outdoor sports. An increased risk for cutaneous melanoma may be assumed for these athletes. In addition to the important sun exposure, exercise-induced immunosuppression may increase the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma in athletes. Frequently, athletes seem to know little about the risk of sun exposure. Protective means such as avoiding training and competition with considerable sun exposure, choosing adequate clothing, and applying water-resistant sunscreen still need to be propagated in the community of outdoor sportsmen.

  9. Outdoor propagation analysis of ultrawideband signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavone, Guy A.; Wahid, Parveen; Palaniappan, Ravi; Tracy, Judd; Van Doorn, Eric; Lonske, Benjamin

    2003-08-01

    An ultra wide band (UWB) signal is defined as any radiation in which the 3-dB bandwidth is greater than 25% of the center frequency. UWB signals are characterized by extreme low powers and large bandwidths, which can be used for data, voice and video communication. Since UWB waveforms have very short time duration, they are relatively immune to multi-path cancellation effects. In this paper we test the performance of a simulation to model the propagation of an UWB signal in outdoor forested environment. The simulation uses a combination of Finite Difference Time Domain and ray tracing methods to simulate the UWB wave propagation. The model takes into consideration the dielectric constants of the materials of the trees and measures the signal strength for vertical and horizontal polarizations of the UWB antennas placed at various heights and distances from each other. The results of the simulation are compared to measurements obtained from tests conducted at a wooded area in Seneca Creek State Park, Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was observed that upto 150 ft distance between the transmitter and receiver, the horizontally polarized antenna system gave better signal-to-noise ratio, but at greater distances the vertically polarized antenna system gave a better signal-to-noise ration performance. Three dimensional plots of the signal strengths and the signal-to-noise ratio for various transmitter and receiver distances are plotted for the system. These are compared with experimental results and the simulation closely matched the experimental data. The results of the simulation and measurements will be used for further developing an UWB location and tracking system for outdoor environments.

  10. An Experiment with Air Purifiers in Delhi during Winter 2015-2016.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Sangita; Srivastav, Nikhil; Spears, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Particulate pollution has important consequences for human health, and is an issue of global concern. Outdoor air pollution has become a cause for alarm in India in particular because recent data suggest that ambient pollution levels in Indian cities are some of the highest in the world. We study the number of particles between 0.5μm and 2.5μm indoors while using affordable air purifiers in the highly polluted city of Delhi. Though substantial reductions in indoor number concentrations are observed during air purifier use, indoor air quality while using an air purifier is frequently worse than in cities with moderate pollution, and often worse than levels observed even in polluted cities. When outdoor pollution levels are higher, on average, indoor pollution levels while using an air purifier are also higher. Moreover, the ratio of indoor air quality during air purifier use to two comparison measures of air quality without an air purifier are also positively correlated with outdoor pollution levels, suggesting that as ambient air quality worsens there are diminishing returns to improvements in indoor air quality during air purifier use. The findings of this study indicate that although the most affordable air purifiers currently available are associated with significant improvements in the indoor environment, they are not a replacement for public action in regions like Delhi. Although private solutions may serve as a stopgap, reducing ambient air pollution must be a public health and policy priority in any region where air pollution is as high as Delhi's during the winter.

  11. An Experiment with Air Purifiers in Delhi during Winter 2015-2016

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    Particulate pollution has important consequences for human health, and is an issue of global concern. Outdoor air pollution has become a cause for alarm in India in particular because recent data suggest that ambient pollution levels in Indian cities are some of the highest in the world. We study the number of particles between 0.5μm and 2.5μm indoors while using affordable air purifiers in the highly polluted city of Delhi. Though substantial reductions in indoor number concentrations are observed during air purifier use, indoor air quality while using an air purifier is frequently worse than in cities with moderate pollution, and often worse than levels observed even in polluted cities. When outdoor pollution levels are higher, on average, indoor pollution levels while using an air purifier are also higher. Moreover, the ratio of indoor air quality during air purifier use to two comparison measures of air quality without an air purifier are also positively correlated with outdoor pollution levels, suggesting that as ambient air quality worsens there are diminishing returns to improvements in indoor air quality during air purifier use. The findings of this study indicate that although the most affordable air purifiers currently available are associated with significant improvements in the indoor environment, they are not a replacement for public action in regions like Delhi. Although private solutions may serve as a stopgap, reducing ambient air pollution must be a public health and policy priority in any region where air pollution is as high as Delhi’s during the winter. PMID:27978542

  12. Dry Matter Losses from Large Round Bales of Alfalfa-Grass Mixtures Stored Outdoors in Central Wisconsin.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted during 2006 to evaluate the effects of outdoor weathering on losses of DM from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-grass mixtures stored over winter in 1.2 x 1.4-m round bales. In the first study (GRASS), the forage mixture consisted of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; 81%), ...

  13. The Importance of Pace. Proceedings of the National Conference on Outdoor Leadership (Estes Park, Colorado, February 7-10, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maurice, Ed.; Hayashi, Aya, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The Wilderness Education Association (WEA) helps people enjoy and protect our nation's most precious resource: Our wilderness areas. The WEA has been training and certifying outdoor leaders around the world for nearly 30 years, teaching students safely and effectively to lead groups in the outdoors without harming the environment. In addition,…

  14. "The Strawberry Generation… They Are Too Pampered": Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Perspectives on Outdoor Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atencio, Matthew; Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Ho, Susanna; Ching, Chew Ting

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores pre-service PE teachers' conceptions of outdoor education (OE) in Singapore. Survey questionnaires were administered to 120 pre-service teachers; 14 teachers participated in follow-up semi-structured interviews. The findings indicate that OE is predominantly situated within the outdoor camp environment. Pre-service teachers…

  15. Towards an understanding of an outdoor education program: Listening to participants' stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanely, Shannon Dee

    Today, human beings spend more than 90% of their lives indoors (Evans, 2003). Not long ago, both urban and rural children grew up mostly outdoors, and had direct experiences with plants, animals, and the ways in which the necessities of daily life were grown, made, and used. When they were not helping with household work, children spent much of their time exploring the outdoor environment, relatively free from adult interference. The lives of children today are much different. Children now have fewer opportunities for unstructured play and regular contact with the natural world. Outdoor education programs are one tool that can provide children with continued access to the natural world. This study was conducted to determine how outdoor education program participants interpret their experiences in the natural world, how participant engagement with an outdoor education program shapes their perception of the natural world, and how participant interpretation of an outdoor education program shapes their actions for caring for the natural world when they return home. Using qualitative research methods, my study was conducted with four sixth-grade students participating in a four-day residential outdoor education program. The participants, two females and two males, were given cameras to document the most important aspects of their outdoor education experience. The pictures were used to stimulate conversation and encourage reflection during the interview process. Data sources consisted of a pre-program interview with each student, daily interviews with students while they were participating in the outdoor education program, and a post-program interview conducted one week after the program ended. Critical incident technique analysis was used to delineate the most critical elements of each participant's outdoor education experience. My study found that participants interpreted their outdoor education program as a positive experience. Classes that were challenging and gave

  16. Outdoor Leadership Education: The Past, Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugerman, Deborah

    This paper examines academic degree programs that train outdoor leaders. A review of previous studies of outdoor leadership noted 12 critical core competencies of an effective outdoor leader. A survey of college outdoor programs identified 15 four-year academic degree programs in outdoor leadership at U.S. colleges and universities. The programs…

  17. Weather daily variation in winter and its effect on behavior and affective states in day-care children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciucci, Enrica; Calussi, Pamela; Menesini, Ersilia; Mattei, Alessandra; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze the impact of winter weather conditions on young children's behavior and affective states by examining a group of 61 children attending day-care centers in Florence (Italy). Participants were 33 males, 28 females and their 11 teachers. The mean age of the children at the beginning of the observation period was 24.1 months. The day-care teachers observed the children's behavioral and emotional states during the morning before their sleeping time and filled in a questionnaire for each baby five times over a winter period of 3 weeks. Air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure and solar radiation data were collected every 15 min from a weather station located in the city center of Florence. At the same time, air temperature and relative humidity data were collected in the classroom and in the garden of each day-care center. We used multilevel linear models to evaluate the extent to which children's emotional and behavioral states could be predicted by weather conditions, controlling for child characteristics (gender and age). The data showed that relative humidity and solar radiation were the main predictors of the children's emotional and behavioral states. The outdoor humidity had a significant positive effect on frustration, sadness and aggression; solar radiation had a significant negative effect only on sadness, suggesting that a sunny winter day makes children more cheerful. The results are discussed in term of implications for parents and teachers to improve children's ecological environment.

  18. Outdoor Cultivation of Marine Diatoms for Year-Round Production of Biofuels.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nojima, Daisuke; Nonoyama, Tomomi; Ikeda, Kiichi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-25

    Biofuel production using microalgae is believed to have the advantage of continuous year-round production over crop plants, which have strong seasonality. However, actual year-round production of microalgal lipids using outdoor mass cultivation has rarely been demonstrated. In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the oleaginous diatom, Fistulifera solaris, was culturable in outdoor bioreactors from spring to autumn, whereas biomass and lipid production in winter failed because F. solaris did not grow below 15 °C. Therefore, another candidate strain that is culturable in winter is required. In this study, a cold-tolerant diatom, Mayamaea sp. JPCC CTDA0820, was selected as a promising candidate for biofuel production in winter. Laboratory-scale characterization revealed that this diatom was culturable at temperatures as low as 10 °C. Subsequently, F. solaris (April-October) and Mayamaea sp. JPCC CTDA0820 (November-March) were cultured in outdoor open-pond bioreactors, wherein year-round production of diatom lipids was successfully demonstrated. The maximal values of areal productivities of biomass and lipids reached to 9.79 and 1.80 g/(m² day) for F. solaris, and 8.62 and 0.92 g/(m² day) for Mayamaea sp. JPCC CTDA0820, respectively. With the combined use of these two diatom species, stable year-round production of microalgal lipids became possible.

  19. The Outdoor Education Umbrella: A Metaphoric Model To Conceptualize Outdoor Experiential Learning Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisson, Christian

    Explaining what outdoor experiential education is can be problematic, as a variety of terms are being used to identify a wide range of outdoor experiential learning methods. This paper proposes the metaphoric model of an umbrella to explain the relationships existing among these terms and their respective outdoor experiential learning methods. The…

  20. Columbus Outdoor Pursuits: A Model Structure for Volunteer Based Outdoor Pursuits Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerckens, Ann E.

    Columbus Outdoor Pursuits (COP) is a volunteer-based nonprofit organization in Ohio that has offered outdoor educational and recreational opportunities to its members for 63 years. COP day and trip programs focus on outdoor activities such as bicycling, kayaking, hiking, and rock climbing. In addition, COP offers classes in the skills required for…

  1. Long-term characterization of indoor and outdoor ultrafine particles at a commercial building.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yungang; Hopke, Philip K; Chalupa, David C; Utell, Mark J

    2010-08-01

    The particle number concentrations in the size range of 10-500 nm were measured inside and outside of a commercial building in Rochester, New York from 2005 to 2009. The indoor ventilation conditions were controlled by a heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. The overall average indoor and outdoor particle number concentrations were 2166 cm(-3) and 5214 cm(-3), respectively. Comparison of the indoor and outdoor ultrafine particles (UFP) distributions revealed that indoor sources contributed to the indoor UFP concentrations. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio generally increased with particle size. The I/O ratios in the summer months were higher than those in the winter months. Indoor and outdoor correlations of particle concentrations were slightly weaker in warmer months. These results indicated that changes in the air exchange rates (AER) may have affected the correlation between indoor and outdoor UFP number concentrations. Moreover, indoor activities such as food preparation and cleaning may have contributed to the indoor UFP number concentrations.

  2. What is the Relationship between Risky Outdoor Play and Health in Children? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brussoni, Mariana; Gibbons, Rebecca; Gray, Casey; Ishikawa, Takuro; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Chabot, Guylaine; Fuselli, Pamela; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children’s health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional “good quality” studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children’s risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed. PMID:26062038

  3. Winter Art Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokela, Timo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Department of Art Education at the University of Lapland in Finland has developed winter art as a method of environmental and community-based art education. I will focus on the Snow Show Winter Art Education Project, a training project funded by the European Union and the State Provincial Office…

  4. Winter Nature Study for Middle School Children and Their Parents. A Course for Parents and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigford, Ann

    Designed to be a supplement to a short course for middle school children and their parents, this document provides learning experiences for studying ecology during the winter. The purposes of the course are to introduce families to the pleasures of outdoor field exploration and to give them a basic ecological framework as well as specific skills…

  5. Integrated Outdoor Education/Adventure. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The 12 brief articles in this "feature" or theme issue describe successful approaches to development of outdoor education programs which successfully integrate individuals with and without disabilities. Titles and authors are: "Outdoor Education and Adventure: Challenges and Rewards for All" (Stuart J. Schleien); "Benefits of Integrated Outdoor…

  6. Outdoor Education for the Whole Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Frederick A.

    Focusing on outdoor education in a broad sense, this book comprehensively provides elementary school teachers with rationale, planning guidance, and specific ideas for using the outdoors to enhance the development of the whole child through the stimulation of both right and left hemispheres of the brain. Part I presents a definition, rationale,…

  7. Multiculturalism: Implications for Outdoor and Conservation Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    This paper addresses the role of multiculturalism in outdoor and conservation education. Multiculturalism promotes appreciation of diversity including differences originating from race, ethnicity, gender, and abilities, thereby developing tolerance and human understanding. Several trends make multiculturalism relevant to outdoor activities. By the…

  8. Inside Outdoor Education: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffan, James

    This case study examines the teaching practices of Alan Woods, (pseudonym) who teaches elementary students in an outdoor education program. It describes a typical teaching day, including Alan's comments about his work and important aspects of being an outdoor educator. Alan stated that he used recitation questioning (asking students to recite…

  9. The Student's Handbook for the Outdoor School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C., Comp.; Burgess, Robert A., Comp.

    Directed to the Multnomah County, Oregon, sixth grade students who participate in the Outdoor School program, the reusable handbook serves as an introduction to the week-long, resident outdoor education experience which focuses on four natural resources: soil, water, plants, and animal life. Each week, four sixth grade classes from different…

  10. Outdoor Adventure and Health: Supporting Empirical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Camille J.

    Outdoor adventure education programs may offer opportunities for improving overall wellness beyond the realm of physical fitness. A hypothetical framework is presented as follows: (1) outdoor adventure experiences provide individuals with opportunities to be truly challenged; (2) success in challenging situations builds self-efficacy and…

  11. Locate, Plan, Develop, Use An Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Upper Darby, PA.

    Designed to aid educational institutions and community organizations in selecting, planning, developing and using outdoor learning areas as outdoor classrooms, this guide includes: (1) Learning by Discovery (scientific, cultural, and recreational goals); (2) The Initial Planning Effort (use of: a planning committee including teachers,…

  12. OUTDOOR EDUCATION CENTER, PLANNING PROJECT REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COCKRELL, LLOYD

    REPORTED ARE THE PLANS FOR A PROPOSED OUTDOOR EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR THE ALBUQUERQUE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. DISCUSSED ARE (1) A PROGRAM RATIONALE, (2) CURRICULUM, (3) MATERIALS FOR OUTDOOR TEACHING, (4) STAFFING, (5) PUPIL SELECTION, (6) THE EDUCATIONAL PLAN, (7) DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED FACILITIES AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, (8) BUDGET ESTIMATES, (9)…

  13. Outdoor Education for Behavior Disordered Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin, Edward

    Outdoor education programs ranging from simple, near-school activities to lengthy wilderness camping experiences can benefit behavior disorderd students. Studies of outdoor education programs for these students have shown positive effects including improvements in self-concept, social adjustment, academic achievement, and group cohesion. Many…

  14. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  15. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  16. Rugged Practices: Embodying Authenticity in Outdoor Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senda-Cook, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    When people recreate outdoors, they value the quality of the experience. This study examines rhetorical practices that sustain or undermine perceived authentic outdoor recreation experiences. I conducted a rhetorical analysis of my fieldnotes gathered through participant observation and interview transcripts of online and in-person interviews. I…

  17. Suggested Bibliography for Outdoor Education and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State School of Conservation, Branchville.

    Seventy-seven books and articles published between 1939 and 1964 are listed in this bibliography for students and teachers of outdoor education. The entries are listed alphabetically under the following subject headings: outdoor education, conservation, administration, aquatics, archery, arts and crafts, Indian lore, nature study, riding, rifle,…

  18. Therapeutic Uses of Outdoor Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    This digest examines the positive effects on emotional well-being of several types of outdoor education programs. Although many outdoor education and experiential programs enhance emotional growth, such "therapeutic" outcomes may be considered incidental to program goals. In contrast, programs aimed primarily at "therapy"…

  19. Early Beginnings in Outdoor Education: Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Julie A.

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor education has roots in the Nature Study Movement of the late 1800s; organized camping, which was started by groups such as the Young Men's and Women's Christian Association and the Boy and Girl Scouts; progressive education; and environmental education. Several doctoral dissertations in 1930 mark the beginning of outdoor education as a…

  20. A Youth Perspective on Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardin, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Arizona Outdoor Recreation Coordinating Commission and Arizona State Parks Board conducted a survey of students in grades 4-12 to gather information on their recreation needs and desires. Results provided recreation planners and providers with a profile of the young outdoor recreation customer to help them develop the most appropriate…

  1. The Administration of Outdoor Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charles A., Jr.

    Designed for those interested in the mechanics of establishing outdoor education programs, this text is basically a guide to program development and includes examples of procedures, forms, conceptualizations, etc. Chapters deal with: (1) the contemporary education scene (an overview); (2) the basic concepts of outdoor education (17 concept…

  2. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8687 of May 31, 2011 Great Outdoors Month, 2011 By the President of the United... stretching over rolling hills and rivers raging through stone-faced cliffs. During Great Outdoors Month, we... healthy, active, and energized, while reconnecting with their natural heritage. This month, let each of...

  3. 78 FR 33955 - Great Outdoors Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8988 of May 31, 2013 Great Outdoors Month... Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate the land entrusted to us by our forebears and resolve to pass it on... inspired us toward bold new horizons. This month, let us reflect on those timeless gifts, and let us vow...

  4. Extraversion and Outdoor Play in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Alasdair

    1978-01-01

    Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory was administered to 334 Aberdeen children, age 11 plus. Familiarity with traditional outdoor games was pretested; reported attachment to indoor activities provided "home orientation" rating. No relationships were found among extraversion, indoor activity rejection, and outdoor game familiarity. Playground…

  5. Outdoor Classrooms--Planning Makes Perfect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Schoolyard wildlife habitats aren't just for beauty and fun--they are outdoor classrooms where real science learning takes place. Schoolyard habitat projects involve conservation and restoration of wildlife habitat; however, the learning doesn't have to stop there--outdoor classrooms can foster many kinds of active learning across the curriculum…

  6. Using the Outdoors To Teach Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Rebecca R.; Staley, Frederick A.

    A framework for using the outdoors as a vehicle for providing meaningful language arts experiences is presented in this guide geared toward intermediate students but adaptable for other ages. The introduction outlines goals of language arts instruction and notes that activities conducted outdoors contribute to these goals because they are…

  7. Ethical Frameworks, Moral Practices and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Karen M.; Lautt, Mick

    Insights from quantum physics and chaos theory help create new metaphors about ethical frameworks and moral practices in outdoor education. The seemingly straightforward concept of values is analogous to the initial simple nonlinear equation of a fractal. The value claims of outdoor education--trust, cooperation, environmental awareness,…

  8. The Benefits of Meditation for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettenger, Jim

    Outdoor education is not merely about learning outdoor skills; it should also involve self-reflective activities. Meditation is a technique used for self-reflection, has many proven psychological and physiological benefits, and would be a good addition to any wilderness program. Research has shown that the psychological benefits of meditation…

  9. Integrated Outdoor Education and Adventure Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J.; And Others

    This guide presents a comprehensive framework for the development and provision of outdoor education and adventure programs for people of all abilities, including those who significantly challenge the service delivery system. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for the integration of disabled persons into outdoor education and adventure programs, and…

  10. A School-Based Outdoor Adventure Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollandsworth, James G.

    1980-01-01

    The goals of and the development of a year-round outdoor-oriented adventure education program at The Asheville School in North Carolina is discussed. Available from: Center for Environmental, Camping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Pine Lake Field Campus; 4016 Blumenthal Road; Greensboro, NC, 27406. (AN)

  11. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  12. Outdoor Education for Sustainability: Making Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor education should broaden its scope beyond outdoor activities to include education for sustainability. Provides practical ideas for incorporating holistic environmental awareness into programs by exploring the concepts of connection and consequence with such basic elements as water, air, food, shelter, darkness, solitude, time, and nature.…

  13. Developing Outdoor Leaders: Paul Petzoldt's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Mark; Cashel, Christine

    Paul Petzoldt, an early pioneer in outdoor education, saw the need for trained outdoor leaders. This paper presents material from unpublished papers retrieved after his death that clarify and expand on his philosophy of leadership development. Key ideas such as: judgment, 20-20 vision, and use of wilderness expeditions, are expanded upon and…

  14. Outdoor Education and Camping in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebashi, Shinshiro

    Professor Shinshiro Ebashi of the University of Tokyo discusses outdoor education in Japan, especially in relation to legislation (e.g., the Sport Promotion Law of 1961) and programs endorsed by the Ministry of Education. A typical outdoor education program for junior-high students is given. Also discussed are the programs of the All Japan Senior…

  15. Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

  16. Outdoor Education Units. Pull Out Feature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Briefly presents 15 outdoor education units covering orienteering, map reading, safety, rescue, rope skills, first aid, camping, kayaking, rock and wall climbing, caving, survival skills, sailing, hiking, and outdoor equipment. Each unit has a brief description, including the knowledge and skills that students should be able to demonstrate. (TD)

  17. A Guide for Conducting Outdoor Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce; And Others

    Since research indicates teachers generally lack confidence in their ability to conduct lessons in the outdoors and feel inadequate regarding knowledge of the natural world, this guide has been developed to build teacher confidence in utilizing the outdoors. Designed to be used in conjunction with a practicum workshop, this guide presents…

  18. The "F" Word: Feminism in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Tonia

    2016-01-01

    Women have embarked on outdoor careers believing the profession to be a level playing field and one that offers occupational alternatives to traditional sporting activities and educational opportunities. This paper seeks to provide a critical analysis of the pockets of bias associated with the status of women in outdoor education (OE),…

  19. Culturability and concentration of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in six single-family homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taekhee; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Adhikari, Atin; Crawford, Carlos M.; Reponen, Tiina

    In this study, the culturability of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi was determined through long-term sampling (24-h) using a Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler. The air samples were collected during three seasons in six Cincinnati area homes that were free from moisture damage or visible mold. Cultivation and total microscopic enumeration methods were employed for the sample analysis. The geometric means of indoor and outdoor culturable fungal concentrations were 88 and 102 colony-forming units (CFU) m -3, respectively, with a geometric mean of the I/ O ratio equal to 0.66. Overall, 26 genera of culturable fungi were recovered from the indoor and outdoor samples. For total fungal spores, the indoor and outdoor geometric means were 211 and 605 spores m -3, respectively, with a geometric mean of I/ O ratio equal to 0.32. The identification revealed 37 fungal genera from indoor and outdoor samples based on the total spore analysis. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of culturable and total fungal spores showed significant correlations ( r=0.655, p<0.0001 and r=0.633, p<0.0001, respectively). The indoor and outdoor median viabilities of fungi were 55% and 25%, respectively, which indicates that indoor environment provides more favorable survival conditions for the aerosolized fungi. Among the seasons, the highest indoor and outdoor culturability of fungi was observed in the fall. Cladosporium had a highest median value of culturability (38% and 33% for indoor and outdoor, respectively) followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium (9% and 2%) among predominant genera of fungi. Increased culturability of fungi inside the homes may have important implications because of the potential increase in the release of allergens from viable spores and pathogenicity of viable fungi on immunocompromised individuals.

  20. "An Outdoor Renaissance". Proceedings of the National Conference on Outdoor Recreation (4th, Boone, North Carolina, November 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jim, Ed.; And Others

    This conference proceedings record contains 17 papers concerning outdoor education, outdoor recreation programs, adventure education, and environmental education. Papers include: "Nature's University" (keynote speech on environmental ethics and outdoor education); "Mission '90" (a workshop on developing a mission statement for…

  1. Indoor air quality of houses located in the urban environment of Agra, India.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Ajay; Saini, Renuka; Masih, Amit

    2008-10-01

    Increased concern over the adverse health effects of air pollution has highlighted the need for air-pollution measurements, especially in urban areas, where many sources of air pollutants are normally monitored outdoors as part of obligations under the National Air Quality Strategies. Very little is known about air pollution indoors. In fact, the largest exposure to health-damaging indoor pollution probably occurs in the developing world, not in households, schools, and offices of developed countries where most research and control efforts have been focused to date. As a result much of the health impacts from air pollution worldwide seem to occur among the poorest and most vulnerable populations. The authors in their earlier studies have confirmed the importance of ambient air in determining the quality of air indoors. In this study an observation of air quality indoors and outdoors of domestic homes located in an urban environment from October 2004 to December 2005 in Agra, north central India, is performed. The purpose of this study was to characterize the indoor/outdoor (I/O) relationship of airborne pollutants and recognize their probable source in all three seasons, that is, winter, summer, and rainy season. Concentrations of SO(2), NO(2), CO(2), Cl(2), H(2)S, NH(3), RSPM, and PAH were monitored simultaneously and I/O ratios were calculated. In order to investigate the effect of seasonality on indoor and ambient air quality, winter to summer and winter to monsoon average ratios were calculated. It is apparent that there is a general pattern of increasing levels from monsoon to summer to winter, and similarly from outdoor to indoor air. Regressions analysis had been done to further investigate the influence of outdoor air-pollutant concentrations on indoor concentrations. The most probable categories of sources for these pollutants have been identified by using principal-component analysis. Indoor air pollution is a complex function of energy housing and

  2. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  3. A Handbook for Outdoor Education on the Preserves of the Natural History Section, Nassau County Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassau County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Westbury, NY.

    One of the desired outcomes of outdoor education, according to this handbook for teachers, is the development of respect and appreciation for the natural environment and the need to conserve it. It is suggested that since the purpose of going into the field rather than into the laboratory is to study real things in their natural environment, every…

  4. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and sea surface salinity (SSS). Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM) were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch), 2008 (average catch) and 2009 (low catch) indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially valuable

  5. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and sea surface salinity (SSS). Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM) were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch), 2008 (average catch) and 2009 (low catch) indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially valuable

  6. Windsor, Ontario exposure assessment study: design and methods validation of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Xu, Xiaohong; Kulka, Ryan; You, Hongyu; Wallace, Lance; Mallach, Gary; Van Ryswyk, Keith; MacNeill, Morgan; Kearney, Jill; Rasmussen, Pat E; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Wang, Daniel; Poon, Raymond; Williams, Ron; Stocco, Corinne; Anastassopoulos, Angelos; Miller, J David; Dales, Robert; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2011-03-01

    The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures upon asthmatic children's respiratory health was assessed. Several active and passive sampling methods were applied, or adapted, for personal, indoor, and outdoor residential monitoring of nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter (PM; PM-2.5 pm [PM2.5] and < or =10 microm [PM10] in aerodynamic diameter), elemental carbon, ultrafine particles, ozone, air exchange rates, allergens in settled dust, and particulate-associated metals. Participants completed five consecutive days of monitoring during the winter and summer of 2005 and 2006. During 2006, in addition to undertaking the air pollution measurements, asthmatic children completed respiratory health measurements (including peak flow meter tests and exhaled breath condensate) and tracked respiratory symptoms in a diary. Extensive quality assurance and quality control steps were implemented, including the collocation of instruments at the National Air Pollution Surveillance site operated by Environment Canada and at the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality site in Allen Park, Detroit, MI. During field sampling, duplicate and blank samples were also completed and these data are reported. In total, 50 adults and 51 asthmatic children were recruited to participate, resulting in 922 participant days of data. When comparing the methods used in the study with standard reference methods, field blanks were low and bias was acceptable, with most methods being within 20% of reference methods. Duplicates were typically within less than 10% of each other, indicating that study results can be used with confidence. This paper covers study design, recruitment, methodology, time activity diary, surveys, and quality

  7. Nutrition for winter sports.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered.

  8. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  9. Vanadium concentrations in settled outdoor dust particles.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Mustafa S

    2006-12-01

    Atmospheric dustfall is an important aspect of urban dust studies. Vanadium is considered as the marker element of air pollution emitted from residual oil and coal combustion. In this study, vanadium levels of outdoor dust particles are determined. The studied area covers the six sites located in Adapazarí (Turkey), which represents an earthquake-hit environment. The mass deposition rate was calculated for each sampling plate over the 30-days collection periods. The deposition rates for the six places in Adapazarí ranged from 20.5 to 84.9 microg/cm2/day. The arithmetic mean deposition rate for all places was 45.3 microg/cm2/day. Total dust deposition and vanadium loadings typically increased in magnitude according to the area order: Kampus > Serdivan > Cark C. > Ozanlar > Erenler > Yeşiltepe and Kampus > Serdivan > Cark C. > Ozanlar > Erenler > Yeşiltepe, respectively. The results suggested that vanadium may be useful for assessing the level of environmental pollution.

  10. Use of outdoor containments at Westinghouse Hanford Company

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.L.; Sparks, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This discussion describes the development and application of outdoor containments at Hanford Site Tank Farm facilities. Tank Farms is a huge facility, spread over the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company operates the Tank Farms for the US Department of Energy. The operation and maintenance of this facility require routine access to underground storage tanks and above ground support structures. In the past, workers often accessed tanks and structures in the open, without containment. In general this approach worked; however, it relied on the skill of our crafts and calm weather conditions. The current regulatory environment and our increased focus on safety demand use of more stringent and reliable containment techniques. Historically, the use of containments has been limited mostly to indoor activities which support radiological maintenance at facilities such as reactors and process facilities. Expanding the use of these containments to support work at the Tank Farms and other outdoor activities presents many challenges. Westinghouse Hanford is actively pursuing innovative solutions to issues of outdoor containments. The process of evaluating new containment solutions, and our lessons learned are described below.

  11. American woodcock winter distribution and fidelity to wintering areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Derleth, E.L.; Vander Haegen, W.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    We examined winter distribution and fidelity to wintering areas for the American Woodcock (Scolopax minor), which exhibits reversed, sexual size dimorphism. Band-recovery data revealed no difference in winter distributions of different age/sex classes for woodcock from the same breeding areas. Similarly, band recoveries from woodcock banded on wintering grounds revealed no difference in fidelity to wintering sites. Males may winter north of a latitude that is optimal for survival based on physiological considerations, but they gain a reproductive advantage if they are among the first to arrive on the breeding grounds. This may explain our results, which indicate males and females have similar distribution patterns during winter.

  12. On-site calibration method for outdoor binocular stereo vision sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Yin, Yang; Wu, Qun; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-11-01

    Using existing calibration methods for binocular stereo vision sensors (BSVS), it is very difficult to extract target characteristic points in outdoor environments under complex light conditions. To solve the problem, an online calibration method for BSVS based a double parallel cylindrical target and a line laser projector is proposed in this paper. The intrinsic parameters of two cameras are calibrated offline. Laser strips on the double parallel cylindrical target are mediated to calibrate the configuration parameters of BSVS. The proposed method only requires images of laser strips on the target and is suitable for the calibration of BSVS in outdoor environments. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through physical experiments.

  13. Outdoor radioactivity and health risks in Balikesir, northwestern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kapdan, E; Varinlioglu, A; Karahan, G

    2012-02-01

    External irradiation from radionuclides naturally present in the environment or released from man-made practices or events is usually an important component of the exposure of human populations. These exposures derive primarily from gamma radiation arising from the decay of these radionuclides at locations outside the human body. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the radioactivity levels and health risks due to terrestrial radionuclides in the soil of Balikesir, one of the largest cities of the country, northwestern Turkey. For this purpose, activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil and outdoor gamma dose rates (terrestrial and cosmic) have been investigated in the city of Balikesir. In addition, maps for the radionuclide activity concentrations of soil and the outdoor gamma dose rate distributions have been plotted for the region. The average activities of radionuclides, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K, (235)U and (137)Cs in the soil were determined to be 37.6 ± 10.8, 54.7 ± 15.1, 674.5 ± 203.2, 3.6 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 2.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the region. The average outdoor gamma dose rates due to terrestrial and cosmic radiations were found to be 78.5 ± 12.4 and 48.9 ± 5.8 nGy h(-1) with the total of 127.4 ± 18.9 nGy h(-1) in the region. Annual effective dose due to environmental outdoor gamma radiation exposures was determined to be 156.3 nSv. The mean estimated cancer risk values were found to be 0.063 × 10(-2) for the region using risk factors of ICRP 103. The results of the study were discussed with the studies done in other cities of Turkey and the worldwide averages.

  14. Education for sustainable development using indoor and outdoor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žigon, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    Environmental education became an important part of our development in the last years. We put a lot of effort into a task how to improve students'values, skills, understanding and how to significantly enhance their learning and achievements regarding ecological problems. At the same time we also know that environmental learning is easier when our students have the opportunity to feel, see, touch, taste and smell the nature. Therefore teachers in my school develop regular access to the outdoors as a learning resource. Students understand the impact of their activities on the environment and they also like to participate in the nature protection. My school (Biotechnical Centre)is an example of educational centre where different research and development programes are strongly oriented to the sustainable development. Students are educated to become experts in biotechnology, agronomy, food technology and horticulture. At the same time they are educated how to care for the nature. The institution itself cooperates with different fields of economy (farms, food - baker industry, floristry, country design etc.). For these reasons the environmental education is an essential dimension of basic education focused on a sphere of interaction that lies at the root of personal and social development. We try to develop different outdoor activities through all the school year. These activities are: analyse the water quality; research waste water treatment plants; exploration of new food sources (like aquaponics - where fish and plants grow together); collecting plants with medical activities; care for the plants in the school yard; growing new plants in the poly tunnel; learning about unknown plants - especially when visiting national and regional parks; selling different things in the school shop - also for local citizens; participating in the world wide activity - "Keep the country tidy" etc. Students and teachers enjoy to participate in different outdoor activities; we both

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING TIME-ACTIVITY BUDGETS OF BUFFLEHEAD WINTERING IN NARRAGANSETT, BAY, RI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily activities of wintering waterfowl can be influenced by the physical environment and by habitat factors such as prey abundance and availability. We examined variability in diurnal activity budgets of Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) wintering at seven locations within Narragan...

  16. Trouble in Paradise - Accident Trends in the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Michael G.

    In the U.S. there has been an increase in the number of outdoor recreationists requiring rescue. While it might seem logical that this trend results from the increasing numbers of outdoor enthusiasts, other factors contribute. Mass media give wide exposure to outdoor activities and use outdoor recreation to market many products and services. Such…

  17. Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

    The all-Spanish version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps Outdoor Activities set contains twenty education and recreational activities which provide a variety of outdoor biological experiences and incorporate language skills into outdoor education. Prepared especially for use by migrant children aged 10-15 in a…

  18. A Teachers' Guide for the Outdoor School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle Creek Public Schools, MI.

    The general aim of this guide is to aid the teachers of the fifth and sixth grade boys and girls who participate in the Outdoor School program at the Battle Creek Outdoor Center. Another major aim of this guide is to aid the outdoor school teachers who bear the major responsibility in implementing the outdoor school program. An historical overview…

  19. Outdoor Education and Environmental (Make that Nature) Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Outdoor education cannot "not" be about nature learning. Just as David Orr (1992) says that all education is environmental education, so too all outdoor education teaches something about the natural world--either that it matters or that it doesn't. According to the Council of Outdoor Educators of Ontario (COEO), "outdoor education…

  20. Elders' Lifelong Connection with the Natural Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Our interaction with nature does not end just because we age. People have a lifelong connection with the outdoor environment in varying degrees. For some, this participation may be subtle by simply watching others interact with the outdoor environment. For others, there is a deeper connection with nature through gardening, birding, exercise,…

  1. Lightning Safety and Outdoor Sports Activities

    MedlinePlus

    ... by surprise. Based on cases documented by the National Weather Service in recent years, about 30 people are killed ... involved at risk. For organized outdoor activities, the National Weather Service recommends that organizers have a lightning safety plan ...

  2. Outdoor Management Development: Use and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Beryl; Sadler-Smith, Eugene; Michie, Edwin

    1997-01-01

    Responses from 54 of 100 British companies showed that those who use outdoor management development programs believe them effective for personal, team, and leadership development. However, these conclusions seem based more on anecdote and intuition than empirical evidence. (SK)

  3. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.127 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Shelter from sunlight. When... sunlight. (b) Shelter from inclement weather. Natural or artificial shelter appropriate to the...

  4. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Mammals Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.127 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Shelter from sunlight. When... sunlight. (b) Shelter from inclement weather. Natural or artificial shelter appropriate to the...

  5. Robotic Lander Completes Multiple Outdoor Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s Robotic Lander Development Project in Huntsville, Ala., has successfully completed seven autonomous outdoor flight tests of a lander prototype, dubbed Mighty Eagle. On Oct. 14, Mighty Eagl...

  6. Class Outdoors in the District of Columbia

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Specially-designed outdoor education areas surrounded by rain gardens and other green features have been added to the grounds of three District of Columbia schools, providing students with hands-on learning experiences while reducing stormwater pollution.

  7. Occurrence of thermotolerant campylobacters in fresh vegetables sold at farmers' outdoor markets and supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Park, C E; Sanders, G W

    1992-04-01

    A total of 1564 fresh samples of 10 vegetable types from two different retail levels (533 samples from farmers' outdoor markets and 1031 samples from supermarkets) were surveyed for the occurrence of thermotolerant campylobacters. In samples from the outdoor markets, campylobacters were detected on six types of vegetables; the detection rates were spinach, 3.3; lettuce, 3.1; radish, 2.7; green onions, 2.5; parsley, 2.4; and potatoes, 1.6%. Campylobacter jejuni was the predominant species (88%), with the remainder being C. lari (8%) and C. coli (4%). When the outdoor market samples were thoroughly washed with chlorinated water, all were negative for campylobacters. Of the samples from supermarkets, all were negative for campylobacters whether purchased in summer or winter. These results suggest that vegetables sold at farmers' outdoor markets are produced and (or) stored under less sanitary conditions than those sold at supermarkets, and they could constitute health hazards. Therefore, vegetables (e.g., potatoes and spinach) from farmers' markets must be decontaminated by washing with chlorinated water or cooked thoroughly before consumption.

  8. The Contribution of Outdoor Recreation and Outdoor Education to the Economy of Scotland: Case Studies and Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and education contribute substantially to the Scottish economy. Outdoor recreation generates considerable tourism income, much of it in rural areas, and also extends the traditional tourist season. Outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas. In addition, "therapeutic" outdoor programs…

  9. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  10. INDOOR/OUTDOOR AEROSOL CONCENTRATION RATIOS DURING THE 1999 FRESNO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE STUDIES AS A FUNCTION OF SIZE, SEASON, AND TIME OF DAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1999 Fresno particulate matter exposure studies tools place in February (winter season) and April/May (spring season) for two periods of four weeks. During that time, near-continuous measurements of indoor and outdoor aerosol concentrations were made with a scanning mobilit...

  11. Transcript: "Can Run, Play on Bikes, Jump the Zoom Slide, and Play on the Swings"--Exploring the Value of Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores some questions surrounding the provision of outdoor play for young children, and challenges adults who share responsibility for "creating future play" to consider not only what we as adults value but also what children value about the outdoor environment. The question is raised as to how the values we hold and the…

  12. Seamless Indoor-Outdoor Navigation for Unmanned Multi-Sensor Aerial Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranoa, , D.; Uijt de Haag, M.; Dill, E.; Vilardaga, S.; Duan, P.

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of navigation algorithms to enable seamless operation of a small-size multi-copter in an indoor-outdoor environment. In urban and indoor environments a GPS position capability may be unavailable not only due to shadowing, significant signal attenuation or multipath, but also due to intentional denial or deception. The proposed navigation algorithm uses data from a GPS receiver, multiple 2D laser scanners, and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). This paper addresses the proposed multi-mode fusion algorithm and provides initial result using flight test data. This paper furthermore describes the 3DR hexacopter platform that has been used to collect data in an operational environment, starting in an open environment, transitioning to an indoor environment, traversing a building, and, finally, transitioning back to the outdoor environment. Implementation issues will be discussed.

  13. The LED outdoor lighting revolution : Opportunities, threats and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aube, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The presence of artificial light at night (ALAN) in environment is now known to have non negligible consequences on the night sky, the fauna, the flora and the human health. A real revolution is undergoing in the outdoor lighting industry threatens the night integrity. This revolution is driven by the advent of the cost-effective Light-Emitting Diode (LED) technology into the outdoor lighting industry. The LEDs provides many opportunities: they are long lasting, easily controlled, and generally allow a more efficient photometric design which, in term, may result in energy savings.After explaining the complex and non-linear behaviour of the propagation of the ALAN into the nocturnal environment, we will outline the potential impact of the ALAN on the human health and on the night sky, and we will introduce some dedicated indicators for its evaluation. We will focus on the role of the blue content of the ALAN in the evaluation of its impact. More specifically we will show how white LED technology, that often shows increased blue light content, compares to the traditional High Pressure Sodium technology. Finally, we will identify the possible mitigations to restrict the adverse impacts of the white LEDs in the urban and rural environment.

  14. Integration of Kinect and Low-Cost Gnss for Outdoor Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliaria, D.; Pinto, L.; Reguzzoni, M.; Rossi, L.

    2016-06-01

    Since its launch on the market, Microsoft Kinect sensor has represented a great revolution in the field of low cost navigation, especially for indoor robotic applications. In fact, this system is endowed with a depth camera, as well as a visual RGB camera, at a cost of about 200. The characteristics and the potentiality of the Kinect sensor have been widely studied for indoor applications. The second generation of this sensor has been announced to be capable of acquiring data even outdoors, under direct sunlight. The task of navigating passing from an indoor to an outdoor environment (and vice versa) is very demanding because the sensors that work properly in one environment are typically unsuitable in the other one. In this sense the Kinect could represent an interesting device allowing bridging the navigation solution between outdoor and indoor. In this work the accuracy and the field of application of the new generation of Kinect sensor have been tested outdoor, considering different lighting conditions and the reflective properties of the emitted ray on different materials. Moreover, an integrated system with a low cost GNSS receiver has been studied, with the aim of taking advantage of the GNSS positioning when the satellite visibility conditions are good enough. A kinematic test has been performed outdoor by using a Kinect sensor and a GNSS receiver and it is here presented.

  15. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  16. Vapor Transport to Indoor Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment is an important microenvironment for human exposure to chemicals, both because people spend most of their time indoors and because chemicals are often at higher concentrations indoors versus outdoors. This chapter reviews the major components in estimating ...

  17. The Outdoor World: An Outdoor Science and Culture Program for Seneca Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobey, Daniel C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an outdoor summer science program for Seneca Indian children in grades 5-7 that featured weekly outdoor topics integrating science, traditional Native American/Seneca culture, and skills in reading and language arts. Daily activities included field trips, community guests, storytelling, and individual and group projects. (LP)

  18. Student Learning in Outdoor Education: A Case Study from the National Outdoor Leadership School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisley, Karen; Furman, Nathan; Sibthorp, Jim; Gookin, John

    2008-01-01

    While much attention has been paid to what students learn in outdoor education settings, little has been paid to the process through which that learning occurs. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which students report learning one of six targeted objectives on courses offered by the National Outdoor Leadership School.…

  19. Outdoor Learning: Primary Pupils' Experiences and Teachers' Interaction in Outdoor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, Barbara; Stan, Ina

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws upon research undertaken for the Outdoor Pedagogies project and explores the processes of teaching and learning at one outdoor residential education centre with children and staff from "Oliver" Primary School. Data were collected through ethnographic research and include participant observation, interviews with teachers…

  20. An Ethnography of the Outdoor Classroom--How Teachers Manage Risk in the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stan, Ina; Humberstone, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the approaches to risk that some teachers adopt when they are involved in facilitating outdoor activities. The research was carried out at a residential outdoor centre as part of a PhD study and a follow-up pilot project. The participants were primary school pupils, their teachers and the centre staff. For the purpose of this…

  1. The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor…

  2. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  3. Teaching Ecology in Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching ecology in the winter. Suggested topic areas or units include snow insulation and density, snowflakes and snow crystals, goldenrod galls, bird behavior, survival techniques, bacteriology and decomposition, trees and keying, biomass and productivity, pollution, and soil organisms. A sample student activity sheet is…

  4. Mammals in Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapner, Suzanne

    1985-01-01

    Mammals that tolerate the winter cold and stay active all year exploit the harsh northern climate to their advantage. By simple experiments and observation you can better understand their adaptations which include furry bodies, snowshoe feet, extra blubber, light coloration, and strategically distributed food caches. (JHZ)

  5. Influenza, Winter Olympiad, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Michael A.; Samore, Matthew H.; Lopansri, Bert; Lahey, Timothy; McGuire, Heather L.; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Dunn, James J.; Willick, Stuart E.; Vosters, Randal L.; Waeckerle, Joseph F.; Carroll, Karen C.; Gwaltney, Jack M.; Hayden, Frederick G.; Elstad, Mark R.; Sande, Merle A.

    2006-01-01

    Prospective surveillance for influenza was performed during the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics. Oseltamivir was administered to patients with influenzalike illness and confirmed influenza, while their close contacts were given oseltamivir prophylactically. Influenza A/B was diagnosed in 36 of 188 patients, including 13 athletes. Prompt management limited the spread of this outbreak. PMID:16494733

  6. Winter Playscape Dreaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    Winter, like all seasons, adds a new sense of mystery and discovery to the world of young children. It is the time when they can study snowflakes, find icicles, or observe the birds that share their yards. This article presents ideas and suggestions on how to plan a playscape. A playscape is a man-made seasonal playground for young children. It…

  7. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals - that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  8. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air.

    PubMed

    Rudel, Ruthann A; Perovich, Laura J

    2009-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals-that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  9. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    PubMed Central

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals—that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  10. Outdoor Exposure to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Legislation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Abel A

    2016-06-01

    The total ozone column of 265 ± 11 Dobson Units in the tropical-equatorial zones and 283 ± 16 Dobson Units in the subtropics of Brazil are among the lowest on Earth, and as a result, the prevalence of skin cancer due to solar ultraviolet radiation is among the highest. Daily erythemal doses in Brazil can be over 7,500 J m. Erythemal dose rates on cloudless days of winter and summer are typically about 0.147 W m and 0.332 W m, respectively. However, radiation enhancement events yielded by clouds have been reported with erythemal dose rates of 0.486 W m. Daily doses of the diffuse component of erythemal radiation have been determined with values of 5,053 J m and diffuse erythemal dose rates of 0.312 W m. Unfortunately, Brazilians still behave in ways that lead to overexposure to the sun. The annual personal ultraviolet radiation ambient dose among Brazilian youths can be about 5.3%. Skin cancer in Brazil is prevalent, with annual rates of 31.6% (non-melanoma) and 1.0% (melanoma). Governmental and non-governmental initiatives have been taken to increase public awareness of photoprotection behaviors. Resolution #56 by the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária has banned tanning devices in Brazil. In addition, Projects of Law (PL), like PL 3730/2004, propose that the Sistema Único de Saúde should distribute sunscreen to members of the public, while PL 4027/2012 proposes that employers should provide outdoor workers with sunscreen during professional outdoor activities. Similar laws have already been passed in some municipalities. These are presented and discussed in this study.

  11. Volumetric assessment of airborne indoor and outdoor fungi at poultry and cattle houses in the Mazandaran Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ajoudanifar, Hatef; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Mayahi, Sabah; Khosravi, Alireza; Mousavi, Bita

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the volume of airborne fungi in the indoor and outdoor environment of poultry and cattle houses in the Mazandaran Province in Iran. Indoor and outdoor air of twenty cattle houses and twenty-five poultry houses were sampled using a single-stage impactor, which draws air at 20 L min-1 and impacts sampled material onto Petri plates containing malt extract agar. The plates were incubated at 30 °C for seven days, after which the resulting colonies were counted. The fungi were identified and counted microscopically and macroscopically. A total of 4,662 fungal colonies were isolated from 90 plates collected from indoor and outdoor air of cattle and poultry houses. Cladosporium (55.3 %), yeast (10.0 %), and Aspergillus (9.4 %) were the most common findings. The concentration of airborne fungi in cattle and poultry houses ranged from 10 CFU m-3 to 1700 CFU m-3 in indoor and 10 CFU m-3 to 2170 CFU m-3 in outdoor environments. Cladosporium had the highest mean indoor (424.5 CFU m-3) and outdoor (449.7 CFU m-3) air concentration in the cattle houses. In the poultry houses, the highest mean concentrations were measured for Cladosporium (551.0 CFU m-3) outdoors and yeast (440.7 CFU m-3) indoors. These levels might present an occupational risk, but threshold levels for these environments have yet to be established worldwide.

  12. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  13. Radon in outdoor air in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.G.; Rigby, J.G.; Christensen, L.

    1994-04-01

    Measurements of radon at 50 sites with varying geology indicate that outdoor air in Nevada is comparable to that measured nationwide by Hopper et al. The state-wide median of 15 Bq m{sup -3} (0.4 pCi L{sup -1}) is essentially the same as the nationwide median. The range is considerable: from 2.6-52 Bq m{sup -3} (0.07-1.40 pCi L{sup -1}). Variations in these measurements can generally be correlated with different concentrations of radon in soils and uranium and its progeny in rocks. Silica-rich igneous rocks (rhyolites and granites) appear to be the main sources of high levels of radon in outdoor air in Nevada. Concentrations of radon in outdoor air generally correlate with levels of radon in soil gas. Measurements taken from heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m above the ground suggest that radon in outdoor air reflects the local geology throughout this range of heights. Towns for which >20% of the homes have indoor-air radon concentrations >48 Bq m{sup -3} (4 pCi L{sup -1}) generally have relatively high soil-gas radon, relatively high outdoor-air radon, or both. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Radon in outdoor air in Nevada.

    PubMed

    Price, J G; Rigby, J G; Christensen, L; Hess, R; LaPointe, D D; Ramelli, A R; Desilets, M; Hopper, R D; Kluesner, T; Marshall, S

    1994-04-01

    Measurements of radon at 50 sites with varying geology indicate that outdoor air in Nevada is comparable to that measured nationwide by Hopper et al. (1991). The statewide median of 15 Bq m-3 (0.4 pCi L-1) is essentially the same as the nationwide median. The range is considerable: from 2.6-52 Bq m-3 (0.07-1.40 pCi L-1). Variations in these measurements can generally be correlated with different concentrations of radon in soils and uranium and its progeny in rocks. Silica-rich igneous rocks (rhyolites and granites) appear to be the main sources of high levels of radon in outdoor air in Nevada. Concentrations of radon in outdoor air generally correlate with levels of radon in soil gas. Measurements taken from heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m above the ground suggest that radon in outdoor air reflects the local geology throughout this range of heights. Towns for which > 20% of the homes have indoor-air radon concentrations > 48 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1) generally have relatively high soil-gas radon, relatively high outdoor-air radon, or both.

  15. Iron deficiency in outdoor pig production.

    PubMed

    Szabo, P; Bilkei, G

    2002-09-01

    It has been claimed that outdoor-reared suckling piglets do not need iron supplementation. According to practical experience, outdoor-reared and non-iron-supplemented piglets show a lower performance in comparison with their iron-supplemented counterparts. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of iron supplementation on outdoor-reared suckling piglets. In a large Hungarian outdoor pig production unit, 4691 piglets were assigned to one of two treatment groups. Piglets in group 1 (n = 2344): received no iron supplementation, whereas piglets in group 2 (n = 2347) were intramuscularly injected in the neck on day 3 post-partum with 1.5 ml of Ferriphor 10% solution (TAD Pharmaceutical GmbH, Bremerhaven, Germany). Animal weights, morbidity, haemoglobin concentration and mortality were recorded and analysed. At weaning the iron-injected piglets were significantly (P < 0.05) heavier. The iron-supplemented piglets also revealed significantly (P < 0.01) less pre-weaning morbidity and mortality and higher (P < 0.01) blood haemoglobin concentration compared with the non-injected ones. This study suggests that in order to prevent pre-weaning losses and support piglet health and weight performance, iron supplementation should be administered to piglets in outdoor pig production units.

  16. Realizing Outdoor Independent Learning with a Butterfly-Watching Mobile Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuh-Shyan; Kao, Tai-Chien; Sheu, Jang-Ping

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe the development of a mobile butterfly-watching learning (BWL) system to realize outdoor independent learning for mobile learners. The mobile butterfly-watching learning system was designed in a wireless mobile ad-hoc learning environment. This is first result to provide a cognitive tool with supporting the independent…

  17. The Role of the Professional Field Naturalist in Planning Outdoor Education Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Chris

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the role of consulting firms in site development for outdoor education centers and recreational camps. Services include inventories of flora and fauna to assess the site's potential for environmental education, and design recommendations to minimize detrimental effects of development on the environment. (LP)

  18. Green Thumbs: A Kid's Activity Guide to Indoor and Outdoor Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Laurie

    This guide contains indoor and outdoor gardening activities for children. The activities teach children how plants live and grow; how the weather, temperature, and seasons affect all living things; how living things come out of seeds and soil; how the birds, earthworms, bees, and toads help in the garden; and how the whole environment works…

  19. Learning Biology and Mathematics Outdoors: Effects and Attitudes in a Swedish High School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstam, Emilia; Blom, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This research suggests that learning biology in an outdoor environment has a positive cognitive and affective impact on 13-15-year-old, Swedish high school pupils. Eighty-five pupils in four classes participated in a quasi-experimental design. Half the pupils, taking a biology course in ecology or diversity of life, had several lessons outdoors…

  20. The Policies and Practice of Preschoolers' Outdoor Play: A Chinese Perspective on Greeting the Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Kong, Zhaowei; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood education and care (ECEC) scholars and health professionals worldwide share a common concern about the decline in children's physical development and activity due to lack of access to good quality outdoor environments. Early childhood education and care facilities across the world have been affected by trends that are limiting…