Science.gov

Sample records for outer voring plateau

  1. Electromagnetic Exploration of the Exmouth and Voring Rifted Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myer, David Gerard

    In this work, we present improvements to and the use of two marine electromagnetic exploration methods at the Exmouth and Voring Plateaus. First we discuss the marine controlled-source electromagnetic method (CSEM), specifically the formation and characteristics of custom binary and ternary waveforms as well as improvements to time-series processing which allow derivation of noise estimates. We then apply these improvements to the study of the Scarborough gas reservoir beneath the Exmouth Plateau off the northwest shelf of Australia, over which we collected the world's largest academic CSEM dataset. Using these data we (1) discuss methods for determining uncertainties in CSEM, (2) investigate the resolution of CSEM in an environment where multiple resistive geologic layers lie in close repose, (3) develop the prejudiced minimum norm as a regularization method in 1D CSEM inversion, discussing its strengths and limitations, and (4) develop the 1D/2D and 1D/3D inversion methods in which the forward model is 1D but the regularization is 2D or 3D. All of the new inversion methods derive more realistic results than 1D smooth inversion alone and may form a good starting point for higher dimensional inversion. Finally we target the deep structure of the Exmouth Plateau with marine magnetotellurics and compare the results to the Voring Plateau off the northwest shelf of Norway. Magnetotelluric data reveal that both plateaus host a body of unexpectedly low resistivity (≤ 0.1 Ohm m) at ˜10 km depth. We show that the depth of each body is consistent with known sills and theorize that the low resistivity is due to magnetite cumulates precipitated as layers in mafic-ultramafic sills. Both plateaus exhibit the features of volcanic passive margins in which the final continental rifting event was relatively quick and accompanied by voluminous volcanism. Our data are consistent with this explanation and suggest that a large volume of mafic material was injected into the crust

  2. Outer shelf seafloor geomorphology along a carbonate escarpment: The eastern Malta Plateau, Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micallef, Aaron; Georgiopoulou, Aggeliki; Mountjoy, Joshu; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Iacono, Claudio Lo; Le Bas, Timothy; Del Carlo, Paola; Otero, Daniel Cunarro

    2016-12-01

    Submarine carbonate escarpments, documented in numerous sites around the world, consist of thick exposures of Mesozoic shallow water carbonate sequences - primarily limestones and dolomites - with reliefs of >1 km and slope gradients of >70°. Whilst most research efforts have focused on the processes that shaped carbonate escarpments into complex and extreme terrains, little attention has been paid to the geomorphology of shelves upslope of carbonate escarpments. In this study we investigate high resolution geophysical, sedimentological and visual data acquired from the eastern Malta Plateau, central Mediterranean Sea, to demonstrate that the outer shelf of a carbonate escarpment is directly influenced by escarpment-forming processes. We document forty eight erosional scars, six long channels and numerous smaller-scale channels, three elongate mounds, and an elongate ridge across the eastern Malta Plateau. By analysing their morphology, seismic character, and sedimentological properties, we infer that the seafloor of the eastern Malta Plateau has been modified by three key processes: (i) Mass movements - in the form of translational slides, spreading and debris flows - that mobilised stratified Plio-Pleistocene hemipelagic mud along the shelf break and that were likely triggered by seismicity and loss of support due to canyon erosion across the upper Malta Escarpment; (ii) NNW-SSE trending sinistral strike-slip deformation in Cenozoic carbonates - resulting from the development of a mega-hinge fault system along the Malta Escarpment since the Late Mesozoic, and SE-NW directed horizontal shortening since the Late Miocene - which gave rise to NW-SE oriented extensional grabens and a NNW-SSE horst; (iii) Flow of bottom currents perpendicular and parallel to the Malta Escarpment, associated with either Modified Atlantic Water flows during sea level lowstands and/or Levantine Intermediate Water flows at present, which was responsible for sediment erosion and deposition

  3. Thickening the outer margins of the Tibetan Plateau: The role of crustal shortening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lease, R. O.; Burbank, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    restorations that remove Cenozoic shortening suggest that the northeastern Tibetan crust was 45 ± 5 km thick prior to India-Asia continental collision. This pre-collision thickness estimate is equivalent to average continental crustal thicknesses both adjacent to the Tibetan plateau (44 ± 4 km) and globally (41 ± 6 km) and suggests that pure shear alone may account for Cenozoic crustal thickening in northeastern Tibet, obviating the need for lower crustal flow. Furthermore, a growing number of balanced cross sections across the margins of the Tibetan Plateau document Cenozoic shortening sufficient to generate modern crustal thicknesses: in northern Tibet [Yin et al., 2007; 2008a; 2008b], eastern Tibet [Hubbard et al., 2009; 2010], and northeastern Tibet [this work]. Collectively, these similar findings suggest that lower crustal flow is either unnecessary to account for Cenozoic crustal thickening beneath the outer margins of the Tibetan Plateau or, alternatively, has a more restricted role than originally proposed.

  4. Deepwater exploration on tap in Voring Basin I area off Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Gading, M. )

    1994-11-07

    The results of IKU Petroleum Research studies support the assessment of considerable potential for the Voring Basin in the Norwegian Sea as a hydro-carbon province. Several critical factors concerning generation and preservation of hydrocarbons remain beyond the authors present understanding. Although some of these factors may be evaluated based on existing data, more firmly grounded results cannot be expected until exploration drilling begins. The paper describes the geologic history, hydrocarbon finds, and increased exploration activity in the area.

  5. Coarse cross-bedded grainstones in a mid- to outer carbonate ramp, Bartonian of the Urbasa-Andia plateau (W Pyrenees, N Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baceta, José I.; Pomar, Luis; Mateu-Vicens, Guillem

    2017-04-01

    Most marine grainstones in carbonate ramps and platforms are commonly interpreted to form in high-energy, shallow-water settings where wave energy dissipates by friction on the sea floor. The locus of energy dissipation varies with platform type. On rimmed shelves, skeletal-oolitic sands mainly accumulate near the wave-agitated shelf margin as a rim, which restricts wave action and a low-energy lagoon may form landwards. On ramps and open platforms, by contrast, grainstones commonly accumulate in the shallower zone near or attached to the shoreline, grading basinward into muddier carbonate successions. Within this conceptual scheme, most carbonate ramp subdivisions have been established according to the facies and sedimentary structures associated to the bathymetry-related hydraulic regime, in which the bases of the surface storm-waves and the fairweather waves are the boundary layers. Since seagrasses encroached the oceans by the late Cretaceous, baffling the surface wave energy, and burrowing activity increased significantly, most Cenozoic ramp successions lack the bathymetry-related sedimentary structures and the record of wave and storm activity is commonly lost. This has induced ramp subdivision to become progressively based in light penetration, as inferred from the light dependence of the carbonate producers, particularly for the Cenozoic. This new scenario has permitted to recognize grainstone units detached from shoreline and shoals and produced at depths near the limit of light penetration, or even below, in basinal settings. Here we document a 90-100-m thick Eocene example of crossbedded skeletal grainstones composed by echinoderm-, bryozoan-, red-algal fragments and orthophragminid larger benthic foraminifers. This facies belt occurs at 20-km from the paleo-coastline, downdip of Nummulites-Discocyclina facies, and passes basinward into finely comminuted skeletal debris and marls with planktonic foraminifers of the outer ramp. The skeletal composition of

  6. Crustal rheological strength heterogeneities control the formation of continental plateau margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Zhu, Bojing; Yang, Xiaolin

    2015-08-01

    The margins bordering the Tibetan Plateau show two end-member morphologies in topographic gradient: steep margins and low-gradient margins. To investigate the formation mechanism of convergent intracontinental plateau margins, we conduct 2D numerical experiments to simulate crustal deformation process across plateau margins. Our numerical experiments demonstrate that heterogeneities in crustal rheological strength control significantly the formation of plateau margins when subjected to crustal convergence. A very steep margin is the result of crustal convergence between plateau with weak lower crust and foreland basin with strong lower crust. By contrast, a low-gradient margin could result from crustal convergence between plateau and foreland with less strength contrast. This finding suggests that the diversity in topographic gradient along the Tibetan Plateau borders reflects heterogeneities in crustal rheological strength across the plateau margins. Steep gradient at the margins indicate large crustal rheological strength contrasts between the weak ductile lower crust of the Tibetan Plateau and its strong surrounding foreland basins, like the Sichuan Basin, the Tarim Basin and the Qaidam Basin. Beneath these steep margins the horizontal flow of the Tibetan ductile lower crust is inhibited and forced to extrude to support escarpments. Low-gradient at the margins indicate less crustal strength variations between the plateau and outer forelands, like at the northeastern and southeastern margins, where they might be outlets for the weak ductile Tibetan lower crust to flow away from the plateau.

  7. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  8. Radiative plateau inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Tamarit, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflaton with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.

  9. The Outer Limits: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Barbara R.; Biesekerski, Joan

    The Quinmester course "The Outer Limits" involves an exploration of unknown worlds, mental and physical, through fiction and nonfiction. Its purpose is to focus attention on the ongoing conquest of the frontiers of the mind, the physical world, and outer space. The subject matter includes identification and investigation of unknown…

  10. Outer B Ring Edge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-12-03

    This image NASA Cassini spacecraft shows subtle, wavelike patterns, hundreds of narrow features resembling a record grooves in Saturn outer B-ring, and a noticeable abrupt change in overall brightness beyond the dark gap near the right.

  11. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  12. Saturn's outer magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like Earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.

  13. Law in Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…

  14. Outer Planet Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buratti, B.

    1994-01-01

    An outer planet icy satellite is any one of the celestial bodies in orbit around Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, or Pluto. They range from large, planet-like geologically active worlds with significant atmospheres to tiny irregular objects tens of kilometers in diameter. These bodies are all believed to have some type of frozen volatile, existing alone or in combination with other volatiles.

  15. Law in Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…

  16. Tibetan Plateau and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joswiak, Meri; Yao, Tandong; Joswiak, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Third Annual Third Pole Environment Workshop; Reykjavík, Iceland, 29 August to 1 September 2011 Recognizing the necessity of multinational, interdisciplinary environmental research on the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges—dubbed the "Third Pole" for its considerable ice mass and high elevation— the Third Pole Environment (TPE) program accepted an invitation from the president of Iceland and the University of Iceland to hold its third annual TPE workshop in Iceland. In accordance with TPE's mission to evaluate climate and environmental changes at both local and global scales, participants from 15 countries converged for 3 days of intensive discussions and presentations related to TPE research. The Third Pole glaciers are undergoing considerable retreat, which will likely affect more than 1.5 billion people living in the region

  17. Multidisciplinary scientific program of investigation of the structure and evolution of the Demerara marginal plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Roest, Walter; Graindorge, David; Mercier de Lépinay, Marion; Klinghelhoefer, Frauke; Heuret, Arnauld; Pattier, France; Tallobre, Cedric; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric; Poetisi, Ewald; Loubrieu, Benoît; Iguanes, Dradem, Margats Scientific Parties, Plus

    2017-04-01

    Mercier de Lépinay et al. published in 2016 an updated inventory of transform passive margins in the world. This inventory shows that those margins represent 30% of continental passive margins and a cumulative length of 16% of non-convergent margins. It also highlights the fact that many submarine plateaus prolong transform continental margins, systematically at the junction of oceanic domains of different ages. In the world, we identified twenty of those continental submarine plateaus (Falklands, Voring, Demerara, Tasman, etc). Those marginal plateaus systematically experiment two phases of deformation: a first extensional phase and a second transform phase that allows the individualization of those submarine reliefs appearing on bathymetry as seaward continental-like salients. The understanding of the origin, nature, evolution of those marginal plateaus has many scientific and economic issues. The Demerara marginal plateau located off French Guiana and Surinam belongs to this category of submarine provinces. The French part of this plateau has been the locus of a first investigation in 2003 in the framework of the GUYAPLAC cruise dedicated to support French submissions about extension of the limit of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles. This cruise was the starting point of a scientific program dedicated to geological investigations of the Demerara plateau that was sustained by different cruises and collaborations (1) IGUANES (2013) that completed the mapping of this plateau including off Surinam, allowed to better understand the segmentation of the Northern edge of this plateau, and to evidence the combined importance of contourite and mass-wasting processes in the recent sedimentary evolution of this domain, (2) Collaboration with TOTAL (Mercier de Lépinay's PhD thesis) that allowed to better qualify the two main phases of structural evolution of the plateau respectively during Jurassic times for its Western border, Cretaceous times for its

  18. Outer planets probe testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smittkamp, J. A.; Grote, M. G.; Edwards, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    An atmospheric entry Probe is being developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to conduct in situ scientific investigations of the outer planets' atmospheres. A full scale engineering model of an MDAC-E Probe configuration, was fabricated by NASA ARC. Proof-of-concept test validation of the structural and thermal design is being obtained at NASA ARC. The model was successfully tested for shock and dynamic loading and is currently in thermal vacuum testing.

  19. Exploring the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Initial, current and planned United States projects for the spacecraft exploration of the outer planets of the solar system are presented. Initial plans were developed in the mid-1960's for the exploration of the outer planets by utilizing the gravity-assist technique during a fortuitous alignment of the outer planets in the Grand Tour Project, however although state-of-the-art space technology could have supported the project, it was considered too expensive, therefore politically infeasible. Subsequently, the Pioneer Project was undertaken to explore the asteroid belt and the environment around Jupiter and the Voyager Project was undertaken to send two spacecraft to fly by Jupiter and utilize its gravity assist to reach Saturn. The successful Pioneer 10 and 11 missions have provided important information on the effects of the asteroid belt and the severe radiation environment around Jupiter, and Voyager 1 has collected information about Jupiter, its magnetic fields and radiation zones, and its satellites. Project Galileo is intended to be launched in January 1982 to conduct an intensive investigation of Jupiter, its satellites and immediate environment and a Saturn Orbiter dual probe mission and a Uranus orbiter are also under consideration.

  20. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  1. Jupiter's outer atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brice, N. M.

    1973-01-01

    The current state of the theory of Jupiter's outer atmosphere is briefly reviewed. The similarities and dissimilarities between the terrestrial and Jovian upper atmospheres are discussed, including the interaction of the solar wind with the planetary magnetic fields. Estimates of Jovian parameters are given, including magnetosphere and auroral zone sizes, ionospheric conductivity, energy inputs, and solar wind parameters at Jupiter. The influence of the large centrifugal force on the cold plasma distribution is considered. The Jovian Van Allen belt is attributed to solar wind particles diffused in toward the planet by dynamo electric fields from ionospheric neutral winds, and the consequences of this theory are indicated.

  2. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.

    1998-01-01

    The Principal Investigator's responsibilities on this grant fell into two categories according to his participation. In the nomenclature work of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Owen is chair of the Task Group for the Outer Solar System. He is also a member of the IAU's Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) which is composed of the chairs of the several Task Groups plus the presidents of two IAU Commissions and several outside consultants. The WGPSN is presided over by its President, Professor Kaare Aksnes from the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway.

  3. Outer planets satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation takes into account the published literature on outer planet satellites for 1979-1982. It is pointed out that all but three (the moon and the two Martian satellites) of the known planetary satellites are found in the outer solar system. Most of these are associated with the three regular satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. The largest satellites are Titan in the Saturn system and Ganymede and Callisto in the Jupiter system. Intermediate in size between Mercury and Mars, each has a diameter of about 5000 km. Presumably each has an internal composition about 60 percent rock and 40 ice, and each is differentiated with a dense core extending out about 75 percent of the distance to the surface, with a mantle of high-pressure ice and a crust of ordinary ice perhaps 100 km thick. Attention is also given to Io, Europa, the icy satellites of Saturn, the satellites of Uranus, the small satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, Triton and the Pluto system, and plans for future studies.

  4. Saturn's outer satellite - Phoebe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Voyager 2 took these images of Saturn's outer satellite Phoebe, on Sept. 4, 1981, from 2.2 million kilometers (1.36 million miles)away. This pair shows two different hemispheres of the satellite. The left image shows a bright mountain on the upper right edge reflecting the light of the setting sun. This mountain is possibly the central peak of a large impact crater taking up most of the upper right quadrant of Phoebe in this view. The right images shows a hemisphere with an intrinsically bright spot in the top portion of the image as well as the ridges appearing bright in the sunset light of the lower right. These images were processed by the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  5. Strategy for outer planets exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    NASA's Planetary Programs Office formed a number of scientific working groups to study in depth the potential scientific return from the various candidate missions to the outer solar system. The results of these working group studies were brought together in a series of symposia to evaluate the potential outer planet missions and to discuss strategies for exploration of the outer solar system that were consistent with fiscal constraints and with anticipated spacecraft and launch vehicle capabilities. A logical, scientifically sound, and cost effective approach to exploration of the outer solar system is presented.

  6. Seismic stratigraphy and structure of the Northland Plateau and the development of the Vening Meinesz transform margin, SW Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzer, R. H.; Davy, B. W.; Mortimer, N.; Quilty, P. G.; Chaproniere, G. C. H.; Jones, C. M.; Crawford, A. J.; Hollis, C. J.

    2009-03-01

    The Northland Plateau and the Vening Meinesz “Fracture” Zone (VMFZ), separating southwest Pacific backarc basins from New Zealand Mesozoic crust, are investigated with new data. The 12-16 km thick Plateau comprises a volcanic outer plateau and an inner plateau sedimentary basin. The outer plateau has a positive magnetic anomaly like that of the Three Kings Ridge. A rift margin was found between the Three Kings Ridge and the South Fiji Basin. Beneath the inner plateau basin, is a thin body interpreted as allochthon and parautochthon, which probably includes basalt. The basin appears to have been created by Early Miocene mainly transtensive faulting, which closely followed obduction of the allochthon and was coeval with arc volcanism. VMFZ faulting was eventually concentrated along the edge of the continental shelf and upper slope. Consequently arc volcanoes in a chain dividing the inner and outer plateau are undeformed whereas volcanoes, in various stages of burial, within the basin and along the base of the upper slope are generally faulted. Deformed and flat-lying Lower Miocene volcanogenic sedimentary rocks are intimately associated with the volcanoes and the top of the allochthon; Middle Miocene to Recent units are, respectively, mildly deformed to flat-lying, calcareous and turbiditic. Many parts of the inner plateau basin were at or above sea level in the Early Miocene, apparently as isolated highs that later subsided differentially to 500-2,000 m below sea level. A mild, Middle Miocene compressive phase might correlate with events of the Reinga and Wanganella ridges to the west. Our results agree with both arc collision and arc unzipping regional kinematic models. We present a continental margin model that begins at the end of the obduction phase. Eastward rifting of the Norfolk Basin, orthogonal to the strike of the Norfolk and Three Kings ridges, caused the Northland Plateau to tear obliquely from the Reinga Ridge portion of the margin, initiating the

  7. The Colorado Plateau: High, Wide, and Windswept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Bibi; Brook, Richard; Fischman, Shelly; Jacobson, LouAnn; Smith, Shelley; Tisdale, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Explores the natural forces that created the Colorado Plateau, examines a few of the myriad plants and animals inhabiting the six life zones on the plateau, and provides an overview of the challenges faced by land managers seeking to care for the plateau's extraordinary life and land forms. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

  8. Will Career Plateauing Become a Bigger Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Christopher M.

    1983-01-01

    Though career plateauing can be put off, it can seldom be entirely avoided. Distinction is made between plateauing of the job content type and plateauing of the structural or organizational type. Primary solutions involve job enrichment, performance goal adjustments, lateral transfers, or modified standards of appraisal. (SSH)

  9. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.; Grant, John (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This grant has supported work by T. Owen and B. A. Smith on planetary and satellite nomenclature, carried out under the general auspices of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The IAU maintains a Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) whose current chair is Prof.Kaare Aksnes of the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway. Both Owen and Smith are members of the WGPSN; Owen as chair of the Outer Solar System Task Group, and Smith as chair of the Mars Task Group. The major activity during the last grant period (2002) was the approval of several new names for features on Mars by Smith's group and features on Jovian satellites plus new names for satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus by Owen's group. Much of this work was accomplished by e-mail exchanges, but the new nomenclature was formally discussed and approved at a meeting of the WGPSN held in conjunction with the Division for Planetary Sciences meeting in Birmingham, Alabama in October 2002.

  10. Indians of the Lower Plateau.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The history of the Lower Plateau Indians--those in the states of Nevada, Utah, and Colorado--is traced and briefly described from early tribes to the modern day Indian. The environmental transition undergone by these peoples and their cultural change, more pronounced when the United States acquired the West, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on…

  11. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  12. The Pajarito Plateau: a bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathien, Frances Joan; Steen, Charlie R.; Allen, Craig D.

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography is the result of two initially independent projects. As the consulting archaeologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Charlie R. Steen collected entries at the suggestion of the staff of the Environmental Surveillance Group of the Health, Safety, and Environmental Division, HSE-8. The primary purpose was to aid the staff in evaluating cultural resources on LANL lands. In addition to works that related to the archaeology and history of the area, Steen included notations of a few books and articles in other fields such as geology and natural history. It was hoped that they also would be of value to other organizations and to students of past human activities on the Pajarito Plateau.At the same time, the National Park Service (NPS) was planning a major survey of Bandelier National Monument (BNM). As part of this plan, the author was asked to prepare a background document that described research previously carried out in the area, including an annotated bibliography. Although the survey would be limited to the park boundaries, the larger Pajarito Plateau is a more logical study area from physiographic, environmental, and cultural perspectives; hence the focus was on this larger region. Mathien (1986) also included some references to natural resources studies, particularly those initiated by NPS within Bandelier National Monument.Both bibliographies were made available to Colleen Olinger and Beverly Larson of the Health and Environmental Services Group at Los Alamos. They realized that while neither was complete, each included entries missing from the other. Larson suggested the two bibliographies be combined. (At this time, Craig Allen was studying the landscape of the Jemez Mountains [Allen 1984c, 1989]. His investigations included much detailed information on natural resource studies and were added in 1991 and 1992.)To limit the scope of their work, Steen and Mathien had chosen their parameter: the Pajarito Plateau. Geographically, the

  13. Plateau uplift and climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddiman, W.F. ); Kutzbach, J.E. )

    1991-03-01

    The earth of 40 million years ago was a warm, wet place. Forests abounded; grasslands and deserts were rare. Then the planet began to cool. Regional climate extremes developed. Many causes have been postulated, including continental drift and diminishing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The authors offer a new theory: continental uplift created huge plateaus that altered circulation of the atmosphere. The two largest masses of high, rocky terrain in the Northern Hemisphere today are the area encompassing the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya Mountains and the broad region of the American West centered on the Colorado Plateau. Geologic evidence indicates that these regions rose substantially during the past 40 million years. The authors focused their research on these plateaus.

  14. Introduction to the Antarctic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, J. W. V.

    2006-10-01

    Over the past decade there has been remarkable progress in the exploration of the Antarctic plateau for astronomy. Already, major astronomical facilities are in operation at the Amundsen-Scott Station at South Pole, and even more ambitious telescopes are planned or under construction there. However, for a number of important reasons the high plateau sites of Dome A and Dome C appear to offer even more favorable conditions than South Pole for many kinds of astronomy. The success of the Chinese expedition to Dome A in January 2005, plus the opening of the French/Italian Concordia Station at Dome C for year-round operation in 2005, have now created exciting new opportunities for Antarctic astronomy.

  15. Introduction to the Antarctic Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, J. W. V.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been remarkable progress in the exploration of the Antarctic plateau for astronomy. Already, major astronomical facilities are in operation at the Amundsen-Scott Station at South Pole, and even more ambitious telescopes are planned or under construction there. However, for a number of important reasons the high plateau sites of Dome A and Dome C appear to offer even more favourable conditions than South Pole for many kinds of astronomy. The success of the Chinese expedition to Dome A in January 2005, plus the opening of the French/Italian Concordia Station at Dome C for year-round operation in 2005, have now created exciting new opportunities for Antarctic astronomy.

  16. Monuments of the Giza Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The colossal pyramids of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus) have attracted a huge amount of astronomical interest over the years, both scholarly and popular. Less attention is usually given to the broader context of structures on the Giza Plateau. One of the most notorious ideas connecting the Giza Plateau with astronomy is that the three large pyramids are laid out on the ground so as to reflect the appearance of the three stars of Orion's Belt in the sky. This idea is unsupportable for several reasons but has succeeded in generating huge public interest. Of much greater serious interest is the fact that the three main pyramids were oriented cardinally to extraordinary precision, which raises the questions of why this was important and how it was achieved. Another idea that has attracted serious attention but also some confusion is that the orientations of some narrow shafts within Khufu's pyramid might have been deliberately aligned upon particular stars. The overall layout of monuments on the plateau may certainly have been designed so as to emphasize certain solar phenomena, for symbolic and ideological reasons relating to a dominant sun cult. It is also possible that it formed part of a wider cosmological "master plan" extending to other pyramids and temples up to 20 km distant.

  17. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

  18. PLATEAU IRIS SYNDROME--CASE SERIES.

    PubMed

    Feraru, Crenguta Ioana; Pantalon, Anca Delia; Chiselita, Dorin; Branisteanu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Plateau iris is characterized by closing the anterior chamber angle due to a large ciliary body or due to its anterior insertion that alters the position of iris periphery in respect to the trabecular meshwork. There are two aspects that need to be differentiated: plateau iris configuration and plateau iris syndrome. The first describes a situation when the iris root is flat and the anterior chamber is not shallow, the latter refers to a post laser iridotomy condition in which a patent iridotomy has removed the relative pupillary block, but goniscopically confirmed angle closure recurs without central shallowing of the anterior chamber. Isolated plateau iris syndrome is rare compared to plateau iris configuration. We hereby present two case reports of plateau iris syndrome in young patients who came to an ophthalmologic consult by chance.

  19. Curiosity on the Naukluft Plateau

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-22

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft shows the Curiosity rover currently located on the Naukluft Plateau just north of the Bagnold Dune field. Its position was captured by HiRISE on 25 March 2016 (MSL Sol 1291. Views from the surface at this location are available here and here.) The rover is within sandstone outcrops informally named the "Stimson Formation." There are no obvious rover tracks in the HiRISE views indicating that this bedrock contains little dust that otherwise could be disturbed by the rover wheels as has been seen earlier in Curiosity's traverse. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20738

  20. Origin of Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  1. Vertical tectonics of the High Plateau region, Manihiki Plateau, Western Pacific, from seismic stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Huirong-Anita; Stock, Joann M.; Clayton, Robert; Luyendyk, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The Manihiki Plateau is an elevated oceanic volcanic plateau that was formed mostly in Early Cretaceous time by hotspot activity. We analyze new seismic reflection data acquired on cruise KIWI 12 over the High Plateau region in the southeast of the plateau, to look for direct evidence of the location of the heat source and the timing of uplift, subsidence and faulting. These data are correlated with previous seismic reflection lines from cruise CATO 3, and with the results at DSDP Site 317 at the northern edge of the High Plateau. Seven key reflectors are identified from the seismic reflection profiles and the resulting isopach maps show local variations in thickness in the southeastern part of the High Plateau, suggesting a subsidence (cooling) event in this region during Late Cretaceous and up to Early Eocene time. We model this as a hotspot, active and centered on the High Plateau area during Early Cretaceous time in a near-ridge environment. The basement and Early Cretaceous volcaniclastic layers were formed by subaerial and shallow-water eruption due to the volcanic activity. After that, the plateau experienced erosion. The cessation of hotspot activity and subsequent heat loss by Late Cretaceous time caused the plateau to subside rapidly. The eastern and southern portions of the High Plateau were rifted away following the cessation of hot spot activity. As the southeastern portion of the High Plateau was originally higher and above the calcium carbonate compensation depth, it accumulated more sediments than the surrounding plateau regions. Apparently coeval with the rapid subsidence of the plateau are normal faults found at the SE edge of the plateau. Since Early Eocene time, the plateau subsided to its present depth without significant deformation.

  2. The Double Chooz Outer Veto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toups, Matthew

    2009-05-01

    Measuring a non-zero value for the neutrino mixing angle θ13 sets the scale for future precision measurements in the lepton sector such as CP violation. The Double Chooz experiment will begin taking data later this year with a sensitivity to 2̂(2θ13) in the 0.02 - 0.03 range, improving on the CHOOZ bound by about an order of magnitude. Efficient rejection of backgrounds induced by cosmic muons is essential to achieving this sensitivity. The Double Chooz Outer Veto plays a crucial role in vetoing and tagging these muons. An update on the status of the Double Chooz Outer Veto will be presented.

  3. Magnetosphere of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    Scaling laws for possible outer planet magnetospheres are derived. These suggest that convection and its associated auroral effects will play a relatively smaller role than at earth, and that there is a possibility that they could have significant radiation belts of energetic trapped particles.

  4. Prehistoric human settling on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dongju; Dong, Guanghui

    2017-04-01

    When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By studying hand- and footprints in Chusang, Meyer et al. (2016) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene without the help of agriculture. However, we think the limited hand- and footprints evidence found in Chusang could indicate no more than prehistoric hunter-gatherers presence on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene. In addition, by reviewing all the published archaeological data, we propose that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) when human adapted to the high altitude environment and climate change with different strategies and techniques. Particularly, the prevail of microlithic technology in North China provoked hunter-gatherers' first visit to the NETP in relatively ameliorated last Deglacial period, and the the quick development of millet farming and subsequent mixed barley-wheat farming and sheep herding facilitated farmers and herders permanently settled in Tibetan Plateau, even above 3000 masl, during mid- and late Holocene. References: Chen et al., 2015. Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP. Science, 347: 248-250. Meyer et al., 2016

  5. Outward growth of Tibetan Plateau: Insights from joint inversion of lithosphere structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Li, J.; Bao, X.; Zhu, L.

    2014-12-01

    Models for the growth of the Tibetan plateau have been a subject of great debate for decades. Here we add to the debate with new insights from an advanced imaging of the lithosphere structure of the western China. To resolve the ambiguity of model parameters and to improve resolution in seismic imaging, a combination of different data sets that have sensitivities to different parameters is required. We've recently developed joint-inversion methods involving Pn travel times, receiver functions, and surface wave dispersion measurements and applied them systematically to seismic stations in western China to obtain improved 3D P and S lithosphere models. Our models show significantly higher Vp/Vs ratios in northern Himalaya Block and southern Qiangtang Block than in the Lhasa Block. Mid-crustal low velocity zone (LVZ) is observed under much of the Tibetan Plateau. However, it is much more pronounced under the outer regions of the plateau (the Himalaya and Qiangtang Blocks) than under its interior (the Lhasa Block). The location of pronounced mid-crustal LVZ correlates (anti-correlates) with the distribution of seismicity in the plateau; the low seismicity areas have more pronounced LVZs and greater Vp/Vs values and the high seismic areas have less pronounced LVZs and smaller Vp/Vs values. The observations support the existence of a proto-Tibetan Plateau core and the outward growth of the margins at a later stage after the India-Eurasian collision (Wang C.S. et al., PNAS, 2008). The proto-plateau is more rigid and can sustain stress to cause brittle failure of earthquakes while the materials at the margins are weaker and can be subject to plastic deformation with much less seismicity. In this model, the proto-plateau core acts as an efficient medium for the stress transfer from the collision front to the margins for the outward growth of the plateau. The crust and mantle lithosphere act as a coherent unit as indicated by the consistent pattern of seismic anomalies with

  6. The controversial age of Kilimanjaro's plateau glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Zapf, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Salazar, Gary; Hardy, Doug; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Interpreting climate signals contained in natural archives requires a precise chronology. Radiocarbon analysis can be a powerful tool for dating high-altitude ice cores, especially for the lowermost segments for which ice flow-induced thinning limits the counting of annual layers. Radiocarbon dating has been applied to ice cores containing sufficient organic material, which is a limiting factor to the wider application of this technique. We present a novel radiocarbon dating approach using carbonaceous aerosols enclosed in the ice to help resolve the debate about the age of the Kilimanjaro's plateau glaciers. Paleoclimate reconstructions based on six ice cores drilled in 2000 assigned a basal age of 11'700 years. A recent study claims recurring cycles of waxing and waning controlled primarily by atmospheric moisture and an absence of the ice bodies was suggested for 1200 AD. The Kilimanjaro ice fields are subject to rapid areal shrinkage and thinning and are expected to disappear within several decades. Resolving the controversy of the time frame for the extinction of the Kilimanjaro ice might have wide implications for the understanding of the natural climate variability in the tropics. A stratigraphic sequence of samples from the exposed vertical ice cliffs at the margins of the Northern Ice Field (NIF) was collected in 2011. A total of 45 horizontal short cores (50 cm length) were extracted from 22 horizons characterized by varying micro-particle concentrations. Additionally, 3 samples were taken from the glacier surface to investigate a potential age offset. All samples were shipped frozen to Paul Scherrer Institute, decontaminated in a cold room by removing the outer layer (0.3 mm) and by rinsing the samples with ultra-pure water. The insoluble carbonaceous particles were filtrated by using freshly preheated quartz fibre filters. Procedural blanks were estimated using artificial ice blocks of frozen ultra-pure water treated as real ice samples and were

  7. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  8. Plateau effects on diurnal circulation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.; Tang, M.

    1984-04-01

    The diurnal variation of 850 mb heights, the detailed distribution of which could be assessed by the inclusion of surface data, and of resultant winds over, and in the vicinity of, the Great Basin reveals clearly a plateau-wind circulation during summer. This circulation reverses between day and night and appears to include the low-level jet stream over Texas and Oklahoma, as well as the time of occurrence of thunderstorms. This plateau circulation system interacts with local mountain-valley breeze systems. The thickness of the daytime inflow and nighttime outflow layer over the plateau is approximately 2 km. 19 references, 11 figures, 1 table.

  9. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; Dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; Dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome.

  10. Plateau borders of smectic liquid crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trittel, Torsten; Aldred, Ruth; Stannarius, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the geometrical properties of Plateau borders in an arrangement of connected smectic A free standing films. The geometry is chosen such that a circular Plateau border surrounds a planar smectic film and connects it with two smectic catenoids. It is demonstrated that, similar to soap films, the smectic film geometry can be described by a negative line tension of the circular contact region. Thus, the equilibrium angle between the films depends upon the liquid content in this region, and with increasing liquid content, deviations from Plateau's rule are observed. The experimental results are qualitatively comparable to soap films. A possible origin of slight quantitative differences is discussed.

  11. Origin of Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Boyce, J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We feel that at the present moment the available theoretical models of the Kuiper belt are still in advance of the data, and thus our main task has been to conduct observational work guided by theoretical motivations. Our efforts over the past year can be divided into four categories: A) Wide-field Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects; B) Pencil-beam Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects; C) Wide-field Searches for Moons of the Outer Planets; D) Pencil-beam Searches for Faint Uranian and Neptunian Moons; E) Recovery Observations. As of April 2002, we have conducted several searches for Kuiper belt objects using large-format mosaic CCD camera on 4-meter class telescopes. In May 1999, we used the Kitt Peak 4-meter with the NOAO Mosaic camera we attempted a search for KBOs at a range of ecliptic latitudes. In addition to our wide-field searches, we have conducted three 'pencil-beam' searches in the past year. In a pencil-beam search we take repeated integrations of the same field throughout a night. After preprocessing the resulting images we shift and recombine them along a range of rates and directions consistent with the motion of KBOs. Stationary objects then smear out, while objects moving at near the shift rate appear as point sources. In addition to our searches for Kuiper belt objects, we are completing the inventory of the outer solar system by search for faint satellites of the outer planets. In August 2001 we conducted pencil beam searches for faint Uranian and Neptunian satellites at CFHT and CTIO. These searches resulted in the discover of two Neptunian and four Uranian satellite candidates. The discovery of Kuiper belt objects and outer planet satellites is of little use if the discoveries are not followed by systematic, repeated astrometric observations that permit reliable estimates of their orbits.

  12. Physics of the outer heliosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gazis, P.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Major advances in the physics of the outer heliosphere are reviewed for the 1987-1990 time frame. Emphasis is placed on five broad topics: the detailed structure of the solar wind at large heliocentric distances, the global structure of the interplanetary field, latidudinal variations and meridional flows, radial and temporal variations, and the interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium. 122 refs.

  13. Outer Space Traffic Safety Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Paul B.

    2013-09-01

    Management of traffic in outer space is a major safety problem. Traffic is increasing. Most satellites are navigable but they have to co-exist with space debris which is not navigable. We need minimum safety rules for outer space traffic. We have the possible beginnings of international safety standards in the form of national space object tracking; Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) standardization through ICAO and the International Committee on GNSS (ICG); the IADC space debris guidelines; and the proposed Code of Conduct. However, safety could be improved by standards for such activities as licensing launches of satellites into outer space; standards for accident investigation and search and rescue: operational safety zones around space objects such as the International Space Station. This paper describes legal authority for minimum safety standards. It considers safety standards established by private agreements among commercial operators. Finally it examines a number of options for an international forum to establish safety standards, including self-regulation, COPUOS, ICAO, ITU, a space code of conduct, and a new space organization.

  14. [Hypoxic adaptation of the hearts of plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) and plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)].

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin-Zhang; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhu, Shi-Hai; Rao, Xin-Feng; Wei, Lian; Wei, Deng-Bang

    2008-06-25

    Plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) and plateau pika (Ochotona curzniae) are native to the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. To study their adaptive mechanisms, the ratios of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW) and right to left ventricular plus septum weights [RV/(LV+S)] were determined; the microvessel density (MVD) of cardiac muscle were measured by immunohistochemical staining; the numerical density on area (N(A)), volume density (V(V)), specific surface (δ), and surface density (S(V)) of mitochondria were obtained by microscopy and stereology; the contents of myoglobin (Mb) and lactic acid (LD), and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in cardiac muscle were analyzed by spectrophotometer. The results showed that the HW/BW of plateau zokor [(4.55±0.26)%] and plateau pika [(4.41±0.38)%] was significantly greater than that of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat [(3.44±0.41)%] (P<0.05), but the RV/(LV+S) [(22.04±1.98)%, (25.53±3.41)%] was smaller than that of SD rats [(44.23±3.87)%] (P<0.05). The MVD and N(A) of cardiac muscle were 1688.631±250.253 and 0.768±0.123 in SD rat, 2002.888±367.466 and 0.868±0.159 in plateau pika and 2 990.643±389.888 and 1.012±0.133 in plateau zokor. The V(V) of mitochondria in plateau zokor (0.272±0.045) was significantly lower than that in plateau pika (0.343±0.039) and SD rat (0.321±0.048) (P<0.05), while the δ of mitochondria in plateau zokor (9.409±1.238) was higher than that in plateau pika (6.772±0.892) and SD rat (7.287±1.373) (P<0.05). The S(V) of mitochondria in plateau pika (2.322±0.347) was not obviously different from that in plateau zokor (2.468±0.380) and SD rat (2.227±0.377), but that in plateau zokor was significantly higher than that in SD rat (P<0.05). The contents of Mb in cardiac muscle of plateau zokor [(763.33±88.73) nmol/g] and plateau pika [(765.96±28.47) nmol/g] were significantly higher than that of SD rat [(492.38±72.14) nmol/g] (P<0.05), the content of LD in plateau zokor [(0.57±0.06) mmol/L] was

  15. Late Cretaceous Arc Initiation on the Edge of an Oceanic Plateau (Southern Central America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchs, D. M.; Baumgartner, P. O.; Arculus, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Caribbean Plate comprises one or several late Cretaceous oceanic plateaus imbricated between the Northern and Southern Americas. Uplifted portions of plateau(s) along plate boundaries have been recognized in many sites, including that underlying the south Central American Volcanic Arc. We provide new constraints for the role of the plateau in the evolution of this arc obtained by mapping of the uplifted forearc area between southern Costa Rica and western Panama. An oceanic plateau, accreted seamounts and arc rocks were identified, and a new tectono-stratigraphy defined. The arc basement is composed of a Coniacian oceanic plateau. In the outer margin, late Cretaceous-Eocene accreted seamounts are in contact with the plateau along tectonic mélanges and active faults. Campanian-Maastrichtian primitive arc rocks are found 40-110 km to the trench on the top of -or as dykes within- the plateau. The location of these rocks correlates to previous observations and indicates that the arc front migrated away from the trench during the late Cretaceous, potentially in response to subduction erosion or slab flattening [Lissinna et al., EGU 2006]. The first island arc lavas were deposited under sea level, over a broad area. They were quickly followed by more evolved intrusives and lavas, which were emplaced along a volcanic front during the late Cretaceous-Paleocene. Detrital and volcanic records along the Central American isthmus indicate that a continuous volcanic arc extended between eastern Panama and northern Costa Rica in this time. In southern Costa Rica (Golfito complex) and western Panama (Sona-Azuero-Coiba complex), the oceanic plateau consists mainly of pillowed and massive low Fe (tholeiitic) basalts. These rocks have a highly consistent geochemistry characterized by flat, primitive upper mantle-normalized incompatible element patterns with low Pb and high Nb-Ti contents. Primitive arc igneous samples are low-medium Fe basalts to trachyandesites found as pillow

  16. Geometrical interpretation for the outer SU(3) outer multiplicity label

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draayer, Jerry P.; Troltenier, D.

    1995-01-01

    A geometrical interpretation for the outer multiplicity rho that occurs in a reduction of the product of two SU(3) representations, (lambda(sub pi), mu(sub pi)) x (lambda(sub nu), mu(sub nu)) approaches sigma(sub rho)(lambda, mu)(sub rho), is introduced. This coupling of proton (pi) and neutron (nu) representations arises, for example, in both boson and fermion descriptions of heavy deformed nuclei. Attributing a geometry to the coupling raises the possibility of introducing a simple interaction that provides a physically meaningful way for distinguishing multiple occurrences of (lambda, mu) values that can arise in such products.

  17. Inherent agricultural constraints in Allegheny Plateau soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    World population increases demand increased agricultural production. This can be accomplished through improved cultivars and production techniques or increased use of previously marginal agricultural regions. In the Allegheny Plateau (AP) region of the Appalachian Mountains, acid soils with toxic ...

  18. Career Plateauing: Implications for Career Development Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Andrew; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reaction to career plateaus depends on the employee's resources as well as the organization's response. Counseling, training and development, job enrichment, and other activities can minimize the stressful effects of involuntary plateauing. (SK)

  19. Outer scale of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Vladimir P.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 70's, the scientists in Italy (A.Consortini, M.Bertolotti, L.Ronchi), USA (R.Buser, Ochs, S.Clifford) and USSR (V.Pokasov, V.Lukin) almost simultaneously discovered the phenomenon of deviation from the power law and the effect of saturation for the structure phase function. During a period of 35 years we have performed successively the investigations of the effect of low-frequency spectral range of atmospheric turbulence on the optical characteristics. The influence of the turbulence models as well as a outer scale of turbulence on the characteristics of telescopes and systems of laser beam formations has been determined too.

  20. The CDF Central Outer Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, K.T.; CDF Collaboration

    1997-01-01

    We describe the CDF Central Outer Tracker (COT), an open-cell drift chamber currently being constructed for the CDF detector to run at the upgraded Fermilab Tevatron collider. This detector will provide central tracking with excellent momentum resolution in the high- density environment of a hadron collider. It will be able to resolve 132 ns beam crossings and provide tracking trigger information to the Level 1 trigger. The design is based upon the existing and successful CDF Central Tracking Chamber. The preliminary mechanical and electrical designs are presented. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Lithospheric structure across the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau: Implications for the plateau's lateral growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xuzhang; Liu, Mian; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Weijun; Shi, Yutao; An, Meijian; Zhang, Yuansheng; Liu, Xuzhou

    2017-02-01

    Variations of lithospheric structure across the northeastern Tibetan Plateau and its bounding Asian blocks, the Alxa block to the north and the Ordos block to the east, are crucial for understanding the rise and lateral growth of the Tibetan Plateau. Using waveforms from high-density seismic arrays in northeastern Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding regions, we investigated the lithospheric structure with S- and P-wave receiver functions. The results show strong and relatively simple negative velocity gradients in the depth range of mantle lithosphere (∼70-150 km) under the Ordos and Alxa blocks, similar to those under typical stable continental lithosphere. In contrast, under northeastern Tibetan Plateau including its marginal regions, the velocity gradients are weak and diffusive for the mantle lithosphere, which may be explained by elevated temperature and presence of partial melts. The changes of lithospheric structures are sharp between the Tibetan Plateau and the bounding Ordos and Alxa blocks, suggesting that these two blocks have restricted the lateral growth of the Tibetan Plateau as rigid boundaries. However, across the northeastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau to the Yinchuan rift, the lithospheric mantle structures are similar, suggesting a lateral mantle flow from the Tibetan Plateau to the gap between the Ordos and the Alxa blocks. The crustal structures along this transition show evidence of lateral growth of the Tibetan Plateau. In particular, the edge of thickened crust and evidence of Moho superposition are found between the Haiyuan Fault and the Tianjin-shan Fault, which may have replaced the Haiyuan Fault as the front boundary of the laterally growing Tibetan Plateau in its northeastern corner.

  2. Cluster growth modeling of plateau erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Colin P.

    1994-01-01

    The pattern of erosion of a plateau along an escarpment may be modeled usng cluster growth techniques, recently popularized in models of drainage network evolution. If erosion on the scarp takes place in discrete events at rates subject to local substrate strength, the whole range of behavior is described by a combination of three cluster growth mechanisms: invasion percolation, Eden growth and diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). These model the relative importance of preexisting substrate strength, background weathering, and seepage weathering and erosion respectively. The rate of seepage processes is determined by the efflux of groundwater at the plateau margin, which in turn is determined by the pressure field in the plateau aquifer. If this process acted alone, it would produce erosion patterns in the form of Laplacian fractals, with groundwater recharge from a distant source, or Poissionian fractals, with groundwater recharge uniform over the plateau. DLA is used to mimic the Laplacian or Poissonian potential field and the corresponding seepage growth process. The scaling structure of clusters grown by pure DLA, invasion percolation, or Eden growth is well known; this study presents a model which combines all three growth mechanisms for the first time. Mixed growth processes create clusters with different scaling properties and morphologies over distinct length scale ranges, and this is demonstrable in natural examples of plateau erosion.

  3. Outer Appearances Can Be Deceiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the chemical composition of the rock at Gusev Crater dubbed 'Mazatzal' after it was brushed and ground by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rock abrasion tool. The data, taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer over the last few sols, show that the amount of chlorine and sulfur tri-oxide in Mazatzal first increased after brushing, then diminished after grinding. The interior of the rock appears to have the same chemical make-up as other volcanic or basalt rocks studied in the Gusev Crater area ('Adirondack' and 'Humphrey'). Its outer coating or rind, on the other hand, appears to be of a different constitution. Scientists are still puzzling out the implications of these data.

    The larger symbols on the graph represent inferred rock compositions, while the smaller symbols are actual data points. Observations were made at the target dubbed 'New York' on Mazatzal.

  4. Outer Appearances Can Be Deceiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the chemical composition of the rock at Gusev Crater dubbed 'Mazatzal' after it was brushed and ground by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rock abrasion tool. The data, taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer over the last few sols, show that the amount of chlorine and sulfur tri-oxide in Mazatzal first increased after brushing, then diminished after grinding. The interior of the rock appears to have the same chemical make-up as other volcanic or basalt rocks studied in the Gusev Crater area ('Adirondack' and 'Humphrey'). Its outer coating or rind, on the other hand, appears to be of a different constitution. Scientists are still puzzling out the implications of these data.

    The larger symbols on the graph represent inferred rock compositions, while the smaller symbols are actual data points. Observations were made at the target dubbed 'New York' on Mazatzal.

  5. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  6. Chemistry of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scattergood, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Various aspects were studied of past or present chemistry in the atmospheres of the outer planets and their satellites using lab simulations. Three areas were studied: (1) organic chemistry induced by kinetically hot hydrogen atoms in the region of Jupiter's atmosphere containing the ammonia cirrus clouds; (2) the conversion of NH3 into N2 by plasmas associated with entry of meteors and other objects into the atmosphere of early Titan; and (3) the synthesis of simple hydrocarbons and HCN by lightning in mixtures containing N2, CH4, and NH3 representing the atmospheres of Titan and the outer planets. The results showed that: (1) hot H2 atoms formed from the photodissociation of NH3 in Jupiter's atmosphere could account for some of the atmospheric chemistry in the ammonia cirrus cloud region; (2) the thermalization of hot H2 atoms in atmospheres predominated by molecular H is not as rapid as predicted by elastic collision theory; (3) the net quantum loss of NH3 in the presence of a 200 fold excess of H2 is 0.02, much higher than was expected from the amount of H2 present; (4) the conversion of NH3 into N2 in plasmas associated with infalling meteors is very efficient and rapid, and could account for most of the N2 present on Titan; (5) the yields of C2H2 and HCN from lightning induced chemistry in mixtures of CH4 and N2 is consistent with quenched thermodynamic models of the discharge core; and (6) photolysis induced by the UV light emitted by the gases in the hot plasmas may account for some, if not most, of the excess production of C2H6 and the more complex hydrocarbons.

  7. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  8. The Hikurangi Plateau: Tectonic Ricochet and Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, David; Moresi, Louis; Betts, Peter; Whittaker, Joanne

    2015-04-01

    80 million years between interactions with different subduction systems provided time for the Hikurangi Plateau and Pacific Ocean lithosphere to cool, densify and strengthen. Neogene subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau occurring orthogonal to its Cretaceous predecessor, provides a unique opportunity to explore how changes to the physical properties of oceanic lithosphere affect subduction dynamics. We used Underworld to build mechanically consistent collision models to understand the dynamics of the two Hikurangi collisions. The Hikurangi Plateau is a ~112 Ma, 15km thick oceanic plateau that has been entrained by subduction zones immediately preceding the final break-up of Eastern Gondwana and currently within the active Hikurangi Margin. We explore why attempted subduction of the plateau has resulted in vastly different dynamics on two separate occasions. Slab break-off occured during the collision with Gondwana, currently there is apparent subduction of the plateau underneath New Zealand. At ~100Ma the young, hot Hikurangi Plateau, positively buoyant with respect to the underlying mantle, impacted a Gondwana Margin under rapid extension after the subduction of an mid-ocean ridge 10-15Ma earlier. Modelling of plateaus within young oceanic crust indicates that subduction of the thickened crust was unlikely to occur. Frontal accretion of the plateau and accompanying slab break-off is expected to have occured rapidly after its arrival. The weak, young slab was susceptible to lateral propagation of the ~1500 km window opened by the collision, and break-off would have progressed along the subduction zone inhibiting the "step-back" of the trench seen in older plates. Slab break-off coincided with a world-wide reorganisation of plate velocites, and orogenic collapse along the Gondwana margin characterised by rapid extension and thinning of the over-riding continental plate from ~60 to 30km. Following extension, Zealandia migrated to the NW until the Miocene allowing the

  9. Geological history of the outer North West Shelf of Australia: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exon, N. F.; Colwell, J. B.

    This paper uses information contained in other papers in this issue of the AGSO Journal together with the scientific literature to produce a synthesis of the geological development of the outer continental margin of northwest Australia, and the adjacent plateaus and abyssal plains, with special emphasis on the northern Exmouth Plateau and Rowley Terrace. In the Palaeozoic, the outer North West Shelf formed part of the continental crust of East Gondwana. The region was stretched in the Late Palaeozoic, and subsequently subsided to form the Westralian Superbain on the southern margin of Tethys. The superbasin filled with thick Triassic sediments, and variable thicknesses of Jurassic sediments, before progressive breakup in Callovian-Valanginian time.

  10. Tectonomagmatic Associations on the Central Andean Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, S. L.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Neogene evolution of the Central Andes is characterized by a strong association between plate convergence, mountain building and plateau formation, and magmatism. Plateau uplift by crustal shortening and thickening in the lower crust is broadly coincident with large scale silicic magmatism defined by the Neogene Central Andean ignimbrite province. Of particular interest here are the spatiotemporal correlations between silicic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Although magmatism is driven by the subduction-related flux from mantle to crust, the shift to "crustal" magmatism as indicated by elevated crustal isotopic indices after ~10Ma suggests a link between crustal thickening, plateau formation and silicic magmatism. In particular, elevated geotherms associated with crustal thickening and enhanced mantle flux associated with lithospheric delamination may have played a role in thermally preparing the Central Andean crust for enhanced silicic magma production during the extensive Neogene ignimbrite flare-up. Emplacement of these magmas in the upper crust throughout the Neogene may have fuelled a period of significant interaction between magmatism and tectonism on the plateau. With particular reference to the 21° to 24°S segment of the Central Andes, spatial and structural coincidence of calderas of the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex with the NW-SE striking Calama-Olacapata-El Toro fault zone suggests significant tectonomagmatic interaction. Location of calderas suggest that these regional faults focused magma intrusion and storage, while spatially and temporally correlated eruption pulses connote a tectonic control. Indeed, current thermomechanical models of magma chamber development and eruption triggering promote a role for external triggering of "perched" upper crustal magma chambers. This might have been achieved by melt-enhanced deformation, or alternatively, significant uplift (~1km) associated with the development of large

  11. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN TB

    2011-01-14

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the {approx}200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by

  12. Peopling the Tibetan plateau: insights from archaeology.

    PubMed

    Aldenderfer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of the genome of modern Tibetans have revealed the existence of genes thought to provide an adaptive advantage for life at high elevation. Extrapolating from this discovery, some researchers now argue that a Tibetan-Han split occurred no more than 2750 yr ago. This date is implausible, and in this paper I review the archaeological data from the Tibetan plateau as one means by which to examine the veracity of this assertion. Following a review of the general state of knowledge of Tibetan prehistory, which is unfortunately only at its beginnings, I first examine the data that speak to the initial peopling of the plateau and assess the evidence that traces of their presence can be seen in modern Tibetans today. Although the data are sparse, both archaeology and genetics suggest that the plateau was occupied in the Late Pleistocene, perhaps as early as 30,000 yr ago, and that these early peoples have left a genetic signature in modern Tibetans. I then turn to the evidence for later migrations and focus on the question of the timing of the establishment of permanent settled villages on the plateau. Three areas of the plateau-northeastern Qinghai, extreme eastern Tibet, and the Yarlung Tsangpo valley-have evidence of permanent settlements dating from ca. 6500, 5900, and 3750 yr ago, respectively. These data are not consonant with the 2750 yr ago date for the split and suggest at a minimum that the plateau has been occupied substantially longer and, further, that multiple migrations at different times and from different places have created a complex mosaic of population history.

  13. Outer trapped surfaces are dense near MOTSs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chruściel, Piotr T.; Galloway, Gregory J.

    2014-02-01

    We show that any vacuum initial data set containing a marginally outer trapped surface S and satisfying a ‘no KIDs’ condition can be perturbed near S so that S becomes strictly outer trapped in the new vacuum initial data set. This, together with the results in Eichmair et al (2012), gives a precise sense in which generic initial data containing marginally outer trapped surfaces lead to geodesically incomplete spacetimes.

  14. Insufficiency fractures of the tibial plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Manco, L.G.; Schneider, R.; Pavlov, H.

    1983-06-01

    An insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau may be the cause of knee pain in patients with osteoporosis. The diagnosis is usually not suspected until a bone scan is done, as initial radiographs are often negative or inconclusive and clinical findings are nonspecific and may simulate osteoarthritis or spontaneous osteonecrosis. In five of 165 patients referred for bone scans due to nontraumatic knee pain, a characteristic pattern of intense augmented uptake of radionuclide confined to the tibial plateau led to a presumptive diagnosis of insufficiency fracture, later confirmed on radiographs.

  15. Outcome of Posterior Tibial Plateau Fixation.

    PubMed

    Jiwanlal, Aneel; Jeray, Kyle James

    2016-01-01

    Isolated posterior tibial plateau fractures are rare injuries that encompass a wide variety of fracture patterns. Based on the variation in fracture pattern, the surgical approach varies, with both anterior and posterior approaches described for surgical fixation. Postoperative protocol also varies among studies. The aim of this article is to summarize the outcomes related to posterior column tibial plateau fractures. The papers reviewed, primarily small retrospective case series, showed functional knee range of motion is preserved, a low incidence of wound complications, and patient outcome scores comparable to other reported lower extremity injury outcome scores. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying outer retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali; Kolko, Miriam; Moons, Lieve; Van Hove, Inge

    2017-03-29

    Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer retina pathologies, which can be classified as primary and secondary mitochondrial disorders. This review highlights the importance of oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA damage, underlying outer retinal disorders. Indeed, the metabolically active photoreceptors/RPE are highly prone to these hallmarks of mitochondrial dysfunction, indicating that mitochondria represent a weak link in the antioxidant defenses of outer retinal cells.

  17. Outer atmospheres of late stars

    SciTech Connect

    Katsova, M.M.

    1982-11-01

    The short-wavelength spectra of the stars UX Ari during flare activity and in the quiet state and RW Aur are analyzed. An independent determination of the electron density made it possible to draw the reliable conclusion from the line intensities that the extent of the transition region between chromosphere and corona is considerably greater for these stars and Capella than for the sun. Two groups of stars are distinguished: 1) rotating red dwarfs; 2) subgiants belonging to systems of the RS C Vn-type and T Tau-type stars. The former are characterized by coronal loops emitting in the x-ray region. The appearance of considerable fluxes in lines of ions with T/sub i/roughly-equal10/sup 5/ /sup 0/K in stars of the latter group without x-ray enhancement is connected with direct heating with T = 10/sup 4/--10/sup 5/ /sup 0/K and with the development of upward-intensifying motions. Such a dynamical model of the outer atmosphere differs considerably from the usually considered outflow of the solar-wind type, efficiently cooling the coronas of stars with low gravity.

  18. Central Tibetan Meso-Tethyan oceanic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai-Jun; Xia, Bin; Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Liu, Wei-Liang; Zeng, Lu; Li, Jian-Feng; Xu, Li-Feng

    2014-12-01

    We report the occurrences of the remnants of a Meso-Tethyan oceanic plateau, encompassing an area of ~ 2 × 105 km2 in central Tibet. The plateau remnants include large volumes of pillow basalt formed largely by emergent to subaerial eruption, minor ultramafic intrusives and cumulates, exotic blocks of limestone, radiolarian chert, graywacke, and shale. Isotopic and paleontological dating suggest two major plateau eruptive events at 193-173 Ma and at 128-104 Ma, respectively. The basalts are characterized by enrichment of incompatible elements and a wide range of Sr-Nd isotope composition (initial εNd from -3.71 to + 7.9, initial 87Sr/86Sr from 0.703927 to 0.707618). The trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest that these basalts are of affinity with those from the Kerguelen and Tethyan plumes, indicative of a plume mantle upwelling origin with involvement of continental material. The wholesale obduction of the Meso-Tethyan oceanic plateau, along with the dismembered normal oceanic crustal fragments, over the Tibetan continental crust could have given rise to perhaps 2 km elevation of central Tibet during the Late Cretaceous.

  19. Structure and sedimentary history of Exmouth Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Exon, N.F.; Williamson, P.E.; Von Rad, U.

    1989-03-01

    The large, deep-water Exmouth Plateau off northwestern Australia has been actively explored for petroleum, and a giant gas accumulation has been found. Data from industry and research institutions have established its geological framework. The plateau has a basement of continental crust that was thinned and extended in the Permian. This is overlain by 10 km of Phanerozoic strata, with an average of more than 3 km of Triassic, about 1 km of Jurassic/Cretaceous, and 0.5 km of Cenozoic strata. The plateau separated from other parts of the northern margin of Gondwanaland in the Mesozoic. Latest Triassic and Jurassic rifting formed large north-northeast-trending fault blocks; in the Oxfordian a microcontinent drifted away to the northwest, forming the plateau's northern margin. The other margins developed in the Neocomian as Greater India separated from Australia - the western margin by rifting and the southern by shearing. Terrigenous input declined greatly at that time. This old continental margin, with its relatively thin Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments, was selected by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) for comprehensive and fully integrated sedimentologic, biostratigraphic, paleobathymetric, and subsidence studies.

  20. Forest statistics for plateau Tennessee counties

    Treesearch

    Renewable Resources Evaluation Research Work Unit

    1982-01-01

    These tables were derived from data obtained during a 1980 inventory of 16 counties comprising the Plateau Unit of Tennessee (fib. 1). The data on forest acreage and timber volume were secured by a systematic sampling method involving a forest-nonforest classification on aerial photographs and on-the-ground measurements of trees at sample locations. The sample...

  1. A Standard Atmosphere of the Antarctic Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahesh, Ashwin; Lubin, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Climate models often rely on standard atmospheres to represent various regions; these broadly capture the important physical and radiative characteristics of regional atmospheres, and become benchmarks for simulations by researchers. The high Antarctic plateau is a significant region of the earth for which such standard atmospheres are as yet unavailable. Moreover, representative profiles from atmospheres over other regions of the planet, including &om the northern high latitudes, are not comparable to the atmosphere over the Antarctic plateau, and are therefore only of limited value as substitutes in climate models. Using data from radiosondes, ozonesondes and satellites along with other observations from South Pole station, typical seasonal atmospheric profiles for the high plateau are compiled. Proper representations of rapidly changing ozone concentrations (during the ozone hole) and the effect of surface elevation on tropospheric temperatures are discussed. The differences between standard profiles developed here and the most similar standard atmosphere that already exists - namely, the Arctic Winter profile - suggest that these new profiles will be extremely useful to make accurate representations of the atmosphere over the high plateau.

  2. Outer trapped surfaces in Vaidya spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dov, Ishai

    2007-03-15

    It is proven that in Vaidya spacetimes of bounded total mass, the outer boundary, in spacetime, of the region containing outer trapped surfaces, is the event horizon. Further, it is shown that the region containing trapped surfaces in these spacetimes does not always extend to the event horizon.

  3. Interiors and atmospheres of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    This theoretical/observational project constrains structure of outer planet atmospheres and interiors through observational data. The primary observation tool is through observations of occultations of stars by outer solar system objects, which yield information about atmospheric temperatures and dynamics, and planetary dimensions and oblateness. The theoretical work relates the data to interior structures in a variety of ways.

  4. NIF Double Shell outer-shell experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, E. C.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Daughton, W. S.; Wilson, D. C.; Dodd, E. S.; Renner, D. B.; Cardenas, T.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-10-01

    At the core of the Double Shell concept is the kinetic energy transfer from the outer shell to the inner shell via collision. This collision sets both the implosion shape of the inner shell, from imprinting of the shape of the outer shell, as well as the maximum energy available to compress the DT fuel. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to control the time-dependent shape of the outer shell, such that the outer shell is nominally round at the collision time. We present the experiment results from our sub-scale ( 1 MJ) NIF outer-shell only shape tuning campaign, where we vary shape by changing a turn-on time delay between the same pulse shape on the inner and outer cone beams. This type of shape tuning is unique to this platform and only possible since the Double Shell design uses a single-shock drive (4.5 ns reverse ramp pulse). The outer-shell only targets used a 5.75 mm diameter standard near-vacuum NIF hohlraum with 0.032 mg/cc He gas fill, and a Be capsule with 0.4% uniform Cu dopant, with 242 um thick ablator. We also present results from a third outer-shell only shot used to measure shell trajectory, which is critical in determining the shell impact time. This work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  5. 76 FR 63654 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Doc No: 2011-26503] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block... American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Official Protraction Diagram (OPD),...

  6. Tectonostratigraphic evolution of Falkland (Malvinas) Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Snavely, P.D. III

    1987-05-01

    The Falkland (a.k.a. Malvinas) Plateau, offshore southern Argentina, came into being as the result of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous breakup of west Gondwanaland and the opening of the South Atlantic. As the trailing edge of the South American plate, this continental salient has periodically interacted with the African, Antarctic, Scotia, and Nazca plates, recording the complex history of Mesozoic and Cenozoic plate reorganization in the Southern Hemisphere. The pelagic depositional setting of the plateau following its separation from Africa has resulted in the accumulation of a relatively thin post-rift sedimentary section. This has allowed not only local penetration of the lower Mesozoic section by borehole but also seismic resolution of the pre- and syn-rift strata beyond that generally obtainable from the thick marine basins of the Argentine or South African continental shelves. These subsurface data have been used to compile a relatively complete depositional and tectonic history for the Falkland Plateau which may be applied, by analogy, to sedimentary basins of similar age along the circum-Gondwana perimeter. Three principal tectonic events appear to have influenced the type and orientation of structures and the distribution of stratal patterns presently observed on the Falkland Plateau. These are (1) a Permo-Triassic compressional event (Cape orogeny) that resulted in the formation of a fold-belt running from northwest Argentina through South Africa and across the Falkland Plateau to Antarctica, (2) the two-stage breakup of the Gondwana supercontinent from Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous time, and (3) the Tertiary opening of the Drake Passage and the formation of the Scotia Sea.

  7. Regional Seismotectonics in the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Xu, J.; Zhao, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among the depth of lithosphere brittle fracture, seismotectonics and geothermal anomalous active in Tibetan plateau were investigated using the seismic dada from ISC and Chinese seismic net and geothermal data. The results suggest that the region of anomalously geothermal activity almost coincides that of the normal faulting type earthquake. The geothermal anomaly activity region coincides spatially with that of the events deeper than 60 km as well as. The normal faulting earthquakes may be mainly tectonic activity regimes until 110 km deep in the thermal anomaly region. The strike directions of events are likely the N-S direction, coinciding with the strike of the thermal anomaly active belts. The earthquakes align along the normal faults and faulted-depression zone with the N-S direction. The thermal anomaly activity also distributes along the faulted-depression zone. Many events deeper than 60 km exist in the anomalously geothermal activity region in the plateau. Events extend to bottom of the lithosphere of 110km from the surface, like columnar seismic crowd. The lithosphere extends along the E-W direction due to the E-W extensional stress in the central and southern Tibetan plateau, altitude of the plateau. The tensional stress in the E-W results in the lithosphere fractures and the normal faults striking N-S direction, grabens and faulted-depression zones. Thermal material from the asthenosphere wells upward to the surface along deep seismic fractures and faults through the thick crust. The anomalously thermal activities are attributable to the upwelling thermal material from the mantle in the altitude of Tibetan plateau.

  8. Autoimmunity and the outer retina.

    PubMed

    Rahi, A H; Addison, D J

    1983-01-01

    Structurally and therefore antigenically the retina is a complex tissue. Since it develops as an extension from the neural tube it shares with the brain several cell membranes and cytoplasm associated antigens including those present in neurofilaments of the various neurones and the glial filaments of the astrocytes. The advent of monoclonal antibodies has helped to dissect, in detail, the antigenic makeup of the retina. Nervous system antigens (NS-3, 4 and 7) are generously represented in the retina. At least in the chick eye there seems to be a concentration gradient of retinal antigens along a dorsoventral axis which is believed to provide means by which neurones of developing retinal signal and receive the positional information necessary for the formation of specific synapses. It now seems certain that organ-specific antigens are presented not only in the photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium but also in the retinal ganglion cells and the astrocytes. Photoreceptor outer-segment contains soluble antigens which when injected in rats, rabbits, guinea-pigs or monkeys produce varying degrees of intraocular inflammation leading to uveitis, retinal detachment, photoreceptor degeneration and occasionally retinal vasculitis. Both cell-mediated and humoral immunity to photoreceptor antigen has been demonstrated in various types of uveitis (including toxoplasmosis and sarcoidosis), pars planitis, vitriitis, Behçets disease, sympathetic ophthalmitis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, birdshot retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa and retinal vasculitis. Retinal autoimmunity is also found in retinal detachment and diabetic retinopathy, particularly after Argon laser photocoagulation. Antibodies to retinal antigens are also found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other systemic immune disorders without ocular involvement. The precise pathogenetic role of retinal autoimmunity in eye disease is therefore uncertain. It may simply represent an

  9. Astroparticles: Messengers from Outer Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desiati, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Since Galileo pointed a spyglass toward the sky, 400 years ago, observations empowered by man-made instrumentation have provided us with an enormous leap in the knowledge of how the Universe functions. More and more powerful optical telescopes made it possible for us to reach the farthest corners of space. At the same time, the advances in microphysics and the discovery of the electromagnetic spectrum, made it possible to directly look at the Universe in a way that our eyes cannot see. The discoveries of the intimate structure of matter, of subatomic particles and of how they interact with each other, have led astronomers to use the smallest objects in Nature to observe the farthest reaches of the otherwise invisible Universe. Not unlike Galileo, today we observe Outer Space with visible light and beyond, across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from long wavelength radio waves to short wavelength gamma rays. But also with instruments detecting cosmic rays (the atomic nuclei we know on Earth) neutrinos (neutral subatomic particles that interact very weakly with matter) and gravitational waves (perturbations of spacetime predicted by General Relativity). Each cosmic messenger provides us with a unique piece of information about their source and the history of their journey to us. Modern astrophysics has the challenging goal to collect as much information as possible from all those messengers, to reconstruct the story of the Universe and how it became what it is today. This journey started with the unsettling discovery that we are only one minuscule dot in the immensity of the Universe and yet we are able to observe objects that are far in space and time. This journey is yet to complete its course, and the more we advance our knowledge, the more we need to understand. This interdisciplinary talk provides an overview of this journey and the future perspectives.

  10. Structure and development of the Southeast Georgia Embayment and northern Blake Plateau: preliminary analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Paull, Charles K.; Buffler, Richard T.; Fail, Jean-Pierre

    1979-01-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection profiles from the Southeast Georgia Embayment and northern Blake Plateau show reflectors that have been correlated tentatively with horizons of known age. The top of the Cretaceous extends smoothly seaward beneath the continental shelf and Blake Plateau, unaffected at the present shelf edge. A reflector inferred to correspond approximately to the top of the Jurassic section onlaps and pinches out against rocks below. A widespread smooth reflector probably represents a volcanic layer of Early Jurassic age that underlies only the northwestern part of the research area. A major unconformity beneath the inferred volcanic layer is probably of Late Triassic or Early Jurassic age. This unconformity dips rather smoothly seaward beneath the northern Blake Plateau, but south of a geological boundary near 31°N, it has subsided much more rapidly, and reaches depths of more than 12 km. Development of the continental margin north of the boundary began with rifting and subsidence of continental basement in the Triassic. An episode of volcanism may have been due to stresses associated with a spreading center jump at about 175 million years ago. Jurassic and Cretaceous deposits form an onlapping wedge above the inferred early Jurassic volcanics and Triassic sedimentary rocks. During Cenozoic times, development of Gulf Stream flow caused a radical decrease in sedimentation rates so that a shelf that was much narrower than the Mesozoic shelf was formed by progradation against the inner edge of the stream. South of the 31°N geological boundary, the basement probably is semi-oceanic and reef growth, unlike that in the area to the north, has been very active at the outer edge of the plateau.

  11. A secondary origin for the central plateau of Hebes Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, C.

    1982-01-01

    Hebes Chasma, one of the northern members of the Valles Marineris, can be divided into three physiographic provinces; chasma walls, chasma floor, and central plateau. Theories of origin of the 5-kilometer-high central plateau include (1) the plateau is an eroded remnant of the surrounding plains, and (2) the plateau is a secondary feature deposited after formation of the chasma. A secondary eolian or pyroclastic origin best explains the morphology of the plateau. The chasma probably formed by collapse of a pre-existing graben that was widened by landslides and subsequently filled with eolian or pyroclastic material. Continued mass wasting isolated the plateau from the chasma walls. The enclosed nature of Hebes Chasma may have inhibited eolian erosion and transport within the trough, so that the relatively fresh appearance of the plateau has been preserved.

  12. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J. )

    1990-08-15

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from ({sup 3}H)acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms.

  13. Outer planets and icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drobyshevski, E. M.

    1991-01-01

    The resources offered by the outer bodies in the Solar System, starting with the main belt asteroids and Jovian System, are not only larger and more diverse but may even be easier to reach than, say, those of Mars. The use of their material, including water and organic matter, depends exclusively on the general strategy of exploration of the Solar System. Of major interest in this respect are the large ice satellites - Titan, Ganymede, and Callisto. Motion through the planetary magnetospheres excites in their ice envelopes megampere currents which, in the presence of rocky, etc., inclusions with electronic conduction should lead to the bulk electrolysis of ice and accumulation in it of 2H2 + O2 in the form of a solid solution. With the concentration of 2H2 + O2 reaching about 15 wt. percent, the solution becomes capable of detonation by a strong meteoritic impact. An explosion of Ganymede's ice envelope about 0.5 By ago could account for the formation of the Trojans and irregular satellites, all known differences between Ganymede and Callisto, and many other things. The explosion of a small icy planet with M approx less than 0.5 Moon created the asteroid belt. Two to three explosions occurred on Io, and two on Europa. The specific features of the longperiod comets close to Saturn's orbit permit dating Titan's envelope explosion as 10,000 yr ago, which produced its thick atmosphere, young Saturn's rings, as well as a reservoir of ice fragments saturated by 2H2 + O2, i.e., cometary nuclei between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. Thus these nuclei should contain, besides organic matter, also 2H2 + O2, which could be used for their transportation as well as for fuel for spaceships. Ices of such composition can reside deep inside Deimos, the Trojans, C-asteroids, etc. The danger of a future explosion of Callisto's electrolyzed ices, which would result in a catastrophic bombardment of the Earth by comets, may be high enough to warrant a revision of the priorities and

  14. Outer planets and icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drobyshevski, E. M.

    1991-01-01

    The resources offered by the outer bodies in the Solar System, starting with the main belt asteroids and Jovian System, are not only larger and more diverse but may even be easier to reach than, say, those of Mars. The use of their material, including water and organic matter, depends exclusively on the general strategy of exploration of the Solar System. Of major interest in this respect are the large ice satellites - Titan, Ganymede, and Callisto. Motion through the planetary magnetospheres excites in their ice envelopes megampere currents which, in the presence of rocky, etc., inclusions with electronic conduction should lead to the bulk electrolysis of ice and accumulation in it of 2H2 + O2 in the form of a solid solution. With the concentration of 2H2 + O2 reaching about 15 wt. percent, the solution becomes capable of detonation by a strong meteoritic impact. An explosion of Ganymede's ice envelope about 0.5 By ago could account for the formation of the Trojans and irregular satellites, all known differences between Ganymede and Callisto, and many other things. The explosion of a small icy planet with M approx less than 0.5 Moon created the asteroid belt. Two to three explosions occurred on Io, and two on Europa. The specific features of the longperiod comets close to Saturn's orbit permit dating Titan's envelope explosion as 10,000 yr ago, which produced its thick atmosphere, young Saturn's rings, as well as a reservoir of ice fragments saturated by 2H2 + O2, i.e., cometary nuclei between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. Thus these nuclei should contain, besides organic matter, also 2H2 + O2, which could be used for their transportation as well as for fuel for spaceships. Ices of such composition can reside deep inside Deimos, the Trojans, C-asteroids, etc. The danger of a future explosion of Callisto's electrolyzed ices, which would result in a catastrophic bombardment of the Earth by comets, may be high enough to warrant a revision of the priorities and

  15. Outer planets and icy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshevski, E. M.

    The resources offered by the outer bodies in the Solar System, starting with the main belt asteroids and Jovian System, are not only larger and more diverse but may even be easier to reach than, say, those of Mars. The use of their material, including water and organic matter, depends exclusively on the general strategy of exploration of the Solar System. Of major interest in this respect are the large ice satellites - Titan, Ganymede, and Callisto. Motion through the planetary magnetospheres excites in their ice envelopes megampere currents which, in the presence of rocky, etc., inclusions with electronic conduction should lead to the bulk electrolysis of ice and accumulation in it of 2H2 + O2 in the form of a solid solution. With the concentration of 2H2 + O2 reaching about 15 wt. percent, the solution becomes capable of detonation by a strong meteoritic impact. An explosion of Ganymede's ice envelope about 0.5 By ago could account for the formation of the Trojans and irregular satellites, all known differences between Ganymede and Callisto, and many other things. The explosion of a small icy planet with M approx less than 0.5 Moon created the asteroid belt. Two to three explosions occurred on Io, and two on Europa. The specific features of the longperiod comets close to Saturn's orbit permit dating Titan's envelope explosion as 10,000 yr ago, which produced its thick atmosphere, young Saturn's rings, as well as a reservoir of ice fragments saturated by 2H2 + O2, i.e., cometary nuclei between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. Thus these nuclei should contain, besides organic matter, also 2H2 + O2, which could be used for their transportation as well as for fuel for spaceships. Ices of such composition can reside deep inside Deimos, the Trojans, C-asteroids, etc. The danger of a future explosion of Callisto's electrolyzed ices, which would result in a catastrophic bombardment of the Earth by comets, may be high enough to warrant a revision of the priorities and

  16. Hydrogeology of the Markagunt Plateau, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    The Markagunt Plateau, in southwestern Utah, lies at an altitude of about 9,500 feet and is capped primarily by Quaternary-age basalt that overlies Eocene-age freshwater limestone of the Claron Formation. Over large parts of the Markagunt Plateau, dissolution of the Claron limestone and subsequent collapse of the overlying basalt have produced a terrain characterized by sinkholes as much as 1,000 feet across and 100 feet deep. Numerous large springs discharge from the basalt and underlying limestone on the plateau, including Mammoth Spring, one of the largest springs in Utah, with a discharge that can exceed 300 cubic feet per second. Discharge from Mammoth Spring is from the Claron Formation; however, recharge to the spring largely takes place by both focused and diffuse infiltration through the basalt that caps the limestone. Results of dye tracing to Mammoth Spring indicate that recharge originates largely southwest of the spring outside of the Mammoth Creek watershed, as well as from losing reaches along Mammoth Creek. Maximum groundwater travel time to the spring from dye-tracer tests during the snowmelt runoff period was about 1 week. Specific conductance and water temperature data from the spring show an inverse relation to discharge during snowmelt runoff and rainfall events, also indicating short groundwater residence times. Results of major-ion analyses for samples collected from Mammoth and other springs on the plateau indicate calcium-bicarbonate type water containing low (less than 200 mg/L) dissolved-solids concentrations. Investigations in the Navajo Lake area along the southern margin of the plateau have shown that water losing to sinkholes bifurcates and discharges to both Cascade and Duck Creek Springs, which subsequently flow into the Virgin and Sevier River basins, respectively. Groundwater travel times to these springs, on the basis of dye tracing, were about 8.5 and 53 hours, respectively. Similarly, groundwater travel time from Duck Creek

  17. PLATEAUING COSMIC RAY DETECTORS TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM OPERATING VOLTAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Knoff, E.N.; Peterson, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Through QuarkNet, students across the country have access to cosmic ray detectors in their high school classrooms. These detectors operate using a scintillator material and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). A data acquisition (DAQ) board counts cosmic ray hits from the counters. Through an online e-Lab, students can analyze and share their data. In order to collect viable data, the PMTs should operate at their plateau voltages. In these plateau ranges, the number of counts per minute remains relatively constant with small changes in PMT voltage. We sought to plateau the counters in the test array and to clarify the plateauing procedure itself. In order to most effectively plateau the counters, the counters should be stacked and programmed to record the number of coincident hits as well as their singles rates. We also changed the threshold value that a signal must exceed in order to record a hit and replateaued the counters. For counter 1, counter 2, and counter 3, we found plateau voltages around 1V. The singles rate plateau was very small, while the coincidence plateau was very long. The plateau voltages corresponded to a singles rate of 700–850 counts per minute. We found very little effect of changing the threshold voltages. Our chosen plateau voltages produced good performance studies on the e-Lab. Keeping in mind the nature of the experiments conducted by the high school students, we recommend a streamlined plateauing process. Because changing the threshold did not drastically affect the plateau voltage or the performance study, students should choose a threshold value, construct plateau graphs, and analyze their data using a performance study. Even if the counters operate slightly off their plateau voltage, they should deliver good performance studies and return reliable results.

  18. Depletion of the Outer Asteroid Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Malhotra, Renu

    1997-01-01

    During the early history of the solar system, it is likely that the outer planets changed their distance from the sun, and hence, their influence on the asteroid belt evolved with time. The gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn on the orbital evolution of asteroids in the outer asteroid belt was calculated. The results show that the sweeping of mean motion resonances associated with planetary migration efficiently destabilizes orbits in the outer asteroid belt on a time scale of 10 million years. This mechanism provides an explanation for the observed depletion of asteroids in that region.

  19. Depletion of the Outer Asteroid Belt

    PubMed

    Liou; Malhotra

    1997-01-17

    During the early history of the solar system, it is likely that the outer planets changed their distance from the sun, and hence, their influence on the asteroid belt evolved with time. The gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn on the orbital evolution of asteroids in the outer asteroid belt was calculated. The results show that the sweeping of mean motion resonances associated with planetary migration efficiently destabilizes orbits in the outer asteroid belt on a time scale of 10 million years. This mechanism provides an explanation for the observed depletion of asteroids in that region.

  20. Structural control on landscape evolution: Examples from the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Bedrock fracture density is widely thought to control bedrock weathering rates, yet few case studies exist in which bedrock fracture density has been demonstrated to control erosion rates or topographic development. In the Colorado Plateau many Laramide-style monoclines and anticlines have become topographically inverted, i.e. structural highs have become topographic lows, and in some cases these structures have been bisected by large rivers along the path of maximum structural curvature (MSC). In this talk I describe efforts to test the hypothesis that such inversions occur because bedrock fracture density is correlated with structural curvature, i.e., that outer-arc stretching has led to enhanced deformation and fracture development in zones of MSC, and that such inversions were favorable places for river capture. To test the hypothesis that bedrock fracture density is proportional to structural curvature, I used digital analyses of geologic maps to reconstruct fold geometries and, from those, structural curvature. I demonstrate that fracture density in the East Kaibab and Raplee Ridge Monoclines mapped continuously using a combination of field measurements and analyses of airborne and terrestrial lidar data, correlate strongly with structural curvature. Further, I show that erosion rates computed by mapping the degree of incision into the regional structural surface also correlates strongly with structural curvature. I present the results of a numerical model that quantifies the influence of structural curvature and fracture density on weathering and erosion. This model reproduces the flatirons, hogbacks, and topographic inversions characteristic of the region. To test the hypothesis that rivers preferentially follow paths of MSC, I develop a technique, inspired from the computational polymer physics literature, that identifies all possible river paths subject to relevant constraints, such as paleotopography. This approach enables the hypothesis of structural

  1. PLAN FOR CLOSURE OF HANFORDS CENTRAL PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect

    AUSTIN, B.A.

    2004-12-15

    This paper summarizes an approach to reduce risk to the public and environment through accelerated closure of Hanford's Central Plateau, based on a plan developed by Fluor Hanford and submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE)-Richland Office, for consideration, in September, 2004. This plan provides a framework and starting point for discussions with regulators and further planning for closure activities on the Plateau. The closure strategy and approach required developing a full inventory of items needing closure as well as identifying and defining technical and regulatory approaches that were compatible with current regulatory processes, reduce risks, and met DOE objectives. This effort, and the paper that follows, integrates closure activities among several contractors and two DOE field offices.

  2. Ennedi Plateau, Chad/Sudan Border, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Ennedi Plateau (18.0N, 24.0E) shows the effects of severe wind erosion on this desert landscape in the far eastern portion of the Sahara Desert. The dark areas are lava flows, the calderas have long ago been eroded by the desert winds. The red toned surrounding surfaces are thick tropical soils, remnants of much earlier times when this region was a much greener savanna landscape that have also been severly eroded.

  3. Electron transport fluxes in potato plateau regime

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    Electron transport fluxes in the potato plateau regime are calculated from the solutions of the drift kinetic equation and fluid equations. It is found that the bootstrap current density remains finite in the region close to the magnetic axis, although it decreases with increasing collision frequency. This finite amount of the bootstrap current in the relatively collisional regime is important in modeling tokamak startup with 100{percent} bootstrap current. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Freshwater Biogeography and Limnological Evolution of the Tibetan Plateau - Insights from a Plateau-Wide Distributed Gastropod Taxon (Radix spp.)

    PubMed Central

    von Oheimb, Parm Viktor; Albrecht, Christian; Riedel, Frank; Du, Lina; Yang, Junxing; Aldridge, David C.; Bößneck, Ulrich; Zhang, Hucai; Wilke, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background The Tibetan Plateau is not only the highest and largest plateau on earth; it is also home to numerous freshwater lakes potentially harbouring endemic faunal elements. As it remains largely unknown whether these lakes have continuously existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), questions arise as to whether taxa have been able to exist on the plateau since before the latest Pleistocene, from where and how often the plateau was colonized, and by which mechanisms organisms conquered remote high altitude lentic freshwater systems. In this study, species of the plateau-wide distributed freshwater gastropod genus Radix are used to answer these biogeographical questions. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a broad spatial sampling of Radix spp. on the Tibetan Plateau, and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequence data, three probably endemic and one widespread major Radix clade could be identified on the plateau. Two of the endemic clades show a remarkably high genetic diversity, indicating a relatively great phylogenetic age. Phylogeographical analyses of individuals belonging to the most widely distributed clade indicate that intra-plateau distribution cannot be explained by drainage-related dispersal alone. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals that Radix spp. persisted throughout the LGM on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, we assume the continuous existence of suitable water bodies during that time. The extant Radix diversity on the plateau might have been caused by multiple colonization events combined with a relatively long intra-plateau evolution. At least one colonization event has a Palaearctic origin. In contrast to freshwater fishes, passive dispersal, probably by water birds, might be an important mechanism for conquering remote areas on the plateau. Patterns found in Radix spp. are shared with some terrestrial plateau taxa, indicating that Radix may be a suitable model taxon for inferring general patterns of biotic origin, dispersal and

  5. Galactic Behavior for the Outer B Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-01

    Keeping a close watch on the outer portion of Saturn B ring, NASA Cassini spacecraft records the complex inward and outward movement of the edge of the ring. This ring movement resembles the suspected behavior of spiral disk galaxies.

  6. Outer planet probe engineering model structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smittkamp, J. A.; Gustin, W. H.; Griffin, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    A series of proof of concept structural tests was performed on an engineering model of the Outer Planets Atmospheric Entry Probe. The tests consisted of pyrotechnic shock, dynamic and static loadings. The tests partially verified the structural concept.

  7. Predicting the location of missing outer hair cells using the electrical signal recorded at the round window

    PubMed Central

    Chertoff, Mark E.; Earl, Brian R.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Sorensen, Janna L.; Thomas, Megan L. A.; Kamerer, Aryn M.; Peppi, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The electrical signal recorded at the round window was used to estimate the location of missing outer hair cells. The cochlear response was recorded to a low frequency tone embedded in high-pass filtered noise conditions. Cochlear damage was created by either overexposure to frequency-specific tones or laser light. In animals with continuous damage along the partition, the amplitude of the cochlear response increased as the high-pass cutoff frequency increased, eventually reaching a plateau. The cochlear distance at the onset of the plateau correlated with the anatomical onset of outer hair cell loss. A mathematical model replicated the physiologic data but was limited to cases with continuous hair cell loss in the middle and basal turns. The neural contribution to the cochlear response was determined by recording the response before and after application of Ouabain. Application of Ouabain eliminated or reduced auditory neural activity from approximately two turns of the cochlea. The amplitude of the cochlear response was reduced for moderate signal levels with a limited effect at higher levels, indicating that the cochlear response was dominated by outer hair cell currents at high signal levels and neural potentials at low to moderate signal levels. PMID:25190395

  8. Hikurangi Plateau: Crustal structure, rifted formation, and Gondwana subduction history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, Bryan; Hoernle, Kaj; Werner, Reinhard

    2008-07-01

    Seismic reflection profiles across the Hikurangi Plateau Large Igneous Province and adjacent margins reveal the faulted volcanic basement and overlying Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary units as well as the structure of the paleoconvergent Gondwana margin at the southern plateau limit. The Hikurangi Plateau crust can be traced 50-100 km southward beneath the Chatham Rise where subduction cessation timing and geometry are interpreted to be variable along the margin. A model fit of the Hikurangi Plateau back against the Manihiki Plateau aligns the Manihiki Scarp with the eastern margin of the Rekohu Embayment. Extensional and rotated block faults which formed during the breakup of the combined Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau are interpreted in seismic sections of the Hikurangi Plateau basement. Guyots and ridge-like seamounts which are widely scattered across the Hikurangi Plateau are interpreted to have formed at 99-89 Ma immediately following Hikurangi Plateau jamming of the Gondwana convergent margin at ˜100 Ma. Volcanism from this period cannot be separately resolved in the seismic reflection data from basement volcanism; hence seamount formation during Manihiki-Hikurangi Plateau emplacement and breakup (125-120 Ma) cannot be ruled out. Seismic reflection data and gravity modeling suggest the 20-Ma-old Hikurangi Plateau choked the Cretaceous Gondwana convergent margin within 5 Ma of entry. Subsequent uplift of the Chatham Rise and slab detachment has led to the deposition of a Mesozoic sedimentary unit that thins from ˜1 km thickness northward across the plateau. The contrast with the present Hikurangi Plateau subduction beneath North Island, New Zealand, suggests a possible buoyancy cutoff range for LIP subduction consistent with earlier modeling.

  9. The crustal composition of the Falkland Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemt, Claudia; Jokat, Wilfried

    2015-04-01

    The Falkland Islands are situated in the South Atlantic Ocean 500 km east of Patagonia, South America. The islands are part of the Falkland Plateau, which stretches eastward for more than 1500 km. A bathymetric high, the Maurice Ewing Bank, terminates the plateau in the east. Until Late Jurassic the Falkland Islands were part of Gondwana and were located adjacent to the east coast of South Africa. While the Falkland Islands and Maurice Ewing Bank are proved to be of continental composition, the nature and structure of the Falkland Plateau's basement in between is debatable. The first crustal model derived from sonobuoy data contradicts an only recently published 3D-gravity model. To enhance the understanding of Gondwana break-up considering timing, geometry and amount of volcanism, further knowledge about the structure and thickness of the crust is inevitable. During the ANT-XXIX/5 Polarstern cruise seismic refraction measurements were conducted using Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) and Reftek land stations onshore of East Falkland. The OBS were deployed at 78 locations along an approximately 1500 km east-west stretching profile. For the western transect a P-wave velocity model is calculated using 2D-raytracing techniques. The results are presented in combination with potential field data showing the extension of the Falkland Islands basement, the continent-ocean transition zone and the crustal structure of the plateau. On the Falkland Plateau Basin sediment thickness is about 6 km with velocities ranging from 1.7 to 4.1 km/s in the upper part and about 4.7 km/s above basement. The crust is of oceanic composition with an igneous section that is considerably thicker than average oceanic crust (up to 17 km). The velocity structure in the upper crustal part is typical for layer 2 with a velocity gradient ranging from 5.4 km/s to 6.5 km/s and thicknesses between 1.5 km and 4 km. Layer 3 is about 14 km thick with a velocity gradient from 6.6 km/s to 7.6 km/s, which is

  10. Insights into the crustal structure and magmatic evolution of the High and Western Plateau of the Manihiki Plateau, Central Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochmuth, Katharina; Gohl, Karsten; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    The Manihiki Plateau is a Large Igneous Province (LIP) located in the Central Pacific. It is assumed, that the formation of the Manihiki Plateau took place during the early Cretaceous in multiple volcanic stages as part of the "Super-LIP" Ontong-Java-Nui. The plateau consists of several sub-plateaus of which the Western Plateau und High Plateau are the largest. In addressing the plateau's magmatic evolutionary history, one of the key questions is whether all sub-plateaus experienced the same magmatic history or if distinct phases of igneous or tectonic processes led to its fragmentation. During the RV Sonne cruise SO-224 in 2012; we collected two deep crustal seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection lines, crossing the two main sub-plateaus. Modeling of P- and S-wave phases reveals the different crustal nature of both sub-plateaus. On the High Plateau, the 20 km thick crust is divided into four seismic units, interpreted to range from basaltic composition in the uppermost crust to peridotitic composition in the middle and lower crust. The Western Plateau on the other hand shows multiple rift structures and no indications of basalt flows. With a maximum of 17 km crustal thickness, the Western Plateau is also thinner than the High Plateau. The upper basement layers show relatively low P-wave velocities (3.0 - 5.0 km/s), which infers that on the Western Plateau these layers consist of volcanoclastic and carbonatic rocks rather than basaltic flow units. Later volcanic stages may be restricted to the High Plateau with a possible eastward trend in the center of volcanic activity. Extensive secondary volcanism does not seem to have occurred on the Western Plateau, and its later deformation is mainly caused by tectonic extension and rifting.

  11. Separation of the outer membrane and identification of major outer membrane proteins from Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yukitaka; Imai, Masashi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

    2002-04-01

    The outer membrane of Porphyromonas gingivalis, an oral strict anaerobe, was isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The outer membrane obtained by the differential detergent extraction method, previously reported, showed an essentially similar protein pattern on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), confirming that the latter method is suitable for the study of outer membrane proteins in this organism. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed that major outer membrane proteins in this organism included Arg-gingipain, Lys-gingipain, RagA (a TonB-linked receptor), and putative porins that were homologous to Escherichia coli OmpA.

  12. Biogeographical study of plateau pikas Ochotona curzoniae (Lagomorpha, Ochotonidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Fahong; Li, Shiping; Kilpatrick, William C; McGuire, Peter M; He, Kai; Wei, Wanhong

    2012-08-01

    We reconstructed the demographic history of the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau by using genetic variation data obtained from spatially distributed populations across much of the plateau. We obtained sequence data, including cob (1,140 bp) and D-loop sequences (732 bp), from 144 individuals at sites ranging from the high-altitude interior to the relatively low-altitude northeastern plateau, and identified 37 and 42 unique haplotypes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis and haplotype networks based on the individual and the combined datasets of cob and D-loop sequences clustered all populations into four well-supported major groups, and the interaction between vicariance, dispersal, and habitat fragmentation resulted in the current geographical distribution and genetic diversity of O. curzoniae on the plateau. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and mismatch distribution suggested that the recent continuous uplifts of the plateau contributed to the radiation and diversification of the O. curzoniae populations occurring there.

  13. Mio-Pliocene morphotectonic evolution of the Iranian Plateau: from outward expansion to incision and excavation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballato, Paolo; Heidarzadeh, Ghasem; Zeilinger, Gerold; Ghassemi, Mohammad; Cifelli, Francesca; Mattei, Massimo; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; Balling, Philipp; Dunkl, István; Sudo, Masafumi; Mulch, Andreas; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    .5 and 12.5 Ma. At ~10.5 Ma an increase in sediment flux into the basin occurred as documented by an extensive progradation (> 50 km of distance) of conglomerates in the distal sectors of the basin. This event was followed by basin uplift and erosion with a shift of the basin depocenter toward the outer margin of the plateau (to the N and NE; Zanjan and Mianeh basins). There, sedimentation lasted until fluvial incision and basin excavation of sub-horizontal sediments started sometime during the last 4 Ma. Overall, our data suggest that sedimentation took place in a contiguous foreland-basin system, most likely triggered by thrust stacking and topographic loading in the interior of the plateau from ~17 Ma. The outward N to NE-directed propagation of the deformation fronts (< 10.5 Ma) excised parts of the foreland, incorporating new basin sectors into the orogenic plateau and compartmentalizing the foreland into a contractional basin and range topography. This implies that the IP developed during crustal shortening and thickening processes and that sometime after 10.5 Ma the northern IP had reached a lateral size similar to the modern one.

  14. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  15. Oceanic Plateau Overview and Look Ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    Oceanic plateaus result from fundamental processes in the Earth's interior, and have been implicated as instigators of major worldwide environmental changes. Although the plate tectonics paradigm successfully explains volcanic activity on the Earth's surface associated with seafloor spreading and plate subduction, it does not elucidate the massive flood volcanism that produces oceanic plateaus. Temporal correlations between flood basalts and environmental phenomena such as mass extinctions and oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) are well documented, yet the underlying mechanisms causing these global catastrophes are only beginning to be grasped. Focused investigations of oceanic plateaus have targeted the two largest features globally, the ~120 Ma Ontong Java Plateau (Pacific Ocean) and ~120-95 Ma Kerguelen Plateau/Broken Ridge (Indian Ocean), and the ~145-130 Ma Shatsky Rise (Pacific Ocean). These three features constitute the only oceanic plateaus where igneous basement has been drilled at more than one site. Multiple models - plume, bolide impact, and upwelling eclogite - have been proposed for Ontong Java's origin. The feature correlates temporally with OAE-1a, and interpretation of Sr, Os, and Pb isotopic systems during the time of OAE-1a points to a close linkage between the two, with CO2, Fe, and trace metal emissions from the massive magmatism potentially triggering the event. The Kerguelen Plateau/Broken Ridge is a composite feature that includes flood basalts, depleted mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-related asthenosphere, and continental lithosphere. Models for the Shatsky Rise include mantle plume and fast seafloor spreading. Future studies of oceanic plateaus have the potential to transform our understanding of the Earth system through investigating: 1) magma (and hence mantle source) variability through times; 2) the nature of melting anomalies, i.e., compositional vs. thermal, that produce oceanic plateaus; 3) the precise durations of oceanic plateau events

  16. Origin of the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Matthew J. (Principal Investigator); Boyce, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; (2) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; (5) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  17. Chasing shadows in the outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Federica

    The characteristics of the populations of objects that inhabit the outer solar system carry the fingerprint of the processes that governed the formation and evolution of the solar system. Occultation surveys push the limit of observation into the very small and distant outer solar system objects, allowing us to set constraints on the structure of the Kuiper belt, Scattered disk and Sedna populations. I collected, reduced, and analyzed vast datasets looking for occultations of stars by outer solar system objects, both working with the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS) collaboration and leading the MMT/Megacam occultation effort. Having found no such events in my data, I was able to place upper limits on the Kuiper belt, scattered disk and Sedna population. These limits and their derivation are described here.

  18. MHD processes in the outer heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic field measurements from Voyager and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes in the outer heliosphere are reviewed. A bibliography of the experimental and theoretical work concerning magnetic fields and plasmas observed in the outer heliosphere is given. Emphasis in this review is on basic concepts and dynamical processes involving the magnetic field. The theory that serves to explain and unify the interplanetary magnetic field and plasma observations is magnetohydrodynamics. Basic physical processes and observations that relate directly to solutions of the MHD equations are emphasized, but obtaining solutions of this complex system of equations involves various assumptions and approximations. The spatial and temporal complexity of the outer heliosphere and some approaches for dealing with this complexity are discussed.

  19. Baseline Microstructural Characterization of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, Phillip E.; Dunn, Kerry A

    2005-07-31

    Three DOE Standard 3013 outer storage containers were examined to characterize the microstructure of the type 316L stainless steel material of construction. Two of the containers were closure-welded yielding production-quality outer 3013 containers; the third examined container was not closed. Optical metallography and Knoop microhardness measurements were performed to establish a baseline characterization that will support future destructive examinations of 3013 outer containers in the storage inventory. Metallography revealed the microstructural features typical of this austenitic stainless steel as it is formed and welded. The grains were equiaxed with evident annealing twins. Flow lines were prominent in the forming directions of the cylindrical body and flat lids and bottom caps. No adverse indications were seen. Microhardness values, although widely varying, were consistent with annealed austenitic stainless steel. The data gathered as part of this characterization will be used as a baseline for the destructive examination of 3013 containers removed from the storage inventory.

  20. A new species of Saurida (Pisces: Synodontidae) from the Mascarene Plateau, Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Russell, Barry C

    2015-04-16

    A new species of lizardfish, Saurida tweddlei n.sp., from the Mascarene Plateau, Western Indian Ocean, is described and figured. The new species is characterised by the following combination of characters: dorsal fin with 12-13 rays; pectorals with 14-15 rays; lateral-line scales 53-55; transverse scale rows above lateral line 4½, below lateral line 5½; pectoral fins moderately long (extending to or just beyond a line from origin of pelvic fins to origin of dorsal fin); 2 rows of teeth on outer palatines; 0-3 teeth on vomer; tongue with about 4-5 rows of teeth posteriorly; caudal peduncle compressed (depth greater than width); stomach and intestine pale whitish. A key to the species of Saurida of the Western Indian Ocean is provided.

  1. [Functional difference of malate-aspartate shuttle system in liver between plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) and plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rui-Juan; Rao, Xin-Feng; Wei, Deng-Bang; Wang, Duo-Wei; Wei, Lian; Sun, Sheng-Zhen

    2012-04-25

    To explore the adaptive mechanisms of plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) to the enduring digging activity in the hypoxic environment and of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) to the sprint running activity, the functional differences of malate-aspartate shuttle system (MA) in liver of plateau zokor and plateau pika were studied. The ratio of liver weight to body weight, the parameters of mitochondria in hepatocyte and the contents of lactic acid in serum were measured; the open reading frame of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (MDH1), mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH2), and the partial sequence of aspartate glutamate carrier (AGC) and oxoglutarate malate carrier (OMC) genes were cloned and sequenced; MDH1, MDH2, AGC and OMC mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR; the specific activities of MDH1 and MDH2 in liver of plateau zokor and plateau pika were measured using enzymatic methods. The results showed that, (1) the ratio of liver weight to body weight, the number and the specific surface of mitochondria in hepatocyte of plateau zokor were markedly higher than those of plateau pika (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), but the content of lactic acid in serum of plateau pika was significantly higher than that of plateau zokor (P < 0.01); (2) MDH1 and MDH2 mRNA levels as well as their enzymatic activities in liver of plateau zokor were significantly higher than those of plateau pika (P < 0.01 or 0.05), AGC mRNA level of the zokor was significantly higher than that of the pika (P < 0.01), while no difference was found at OMC mRNA level between them (P > 0.05); (3) mRNA level and enzymatic activity of MDH1 was significantly lower than those of MDH2 in the pika liver (P < 0.01), MDH1 mRNA level of plateau zokor was markedly higher than that of MDH2 (P < 0.01), but the activities had no difference between MDH1 and MDH2 in liver of the zokor (P > 0.05). These results indicate that the plateau zokor obtains ATP in the enduring digging activity by enhancing the function of MA

  2. Outer planet probe cost estimates: First impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niehoff, J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination was made of early estimates of outer planetary atmospheric probe cost by comparing the estimates with past planetary projects. Of particular interest is identification of project elements which are likely cost drivers for future probe missions. Data are divided into two parts: first, the description of a cost model developed by SAI for the Planetary Programs Office of NASA, and second, use of this model and its data base to evaluate estimates of probe costs. Several observations are offered in conclusion regarding the credibility of current estimates and specific areas of the outer planet probe concept most vulnerable to cost escalation.

  3. Ptolemy's treatment of the outer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether for the outer planets Ptolemy followed his otherwise consistent custom of describing a scenario that did not happen as he says, or whether, at least for the outer planets, he left us a more accurate rendition of events. The detailed reconstructions of Ptolemy's calculations that follow show that, at least in the Almagest, Ptolemy is a writer with consistent habits when it comes to observations. We begin by reviewing, with minimal editorial comment, Ptolemy's calculations for each planet.

  4. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  5. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  6. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  7. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  8. Mapping the plateau of novices in virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Steven A W; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2017-04-01

    To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved. Prospective study. Data on the performances of 40 novices who had completed repeated, directed, self-regulated VR simulation training of mastoidectomy were included. Data were analyzed to identify key areas of difficulty as well as the procedures terminated without using all the time allowed. Novices had difficulty in avoiding drilling holes in the outer anatomical boundaries of the mastoidectomy and frequently made injuries to vital structures such as the lateral semicircular canal, the ossicles, and the facial nerve. The simulator-integrated tutor function improved performance on many of these items, but overreliance on tutoring was observed. Novices also demonstrated poor self-assessment skills and often did not make use of the allowed time, lacking knowledge on when to stop or how to excel. Directed, self-regulated VR simulation training of mastoidectomy needs a strong instructional design with specific process goals to support deliberate practice because cognitive effort is needed for novices to improve beyond an initial plateau. N/A. Laryngoscope, 127:907-914, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  10. Episodic karstification, Edwards Plateau, central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kastning, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Edwards Plateau and Llano Basin of central Texas form one of the largest contiguous regions of karst in North America (>80,000 km/sup 2/). Solutional phenomena show that several major episodes of karstification are documentable from late Cambrian to Holocene. Relict landforms representing intervals of solutional activity correlate well with the accepted geomorphic chronology for central Texas. Secondary porosity are vertically controlled by lithology, topographic incision of streams, position of the potentiometric surface, and attitude of bedding. Areally, development of karst is strongly influenced by the extent, density, and orientation of fractures and by hydrodynamic characteristics such as points of recharge and discharge, degree of integration of groundwater flow paths, and hydraulic gradients. Early episodes of karstification correspond to intervals of subaerial exposure of carbonate rocks during marine regression or following regional uplift. Paleokarst is prevalent in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences. Infilled dolines and solution-collapse breccias have been exhumed by extensive regional denudation during the Cenozoic Era. Subaerial conditions during the middle Cretaceous account for infilled solutional cavities within lower Cretaceous carbonate beds. The most extensive karstification began with regional uplift in the early Miocene. Enhanced relief along the Balcones escarpment promoted incision of streams, lowering of water tables, steepened hydraulic gradients, and increases in discharge. Caves at various-elevations attest to sequential dissection of the plateau during the late Quaternary.

  11. Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Gennady P.

    2002-01-01

    9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover

  12. The Manihiki Plateau, Hikurangi Plateau, Wishbone Scarp, and Osbourn Trough: A Review and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henig, A.; Luyendyk, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    The extinct Osbourn Trough spreading system in the southwestern Pacific played a key role in separating the once joined Hikurangi and Manihiki Plateaus in Cretaceous time. Recent studies by Downey et al. [2007] and Taylor [20006] have provided new data and concepts on that history. Studies by Larson et al. [2002] describe Cretaceous histories adjacent and east of the Osbourn system and Eagles et al. [2004] describe a history for the southwest Pacific just after the Osbourn system became extinct. The lack of identifiable magnetic anomalies allows tectonic events during separation of the plateaus and spreading on the Osbourn Trough to occur between about 124.6 and 84 Ma (Chron 34). Satellite gravity maps of the region identify what are interpreted as Cretaceous fracture zone trends. Swath bathymetry data reveal at least four provinces of abyssal hill trends. What is known are the following: Minimum age of the Manihiki High Plateau at 123.4 Ma from DSDP Site 317, the age of seafloor, 115 Ma, from a dredge sample from the southern segment of the West Wishbone Scarp 300 km northeast of the Hikurangi Plateau, the east-west trend and extent of the extinct Osbourn spreading center at latitude 26° S, the trends (NNE-SSW to NE-SW) and extent of portions of the West Wishbone Scarp east of the Hikurangi Plateau, the N-S trend of the East Wishbone Scarp that appears to truncate the West Wishbone Scarp, the NNE- SSW trend and extent of the prominent Manihiki (Eastern) Scarp at the eastern boundary of the Manihiki High Plateau, the NW-SE trend and extent of the Rapuhia Scarp on the northwestern Hikurangi Plateau, and trends in abyssal hills; E-W near the Osbourn Trough and WNW-ESE closer to the plateaus. Differences in abyssal hill morphology suggest one or more changes in spreading rates. The Osbourn Trough began rifting apart a Large Igneous Province formed at 123.5 +/- 1.5 Ma, into the separate Ontong-Java, Manihiki, and Hikurangi Plateaus by 121 Ma. After an initial 6 Myr

  13. [Difference in oxygen uptake in skeletal muscles between plateau zokor (Myospalax rufescens baileyi) and plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniac)].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shi-Hai; Qi, Xin-Zhang; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Rao, Xin-Feng; Wei, Lian; Wei, Deng-Bang

    2009-08-25

    To investigate the difference between the functions of oxygen uptake in skeletal muscle and living habits of plateau zokor (Myospalax rufescens baileyi) and plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniac), the microvessel densities (MVD) of skeletal muscle of plateau zokor, plateau pika and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat were measured by immunohistochemical staining; the numerical density on area (N(A)) of mitochondria, and surface density (S(V), external surface area density of mitochondria per unit volume of skeletal muscle fiber) were obtained by stereo microscope technique; mRNA levels of myoglobin (Mb) in skeletal muscle were determined by real-time PCR, and the contents of Mb protein in skeletal muscle were determined by spectro-photometer. The results showed that MVD, N(A) and S(V) of mitochondria in skeletal muscle of plateau pika were significantly lower than those of plateau zokor and SD rat (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of Mb gene in skeletal muscle of plateau zokor and plateau pika were notably higher than that of SD rat (P<0.05). There were significant differences in the contents of Mb among these three species, and plateau zokor and SD rat presented the highest and the lowest value, respectively (P<0.05). The results suggest that even though plateau zokor inhabits in the hypoxia environment, most of its skeletal muscle fiber are red muscle fiber. While most of skeletal muscle fibers of plateau pika are white muscle fibers. This kind of white muscle has low MVD, N(A) and S(V) of mitochondria and less content of Mb compared with the red one, suggesting it obtains most energy from aerobic oxidation. The above-mentioned differences in skeletal muscles may be related to not only the different species, but also the different living habits of these two high altitude species.

  14. Plateau Waves of Intracranial Pressure and Multimodal Brain Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dias, Celeste; Maia, Isabel; Cerejo, Antonio; Smielewski, Peter; Paiva, José-Artur; Czosnyka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe multimodal brain monitoring characteristics during plateau waves of intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with head injury, using ICM+ software for continuous recording. Plateau waves consist of an abrupt elevation of ICP above 40 mmHg for 5-20 min. This is a prospective observational study of patients with head injury who were admitted to a neurocritical care unit and who developed plateau waves. We analyzed 59 plateau waves that occurred in 8 of 18 patients (44 %). At the top of plateau waves arterial blood pressure remained almost constant, but cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and cerebral oximetry decreased. After plateau waves, patients with a previously better autoregulation status developed hyperemia, demonstrated by an increase in cerebral blood flow and brain oxygenation. Pressure and oxygen cerebrovascular reactivity indexes (pressure reactivity index and ORxshort) increased significantly during the plateau wave as a sign of disruption of autoregulation. Bedside multimodal brain monitoring is important to characterize increases in ICP and give differential diagnoses of plateau waves, as management of this phenomenon differs from that of regular ICP.

  15. An introduction to the Colorado Plateau Native Plant Initiative

    Treesearch

    Wayne Padgett; Peggy Olwell; Scott Lambert

    2010-01-01

    The Colorado Plateau Ecoregion is occupied by a variety of ecosystems requiring restoration activities following natural and human-caused disturbances. The Colorado Plateau Native Plant Initiative, included in the BLM Native Plant Materials Development Program, was established as a part of the Seeds of Success program. This program is a partnership between USDI Bureau...

  16. Removal of pinyon-juniper woodlands on the Colorado Plateau

    Treesearch

    Michael Peters; Neil S. Cobb

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Pinyon-Juniper (PJ) woodland is the 3rd largest vegetation type in the United States, covering 35.5% of the Colorado Plateau, it is the largest vegetation type administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) on the Colorado Plateau. These woodlands have been increasing dramatically in density and extent over the last 100...

  17. Localization of outer surface proteins A and B in both the outer membrane and intracellular compartments of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed Central

    Brusca, J S; McDowall, A W; Norgard, M V; Radolf, J D

    1991-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi B31 with and without outer membranes contained nearly identical amounts of outer surface proteins A and B. The majority of each immunogen also was localized intracellularly by immunocryoultramicrotomy. These results are inconsistent with the widely held belief that outer surface proteins A and B are exclusively outer membrane proteins. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:1744059

  18. THE ORBITS OF THE OUTER URANIAN SATELLITES

    SciTech Connect

    Brozovic, M.; Jacobson, R. A.

    2009-04-15

    We report on the numerically integrated orbits for the nine outer Uranian satellites. The orbits are calculated based on fits to the astrometric observations for the period from 1984 to 2006. The results include the state vectors, post-fit residuals, and mean orbital elements. We also assess the accuracy of the orbital fits and discuss the need for future measurements.

  19. The magnetospheres of the outer planets

    SciTech Connect

    Mcnutt, R.L., Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on the magnetospheres of all of the outer planets including Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto is reviewed for the 1987-1990 time period. Particular attention is given to magnetospheric structure, plasma transport, Jovian aurora, Io and the plasma torus, Titan and its magnetospheric interactions, rings and dusty plasmas, magnetospheric convection, and satellite interactions.

  20. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  1. The Outer Planets: Getting There Fast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, Paul A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a brief review is given of NASA's outer planet missions as performed with chemical propulsion systems. The Kuiper Express is discussed as an illustration of the integrated approach that should be used in mission and spacecraft design to maximize science return.

  2. Ground Based Studies of the Outer Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, Laurence M.

    2005-01-01

    This report covers progress to date under this grant on our continuing program to conduct ground based studies of the outer solar system planets and satellites, with emphasis on spectroscopy and atmospheric phenomena. The research continues under our new PAST grant, NNG04G131G beginning 5/1/2004. The original period of performance of the subject grant was 3/1/2001 to 2/28/2004, but was extended one year at no cost. Although there is some overlap in the scientific projects conducted during the extended year with those of the new grant, this report is confined to the portion of the work funded under NAG5-10435. The primary goals for this grant period were a comparative study of outer planet thermospheres/ionospheres near solar maximum, extended to the mid-IR, and the investigation of molecular dimers in outer solar system atmospheres. This project supports NASA's planned space missions, Jupiter Polar Orbiter, outer Planet Microprobes, and the recent Cassini flyby of Jupiter. It also supports the OSS strategic plan themes, The Exploration of the Solar System and The Sun-Earth Connection/ Understanding comparative planetary space environments.

  3. [Chemistry in Outer Solar System and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the three years of the NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NAG51 1032, we have developed photochemical models for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Io, and extrasolar giant planets. We have compared the Io and outer planet model predictions with various infrared and microwave observations.

  4. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  5. Outer Space Treaty Signed in Moscow (1967)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-13

    Various shots of the representatives of various countries signing the outer space treaty in Moscow. Various shots as the 'big 3' sign the agreement - Mr Andrei Gromyko for Russia, then British Ambassador Sir Geoffrey Harrison for Britain and American Ambassador Llewllyn Thompson for America. Prime Minister of USSR Alexei Kosygin stands behind and watches events. They address the assembly after signing.

  6. Tower mast of precipitation over the central Tibetan Plateau summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yunfei; Liu, Guosheng; Wu, Guoxiong; Yu, Rucong; Xu, Youping; Wang, Yu; Li, Rui; Liu, Qi

    2006-03-01

    Over the Tibetan Plateau, solar heating often produces strong convective instability in the atmosphere. Using 3 years (1998-2000) of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar data, our investigations revealed a tower mast shape of precipitation over the Plateau in both height-longitude and height-latitude cross-sections. High rain rate center over the Plateau is located above 6km as a tower penetrating into the mid-troposphere against the nearby background, implying a unique latent heating source injecting directly to the middle atmosphere. Results indicate that there are more isolated rain cells over the Plateau than its nearby regions, and the strongest diurnal cycle of rainfall existing over the Plateau with a peak around 1600 and a valley around 0500 local time, indicating the dominance of convective clouds caused by solar heating. It is also found that the TRMM algorithm might have misclassified weak convections as stratiform rains.

  7. Prehistoric vegetation on the Loess Plateau: steppe or forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungsheng, Liu; Zhengtang, Guo; Wu Naiqin; Lu Houyuan

    The paper aims to assess the Holocene natural vegetation on the Loess Plateau before human reclamation, a contentious point in paleo-environmental studies. Coordinated analyses on the soils, phytolith assemblage, organic carbon isotope composition and pollen data from selected sites suggest that the Holocene vegetation on the Loess Plateau was dominated by steppe. During the mid-Holocene, corresponding to the climatic optimum, the southernmost part of the Plateau (Weinan and Xian) was covered by an open meadow steppe with the presence of some coniferous species, while the middle part of the plateau (Luochuan) was covered by steppe. Our results do not support the notion that dense forest cover had developed on the Loess Plateau during the Holocene.

  8. Satellite precipitation estimation over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcu, F.; Gjoka, U.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau are very little known, given the scarcity of reliable and widely distributed ground observation, thus the satellite approach is a valuable choice for large scale precipitation analysis and hydrological cycle studies. However,the satellite perspective undergoes various shortcomings at the different wavelengths used in atmospheric remote sensing. In the microwave spectrum often the high soil emissivity masks or hides the atmospheric signal upwelling from light-moderate precipitation layers, while low and relatively thin precipitating clouds are not well detected in the visible-infrared, because of their low contrast with cold and bright (if snow covered) background. In this work an IR-based, statistical rainfall estimation technique is trained and applied over the Tibetan Plateau hydrological basin to retrive precipitation intensity at different spatial and temporal scales. The technique is based on a simple artificial neural network scheme trained with two supervised training sets assembled for monsoon season and for the rest of the year. For the monsoon season (estimated from June to September), the ground radar precipitation data for few case studies are used to build the training set: four days in summer 2009 are considered. For the rest of the year, CloudSat-CPR derived snowfall rate has been used as reference precipitation data, following the Kulie and Bennartz (2009) algorithm. METEOSAT-7 infrared channels radiance (at 6.7 and 11 micometers) and derived local variability features (such as local standard deviation and local average) are used as input and the actual rainrate is obtained as output for each satellite slot, every 30 minutes on the satellite grid. The satellite rainrate maps for three years (2008-2010) are computed and compared with available global precipitation products (such as C-MORPH and TMPA products) and with other techniques applied to the Plateau area: similarities and differences are

  9. Large contrast observed in crustal composition and structure between the Ordos plateau and the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, S.; Niu, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Ordos plateau located in the western side of the North China craton is a distinct aseismic block. The plateau is bounded on the south and east, respectively, by the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Qinling orogenic belt and the Taihangshan mountain range. A series of graben systems were developed late in Cenozoic around the southern and eastern margins of the plateau. The Ordos is also bordered on the southwest by the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau formed by the Cenozoic India-Eurasia collision. The gentle topographic slope together with the moderately thickened crust along the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau was modeled by an injection of lower crustal material into a relatively weak foreland. We have analyzed thousands of receiver-function data recorded by 182 national and regional stations of the broadband seismic network operated by the China Earthquake Administration to study the crustal structure beneath the Ordos plateau and the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. Crustal thickness and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio were measured at each station. The Ordos plateau is underlain by a moderate thick crust with an average Moho depth ~40 km. The Trans-North China Orogen east to the Ordos is featured by a thin crust varying from 25-35 km. The Weihe Graben at the southern border of the Ordos plateau is lying above a ~30-km thin crust, while its southern neighbor, the Qinling organic belt has a thick root extending to as much as 45 km deep. Crust beneath the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau varies from 55 to 65 km. We found a remarkable contrast between the Tibetan and Ordos plateaus in the measured Poisson’s ratio: the Ordos plateau is featured by a high Poisson’s ratio while the Tibetan margin has a very low Poisson’s ratio. In general, lower crustal rocks are more mafic with a higher Poisson’s ratio than those found in the upper crust and mafic rocks are mechanically stronger than the felsic ones. The measured lower ratio thus

  10. Extension of the Yellowstone plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Owyhee plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, David W.; Hackett, William R.; Ore, H. Thomas

    1990-11-01

    Formation of the late Cenozoic volcanic province comprising the Owyhee plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone plateau has been accompanied by east-northeast-directed crustal extension. A new vector of 45 mm/yr, N56°E for the migration of silicic volcanism across the volcanic province is calculated. If migration of volcanism reflects west-southwest continental drift over a mantle plume, a zone of crustal extension must separate the volcanic province from the more slowly moving North American craton. Space-time relations of basin fill in the adjacent Basin and Range province provide evidence for a zone of extension, about 125 km wide, coincident with and east of coeval silicic volcanism. Since 16 Ma, the zone of extension has migrated along with silicic volcanism, maintaining its position between the province and the unextended craton.

  11. Extension of the Yellowstone plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Owyhee plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, D.W.; Hackett, W.R.; Ore, H.T. )

    1990-11-01

    Formation of the late Cenozoic volcanic province comprising the Owyhee plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone plateau has been accompanied by east-northeast-directed crustal extension. A new vector of 45 mm/yr, N56{degree}E for the migration of silicic volcanism across the volcanic province is calculated. If migration of volcanism reflects west-southwest continental drift over a mantle plume, a zone of crustal extension must separate the volcanic province from the more slowly moving North American craton. Space-time relations of basin fill in the adjacent Basin and Range province provide evidence for a zone of extension, about 125 km wide, coincident with and east of coeval silicic volcanism. Since 16 Ma, the zone of extension has migrated along with silicic volcanism, maintaining its position between the province and the unextended craton.

  12. Loess Plateau storage of Northeastern Tibetan Plateau-derived Yellow River sediment

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Junsheng; Stevens, Thomas; Rittner, Martin; Stockli, Daniel; Garzanti, Eduardo; Limonta, Mara; Bird, Anna; Andò, Sergio; Vermeesch, Pieter; Saylor, Joel; Lu, Huayu; Breecker, Daniel; Hu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shanpin; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Peng, Wenbin; Carter, Andrew; Ji, Shunchuan; Pan, Baotian

    2015-01-01

    Marine accumulations of terrigenous sediment are widely assumed to accurately record climatic- and tectonic-controlled mountain denudation and play an important role in understanding late Cenozoic mountain uplift and global cooling. Underpinning this is the assumption that the majority of sediment eroded from hinterland orogenic belts is transported to and ultimately stored in marine basins with little lag between erosion and deposition. Here we use a detailed and multi-technique sedimentary provenance dataset from the Yellow River to show that substantial amounts of sediment eroded from Northeast Tibet and carried by the river's upper reach are stored in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the western Mu Us desert. This finding revises our understanding of the origin of the Chinese Loess Plateau and provides a potential solution for mismatches between late Cenozoic terrestrial sedimentation and marine geochemistry records, as well as between global CO2 and erosion records. PMID:26449321

  13. Loess Plateau storage of Northeastern Tibetan Plateau-derived Yellow River sediment.

    PubMed

    Nie, Junsheng; Stevens, Thomas; Rittner, Martin; Stockli, Daniel; Garzanti, Eduardo; Limonta, Mara; Bird, Anna; Andò, Sergio; Vermeesch, Pieter; Saylor, Joel; Lu, Huayu; Breecker, Daniel; Hu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shanpin; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Peng, Wenbin; Carter, Andrew; Ji, Shunchuan; Pan, Baotian

    2015-10-09

    Marine accumulations of terrigenous sediment are widely assumed to accurately record climatic- and tectonic-controlled mountain denudation and play an important role in understanding late Cenozoic mountain uplift and global cooling. Underpinning this is the assumption that the majority of sediment eroded from hinterland orogenic belts is transported to and ultimately stored in marine basins with little lag between erosion and deposition. Here we use a detailed and multi-technique sedimentary provenance dataset from the Yellow River to show that substantial amounts of sediment eroded from Northeast Tibet and carried by the river's upper reach are stored in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the western Mu Us desert. This finding revises our understanding of the origin of the Chinese Loess Plateau and provides a potential solution for mismatches between late Cenozoic terrestrial sedimentation and marine geochemistry records, as well as between global CO2 and erosion records.

  14. Loess Plateau storage of Northeastern Tibetan Plateau-derived Yellow River sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Junsheng; Stevens, Thomas; Rittner, Martin; Stockli, Daniel; Garzanti, Eduardo; Limonta, Mara; Bird, Anna; Andò, Sergio; Vermeesch, Pieter; Saylor, Joel; Lu, Huayu; Breecker, Daniel; Hu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shanpin; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Peng, Wenbin; Carter, Andrew; Ji, Shunchuan; Pan, Baotian

    2015-10-01

    Marine accumulations of terrigenous sediment are widely assumed to accurately record climatic- and tectonic-controlled mountain denudation and play an important role in understanding late Cenozoic mountain uplift and global cooling. Underpinning this is the assumption that the majority of sediment eroded from hinterland orogenic belts is transported to and ultimately stored in marine basins with little lag between erosion and deposition. Here we use a detailed and multi-technique sedimentary provenance dataset from the Yellow River to show that substantial amounts of sediment eroded from Northeast Tibet and carried by the river's upper reach are stored in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the western Mu Us desert. This finding revises our understanding of the origin of the Chinese Loess Plateau and provides a potential solution for mismatches between late Cenozoic terrestrial sedimentation and marine geochemistry records, as well as between global CO2 and erosion records.

  15. The Hubble flow of plateau inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Coone, Dries; Roest, Diederik; Vennin, Vincent E-mail: d.roest@rug.nl

    2015-11-01

    In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard ''horizon flow'' procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau inflation, which suggests the use of Padé approximants instead. We propose a novel method that provides analytic solutions of the flow equations for a given parametrization of the Hubble function. This method is illustrated in the Taylor and Padé cases, for low order expansions. We then present the results of a full numerical treatment scanning larger order expansions, and compare these parametrizations in terms of convergence, prior dependence, predictivity and compatibility with the data. Finally, we highlight the implications for potential reconstruction methods.

  16. Plateau inflation in SUGRA-MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Girish Kumar; Gupta, Gaveshna; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2016-09-01

    We explored a Higgs inflationary scenario in the SUGRA embedding of the MSSM in Einstein frame where the inflaton is contained in the SU (2) Higgs doublet. We include all higher order non-renormalizable terms to the MSSM superpotential and an appropriate Kähler potential which can provide slow-roll inflaton potential in the D-flat direction. In this model, a plateau-like inflation potential can be obtained if the imaginary part of the neutral Higgs acts as the inflaton. The inflationary predictions of this model are consistent with the latest CMB observations. The model represents a successful Higgs inflation scenario in the context of Supergravity and it is compatible with Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model.

  17. Rapid increase of lakes in Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H.; Fan, W.; Yao, Y., Sr.; Tian, D.; MA, B.; LIU, R.; Qin, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, covered with a huge area of snow, glaciers and lakes, feeds several large rivers, incluidng Yangtze River, Yellow River, Yarlung Tsangpo River and Lancang River. Climate change can cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows, and the response of lakes in this plateau to global climate change is very crucial. Using time-series Landsats clear-sky images in summer from the late 1980s to 2015, we established a new finer-resolution (30m) database of lakes in the plateau among five stages (1980s, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2015), analyzed lake changes in the past three decades, and explored the possible driving forces. Results and discussions(1) Changes in lakes > 1km2 between 1980s and 2015The changes of lake numbers and surface areas were investigated between 1980s and 2015. The lakes were identified by visual interpretation and classified to several different sizes: small (1-10km2), medium (10-50km2), large (50-100km2) and huge (>100km2) lakes. A total of 1375 lakes (>1km2) were detected in 2015, in which the small, medium, large and huge lakes respectively account for 97, 74, 262 and 942 (Fig.1 and Table 1). The numbers of lakes (> 1km2 ) has increased by 384 from 991 in 1980s (Fig.2 a, b). Meanwhile, a rapid increase of lake surface area also occurred: increased by 28.2% from 37711.0km2 in 1980s to 48335.2km2 in 2015 (Fig.2c and Table 1). (2) Temporal changes in lakes > 10km2 between 1980s and 2015Temporal variation in all lakes > 10km2 were investigated at the five stages. Most lakes have expanded (Fig.3). The water surface area of large and huge lakes increased by 13.7% from a total area of 32056.7km2 in 1980s to 36437.0km2 in 2015. For example, Siling Co, which is the largest lake in Tibet region and second largest lake in Tibetan Plateau, has increased by 702.1 km2 (41.0%) to 2416.08 km2 since 1980s with an rate about 28 km2 /a. Some new lakes or water bodies appeared due to melting glaciers or anthropogenic intervention. A few of small

  18. Logarithmic correlations in quantum Hall plateau transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Romain

    2015-07-01

    The critical behavior of quantum Hall transitions in two-dimensional disordered electronic systems can be described by a class of complicated, nonunitary conformal field theories with logarithmic correlations. The nature and the physical origin of these logarithmic correlation functions remain, however, mysterious. Using the replica trick and the underlying symmetries of these quantum critical points, we show here how to construct nonperturbatively disorder-averaged observables in terms of Green's functions that scale logarithmically at criticality. In the case of the spin quantum Hall transition, which may occur in disordered superconductors with spin-rotation symmetry and broken time reversal invariance, we argue that our results are compatible with an alternative approach based on supersymmetry. The generalization to the integer quantum Hall plateau transition is also discussed.

  19. Geochemical Evolution of the Hikurangi Oceanic Plateau, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoernle, K.; Hauff, F.; Werner, R.; Mortimer, N.; van den Bogaard, P.; Geldmacher, J.; Garbe-Schoenberg, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Hikurangi oceanic plateau or large igneous province (LIP), located east of the North Island of New Zealand, covers an area of 350,000 km3 and is located at a depth of 2,500-3,500 b.s.l. The Hikurangi plateau was possibly connected to the Manihiki LIP (now located 3000 km to the north) but may have been separated by Cretaceous seafloor spreading at the Osbourn Trough (Billen and Stock, 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 13481-13489). Therefore it may have formed part of the "greater Ontong Java Plateau event" (Coffin and Eldholm, Geology, 21, 515-51), the largest magmatic event preserved on Earth. During the R/V Sonne SO168 ZEALANDIA cruise, 77 dredge hauls containing igneous samples were recovered from the Hikurangi Plateau. Volcanic rocks were obtained from 1) the plateau basement along the 1 km high Rapuhia Scarp, 2) large guyot-type seamounts within the plateau, and 3) ridge-type seamounts associated with rifting of the NE plateau margin (Hoernle et al., 2004, EOS). The recovered plateau rocks range from basalts, dolerites and gabbros with tholeiitic and alkali basaltic to trachybasaltic compositions. The seamount volcanic rocks have more Si-undersaturated compositions than the plateau rocks and range from alkali basalts through mugearites to basanites through tephrites to nephelinites. The plateau basement rocks have flat rare earth element (REE) patterns similar to enriched mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB) and basement rocks from other oceanic LIPs, such as Manihiki, Ontong-Java and the Caribbean. The late-stage seamount lavas show enrichment in the light REE and all strongly to moderately incompatible elements, having incompatible element characteristics similar to the HIMU (high time-integrated U/Pb) component in ocean island basalts (OIB). Although the Pb isotopic composition has been extensively effected by seawater alteration, the freshest samples have enriched (EM-type) Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions similar to Ontong-Java and Manihiki basement rocks

  20. Lake level changes on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Xie, H.; Kang, S.; Ackley, S. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) in central Asia has an average elevation of more than 4000 m, covers an area of about 2.5 million km2, and is now called “the Third Pole” of the Earth with the largest ice mass outside the north and south polar regions. It is also considered as “the Water Tower” of Asia since glaciers and seasonal snow melt provide the primary water source for billions of people. The TP, as a whole, has undergone warming in the past three decades; the temperature rise of 0.3 °C per decade is twice the global warming rate. It is currently difficult, if not impossible, to monitor elevation and its change of all lakes in Tibetan Plateau (TP) using field observations. Here we use ICESat altimetry data to provide precise lake elevations and their changes during the period of 2003-2008. We find that in the 68 lakes (51 salt lakes) examined, 53 (78%) of all lakes and 44 (86%) of the salt lakes show trends of lake level increase. The mean lake level increase rate is 0.29 m/year for the 53 lakes, and 0.30 m/year for the 44 salt lakes. The largest lake level increase (0.95 m/year) we found is the lake Cedo Caka. Three of the four subregions of the TP show increased lake levels. The increase in lake level, particularly for a high percentage of salt lakes, supports the accelerated glacier melting in the TP due to global warming.

  1. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Tomas S; Sandhu, Harpal S; Serrano, Leona W; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy should be considered in patients with acute vision loss and abnormalities on NIR-REF imaging, especially if

  2. Behavioral mechanisms of male sterilization on plateau pika in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Qu, Jiapeng; Wang, Zengli; Wang, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Yanming; Zhang, Zhibin

    2012-03-01

    Fertility control is an alternative non-lethal method in the management of rodents. Previous modeling suggests that the efficacy of male sterilization depends on mating systems of animals, but behavioral mechanisms of male sterilization have not been investigated. Here we investigated the behavioral mechanism of the sterilant quinestrol in reducing the fertility of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Male pikas treated with quinestrol showed reduced aggression compared to control males, but they showed significantly higher levels of territorial behavior such as long-calls and long-chases. Levels of long-call and long-chase were negatively correlated with the number of newborn pikas in the family. Single-baiting of quinestrol effectively sterilized male pikas and reduced the pregnancy rate of female pikas; this was likely achieved by increased territorial behavior of sterilized pikas which resulted in unsuccessful invasions by fertile adult male pikas. Our study reveals a novel behavioral mechanism, increased territoriality in sterilized males, in the fertility control of plateau pikas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-rift volcanic structures of the Pernambuco Plateau, northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buarque, Bruno V.; Barbosa, José A.; Magalhães, José R. G.; Cruz Oliveira, Jefferson T.; Filho, Osvaldo J. Correia

    2016-10-01

    The Pernambuco marginal basin is located on the eastern continental margin of northeastern Brazil, covers an area of 20,800 km2, and represents one of the most prominent frontiers for deep water oil and gas exploration off the Brazilian coast. The onshore region of this basin was highly affected by extrusive and intrusive magmatism during the Upper Albian, and the relation of that event with the volcanic structures observed in the offshore sector has not been thoroughly characterized to date. This study aims to characterize the major extrusive and intrusive volcanic structures of the offshore portion of this basin, which is dominated by the Pernambuco Plateau, and its stratigraphic relations. A set of 143 2D multichannel seismic sections that cover the Pernambuco Plateau region are used to interpret the major tectono-stratigraphic sequences and describe the distribution of volcanoes, sills, vent complexes and related volcaniclastic sequences. The interpretations are supported by aeromagnetic and gravimetric geophysical surveys. Volcanoes are classified into two groups that differ in terms of their morphology: shield-like structures and cone-shaped volcanic structures. Sill intrusions are mainly identified beneath the volcanic structures and are characterized by high-amplitude reflectors with short extensions and abrupt terminations. Volcaniclastic sequences are found adjacent to the volcanoes and are characterized by high-amplitude, disrupted reflections with local chaotic configurations. Vent complexes are classified on the basis of their morphologies as either eye-shaped or crater-shaped. The volcanic features identified within the available seismic dataset are concentrated in two main areas: in the centre of the plateau and near its northeastern border. These two regions are host basement outer highs and are surrounded by hyper-extended continental crust, which forms the plateau itself. The extrusive and intrusive features described in the offshore region were

  4. Cryovolcanism in the outer solar system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Cryovolcanism is defined as the extrusion of liquids and vapors of materials that would be frozen solid at the planetary surface temperatures of the icy bodies of the outer solar system. Active cryovolcanism is now known to occur on Saturn's moon Enceladus and on Neptune's moon Triton and is suspected on Jupiter's moon Europa, while evidence for past cryovolcanic activity is widespread throughout the outer solar system. This chapter examines the mechanisms and manifestations of cryovolcanism, beginning with a review of the materials that make up these unusual ‘‘magmas’’ and the means by which they might erupt and concluding with a volcanologist's tour of the farthest reaches of the solar system.

  5. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  6. The Outer Space as an Educational Motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Pérez, Melquíades; Hernández-López, Montserrat

    2017-06-01

    STEAM is an educational approach to learning that uses Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts and Mathematics as access points for guiding student inquiry, dialogue, and critical thinking. The end results are students who take thoughtful risks, engage in experiential learning, persist in problem-solving, embrace collaboration, and work through the creative process. The Outer Space is a window to the past and the future of our travel around the history of the Universe and can be used as a educational tool in primary and secondary education. This paper talks about the integration of the resources of European Space Agency, Space Awareness, Nuclio, Scientix and Schoolnet as motivation to integrate STEAM methodology in secondary education. Keywords: STEAM, outer space, motivation, methodology

  7. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüster, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2006-03-01

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars.

  8. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ruester, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2006-03-15

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars.

  9. Outer spiral structure in disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsis, P. A.

    2017-03-01

    In several grand design barred-spiral galaxies it is observed a second, fainter, outer set of spiral arms. Typical examples of objects of this morphology can be considered NGC 1566 and NGC 5248. I suggest that such an overall structure can be the result of two dynamical mechanisms acting in the disc. The bar and both spiral systems rotate with the same pattern speed. The inner spiral is reinforced by regular orbits trapped around the stable, elliptical, periodic orbits of the central family, while the outer system of spiral arms is supported by chaotic orbits. Chaotic orbits are also responsible for a rhomboidal area surrounding the inner barred-spiral region. In general there is a discontinuity between the two spiral structures at the corotation region.

  10. Origins of outer-planet satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.; Tittemore, William C.

    1993-01-01

    Aspects of satellite origin and evolution which bear on the formation of the solar system are addressed, with emphasis on the chemical evidence contained in satellites concerning the modification of the interstellar material which went to form the solar system. New results on the tidal evolution of outer-planet satellite systems are presented. The gross physical and chemical properties of the satellite systems of the outer planets are outlined. Models for regular satellite formation are reviewed. Attention is given to the evolution of the satellites, with emphasis on tidal evolution, including a discussion of the dynamical origin of Triton. The volatile budgets of Titan, Triton, and Pluto/Charon are discussed, and models are presented for the origin of these budgets which tie them to the larger set of processes associated with solar system formation.

  11. Distant asteroids and outer Jovian satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degewij, J.; Van Houten, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    Sixty percent of the sampled objects in the Hilda, Trojan and outer Jovian satellite locations belong to C-type and another 30% belong to a new group called RD-type (reddish and dark), sometimes referred to simply as D-type. Objects in this group have low albedo values between 2 and 4% and steep reflection spectra between 0.7 micron and 0.9 micron. Furthermore, 944 Hidalgo belongs to this group but shows color variation over its surface. Meteoritic minerals with similar optical reflection spectra are discussed. Trojans with sizes down to 15 km in the cloud preceding Jupiter are about 3.5 times more numerous than those in the following cloud. RD-type Trojans appear more often in the preceding cloud. There is a resemblance of spectrum, albedo and phase relation among the majority of Trojans and the outer Jovian satellites.

  12. The outer mitochondrial membrane in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Owen; van der Merwe, Margaretha J; Daley, Daniel O; Whelan, James

    2013-04-01

    The acquisition and integration of intracellular organelles, such as mitochondria and plastids, were important steps in the emergence of complex multicellular life. Although the outer membranes of these organelles have lost many of the functions of their free-living bacterial ancestor, others were acquired during organellogenesis. To date, the biological roles of these proteins have not been systematically characterized. In this review, we discuss the evolutionary origins and functions of outer membrane mitochondrial (OMM) proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our analysis, using phylogenetic inference, indicates that several OMM proteins either acquired novel functional roles or were recruited from other subcellular localizations during evolution in Arabidopsis. These observations suggest the existence of novel communication routes and functions between organelles within plant cells.

  13. The DarkSide-50 outer detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdale, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Aldo, Ianni; Andrea, Ianni; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; DSkorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.; DarkSide Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    DarkSide-50 is a dark matter detection experiment searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), in Gran Sasso National Laboratory. For experiments like DarkSide-50, neutrons are one of the primary backgrounds that can mimic WIMP signals. The experiment consists of three nested detectors: a liquid argon time projection chamber surrounded by two outer detectors. The outermost detector is a 10 m by 11 m cylindrical water Cherenkov detector with 80 PMTs, designed to provide shielding and muon vetoing. Inside the water Cherenkov detector is the 4 m diameter spherical boron-loaded liquid scintillator veto, with a cocktail of pseudocumene, trimethyl borate, and PPO wavelength shifter, designed to provide shielding, neutron vetoing, and in situ measurements of the TPC backgrounds. We present design and performance details of the DarkSide-50 outer detectors.

  14. EDITORIAL: Integrated assessments of environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau Integrated assessments of environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yongwei; Yao, Tandong

    2009-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is one of the Earth's most sensitive regions in responding to climate change due to its extremely high altitude and the presence of permafrost and glaciers. The cryosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere of the plateau have been undergoing significant changes. Due to the low human population density, environmental changes on the plateau are largely driven by natural processes. Thus, the plateau provides a unique and comprehensive site for global change studies. This focus issue on Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau aims to address both paleo and recent environmental changes across the plateau to facilitate our understanding of this remote and under-studied area. We invited a wide spectrum of contributions to address climate change, permafrost degradation, glacier/snow/ice dynamics, lake dynamics, land- cover/land-use changes, and their interactions on the plateau. Collectively, the diverse contributions in this special issue are expected to present the recent advancement of the above topics and beyond. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau Contents Does a weekend effect in diurnal temperature range exist in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau? Qinglong You, Shichang Kang, Wolfgang-Albert Flügel, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Yuping Yan, Yanwei Xu and Jie Huang Diurnal variations of summertime precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau in relation to orographically-induced regional circulations Xiaodong Liu, Aijuan Bai and Changhai Liu Lake-level fluctuations since the Last Glaciation in Selin Co (lake), Central Tibet, investigated using optically stimulated luminescence dating of beach ridges Dewen Li, Yingkui Li, Baoqi Ma, Guocheng Dong, Liqiang Wang and Junxiang Zhao Recent changes in Imja Glacial Lake and its damming moraine in the Nepal Himalaya revealed by in situ surveys and multi-temporal ASTER imagery Koji Fujita, Akiko Sakai, Takayuki Nuimura, Satoru Yamaguchi and Rishi R Sharma Changes

  15. Sagittal plane deformity in bicondylar tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Streubel, Philipp N; Glasgow, Donald; Wong, Ambrose; Barei, David P; Ricci, William M; Gardner, Michael J

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and magnitude of sagittal plane deformity in bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Retrospective radiographic review. Two Level I trauma centers. Sagittal inclination of the medial and lateral plateau measured in relation to the longitudinal axis of the tibia using computed tomographic reconstruction images. Seventy-four patients (mean age, 49 years; range, 16-82 years; 64% male) with acute bicondylar tibial plateau fractures (Orthopaedic Trauma Association 41C, Schatzker VI) treated from October 2006 to July 2009. The average sagittal plane angulation of the lateral plateau was 9.8° posteriorly (range, 17° anteriorly to 37° posteriorly). The medial plateau was angulated 4.1° posteriorly on average (range, 16° anteriorly to 31° posteriorly). Forty-two lateral plateaus were angulated more than 5° from the "normal" anatomic slope (defined as 5° of posterior tibial slope). Of these, 76% were angulated posteriorly. Forty-three (58%) of the medial plateaus were angulated greater than 5° from normal, of which only 47% were inclined posteriorly (P = 0.019 compared with lateral plateaus). In 68% of patients, the difference between medial and lateral plateaus was greater than 5°; the average intercondylar slope difference was 9° (range, 0°-31°; P < 0.001). Spanning external fixation did not affect the slope of either the medial or lateral tibial plateau. Intraobserver and interobserver correlations were high for both the medial and lateral plateaus (r > 0.81, P < 0.01). Considerable sagittal plane deformity exists in the majority of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. The lateral plateau has a higher propensity for sagittal angulation and tends to have increased posterior slope. Most patients have a substantial difference between the lateral and medial plateau slopes. The identification of this deformity allows for accurate preoperative planning and specific reduction maneuvers to restore anatomic alignment.

  16. Differential Rotation within the Earth's Outer Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hide, R.; Boggs, D. H.; Dickey, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    Non-steady differential rotation drive by bouyancy forces within the Earth's liquid outer core (OC) plays a key role not only in the generation of the main geomagnetic field by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo process but also in the excitation of irregular fluctuations in the angular speed of rotation of the overlying solid mantle, as evidenced by changes in the length of the day (LOD) on decadal and longer timescales (1-8).

  17. Photopolarimetry team outer planets mission definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The work is reported of the Photopolarimetry Team in identifying scientific objectives for photometer/polarimeter experiments for outer planet flyby missions. A discussion of the scientific objectives which can be attained with a photometer/polarimeter experiment, and summaries of the special studies which were performed for the Photopolarimetry Team are presented along with a description of the photometer/polarimeter design which was developed for the Meteoroid Detection Team.

  18. A model environment for outer zone electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singley, G. W.; Vette, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    A brief morphology of outer zone electrons is given to illustrate the nature of the phenomena that we are attempting to model. This is followed by a discussion of the data processing that was done with the various data received from the experimenters before incorporating it into the data base from which this model was ultimately derived. The details of the derivation are given, and several comparisons of the final model with the various experimental measurements are presented.

  19. Planetary magnetism in the outer solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.

    1973-01-01

    A brief review of the salient considerations which apply to the existence of magnetic fields in connection with planetary and subplanetary objects in the outer solar system is given. Consideration is given to internal dynamo fields, fields which might originate from interaction with the solar wind or magnetospheres (externally driven dynamos) and lastly fossil magnetic fields such as have been discovered on the moon. Where possible, connection is made between magnetism, means of detection, and internal body properties.

  20. Planetary protection guidelines for outer planet missions.

    PubMed

    Stabekis, P; DeVincenzi, D L

    1978-01-01

    Facilities, techniques, and operational procedures used to implement Planetary Protection (PP) requirements for the Viking Project are reviewed in order to better define the COSPAR resolution which proposes that Outer Planet spacecraft be assembled using Viking-like clean room technology. It is concluded that, for such missions, PP requirements can be met by adopting Viking clean room standards, personnel and operation procedures, and by establishing PP as an official entity in project management.

  1. Planetary magnetism in the outer solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.

    1973-01-01

    A brief review of the salient considerations which apply to the existence of magnetic fields in connection with planetary and subplanetary objects in the outer solar system is given. Consideration is given to internal dynamo fields, fields which might originate from interaction with the solar wind or magnetospheres (externally driven dynamos) and lastly fossil magnetic fields such as have been discovered on the moon. Where possible, connection is made between magnetism, means of detection, and internal body properties.

  2. Ocean worlds in the outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2016-08-01

    Many outer solar system bodies are thought to harbor liquid water oceans beneath their ice shells. This article first reviews how such oceans are detected. We then discuss how they are maintained, when they formed, and what the oceans' likely characteristics are. We focus in particular on Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Titan, and Enceladus, bodies for which there is direct evidence of subsurface oceans. We also consider candidate ocean worlds such as Pluto and Triton.

  3. Differential Rotation within the Earth's Outer Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hide, R.; Boggs, D. H.; Dickey, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    Non-steady differential rotation drive by bouyancy forces within the Earth's liquid outer core (OC) plays a key role not only in the generation of the main geomagnetic field by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo process but also in the excitation of irregular fluctuations in the angular speed of rotation of the overlying solid mantle, as evidenced by changes in the length of the day (LOD) on decadal and longer timescales (1-8).

  4. A photometric survey of outer belt asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimartino, M.; Gonano-Beurer, M.; Mottola, Stefano; Neukum, G.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1989, we have been conducting a research program devoted to the study of the Trojans and outer belt asteroids (Hilda and Cybele groups), in order to characterize their rotational properties and shapes. As an outcome of several observational campaigns, we determined rotational periods and lightcurve amplitudes for 23 distant asteroids, using both CCD and photoelectric photometry. In this paper, we compare the rotational properties of main belt asteroids and Trojans, based on the preliminary results of this survey.

  5. Fluxgate magnetometers for outer planets exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The exploration of the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the outer planets requires the implementation of magnetic field measuring instrumentation with wide dynamic range, high stability, and reliability. The fluxgate magnetometers developed for the Pioneer 11 and Mariner-Jupiter-Saturn missions are presented. These instruments cover the range of .01 nT to 2 million nT with optimum performance characteristics and low power consumption.

  6. CLOSURE WELD DEVELOPMENT FOR 3013 OUTER CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Howard, S.; Peterson, K.; Stokes, M.

    2009-11-10

    Excess plutonium materials in the DOE complex are packaged and stored in accordance with DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies requirements for the stabilization of such materials and subsequent packaging in dual nested seal-welded containers. Austenitic stainless steels have been selected for container fabrication. The inner 3013 container provides contamination control while the outer 3013 container is the primary containment vessel and is the focus of this paper. Each packaging site chose a process for seal welding the outer 3013 containers in accordance with its needs and expertise. The two processes chosen for weld closure were laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Following development efforts, each system was qualified in accordance with DOE-STD-3013 prior to production use. The 3013 outer container closure weld joint was designed to accommodate the characteristics of a laser weld. This aspect of the joint design necessitated some innovative process and equipment considerations in the application of the GTAW process. Details of the weld requirements and the development processes are presented and several potential enhancements for the GTAW system are described.

  7. Imaging of the outer planets and satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B. C.

    1973-01-01

    Imaging is the most widely applicable single means of exploring the outer planets and their satellites and also complements other planet-oriented instruments. Photography of Jupiter from terrestrial telescopes has revealed features which were neither predictable or predicted. Close-up imaging from fly-bys and orbiters affords the opportunity for discovery of atmospheric phenomena on the outer planets forever beyond the reach of terrestrial laboratories and intuition. On the other hand, a large number of specific applications of close-up imaging to study the giant planets are suggested by experience in photography from Earth and Mars orbit, and by ground-based telescopic studies of Jupiter and Saturn. The satellites of the outer planets actually constitute three distinct classes: lunar-sized objects, asteroidal-sized objects, and particulate rings. Imaging promises to be the primary observational tool for each category with results that could impact scientific thinking in the late 70's and 80's as significantly as has close-up photography of Mars and the Moon in the last 10 yr.

  8. Imaging of the outer planets and satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B. C.

    1973-01-01

    Imaging is the most widely applicable single means of exploring the outer planets and their satellites and also complements other planet-oriented instruments. Photography of Jupiter from terrestrial telescopes has revealed features which were neither predictable or predicted. Close-up imaging from fly-bys and orbiters affords the opportunity for discovery of atmospheric phenomena on the outer planets forever beyond the reach of terrestrial laboratories and intuition. On the other hand, a large number of specific applications of close-up imaging to study the giant planets are suggested by experience in photography from Earth and Mars orbit, and by ground-based telescopic studies of Jupiter and Saturn. The satellites of the outer planets actually constitute three distinct classes: lunar-sized objects, asteroidal-sized objects, and particulate rings. Imaging promises to be the primary observational tool for each category with results that could impact scientific thinking in the late 70's and 80's as significantly as has close-up photography of Mars and the Moon in the last 10 yr.

  9. Outer membrane proteins of pathogenic spirochetes

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul A.; Haake, David A.; Adler, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes are the causative agents of several important diseases including syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, swine dysentery, periodontal disease and some forms of relapsing fever. Spirochetal bacteria possess two membranes and the proteins present in the outer membrane are at the site of interaction with host tissue and the immune system. This review describes the current knowledge in the field of spirochetal outer membrane protein (OMP) biology. What is known concerning biogenesis and structure of OMPs, with particular regard to the atypical signal peptide cleavage sites observed amongst the spirochetes, is discussed. We examine the functions that have been determined for several spirochetal OMPs including those that have been demonstrated to function as adhesins, porins or to have roles in complement resistance. A detailed description of the role of spirochetal OMPs in immunity, including those that stimulate protective immunity or that are involved in antigenic variation, is given. A final section is included which covers experimental considerations in spirochetal outer membrane biology. This section covers contentious issues concerning cellular localization of putative OMPs, including determination of surface exposure. A more detailed knowledge of spirochetal OMP biology will hopefully lead to the design of new vaccines and a better understanding of spirochetal pathogenesis. PMID:15449605

  10. Central Plateau Cleanup at DOE's Hanford Site - 12504

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, Jonathan

    2012-07-01

    The discussion of Hanford's Central Plateau includes significant work in and around the center of the Hanford Site - located about 7 miles from the Columbia River. The Central Plateau is the area to which operations will be shrunk in 2015 when River Corridor cleanup is complete. This work includes retrieval and disposal of buried waste from miles of trenches; the cleanup and closure of massive processing canyons; the clean-out and demolition to 'slab on grade' of the high-hazard Plutonium Finishing Plant; installation of key groundwater treatment facilities to contain and shrink plumes of contaminated groundwater; demolition of all other unneeded facilities; and the completion of decisions about remaining Central Plateau waste sites. A stated goal of EM has been to shrink the footprint of active cleanup to less than 10 square miles by 2020. By the end of FY2011, Hanford will have reduced the active footprint of cleanup by 64 percent exceeding the goal of 49 percent. By 2015, Hanford will reduce the active footprint of cleanup by more than 90 percent. The remaining footprint reduction will occur between 2015 and 2020. The Central Plateau is a 75-square-mile region near the center of the Hanford Site including the area designated in the Hanford Comprehensive Land Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement (DOE 1999) and Record of Decision (64 FR 61615) as the Industrial-Exclusive Area, a rectangular area of about 20 square miles in the center of the Central Plateau. The Industrial-Exclusive Area contains the 200 East and 200 West Areas that have been used primarily for Hanford's nuclear fuel processing and waste management and disposal activities. The Central Plateau also encompasses the 200 Area CERCLA National Priorities List site. The Central Plateau has a large physical inventory of chemical processing and support facilities, tank systems, liquid and solid waste disposal and storage facilities, utility systems, administrative facilities, and groundwater monitoring

  11. Tectonic geomorphology of the Qilian Shan in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau: Insights into the plateau formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huiping; Zhang, Peizhen; Prush, Veronica; Zheng, Dewen; Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Weitao; Liu, Caicai; Ren, Zhikun

    2017-06-01

    We examined the regional scale topography of the Qilian Shan on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. Longitudinal profiles and geomorphometric indices, such as slope, local relief and channel steepness reveal that the Qilian Shan was developed as a local plateau with high-relief steep marginal ranges, and interior low-relief topography. Landscape mapping across this local plateau revealed spatially varied origins of the low-relief landscape in the Qilian Shan. North of the Haiyuan fault, universal massive intermontane aggradation was identified. However, the low-relief plateau to the south of the Haiyuan fault was dominated by relict erosional surfaces, even though accompany basin-filling still contributes. The geomorphologic contrasts led us to integrate both the basin-filling processes and antecedent low-relief erosional surfaces into a new insight into the development of the Qilian Shan plateau in the northeastern Tibet. Our present study highlights that explanation for the low-relief plateau formation needs to consider the complex geological evolution of the Qilian Shan, and the Tibetan Plateau itself.

  12. In vitro comparison of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy with and without use of a tibial plateau leveling jig.

    PubMed

    Schmerbach, Kay Ingo; Boeltzig, Christian Konrad Matthias; Reif, Ullrich; Wieser, Jan Carsten; Keller, Thomas; Grevel, Vera

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of a tibial plateau leveling jig on osteotomy orientation, fragment reduction, and postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA) during tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). In vitro experimental study. Large-breed canine cadavers (n=20). TPLO was performed on 40 hindlimbs using 4 methods. Group 1: Jig; dogs in dorsal recumbency with the osteotomy parallel to the distal jig pin. Groups 2-4: No jig; dogs in lateral recumbency with the osteotomy in a vertical orientation (group 2: tibia parallel to the table top; group 3: controlled superimposition of the femoral condyles; group 4: internal rotation of the tibia). Postoperative TPA, fragment reduction, and osteotomy orientation relative to the tibial plateau were compared. Positive or negative values denoted deviation from parallel relative to the tibial plateau. Postoperative TPA, fragment reduction, and proximodistal osteotomy orientation were not significantly different between groups. Craniocaudal osteotomy orientation was significantly different (P<.005) from the tibial plateau. Median deviations were -4.0 degrees (group 1), 11.8 degrees (group 2), 11.2 degrees (group 3), and 0.2 degrees (group 4). Group 1 was not significantly different from group 4. A jig is not essential for osteotomy orientation, tibial plateau rotation, or fragment reduction. Comparable results were achieved performing a vertical osteotomy with the tibia slightly internally rotated (10 degrees -15 degrees) and parallel to the table surface. TPLO without use of a jig reduces surgical trauma, is less time consuming, and reduces cost.

  13. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas,...

  14. End member models for Andean Plateau uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, J. B.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    Diverse techniques have been applied over the past decade to quantify the uplift history of the central Andean Plateau (AP). In this study, opposing models for surface uplift are evaluated including: a rapid rise of ˜ 2.5 km ˜ 10-6 Ma and a slow and steady rise since ˜ 40 Ma. These end member models are evaluated by synthesizing observations of the AP lithosphere and the history of deformation, sedimentation, exhumation, magmatism, uplift, and fluvial incision. Structural and geophysical studies estimate variable shortening magnitudes (˜ 530-150 km) involving cover-to-basement rocks, an isostatically-compensated thick crust (˜ 80-65 km), high heat flow, and zones of variable velocity and attenuation in the crust and mantle. These observations have invoked interpretations such as a hot/weak lithosphere, partial melt, crustal flow, and perhaps current, localized delamination, but do not provide strong support for massive delamination required by the rapid uplift model. Deformation and associated exhumation began ˜ 60-40 Ma and generally migrated eastward with consistent long-term average shortening rates (˜ 12-8 mm/yr) in Bolivia, favoring the slow uplift model. Volcanic and helium isotope evidence show an AP-wide zone of shallow mantle melting and thin lithosphere that has existed since ˜ 25 Ma, which is inconsistent with the rapid rise model that suggests lithospheric thinning occurred 10-6 Ma. Paleoaltimetry data suggest a rapid ˜ 2.5 km elevation gain 10 to 6 Ma, but are equally consistent within error with a linear rise since ≥ 25 Ma. Widespread fluvial incision (2.5-1 km) occurred along the western flank since ˜ 11-8 Ma and may be associated with surface uplift as proposed by the rapid rise model. However, the paleoaltimetry and incision data can also be explained by regional climate change associated with plateau uplift. Implications of these results for reconstructions of AP evolution are that: (1) substantial deformation of a weak lithosphere is

  15. Colorado Plateau Uplift Through Deep Crustal Hydration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, L. A.; Mahan, K. H.; Jones, C. H.; Farmer, G.

    2013-12-01

    The conventional view of plate tectonics restricts deformation to plate boundaries and does not account for regionally elevated topography in continental interiors. Thermal, mechanical or chemical alteration of ancient continental lithosphere is a mechanism sometimes invoked to explain intracratonic uplift in the western U.S. although the timing, extent and effects of this modification are poorly understood. Here we present new petrological and in situ geochronological data for a hydrated deep crustal xenolith from the Colorado Plateau and investigate the effects of deep crustal hydration on topography. Two distinct mineral assemblages recorded in a garnet biotite schist xenolith from the Navajo Volcanic Field, Four Corners region document hydration subsequent to peak metamorphism in the deep crust whereby the primary metamorphic assemblage (Gt + Bt + Ms + Pl + Kfs + Qtz) is variably replaced by a lower-density, hydrated assemblage (Ab + Ph + Cc + Rt). Results from forward petrological modeling constrain hydration at ≥ 20 km (0.65 GPa, 450 °C) prior to exhumation in the ˜20 Ma volcanic host. In situ Th/Pb dating of secondary monazite grains spatially associated with fluid-related plagioclase and allanite breakdown reveals a significant majority of Late Cretaceous dates from 91 to 58 Ma. These dates are interpreted to reflect a finite period of deep crustal hydration, possibly by fluids sourced from a shallowly subducting Farallon slab. Xenolith data additionally supports crustal hydration as a mechanism for producing regionally elevated topography. Fluid-related reactions in the deep crust may lead to a net density decrease as low-density hydrous phases (e.g. Ms + Amp + Cc) replace high-density, anhydrous minerals (e.g. Gt + Fsp + Opx + Cpx) abundant in high-pressure, high-temperature assemblages preserved in Proterozoic North American lithosphere. If these reactions are sufficiently pervasive and widespread, reductions in lower crustal density would provide a

  16. Peaceful Use of Outer Space: principles of Japanese Policies on Utilization and Activities in Outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuge, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    " P e aceful use of outer space of outer space.....Principles of exploitation of outer space was passed in the Japanese Diet. It clearly mentioned that any activity of launching space object into outer space and developing launching rocket should be exclusively for peaceful purpose. NASDA was also established based upon the same principles of the public law. Japanese interpretation of Space Treaty and other related international agreements has been more strict on peaceful use of outer space, like non-military use rather than non-aggressive, because of influence of Japanese Constitution. Treaty and other agreements is analyzed through rapid development of its space activities, technologies and international cooperation with other space powers. Through more than thirty years experiences in space activities in public and private sectors, Japanese domestic laws and policies have not been changed in relation with basic principles. and laws relating to space activities in order to develop new space law and more international cooperation for space utilization rather than military use in new century.

  17. Incision into the eastern Andean Plateau during Pliocene cooling.

    PubMed

    Lease, Richard O; Ehlers, Todd A

    2013-08-16

    Canyon incision into mountain topography is commonly used as a proxy for surface uplift driven by tectonic or geodynamic processes, but climatic changes can also instigate incision. The ~1250-kilometer (km)-long eastern margin of the Andean Plateau hosts a series of 1.5- to 2.5-km-deep canyons that cross major deformation zones. Using (U-Th)/He thermochronology, we document a transition from Miocene faulting to Pliocene canyon incision across the northeastern plateau margin. Regionally, widespread Pliocene incision into the eastern plateau margin is concurrent with a shift in global climate from early Pliocene warmth to late Pliocene cooling. Enhanced moisture transport onto the Andean Plateau driven by sea surface temperature changes during cooling is the likely pacemaker for canyon incision.

  18. Quaternary geochronology and distribution of Mammuthus on the Colorado Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Agenbroad, L.D.; Mead, J.I. )

    1989-09-01

    There are 41 known localities containing mammoth remains from the Colorado Plateau: 24 in Arizona, 12 in Utah, 3 in New Mexico, and 2 in Colorado. Of the 41 localities, 13 (32%; Arizona and Utah only) have yielded radiometric dates ({sup 14}C and U/Th); 10 (77%) of these have been the result of the authors' investigations. The four youngest radiocarbon dates produce a weighted average date of approximately 11,270 {plus minus}65 yr B.P., the youngest directly aged mammoth remains on the Colorado Plateau. Mammoth remains are recovered predominantly in alluvial regimes, in addition to alcove, cave, and spring deposits. No direct association of Mammuthus and the Clovis hunters has been reported from the Colorado Plateau. Dietary intake, recorded in dung remains, included predominantly graminoids, in addition to various woody shrubs and trees that currently grow at higher elevations on the Colorado Plateau.

  19. Groundwater resources of the Columbia Plateau regional aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahle, Sue C.; Vaccaro, John J.

    2015-09-22

    The Columbia Plateau is a wide basalt plateau between the Cascade Range and the Rocky Mountains that covers parts of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. The climate over much of the Columbia Plateau is semiarid with precipitation ranging from 7 to 15 in/yr in the central part (Vaccaro and others, 2015), yet the area supports a $6 billion per year agricultural industry, including the production of apples, corn, grapes, hops, mint, potatoes, stone fruit, and wheat. Groundwater pumpage and surface-water diversions supply water to irrigated croplands that account for about 5 percent of the Nation’s irrigated lands. Groundwater also is the primary source of drinking water for about 1.3 million people living on the plateau.

  20. Total knee arthroplasty and fractures of the tibial plateau

    PubMed Central

    Softness, Kenneth A; Murray, Ryan S; Evans, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common injuries that occur in a bimodal age distribution. While there are various treatment options for displaced tibial plateau fractures, the standard of care is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In physiologically young patients with higher demand and better bone quality, ORIF is the preferred method of treating these fractures. However, future total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a consideration in these patients as post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a common long-term complication of tibial plateau fractures. In older, lower demand patients, ORIF is potentially less favorable for a variety of reasons, namely fixation failure and the need for delayed weight bearing. In some of these patients, TKA can be considered as primary mode of treatment. This paper will review the literature surrounding TKA as both primary treatment and as a salvage measure in patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. The outcomes, complications, techniques and surgical challenges are also discussed. PMID:28251061

  1. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moucha, Robert; Forte, Alessandro M.; Rowley, David B.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Simmons, Nathan A.; Grand, Stephen P.

    2009-10-01

    We introduce a quantitative model of global mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Ma towards the interior of the southwestern USA from observed present-day mantle heterogeneity. The onset and evolution of uplift in the central Basin and Range province and Colorado Plateau during this time is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling. We show that: (1) the extension and basaltic volcanism (post 25 Ma) in the central Basin and Range coincides with the arrival and eastward progression of this upwelling, and (2) dynamic uplift of the southern Colorado Plateau, totaling about 1 km, transpired in the last 20 Ma. Since 10 Ma, the center of uplift continued northeastward from the southwestern rim of the plateau consistent with a young Grand Canyon model and eastward sweep of magmatism in the western Colorado Plateau.

  2. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  3. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  4. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  5. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  6. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  7. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  8. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  9. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  10. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  11. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  12. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  13. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  14. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  15. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  16. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  17. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given. ...

  18. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay. 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay. The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given. ...

  19. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given. ...

  20. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay. 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay. The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given. ...

  1. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given. ...

  2. Visual transduction in dialysed detached rod outer segments from lizard retina.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, G; Sather, W A; Detwiler, P B

    1993-06-01

    1. Properties of a new preparation for studying the physiology and biochemistry of phototransduction in retinal rods are described. Whole-cell voltage clamp was used to record the generation, maintenance and light-sensitivity of dark current in rod outer segments that had been isolated from the rest of the receptor cell by detachment at the connecting cilium. 2. Detached outer segments dialysed with standard internal solution supplemented with physiological amounts of ATP (5 mM) and GTP (1 mM) developed a standing inward dark current that was the sum of three components: approximately 91% light-sensitive current, approximately 6% Na(+)-Ca2+,K+ exchange current and approximately 3% leakage current. Light-sensitive dark current (mean amplitude approximately -63 pA) was suppressed transiently by brief flashes in an intensity-dependent manner. Light responses had the same kinetics, sensitivity and intensity-response relationship as those recorded from intact rods. 3. Dialysed outer segments differed from intact rods in that intense flashes evoked saturating responses that recovered incompletely to a plateau of reduced dark current caused by incomplete inactivation of the transduction cascade. Light sensitivity was reduced for a short time following an intense flash and then recovered despite persistent reduction of dark current. This suggests that there is no fixed relationship between dark current amplitude and light sensitivity. 4. Light-sensitive dark current faded rapidly when outer segments were not supplied with nucleotides. Outer segments dialysed with solution that contained cyclic GMP, but no ATP or GTP, supported dark current at a level that increased with [cyclic GMP]. When basal phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity is inhibited, 8 microM cyclic GMP supports a dark current of approximately 70 pA. 5. Light sensitivity decreased during recordings made with solution that contained only cyclic GMP, consistent with the inhibition of G protein activation by loss of

  3. Solution of the Kirchhoff-Plateau Problem.

    PubMed

    Giusteri, Giulio G; Lussardi, Luca; Fried, Eliot

    2017-01-01

    The Kirchhoff-Plateau problem concerns the equilibrium shapes of a system in which a flexible filament in the form of a closed loop is spanned by a liquid film, with the filament being modeled as a Kirchhoff rod and the action of the spanning surface being solely due to surface tension. We establish the existence of an equilibrium shape that minimizes the total energy of the system under the physical constraint of noninterpenetration of matter, but allowing for points on the surface of the bounding loop to come into contact. In our treatment, the bounding loop retains a finite cross-sectional thickness and a nonvanishing volume, while the liquid film is represented by a set with finite two-dimensional Hausdorff measure. Moreover, the region where the liquid film touches the surface of the bounding loop is not prescribed a priori. Our mathematical results substantiate the physical relevance of the chosen model. Indeed, no matter how strong is the competition between surface tension and the elastic response of the filament, the system is always able to adjust to achieve a configuration that complies with the physical constraints encountered in experiments.

  4. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  5. Solution of the Kirchhoff-Plateau Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusteri, Giulio G.; Lussardi, Luca; Fried, Eliot

    2017-06-01

    The Kirchhoff-Plateau problem concerns the equilibrium shapes of a system in which a flexible filament in the form of a closed loop is spanned by a liquid film, with the filament being modeled as a Kirchhoff rod and the action of the spanning surface being solely due to surface tension. We establish the existence of an equilibrium shape that minimizes the total energy of the system under the physical constraint of noninterpenetration of matter, but allowing for points on the surface of the bounding loop to come into contact. In our treatment, the bounding loop retains a finite cross-sectional thickness and a nonvanishing volume, while the liquid film is represented by a set with finite two-dimensional Hausdorff measure. Moreover, the region where the liquid film touches the surface of the bounding loop is not prescribed a priori. Our mathematical results substantiate the physical relevance of the chosen model. Indeed, no matter how strong is the competition between surface tension and the elastic response of the filament, the system is always able to adjust to achieve a configuration that complies with the physical constraints encountered in experiments.

  6. Composition of Syrtis Major volcanic plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.; Erard, S.; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Head, James W.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Syrtis Major, a low-relief volcanic shield centered near 295 degrees 10 degrees N, is an old, well-preserved and exposed volcanic region on Mars which formed at the end of the heavy bombardment period. The composition of these volcanic materials has importance for understanding the thermal and chemical history of Mars. Imaging spectrometer data of the Syrtis Major volcanic plateau are used in this analysis to identify major compositional components. First and second order even channel reflectance spectra between 0.77 and 2.55 microns from four broad classes of materials on Syrtis Major are given. For the volcanic materials, there are three primary classes characterized by albedo, slope, and shape of the 10 micron band. To emphasize the latter, straight line continua were removed from each spectral segment and replotted in another figure. Each spectrum shows a band minima near 0.96 microns and 2.15 microns indicative of pyroxene mineral absorptions. Comparison of these band minima with studies of pyroxene reflectance spectra suggests that the pyroxenes in the volcanics of Syrtis Major are high calcium pyroxene with a Ca/(Mg+Fe+Ca) ratio of 0.2 to 0.3. The most likely pyroxene is an augite.

  7. Solution of the Kirchhoff-Plateau Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusteri, Giulio G.; Lussardi, Luca; Fried, Eliot

    2017-01-01

    The Kirchhoff-Plateau problem concerns the equilibrium shapes of a system in which a flexible filament in the form of a closed loop is spanned by a liquid film, with the filament being modeled as a Kirchhoff rod and the action of the spanning surface being solely due to surface tension. We establish the existence of an equilibrium shape that minimizes the total energy of the system under the physical constraint of noninterpenetration of matter, but allowing for points on the surface of the bounding loop to come into contact. In our treatment, the bounding loop retains a finite cross-sectional thickness and a nonvanishing volume, while the liquid film is represented by a set with finite two-dimensional Hausdorff measure. Moreover, the region where the liquid film touches the surface of the bounding loop is not prescribed a priori. Our mathematical results substantiate the physical relevance of the chosen model. Indeed, no matter how strong is the competition between surface tension and the elastic response of the filament, the system is always able to adjust to achieve a configuration that complies with the physical constraints encountered in experiments.

  8. Blowing Snow Over the Antarctic Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahesh, Ashwin; Eager, Rebecca; Campbell, James R.; Spinhirne, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Studies of blowing snow over Antarctica have been limited greatly by the remoteness and harsh conditions of the region. Space-based observations are also of lesser value than elsewhere, given the similarities between ice clouds and snow-covered surfaces, both at infrared and visible wavelengths. It is only in recent years that routine ground-based observation programs have acquired sufficient data to overcome the gap in our understanding of surface blowing snow. In this paper, observations of blowing snow from visual observers' records as well as ground-based spectral and lidar programs at South Pole station are analyzed to obtain the first climatology of blowing snow over the Antarctic plateau. Occurrence frequencies, correlation with wind direction and speed, typical layer heights, as well as optical depths are determined. Blowing snow is seen in roughly one third of the visual observations and occurs under a narrow range of wind directions. The near-surface layers typically a few hundred meters thick emit radiances similar to those from thin clouds. Because blowing snow remains close to the surface and is frequently present, it will produce small biases in space-borne altimetry; these must be properly estimated and corrected.

  9. Does the climate warming hiatus exist over the Tibetan Plateau?

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Anmin; Xiao, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998–2013 (0.25 °C decade−1), compared with that during 1980–1997 (0.21 °C decade−1). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud–radiation feedback. The increased nocturnal cloud over the northern Tibetan Plateau would warm the nighttime temperature via enhanced atmospheric back-radiation, while the decreased daytime cloud over the southern Tibetan Plateau would induce the daytime sunshine duration to increase, resulting in surface air temperature warming. Meanwhile, the in situ surface wind speed has recovered gradually since 1998, and thus the energy concentration cannot explain the accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau after the 1990s. It is suggested that cloud–radiation feedback may play an important role in modulating the recent accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:26329678

  10. Permafrost and Railroad Construction on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G.; Zhang, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Qinghai-Xizang railroad is under construction on "The Roof of the World" --- the Tibetan Plateau, to be completed in 2007. The railroad will cross 550 km of permafrost region over the Tibetan Plateau, 50% of which is high-temperature permafrost and 37% of which is ice-rich permafrost. Predicted climate warming over the Tibetan Plateau in the coming decades would accelerate permafrost degradation. Surface disturbance due to the railroad construction would further destabilize permafrost conditions and seriously damage the ecosystem in the permafrost region. Thawing of warm permafrost over the Tibetan Plateau becomes one of the key issues in the cross-Plateau railroad construction. In this presentation, we will discuss techniques used to prevent permafrost from thawing due both to the climate warming and the surface disturbance of engineering construction. Although several techniques have been used over the Tibetan Plateau, application of crushed rock layer to cool permafrost and maintain permafrost stability is very successful at current stage although further observations are needed. We will also further demonstrate the principles of using the crushed rock layer to maintain permafrost based on data from field investigation, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations.

  11. Miocene high-elevation landscape of the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Liu, Xiaohui; Ding, Lin

    2016-10-01

    The high topography of central Asia is the most distinctive expression of the India-Asia collision, yet a broad understanding of the timing and processes involved in the development of the Tibetan Plateau remains elusive. Here we investigate the Neogene Songpan Basin located on the eastern margin of the plateau using oxygen isotope paleoaltimetry to determine when the steep Longmen Shan margin obtained its present elevations. Hydrologically open lacustrine and fluvial-alluvial authigenic carbonates from the basin record the paleoelevations of the eastern Tibetan Plateau and suggest that the area has attained near-present elevations of ˜3000 m by the late Miocene. This reconstruction is consistent with the results from the comparison of pollen fossils to their nearest living relatives in this area (2750-3050 m). We propose that the eastern Tibetan Plateau may have attained significant elevations prior to the late Miocene through an uplift scenario involving eastward growth of the plateau between the Eocene and the Miocene. Two tectonic processes, either crustal shortening in the Oligocene-Miocene or eastward propagation of weakened lower crust starting in the Eocene, most likely thickened the crust and raised the surface of the eastern Tibetan Plateau to its present elevation by the late Miocene.

  12. The Young Outer Disk of M83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2010-08-01

    Deep near-infrared images recorded with NICI on Gemini South are used to investigate the evolved stellar content in the outer southeast quadrant of the spiral galaxy M83. A diffuse population of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is detected, indicating that there are stars outside of the previously identified young and intermediate age star clusters in the outer disk. The brightest AGB stars have M K >= -8, and the AGB luminosity function (LF) is well matched by model LFs that assume ages <=1 Gyr. The specific star formation rate (SFR) during the past few Gyr estimated from AGB star counts is consistent with that computed from mid-infrared observations of star clusters at similar radii, and it is concluded that the disruption timescale for star clusters in the outer disk is Lt1 Gyr. The LF and specific frequency of AGB stars vary with galactocentric radius, in a manner that is indicative of lower luminosity-weighted ages at larger radii. Modest numbers of red supergiants are also found, indicating that there has been star formation during the past 100 Myr, while the ratio of C stars to M giants is consistent with that expected for a solar metallicity system that has experienced a constant SFR for the past few Gyr. The results drawn from the properties of resolved AGB stars are broadly consistent with those deduced from integrated light observations in the UV. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a co-operative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council of Canada (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), the Ministerio da Ciencia e Technologia (Brazil), and the Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion Productiva (Argentina).

  13. Gas hydrates of outer continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances in which a rigid framework of water molecules traps molecules of gas, mainly methane. Gas-hydrate deposits are common in continental margin sediment in all major oceans at water depths greater than about 300 m. Thirty-three localities with evidence for gas-hydrate occurrence have been described worldwide. The presence of these gas hydrates has been inferred mainly from anomalous lacoustic reflectors seen on marine seismic records. Naturally occurring marine gas hydrates have been sampled and analyzed at about tensites in several regions including continental slope and rise sediment of the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Except for some Gulf of Mexico gas hydrate occurrences, the analyzed gas hydrates are composed almost exclusively of microbial methane. Evidence for the microbial origin of methane in gas hydrates includes (1) the inverse relation between methane occurence and sulfate concentration in the sediment, (2) the subparallel depth trends in carbon isotopic compositions of methane and bicarbonate in the interstitial water, and (3) the general range of {sup 13}C depletion ({delta}{sub PDB}{sup 13}C = {minus}90 to {minus}60 {per thousand}) in the methane. Analyses of gas hydrates from the Peruvian outer continental margin in particular illustrate this evidence for microbially generated methane. The total amount of methane in gas hydrates of continental margins is not known, but estimates of about 10{sup 16} m{sup 3} seem reasonable. Although this amount of methane is large, it is not yet clear whether methane hydrates of outer continental margins will ever be a significant energy resource; however, these gas hydrates will probably constitute a drilling hazard when outer continental margins are explored in the future.

  14. Changes in spatial patterns of Caragana stenophylla along a climatic drought gradient on the Inner Mongolian Plateau.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Na; Guo, Hong-Yu; Gabler, Christopher A; Li, Qing-Fang; Ma, Cheng-Cang

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the influence of water availability on plant population spatial patterns. We studied changes in the spatial patterns of Caragana stenophylla along a climatic drought gradient within the Inner Mongolian Plateau, China. We examined spatial patterns, seed density, "nurse effects" of shrubs on seedlings, transpiration rates and water use efficiency (WUE) of C. stenophylla across semi-arid, arid, and intensively arid zones. Our results showed that patches of C. stenophylla populations shifted from a random to a clumped spatial pattern towards drier environments. Seed density and seedling survival rate of C. stenophylla decreased from the semi-arid zone to the intensively arid zone. Across the three zones, there were more C. stenophylla seeds and seedlings underneath shrub canopies than outside shrub canopies; and in the intensively arid zone, there were almost no seeds or seedlings outside shrub canopies. Transpiration rates of outer-canopy leaves and WUE of both outer-canopy and inner-canopy leaves increased from the semi-arid zone to the intensively arid zone. In the intensively arid zone, transpiration rates and WUE of inner-canopy leaves were significantly lower and higher, respectively, than those of outer-canopy leaves. We conclude that, as drought stress increased, seed density decreased, seed proportions inside shrubs increased, and "nurse effects" of shrubs on seedlings became more important. These factors, combined with water-saving characteristics associated with clumped spatial patterns, are likely driving the changes in C. stenophylla spatial patterns.

  15. Changes in Spatial Patterns of Caragana stenophylla along a Climatic Drought Gradient on the Inner Mongolian Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li-Na; Guo, Hong-Yu; Gabler, Christopher A.; Li, Qing-Fang; Ma, Cheng-Cang

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the influence of water availability on plant population spatial patterns. We studied changes in the spatial patterns of Caragana stenophylla along a climatic drought gradient within the Inner Mongolian Plateau, China. We examined spatial patterns, seed density, “nurse effects” of shrubs on seedlings, transpiration rates and water use efficiency (WUE) of C. stenophylla across semi-arid, arid, and intensively arid zones. Our results showed that patches of C. stenophylla populations shifted from a random to a clumped spatial pattern towards drier environments. Seed density and seedling survival rate of C. stenophylla decreased from the semi-arid zone to the intensively arid zone. Across the three zones, there were more C. stenophylla seeds and seedlings underneath shrub canopies than outside shrub canopies; and in the intensively arid zone, there were almost no seeds or seedlings outside shrub canopies. Transpiration rates of outer-canopy leaves and WUE of both outer-canopy and inner-canopy leaves increased from the semi-arid zone to the intensively arid zone. In the intensively arid zone, transpiration rates and WUE of inner-canopy leaves were significantly lower and higher, respectively, than those of outer-canopy leaves. We conclude that, as drought stress increased, seed density decreased, seed proportions inside shrubs increased, and “nurse effects” of shrubs on seedlings became more important. These factors, combined with water-saving characteristics associated with clumped spatial patterns, are likely driving the changes in C. stenophylla spatial patterns. PMID:25785848

  16. Outer atmospheres of giant and supergiant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of the chromospheres, transition regions and coronas of cool evolved stars are reviewed based primarily on recent ultraviolet and X-ray studies. Determinations of mass loss rates using new observational techniques in the ultraviolet and radio spectral regions are discussed and observations indicating general atmospheric motions are considered. The techniques available for the quantitative modeling of these atmospheres are outlined and recent results discussed. Finally, the current rudimentary understanding of the evolution of these outer atmospheres and its causes are considered.

  17. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  18. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  19. Dishwasher For Earth Or Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tromble, Jon D.

    1991-01-01

    Dishwashing machine cleans eating utensils in either Earth gravity or zero gravity of outer space. Cycle consists of three phases: filling, washing, and draining. Rotation of tub creates artificial gravity aiding recirculation of water during washing phase in absence of true gravity. Centrifugal air/water separator helps system function in zero gravity. Self-cleaning filter contains interdigitating blades catching solid debris when water flows between them. Later, blades moved back and forth in scissor-like manner to dislodge debris, removed by backflow of water.

  20. Dishwasher For Earth Or Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tromble, Jon D.

    1991-01-01

    Dishwashing machine cleans eating utensils in either Earth gravity or zero gravity of outer space. Cycle consists of three phases: filling, washing, and draining. Rotation of tub creates artificial gravity aiding recirculation of water during washing phase in absence of true gravity. Centrifugal air/water separator helps system function in zero gravity. Self-cleaning filter contains interdigitating blades catching solid debris when water flows between them. Later, blades moved back and forth in scissor-like manner to dislodge debris, removed by backflow of water.

  1. Satellites of the outer planets: thermal models.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J S

    1971-06-11

    Steady-state thermal models for the large satellites of the outer planets strongly indicate that their interiors are currently maintained at temperatures well above the ice-ammonia eutectic temperature by the decay of long-lived radioisotopes of potassium, uranium, and thorium. The present-day steady-state thermal structure of a representative satellite, J IV (Callisto), is shown to be characterized by the presence of a thin icy crust over a deep liquid mantle, with a dense core of hydrous silicates and iron oxides. Some dynamical consequences of this model are briefly discussed.

  2. Outer planet spacecraft temperature testing and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Avila, A.

    2002-01-01

    Unmanned spacecraft flown on missions to the outer planets of the solar system have included flybys, planetary orbiters, and atmospheric probes during the last three decades. The thermal design, test, and analysis approach applied to these spacecraft evolved from the passive thermal designs applied to the earlier lunar and interplanetary spacecraft. The inflight temperature data from representative sets of engineering subsystems and science instruments from a subset of these spacecraft are compared to those obtained during the ground test programs and from the prelaunch predictions. Several lessons are presented with specific recommendations for considerations for new projects to aid in the planning of cost effective temperature design, test, and analysis programs.

  3. H2 emissions from the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yelle, Roger V.

    1988-01-01

    Calculations of the H2 electronic band spectrum produced by fluorescence scattering of solar radiation are presented and compared with observations of the ultraviolet spectrum of Jupiter. The calculations demonstrate that the observed spectra are consistent with the suggestion by Yelle et al. (1987) that the bright H2 day-glow of the outer planets is due predominantly to fluorescence of solar radiation. The calculations also demonstrate that large differences between solar scattered and electron excited spectra are evident at high spectral resolution. This fact may be used to observationally determine the relative importance of the two excitation mechanisms.

  4. Overview of 2008 Outer Planet Flagship Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reh, Kim R.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process involved in the Phase-2 studies for the next Outer Planets Flagship (OPF). These studies will be a cooperative effort with ESA and JAXA in partnership with NASA. The annoucement of oppurtunity (AO) for the science instruments and the launch approval/planetary protection processes are reviewed. There is also discussion about capturing relevant lessons from the Cassini team, supporting international collaboration, and support for science definition teams. Some mission specific tasks are also reviewed, for the three missions being proposed: (1) Europa Explorer, (2) Jupiter System Observer and (3) Titan Explorer. A timeline for the studies is also included.

  5. Meridional plasma flow in the outer heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarus, A. J.; Yedidia, B.; Villanueva, L.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Belcher, J. W.; Villante, U.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1988-01-01

    Voyager 2 observations made in the outer heliosphere near 25 AU and within 2 deg of the heliographic equatorial plane show periodic variations in the meridional (North/South) flow velocities that are much more prominent than the East/West variations. An autocorrelation analysis shows that the flow variation has a period of about 25.5 days in the latter half of 1986, in approximate agreement with the solar rotation period. The results suggest that increased pressure in interaction regions remains the best candidate for the driver of the nonradial flows.

  6. Overview of 2008 Outer Planet Flagship Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reh, Kim R.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process involved in the Phase-2 studies for the next Outer Planets Flagship (OPF). These studies will be a cooperative effort with ESA and JAXA in partnership with NASA. The annoucement of oppurtunity (AO) for the science instruments and the launch approval/planetary protection processes are reviewed. There is also discussion about capturing relevant lessons from the Cassini team, supporting international collaboration, and support for science definition teams. Some mission specific tasks are also reviewed, for the three missions being proposed: (1) Europa Explorer, (2) Jupiter System Observer and (3) Titan Explorer. A timeline for the studies is also included.

  7. Dark matter in the outer solar system.

    PubMed

    Owen, T; Cruikshank, D; de Bergh, C; Geballe, T

    1995-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  8. Atmospheric entry probes for outer planet exploration. Outer planet entry probe technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of unmanned space probes for investigating the conditions existing on and around the outer planets of the solar system is discussed. The subjects included in the report are: (1) the design of a common entry probe for outer planet missions, (2) the significant trades related to the development of a common probe design, (3) the impact of bus selection on probe design, (4) the impact of probe requirements on bus modifications, and (5) the key technology elements recommended for advanced development. Drawings and illustrations of typical probes are included to show the components and systems used in the space probes.

  9. Eocene Tibetan Plateau remnants preserved in the Northwest Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, P. A.; van Melle, J.; Guillot, S.; Pêcher, A.; Reiners, P. W.; Nicolescu, S.; Latif, M.

    2009-04-01

    The northwest Himalaya shows strongly contrasting relief, opposing deeply incised mountain ranges characterized by extremely rapid exhumation and some of the highest peaks in the world (i.e., the Karakorum range and Nanga Parbat massif) to high-elevation, low-relief areas such as the 4000-m high Deosai plateau in northern Pakistan and the 5000-m high Tso Morari in Indian Ladakh. The origin and evolution of such plateau regions in the syntaxis of the most active continental collision in the world remain elusive. Here, we report the first low-temperature thermochronology (apatite fission-track, apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He) data from the Deosai plateau and use thermal history modelling to show that it has undergone continuous slow (≤ 200 m/Myr) denudation and has thus remained tectonically stable for the last 35 Myr at least. The inferred history of constant slow denudation of the plateau contradicts the hypothesis that widespread low-relief surfaces in the northwest Himalaya result from efficient, km-scale glacial erosion during Quaternary times; such erosion would have been recorded as a phase of rapid recent denudation that is not observed in the data. Slow continuous denudation since Eocene times, i.e. only 15-20 Myr after the onset of India-Asia collision implies that the Deosai plateau surface developed early in the Himalayan history and limits the phase of orogenic relief growth in the Ladakh-Kohistan arc to the early Paleogene. Although thermochronology data do not directly record surface uplift, the simplest explanation for the inferred constant denudation rates is that the plateau had reached its present-day elevation already during the Eocene, as a later phase of surface uplift would have triggered an erosional response that would have been recorded by the thermochronology data. We use morphological analyses to characterise such plateaux and identify them at the scale of the entire northwest Himalaya and compare our thermochronological data with

  10. Chiral topological superconductor and half-integer conductance plateau from quantum anomalous Hall plateau transition

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Quan; Lian, Biao; ...

    2015-08-31

    Here, we propose to realize a two-dimensional chiral topological superconducting (TSC) state from the quantum anomalous Hall plateau transition in a magnetic topological insulator thin film through the proximity effect to a conventional s -wave superconductor. This state has a full pairing gap in the bulk and a single chiral Majorana mode at the edge. The optimal condition for realizing such chiral TSC is to have inequivalent superconducting pairing amplitudes on top and bottom surfaces of the doped magnetic topological insulator. We further propose several transport experiments to detect the chiral TSC. One unique signature is that the conductance willmore » be quantized into a half-integer plateau at the coercive field in this hybrid system. In particular, with the point contact formed by a superconducting junction, the conductance oscillates between e2 /2h and e2 /h with the frequency determined by the voltage across the junction. We close by discussing the feasibility of these experimental proposals.« less

  11. Chiral topological superconductor and half-integer conductance plateau from quantum anomalous Hall plateau transition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Quan; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng

    2015-08-31

    Here, we propose to realize a two-dimensional chiral topological superconducting (TSC) state from the quantum anomalous Hall plateau transition in a magnetic topological insulator thin film through the proximity effect to a conventional s -wave superconductor. This state has a full pairing gap in the bulk and a single chiral Majorana mode at the edge. The optimal condition for realizing such chiral TSC is to have inequivalent superconducting pairing amplitudes on top and bottom surfaces of the doped magnetic topological insulator. We further propose several transport experiments to detect the chiral TSC. One unique signature is that the conductance will be quantized into a half-integer plateau at the coercive field in this hybrid system. In particular, with the point contact formed by a superconducting junction, the conductance oscillates between e2 /2h and e2 /h with the frequency determined by the voltage across the junction. We close by discussing the feasibility of these experimental proposals.

  12. SDC conceptual design: Scintillating fiber outer tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Baumbaugh, A.; Bird, F.; SDC Collaboration

    1992-01-22

    The authors propose an all-scintillating fiber detector for the purpose of outer tracking for the SDC. The objectives of this tracking system are to: (1) provide a first level trigger for {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} < 2.3 with sharp p{sub T} threshold with the ability to resolve individual beam crossings; (2) provide pattern recognition capability and momentum resolution which complements and extends the capabilities of the inner silicon tracking system; (3) provide three dimensional linkage with outer detection systems including the shower maximum detector, muon detectors, and calorimetry; (4) provide robust tracking and track-triggering at the highest luminosities expected at the SSC. The many attractive features of a fiber tracker include good position resolution, low occupancy, low mass in the active volume, and excellent resistance to radiation damage. An additional important feature, especially at the SSC, is the intrinsically prompt response time of a scintillating fiber. This property is exploited in the construction of a level 1 trigger sensitive to individual beam crossings.

  13. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.

    2004-02-12

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container.

  14. Environments in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, N.; Khurana, K. K.; Iess, L.; Lainey, V.; Cassidy, T. A.; Burger, M.; Sotin, C.; Neubauer, F.

    2010-06-01

    The outer planets of our solar system Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are fascinating objects on their own. Their intrinsic magnetic fields form magnetic environments (so called magnetospheres) in which charged and neutral particles and dust are produced, lost or being transported through the system. These magnetic environments of the gas giants can be envisaged as huge plasma laboratories in space in which electromagnetic waves, current systems, particle transport mechanisms, acceleration processes and other phenomena act and interact with the large number of moons in orbit around those massive planets. In general it is necessary to describe and study the global environments (magnetospheres) of the gas giants, its global configuration with its large-scale transport processes; and, in combination, to study the local environments of the moons as well, e.g. the interaction processes between the magnetospheric plasma and the exosphere/atmosphere/magnetosphere of the moon acting on time scales of seconds to days. These local exchange processes include also the gravity, shape, rotation, astrometric observations and orbital parameters of the icy moons in those huge systems. It is the purpose of this chapter of the book to describe the variety of the magnetic environments of the outer planets in a broad overview, globally and locally, and to show that those exchange processes can dramatically influence the surfaces and exospheres/atmospheres of the moons and they can also be used as a tool to study the overall physics of systems as a whole.

  15. Neutral upper atmospheres of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    The major characteristics of the neutral upper atmospheres of outer planets are discussed, with special attention given to the Uranus upper atmosphere, probed by Voyager 2. The composition, thermal structure, photochemistry, and vertical mixing of the Uranus atmosphere are compared with the respective features of other outer planets. Unlike the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, which reflect the solar ratios of the elements, the Uranus atmosphere was found to have only few constituents, including NH3, CH4, H2, He, C2H2, and C2H6. The eddy diffusion coefficient of Uranus, determined from occultation experiments, was found to be in the range 10,000-100,000 sq cm/sec, the lowest value amongst the major planets; this implies relatively sluggish vertical mixing. Another major difference from Saturn and Jupiter is in the fact that stable hydrocarbon products (C2H2 and C2H6) in the Uranus atmosphere begin to condense at around 5-10 mb level, resulting in the production of haze in the lower stratosphere.

  16. OSSOS: The Outer Solar System Origins Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladman, Brett; Bannister, Michele; Kavelaars, Jj; Petit, Jean-Marc; Gwyn, Stephen; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2014-11-01

    We present the first detection set from the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) which is a mammoth 560-hour CFHT Large Program over 4 years (finishing January 2017). This is likely to be the largest Kuiper Belt survey before LSST comes on line (in terms of the number of precise transneptunian object (TNO) orbits it provides).OSSOS studies gradually-slewing 21-square degree blocks of sky that are repeatedly imaged in many dark runs over two semesters. This strategy is designed to detect and track TNOs in order to provide extremely high-quality orbits in a short amount of time; in 16-18 month arcs we are obtaining fractional semimajor axis uncertainties in the range 0.01-0.1% and accuracies in the libration amplitudes of resonant objects better than 10 degrees, due to mean astrometric residuals routinely being of order 50-100 milliarcseconds.This talk will present the survey design and full detection sample for objects observed in the first half of 2013 and 2014. We will report how adding these detections to those from the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS) modifies conclusions about the orbital and size distribution of main classical Kuiper Belt, as well as other non-resonant sub-populations. In particular, because OSSOS is sensitive to, and has detected objects, from 8 AU to beyond 60 AU, we will report on how the combined distance and magnitude distribution impact dicsussions of the absolute magnitude distribution of outer Solar System objects.

  17. Stellar evolution in the outer Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczerba, Ryszard; Siódmiak, Natasza; Leśniewska, Aleksandra; Karska, Agata; Sewiło, Marta

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the distribution of different classes of spectroscopically identified sources and theoretical models in the color-color diagrams (CCDs) combining the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) data to develop a method to classify Outer Galaxy sources detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope (hereafter Spitzer) SMOG survey in the IRAC 3.68.0 µm and MIPS 24 µm bands. We supplement the Spitzer data with the data from other satellite and ground-based surveys. The main goal of our study is to discover and characterize the population of intermediate- and low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Outer Galaxy and use it to study star formation in a significantly different environment than the Galaxy inside the solar circle. Since the YSOs can be confused with evolved stars in the MIR, these classes of objects need to be carefully separated. Here we present the initial results of our analysis using the Ks-[8.0] vs. Ks-[24] CCD as an example. The evolved stars separated from YSOs in the YSO selection process will be investigated in detail in the follow-up study.

  18. Radio Emissions from the Outer Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.

    1996-01-01

    For nearly fifteen years the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft have been detecting an unusual radio emission in the outer heliosphere in the frequency range from about 2 to 3 kHz. Two major events have been observed, the first in 1983-84 and the second in 1992-93. In both cases the onset of the radio emission occurred about 400 days after a period of intense solar activity, the first in mid-July 1982, and the second in May-June 1991. These two periods of solar activity produced the two deepest cosmic ray Forbush decreases ever observed. Forbush decreases are indicative of a system of strong shocks and associated disturbances propagating outward through the heliosphere. The radio emission is believed to have been produced when this system of shocks and disturbances interacted with one of the outer boundaries of the heliosphere, most likely in the vicinity of the the heliopause. The emission is believed to be generated by the shock-driven Langmuir-wave mode conversion mechanism, which produces radiation at the plasma frequency (f(sub p)) and at twice the plasma frequency (2f(sub p)). From the 400-day travel time and the known speed of the shocks, the distance to the interaction region can be computed, and is estimated to be in the range from about 110 to 160 AU.

  19. Paleomagnetic Data From Ontong Java Plateau are Anomalous ˜ Did the Plateau Form on Another Plate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, W. W.

    2004-12-01

    A recent study of Ocean Drilling Program basalt core paleomagnetic data from Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) found paleolatitudes that disagree with previous estimates of the Early Cretaceous Pacific APWP, a result attributed to poor quality of data used in prior pole calculations [Riisager, P., S. Hall, M. Antretter, X. Zhao, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 208, p. 235, 2003]. My compilation of paleomagnetic data from Cretaceous Pacific basalt cores drilled by the Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program shows that paleocolatitude data in of ages 118-129 Ma display greater scatter than other age bins. The only factor that allows this data group to be coherently subdivided is whether or not the coring site is located on OJP. Without OJP data, paleocolatitude scatter is much less and gives a similar pole position (48.9° N, 327.1° E, N=40) to data in the 110-118 Ma interval. Data from the plateau give a pole that is 15° farther north (64.9° N, 323.4° E; N=37), indistinguishable from late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous skewness poles. The OJP and non-OJP poles are distinct at the 95% confidence level despite having indistinguishable mean ages of 121.6 ±1.1 Ma (OJP) and 123.4 ±4.1 (non-OJP). Because Ontong Java Plateau data come from 6 different sites spread over the northern plateau, tectonic tilting is not a likely explanation for the difference. Also unlikely are systematic errors such as incomplete averaging of secular variation (large number of independent magnetic units sampled), inaccurate radiometric dates (many high quality dates), or inadequate paleomagnetic techniques (detailed studies by several different investigators). Rapid true polar wander does not seem a plausible explanation because global true polar wander curves have a different trend. Perhaps the simplest explanation is the one often used when anomalous data are found within a plate: the anomalous region had a different history of tectonic drift. In this scenario, OJP formed on a separate

  20. Aftershock Decay Rates in the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes ( M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the Wells and Coppersmith (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the Burkhard and Grünthal (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.

  1. 76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... renewable energy, mineral, and oil and gas lease sales in the geographic areas they represent. The revised... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official... Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Availability of Revised North...

  2. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  3. High Tibetan Plateau: a Nature Reserve of C3 Flora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, G.; Pagani, M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and associated climate changes leading to enhanced seasonality in precipitation and drying, are argued to have induced a global ecological shift from C3-frorest to C4-grassland between 8 and 5 million years ago. However, both tectonic and climatic changes predate the timing of the C3-C4 transition, with paleoaltimetry studies pointing to a high Tibetan Plateau no later than 10 Ma and the existence of an intense monsoon since ca. 11 Ma. To better understand the role of the Tibetan Plateau, we present results of a paleoecology study based on the carbon isotope compositions of leaf-wax n-alkanes (δ13Calk) from Qaidam basin, an intermontane basin on the youngest and the northernmost portion of Tibetan Plateau. Samples were collected from a 5-km thick, fluvial-lacustrine sequence dated 15 Ma to 1.8 Ma. Organic geochemical indices and detrital thermochronological studies preclude post-depositional thermal alteration of the studied materials. Our results, which show persistently low δ13Calk values, are consistent with the dominance of C3 flora on the Tibetan Plateau, in contrast to the prominent C4 rise surrounding the Tibetan Plateau and around the globe. We argue that a high Tibetan Plateau, established prior to the global ecological C3-C4 shift, served as a shelter of C3 flora since the Miocene. High-elevation and cold environments provided a competitive advantage for C3 by damping/counteracting the physiological advantage of C4 which outperforms C3 plants under warm, high-irradiance, water-stress and low pCO2 conditions.

  4. Surface currents and upwelling in Kerguelen Plateau regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M.; Zhu, Y.; d'Ovidio, F.; Park, Y.-H.; Durand, I.; Kestenare, E.; Sanial, V.; Van-Beek, P.; Queguiner, B.; Carlotti, F.; Blain, S.

    2014-05-01

    Mean currents, horizontal diffusivity and upwelling on the Kerguelen Plateau and the deep basin east of the Kerguelen Islands were studied using 48 World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Standard Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifters deployed during the 2011 austral spring KEOPS II (KErguelen Ocean Plateau compared Study II) cruise. These drifter data were analyzed based on autocovariances for temporal scales, least-squares fitted streamfunctions for estimating mesoscale mean currents, wind stress fields and Ekman pumping, and Taylor's single particle diffusivity for estimating horizontal dispersion of surface waters. The results have revealed the shelfbreak current on the southern and eastern shelf slopes of the Kerguelen Islands, transport of surface waters from the Kerguelen-Heard shelf basin crossing the shelf slope into the deep basin off the plateau east of the Kerguelen Islands, and upwelling driven by wind stress curl in both the plateau and deep basin regions. The estimated volume transports off the Plateau in the upper 50 m based on surface drifters and below the mixed layer based on wind stress curl are 0.5 and 1.7 Sv, respectively, the mean and standard deviation of vertical velocities driven by wind stress curl averaged in the plateau and deep basin regions up to 3.2 ± 7.4 m d-1, and the upwelling fluxes in the surveyed plateau and deep basin regions are approximately 0.7 and 1.1 Sv, respectively. These physical transport processes can have significant effects on balances between biogeochemical elements and their recycling processes.

  5. Outer Planet Assessment Group (OPAG) Recommended Exploration Strategy for the Outer Planets 2013-2022

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, William B.; Steering Committee, Opag; Planets Community, Outer

    2010-05-01

    The Outer Solar System provides critical clues to how solar systems form and evolve, how planetary systems become habitable, and how life has evolved in our solar system. NASA's Outer Planets Assessment Group (OPAG) was established to identify scientific priorities and pathways for Outer Solar System exploration. Fundamental new discoveries are best made with a mixture of mission sizes that includes large (flagship) missions, and medium-sized and smaller-sized (as practical) missions, along with vigorous support for basic research, data analysis, and technology development — a balanced strategy most efficiently implemented as an Outer Planets Exploration Program. Missions to the Outer Solar System are major undertakings, requiring large and expensive launch vehicles, long mission durations, highly reliable (frequently radiation hard) and autonomous spacecraft, and radioisotope power sources in most cases. OPAG has recommended to the US National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey to explore the possibilities for ‘small flagship' class missions to be considered, providing a greater range of choice and capabilities in the mix to balance program size and science return. With the Galileo mission concluded, the Cassini equinox mission in progress, and Juno in development, OPAG has strongly endorsed the competitive selection by NASA of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) as the next Outer Planets Flagship and as part of the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) with ESA, a collaboration that includes a Ganymede orbiter and an increased focus on Jupiter science; OPAG has strongly recommended support of JEO and EJSM in the Decadal Survey. In addition, OPAG has strongly endorsed approval by NASA of the Cassini Solstice Mission, including the Juno-like end-of-mission scenario, given the likely phenomenal return on investment. OPAG also advocates the need for a focused technology program for the next Outer Planet Flagship Mission after EJSM, in order to be ready

  6. THE OUTER DISKS OF DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Massey, Philip; Wilsey, Nick; Riabokin, Malanka; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Oh, Se-Heon; Anderson, Ed; Nordgren, Tyler E. E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu E-mail: riabokin@msu.edu E-mail: seheon-oh@ast.uct.ac.za E-mail: tyler_nordgren@redlands.edu

    2011-10-15

    In order to explore the properties of extreme outer stellar disks, we obtained ultra-deep V and GALEX ultraviolet (UV) images of four dwarf irregular galaxies and one blue compact dwarf galaxy, and ultra-deep B images of three of these. Our V-band surface photometry extends to 29.5 mag arcsec{sup -2}. We convert the FUV and V-band photometry, along with H{alpha} photometry obtained in a larger survey, into radial star formation rate profiles that are sensitive to timescales from 10 Myr to the lifetime of the galaxy. We also obtained H I-line emission data and compare the stellar distributions, surface brightness profiles, and star formation rate profiles to H I-line emission maps, gas surface density profiles, and gas kinematics. Our data lead us to two general observations. First, the exponential disks in these irregular galaxies are extraordinarily regular. We observe that the stellar disks continue to decline exponentially as far as our measurements extend. In spite of lumpiness in the distribution of young stars and H I distributions and kinematics that have significant unordered motions, sporadic processes that have built the disks-star formation, radial movement of stars, and perhaps even perturbations from the outside-have, nevertheless, conspired to produce standard disk profiles. Second, there is a remarkable continuity of star formation throughout these disks over time. In four out of five of our galaxies the star formation rate in the outer disk measured from the FUV tracks that determined from the V-band, to within factors of five, requiring star formation at a fairly steady rate over the galaxy's lifetime. Yet, the H I surface density profiles generally decline with radius more shallowly than the stellar light, and the gas is marginally gravitationally stable against collapse into clouds. Outer stellar disks are challenging our concepts of star formation and disk growth and provide a critical environment in which to understand processes that mold

  7. Radio seismology of the outer solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Melnik, Valentin; Brazhenko, Anatoliy; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Konovalenko, Alexander; Dorovskyy, Vladimir; Rucker, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Observed oscillations of coronal loops in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines have been successfully used to estimate plasma parameters in the inner corona (< 0.2R0, where R0 is the solar radius). However, coronal seismology in EUV lines fails for higher altitudes because of rapid decrease in line intensity. We aim to use radio observations to estimate the plasma parameters of the outer solar corona (> 0.2R0). We used the large Ukrainian radio telescope URAN-2 to observe type IV radio bursts at the frequency range of 8-32 MHz during the time interval of 09:50-12:30 UT on April 14, 2011. The burst was connected to C2.3 flare, which occurred in AR 11190 during 09:38-09:49 UT. The dynamic spectrum of radio emission shows clear quasi-periodic variations in the emission intensity at almost all frequencies. Wavelet analysis at four different frequencies (29 MHz, 25 MHz, 22 MHz, and 14 MHz) shows the quasi-periodic variation of emission intensity with periods of ~ 34 min and ~ 23 min. The periodic variations can be explained by the first and second harmonics of vertical kink oscillation of transequatorial coronal loops, which were excited by the same flare. The apex of transequatorial loops may reach up to 1.2 R0 altitude. We derive and solve the dispersion relation of trapped magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations in a longitudinally inhomogeneous magnetic slab. The analysis shows that a thin (with width to length ratio of 0.1), dense (with the ratio of internal and external densities of ≥ 20) magnetic slab with weak longitudinal inhomogeneity may trap the observed oscillations. Seismologically estimated Alfvén speed inside the loop at the height of ~ 1 R0 is ~ 1000 km s-1. The magnetic field strength at this height is estimated as ~ 0.9 G. Extrapolation of magnetic field strength to the inner corona gives ~ 10 G at the height of 0.1 R0. Radio observations can be successfully used for the sounding of the outer solar corona, where EUV observations of coronal loops fail

  8. Radio seismology of the outer solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Melnik, V. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Panchenko, M.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Franzuzenko, A. V.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Observed oscillations of coronal loops in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines have been successfully used to estimate plasma parameters in the inner corona (<0.2 R0, where R0 is the solar radius). However, coronal seismology in EUV lines fails for higher altitudes because of rapid decrease in line intensity. Aims: We aim to use radio observations to estimate the plasma parameters of the outer solar corona (>0.2 R0). Methods: We used the large Ukrainian radio telescope URAN-2 to observe type IV radio bursts at the frequency range of 8-32 MHz during the time interval of 09:50-12:30 UT on April 14, 2011. The burst was connected to C2.3 flare, which occurred in AR 11190 during 09:38-09:49 UT. The dynamic spectrum of radio emission shows clear quasi-periodic variations in the emission intensity at almost all frequencies. Results: Wavelet analysis at four different frequencies (29 MHz, 25 MHz, 22 MHz, and 14 MHz) shows the quasi-periodic variation of emission intensity with periods of ~34 min and ~23 min. The periodic variations can be explained by the first and second harmonics of vertical kink oscillation of transequatorial coronal loops, which were excited by the same flare. The apex of transequatorial loops may reach up to 1.2 R0 altitude. We derive and solve the dispersion relation of trapped magnetohydrodynamic oscillations in a longitudinally inhomogeneous magnetic slab. The analysis shows that a thin (with width to length ratio of 0.1), dense (with the ratio of internal and external densities of ≥20) magnetic slab with weak longitudinal inhomogeneity of the Alfvén speed may trap the observed oscillations. Seismologically estimated Alfvén speed inside the loop at the height of ~1 R0 is ~1000 km s-1. The magnetic field strength at this height is estimated as ~0.9 G. Extrapolation of magnetic field strength to the inner corona gives ~10 G at the height of 0.1 R0. Conclusions: Radio observations can be successfully used for the sounding of the outer solar

  9. Vegetation response to extreme climate events on the Mongolian Plateau from 2000 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Ranjeet; Chen, Jiquan; Ou-Yang, Zu-Tao; Xiao, Jingfeng; Becker, Richard; Samanta, Arindam; Ganguly, Sangram; Yuan, Wenping; Batkhishig, Ochirbat

    2013-09-01

    Climate change has led to more frequent extreme winters (aka, dzud) and summer droughts on the Mongolian Plateau during the last decade. Among these events, the 2000-2002 combined summer drought-dzud and 2010 dzud were the most severe on vegetation. We examined the vegetation response to these extremes through the past decade across the Mongolian Plateau as compared to decadal means. We first assessed the severity and extent of drought using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation data and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI). We then examined the effects of drought by mapping anomalies in vegetation indices (EVI, EVI2) and land surface temperature derived from MODIS and AVHRR for the period of 2000-2010. We found that the standardized anomalies of vegetation indices exhibited positively skewed frequency distributions in dry years, which were more common for the desert biome than for grasslands. For the desert biome, the dry years (2000-2001, 2005 and 2009) were characterized by negative anomalies with peak values between -1.5 and -0.5 and were statistically different (P < 0.001) from relatively wet years (2003, 2004 and 2007). Conversely, the frequency distributions of the dry years were not statistically different (p < 0.001) from those of the relatively wet years for the grassland biome, showing that they were less responsive to drought and more resilient than the desert biome. We found that the desert biome is more vulnerable to drought than the grassland biome. Spatially averaged EVI was strongly correlated with the proportion of land area affected by drought (PDSI <- 1) in Inner Mongolia (IM) and Outer Mongolia (OM), showing that droughts substantially reduced vegetation activity. The correlation was stronger for the desert biome (R2 = 65 and 60, p < 0.05) than for the IM grassland biome (R2 = 53, p < 0.05). Our results showed significant differences in the responses to extreme climatic events (summer drought and dzud) between the

  10. ONE-DIMENSIONAL ACCELERATOR IN PULSAR OUTER MAGNETOSPHERE REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G. F.; Zhang, L.

    2009-07-10

    We re-examine the one-dimensional (1D) vacuum and nonvacuum accelerators in the outer magnetosphere of rotation-powered pulsars by considering the limit of trans-field height through pair-production process. In the original 1D nonvacuum outer gap model, both the Poisson equation for electrical potential and the Boltzmann equations of particles and gamma-rays are solved self-consistently by assuming the trans-field height as a free parameter, usually resulting in a narrow outer gap (i.e., gap length along magnetic field lines is short). In the modified 1D nonvacuum outer gap model, two improvements have been made: the trans-field height is limited by photon-photon pair production process and the outer boundary of the outer gap can be extended outside the light cylinder. Under the above assumptions, we self-consistently solve the Poisson equation for electrical potential, and the Boltzmann equations of electrons/positrons and gamma-rays in both vacuum and nonvacuum outer gaps for the parameters of both Vela and Geminga pulsars. We obtain an approximate geometry of the outer gap, i.e., the trans-field height is limited by the pair-production process and increases with the radial distance to the star, and the width of the outer gap starts at the inner boundary (near the null charge surface in the vacuum case) and ends at the outer boundary which is located inside or outside the light cylinder depending on the inclination angle. Our calculated results also indicate that gamma-ray spectrum from a wide outer gap is flatter than the one from a narrow outer gap and the relation between the electric field and trans-field height has an important effect on the structure of the outer gap.

  11. Prokaryotic Community Structure Driven by Salinity and Ionic Concentrations in Plateau Lakes of the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Miao, Li-Li; Wang, Fang; Chu, Li-Min; Wang, Jia-Li; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-01-08

    The prokaryotic community composition and diversity and the distribution patterns at various taxonomic levels across gradients of salinity and physiochemical properties in the surface waters of seven plateau lakes in the Qaidam Basin, Tibetan Plateau, were evaluated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. These lakes included Lakes Keluke (salinity, <1 g/liter), Qing (salinity, 5.5 to 6.6 g/liter), Tuosu (salinity, 24 to 35 g/liter), Dasugan (salinity, 30 to 33 g/liter), Gahai (salinity, 92 to 96 g/liter), Xiaochaidan (salinity, 94 to 99 g/liter), and Gasikule (salinity, 317 to 344 g/liter). The communities were dominated by Bacteria in lakes with salinities of <100 g/liter and by Archaea in Lake Gasikule. The clades At12OctB3 and Salinibacter, previously reported only in hypersaline environments, were found in a hyposaline lake (salinity, 5.5 to 6.6 g/liter) at an abundance of ∼1.0%, indicating their ecological plasticity. Salinity and the concentrations of the chemical ions whose concentrations covary with salinity (Mg(2+), K(+), Cl(-), Na(+), SO4 (2-), and Ca(2+)) were found to be the primary environmental factors that directly or indirectly determined the composition and diversity at the level of individual clades as well as entire prokaryotic communities. The distribution patterns of two phyla, five classes, five orders, five families, and three genera were well predicted by salinity. The variation of the prokaryotic community structure also significantly correlated with the dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, the total nitrogen concentration, and the PO4 (3-) concentration. Such correlations varied depending on the taxonomic level, demonstrating the importance of comprehensive correlation analyses at various taxonomic levels in evaluating the effects of environmental variable factors on prokaryotic community structures. Our findings clarify the distribution patterns of the prokaryotic community composition in plateau lakes at the levels of individual clades as

  12. Prokaryotic Community Structure Driven by Salinity and Ionic Concentrations in Plateau Lakes of the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Miao, Li-Li; Wang, Fang; Chu, Li-Min; Wang, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    The prokaryotic community composition and diversity and the distribution patterns at various taxonomic levels across gradients of salinity and physiochemical properties in the surface waters of seven plateau lakes in the Qaidam Basin, Tibetan Plateau, were evaluated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. These lakes included Lakes Keluke (salinity, <1 g/liter), Qing (salinity, 5.5 to 6.6 g/liter), Tuosu (salinity, 24 to 35 g/liter), Dasugan (salinity, 30 to 33 g/liter), Gahai (salinity, 92 to 96 g/liter), Xiaochaidan (salinity, 94 to 99 g/liter), and Gasikule (salinity, 317 to 344 g/liter). The communities were dominated by Bacteria in lakes with salinities of <100 g/liter and by Archaea in Lake Gasikule. The clades At12OctB3 and Salinibacter, previously reported only in hypersaline environments, were found in a hyposaline lake (salinity, 5.5 to 6.6 g/liter) at an abundance of ∼1.0%, indicating their ecological plasticity. Salinity and the concentrations of the chemical ions whose concentrations covary with salinity (Mg2+, K+, Cl−, Na+, SO42−, and Ca2+) were found to be the primary environmental factors that directly or indirectly determined the composition and diversity at the level of individual clades as well as entire prokaryotic communities. The distribution patterns of two phyla, five classes, five orders, five families, and three genera were well predicted by salinity. The variation of the prokaryotic community structure also significantly correlated with the dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, the total nitrogen concentration, and the PO43− concentration. Such correlations varied depending on the taxonomic level, demonstrating the importance of comprehensive correlation analyses at various taxonomic levels in evaluating the effects of environmental variable factors on prokaryotic community structures. Our findings clarify the distribution patterns of the prokaryotic community composition in plateau lakes at the levels of individual clades as well as whole

  13. Gravitational salt tectonics above a rising basement plateau offshore Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaullier, Virginie; Vendeville, Bruno C.; Besème, Grégoire; Legoux, Gaetan; Déverchère, Jacques; Lymer, Gaël

    2017-04-01

    Seismic data (survey "MARADJA 1", 2003) offshore the Algerian coast have imaged an unexpected deformation pattern of the Messinian salt (Mobile Unit; MU) and its sedimentary overburden (Messinian Upper Unit and Plio-Quaternary) above an actively rising plateau in the subsalt basement. From a geodynamic point of view, the region is undergoing crustal convergence, as attested by the Boumerdes earthquake (2003, magnitude 6.8). The rise of this plateau, forming a 3D promontory restricted to the area offshore Algiers, is associated with that geodynamic setting. The seismic profiles show several subsalt thrusts (Domzig et al. 2006). The data provided additional information on the deformation of the Messinian mobile evaporitic unit and its Plio-Quaternary overburden. Margin-perpendicular profiles show mostly compressional features (anticlines and synclines) that had little activity during Messinian times, then grew more during Plio-Quaternary times. A few normal faults are also present, but are not accompanied by salt rise. By contrast, margin-parallel profiles clearly show that extensional, reactive salt diapiric ridges (symptomatic with their triangular shape in cross section) formed early, as early as the time of deposition of the Messinian Upper Unit, as recorded by fan-shaped strata. These ridges have recorded E-W, thin-skinned gravity gliding above the Messinian salt, as a response to the rise of the basement plateau. We tested this hypothesis using two analogue models, one where we assumed that the rise of the plateau started after Messinian times (initially tabular salt across the entire region), the second model assumed that the plateau had already risen partially as the Messininan Mobile Unit was deposited (salt initially thinner above the plateau than in the adjacent regions). In both experiments, the rise of the plateau generated preferential E-W extension above the salt, combined with N-S shortening. Extension was caused by gravity gliding of the salt from

  14. Formation of the outer planets and satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A mechanism for the formation of the outer planets is proposed, the basis of which is the idea that the giant planets contain an excess of chemically condensable materials over solar composition. Planetary cores were formed by the clumping together of chemically condensed bodies forming a thin disk in the solar nebula. Gas surrounding a core becomes unstable against collapse onto the core. In the case of Jupiter and Saturn, much of the collapsing gas goes into orbit about the formed planet, forming a relatively thin circumplanetary disks with differential rotation in the prograde sense. For Uranus and Neptune, the dynamical collapse mechanism is unlikely. A disk of gas around Uranus may have been formed during a collision of the protoplanet with a large body. The circumplanetary disks then form the basis for formation of satellite systems, in which the Goldreich-Ward instability mechanism plays a role.

  15. Variability in the outer planet aurorae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations of the aurorae of the outer planets are reviewed emphasizing the findings on physical processes derived from specific wavelengths. The review examines features of the auroral zones such as ionospheric currents, atmospheric heating, and compositional changes in the aurorae of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the earth for comparison. Jupiter's multiwavelength aurora receives special attention since recent observations shed light on the distribution of the UV auroral ovals, the spectroscopy of the UV auroral emissions, auroral dynamics and ion upwelling, and IR emission from auroral latitudes. The observational data on Jupiter facilitate the modeling of variability and detailed thermospheric and magnetospheric processes. Saturn can be studied by extending findings fron Jupiter's aurora, and deficiencies are found in the observational datasets for Neptune and Uranus.

  16. Organic Matter in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruiskshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many solid bodies in the outer Solar System are covered with ices of various compositions, including water, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, and other molecules that are solid at the low temperatures that prevail there. These ices have all been detected by remote sensing observations made with telescopes on Earth, or more recently, spacecraft in orbit (notably Galileo at Jupiter). The data also reveal other solid materials that could be minerals or complex carbon-bearing organic molecules. A study in progress using large ground-based telescopes to acquire infrared spectroscopic data, and laboratory results on the optical properties of complex organic matter, seeks to identify the non-icy materials on several satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The work on the satellites of Saturn is in part preparatory to the Cassini spacecraft investigation of the Saturn system, which will begin in 2004 and extend for four years.

  17. Formation of the outer planets and satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A mechanism for the formation of the outer planets is proposed, the basis of which is the idea that the giant planets contain an excess of chemically condensable materials over solar composition. Planetary cores were formed by the clumping together of chemically condensed bodies forming a thin disk in the solar nebula. Gas surrounding a core becomes unstable against collapse onto the core. In the case of Jupiter and Saturn, much of the collapsing gas goes into orbit about the formed planet, forming a relatively thin circumplanetary disks with differential rotation in the prograde sense. For Uranus and Neptune, the dynamical collapse mechanism is unlikely. A disk of gas around Uranus may have been formed during a collision of the protoplanet with a large body. The circumplanetary disks then form the basis for formation of satellite systems, in which the Goldreich-Ward instability mechanism plays a role.

  18. Variability in the outer planet aurorae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations of the aurorae of the outer planets are reviewed emphasizing the findings on physical processes derived from specific wavelengths. The review examines features of the auroral zones such as ionospheric currents, atmospheric heating, and compositional changes in the aurorae of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the earth for comparison. Jupiter's multiwavelength aurora receives special attention since recent observations shed light on the distribution of the UV auroral ovals, the spectroscopy of the UV auroral emissions, auroral dynamics and ion upwelling, and IR emission from auroral latitudes. The observational data on Jupiter facilitate the modeling of variability and detailed thermospheric and magnetospheric processes. Saturn can be studied by extending findings fron Jupiter's aurora, and deficiencies are found in the observational datasets for Neptune and Uranus.

  19. Near infrared imaging of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, K.; Soifer, B. T.

    1991-01-01

    In the last year we have continued our program of near infrared imaging of the outer planets of the solar system. Uranus is virtually invisible at 2.3 microns, showing that the methane is an effective absorber of the incident sunlight and that there is very little aerosol content in the upper atmosphere. On the other hand, Neptune shows a haze present over the entire Northern Hemisphere at 2.3 microns. This leads to the inference that there is an aerosol layer at a high altitude. We have recovered the Neptune satellite, 1989 N1, which was first discovered in Voyager images. The satellite is exceedingly faint in the near infrared, and was detectable only because the planet itself was comparatively faint at this wavelength. Observations of this satellite, coupled with the Voyager images, permit us to substantially refine the satellite's orbit, and hence carefully probe the gravitational field of Neptune.

  20. Outer Hair Cell Electromotility in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2011-11-01

    The effectiveness of outer hair cell (OHC) electro-motility in vivo has been challenged by the expected low-pass filtering of the transmembrane potential due to the cell's own capacitance. The OHC electromotility is characterized here by an electromechanical ratio defined as the ratio of the OHC contraction to the transmembrane potential. This ratio has been measured in isolated cells to be approximately 26 nm/mV. We estimate the OHC electromechanical ratio in vivo from the recently measured displacements of the reticular lamina and the basilar membrane near the 19 kHz characteristic frequency in the basal region of guinea pig cochlea. Our analysis strongly suggests OHC electromotility process is effective for cochlear amplification in vivo at least around the characteristic frequency of the basal location in spite of the low-pass filtering.

  1. Outer solar system for 200 million years

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.H.; Douglas, M.R.; Gursel, Y.; Sussman, G.J.; Wisdom, J.

    1986-07-01

    A special-purpose computer is used to integrate the orbits of the outer five planets for more than 100 Myr into the future and more than 100 Myr into the past. The strongest features in the Fourier transforms of the orbital elements of the Jovian planets can be identified with the frequencies predicted by linear secular theory. Many of the weaker features in the Fourier spectra are identified as linear combinations of the basic frequencies. Serious differences are noted between the present measurements and the predictions of Bretagnon (1974). The amplitude of the 3.796 Myr period libration of Pluto's longitude of perihelion is modulated with a period of 34 Myr. Very long periods, on the order of 137 Myr, are also seen. The orbit of Pluto is stable for the duration of the integration; the maximum Liapunov characteristic exponent is less than 10 to the -6.8 power/yr. 21 references.

  2. The fate of the outer plasmasphere

    SciTech Connect

    Elphic, R.C.; Thomsen, M.F.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1997-02-01

    Both the solar wind and the ionosphere contribute to Earth{close_quote}s magnetospheric plasma environment. However, it is not widely appreciated that the plasmasphere is a large reservoir of ionospheric ions that can be tapped to populate the plasma sheet. We employ empirical models of high-latitude ionospheric convection and the geomagnetic field to describe the transport of outer plasmasphere flux tubes from the dayside, over the polar cap and into the magnetotail during the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. We calculate that this process can give rise to high densities of cold plasma in the magnetotail lobes and in the near-Earth plasma sheet during times of enhanced geomagnetic activity, and especially during storms. This model can help explain both polar cap ionization patches and the presence of cold flowing ions downtail.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  3. Environmental geologic studies on the southeastern United States Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf, 1977-1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popenoe, Peter; Popenoe, Peter

    1981-01-01

    This report is a summary of the second year of marine environmental research activities by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on the southeaster U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin, in accordance with with Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) AA551-MU8-13 between the USGS and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The report covers studies whose fieldwork was conducted during the period from 1 October 1977 to 30 September 1978. The results of the first year of study are reported in Popenoe (1978a and b) and as U.S. Department of Commerce NTIS report PB 300-820. The purpose of these investigations is to provide basic geologic and oceanographic data to the BLM Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Marine Environmental Studies Program in support of management decisions which relate to possible development of oil and gas resources of the continental shelf. The objectives of the USGS-BLM geologic research program for fiscal year 1978 (FY-78) were 1) to determine the sedimentation rates and processes on the upper slope and inner Blake Plateau; 2) to determine the distribution, areal extent, and vertical characteristics of geological features supportive of biological communities; 3) to monitor the transport of bottom sediment across the OCS, evaluate its possible effect on pollutant transfer along the seabed and the potential of sediment as a pollutant sink, determine the implications of erosion/deposition on pipeline emplacement, and aid the interpretation of chemical, biological, and physical data; 4) to determine the concentration levels of chosen trace metals and silica in three chemically defined fractions of the suspended particulate matter (seston); 5) to study the shelf edge and slope near areas of oil and gas interest, and the northern portion of the Blake Plateau for evidence of slope instability and other geologic hazards, and 6) to determine the depth and rate of sediment mixing caused by large storms and/or by benthic organisms and where possible to estimate the rate of

  4. Rapid loss of lakes on the Mongolian Plateau.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shengli; Fang, Jingyun; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Shuqing; Shen, Haihua; Hu, Huifeng; Tang, Zhiyao; Wang, Zhiheng; Guo, Qinghua

    2015-02-17

    Lakes are widely distributed on the Mongolian Plateau and, as critical water sources, have sustained Mongolian pastures for hundreds of years. However, the plateau has experienced significant lake shrinkage and grassland degradation during the past several decades. To quantify the changes in all of the lakes on the plateau and the associated driving factors, we performed a satellite-based survey using multitemporal Landsat images from the 1970s to 2000s, combined with ground-based censuses. Our results document a rapid loss of lakes on the plateau in the past decades: the number of lakes with a water surface area >1 km(2) decreased from 785 in the late 1980s to 577 in 2010, with a greater rate of decrease (34.0%) in Inner Mongolia of China than in Mongolia (17.6%). This decrease has been particularly pronounced since the late 1990s in Inner Mongolia and the number of lakes >10 km(2) has declined by 30.0%. The statistical analyses suggested that in Mongolia precipitation was the dominant driver for the lake changes, and in Inner Mongolia coal mining was most important in its grassland area and irrigation was the leading factor in its cultivated area. The deterioration of lakes is expected to continue in the following decades not only because of changing climate but also increasing exploitation of underground mineral and groundwater resources on the plateau. To protect grasslands and the indigenous nomads, effective action is urgently required to save these valuable lakes from further deterioration.

  5. Seismic wave speed structure of the Ontong Java Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covellone, Brian M.; Savage, Brian; Shen, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) represents the result of a significant event in the Earth's geologic history. Limited geophysical and geochemical data, as well as the plateau's relative isolation in the Pacific ocean, have made interpretation of the modern day geologic structure and its 120 Ma formation history difficult. Here we present the highest resolution image to date of the wave speed structure of the OJP region. We use a data set that combines Rayleigh waves extracted from both ambient noise and earthquake waveforms and an iterative finite-frequency tomography methodology. The combination of datasets allow us to best exploit the limited station distribution in the Pacific and image wave speed structures between 35 km and 300 km into the Earth. We image a region of fast shear wave speeds, greater than 4.75 km/s, that extends to greater than 100 km beneath the plateau. The wave speeds are similar to as observed in cratonic environments and are consistent with a compositional anomaly that resulted from the residuum of eclogite entrainment during the plateau's formation. The combination of our imaged wave speed structure and previous geochemical work suggest that a surfacing plume head entrained eclogite from the deep mantle and accounts for the anomalous buoyancy characteristics of the plateau and observed fast wave speeds.

  6. Peak or plateau maximal inspiratory mouth pressure: which is best?

    PubMed

    Windisch, W; Hennings, E; Sorichter, S; Hamm, H; Criée, C P

    2004-05-01

    There is no clear evidence as to how maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PI,max) should be measured, although plateau pressures sustained for 1 s and measured at residual volume (RV) are usually recommended. Peak and plateau PI,max were measured at RV and at functional residual capacity (FRC) in 533 healthy subjects (aged 10-90 yrs) in order to comparably test all PI,max measurements for their predictors, reproducibility and normal values. Plateau pressures accounted for 82.0-86.3%, of peak pressures. Peak and plateau pressures measured at FRC accounted for 84.3-90.5% of pressures at RV, and were highly correlated. Age was negatively predictive and weight and body mass index positively predictive of PI,max, but regression parameters were low. All PI,max measurements were comparable when calculating regression parameters, between-subject variability and reproducibility. In conclusion, peak and plateau maximal inspiratory mouth pressure are comparably useful for the assessment of inspiratory muscle strength and can be reliably measured at functional residual capacity and at residual volume. Regression equations are of low impact in predicting normal values due to the weak influence of demographic and anthropometric factors and to the high unexplained between-subject-variability. Age-related 5th percentiles can indicate the lower limit of the normal range.

  7. Rapid Loss of Lakes on the Mongolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, S.; Fang, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, S.; Shen, H.; Hu, H.; Tang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes are widely distributed on the Mongolian Plateau and as critical water sources have sustained Mongolian pastures for hundreds of years. However, the plateau has experienced significant lake shrinkage and grassland degradation during the past several decades. To quantify the changes in all the lakes on the plateau and the associated driving factors, we performed a satellite-based survey using multi-temporal Landsat images from the 1970s to 2000s, combining with ground-based censuses. Our results document a rapid loss of lakes on the plateau in the past decades: the number of lakes with a water surface area >1 km2 decreased from 785 in the late 1980s to 577 in 2010, with a greater rate of decrease (34.0%) in Inner Mongolia of China than in Mongolia (17.6%). This decrease has been particularly pronounced since the late 1990s in Inner Mongolia and the number of lakes >10 km2 has declined by 30.0%. The statistical analyses suggested that in Mongolia precipitation was the dominant driver for the lake changes, while in Inner Mongolia coal mining was most important in its grassland area and irrigation was the leading factor in its cultivated area. The deterioration of lakes is expected to continue in the following decades not only because of changing climate but also increasing exploitation of underground mineral and groundwater resources on the plateau. To protect grasslands and the indigenous nomads, effective action is urgently required to save these valuable lakes from further deterioration.

  8. Constraints on the early uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengshan; Zhao, Xixi; Liu, Zhifei; Lippert, Peter C.; Graham, Stephan A.; Coe, Robert S.; Yi, Haisheng; Zhu, Lidong; Liu, Shun; Li, Yalin

    2008-01-01

    The surface uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya is among the most interesting topics in geosciences because of its effect on regional and global climate during Cenozoic time, its influence on monsoon intensity, and its reflection of the dynamics of continental plateaus. Models of plateau growth vary in time, from pre-India-Asia collision (e.g., ≈100 Ma ago) to gradual uplift after the India-Asia collision (e.g., ≈55 Ma ago) and to more recent abrupt uplift (<7 Ma ago), and vary in space, from northward stepwise growth of topography to simultaneous surface uplift across the plateau. Here, we improve that understanding by presenting geologic and geophysical data from north-central Tibet, including magnetostratigraphy, sedimentology, paleocurrent measurements, and 40Ar/39Ar and fission-track studies, to show that the central plateau was elevated by 40 Ma ago. Regions south and north of the central plateau gained elevation significantly later. During Eocene time, the northern boundary of the protoplateau was in the region of the Tanggula Shan. Elevation gain started in pre-Eocene time in the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes and expanded throughout the Neogene toward its present southern and northern margins in the Himalaya and Qilian Shan. PMID:18362353

  9. Constraints on the early uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengshan; Zhao, Xixi; Liu, Zhifei; Lippert, Peter C; Graham, Stephan A; Coe, Robert S; Yi, Haisheng; Zhu, Lidong; Liu, Shun; Li, Yalin

    2008-04-01

    The surface uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya is among the most interesting topics in geosciences because of its effect on regional and global climate during Cenozoic time, its influence on monsoon intensity, and its reflection of the dynamics of continental plateaus. Models of plateau growth vary in time, from pre-India-Asia collision (e.g., approximately 100 Ma ago) to gradual uplift after the India-Asia collision (e.g., approximately 55 Ma ago) and to more recent abrupt uplift (<7 Ma ago), and vary in space, from northward stepwise growth of topography to simultaneous surface uplift across the plateau. Here, we improve that understanding by presenting geologic and geophysical data from north-central Tibet, including magnetostratigraphy, sedimentology, paleocurrent measurements, and (40)Ar/(39)Ar and fission-track studies, to show that the central plateau was elevated by 40 Ma ago. Regions south and north of the central plateau gained elevation significantly later. During Eocene time, the northern boundary of the protoplateau was in the region of the Tanggula Shan. Elevation gain started in pre-Eocene time in the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes and expanded throughout the Neogene toward its present southern and northern margins in the Himalaya and Qilian Shan.

  10. Outer Planet Mission Studies Neptune Aerocapture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Langhoff, Steven R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current and previous studies of orbiter missions to the outer planets have clearly identified high-energy aerocapture as a critical and enabling technology. Aerocapture involves the use of aerodynamic lift to fly a trajectory through a planet's atmosphere to sufficiently decelerate an entry vehicle to capture into planetary orbit. In the past, numerous studies of different configurations of lifting entry vehicles were studied for various planetary orbiter missions which identified aerocapture as a feasible concept yet complex and technically challenging. In order to determine the feasibility of high-speed aerocapture at the outer planets, an accurate trajectory simulation of the flight vehicle is the critical first step in the proposed research. Vehicle response to aerodynamic loading must be predicted accurately in the trajectory simulations. For several Neptune orbiter missions currently under study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), entry velocities relative to the rotating atmosphere ranging from 25 to 30 km/sec, are to be expected. Preliminary trajectory analysis has identified the various flow regimes the entry vehicle is expected to fly in the 8 1% H2 and 19% He atmosphere of Neptune. The size and mass of the vehicle are also determined by the launch vehicle constraints and orbiter spacecraft requirements. For a given baseline arrival conditions of an inertial entry velocity of 28 km/sec and an entry mass of 400 kg, a medium lift (L/D = 1), axisymmetric biconic shaped vehicle was selected in order to satisfy entry corridor width requirements expected for Neptune aerocapture. The analysis summarized in this study indicates that a biconic entry vehicle is a feasible concept for a Neptune aerocapture orbiter mission. The preliminary entry trajectory simulations has demonstrated adequate entry corridor control authority. Furthermore, estimates of the stagnation point heating environment has enabled the preliminary selection of candidate lightweight ceramic

  11. Composition and Layering in Earth's Outer Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badro, J.; Brodholt, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    We use results from ab initio simulations on the properties of Fe-Ni-S-C-O-Si liquids under core pressures and temperatures to put constraints on the composition of the low-velocity layer at the top of Earth's outer core. We find that increasing the concentration of any light-element in liquid iron always increases velocity. Our data rules out the possibility of making a low-velocity and low-density layer (required for dynamical stability) by changing the concentration of a single light element. However, replacing of one light element with another could produce such a layer. We find that replacing silicon with oxygen, sulfur, or carbon produces a layer with lower bulk sound velocity and lower density. Similarly, replacing carbon with sulfur or oxygen produces similar results. On the other hand, sulfur and oxygen cannot be replaced by anything that produces such a layer, thus precluding them from being the only light elements in the core. Swapping elements for one another requires chemical reactions, and the obvious one at the CMB is interaction with the mantle. Si and O can swap for one another depending on the FeO and SiO2 content of the mantle at the CMB, whereas reactions involving S and C are less obvious. Using thermodynamic models for O and Si partitioning in the metal, we find that core-mantle equilibrium with a pyrolitic mantle will always enrich the core in Si and O under the CMB, and hence won't make a low-velocity layer. On the other hand, equilibrium with a SiO2-depleted and FeO-enriched mantle. An iron (or ferropriclase) enriched lowermost mantle is compatible with the ULVZ and with the basal magma ocean hypothesis; the composition of the slow layer atop the outer core brings an independent support for the BMO hypothesis.

  12. Lateral interactions in the outer retina.

    PubMed

    Thoreson, Wallace B; Mangel, Stuart C

    2012-09-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (I(Ca)) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones.

  13. FBL Outer Can Welder Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Susan L.

    2004-01-16

    The Outer Can Welder Data Acquisition Software (OCWDAS) was originally developed by SRTC for use at Hanford to assist in the storage of their excess plutonium in the DOE standard 3013 containers until it can be properly dispositioned using one of the approved DOE methods. After Hanford OCWDAS software was the starting point for the new version developed for FB-Line. New graphical display formats and features were added to this software to make it more robust and operator friendly. Several hardware changes were also made at this time and the software was modified to accommodate these as well. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable information about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TIG welding process, such as the bagless transfer system in FB-Line, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, are reviewed to analyze the weld. The OCWDAS improves this technology by digitizing the weld data which allows for automation of the analysis process. The OCWDAS performs the necessary functions to perform the data acquisition functions during the 3013 Outer Can Welding Process. It is important to monitor the critical weld parameters, current and voltage, during a weld as they can be used to set acceptance criteria for weld acceptance. The software monitors and records the weld current, voltage, and RPM data. It also records the absolute position of the weld head during the weld process from a quadrature encoder. Digital handshaking between the AMI Welding unit and the OCWDAS ensure that both systems are operational and ready prior to the weld initiation taking place.

  14. Is the Outer Solar System Really Chaotic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Wayne B.

    2006-09-01

    The existence of chaos among the system of Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) is not yet firmly established. Although Laskar originally found no chaos in the outer Solar System, his "averaged" integrations did not account for the possibility of mean-motion resonances. Once full n-body integrations were performed, a dichotomy arose. On one hand, many investigators (Sussman, Wisdom, Murray, Holman, among many others) consistently measured a Lyapunov time of between 5 and 12 million years in the outer Solar System; the chaos can even be explained as the overlap of three-body resonances (Murray + Holman, Science 283, 1999). Furthermore, Murray + Holman's theory has been recently corroborated across a wide range of system parameters (Guzzo 2005), and the chaos does not disappear with decreasing timestep. On the other hand, some other investigators (Newman, Grazier, and Varadi, among several others) have compelling evidence against chaos. Namely, they have convincingly demonstrated that a sympletic integration using the famous Wisdom + Holman (1992) symplectic mapping with a 400-day timestep reproduces the chaos seen by others, but that the chaos disappears and the orbit converges to being regular as the timestep decreases. Their integration remains regular, showing beautiful convergence with decreasing timestep, down to a 2 day timestep. The resolution of this apparent paradox is simple. The orbital positions of the Jovian planets is known only to a few parts in 107, and it turns out that within that observational error ball, there exist both chaotic and regular solutions. I will demonstrate this fact using several initial conditions and several accurate integration algorithms. Thus, whether a particular investigator will see chaos or not depends (essentially randomly) upon the details of how that investigator draws their initial conditions. Thus, some investigators legitimately find chaos, while others legitimately find no chaos.

  15. Outer Planet Mission Studies Neptune Aerocapture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Langhoff, Steven R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current and previous studies of orbiter missions to the outer planets have clearly identified high-energy aerocapture as a critical and enabling technology. Aerocapture involves the use of aerodynamic lift to fly a trajectory through a planet's atmosphere to sufficiently decelerate an entry vehicle to capture into planetary orbit. In the past, numerous studies of different configurations of lifting entry vehicles were studied for various planetary orbiter missions which identified aerocapture as a feasible concept yet complex and technically challenging. In order to determine the feasibility of high-speed aerocapture at the outer planets, an accurate trajectory simulation of the flight vehicle is the critical first step in the proposed research. Vehicle response to aerodynamic loading must be predicted accurately in the trajectory simulations. For several Neptune orbiter missions currently under study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), entry velocities relative to the rotating atmosphere ranging from 25 to 30 km/sec, are to be expected. Preliminary trajectory analysis has identified the various flow regimes the entry vehicle is expected to fly in the 8 1% H2 and 19% He atmosphere of Neptune. The size and mass of the vehicle are also determined by the launch vehicle constraints and orbiter spacecraft requirements. For a given baseline arrival conditions of an inertial entry velocity of 28 km/sec and an entry mass of 400 kg, a medium lift (L/D = 1), axisymmetric biconic shaped vehicle was selected in order to satisfy entry corridor width requirements expected for Neptune aerocapture. The analysis summarized in this study indicates that a biconic entry vehicle is a feasible concept for a Neptune aerocapture orbiter mission. The preliminary entry trajectory simulations has demonstrated adequate entry corridor control authority. Furthermore, estimates of the stagnation point heating environment has enabled the preliminary selection of candidate lightweight ceramic

  16. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  17. The Outer Planetary Mission Design Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benfield, Michael; Turner, M. W.

    2010-10-01

    With the recent focus from the planetary science community on the outer planets of the solar system, The University of Alabama in Huntsville Integrated Product Team program is embarking on a new challenge to develop an outer planetary mission for the academic year 2010-2011. Currently four bodies are of interest for this mission: Titan, Europa, Triton, and Enceledus, with one body being chosen by the instructors by the beginning of the fall semester. This project will use the 2010 Discovery Announcement of Opportunity as its Request for Proposal (RFP). All of the teams competing in this project will use the AO to respond with a proposal to the instructors for their proposed mission and spacecraft concept. The project employs the two-semester design sequence of the IPT program to provide a framework for the development of this mission. This sequence is divided into four phases. Phase 1 - Requirements Development - focuses on the development of both the scientific and engineering requirements of the mission. During this phase the teams work very closely with the PI organization, represented by the College of Charleston. Phase 2 - Team Formation and Architecture Development - concentrates on the assessment of the overall mission architecture from the launch vehicle to the ground operations of the proposed spacecraft. Phase 3 - System Definition - provides for spacecraft subsystem trade studies and further refinement of the specific spacecraft to meet the scientific requirements and objectives developed in Phase 1. Phase 4 - Design - is the phase where the engineers provide the spacecraft design that is required for the mission of interest. At the conclusion of Phases 2 and 4, an external review board evaluates the proposed designs and chooses one winner of the competition.

  18. Lateral interactions in the outer retina

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

  19. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  20. Separate fusion of outer and inner mitochondrial membranes

    PubMed Central

    Malka, Florence; Guillery, Olwenn; Cifuentes-Diaz, Carmen; Guillou, Emmanuelle; Belenguer, Pascale; Lombès, Anne; Rojo, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondria are enveloped by two closely apposed boundary membranes with different properties and functions. It is known that they undergo fusion and fission, but it has remained unclear whether outer and inner membranes fuse simultaneously, coordinately or separately. We set up assays for the study of inner and outer membrane fusion in living human cells. Inner membrane fusion was more sensitive than outer membrane fusion to inhibition of glycolysis. Fusion of the inner membrane, but not of the outer membrane, was abolished by dissipation of the inner membrane potential with K+ (valinomycin) or H+ ionophores (cccp). In addition, outer and inner membrane fusion proceeded separately in the absence of any drug. The separate fusion of outer and inner membranes and the different requirements of these fusion reactions point to the existence of fusion machineries that can function separately. PMID:16113651

  1. More evidence of the plateau effect: a social perspective.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Prades, J L; Lopez-Nicolás, A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the existence of the plateau effect at the social level. The authors tried to confirm the preliminary conclusion that people may not be willing to trade off any longevity to improve the health state of a large number of people if the health states are mild enough. They tested this assumption using the person-tradeoff technique. They also used a parametric approach and a nonparametric approach to study the relationship between individual and social values. Results show the existence of the plateau effect in the context of resource allocation. Furthermore, with the nonparametric approach, a plateau effect in the middle part of the scale was also observed, suggesting that social preference may not be directly predicted from individual utilities. The authors caution against the possible framing effects that may be present in these kinds of questions.

  2. Geologic applications of ERTS images on the Colorado Plateau, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Billingsley, F. C.; Elston, D. P.; Lucchitta, I.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    Three areas in central and northern Arizona centered on the (1) Verde Valley, (2) Coconino Plateau, and (3) Shivwits Plateau were studied using ERTS photography. Useful applications results include: (1) upgrading of the existing state geologic map of the Verde Valley region; (2) detection of long NW trending lineaments in the basalt cap SE of Flagstaff which may be favorable locations for drilling for new water supplies; (3) tracing of the Bright Angel and Butte faults to twice their previously known length and correlating the extensions with modern seismic events, showing these faults to be present-day earthquake hazards; (4) discovering and successfully drilling perched sandstone aquifers in the Kaibab Limestone on the Coconino Plateau; and (5) determining the relationship between the Shivwits lavas and the formation of the lower Grand Canyon and showing that the lavas should be an excellent aquifer, as yet untapped.

  3. State of tectonic stress in Shillong Plateau of northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Santanu; Baruah, Saurabh; Saikia, Sowrav; Shrivastava, Mahesh N.; Sharma, Antara; Reddy, C. D.; Kayal, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    Tectonic stress regime in the Shillong plateau, northeast region of India, is examined by stress tensor inversion. Some 97 reliable fault plane solutions are used for stress inversion by the Michael and Gauss methods. Although an overall NNW-SSE compressional stress is observed in the area, the stress regime varies from western part to eastern part of the plateau. The eastern part of the plateau is dominated by NNE-SSW compression and the western part by NNW-SSE compression. The NNW-SSE compression in the western part may be due to the tectonic loading induced by the Himalayan orogeny in the north, and the NNE-SSW compression in the eastern part may be attributed to the influence of oblique convergence of the Indian plate beneath the Indo-Burma ranges. Further, Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) derived stress also indicates a variation from west to east.

  4. Spontaneous rupture of thinning liquid films with Plateau borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Anthony; Brush, Lucien; Davis, Stephen

    2009-11-01

    Spontaneous film rupture from van der Waals instability is investigated in 2D. A thin liquid film between adjacent bubbles in a foam has finite length, curved boundaries (Plateau borders), and a drainage flow from capillary suction that causes thinning. A full linear stability analysis of this thinning film shows that rupture occurs once the film has thinned to tens of nanometers. Whereas, in an unbounded, quiescent, flat free film, rupture occurs when the thickness is hundreds of nanometers. Finite length, Plateau borders and flow are all found to contribute to the stabilization. The drainage flow leads to several distinct qualitative features as well. In particular, unstable disturbances are advected by the flow to the edges of the thin film. As a result, the edges of the film close to the Plateau borders are more susceptible to rupture that the center of the film.

  5. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Recorded in Tibetan Plateau Snow Pits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen

    2015-01-01

    The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month. PMID:25658094

  6. Bedrock geology of the northern Columbia Plateau and adjacent areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, D. A.; Wright, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau is surrounded by a complex assemblage of highly deformed Precambrian to lower Tertiary continental and oceanic rocks that reflects numerous episodes of continental accretion. The plateau itself is comprised of the Columbia River basalt group formed between about 16.5 x 1 million years B.P. and 6 x 1 million years B.P. Eruptions were infrequent between about 14 and 6 x 1 million years B.P., allowing time for erosion and deformation between successive outpourings. The present-day courses of much of the Snake River, and parts of the Columbia River, across the plateau date from this time. Basalt produced during this waning activity is more heterogeneous chemically and isotopically than older flows, reflecting its prolonged period of volcanism.

  7. Corrugated outer sheath gas-insulated transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Kemeny, George A.; Cookson, Alan H.

    1981-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes two transmission line sections each of which are formed of a corrugated outer housing enclosing an inner high-voltage conductor disposed therein, with insulating support means supporting the inner conductor within the outer housing and an insulating gas providing electrical insulation therebetween. The outer housings in each section have smooth end sections at the longitudinal ends thereof which are joined together by joining means which provide for a sealing fixed joint.

  8. The impacts of the summer plateau monsoon over the Tibetan Plateau on the rainfall in the Tarim Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Huang, Anning; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Qing

    2016-10-01

    The impacts of the summer plateau monsoon (PM) over the Tibetan Plateau on summer rainfall over the Tarim Basin in northwest China are investigated, based on the observed rainfall data at 34 stations and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data during 1961 to 2007. Results showed that the PM is well correlated to the summer rainfall over the Tarim Basin. Process analysis shows that strong PM corresponds to an anomalous cyclone over the Tibetan Plateau in the middle troposphere and an anomalous anticyclone in the upper troposphere over northwest part of Tibetan Plateau. They result in cold air moving from high latitudes into Central Asia over the western part of Tibetan Plateau. The concurrences of the cooling in the middle-upper troposphere over Central Asia leads to an anomalous cyclone over Central Asia at 500 hPa and the anomalous descending motions prevailing over the cooling region. Associated with this anomaly, there are enhanced southerly winds and corresponding ascending motion over the Tarim Basin located in the east of the cooling region. These processes lead to more summer rainfall over the Tarim Basin.

  9. A Multistage Volcanic and Tectonic Evolution History on the High Plateau, Part of the Manihiki Plateau, Central Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, R.; Uenzelmann-Neben, G.

    2014-12-01

    For the Manihiki Plateau, a Large Igneous Province (LIP), a multistage volcanic emplacement history is revealed in new, multi channel high resolution seismic reflection data. Gathered during cruise So224 the profiles are distributed to study the initial emplacement of the High Plateau (HP), part of the Manihiki Plateau, as well as tectonic related processes at its margins. Extension of a previously defined seismostratigraphic model has allowed an identification of an intra-basalt reflector which has been formed by volcanism prior to the major emplacement during the early Cretaceous. We suggest that it represents the nucleus of the HP's formation and conclude that the Manihiki Plateau is older than the proposed ~120 Ma. We have identified evidence that the plateau extended to the east and broke-up along the Manihiki Scarp prior to the second volcanic active phase. The south-western margin shows a stretched and rifted structure, which could be related to the separation of the Manihiki and Hikurangi Plateaus. Identification of extrusion centers associated with a third volcanic active period ending ~65 Ma ago and their spatial distribution hint on a shift of the emplacement mechanism from sources related to initial emplacement to tectonic induced volcanism at the margins. Later stage tectonic and volcanic reactivations occurred, which were concentrated in the south-western part of the HP.

  10. Reduced convergence within the Tibetan Plateau by 26 Ma?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jun; Coe, Robert S.; Wang, Chengshan; Gilder, Stuart A.; Zhao, Xixi; Liu, Hao; Li, Yalin; Ma, Pengfei; Shi, Kai; Li, Shuai

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the dynamics of double-thickening and uplifting of the Tibetan crust requires constraints on the magnitude and timing of crustal shortening. New elongation/inclination (E/I)-corrected paleomagnetic data from 26-22 Ma sediments indicate that the latitude of southern Tibet in the early Miocene was 31.1/-6.8/+5.2°N, not significantly different from today. This implies that the southern margin of Asia, which was at 21-24°N latitude from the Late Cretaceous to the early Eocene, advanced 8-10° northward between the early Eocene and the latest Oligocene. Our results therefore suggest that at least 900-1100 km of continental shortening and significant regional uplift of the plateau occurred between the early Eocene and late Oligocene. Our results suggest that N-S intra-Asian convergence was considerably reduced around 26 Ma, corresponding to a transition from compression to extension within the Tibetan Plateau.Plain Language SummaryTwo critical questions involving the geodynamic evolution of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">plateau</span> are (i) when did a compression-dominated tectonic regime change to an extension-dominated tectonic regime on the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> and (ii) how does this timing correlate with double thickening of the crust? Here we provide paleomagnetic evidence for the timing, magnitude, and partitioning of intra-Asian convergence. Our results imply a first-order constraint of 900-1100 km north-south shortening concentrated within the interval from 53 to 26 Ma. This suggests that a fundamental change at 26 Ma occurred in the geodynamics of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> marked by a reduction in large-scale convergence and compressive deformation. The implication is that significant regional uplift of the proto-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> occurred within the 55-26 Ma interval. The paleolatitude, paleoclimate, and topography of south central Tibet seen at present were likely established around 26 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22072575','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22072575"><span>Transport in the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> regime in a tokamak pedestal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seol, J.; Shaing, K. C.</p> <p>2012-07-15</p> <p>In a tokamak H-mode, a strong E Multiplication-Sign B flow shear is generated during the L-H transition. Turbulence in a pedestal is suppressed significantly by this E Multiplication-Sign B flow shear. In this case, neoclassical transport may become important. The neoclassical fluxes are calculated in the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> regime with the parallel plasma flow using their kinetic definitions. In an axisymmetric tokamak, the neoclassical particles fluxes can be decomposed into the banana-<span class="hlt">plateau</span> flux and the Pfirsch-Schlueter flux. The banana-<span class="hlt">plateau</span> particle flux is driven by the parallel viscous force and the Pfirsch-Schlueter flux by the poloidal variation of the friction force. The combined quantity of the radial electric field and the parallel flow is determined by the flux surface averaged parallel momentum balance equation rather than requiring the ambipolarity of the total particle fluxes. In this process, the Pfirsch-Schlueter flux does not appear in the flux surface averaged parallel momentum equation. Only the banana-<span class="hlt">plateau</span> flux is used to determine the parallel flow in the form of the flux surface averaged parallel viscosity. The heat flux, obtained using the solution of the parallel momentum balance equation, decreases exponentially in the presence of sonic M{sub p} without any enhancement over that in the standard neoclassical theory. Here, M{sub p} is a combination of the poloidal E Multiplication-Sign B flow and the parallel mass flow. The neoclassical bootstrap current in the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> regime is presented. It indicates that the neoclassical bootstrap current also is related only to the banana-<span class="hlt">plateau</span> fluxes. Finally, transport fluxes are calculated when M{sub p} is large enough to make the parallel electron viscosity comparable with the parallel ion viscosity. It is found that the bootstrap current has a finite value regardless of the magnitude of M{sub p}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S21F..11B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S21F..11B"><span>The Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> and its Role in the Laramide Orogeny</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bump, A. P.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> is a relatively undeformed region bordered on the south and west by the highly extended Basin and Range province and on the north and east by the towering Laramide uplifts of the Rocky Mountains. Tectonically, the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> is a part of the Laramide orogen and contains basement-cored uplifts similar in style to those of the Rocky Mountains but with lower structural and topographic relief. Together, these observations have led some workers to hypothesize that the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> is anomalously strong and behaved as a rigid microplate during the Laramide orogeny. Evidence for a fundamental difference between the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> and the Rocky Mountains is largely circumstantial however, and is not supported by structural, topographic, geophysical or crustal assemblage data. The gradation in deformational intensity is better explained as the product of northeastward-increasing tectonic force, which is a predictable result of coupling between the North American crust and the flat, northeastward-subducting Farallon slab. Assuming that coupling-related stress and crustal strength are approximately constant, net force (and hence deformational intensity) grow with distance over which the coupling is active resulting in low tectonic force/minor deformation in the hinterland and high force/intense deformation in the foreland just before the subducting slab loses contact with the overriding plate. Minimal deformation of the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> is thus a logical result of its location in the hinterland of the Laramide orogen. Interpreted northeastward translation and clockwise rotation of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> are consistent with a normal along-strike "bow and arrow" orogenic shortening profile and require no special explanation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513236H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513236H"><span>Climate sensitivity of Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> glaciers - past and future implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heyman, Jakob; Hubbard, Alun; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Harbor, Jonathan M.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> is one of the most extensively glaciated, non-Polar regions of the world, and its mountain glaciers are the primary source of melt water for several of the largest Asian rivers. During glacial cycles, Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> glaciers advanced and retreated multiple times, but remained restricted to the highest mountain areas as valley glaciers and ice caps. Because glacier extent is dominantly controlled by climate, the past extent of Tibetan glaciers provide information on regional climate. Here we present a study analyzing the past maximum extents of glaciers on the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> with the output of a 3D glacier model, in an effort to quantify Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> climate. We have mapped present-day glaciers and glacial landforms deposited by formerly more extensive glaciers in eight mountain regions across the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, allowing us to define present-day and past maximum glacier outlines. Using a high-resolution (250 m) higher-order glacier model calibrated against present-day glacier extents, we have quantified the climate perturbations required to expand present-day glaciers to their past maximum extents. We find that a modest cooling of at most 6°C for a few thousand years is enough to attain past maximum extents, even with 25-75% precipitation reduction. This evidence for limited cooling indicates that the temperature of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> remained relatively stable over Quaternary glacial cycles. Given the significant sensitivity to temperature change, the expectation is perhaps that a future warmer climate might result in intense glacier reduction. We have tested this hypothesis and modeled the future glacier development for the three mountain regions with the largest present-day glacier cover using a projected warming of 2.8 to 6.2°C within 100 years (envelope limits from IPCC). These scenarios result in dramatic glacier reductions, including 24-100% ice volume loss after 100 years and 77-100% ice volume loss after 300 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6395226','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6395226"><span>Sedimentary basin framework of Exmouth <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, northwest Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyd, R.; Exon, N.; Williamson, P.</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>The Exmouth <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> is a marginal <span class="hlt">plateau</span> lying off northwest Australia. Water depths range between 800 m and 4000 m, and the area shallower than 2000 m covers approximately 150,000 km/sup 2/. The <span class="hlt">plateau</span> consists of rifted and deeply subsided continental crust, with a Phanerozoic sedimentary sequence around 10 km thick, deposited in the Canning and Carnarvon basins. The <span class="hlt">plateau</span> is separated from the Northwest Shelf by the Kangaroo syncline and is bounded to the north, west, and south by oceanic crust of Cretaceous and Jurassic age. The present structural configuration of Exmouth <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> was initiated by rifting in the Triassic to Middle Jurassic, followed by northwest-oriented sea floor spreading. The western margin has a normal rifted structure, while the southern margin structure was dominated by transform motion. The complex rifted and sheared northern margin contains at least one crustal block of post-breakup igneous origin. Below a rift onset unconformity of Neocomian age lies a thick Triassic paralic sequence to the south, while farther north the unconformity is of Callovian age and overlies a Jurassic sequence of Tethyan carbonates, coal measures, and volcanics. The post-breakup sequence consists of Late Jurassic-Cenomanian deltaic and shelf clastics, overlain by thin Late Cretaceous-Tertiary shallow marine to pelagic carbonates. Exmouth <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> therefore represents classic rift to mature ocean stage development of a sediment-starved passive margin. The large fault blocks in the rifted Triassic-Jurassic sequences and large areal closures in the Cretaceous deltas encouraged petroleum exploration over the last two decades. The rifted section was shown to be gas prone, while the overlying section proved to be largely immature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..185a2028U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..185a2028U"><span><span class="hlt">Outer</span> contour extraction of skull from CT scan images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulinuha, M. A.; Yuniarno, E. M.; Nugroho, S. M. S.; Hariadi, M.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Extraction of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> contour of the skull is an important step in craniofacial reconstruction. The <span class="hlt">outer</span> contour is required for surface reconstruction of the skull. In this paper, we propose a method to extract the <span class="hlt">outer</span> contour of the skull. The extraction process consists of four stages: defining the region of interest, segmentation of the bone, noise removal and extraction of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> contour based on scanning from the four sides of the image. The proposed method successfully extracts the outermost contour of the skull and avoids redundant data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.820a2024S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.820a2024S"><span>Skull <span class="hlt">outer</span> contour extraction image using compass scanning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Susanto, Pauladie; Mulyanto Yuniarno, Eko; Hery Purnomo, Mauridhi</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Skull <span class="hlt">outer</span> contour extraction is an important step for craniofacial reconstruction. It useful for performing surface reconstruction. Skull <span class="hlt">outer</span> contour obtained by three stages: thresholding, defining region of interest, and skull <span class="hlt">outer</span> contour extraction. Compass scanning is used to this extraction. Scanning is performed using eight compass directions, four scanning are done from the four edges of ROI area, and the other four from corner of ROI area. This proposed method successfully extracts skull <span class="hlt">outer</span> contour for four sample slices: upper temple, eye, nose, and mouth. Scanning from four corners of ROI area gives better result than four edges of ROI area, but using all eight scannings will give the best extraction performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182295','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182295"><span>Neoclassical kinetic theory near an X-point: <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Solano, E.R.; Hazeltine, R.D.</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>Traditionally, neoclassical transport calculations ignore poloidal variation of the poloidal magnetic field. Near an X-point of the confining field of a diverted plasma, the poloidal field is small, causing guiding centers to linger at that poloidal position. We study how neoclassical transport is affected by this differential shaping. The problem is solved in general in the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> regime, and a model poloidal flux function with an X-point is utilized as an analytic example to show that the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> diffusion coefficient can change considerably (factor of 2 reduction). Ion poloidal rotation is proportional to the local value of 8 poi, but otherwise it is not strongly affected by shaping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110002762','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110002762"><span>Geologic Mapping of the Aristarchus <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Region on the Moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lough, T. A.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Yingst, Aileen R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Aristarchus <span class="hlt">plateau</span> (25 N, 40 W) is a volcanologically diverse region containing sinuous rilles, volcanic depressions, mare material of various ages - including a candidate for the youngest mare unit on the lunar surface - pyroclastic deposits, and material of possible highland origin [1-5]. Here, we present preliminary mapping of a 13deg x 10deg area around Aristarchus <span class="hlt">plateau</span> [6]. Interpretations of the region s volcanic evolution have implications for the global history of lunar volcanism, the crustal and mantle development of the Moon, and may ultimately help support successful lunar exploration [7].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840684','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840684"><span>COMPREHENSIVE CLOSURE PLAN FOR THE HANFORD CENTRAL <span class="hlt">PLATEAU</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>LACKEY, M.B.</p> <p>2005-05-31</p> <p>This paper describes a comprehensive and strategic plan that has been recently developed for the environmental closure of the Central <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> area of the Hanford Site, a former weapons-production complex managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This approach was submitted to the DOE Richland Operations Office by Fluor Hanford to provide a framework and roadmap to integrate ongoing operations with closure of facilities that are no longer actively used--all with a view to closing the Central <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> by 2035. The plan is currently under consideration by the DOE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/625838','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/625838"><span>Ion <span class="hlt">plateau</span> transport near the tokamak magnetic axis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shaing, K.C.; Hazeltine, R.D.</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>Conventional neoclassical transport theory does not pertain near the magnetic axis, where orbital variation of the minor radius and the poloidal field markedly change the nature of guiding-center trajectories. Instead of the conventional tokamak banana-shaped trajectories, near-axis orbits, called potato orbits, are radially wider and lead to distinctive kinetic considerations. Here it is shown that there is a <span class="hlt">plateau</span> regime for the near-axis case; the corresponding potato-<span class="hlt">plateau</span> ion thermal conductivity is computed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367951"><span>Acinetobacter baumannii <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane protein A modulates the biogenesis of <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane vesicles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moon, Dong Chan; Choi, Chul Hee; Lee, Jung Hwa; Choi, Chi-Won; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Park, Jeong Soon; Kim, Seung Il; Lee, Je Chul</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Acinetobacter baumannii secretes <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane vesicles (OMVs) during both in vitro and in vivo growth, but the biogenesis mechanism by which A. baumannii produces OMVs remains undefined. <span class="hlt">Outer</span> membrane protein A of A. baumannii (AbOmpA) is a major protein in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane and the C-terminus of AbOmpA interacts with diaminopimelate of peptidoglycan. This study investigated the role of AbOmpA in the biogenesis of A. baumannii OMVs. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to analyze OMV biogenesis in A. baumannii ATCC 19606T and an isogenic ΔAbOmpA mutant. OMV production was significantly increased in the ΔAbOmpA mutant compared to wild-type bacteria as demonstrated by quantitation of proteins and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) packaged in OMVs. LPS profiles prepared from OMVs from wild-type bacteria and the ΔAbOmpA mutant had identical patterns, but proteomic analysis showed different protein constituents in OMVs from wild-type bacteria compared to the ΔAbOmpA mutant. In conclusion, AbOmpA influences OMV biogenesis by controlling OMV production and protein composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12183380','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12183380"><span>SUPERMAN attenuates positive INNER NO <span class="hlt">OUTER</span> autoregulation to maintain polar development of Arabidopsis ovule <span class="hlt">outer</span> integuments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meister, Robert J; Kotow, Louren M; Gasser, Charles S</p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">outer</span> integument of Arabidopsis ovules exhibits marked polarity in its development, growing extensively from the abaxial side, but only to a very limited extent from the adaxial side of the ovule. Mutations in two genes affect this asymmetric growth. In strong inner no <span class="hlt">outer</span> (ino) mutants <span class="hlt">outer</span> integument growth is eliminated, whereas in superman (sup) mutants integument growth on the adaxial side is nearly equal to wild-type growth on the abaxial side. Through complementation and reporter gene analysis, a region of INO 5'-flanking sequences was identified that contains sufficient information for appropriate expression of INO. Using this INO promoter (P-INO) we show that INO acts as a positive regulator of transcription from P-INO, but is not sufficient for de novo initiation of transcription in other plant parts. Protein fusions demonstrate nuclear localization of INO, consistent with a proposed role as a transcription factor for this member of the YABBY protein family. Through its ability to inhibit expression of the endogenous INO gene and transgenes driven by P-INO, SUP is shown to be a negative regulator of INO transcription. Substitution of another YABBY protein coding region (CRABS CLAW) for INO overcomes this negative regulation, indicating that SUP suppresses INO transcription through attenuation of the INO positive autoregulatory loop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100028857&hterms=titania&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtitania','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100028857&hterms=titania&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtitania"><span>Tectonics of the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Planet Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>McKinnon, W. B.; Collins, G. C.; Moore, J. M.; Nimmo, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Prockter, L. M.; Schenk, P. M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Tectonic features on the satellites of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> planets range from the familiar, such as clearly recognizable graben on many satellites, to the bizarre, such as the ubiquitous double ridges on Europa, the twisting sets of ridges on Triton, or the isolated giant mountains rising from Io's surface. All of the large and middle-sized <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet satellites except Io are dominated by water ice near their surfaces. Though ice is a brittle material at the cold temperatures found in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system, the amount of energy it takes to bring it close to its melting point is lower than for a rocky body. Therefore, some unique features of icy satellite tectonics may be influenced by a near-surface ductile layer beneath the brittle surface material, and several of the icy satellites may possess subsurface oceans. Sources of stress to drive tectonism are commonly dominated by the tides that deform these satellites as they orbit their primary giant planets. On several satellites, the observed tectonic features may be the result of changes in their tidal figures, or motions of their solid surfaces with respect to their tidal figures. Other driving mechanisms for tectonics include volume changes due to ice or water phase changes in the interior, thermoelastic stress, deformation of the surface above rising diapirs of warm ice, and motion of subsurface material toward large impact basins as they fill in and relax. Most satellites exhibit evidence for extensional deformation, and some exhibit strike-slip faulting, whereas contractional tectonism appears to be rare. Io s surface is unique, exhibiting huge isolated mountains that may be blocks of crust tilting and foundering into the rapidly emptying interior as the surface is constantly buried by deposits from hyperactive volcanoes. Of the satellites, diminutive Enceladus is spectacularly active; its south polar terrain is a site of young tectonism, copious heat flow, and tall plumes venting into space. Europa's surface is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100028857&hterms=tectonic&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtectonic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100028857&hterms=tectonic&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtectonic"><span>Tectonics of the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Planet Satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>McKinnon, W. B.; Collins, G. C.; Moore, J. M.; Nimmo, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Prockter, L. M.; Schenk, P. M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Tectonic features on the satellites of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> planets range from the familiar, such as clearly recognizable graben on many satellites, to the bizarre, such as the ubiquitous double ridges on Europa, the twisting sets of ridges on Triton, or the isolated giant mountains rising from Io's surface. All of the large and middle-sized <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet satellites except Io are dominated by water ice near their surfaces. Though ice is a brittle material at the cold temperatures found in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system, the amount of energy it takes to bring it close to its melting point is lower than for a rocky body. Therefore, some unique features of icy satellite tectonics may be influenced by a near-surface ductile layer beneath the brittle surface material, and several of the icy satellites may possess subsurface oceans. Sources of stress to drive tectonism are commonly dominated by the tides that deform these satellites as they orbit their primary giant planets. On several satellites, the observed tectonic features may be the result of changes in their tidal figures, or motions of their solid surfaces with respect to their tidal figures. Other driving mechanisms for tectonics include volume changes due to ice or water phase changes in the interior, thermoelastic stress, deformation of the surface above rising diapirs of warm ice, and motion of subsurface material toward large impact basins as they fill in and relax. Most satellites exhibit evidence for extensional deformation, and some exhibit strike-slip faulting, whereas contractional tectonism appears to be rare. Io s surface is unique, exhibiting huge isolated mountains that may be blocks of crust tilting and foundering into the rapidly emptying interior as the surface is constantly buried by deposits from hyperactive volcanoes. Of the satellites, diminutive Enceladus is spectacularly active; its south polar terrain is a site of young tectonism, copious heat flow, and tall plumes venting into space. Europa's surface is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040068124&hterms=wonder&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwonder','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040068124&hterms=wonder&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwonder"><span>The Magnetic Field in the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Heliosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Suess, S. T.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>One of the great achievements of Parker was the prediction that the solar magnetic field would be drawn into Archimedian spirals as it is carried away from the Sun by the solar wind. This prediction has been amply confirmed by many in situ measurements in the intervening four decades. But, Parker made his prediction for a solar wind that expands into infinite space while we now know that the local interstellar medium (LISM) is far from empty and, in fact, confines the solar wind to a finite volume, known as the heliosphere, that extends to approximately 100 AU in the upstream direction (the solar system is moving through the LISM). Voyagers 1/2, presently at -80 AU, are approaching the upstream boundaries of the heliosphere and returning data on the properties of the magnetic field. This is important for understanding how galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) reach the Earth. Voyagers show that the IMF at 10-80 AU behaves much as Parker predicted - with two important exceptions. This is not surprising since the field is essentially passively advected by the solar wind out to 80 AU. But, new models say that nearer the heliosphere boundaries the field plays a major role in the solar wind-LISM interaction. However, of the many physical ingredients that constitute the <span class="hlt">outer</span> heliosphere, the magnetic field poses some of the most interesting and difficult numerical modeling problems. Presently, only a few results have been published and much remains to be done. Here I will summarize the expected and measured behavior of the magnetic field at 80 AU. Then I will describe modeling predictions beyond 80 AU: magnetic "tornadoes", polarity envelopes, the Axford-Cranfill effect, inner and <span class="hlt">outer</span> magnetic walls and more. I will also list what I believe to be important new modeling objectives. Finally, I will speculate on what is happening with the magnetic field near the nose of the heliosphere. My conclusion is that models of GCR modulation rarely incorporate even crudely realistic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040068124&hterms=magnetic+walls&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bwalls','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040068124&hterms=magnetic+walls&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bwalls"><span>The Magnetic Field in the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Heliosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Suess, S. T.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>One of the great achievements of Parker was the prediction that the solar magnetic field would be drawn into Archimedian spirals as it is carried away from the Sun by the solar wind. This prediction has been amply confirmed by many in situ measurements in the intervening four decades. But, Parker made his prediction for a solar wind that expands into infinite space while we now know that the local interstellar medium (LISM) is far from empty and, in fact, confines the solar wind to a finite volume, known as the heliosphere, that extends to approximately 100 AU in the upstream direction (the solar system is moving through the LISM). Voyagers 1/2, presently at -80 AU, are approaching the upstream boundaries of the heliosphere and returning data on the properties of the magnetic field. This is important for understanding how galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) reach the Earth. Voyagers show that the IMF at 10-80 AU behaves much as Parker predicted - with two important exceptions. This is not surprising since the field is essentially passively advected by the solar wind out to 80 AU. But, new models say that nearer the heliosphere boundaries the field plays a major role in the solar wind-LISM interaction. However, of the many physical ingredients that constitute the <span class="hlt">outer</span> heliosphere, the magnetic field poses some of the most interesting and difficult numerical modeling problems. Presently, only a few results have been published and much remains to be done. Here I will summarize the expected and measured behavior of the magnetic field at 80 AU. Then I will describe modeling predictions beyond 80 AU: magnetic "tornadoes", polarity envelopes, the Axford-Cranfill effect, inner and <span class="hlt">outer</span> magnetic walls and more. I will also list what I believe to be important new modeling objectives. Finally, I will speculate on what is happening with the magnetic field near the nose of the heliosphere. My conclusion is that models of GCR modulation rarely incorporate even crudely realistic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ApJ...523..654R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ApJ...523..654R"><span>The Spite Lithium <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>: Ultrathin but Postprimordial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryan, Sean G.; Norris, John E.; Beers, Timothy C.</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>We have studied 23 very metal-poor field turnoff stars, specifically chosen to enable a precise measurement of the dispersion in the lithium abundance of the Spite Li <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. We concentrated on stars having a narrow range of effective temperature and very low metallicities ([Fe/H]<~-2.5) to reduce the effects of systematic errors and have made particular efforts to minimize random errors. A typical statistical error for our abundances is 0.033 dex (1 σ), which represents a factor of 2 improvement on most previous studies. Our sample does not exhibit a trend with effective temperature, although the temperature range is limited. However, for -3.6<[Fe/H]<-2.3 we do recover a dependence on metallicity at dA(Li)/d[Fe/H]=0.118+/-0.023 (1 σ) dex per dex, almost the same level as discussed previously. Earlier claims for a lack of dependence of A(Li) on abundance are shown to have arisen probably from noisier estimates of effective temperatures and metallicities, which have erased the real trend. The dependence is concordant with theoretical predictions of Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) of Li (even in such metal-poor stars) and with the published level of 6Li in two of the stars of our sample, which we use to infer the GCE 7Li contribution. One of the 23 stars, G186-26, was known already to be strongly Li-depleted. Of the remaining 22 objects, 21 have abundances consistent with an observed spread about the metallicity trend of a mere 0.031 dex (1 σ). Because the formal errors are 0.033 dex, we conclude that the intrinsic spread is effectively zero at the very metal-poor halo turnoff. This is established at much higher precision than previous studies (~0.06-0.08 dex). The essentially zero intrinsic spread leads to the conclusion that either these stars have all changed their surface Li abundances very uniformly, or else they exhibit close to the primordial abundance sought for its cosmological significance. We cannot rule out a uniform depletion mechanism, but economy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9594275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9594275"><span>Transmission factors of schistosomiasis japonica in the mountainous regions with type of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> canyon and <span class="hlt">plateau</span> basin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, J; Gu, X; Qiu, Z; Hua, Z</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>To provide the scientific basis for formulating the control strategies of schistosomiasis japonica in mountainous regions in China Schistosomiasis Control Programme. We selected Chuanxing Village in Sichuan Province and Zhonghe Village in Yunnan Province as the two pilot areas for an epidemiological investigation according to their geographical and topographical characteristics, i.e. <span class="hlt">plateau</span> canyon and <span class="hlt">plateau</span> basin, respectively. Concentrated-egg hatching method in nylon tissue bag and Kato-Katz technique were used for the survey on prevalence rate and intensity of infection of man and domestic animals. Questionnaires were applied to investigating the infection sources, community behavior and the socioeconomic status. Snail survey and detection of cercaria-infested water bodies were conducted using routine techniques. The results showed that in the endemic areas with <span class="hlt">plateau</span> canyon, the key infection source was cattle. The infection rate in women was higher than that in men. The pattern of water-pollution was wild feces and the pollution source was cattle feces. Snails and infectious snails were distributed over the rice fields and the resident was infected through production activities. In <span class="hlt">plateau</span> basin, the key infection source was human beings. The infection rate in men was higher than that in women. The pattern of water pollution was fertilization. The pollution source was human feces. Snails and infectious snails were distributed over the canals and ditches and the resident was infected through production and daily activities. Therefore, it was suggested that the mountainous endemic areas should be divided into two sub-types, i.e., <span class="hlt">plateau</span> basins and <span class="hlt">plateau</span> canyons. The different control strategies should be formulated in accordance with the environmental situations and socioeconomic factors in the two kinds of endemic areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ARep...60..542B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ARep...60..542B"><span>Detail studies of the physical properties in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> regions of galaxy clusters using Suzaku observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Babyk, Yu. V.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A detailed physical analysis of five nearby galaxy clusters using Suzaku observationsis presented. The low and stable level of the instrumental background at large radii facilitate the determination of the main physical characteristics in clusters at the virial radius. The temperatures, metal abundances, and entropy profiles have been constructed out to the outskirts of the clusters. The temperature profiles all display the same shape, with a negative gradient towards to the center and a flat <span class="hlt">outer</span> <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. The strong temperature gradients in the central parts of the clusters are usually associated with strong peaks of the surface brightness profiles. The temperature systematically decrease outward from the central regions, by a factor of three at and slightly beyond the cluster outskirts. The temperature profiles are compared with profiles predicted by N-body and hydrodynamical simulations obtained using several numerical algorithms. The slopes in the observed and simulated temperature profiles are consistent with each other in the cluster outskirts. The central regions of the clusters are characterized by low entropy and high metallicity. The possible influence of cool cores on the cluster outskirts is also discussed. The total mass profiles were determined using the observed gas-density and temperature profiles, assuming hydrostatic equilibriumand spherical symmetry. The gas-density profiles were fitted using an improved three-dimensional model to fit the inner and <span class="hlt">outer</span> regions of the cluster independently. The total mass profiles were described using an NFW model out to R 200. The measurements show clear evidence for universality of the total mass distribution. The scaled mass profiles in units of R 200 and M 200 display a dispersion of ~15% at 0.1 R 200. The fraction of gas out to R 200 was also found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..78..126L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..78..126L"><span>Benthic foraminiferal paleoecology and depositional patterns during the Albian at DSDP Site 327 (Falkland <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lopes, Fernando M.; Koutsoukos, Eduardo A. M.; Kochhann, Karlos G. D.; Savian, Jairo F.; Fauth, Gerson</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The present paleoenvironmental study uses a spectrum of analytical methods, such as benthic foraminiferal assemblages, total organic carbon (TOC), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) contents and magnetic susceptibility (MS), to monitor variations in primary productivity, bottom-water oxygenation and depositional patterns within the Albian interval recovered at DSDP Site 327, Hole A, Falkland <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. Thirty-three benthic foraminiferal species were identified in the studied section and, based on the abundances of morphogroups (epifaunal and shallow infaunal), two distinct associations were identified. Stratigraphic intervals dominated by the epifaunal morphogroup can be interpreted as indicative of bottom-waters with low-oxygen content. However, these decreases in oxygenation were not vigorous enough to establish a dominance of deep-infaunal morphotypes, as supported by the low TOC values. Intervals dominated by the shallow infaunal morphogroup were interpreted as subjected to moderate to high nutrient flux to the ocean floor. These intervals are associated with high MS values and low CaCO3 content, suggesting that dissolution processes, rather than increased primary productivity, controlled CaCO3 accumulation in the studied section. Furthermore, faunal analysis points to deposition in an <span class="hlt">outer</span> neritic to upper bathyal paleoenvironment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AAS...205.9602J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AAS...205.9602J"><span><span class="hlt">Outer</span> Space is not Empty Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, W.; Pratap, P.; Riegel, R.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Outer</span> Space Is Not Empty Space is a learning unit that focuses on increasing comprehension of Astronomy, Chemistry, Physics, Physical Science, and Earth & Space science. It was designed as a self paced study with some teacher oversight. The unit was a result of an NSF funded Research Experiences for Teachers program at MIT Haystack Observatory. The educational vehicle used in the unit is the Web Quest which consists of several Power Point presentations within four main topics in Radio Astronomy: Introduction, Light, Matter, and the Atmosphere. These Web Quests are a self paced series of educational materials that encourages the student to learn on his or her own. They consist of informational web sites placed within a Power Point presentation. They are not designed to be teacher classroom presentations since the paths taken by the student in the Power Points are nonlinear. Each Power Point presentations comes with an assessment to evaluate the students' understanding of the material. One of the goals of this learning unit is to encourage teacher and student use of two unique learning opportunities: the Small Radio Telescope (SRT) and remote use of the Haystack 37m Radio Telescope. The SRT was designed by engineers and scientists at M.I.T.s Haystack Observatory specifically for student use at the University or Secondary School level. The 37-m telescope is available via remote operation for educational projects. Descriptions of both instruments can be found at the MIT Haystack Observatory web site:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1212M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1212M"><span>Modelling turbulence in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> heliosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macek, Wieslaw</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Turbulence is complex behaviour that is ubiquitous both in laboratory and astrophysical magnetized plasmas. Notwithstanding the progress in simulation of turbulence in various continuous media, its mechanism is still not sufficiently clear. Therefore, following the basic idea of Kolmogorov, some phenomenological models of scaling behaviour have been proposed, including fractal and multifractal modelling, that can reveal the intermittent character of turbulence. Based on wealth of data provided by deep spacecraft missions including Voyager 1 and 2, these models show that the turbulence in the entire heliosphere is intermittent and multifractal. Moreover, the degree of multifractality decreases with the heliocentric distance and is modulated by the phases of the solar cycles, also beyond the heliospheric termination shock, i. e. in the heliosheath. However, in the very local interstellar medium beyond the heliopause turbulence becomes rather weak and less intermittent, as shown by recent measurements from Voyager 1. This suggests that the heliosphere is immersed in a relatively quiet environment. Hence these studies of turbulence, especially at the heliospheric boundaries, demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">outer</span> heliosphere provides an interesting possibility to look into turbulence in various media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768646','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768646"><span><span class="hlt">Outer</span> membrane vesicles as platform vaccine technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stork, Michiel; van der Ley, Peter</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract <span class="hlt">Outer</span> membrane vesicles (OMVs) are released spontaneously during growth by many Gram‐negative bacteria. They present a range of surface antigens in a native conformation and have natural properties like immunogenicity, self‐adjuvation and uptake by immune cells which make them attractive for application as vaccines against pathogenic bacteria. In particular with Neisseria meningitidis, they have been investigated extensively and an OMV‐containing meningococcal vaccine has recently been approved by regulatory agencies. Genetic engineering of the OMV‐producing bacteria can be used to improve and expand their usefulness as vaccines. Recent work on meningitis B vaccines shows that OMVs can be modified, such as for lipopolysaccharide reactogenicity, to yield an OMV product that is safe and effective. The overexpression of crucial antigens or simultaneous expression of multiple antigenic variants as well as the expression of heterologous antigens enable expansion of their range of applications. In addition, modifications may increase the yield of OMV production and can be combined with specific production processes to obtain high amounts of well‐defined, stable and uniform OMV particle vaccine products. Further improvement can facilitate the development of OMVs as platform vaccine product for multiple applications. PMID:26912077</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24715891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24715891"><span>Bacterial <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane vesicles and vaccine applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Acevedo, Reinaldo; Fernández, Sonsire; Zayas, Caridad; Acosta, Armando; Sarmiento, Maria Elena; Ferro, Valerie A; Rosenqvist, Einar; Campa, Concepcion; Cardoso, Daniel; Garcia, Luis; Perez, Jose Luis</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Vaccines based on <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane vesicles (OMV) were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D) and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB) using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA), serogroup W (dOMVW), and serogroup X (dOMVX) were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC), Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP), Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM), and BCG (dOMVBCG). The immunogenicity of the OMV has been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice has shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin, and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890007288','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890007288"><span>Infrared observations of <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, T. V.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>This task supports IR observations of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet satellites. These data provide vital information about the thermophysical properties of satellite surfaces, including internal heat sources for Io. Observations include both broad and narrow band measurementsin the 2 to 20 micrometer spectral range. The program in the last year has aimed at obtaining lonitude coverage on Io to establish stability of hot spot patterns previously reported. Several runs produced the most complete data set for an apparition since the start of the program. Unfortunately, bad weather limited coverage of key longitude ranges containing the largest known hot spot Loki. Among the preliminary results is the observation of an outburst in Io's thermal flux that was measured at 4.8, 8.7 and 20 micrometer. Analysis of the data has given the best evidence to date of silicate volcanism on Io; this is one of the most significant pieces of the puzzle as to the relative roles of silicate and sulfur volcanism on Io. Researchers are collaborating with J. Goguen (NRC RRA to finish reduction of mutual event data, which have already improved ephermeris information for the satellites. The data appear to place significant limits on the characteristics of any leading side hot spots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2112924','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2112924"><span>Substructure of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> dynein arm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The substructure of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> dynein arm has been analyzed in quick- frozen deep-etch replicas of Tetrahymena and Chlamydomonas axonemes. Each arm is found to be composed of five morphologically discrete components: an elliptical head; two spherical feet; a slender stalk; and an interdynein linker. The feet make contact with the A microtubule of each doublet; the stalk contacts the B microtubule; the head lies between the feet and stalk; and the linker associates each arm with its neighbor. The spatial relationships between these five components are found to be distinctly different in rigor (ATP-depleted) versus relaxed (ATP- or vanadate plus ATP-treated) axonemes, and the stalk appears to alter its affinity for the B microtubule in the relaxed state. Images of living cilia attached to Tetrahymena cells show that the relaxed configuration is adopted in vivo. We relate our observations to morphological and experimental studies reported by others and propose several models that suggest how this newly described dynein morphology may relate to dynein function. PMID:6218174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910062673&hterms=gas+flaring&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgas%2Bflaring','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910062673&hterms=gas+flaring&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgas%2Bflaring"><span>Neutral hydrogen in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> Galaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Diplas, Athanassios; Savage, Blair D.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The H I 21 cm emission-line survey data of Stark et al. (1991) have been used to study the distribution of H I in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> Galaxy and to improve understanding of the various systematic problems which influence all studies of Galactic H I. For n(H) greater than 0.01/cu cm, the distributions are similar to those found by Burton and te Lintel Hekkert (1986) but are 'better behaved' at substantially lower values of n(H). The z distribution of gas in the H I layer is best described as complicated. The behavior of the gaseous matter is consistent with the observed distribution of H I found in external spiral galaxies. In the directions of the maximum warp the average distance of the gas away from the Galactic plane reaches about 4 kpc at R about 24 kpc, while the flaring of the layer as measured by z(rms) increases to about 3 kpc. In directions where the warp layers particularly well measured, the Galaxy is followed to R about 30 kpc. The surface density of the atomic gas decreases exponentially.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22016194','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22016194"><span>THE <span class="hlt">OUTER</span> MAGNETIC FIELD OF L183</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clemens, Dan P.</p> <p>2012-03-20</p> <p>The L183 (= L134N) dark molecular cloud has been probed using deep near-infrared imaging polarimetry of stars to beyond 14 mag in H band (1.6 {mu}m), using the Mimir instrument on the 1.83 m Perkins Telescope. Nearly 400 arcmin{sup 2} were surveyed, including the dense core in L183, as seen in WISE Band 3 (12 {mu}m) extinction, and the near surroundings, revealing 35 stars with either detected polarizations or significant upper limits. Stars with detected polarizations are reddened if closer than 8 arcmin (0.25 pc at the 110 pc cloud distance) and unreddened beyond. The polarimetric sample probes as close to the core as 3 arcmin (0.1 pc), where A{sub V} {approx} 14 mag. Compared to the relatively unextincted surrounding stars, the reddened stars show no increase in polarization with extinction, suggesting that all of the polarization is induced in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> layers of the cloud. This 0.25 pc radius envelope magnetic field does show a strong interaction with the L183 dark cloud. The envelope field is also virtually perpendicular, on the plane of the sky, to the field seen at 850 {mu}m, though more closely aligned with the rotation axis of the dense gas core. The physical size scale at which the envelope and the core magnetic fields either decouple from each other or strongly modify their directions must be inside the 0.1 pc region probed here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26381655','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26381655"><span>Proteomics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Membrane Vesicles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kieselbach, Thomas; Zijnge, Vincent; Granström, Elisabeth; Oscarsson, Jan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral and systemic pathogen associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis and with endocarditis. <span class="hlt">Outer</span> membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by this species have been demonstrated to deliver effector proteins such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and leukotoxin (LtxA) into human host cells and to act as triggers of innate immunity upon carriage of NOD1- and NOD2-active pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). To improve our understanding of the pathogenicity-associated functions that A. actinomycetemcomitans exports via OMVs, we studied the proteome of density gradient-purified OMVs from a rough-colony type clinical isolate, strain 173 (serotype e) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This analysis yielded the identification of 151 proteins, which were found in at least three out of four independent experiments. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002509. Through this study, we not only confirmed the vesicle-associated release of LtxA, and the presence of proteins, which are known to act as immunoreactive antigens in the human host, but we also identified numerous additional putative virulence-related proteins in the A. actinomycetemcomitans OMV proteome. The known and putative functions of these proteins include immune evasion, drug targeting, and iron/nutrient acquisition. In summary, our findings are consistent with an OMV-associated proteome that exhibits several offensive and defensive functions, and they provide a comprehensive basis to further disclose roles of A. actinomycetemcomitans OMVs in periodontal and systemic disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ohnf.conf.....S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ohnf.conf.....S"><span>The <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Heliosphere: The Next Frontiers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherer, K.; Fichtner, Horst; Fahr, Hans Jörg; Marsch, Eckart</p> <p></p> <p>The 11th COSPAR Colloquium "The <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Heliosphere: The Next Frontiers" was held in Potsdam, Germany, from July 24 to 28, 2000, and is the second dedicated to this subject after the first one held in Warsaw, Poland in 1989. Roughly a century has passed after the first ideas by Oliver Lodge, George Francis Fitzgerald and Kristan Birkeland about particle clouds emanating from the Sun and interacting with the Earth environment. Only a few decades after the formulation of the concepts of a continuous solar corpuscular radiation by Ludwig Bierman and a solar wind by Eugene Parker, heliospheric physics has evolved into an important branch of astrophysical research. Numerous spacecraft missions have increased the knowledge about the heliosphere tremendously. Now, at the beginning of a new millenium it seems possible, by newly developed propulasion technologies to send a spacecraft beyond the boundaries of the heliosphere. Such an Interstellar Proce will start the in-situ exploration of interstellar space and, thus, can be considered as the first true astrophysical spacecraft. The year 2000 appeared to be a highly welcome occassion to review the achievements since the last COSPAR Colloquia 11 years ago, to summarize the present developments and to give new impulse for future activities in heliospheric research.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900029004&hterms=outer+planets&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Douter%2Bplanets','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900029004&hterms=outer+planets&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Douter%2Bplanets"><span>Thermal plasma in <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet magnetospheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Belcher, J. W.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Richardson, J. D.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The plasma environments of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> planets are a study in contrasts. The magnetosphere of Jupiter is dominated by the prodigious plasma output of Io, with losses due to diffusion driven by mass loading. At Saturn, the small icy satellites are the major sources of plasma for the inner magnetosphere. The low mass loading rates there imply that the densities of the plasma tori are limited by dissociative recombination, rather than diffusive transport. At Uranus, the icy satellites are negligible plasma sources compared to the input from the extended neutral hydrogen cloud and the ionosphere. Convection driven by the solar wind penetrates deep into the inner magnetosphere because of the unique orientation of the rotation axis of Uranus. The expected magnetosphere of Neptune is similar to that of Saturn and Jupiter, with Triton, the ring arcs, and the planet as possible plasma sources. The Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune holds out the hope of a passage through a nonterrestrial auroral region, a unique event in planetary exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3970029','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3970029"><span>Bacterial <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Membrane Vesicles and Vaccine Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Acevedo, Reinaldo; Fernández, Sonsire; Zayas, Caridad; Acosta, Armando; Sarmiento, Maria Elena; Ferro, Valerie A.; Rosenqvist, Einar; Campa, Concepcion; Cardoso, Daniel; Garcia, Luis; Perez, Jose Luis</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Vaccines based on <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane vesicles (OMV) were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D) and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB) using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA), serogroup W (dOMVW), and serogroup X (dOMVX) were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC), Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP), Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM), and BCG (dOMVBCG). The immunogenicity of the OMV has been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice has shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin, and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates. PMID:24715891</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20571807','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20571807"><span>[Infrared imaging of <span class="hlt">outer</span> lamellar macular holes].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schaal, K B; Jakob, E; Dithmar, S</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Outer</span> lamellar macular holes (OLMH) are very rare compared to inner lamellar macular holes. An OLMH can occur associated with optic pit maculopathy, in the progression of myopic macular retinoschisis, transient in the development of full thickness macular holes or idiopathic. This article reports on infrared imaging of OLMHs. Infrared (IR) images in 2 patients aged 22 and 34 years with OLMH were taken using IR reflection at a wavelength of 820 nm with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2, Heidelberg Engineering). IR images were correlated with linear optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans (Stratus-OCT, Zeiss). Images were acquired during follow-up of up to 30 months and if applicable preoperatively and postoperatively. Clear infrared signals were recorded especially in OLMH associated with optic pit maculopathy. Correlation with linear OCT scans showed the enhanced infrared signals to be restricted to the extent of the OLMH. The borders of the OLMH could be clearly delineated. Infrared imaging enables a top view of OLMH and therefore allows an excellent documentation of the course of OLMH. Infrared reflection is useful for two-dimensional imaging of OLMH. Infrared imaging can provide a supplement to slice imaging for OCT diagnostics and allows monitoring of OLMH over time. The postoperative sequence of OLMH closure in patients with optic pit maculopathy can be studied in more detail using infrared imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17549875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17549875"><span>Inner and <span class="hlt">outer</span> horizons of time experience.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wackermann, Jirí</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Human experience of temporal durations exhibits a multi-regional structure, with more or less distinct boundaries, or horizons, on the scale of physical duration. The inner horizons are imposed by perceptual thresholds for simultaneity (approximately equal to 3 ms) and temporal order (approximatly equal to 30 ms), and are determined by the dynamical properties of the neural substrate integrating sensory information. Related to the inner horizon of experienced time are perceptual or cognitive "moments." Comparative data on autokinetic times suggest that these moments may be relatively invariant (approximately equal to 10(2) ms) across a wide range of species. Extension of the "sensible present" (approximately equal to 3 s) defines an intermediate horizon, beyond which the generic experience of duration develops. The domain of immediate duration experience is delimited by the ultimate <span class="hlt">outer</span> horizon at about = 10(2) s, as evidenced by analysis of duration reproduction experiments (reproducibility horizon), probably determined by relaxation times of "neural accumulators." Beyond these phenomenal horizons, time is merely cognitively (re)constructed, not actually experienced or "perceived," a fact that is frequently ignored by contemporary time perception research. The nyocentric organization of time experience shows an interesting analogy with the egocentric organization of space, suggesting that structures of subjective space and time are derived from active motion as a common experiential basis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title38-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title38-vol2-sec38-629.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title38-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title38-vol2-sec38-629.pdf"><span>38 CFR 38.629 - <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Burial Receptacle Allowance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Burial Receptacle... VA national cemetery where a privately-purchased <span class="hlt">outer</span> burial receptacle has been used in lieu of a... permitted in the same grave unless the national cemetery director determines that the already...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=face+AND+recognition&pg=5&id=EJ732845','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=face+AND+recognition&pg=5&id=EJ732845"><span>Newborns' Face Recognition: Role of Inner and <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Facial Features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Turati, Chiara; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Existing data indicate that newborns are able to recognize individual faces, but little is known about what perceptual cues drive this ability. The current study showed that either the inner or <span class="hlt">outer</span> features of the face can act as sufficient cues for newborns' face recognition (Experiment 1), but the <span class="hlt">outer</span> part of the face enjoys an advantage…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://sbsc.wr.usgs.gov/cprs/news_info/meetings/biennial/proceedings/1993/1993.asp','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://sbsc.wr.usgs.gov/cprs/news_info/meetings/biennial/proceedings/1993/1993.asp"><span>Proceedings of the second biennial conference on research in Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> National Parks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>van Riper, Charles</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>On 25-28 October 1993 in Flagstaff, Arizona, the National Biological Service Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Research Station (formerly National Park Service Cooperative Park Studies Unit) and Northern Arizona University hosted the Second Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. The conference theme focused on research, inventory, and monitoring on the federal, state, and private lands in the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> biogeographic province.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol17-sec81-162.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol17-sec81-162.pdf"><span>40 CFR 81.162 - Northeast <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.162 Northeast <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Intrastate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC21B1077Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC21B1077Q"><span>Sensitivity of LUCC on the Surface Temperature of Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qi, W.; Deng, X.; Wu, F.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> has an important effect on the ecological security in China, even in Asia, which makes the region become the hot spot in recently research. Under the joint influence of global change and human activities, ecosystem destabilizing and the increasing pressure on resources and environment emerge on the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, but the potential spatial sensitivity of land use and land cover changes(LUCC) on surface temperature has not been quantitatively analyzed. This study analyzed the mainly types of LUCC, urbanization, grassland degradation, deforestation on Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> along with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The LUCC in recent decades was first quantitatively analyzed in this study to give the basic fact with a significant increase in temperatures, reduced precipitation and increased evaporation. This study focused on the future spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the temperature and precipitation. Finally, the influencing factors with LUCC on Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the sensitivity of different land use types was spatially analyzed with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The results indicate that the large-area alpine grassland plays a more important role in alleviating global warming than other vegetation types do. The changes of the landscape structure resulting from the urban expansion play a significant role in intensifying regional temperature increase. In addition, the effects of LUCC on monthly average temperature change would vary from month to month with obviously spatial heterogeneity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/970658','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/970658"><span>Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P</p> <p>2009-06-23</p> <p>Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=279439','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=279439"><span>Threshold friction velocity of soils within the Columbia <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Wind erosion only occurs when the friction velocity exceeds the threshold friction velocity (TFV) of the surface. The TFV of loessial soils commonly found across the Columbia <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is virtually unknown even though these soils are highly erodible and a source of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=personal+AND+value+AND+work&pg=5&id=EJ817353','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=personal+AND+value+AND+work&pg=5&id=EJ817353"><span>Factors Associated with Job Content <span class="hlt">Plateauing</span> among Older Workers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify personal and work environment factors associated with the experience of job content <span class="hlt">plateauing</span> among older workers. Design/methodology/approach: Two cross-sectional studies, each including two samples, were conducted. In each study, one sample consisted of a diverse group of older workers and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=314455','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=314455"><span>Nitrogen loss from windblown agricultural soils in the Columbia <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Wind erosion of agricultural soils can degrade both air quality and soil productivity in the Columbia <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> of the Pacific Northwest United States. Soils in the region contain fine particles that, when suspended, are highly susceptible to long range transport in the atmosphere. Nitrogen (N) associ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38178','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38178"><span>Shade tolerance of selected afforestation species on Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Naijiang Wang; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To select tree and vegetation species for afforestation on Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> of China, we tested the shade tolerance of nine tree and one vine species. We planted 3-year-old seedlings in the greenhouse of the Seedling Nursery at Northwest Agriculture and Forest University in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25011940','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25011940"><span>Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Quan; Zhao, Jian; Fang, Liqun; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Wenyi; Wei, Lan; Yang, Hong; Yin, Wenwu; Cao, Wuchun; Li, Qun</p> <p>2014-07-10</p> <p>Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4227279','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4227279"><span>Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Methods Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. Results We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. Conclusions This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. PMID:25011940</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910569Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910569Z"><span>Excessive afforestation and soil drying on China's Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Shulei; Yang, Dawen</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Afforestation and deforestation are human disturbances to vegetation, which have profound impacts on regional eco-hydrological processes, the water and carbon cycles, and consequently, ecosystem sustainability. Since 1999, large scale revegetation has been carried out across China's Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> following the "Grain-to-Green Program" implemented by the Chinese government. This revegetation, particularly with forest, has caused negative eco-hydrological consequences, including streamflow decline and soil drying. Here, we have used "ecosystem optimality theory" and satellite observations, to assess the water balance under the climate-defined optimal and actual vegetation cover during 1982-2010 and its responses to future climate change (2011-2050) over the Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. Results show that the current vegetation cover (0.48 on average) has already exceeded the climate-defined optimal cover (0.43 on average) in the most recent decade, especially in the middle-to-east Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, indicating that it is the widespread over-planting, which is primarily responsible for soil drying in the area. In addition, both the optimal vegetation cover and soil moisture tend to decrease under future climate scenarios. Our findings suggest that further revegetation on the Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> should be applied with caution. To maintain a sustainable eco-hydrological environment in the region, a revegetation threshold should be urgently set, to limit future planting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21717','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21717"><span>Black cherry site index curves for the Allegheny <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>L.R. Auchmoody; C.O. Rexrode; C.O. Rexrode</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Black cherry site index curves were developed for the Allegheny <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> in northwestern Pennsylvania. They show for this region that height rises less sharply prior to the index age and is maintained for a longer period thereafter than described by existing curves. An equation to predict site index from height and age is furnished to allow the use of these curves in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26674690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26674690"><span>Levoglucosan and phenols in Antarctic marine, coastal and <span class="hlt">plateau</span> aerosols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Vecchiato, Marco; Kehrwald, Natalie M; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>Due to its isolated location, Antarctica is a natural laboratory for studying atmospheric aerosols and pollution in remote areas. Here, we determined levoglucosan and phenolic compounds (PCs) at diverse Antarctic sites: on the <span class="hlt">plateau</span>, a coastal station and during an oceanographic cruise. Levoglucosan and PCs reached the Antarctic <span class="hlt">plateau</span> where they were observed in accumulation mode aerosols (with median levoglucosan concentrations of 6.4 pg m(-3) and 4.1 pg m(-3), and median PC concentrations of 15.0 pg m(-3) and 7.3 pg m(-3)). Aged aerosols arrived at the coastal site through katabatic circulation with the majority of the levoglucosan mass distributed on larger particulates (24.8 pg m(-3)), while PCs were present in fine particles (34.0 pg m(-3)). The low levoglucosan/PC ratios in Antarctic aerosols suggest that biomass burning aerosols only had regional, rather than local, sources. General acid/aldehyde ratios were lower at the coastal site than on the <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. Levoglucosan and PCs determined during the oceanographic cruise were 37.6 pg m(-3) and 58.5 pg m(-3) respectively. Unlike levoglucosan, which can only be produced by biomass burning, PCs have both biomass burning and other sources. Our comparisons of these two types of compounds across a range of Antarctic marine, coastal, and <span class="hlt">plateau</span> sites demonstrate that local marine sources dominate Antarctic PC concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16260075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16260075"><span>Wear patterns on tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> from varus osteoarthritic knees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moschella, D; Blasi, A; Leardini, A; Ensini, A; Catani, F</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The knowledge of cartilage wear patterns at the medial tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> is important to understand the main causes of arthritis in varus knees. The most important factors influencing knee arthritis in fact seem to be the severity of the degenerative changes determined by the lower limb mechanical axis and the abnormal knee joint kinematics which frequently results from dysfunction of the anterior cruciate ligament. We studied the wear patterns of cartilage damage in 70 medial tibial plateaus resected at operation during total knee arthroplasty indicated for varus osteoarthritic knee. Anterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscus integrity was assessed intra-operatively. Calibrated digital images were used to measure the wear patterns with a standard software tool. The medial compartment of the tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> was divided into six zones, and the amount of cartilage and bone destruction in each zone was classified into two grades. The wear pattern was found to be highly dependent upon knee varus deformity (Mann Whitney P<0.001) and anterior cruciate ligament integrity (Friedman P<0.0005). Anterior cruciate ligament was found intact in 35.7% of the cases. Wear patterns on intact anterior cruciate ligament knees occurred in the central to medial aspect of the tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. Anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees had significantly larger wear patterns anteriorly and posteriorly in the most medial region of the medial <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. These observations suggest altered joint mechanics exist in anterior cruciate ligament deficient varus knees, which would worsen cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis progression.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJEaS.104.2253I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJEaS.104.2253I"><span>Structural model of the Balkassar area, Potwar <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, Pakistan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iqbal, Shahid; Akhter, Gulraiz; Bibi, Sehrish</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Balkassar is an important hydrocarbon producing area of the Potwar <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, Pakistan. Two-dimensional seismic reflection data of the area revealed tectonically controlled, distinct episodes of (1) normal faulting in the basement followed by (2) reverse faulting in the cover sequence. Himalayan orogeny and associated diapirism of the Precambrian Salt Range Formation have produced many salt-cored anticlines in the Potwar <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, and one such salt-cored anticline is present in the Balkassar. This anticline has NE-SW-oriented axis, and both the SE and NW limbs are bounded by reverse faults. The basement normal faults indicate Jurassic rifting and splitting of Pangaea. We interpret reverse faults with dip angles of about 60°-75° in the cover sequence, having both hinterland and foreland vergence. Both NW- and SE-dipping faults are present in contrast to the only southward-directed thrusts of previous models. Duplexes and triangle zones, which are common in the northern part of the Potwar <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, are not developed in the Balkassar area due to comparatively less crustal shortening in the area. The present interpretation can help in understanding the complex structures in other parts of the Potwar <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> for hydrocarbons exploration and also in deformed foreland basins worldwide that display similar characteristics but are considered to be dominated by low-angle thrust tectonics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=self+AND+efficacy+AND+employers&pg=2&id=EJ817353','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=self+AND+efficacy+AND+employers&pg=2&id=EJ817353"><span>Factors Associated with Job Content <span class="hlt">Plateauing</span> among Older Workers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify personal and work environment factors associated with the experience of job content <span class="hlt">plateauing</span> among older workers. Design/methodology/approach: Two cross-sectional studies, each including two samples, were conducted. In each study, one sample consisted of a diverse group of older workers and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T13C4677X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T13C4677X"><span>Stratified crustal shortening under the Longmenshan thrust belt, Tibetan <span class="hlt">plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, X.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Stratified crustal shortening under the Longmenshan thrust belt, Tibetan <span class="hlt">plateau</span> Xiwei Xu1&2, Baojin Liu3, John H. Shaw2, Guihua Yu11. Key Lab of Active Tectonics & Volcano, Institute of Geology, CEA, Beijing 100029, China 2. Department of Earth & Planetary Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 3. Geophysical Prospecting Center, CEA, Zhengzhou 450002, China Crustal velocity structure and new seismic reflection profiling across the foothills of the Longmen Shan and Sichuan Basin reveals a distinct pattern of crustal structure under Longmenshan thrust belt: brittle thrust faults with multiple detachments in the upper crust that are localized above, but decoupled from, a steep contact (FL) in the lower crust and upper mantle across which the lower crust thickens abruptly. Then two models are presented: 1) Model showing breakthrough thrusting of the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> crust over the Sichuan Basin above the basal detachment (FD2); 2) Model showing indentation of a strong structural wedge of the Yangtze Craton into the weak <span class="hlt">plateau</span>, but no sliding on the contact FL or sliding on the contact FL. This observation provides insights that help us to understand the mechanisms of crustal shortening, thickening, and uplift of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/Books/bid2255.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/Books/bid2255.htm"><span>The Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> IV: shaping conservation through science and management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wakeling, Brian F.; Sisk, Thomas D.; van Riper, Charles</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This book focuses on the integration of science and resource management issues in this unique and highly varied environment. Broken into three subsections, this volume addresses conservation biology, biophysical resources, and inventory and monitoring concerns. The chapters range in content, addressing conservation issues–past, present, and future–on the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, measurement of human impacts on resources, grazing and wildland-urban interfaces, and tools and methods for monitoring habitats and species. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/tei/0588/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/tei/0588/report.pdf"><span>Behavior of Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> uranium minerals during oxidation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Garrels, Robert Minard; Christ, C.L.</p> <p>1956-01-01</p> <p>Uranium occurs as U(VI) and U(IV) in minerals of the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> ores. The number of species containing U(VI) is large, but only two U(IV) minerals are known from the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>: uraninite, and oxide, and coffinite, a hydroxy-silicate. These oxidize to yield U(VI) before reacting significantly with other mineral constituents. Crystal-structure analysis has shown that U(VI) invariable occurs as uranyl ion, UO2+2. Uranyl ion may form complex carbonate or sulfate ions with resulting soluble compounds, but only in the absence of quinquevalent vanadium, arsenic, or phosphorous. In the presence of these elements in the +5 valence state, the uranyl ion is fixed in insoluble layer compounds formed by union of uranyl ion with orthovanadate, orthophosphate, or orthoarsenate. Under favorable conditions UO2+2 may react to form the relatively insoluble rutherfordine, UO2CO3, or hydrated uranyl hydroxides. These are rarely found on the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> as opposed to their excellent development in other uraniferous areas, a condition which is apparently related to the semiarid climate and low water table of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. Uranium may also be fixed as uranyl silicate, but little is known about minerals of this kind. In the present study emphasis has been placed on a detailing of the chemical and crystal structural changes which occur in the oxidation paragenetic sequence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840025613','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840025613"><span>Second <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Voltage in Nickel-cadmium Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vasanth, K. L.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Sealed nickel cadmium cells having large number of cycles on them are discharged using Hg/HgO reference electrode. The negative electrode exhibits the second <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. A SEM of negative plates of such cells show a number of large crystals of cadmium hydroxide. The large crystals on the negative plates disappear after continuous overcharging in flooded cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5161424','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5161424"><span>Basin history in fracture zone setting: Falkland <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lorenzo, J.M.</p> <p>1986-05-01</p> <p>Although virtually all passive continental margins are intersected by fracture zones, models describing margin evolution seldom include the tectonic effects of the latter. On the Falkland <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, whose northern margin is dominated by a large fracture zone, up to 5 km of terrigenous, transitional, and hemipelagic sediments have been deposited since the Middle Jurassic, largely under the control of a northern basement high. This high marks the Falkland fracture zone, formed during the opening of the South Atlantic in the Early Cretaceous. The Falkland <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> lies submerged in 2500 m of water and can be physiographically subdivided into (1) the Maurice Ewing Bank, a broad, triangular, shallow feature on its eastern extremity, (2) a boundary steep Falkland Escarpment in the north, (3) a southern Falkland Trough, and (4) a central saddle. Using well data (DSDP sites 511, 330, and 327) and extensive single-channel and regional multichannel seismic data, a detailed seismic stratigraphy has been developed for the Falkland <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. Results show four widespread depositional sequences dipping southward over both oceanic (in the west) and continental basement (in the east). Late Jurassic sapropelic black shales overlain by claystones thin and possibly crop out along the northern margin of the <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. Good control of structure has allowed recalculation of geophysical models, thus confirming three-dimensional basin geometry estimated seismically. Basin evolution is intimately related to the plate-tectonic setting and history, and may provide additional constraints on the breakup of Gondwanaland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42239','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42239"><span>Discovery of cryptic Armillaria solidipes genotypes within the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>J. W. Hanna; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; S. M. Ashiglar; A. L. Ross-Davis; G. I. McDonald</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Armillaria solidipes (= A. ostoyae) is a root-disease pathogen that causes severe losses in growth and productivity of forest trees throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This species is genetically diverse with variable disease activities across different regions of the world. In North America, A. solidipes in the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> exists in drier habitats and causes more...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26406371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26406371"><span>Molecular identity of human <span class="hlt">outer</span> radial glia during cortical development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pollen, Alex A; Nowakowski, Tomasz J; Chen, Jiadong; Retallack, Hanna; Sandoval-Espinosa, Carmen; Nicholas, Cory R; Shuga, Joe; Liu, Siyuan John; Oldham, Michael C; Diaz, Aaron; Lim, Daniel A; Leyrat, Anne A; West, Jay A; Kriegstein, Arnold R</p> <p>2015-09-24</p> <p>Radial glia, the neural stem cells of the neocortex, are located in two niches: the ventricular zone and <span class="hlt">outer</span> subventricular zone. Although <span class="hlt">outer</span> subventricular zone radial glia may generate the majority of human cortical neurons, their molecular features remain elusive. By analyzing gene expression across single cells, we find that <span class="hlt">outer</span> radial glia preferentially express genes related to extracellular matrix formation, migration, and stemness, including TNC, PTPRZ1, FAM107A, HOPX, and LIFR. Using dynamic imaging, immunostaining, and clonal analysis, we relate these molecular features to distinctive behaviors of <span class="hlt">outer</span> radial glia, demonstrate the necessity of STAT3 signaling for their cell cycle progression, and establish their extensive proliferative potential. These results suggest that <span class="hlt">outer</span> radial glia directly support the subventricular niche through local production of growth factors, potentiation of growth factor signals by extracellular matrix proteins, and activation of self-renewal pathways, thereby enabling the developmental and evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAESc..53....3P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAESc..53....3P"><span>Tectonic evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, Guitang; Wang, Liquan; Li, Rongshe; Yuan, Sihua; Ji, Wenhua; Yin, Fuguang; Zhang, Wanping; Wang, Baodi</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The Qinghai-Tibet <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, composed of several continental slivers within the eastern Tethyan domain, is one of the pivotal sites to examine to better understand the theory of plate tectonics and the orogenic evolution on Earth. This <span class="hlt">plateau</span> is generally inferred to be a collage of several continental blocks that rifted from Gondwanaland and subsequently accreted to the Asian continent. However, recent recognition of over twenty ophiolite mélange zones and their associated island arcs indicates that the traditional model of tectonic evolution requires revision. Based on 177 recently finished 1:250,000 scale geological maps and related studies, we summarize the main tectonic context of the Qinghai-Tibet <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> and propose a new integrated model to account for the new findings. The complex orogen of the immense Qinghai-Tibet <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, consisting of multiple island arc-basin systems that developed at different stages while surrounded by the North China, Yangtze, Tarim, and Indian plates, is emphasized. The entire orogen, surrounded by suture zones that mark the locations of oceanic closure, is investigated by examining (I) the first-order tectonic units and ophiolitic mélanges (including arc-arc/continent collision zones) and (II) their internally enclosed blocks as the second-order tectonic units. Therefore, the Qinghai-Tibet <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> is divided into three major orogenic systems, namely, from northeast to southwest, the Early Paleozoic Qinling-Qilianshan-Kunlunshan (Qin-Qi-Kun), the Late Paleozoic-Triassic Qiangtang-Sanjiang, and the Late Paleozoic to Cenozoic Gangdese-Himalaya orogenic systems, which are separated by the Kangxiwa-Muzitagh-Maqin-Mianxian and the Bangong-Shuanghu-Changning-Menglian sutures, respectively. We propose that the formation and evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> to have been intrinsically related to those of the eastern Tethys, recorded by the Longmu Co-Shuanghu ophiolite mélange zone, the Southern Qiangtang Paleozoic accretionary arc</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010116592&hterms=BRAND&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DBRAND','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010116592&hterms=BRAND&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DBRAND"><span>Far <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Galaxy H II Regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rudolph, A. L.; deGues, E. J.; Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We have made a multifrequency (6, 3.6, and 2 cm), high-resolution (3"-6"), radio continuum survey of IRAS selected sources from the catalogue of Wouterloot & Brand (1989) to search for and study H II regions in the far <span class="hlt">outer</span> Galaxy. We identified 31 sources in this catalog with well determined galactocentric distances, and with R approx.. greater than 15 kpc and L(sub FIR) approx.greater than 10(exp 4) solar luminosity, indicating the presence of high-mass star-formation. We have observed 11 of these sources with the Very Large Array (VLA). We observed the sources at 6 and 2 cm using "scaled arrays", making possible a direct and reliable comparison of the data at these two wavelengths for the determination of spectral indices. We detected a total of 12 radio sources, of which 10 have spectral indices consistent with optically-thin free-free emission from H II regions. Combined with previous VLA observations by other investigators, we have data on a total of 15 H II regions at galactocentric distances of 15 to 18.2kpc, among the most remote H II regions found in our Galaxy. The sizes of the H II regions range from approx. less than 0.10 to 2.3 pc. Using the measured fluxes and sizes, we determine the electron densities, emission measures, and excitation parameters of the H II regions, as well as the fluxes of Lyman continuum photons needed to keep the nebulae ionized. The sizes and electron densities are consistent with most of the sources detected in this survey being compact or ultracompact H II regions. Seven of the fifteen H II regions have sizes approx. less than 0.20 pc. Assuming simple pressure-driven expansion of the H II regions, these sizes indicate ages approx. less than 5 x 10(exp 4) yr, or only 1% of the lifetime of an O star, which implies an unlikely overabundance of O stars in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> Galaxy. Thus, the large number of compact H II regions suggests that the time these regions spend in a compact phase must be much longer than their dynamical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010116592&hterms=brand&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dbrand','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010116592&hterms=brand&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dbrand"><span>Far <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Galaxy H II Regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rudolph, A. L.; deGues, E. J.; Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We have made a multifrequency (6, 3.6, and 2 cm), high-resolution (3"-6"), radio continuum survey of IRAS selected sources from the catalogue of Wouterloot & Brand (1989) to search for and study H II regions in the far <span class="hlt">outer</span> Galaxy. We identified 31 sources in this catalog with well determined galactocentric distances, and with R approx.. greater than 15 kpc and L(sub FIR) approx.greater than 10(exp 4) solar luminosity, indicating the presence of high-mass star-formation. We have observed 11 of these sources with the Very Large Array (VLA). We observed the sources at 6 and 2 cm using "scaled arrays", making possible a direct and reliable comparison of the data at these two wavelengths for the determination of spectral indices. We detected a total of 12 radio sources, of which 10 have spectral indices consistent with optically-thin free-free emission from H II regions. Combined with previous VLA observations by other investigators, we have data on a total of 15 H II regions at galactocentric distances of 15 to 18.2kpc, among the most remote H II regions found in our Galaxy. The sizes of the H II regions range from approx. less than 0.10 to 2.3 pc. Using the measured fluxes and sizes, we determine the electron densities, emission measures, and excitation parameters of the H II regions, as well as the fluxes of Lyman continuum photons needed to keep the nebulae ionized. The sizes and electron densities are consistent with most of the sources detected in this survey being compact or ultracompact H II regions. Seven of the fifteen H II regions have sizes approx. less than 0.20 pc. Assuming simple pressure-driven expansion of the H II regions, these sizes indicate ages approx. less than 5 x 10(exp 4) yr, or only 1% of the lifetime of an O star, which implies an unlikely overabundance of O stars in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> Galaxy. Thus, the large number of compact H II regions suggests that the time these regions spend in a compact phase must be much longer than their dynamical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030112096&hterms=happy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dhappy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030112096&hterms=happy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dhappy"><span>Cratering Rates in the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zahnle, Kevin</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We have constructed a self-consistent study of cratering rates in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system. Two papers were written, one on cratering asymmetries on synchronously rotating satellites and the other on the cratering rates themselves. The first addresses the well-founded expectation that the leading hemisphere of a synchronously rotating satellite should be more heavily cratered than the trailing hemisphere, and how our solar system has avoided showing much sign of this. We conclude that Ganymede has in the past rotated nonsynchronously, which may imply that it once harboured a thicker inner ocean than it does now. The other study began as an attempt to determine the age of the surface of Europa at a time when Europa was regarded as a major Exobiological target. In keeping with changing times the study expanded to the point that it now recommends cratering rates for worlds as diverse as Charon and Pluto, and includes the contributions of several invaluable co-authors, none of whom would agree with all of my conclusions. The nexus of the work is the size-frequency distribution of comets striking Jupiter (Figure). This was determined using the historically observed record of comets striking or nearly striking Jupiter; the size-frequency distributions of craters on lightly cratered surfaces of Europa, Ganymede, and Triton; and the size-frequncy distribution of Kuiper Belt objects. Extreme reductionists will be happy to know that the surface of Europa probably has an age of around 50 million years. Perhaps more intriguing is that Neptune's moon Triton, by origin a giant comet and by capture and orbital evolution a once fully melted giant comet, has a surface that is probably no older than Europa's.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6447018','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6447018"><span>Photoemission EXAFS on <span class="hlt">outer</span> core levels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Choudhary, K.M.; Rothberg, G.M.; denBoer, M.L.; Williams, G.P.; Hecht, M.H.; Lindau, I.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The first definitive measurements of EXAFS by monitoring the direct photoelectron emission as a function of photon energy have been made using the Mn 3p and F 2s core levels in evaporated films of MnF/sub 2/. Good agreement is found with bulk transmission EXAFS obtained with the Mn 1s level. This development is important because: (1) almost all elements have suitable core levels of low binding energy; (2) since photopeaks from adjacent core levels do not cross as the photon energy is varied, the limitation imposed on other EXAFS techniques by this interference is removed. Auger electrons, which have fixed kinetic energies and so can cross photopeaks, will generally have low energies if they originate from the <span class="hlt">outer</span> core levels and be unlikely to appear in the EXAFS region of kinetic energies, i.e., in excess of about 50 eV; (3) vuv light is used, which greatly extends the useable range of photon energies; and (4) more than one element in a solid may be studied with the same monochromator. In this work all diffraction effects except the backscattering that gives rise to the EXAFS were eliminated by using a polycrystalline evaporated thin film and by making use of the 2..pi.. azimuthal acceptance angle of a cylindrical mirror analyzer. Previously MARGARITONDO and coworkers observed EXAFS-like oscillations in photopeaks as a function of photon energy when a CMA was used; however, their data did not extend over a sufficient photon energy range to prove conclusively that EXAFS was involved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912077"><span><span class="hlt">Outer</span> membrane vesicles as platform vaccine technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van der Pol, Leo; Stork, Michiel; van der Ley, Peter</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Outer</span> membrane vesicles (OMVs) are released spontaneously during growth by many Gram-negative bacteria. They present a range of surface antigens in a native conformation and have natural properties like immunogenicity, self-adjuvation and uptake by immune cells which make them attractive for application as vaccines against pathogenic bacteria. In particular with Neisseria meningitidis, they have been investigated extensively and an OMV-containing meningococcal vaccine has recently been approved by regulatory agencies. Genetic engineering of the OMV-producing bacteria can be used to improve and expand their usefulness as vaccines. Recent work on meningitis B vaccines shows that OMVs can be modified, such as for lipopolysaccharide reactogenicity, to yield an OMV product that is safe and effective. The overexpression of crucial antigens or simultaneous expression of multiple antigenic variants as well as the expression of heterologous antigens enable expansion of their range of applications. In addition, modifications may increase the yield of OMV production and can be combined with specific production processes to obtain high amounts of well-defined, stable and uniform OMV particle vaccine products. Further improvement can facilitate the development of OMVs as platform vaccine product for multiple applications. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. The copyright line of the article for this article was changed on 23 February 2016 after original online publication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030112096&hterms=triton+moon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtriton%2Bmoon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030112096&hterms=triton+moon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtriton%2Bmoon"><span>Cratering Rates in the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zahnle, Kevin</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We have constructed a self-consistent study of cratering rates in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system. Two papers were written, one on cratering asymmetries on synchronously rotating satellites and the other on the cratering rates themselves. The first addresses the well-founded expectation that the leading hemisphere of a synchronously rotating satellite should be more heavily cratered than the trailing hemisphere, and how our solar system has avoided showing much sign of this. We conclude that Ganymede has in the past rotated nonsynchronously, which may imply that it once harboured a thicker inner ocean than it does now. The other study began as an attempt to determine the age of the surface of Europa at a time when Europa was regarded as a major Exobiological target. In keeping with changing times the study expanded to the point that it now recommends cratering rates for worlds as diverse as Charon and Pluto, and includes the contributions of several invaluable co-authors, none of whom would agree with all of my conclusions. The nexus of the work is the size-frequency distribution of comets striking Jupiter (Figure). This was determined using the historically observed record of comets striking or nearly striking Jupiter; the size-frequency distributions of craters on lightly cratered surfaces of Europa, Ganymede, and Triton; and the size-frequncy distribution of Kuiper Belt objects. Extreme reductionists will be happy to know that the surface of Europa probably has an age of around 50 million years. Perhaps more intriguing is that Neptune's moon Triton, by origin a giant comet and by capture and orbital evolution a once fully melted giant comet, has a surface that is probably no older than Europa's.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230715','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230715"><span>FBL <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Can Welder Analysis Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Collins, Susan L.</p> <p>2003-04-21</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Can Welder Analysis Software (OCWAS) was originally developed by SRTC for use at Hanford to assist in the storage of their excess plutonium in the DOE standard 3013 containers until it can be properly dispositioned using one of the approved DOE methods. After that development effort, SRS funded SRTC to develop a similar system for FB-Line for use with 3013 canister welding at SRS. More robust analysis routines and techniques were used with this new version as well as enhanced graphical representation of the data. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable information about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TIG welding process, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, are reviewed to analyze the weld. To improve this process, another software package developed by SRTC, the OCW DAS, digitizes the weld data and stores the data in a file. The OCWAS automates the weld analysis process by analyzing the data obtained during the weld process. The OCWAS reads a data file that was previously collected using the OCW DAS software. The software will read the file and parse the data. The user is first prompted to enter the file name. The file is then opened and the operator name, canister identification, and Date/Time of Acquisition are read from the file and displayed on the screen. The binary weld data is then read from the file into an array until the end of the file is reached. The current, voltage, and position data are displayed on the screen in graphical format on the front panel. The weld power and resistance are calculated and are also displayed in graphical format on the front panel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020067730&hterms=Diversity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DDiversity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020067730&hterms=Diversity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DDiversity"><span>Modelling the Diversity of <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Planetary Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lissauer, Jack J.; Levison, H. F.; Duncan, M. J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The process of planetary growth is extremely complicated, involving a myriad of physical and chemical processes, many of which are poorly understood. The ultimate configuration that a planetary system attains depends upon the properties of the disk out of which it grew, of the star at the center of the disk and, at least in some cases, of the interstellar environment. In an effort to numerically survey the possible diversity of planetary systems, we have constructed synthetic systems of giant planets and integrated their orbits to determine the dynamical lifetimes and thus the viability of these systems. Our construction algorithm begins with 110 -- 180 planetesimals located between 4 and 40 AU from a one solar mass star; most initial planetesimals have masses several tenths that of Earth. We integrate the orbits of these bodies subject to mutual gravitational perturbations and -as drag for 10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) years, merging any pair of planetesimals which pass within one-tenth of a Hill Sphere of one another and adding "gas" to embryos larger than 10 Earth masses. Use of such large planetesimal radii provided sufficient damping to prevent the system from excessive dynamical heating. Subsequently, systems were evolved without gas drag, either with the enlarged radii or with more realistic radii. Systems took from a few million years to greater than ten billion years to become stable (10(exp 9) years without mergers of ejections). Some of the systems produced with the enlarged radii closely resemble our <span class="hlt">outer</span> Solar System. Many systems contained only Uranus-mass objects. Encounters in simulations using realistic radii resulted in ejections, typically leaving only a few planets per system, most of which were on very eccentric orbits. Some of the systems that we constructed were stable for at least a billion years despite undergoing macroscopic orbital changes on much shorter timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.4685C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.4685C"><span>Platinum-group element constraints on source composition and magma evolution of the Kerguelen <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> using basalts from ODP Leg 183</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chazey, William J.; Neal, Clive R.</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p> basalts are best modeled by melting a primitive mantle source to which was added up to 1% of <span class="hlt">outer</span> core material, followed by fractional crystallization of the melt produced. This reproduces both the abundances and patterns of the PGEs in the Kerguelen <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> basalts. An alternative model for <span class="hlt">outer</span> core PGE abundances requires only 0.3% of <span class="hlt">outer</span> core material to be mixed into the primitive mantle source. While our results are clearly model dependent, they indicate that an <span class="hlt">outer</span> core component may be present in the Kerguelen plume source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4343146','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4343146"><span>Rapid loss of lakes on the Mongolian <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tao, Shengli; Fang, Jingyun; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Shuqing; Shen, Haihua; Hu, Huifeng; Tang, Zhiyao; Wang, Zhiheng; Guo, Qinghua</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lakes are widely distributed on the Mongolian <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> and, as critical water sources, have sustained Mongolian pastures for hundreds of years. However, the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> has experienced significant lake shrinkage and grassland degradation during the past several decades. To quantify the changes in all of the lakes on the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> and the associated driving factors, we performed a satellite-based survey using multitemporal Landsat images from the 1970s to 2000s, combined with ground-based censuses. Our results document a rapid loss of lakes on the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> in the past decades: the number of lakes with a water surface area >1 km2 decreased from 785 in the late 1980s to 577 in 2010, with a greater rate of decrease (34.0%) in Inner Mongolia of China than in Mongolia (17.6%). This decrease has been particularly pronounced since the late 1990s in Inner Mongolia and the number of lakes >10 km2 has declined by 30.0%. The statistical analyses suggested that in Mongolia precipitation was the dominant driver for the lake changes, and in Inner Mongolia coal mining was most important in its grassland area and irrigation was the leading factor in its cultivated area. The deterioration of lakes is expected to continue in the following decades not only because of changing climate but also increasing exploitation of underground mineral and groundwater resources on the <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. To protect grasslands and the indigenous nomads, effective action is urgently required to save these valuable lakes from further deterioration. PMID:25646423</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPPM9005A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPPM9005A"><span>Nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> radiation belts: Van Allen Probes results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton; Drake, James; Vasko, Ivan</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures - TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on board the Van Allen Probes. A large part of the observed non-linear structures are associated with whistler waves and some of them can be directly driven by whistlers. Observations of electron velocity distributions and chorus waves by the Van Allen Probe B provided long-lasting signatures of electron Landau resonant interactions with oblique chorus waves in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> radiation belt. In the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field, such resonant interactions then lead to the formation of a <span class="hlt">plateau</span> in the parallel (with respect to the geomagnetic field) velocity distribution due to trapping of electrons into the wave effective potential. The feedback from trapped particles provides steepening of parallel electric field and development of TDS seeded from initial whistler structure (well explained in terms of Particle-In-Cell model). The decoupling of the whistler wave and the nonlinear electrostatic component is shown in PIC simulation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field system and are observed by the Van Allen Probes in the radiation belts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23788184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23788184"><span>Differences of glycolysis in skeletal muscle and lactate metabolism in liver between <span class="hlt">plateau</span> zokor (Myospalax baileyi) and <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pika (Ochotona curzoniae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Sheng-Zhen; Wei, Lian; Wei, Deng-Bang; Wang, Duo-Wei; Ma, Ben-Yuan</p> <p>2013-06-25</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pika (Ochotona curzoniae) and <span class="hlt">plateau</span> zokor (Myospalax baileyi) are specialized native species of the Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. The goal of this study was to examine physiological differences in skeletal muscle glycolysis and hepatic lactate metabolism between these two species. The partial sequence of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) gene was cloned and sequenced. The mRNA expression levels of PC and lactate dehydrogenases (LDH-A, LDH-B) were determined by real-time PCR. The enzymatic activity of PC was measured using malic acid coupling method. The concentration of lactic acid (LD) and the specific activities of LDH in liver and skeletal muscle of two species were measured. The different isoenzymes of LDH were determined by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The results showed that, (1) LDH-B mRNA level in skeletal muscle of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> zokor was significantly higher than that of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pika (P < 0.01), but no differences was found at LDH-A mRNA levels between them (P > 0.05); (2) PC, LDH-A and LDH-B mRNA levels in liver of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pika were significantly higher than those of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> zokor (P < 0.01); (3) The LDH activity and concentration of LD in skeletal muscle and liver, as well as the PC activity in liver of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pika were significantly higher than those of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> zokor (P < 0.01); (4) The isoenzymatic spectrum of lactate dehydrogenase showed that the main LDH isoenzymes were LDH-A4, LDH-A3B and LDH-A2B2 in skeletal muscle of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pika, while the main LDH isoenzymes were LDH-AB3 and LDH-B4 in skeletal muscle of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> zokor; the main isoenzymes were LDH-A3B, LDH-A2B2, LDH-AB3 and LDH-B4 in liver of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pika, while LDH-A4 was the only isoenzyme in liver of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> zokor. These results indicate that the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pika gets most of its energy for sprint running through enhancing anaerobic glycolysis, producing more lactate in their skeletal muscle, and converting lactate into glucose and glycogen in the liver by enhancing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26658457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26658457"><span>Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> to the Hinterland of Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an "out of Tibet" hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an "into Tibet" scenario--earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27047483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27047483"><span>Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bai, Xiangning; Zhang, Wang; Tang, Xinyuan; Xin, Youquan; Xu, Yanmei; Sun, Hui; Luo, Xuelian; Pu, Ji; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen; Lu, Shan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an emerging group of zoonotic pathogens. Ruminants are the natural reservoir of STEC. In this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of the STEC in <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, China. A total of 1116 pika samples, including 294 intestinal contents samples, 317 fecal samples, and 505 intestinal contents samples, were collected from May to August in the years 2012, 2013, and 2015, respectively. Twenty-one samples (1.88%) yielded at least one STEC isolate; in total, 22 STEC isolates were recovered. Thirteen different O serogroups and 14 serotypes were identified. One stx 1 subtype (stx 1a) and three stx 2 subtypes (stx 2a, stx 2b, and stx 2d) were present in the STEC isolates. Fifteen, fourteen, and three STEC isolates harbored the virulence genes ehxA, subA, and astA, respectively. Adherence-associated genes iha and saa were, respectively, present in 72.73 and 68.18% of the STEC isolates. Twenty antibiotics were active against all the STEC isolates; all strains were resistant to penicillin G, and some to cephalothin or streptomycin. The 22 STEC isolates were divided into 16 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and 12 sequence types. <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> pikas may play a role in the ongoing circulation of STEC in the Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. This study provides the first report on STEC in <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pikas and new information about STEC reservoirs in wildlife. Based on the serotypes, virulence gene profiles and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, the majority of these pika STECs may pose a low public health risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4802371','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4802371"><span>Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bai, Xiangning; Zhang, Wang; Tang, Xinyuan; Xin, Youquan; Xu, Yanmei; Sun, Hui; Luo, Xuelian; Pu, Ji; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen; Lu, Shan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an emerging group of zoonotic pathogens. Ruminants are the natural reservoir of STEC. In this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of the STEC in <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, China. A total of 1116 pika samples, including 294 intestinal contents samples, 317 fecal samples, and 505 intestinal contents samples, were collected from May to August in the years 2012, 2013, and 2015, respectively. Twenty-one samples (1.88%) yielded at least one STEC isolate; in total, 22 STEC isolates were recovered. Thirteen different O serogroups and 14 serotypes were identified. One stx1 subtype (stx1a) and three stx2 subtypes (stx2a, stx2b, and stx2d) were present in the STEC isolates. Fifteen, fourteen, and three STEC isolates harbored the virulence genes ehxA, subA, and astA, respectively. Adherence-associated genes iha and saa were, respectively, present in 72.73 and 68.18% of the STEC isolates. Twenty antibiotics were active against all the STEC isolates; all strains were resistant to penicillin G, and some to cephalothin or streptomycin. The 22 STEC isolates were divided into 16 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and 12 sequence types. <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> pikas may play a role in the ongoing circulation of STEC in the Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. This study provides the first report on STEC in <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pikas and new information about STEC reservoirs in wildlife. Based on the serotypes, virulence gene profiles and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, the majority of these pika STECs may pose a low public health risk. PMID:27047483</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789771"><span>Optogenetic Control of Mouse <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Hair Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Tao; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Wilson, Teresa; Chen, Fangyi; Porsov, Edward; Subhash, Hrebesh; Foster, Sarah; Zhang, Yuan; Omelchenko, Irina; Bateschell, Michael; Wang, Lingyan; Brigande, John V; Jiang, Zhi-Gen; Mao, Tianyi; Nuttall, Alfred L</p> <p>2016-01-19</p> <p>Normal hearing in mammals depends on sound amplification by <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cells (OHCs) presumably by their somatic motility and force production. However, the role of OHC force production in cochlear amplification and frequency tuning are not yet fully understood. Currently, available OHC manipulation techniques for physiological or clinical studies are limited by their invasive nature, lack of precision, and poor temporal-spatial resolution. To overcome these limitations, we explored an optogenetic approach based on channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR-2), a direct light-activated nonselective cation channel originally discovered in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Three approaches were compared: 1) adeno-associated virus-mediated in utero transfer of the ChR-2 gene into the developing murine otocyst, 2) expression of ChR-2(H134R) in an auditory cell line (HEI-OC1), and 3) expression of ChR-2 in the OHCs of a mouse line carrying a ChR-2 conditional allele. Whole cell recording showed that blue light (470 nm) elicited the typical nonselective cation current of ChR-2 with reversal potential around zero in both mouse OHCs and HEI-OC1 cells and generated depolarization in both cell types. In addition, pulsed light stimulation (10 Hz) elicited a 1:1 repetitive depolarization and ChR-2 currents in mouse OHCs and HEI-OC1 cells, respectively. The time constant of depolarization in OHCs, 1.45 ms, is 10 times faster than HEI-OC1 cells, which allowed light stimulation up to rates of 10/s to elicit corresponding membrane potential changes. Our study demonstrates that ChR-2 can successfully be expressed in mouse OHCs and HEI-OC1 cells and that these present a typical light-sensitive current and depolarization. However, the amount of ChR-2 current induced in our in vivo experiments was insufficient to result in measurable cochlear effects. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016sofi.prop...76B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016sofi.prop...76B"><span>Impact Program: The <span class="hlt">Outer</span> CMZ C+ Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bally, John</p> <p></p> <p>The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) contains the densest, most turbulent, and highest pressure clouds in our Galaxy. Although the CMZ extends to a radius of R 250 pc from the Galactic Center, most star formation occurs within R 100 pc. The CMZ is asymmetric; more than two-thirds of the dense gas is at positive longitudes while the majority of massive stars traced by compact 24 um emission are at negative longitudes. This program will test the hypothesis that the positive-longitude part of the CMZ up-plane from Sgr B2 is pre-star-forming while the negative longitude portion down-plane from Sgr C is post-starburst and has disrupted its natal clouds. The observations will search for mass outflow from the CMZ starburst regions that could mass-load and fuel the Fermi-LAT bubbles. We will obtain seven strip-maps and target sixty compact 24 um sources in three fields in [CII] with the upGREAT LFA and [NII] and CO with the L1 channel. Field 1 extends from Sgr B2 to longitude l=2 to study the dense complexes at positive longitudes to determine if they are condensing to form future star forming CMZ clouds. Field 2 probes negative longitudes to investigate the nature of the compact 24 micron sources and to determine if massive star feedback had disrupted this portion of the CMZ dense cloud population. Field 3 probes the kinematics of ionized and atomic gas above and below the molecular layer to see if star formation feedback is fueling and mass-loading the Fermi-LAT bubbles. SOFIA upGREAT is the best facility to address these issues. The proposed 35 hour program complements the 20 hours of observations in the ROC by investigating the <span class="hlt">outer</span> CMZ and its vertical structure to answer fundamental questions about dynamics, the formation and destruction of the dense clouds, the recent star-formation history, the role of feedback, and the origin of the kpc-scale Fermi-LAT bubble.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900018277&hterms=like+dissolves+like&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dlike%2Bdissolves%2Blike','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900018277&hterms=like+dissolves+like&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dlike%2Bdissolves%2Blike"><span>Carbon in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simonelli, D. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Mckay, C. P.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The satellites of Uranus, with densities between 1.3 and 1.7 g cm(-3) (from Voyager 2 observations) and the Pluto-Charon system, with a mean density of just above 1.8 g cm(-3) (from terrestrial observations of mutual eclipse events), are too dense to have a significant amount of methane ice in their interiors. However, the observed densities do not preclude contributions from such organic materials as the acid-insoluble residue in carbonaceous chondrites and laboratory-produced tholins, which have densities on the order of approximately 1.5 g cm(-3). These and other considerations have led researchers to investigate the carbon mass budget in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system, with an emphasis on understanding the contribution of organic materials. Modeling of the interiors of Pluto and Charon (being carried out by R. Reynolds and A. Summers of NASA/Ames), assuming rock and water ice as the only constituents, suggests a silicate mass fraction for this system on the order of 0.65 to 0.70. The present work includes the most recent estimates of the C/H enhancements and high z/low z ratios of the giant planets (Pollack and Bodenheimer, 1987), and involves a more careful estimation of the high z/low z mass ratio expected from solar abundances than was used in Pollack et al. (1986), including the influence of the fraction of C in CO on the amount of condensed water ice. These calculations indicate that for a particular fraction of C in CO and a given fraction of C-bearing planetesimals that dissolve in the envelope (most likely in the range 0.50 to 0.75), (1) Jupiter and Saturn require a larger fraction of C in condensed materials than Uranus and Neptune, but (2) the Jupiter and Saturn results are much less strongly constrained by the error bars on the observed C/H enhancements and high z/low z ratios than is the case for Uranus and Neptune. The clearest result is that in the region of the solar nebula near Uranus and Neptune, the minority of carbon that is not in gaseous CO (1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4724629','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4724629"><span>Optogenetic Control of Mouse <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Hair Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Tao; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Wilson, Teresa; Chen, Fangyi; Porsov, Edward; Subhash, Hrebesh; Foster, Sarah; Zhang, Yuan; Omelchenko, Irina; Bateschell, Michael; Wang, Lingyan; Brigande, John V.; Jiang, Zhi-Gen; Mao, Tianyi; Nuttall, Alfred L.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Normal hearing in mammals depends on sound amplification by <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cells (OHCs) presumably by their somatic motility and force production. However, the role of OHC force production in cochlear amplification and frequency tuning are not yet fully understood. Currently, available OHC manipulation techniques for physiological or clinical studies are limited by their invasive nature, lack of precision, and poor temporal-spatial resolution. To overcome these limitations, we explored an optogenetic approach based on channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR-2), a direct light-activated nonselective cation channel originally discovered in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Three approaches were compared: 1) adeno-associated virus-mediated in utero transfer of the ChR-2 gene into the developing murine otocyst, 2) expression of ChR-2(H134R) in an auditory cell line (HEI-OC1), and 3) expression of ChR-2 in the OHCs of a mouse line carrying a ChR-2 conditional allele. Whole cell recording showed that blue light (470 nm) elicited the typical nonselective cation current of ChR-2 with reversal potential around zero in both mouse OHCs and HEI-OC1 cells and generated depolarization in both cell types. In addition, pulsed light stimulation (10 Hz) elicited a 1:1 repetitive depolarization and ChR-2 currents in mouse OHCs and HEI-OC1 cells, respectively. The time constant of depolarization in OHCs, 1.45 ms, is 10 times faster than HEI-OC1 cells, which allowed light stimulation up to rates of 10/s to elicit corresponding membrane potential changes. Our study demonstrates that ChR-2 can successfully be expressed in mouse OHCs and HEI-OC1 cells and that these present a typical light-sensitive current and depolarization. However, the amount of ChR-2 current induced in our in vivo experiments was insufficient to result in measurable cochlear effects. PMID:26789771</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860065131&hterms=Cenozoic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCenozoic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860065131&hterms=Cenozoic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCenozoic"><span>On the cenozoic uplift and tectonic stability of the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C. A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Models of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> uplift which can be applied to the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> are presented. The sequence and consequences of the 2-km Cenzoic uplift of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> and volcanism and rifting in the adjoining Basin and Range and Southern Rocky Mountain-Rio Grande rift provinces are examined. Geologic and geophysical data suggest that more than one mechanism is required to explain the 2 km of uplift, and that thermal expansion and magmatic crustal thickening are the dominant mechanisms. It is argued that the early Cenzoic stability of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> was related to the relatively cool geotherm and hence high strength of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> lithosphere relative to the adjoining regions. As the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> lithosphere has been heated and uplift has occurred, the overall stability of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> has decreased.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24298083','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24298083"><span>Exploring the undulating <span class="hlt">plateau</span>: the future of global oil supply.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jackson, Peter M; Smith, Leta K</p> <p>2014-01-13</p> <p>In this paper, we analyse the factors that will influence long-term oil supply and describe the future form of the global oil supply profile as an 'undulating <span class="hlt">plateau</span>' rather than an irreversible, short-term peak or an ever upward trend of increasing production. The ultimate transition from a world of relatively plentiful and cheap oil to one of tight supply and high cost will be slow and challenging. An understanding of the signposts for the future path of supply and the drivers of that profile will be critical to managing the transition. The ultimate form of the global supply curve may well be dictated by demand evolution rather than a limited resource endowment in the longer term. Several factors will probably control future global oil supply. We believe that the scale of global oil resource will not constitute a physical supply limit for at least the next two or three decades. However, all categories of oil resources are already more expensive to develop than in the past, requiring high oil prices to stimulate supply growth. Lower rates of oil demand growth relative to economic growth, combined with more challenging supply growth, will probably lead to an undulating <span class="hlt">plateau</span> sometime after 2040, with demand from non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development states continuing to dominate. Upstream investment requirements and oil price volatility will increase towards and beyond the undulating production <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. In this new world, high oil prices will induce demand destruction, fuel substitution and ever increasing energy efficiency. As we discuss below, the fundamental differences between the IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associates' (IHS CERA) view of the future of oil supply and many peak oil supply models are the timing of the onset of a dramatic slowdown in the rate of growth of supply and the existence or otherwise of a production <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. We do not dispute that supply will <span class="hlt">plateau</span> and eventually fall; the question is when, how and at what price</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24529264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24529264"><span>[The pathogenic ecology research on plague in Qinghai <span class="hlt">plateau</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dai, Rui-xia; Wei, Bai-qing; Li, Cun-xiang; Xiong, Hao-ming; Yang, Xiao-yan; Fan, Wei; Qi, Mei-ying; Jin, Juan; Wei, Rong-jie; Feng, Jian-ping; Jin, Xing; Wang, Zu-yun</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>To study the pathogenic ecology characteristics of plague in Qinghai <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. Applied molecular biology techniques, conventional technologies and geographic information system (GIS) to study phenotypic traits, plasmid spectrum, genotype, infected host and media spectrum etc.of 952 Yersinia pestis strains in Qinghai <span class="hlt">plateau</span> plague foci, which were separated from different host and media in different regions during 1954 to 2012. The ecotypes of these strains were Qingzang <span class="hlt">plateau</span> (91.49%, 871/952),Qilian mountain (6.41%, 61/952) and Microtus fuscus (1.26%, 12/952).83.6% (796/952) of these strains contained all the 4 virulence factors (Fr1, Pesticin1,Virulence antigen, and Pigmentation), 93.26% (367/392) were velogenic strains confirmed by virulence test.725 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Qinghai <span class="hlt">plateau</span> plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, among which 713 strains from Marmot himalayan plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 7×10(6), 23×10(6), 27×10(6), 30×10(6), 45×10(6), 52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6) respectively. 12 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Microtus fuscus plague foci carried only 3 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 45×10(6), 65×10(6). Meanwhile, the strains carrying large plasmid (52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6)) were only distributed in particular geographical location, which had the category property. The research also confirmed that 841 Yersinia pestis strains from two kinds of plague foci in Qinghai <span class="hlt">plateau</span> had 11 genomovars. The strains of Marmot himalayan plague foci were given priority to genomovar 5 and 8, amounted to 611 strains, genomovar 8 accounted for 56.00% (471/841), genomovar 5 accounted for 23.07% (194/841). Besides, 3 new genomovars, including new 1(62 strains), new 2(52 strains), new 3(48 strains) were newly founded, and 12 strains of Microtus fuscus plague foci were genomovar 14. The main host and media of Qinghai <span class="hlt">plateau</span> plague foci directly affected the spatial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC32B..03K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC32B..03K"><span>High pre-industrial and modern Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> fire activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kehrwald, N. M.; Li, Q.; Wang, N.; Zennaro, P.; Zangrando, R.; Barbante, C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The South Asian brown cloud created from a mix of biomass burning and fossil fuel aerosols is warming the atmosphere between 5000 to 7000 meters above sea level (m asl) along the southern slope of the Himalaya. The extent to which this atmospheric brown cloud is transported up and over the 7000 to 8000 m asl ridge of the Himalaya and northward across the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> is unknown. Intense Eastern Asian industry and associated coal burning may also export fossil fuel burning products to the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. In addition, local cooking, agricultural and natural fires emit combustion products that alter atmospheric chemistry and are deposited on glacier surfaces. It is essential to differentiate between the effects of fossil fuel and biomass burning across the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> to determine if combustion products affect glacier surfaces and, by extension, glacier volume. The specific biomarker levoglucosan can only be produced by biomass burning at temperatures of 300°C or higher and is trapped and preserved in glaciers across the globe. This specificity may allow the possibility of differentiating between fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions when comparing levoglucosan concentrations with more general ice core combustion proxies such as black carbon. Here, we present a biomass burning record from the entire 164 m Muztag ice core (36.35°N; 87.17°E; 5780 m asl) and from a southwest to northeast transect of snow pits across the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. Multiple total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon surface samples demonstrate organic carbon concentrations at or near detection limits. However, these samples have high levoglucosan concentrations suggesting that the biomass burning recorded in these sites may be from a regional rather than local source. The Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> levoglucosan concentrations are surprisingly substantially greater than Kilimanjaro levoglucosan concentrations, where Kilimanjaro is located in a relatively similar low-latitude high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080045535','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080045535"><span>Radioisotope Reduction Using Solar Power for <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Planetary Missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fincannon, James</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Radioisotope power systems have historically been (and still are) the power system of choice from a mass and size perspective for <span class="hlt">outer</span> planetary missions. High demand for and limited availability of radioisotope fuel has made it necessary to investigate alternatives to this option. Low mass, high efficiency solar power systems have the potential for use at low <span class="hlt">outer</span> planetary temperatures and illumination levels. This paper documents the impacts of using solar power systems instead of radioisotope power for all or part of the power needs of <span class="hlt">outer</span> planetary spacecraft and illustrates the potential fuel savings of such an approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/172151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/172151"><span>Biochemical characteristics of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membranes of plant mitochondria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mannella, C A; Bonner, W D</p> <p>1975-12-01</p> <p>Like the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membranes of liver mitochondria, those of plant mitochondria are impermeable to cytochrome c when intact and can be ruptured by osmotic shock. Isolated plant <span class="hlt">outer</span> mitochondrial membranes are also similar to the corresponding liver membranes in terms of phospholipid and sterol content. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis experiments indicate that a single class of proteins (apparent molecular weight 30 000) comprises the bulk of the plant <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane protein. There are also considerable amounts of polysaccharide associated with these membranes, which may contribute to their osmotic stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26621472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26621472"><span>Structural Aspects of Bacterial <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Membrane Protein Assembly.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750002606','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750002606"><span>Self-sterilization of bodies during <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet entry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoffman, A. R.; Jaworski, W.; Taylor, D. M.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A body encountering the atmosphere of an <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet is subjected to heat loads which could result in high temperature conditions that render terrestrial organisms on or within the body nonviable. To determine whether an irregularly shaped entering body, consisting of several different materials, would be sterilized during inadvertent entry at high velocity, the thermal response of a typical <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet spacecraft instrument was studied. The results indicate that the Teflon insulated cable and electronic circuit boards may not experience sterilizing temperatures during a Jupiter, Saturn, or Titan entry. Another conclusion of the study is that small plastic particles entering Saturn from <span class="hlt">outer</span> space have wider survival corridors than do those at Jupiter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990081162&hterms=moon+base&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmoon%2Bbase','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990081162&hterms=moon+base&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmoon%2Bbase"><span>Exploring Aristarchus <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> as a Potential Lunar Base Site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Allen, Carlton C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>As part the exploration strategy, NASA has been studying the feasibility of a low cost human return to the Moon. The currently planned mission has a dual focus on the advancement of lunar science and the use of in situ resources. Thus far, our space exploration plans have relied almost exclusively on equipment and supplies transported from Earth. This may be appropriate for operations in Earth orbit, or for short duration stays on the lunar surface. However, the ability to "live off the land," will prove vital for long term habitation of the Moon and planets. This study takes a close look at the Aristarchus <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, one of the primary candidate sites for human lunar exploration. Based on this synthesis study, we recommend two sites on the Aristarchus <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> that will maximize science return and provide a convincing demonstration of the use of in situ resources and which may be a viable future lunar base site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760003523','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760003523"><span>Tectonic analysis of folds in the Colorado <span class="hlt">plateau</span> of Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davis, G. H.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Structural mapping and analysis of folds in Phanerozoic rocks in northern Arizona, using LANDSAT-1 imagery, yielded information for a tectonic model useful in identifying regional fracture zones within the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> tectonic province. Since the monoclines within the province developed as a response to differential movements of basement blocks along high-angle faults, the monoclinal fold pattern records the position and trend of many elements of the regional fracture system. The <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> is divided into a mosaic of complex, polyhedral crustal blocks whose steeply dipping faces correspond to major fracture zones. Zones of convergence and changes in the trend of the monoclinal traces reveal the corners of the blocks. Igneous (and salt) diapirs have been emplaced into many of the designated zones of crustal weakness. As loci of major fracturing, folding, and probably facies changes, the fractures exert control on the entrapment of oil and gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5482058','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5482058"><span>Expansion of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> during the Neogene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Weitao; Zheng, Wenjun; Zhang, Peizhen; Li, Qiang; Kirby, Eric; Yuan, Daoyang; Zheng, Dewen; Liu, Caicai; Wang, Zhicai; Zhang, Huiping; Pang, Jianzhang</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The appearance of detritus shed from mountain ranges along the northern margin of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> heralds the Cenozoic development of high topography. Current estimates of the age of the basal conglomerate in the Qaidam basin place this event in Paleocene-Eocene. Here we present new magnetostratigraphy and mammalian biostratigraphy that refine the onset of basin fill to ∼25.5 Myr and reveal that sediment accumulated continuously until ∼4.8 Myr. Sediment provenance implies a sustained source in the East Kunlun Shan throughout this time period. However, the appearance of detritus from the Qilian Shan at ∼12 Myr suggests emergence of topography north of the Qaidam occurred during the late Miocene. Our results imply that deformation and mountain building significantly post-date Indo-Asian collision and challenge the suggestion that the extent of the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> has remained constant through time. Rather, our results require expansion of high topography during the past 25 Myr. PMID:28635970</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20353056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20353056"><span>[Carbon sequestration of young Robinia pseudoacacia plantation in Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jing-qun; Su, Yin-quan; Kang, Yong-xiang; Xu, Xi-ming; Qin, Yue</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>In order to understand the carbon sequestration of ecological forests in Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, a comparative study was made on the organic carbon density (OCD) of soil, litter, and plant organs in an 8-year-old Robinia pseudoacacia plantation and nearby barren land. Comparing with the barren land, the young R. pseudoacacia plantation had a decrease (0.26 kg x m(-2)) of soil OCD, but the OCD in its litter, root system, and aboveground organs increased by 121.1%, 202.0%, and 656. 7%, respectively, with a total carbon sequestration increased by 3.3% annually, which illustrated that R. pseudoacacia afforestation on Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> had an obvious positive effect on carbon sequestration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990081162&hterms=lunar+base&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlunar%2Bbase','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990081162&hterms=lunar+base&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlunar%2Bbase"><span>Exploring Aristarchus <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> as a Potential Lunar Base Site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Allen, Carlton C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>As part the exploration strategy, NASA has been studying the feasibility of a low cost human return to the Moon. The currently planned mission has a dual focus on the advancement of lunar science and the use of in situ resources. Thus far, our space exploration plans have relied almost exclusively on equipment and supplies transported from Earth. This may be appropriate for operations in Earth orbit, or for short duration stays on the lunar surface. However, the ability to "live off the land," will prove vital for long term habitation of the Moon and planets. This study takes a close look at the Aristarchus <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, one of the primary candidate sites for human lunar exploration. Based on this synthesis study, we recommend two sites on the Aristarchus <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> that will maximize science return and provide a convincing demonstration of the use of in situ resources and which may be a viable future lunar base site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14755852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14755852"><span>[Radon-222 in drinking water of Karkonoskie <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Gorzkowski, Bohdan; Rózycki, Zdzisław; Wieprzowski, Kamil; Bekas, Marcin; Wilejczyk, Elzbieta; Smoter, Jacek</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Radon-222 concentration in surface water, wells water and tap water in the main towns and villages which are located in area of Karkonoskie <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> has been quantitative determined. The measurements were performed using the alpha liquid scintillation counting method. Majority of waterworks in Karkonoskie <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> is supplied with the ground water in which the radon concentration is high from 87.5 Bq/l to 818.1 Bq/l. The waterworks in Karpacz are supplied with the surface water, which main characteristic is low radon concentration (below 10 Bq/l) and with the ground water have a high radon concentration (to 541 Bq/l). Radon-222 concentration in water of individual wells was similar to concentration in the ground water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723249"><span>Carbon sequestration in two alpine soils on the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tian, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Xing-Liang; Song, Ming-Hua; Zhou, Cai-Ping; Gao, Qiong; Ouyang, Hua</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Soil carbon sequestration was estimated in a conifer forest and an alpine meadow on the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> using a carbon-14 radioactive label provided by thermonuclear weapon tests (known as bomb-(14)C). Soil organic matter was physically separated into light and heavy fractions. The concentration spike of bomb-(14)C occurred at a soil depth of 4 cm in both the forest soil and the alpine meadow soil. Based on the depth of the bomb-(14)C spike, the carbon sequestration rate was determined to be 38.5 g C/m(2) per year for the forest soil and 27.1 g C/m(2) per year for the alpine meadow soil. Considering that more than 60% of soil organic carbon (SOC) is stored in the heavy fraction and the large area of alpine forests and meadows on the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, these alpine ecosystems might partially contribute to "the missing carbon sink".</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP53A3760H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP53A3760H"><span>Independently dated paleomagnetic secular variation records from the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haberzettl, T.; Henkel, K.; Kasper, T.; Ahlborn, M.; Su, Y.; Appel, E.; St-Onge, G.; Stoner, J. S.; Daut, G.; Wang, J.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Magnetostratigraphy has been serving as a valuable tool for dating and confirming chronologies of lacustrine sediments in many parts of the world. However, suitable paleomagnetic records on the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> (TP) and adjacent areas are extremely scarce. Here, independently radiocarbon dated sediments of two lakes on the southern central TP, Tangra Yumco and Taro Co some 250 km further west, were investigated for their potential to record paleomagnetic secular variations. Multiple sediment cores resemble a very similar inclination pattern for the past 4000 years. This demonstrates the high potential of inclination to compare records over the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> and eventually date other Tibetan records stratigraphically. Comparisons to an existing record from Nam Co, a lake 350 km west of Tangra Yumco, a varve dated record from the Makran Accretionary Wedge, and a stack record from East Asia reveal many similarities. However, model output data of geomagnetic field models for the coordinates of Tangra Yumco do not agree with our findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25241526','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25241526"><span>[Minimally invasive treatment of tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fracture under arthroscopy monitoring].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Lixin; Ma, Shaoyun; Li, Xianpeng</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Twenty six patients with fracture of tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> was under arthroscopy assisted reduction, the joint surface of bone graft, and USES the steel plate fixation treatment. Average surgery time was 65 min (70-120 min), average fracture healing time was 15 weeks (12-17 weeks), joint surface anatomical reattachment rate was 92.9%. Using break knee function criteria evaluation of curative effect: 18 cases great 6 cases wed, 2 cases ok, fine rate was 92.3%. No infection, deep venous thrombosis and small leg fascia chamber syndrome and other complications. Conclusion is that treatment of tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures under arthroscope has advantages of small trauma, check intuitively and reset accurately, functional recovery of patients are satisfied, the treatment has certain clinical application value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...815887W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...815887W"><span>Expansion of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> during the Neogene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Weitao; Zheng, Wenjun; Zhang, Peizhen; Li, Qiang; Kirby, Eric; Yuan, Daoyang; Zheng, Dewen; Liu, Caicai; Wang, Zhicai; Zhang, Huiping; Pang, Jianzhang</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The appearance of detritus shed from mountain ranges along the northern margin of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> heralds the Cenozoic development of high topography. Current estimates of the age of the basal conglomerate in the Qaidam basin place this event in Paleocene-Eocene. Here we present new magnetostratigraphy and mammalian biostratigraphy that refine the onset of basin fill to ~25.5 Myr and reveal that sediment accumulated continuously until ~4.8 Myr. Sediment provenance implies a sustained source in the East Kunlun Shan throughout this time period. However, the appearance of detritus from the Qilian Shan at ~12 Myr suggests emergence of topography north of the Qaidam occurred during the late Miocene. Our results imply that deformation and mountain building significantly post-date Indo-Asian collision and challenge the suggestion that the extent of the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> has remained constant through time. Rather, our results require expansion of high topography during the past 25 Myr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030515','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030515"><span>Mantle structure beneath the western edge of the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sine, C.R.; Wilson, D.; Gao, W.; Grand, S.P.; Aster, R.; Ni, J.; Baldridge, W.S.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Teleseismic traveltime data are inverted for mantle Vp and Vs variations beneath a 1400 km long line of broadband seismometers extending from eastern New Mexico to western Utah. The model spans 600 km beneath the moho with resolution of ???50 km. Inversions show a sharp, large-magnitude velocity contrast across the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>-Great Basin transition extending ???200 km below the crust. Also imaged is a fast anomaly 300 to 600 km beneath the NW portion of the array. Very slow velocities beneath the Great Basin imply partial melting and/or anomalously wet mantle. We propose that the sharp contrast in mantle velocities across the western edge of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> corresponds to differential lithospheric modification, during and following Farallon subduction, across a boundary defining the western extent of unmodified Proterozoic mantle lithosphere. The deep fast anomaly corresponds to thickened Farallon plate or detached continental lithosphere at transition zone depths. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1989.8099C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1989.8099C"><span>Exploring <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Planet Magnetospheres with Small Focused Missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crary, F.; Bagenal, F.; Clark, G.; Delamere, P. A.; Ebert, R.; Rymer, A. M.; Vought, M.; 26 Other Planetary Magnetospheres Scientists</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The exploration of planetary magnetospheres can be accomplished using small, focused missions. As stand-alone missions or as secondary payloads, this will provide an efficient, flexible framework for magnetospheric science in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020081342','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020081342"><span>Radioisotope Electric Propulsion for Fast <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Planetary Orbiters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oleson, Steven; Benson, Scott; Gefert, Leon; Patterson, Michael; Schreiber, Jeffrey</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Recent interest in <span class="hlt">outer</span> planetary targets by the Office of Space Science has spurred the search for technology options to enable relatively quick missions to <span class="hlt">outer</span> planetary targets. Several options are being explored including solar electric propelled stages combined with aerocapture at the target and nuclear electric propulsion. Another option uses radioisotope powered electric thrusters to reach the <span class="hlt">outer</span> planets. Past work looked at using this technology to provide faster flybys. A better use for this technology is for <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet orbiters. Combined with medium class launch vehicles and a new direct trajectory these small, sub-kilowatt ion thrusters and Stirling radioisotope generators were found to allow missions as fast as 5 to 12 years for objects from Saturn to Pluto, respectively. Key to the development is light spacecraft and science payload technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/fl0594.photos.364571p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/fl0594.photos.364571p/"><span><span class="hlt">OUTER</span> RIM OF CIRCLE, WITH LIVE OAK TREE AT LEFT ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">OUTER</span> RIM OF CIRCLE, WITH LIVE OAK TREE AT LEFT FOREGROUND AND CEMETERY SECTION 25 IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO WEST. - Barrancas National Cemetery, Naval Air Station, 80 Hovey Road, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASAJ..114.1462W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASAJ..114.1462W"><span><span class="hlt">Outer</span> hair cell piezoelectricity: Frequency response enhancement and resonance behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weitzel, Erik K.; Tasker, Ron; Brownell, William E.</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Stretching or compressing an <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cell alters its membrane potential and, conversely, changing the electrical potential alters its length. This bi-directional energy conversion takes place in the cell's lateral wall and resembles the direct and converse piezoelectric effects both qualitatively and quantitatively. A piezoelectric model of the lateral wall has been developed that is based on the electrical and material parameters of the lateral wall. An equivalent circuit for the <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cell that includes piezoelectricity shows a greater admittance at high frequencies than one containing only membrane resistance and capacitance. The model also predicts resonance at ultrasonic frequencies that is inversely proportional to cell length. These features suggest all mammals use <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cell piezoelectricity to support the high-frequency receptor potentials that drive electromotility. It is also possible that members of some mammalian orders use <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cell piezoelectric resonance in detecting species-specific vocalizations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5558814','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5558814"><span><span class="hlt">Outer</span> Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing/Production Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>This annual report on the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing and Production program summarizes receipts and expenditures, and includes information on OCS safety violations as reported by the US Coast Guard. 3 figs., 12 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1989.8205T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1989.8205T"><span>Observing <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Planet Systems in the Mid-21st Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tiscareno, M. S.; Showalter, M. R.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We offer several ideas on space telescopes, spacecraft missions, and the workforce of the future. Most importantly, technology will enable a major increase in time-domain observations, transforming our view of many parts of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa3755.photos.362191p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa3755.photos.362191p/"><span><span class="hlt">Outer</span> supports, bearing wheels, and rach ring of swing span. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Outer</span> supports, bearing wheels, and rach ring of swing span. - Pennsylvania & New Jersey Railroad, Delaware River Bridge, Spanning Delaware River, south of Betsy Ross Bridge (State Route 90), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060042390&hterms=emerging+technology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Demerging%2Btechnology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060042390&hterms=emerging+technology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Demerging%2Btechnology"><span>Emerging communications technologies for <span class="hlt">outer</span>-planet exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stelzried, C.; Lesh, J.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Communication over long free space distances is extremely difficult due to the inverse squared propagation losses associated with link distance. That makes communications particularly difficult from <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet destinations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5737661','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5737661"><span>Nuclear fuel spacer grid with improved <span class="hlt">outer</span> straps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>De Mario, E.E.; Knott, R.P.</p> <p>1986-04-29</p> <p>A grid is described for the spacing of fuel rods in a nuclear reactor fuel assembly, comprising: a plurality of interleaved grid straps arranged in an egg-crate configuration defining cells therein for the separate enclosure of each of the fuel rods; and four <span class="hlt">outer</span> straps attached together in a generally square-shaped array surrounding the heightwise edges of the grid straps. The <span class="hlt">outer</span> straps each has a central portion and a top and a bottom resilient lengthwise border portion, with the heightwise edges of the grid straps attached to the central portions of their associated <span class="hlt">outer</span> straps and with the border portions extending vertically beyond and projecting horizontally outwardly beyond their associated central portions of their common <span class="hlt">outer</span> straps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1403..148B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1403..148B"><span>Decreasing <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Hair Cell Membrane Cholesterol Increases Cochlear Electromechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brownell, William E.; Jacob, Stefan; Hakizimana, Pierre; Ulfendahl, Mats; Fridberger, Anders</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The effect of decreasing membrane cholesterol on the mechanical response of the cochlea to acoustic and/or electrical stimulation was monitored using laser interferometry. In contrast to pharmacological interventions that typically decrease cochlear electromechanics, reducing membrane cholesterol increased the response. The electromechanical response in untreated preparations was asymmetric with greater displacements in response to positive currents and cholesterol depletion increased the asymmetry. The results confirm that <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cell electromotility is enhanced by low membrane cholesterol. The asymmetry of the response indicates the <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cell resting membrane potential is hyperpolarized relative to the voltage of maximum gain for the <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cell voltage-displacement function. The magnitude of the response increase suggests a non-uniform distribution of cholesterol along the lateral wall of normal adult <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IAUS..321...31I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IAUS..321...31I"><span>Star-formation efficiency in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> Galaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Izumi, Natsuko; Kobayashi, Naoto; Yasui, Chikako; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Saito, Masao; Hamano, Satoshi</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We report the results of new survey of star-forming regions in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> Galaxy at Galactocentric radius of more than 13.5 kpc, where the environment is significantly different from that in the solar neighborhood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790042499&hterms=Power+Sources&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPower%2BSources','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790042499&hterms=Power+Sources&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPower%2BSources"><span>Nuclear power sources in <span class="hlt">outer</span> space. [spacecraft propulsion legal aspects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hosenball, S. N.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Legal problems associated with nuclear power sources in space are discussed with particular reference to the Cosmos 954 incident. Deliberations of the Legal and Scientific and Technical Subcommittees on the Peaceful Uses of <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Space on this subject are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2567.photos.382682p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2567.photos.382682p/"><span>6. <span class="hlt">OUTER</span> BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>6. <span class="hlt">OUTER</span> BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/fl0095.photos.053680p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/fl0095.photos.053680p/"><span>35. <span class="hlt">OUTER</span> DRAWBRIDGE, ENTRY TO THE PROTECTIVE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>35. <span class="hlt">OUTER</span> DRAWBRIDGE, ENTRY TO THE PROTECTIVE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE RAVELIN AND THE CASTILLO, AS SEEN FROM WITHIN THE CORRIDOR - Castillo de San Marcos, 1 Castillo Drive, Saint Augustine, St. Johns County, FL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA622572','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA622572"><span>Surface Wave Attenuation in the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> from Ambient Noise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-08-31</p> <p>is unlimited. 16 DISTRIBUTION LIST DTIC/OCP 8725 John J. Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM... AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2015-0150 AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2015-0150 SURFACE WAVE ATTENUATION IN THE TIBETAN <span class="hlt">PLATEAU</span> FROM AMBIENT NOISE University of Illinois at...DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Space Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND KIRTLAND AIR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S31E2283Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S31E2283Z"><span>Crustal Lg-wave attenuation in and around Tibetan <span class="hlt">plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, L.; Xie, X.; Yao, Z.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Based on regional Lg-wave data, we develop a broadband high-resolution attenuation model for Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> and its surrounding regions. We collect vertical component seismograms recorded at 146 stations form 232 crustal earthquakes to calculate the Lg-wave amplitude spectra. The spectra are sampled at 58 discrete frequencies distributed log evenly between 0.05 and 10.0 Hz. Both dual-station and single-station datasets are constructed for jointly inverting the Lg Q distribution and Lg wave excitation function. The maximum spatial resolution is approximately 0.8°×0.8° in well-covered areas and for frequencies between 0.5 and 2.0 Hz. The Lg Q image reveals the relations between attenuations and geological structures. The average Lg Q0 (1 Hz Q) is 280 for Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> (regions with elevations above 4,000 m ). The Q0 values change from the south to north by first decrease (the Himalaya: 386, Lhasa : 284, Qiangtang: 238, and Songpan-Ganze blocks: 217), and then increase ( East Kunlun: 289, West Kunlun: 330, and Qilianshan blocks: 315). The QLg distributions are consistent with the lower crust material flow around the Eastern Himalayan syntaxis and the rigid Sichuan basin. The regions surrounding the Tibetan <span class="hlt">plateau</span> are characterized by high Q0 values (Tarim basin: 433, Altyn mountain: 517, Qaidam basin: 385, Alashan uplift: 452, Inner Mongolian platform: 444, Ordos: 395, and Sichuan basins: 456), except for Yungui <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> which has a relatively low Q0 of 247. A statistical method is used to investigate the regional variations of the Lg Q frequency dependence. The Lg Q generally increases with the increase of frequencies but show complex frequency dependency, indicating the commonly used power-law Q model may not be appropriate within a broad frequency band. The Lg Q frequency dependence also shows regional variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/50273','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/50273"><span>Evaluating first-year pine seedling survival <span class="hlt">plateau</span> in Louisiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Puskar N. Khana; Thomas J. Dean; Scott D. Roberts; Donald L. Grebner</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>First-year seeding survival has been a continuing problem since the start of commercial pine plantation forestry in the 1950s. First-year survival of bare-root loblolly pine seedlings on intensively prepared sites in Louisiana has maintained a survival <span class="hlt">plateau</span> between 79 to 89 percent with an average of about 82 percent. The specific objectives of this study were to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/Books/bid1540.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/Books/bid1540.htm"><span>The Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>: cultural, biological, and physical research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cole, Kenneth L.; van Riper, Charles</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Stretching from the four corners of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah, the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> is a natural laboratory for a wide range of studies. This volume presents 23 original articles drawn from more than 100 research projects presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. This scientific gathering revolved around research, inventory, and monitoring of lands in the region. The book's contents cover management techniques for cultural, biological, and physical resources, representing collaborative efforts among federal, university, and private sector scientists and land managers. Chapters on cultural concerns cover benchmarks of modern southwestern anthropological knowledge, models of past human activity and impact of modern visitation at newly established national monuments, challenges in implementing the 1964 Wilderness Act, and opportunities for increased federal research on Native American lands. The section on biological resources comprises sixteen chapters, with coverage that ranges from mammalian biogeography to responses of elk at the urban-wildland interface. Additional biological studies include the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation; research on bald eagles at Grand Canyon and tracking wild turkeys using radio collars; and management of palentological resources. Two final chapters on physical resources consider a proposed rerouting of the Rio de Flag River in urban Flagstaff, Arizona, and an examination of past climate patterns over the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, using stream flow records and tree ring data. In light of similarities in habitat and climate across the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, techniques useful to particular management units have been found to be applicable in many locations. This volume highlights an abundance of research that will prove useful for all of those working in the region, as well as for others seeking comparative studies that integrate research into land management actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5779N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5779N"><span>Landslide development within the Barlad <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> of Eastern Romania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niacsu, Lilian; Ionita, Ion</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Barlad <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, extending about 8,230 square kilometers is considered as the most typical unit of the Moldavian <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> of the Eastern Romania. The Miocene-Pliocene clay-sandy layers are inter-bedded with shallow sandstone and limestone seams. These sedimentary layers that have outcropped as a result of erosion are gently dipping toward S-SE in the form of a monocline. Landslides have been recognized as an important environmental threat in the major subunits of the Barlad <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, namely: Central Moldavian <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, Falciu Hills and Tutova Rolling Hills. Four main areas of monitoring landslides were explored such as successive aerial photographs of the 1960, 1970, 2005 and 2009 flights, repeated field surveys for a thorough reconnaissance of the study area, classical levelling work and GIS software applications as TNT Mips and Arc GIS. Also, the Caesium-137 technique has been used to get information on documenting sedimentation rates in some small catchments. Results have indicated that the landslide development is strongly controlled by the northern and western looking steep faces of cuestas, by changes of rock composition and by human impact. Also, it showed great pulses in conjunction with the rainfall distribution. For example, half of the Upper Barlad catchment that drains an area of 22,560 ha is covered by landslides. Furthermore, the active landslides amounted 11% of the total (2,317 ha) after the rainy 1968-1973 period and since 1982 under drier conditions they gradually limited to 444.0 ha (2% of the total).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...806..225P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...806..225P"><span>On the Intrinsic Diversity of Type II-<span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Supernovae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pejcha, Ondřej; Prieto, Jose L.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Hydrogen-rich Type II-<span class="hlt">Plateau</span> supernovae (SNe) exhibit correlations between the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> luminosity {L}{pl}, the nickel mass {M}{Ni}, the explosion energy {E}{exp}, and the ejecta mass {M}{ej}. Using our global, self-consistent, multi-band model of nearby well-observed SNe, we find that the covariances of these quantities are strong and that the confidence ellipsoids are oriented in the direction of the correlations, which reduces their significance. By proper treatment of the covariance matrix of the model, we discover a significant intrinsic width to the correlations between {L}{pl}, {E}{exp} and {M}{Ni}, where the uncertainties due to the distance and the extinction dominate. For fixed {E}{exp}, the spread in {M}{Ni} is about 0.25 dex, which we attribute to the differences in the progenitor internal structure. We argue that the effects of incomplete γ-ray trapping are not important in our sample. Similarly, the physics of the Type II-<span class="hlt">Plateau</span> SN light curves leads to inherently degenerate estimates of {E}{exp} and {M}{ej}, which makes their observed correlation weak. Ignoring the covariances of SN parameters or the intrinsic width of the correlations causes significant biases in the slopes of the fitted relations. Our results imply that Type II-<span class="hlt">Plateau</span> SN explosions are not described by a single physical parameter or a simple one-dimensional trajectory through the parameter space, but instead reflect the diversity of the core and surface properties of their progenitors. We discuss the implications for the physics of the explosion mechanism and possible future observational constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_6570.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_6570.htm"><span>Florida-Hatteras shelf and slope, and inner Blake <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Paull, Charles K.; Popenoe, Peter; Dillon, William P.; McCarthy, Susan M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>During 1976 more than 5000 kilometers (km) of seismic-reflection profiles were obtained on the Florida-Hatteras shelf and slope, and the inner Blake <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. From these data reflecting units were traced regionally (Paull and Dillon, 1979; Edsal, 1979), and the structure and stratigraphy of the shelf were determined This geologic subcrop map is based largely on the interpretation of Paull and Dillon (1979).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170004746','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170004746"><span>Atmospheric Mining in the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Solar System: <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Planet Orbital Transfer and Lander Analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Palaszewski, Bryan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric mining in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, and the issues with in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) mining factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points. For analyses of round trip OTV flights from Uranus to Miranda or Titania, a 10-Megawatt electric (MWe) OTV power level and a 200-metric ton (MT) lander payload were selected based on a relative short OTV trip time and minimization of the number of lander flights. A similar optimum power level is suggested for OTVs flying from low orbit around Neptune to Thalassa or Triton. Several moon base sites at Uranus and Neptune and the OTV requirements to support them are also addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170005215','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170005215"><span>Atmospheric Mining in the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Solar System: <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Planet Orbital Transfer and Lander Analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Palaszewski, Bryan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric mining in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, and the issues with in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) mining factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points. For analyses of round trip OTV flights from Uranus to Miranda or Titania, a 10- Megawatt electric (MWe) OTV power level and a 200 metricton (MT) lander payload were selected based on a relative short OTV trip time and minimization of the number of lander flights. A similar optimum power level is suggested for OTVs flying from low orbit around Neptune to Thalassa or Triton. Several moon base sites at Uranus and Neptune and the OTV requirements to support them are also addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11250536','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11250536"><span>Characterization of hepatic low-K(m) <span class="hlt">outer-ring</span> deiodination in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>VanPutte, C L; MacKenzie, D S; Eales, J G</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>The more biologically active thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)), is primarily derived from peripheral deiodination of thyroxine (T(4)). We characterized hepatic deiodination for a commercially important, warm water teleost fish, the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Low K(m) <span class="hlt">outer-ring</span> deiodination (ORD) activity was determined by production of free iodide ((125)I) upon incubation of hepatic microsomes with radiolabeled T(4). HPLC analysis demonstrated that (125)I, and T(3) were produced in equal amounts, thereby validating 125I as a measure of T(3) production. A small amount of 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T(3)) was also produced by inner-ring deiodination. Production of (125)I was linear over a range of 0--100 microg protein/ml and for incubations of 30 min--4 h. Maximal ORD activity was measured at pH 6.6, 50 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) and an incubation temperature of 20 degrees C. Double reciprocal plots demonstrated that the average apparent K(m) was 5.1 nM and the average V(max) was 3.7 pmol T(4) converted/h per mg protein. ORD was not inhibited by propylthiouracil but was 50% inhibited by 90 microM of iodoacetic acid and 7 microM of gold thioglucose. The substrate analog preference was T(4) = tetraiodoacetic acid = reverse T(3) > triiodoacetic acid > T(3). In relation to other tissues, ORD for liver>gill>intestine>kidney. Similar hepatic deiodination activity was present in adult wild, aquacultured and laboratory-reared red drum, but in adult wild red drum the optimum temperature was higher. Red drum hepatic low-K(m) deiodination activity appears to most closely resemble rainbow trout hepatic and mammalian Type II deiodination. Evidence of inner-ring T(4) deiodination suggests a more active hepatic iodothyronine catabolic pathway than in other teleost species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA533093','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA533093"><span>Stratigraphic and Geoacoustic Characterization of the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> New Jersey Shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-09-30</p> <p>reflection data and core locations, superimposed on multibeam bathymetric map of the NJ <span class="hlt">outer</span> shelf. The region of the SW06 experiment is defined by...truth information. This interpretation will focus on the <span class="hlt">outer</span> shelf wedge (OSW) that forms the seafloor substrate over most of the SW06 experiment...interpretation. Available physical property measurements will be used to constrain such relationships. APPROACH Seafloor and subseafloor data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=108019','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=108019"><span>Isolation and Characterization of the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Membrane of Borrelia hermsii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shang, Ellen S.; Skare, Jonathan T.; Exner, Maurice M.; Blanco, David R.; Kagan, Bruce L.; Miller, James N.; Lovett, Michael A.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane of Borrelia hermsii has been shown by freeze-fracture analysis to contain a low density of membrane-spanning <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane proteins which have not yet been isolated or identified. In this study, we report the purification of <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane vesicles (OMV) from B. hermsii HS-1 and the subsequent identification of their constituent <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane proteins. The B. hermsii <span class="hlt">outer</span> membranes were released by vigorous vortexing of whole organisms in low-pH, hypotonic citrate buffer and isolated by isopycnic sucrose gradient centrifugation. The isolated OMV exhibited porin activities ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 nS, consistent with their <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane origin. Purified OMV were shown to be relatively free of inner membrane contamination by the absence of measurable β-NADH oxidase activity and the absence of protoplasmic cylinder-associated proteins observed by Coomassie blue staining. Approximately 60 protein spots (some of which are putative isoelectric isomers) with 25 distinct molecular weights were identified as constituents of the OMV enrichment. The majority of these proteins were also shown to be antigenic with sera from B. hermsii-infected mice. Seven of these antigenic proteins were labeled with [3H]palmitate, including the surface-exposed glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase, the variable major proteins 7 and 33, and proteins of 15, 17, 38, 42, and 67 kDa, indicating that they are lipoprotein constituents of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane. In addition, immunoblot analysis of the OMV probed with antiserum to the Borrelia garinii surface-exposed p66/Oms66 porin protein demonstrated the presence of a p66 (Oms66) <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane homolog. Treatment of intact B. hermsii with proteinase K resulted in the partial proteolysis of the Oms66/p66 homolog, indicating that it is surface exposed. This identification and characterization of the OMV proteins should aid in further studies of pathogenesis and immunity of tick-borne relapsing fever. PMID:9488399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750012294','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750012294"><span>Science payload. [of <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet atmospheric entry probe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Myers, H.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The representative science payload of an <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet atmospheric entry probe is described. The instrumental details are based on experiments that have been successfully flown in the atmospheres of Earth and Venus. The incorporation of these instruments into an <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet probe requires a strong interaction between instrument designer and probe designer. The installation of the instruments into a 250 lb entry probe is illustrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S53A1471C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S53A1471C"><span>Analysis of Recent Major <span class="hlt">Outer</span>-Rise Earthquake Rupture Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cleveland, M.; Ammon, C.; Lay, T.; Kanamori, H.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Outer</span>-rise earthquakes can help indicate the degree of seismic coupling of a subduction zone megathrust as well help constrain stress transfer processes in underthrusting oceanic lithosphere during the seismic cycle. In addition, <span class="hlt">outer</span> rise earthquake-related structures may play a significant role in the transport of water into subduction zones, and possibly provide seismogenic structures re-activated during intermediate-depth earthquakes. And finally, although less frequent than large underthrusting events, large <span class="hlt">outer</span>-rise earthquakes may pose significant hazard since they have been found to display higher stress drops and greater enrichment in high frequency shaking than comparable size interplate events. In this study we analyze and compare the seismic properties of three specific <span class="hlt">outer</span>-rise sequences, representing relatively diverse tectonic characteristics, including events from southern Vanuatu (formerly New Hebrides), central Kuril Islands, and the Andaman Islands regions. Similar to several important historic events, these recent large <span class="hlt">outer</span> rise sequences provide information on the transmission of slab-pull generated stresses and their relationship with large underthrusting earthquakes. To allow comparison with the 13 January (Mw 8.1) 2007 central Kuril Islands sequence that we studied previously, we conduct finite-fault analyses of the 16 May, 1995 Vanuatu, Mw = 7.7 and 10 August, 2009 Andaman Islands, Mw = 7.5, <span class="hlt">outer</span>-rise events using azimuthally distributed teleseismic P and SH waveforms and Rayleigh-wave effective source time functions. The unique tectonic geometry of the Vanuatu event, occurring near the corner of the overriding Pacific Plate, conveys information about the influence of geometry on the <span class="hlt">outer</span>-rise character. The Andaman earthquake occurred in a region with substantially oblique plate motion where geometrical plate relationships remain somewhat unclear. Considering their seismic properties and relationship to nearby great underthrusting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T13B2991S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T13B2991S"><span>Regional Phase Attenuation across the Turkish-Iranian <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sandvol, E. A.; Kaviani, A.; Ku, W.; Ghalib, H. A. A.; Burch, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We have constructed and validated regional wave (Pg and Lg) attenuation models for the crust and upper mantle throughout the Iranian <span class="hlt">plateau</span> and surrounding regions. This research has increased ray path coverage of critical areas and help to create robust regional phase amplitude and attenuation models. We have recently combined our Iranian data set with our existing Middle Eastern Lg waveform database including stations from the recent CDCAT seismic experiment in central Anatolia. Together, these two data sets give us reasonably good coverage of the northern Middle East using both a two-station and reverse-two-station (RTM) attenuation measurements. We have also processed Pg waveforms in order to obtain robust estimates of Qp in the crust within the Anatolian-Iranian <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. In general we have found a good correlation between Lg and Pg Q values with the exception of northwestern Iran. We are using our models of Qp and Qs for the crust to better understand the origin of the crustal models and to help determine the origin of the seismic anomalies in the crust beneath the Turkish-Iranian <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. We will correlate our Q models with variations in seismic wave speed from ambient noise tomography and local body wave tomography to understand whether composition or temperature anomalies are generating the observed seismic anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/books/book/669/chapter/3807642/Cenozoic-mountain-building-on-the-northeastern','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/books/book/669/chapter/3807642/Cenozoic-mountain-building-on-the-northeastern"><span>Cenozoic mountain building on the northeastern Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lease, Richard O.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Northeastern Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> growth illuminates the kinematics, geodynamics, and climatic consequences of large-scale orogenesis, yet only recently have data become available to outline the spatiotemporal pattern and rates of this growth. I review the tectonic history of range growth across the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> margin north of the Kunlun fault (35°–40°N) and east of the Qaidam basin (98°–107°E), synthesizing records from fault-bounded mountain ranges and adjacent sedimentary basins. Deformation began in Eocene time shortly after India-Asia collision, but the northeastern orogen boundary has largely remained stationary since this time. Widespread middle Miocene–Holocene range growth is portrayed by accelerated deformation, uplift, erosion, and deposition across northeastern Tibet. The extent of deformation, however, only expanded ~150 km outward to the north and east and ~150 km laterally to the west. A middle Miocene reorganization of deformation characterized by shortening at various orientations heralds the onset of the modern kinematic regime where shortening is coupled to strike slip. This regime is responsible for the majority of Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening and the development of the northeastern Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914390H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914390H"><span>Soil Erosion Study on the Chinese Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli; Kuhn, Nikolaus</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The Chinese Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, because of its highly erodible loess soils and hilly topography, has been extensively studied by soil scientists and geomorphologists. As a research hotspot, there are five national-level field stations across the Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, with hundreds of erosion plots set up with various sizes, lengths, slope angles and vegetation covers. In addition, huge indoor rain simulation facilities exist in in different institutes which can provide rainfall simulations under a wide range of controlled conditions. Consequently, national-level restoration projects have achieved tremendous improvements in curbing soil erosion and improving regional agro-ecosystem, mostly by afforestation and soil rehabilitation. However, when implementing the advanced techniques and models that have been widely applied in the rest of the world, there are often regional considerations, which demand new approaches to overcome. One example are the unintentional impacts of restoration efforts, such as the establishment of apple orchards. Over 20 years, they have caused an increase in soil erodibility and lowered local ground water levels. Neither before the introduction of this landscape rehabilitation technique, nor now, has the impact of intensive fruit production been systematically studied, despite lending itself to systematic experiments. The lack of research is attributed to the general idea that trees protect soils and improve environmental services. This presentation identifies several such specific regional environmental issues associated with soil erosion on the Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> and discusses strategies to avoid missing important research questions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26277732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26277732"><span>Development and preliminary test of a new <span class="hlt">plateau</span> hyperbaric chamber.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Liang; Ding, Meng-jiang; Cai, Tian-cai; Fan, Hao-jun; Zhang, Jian-peng</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to validate the performance, define its limits, and provide details on a new <span class="hlt">plateau</span> hyperbaric chamber at 355-, 2880-, and 4532-m high altitude. A new multiplace <span class="hlt">plateau</span> hyperbaric chamber was designed to satisfy the needed of patients who have acute mountain sickness. Tests were conducted inside the chamber at 355-, 2880-, and 4532-m high altitude. The safely and conveniences of the new <span class="hlt">plateau</span> hyperbaric chamber were estimated. Minimum pressures of the main compartment can reach up to 0.029, 0.022, and 0.02 MPa at 355-, 2880-, and 4532-m high altitude. During pressurization, there was no leak of air around the chamber. The time lag of pressure equilibration between main and buffer compartment varies from 30.3±2.01 to 200.5±5.44 seconds and between buffer compartment and ambient pressure varies from 60.2±4.13 to 215.9±6.76 seconds. The chamber can be applicated for acute mountain sickness treatment safety and convenience. However, further experience about animals and human within the chamber is needed to improve the hardware and establish conditions of effective utilization of this equipment in the high altitude. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6181219','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6181219"><span>Sequence stratigraphy on an early Cretaceous passive margin, Exmouth <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyd, R.; Gorur, N.; Ito, M.; O'Brien, D.; Wilkens, R.; Tang, C.</p> <p>1989-03-01</p> <p>Permian-Jurassic rifting of northwestern Australia resulted in the development of a passive continental margin flanking the northeastern Indian Ocean. On this margin the relatively thin synrift to postrift sedimentary sequence of southern Exmouth <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> was drilled during ODP Leg 122. A sequence-stratigraphy analysis of the complete Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary succession at Sites 762 and 763 was derived from a synthesis of seismic stratigraphy, wireline logs, lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and magnetostratigraphy. Results indicate that during breakup, the southern Exmouth <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> was a transform margin with an extensional component. Between the Tithonian and Valanginian, a thick clastic wedge prograded from the transform margin south of Site 763 northwestward toward Site 762 and onto subsiding continental crust. Southern clastic supply decreased into the Aptian-Cenomanian, and cyclic deposition of deep-water mudstones continued during subsidence of the earlier shelf margin wedge. Between the Albian and Cenomanian, deposition gradually became dominated by pelagic carbonates. Two regional unconformities mark the Cenomanian/Turonian and Cretaceous/Tertiary boundaries. Each was an erosional event, succeeded by renewed pelagic carbonate deposition that began in the distal northern basin and onlapped progressively toward the topographic high, which persisted into the Tertiary along the southern margin. The entire Jurassic to Holocene record at the southern Exmouth <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> ODP sites is less than 1500 m thick and represents a classic rift to mature ocean passive-margin succession.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatGe..10..592E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatGe..10..592E"><span>Formation of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> landscapes on glaciated continental margins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Egholm, David L.; Jansen, John D.; Brædstrup, Christian F.; Pedersen, Vivi K.; Andersen, Jane L.; Ugelvig, Sofie V.; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Knudsen, Mads F.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Low-relief plateaus separated by deeply incised fjords are hallmarks of glaciated, passive continental margins. Spectacular examples fringe the once ice-covered North Atlantic coasts of Greenland, Norway and Canada, but low-relief <span class="hlt">plateau</span> landscapes also underlie present-day ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland. Dissected plateaus have long been viewed as the outcome of selective linear erosion by ice sheets that focus incision in glacial troughs, leaving the intervening landscapes essentially unaffected. According to this hypothesis, the plateaus are remnants of preglacial low-relief topography. However, here we use computational experiments to show that, like fjords, plateaus are emergent properties of long-term ice-sheet erosion. Ice sheets can either increase or decrease subglacial relief depending on the wavelength of the underlying topography, and <span class="hlt">plateau</span> topography arises dynamically from evolving feedbacks between topography, ice dynamics and erosion over million-year timescales. This new mechanistic explanation for <span class="hlt">plateau</span> formation opens the possibility of plateaus contributing significantly to accelerated sediment flux at the onset of the late Cenozoic glaciations, before becoming stable later in the Quaternary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93..298K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93..298K"><span>New images of complex structures underneath the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, Mohi</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> contains some of the highest mountains in the world and was formed by the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates beginning around 55 million years ago. Curious about how such elevated terrains form, Yue et al. used data collected from a seismic experiment conducted between 2007 and 2009 to image the complex three-dimensional geometry of the crust and upper mantle in northeastern Tibet. The scientists' results detected the interaction between components of thrust and subduction, shed light on the conditions surrounding crustal loading, and located mantle discontinuities and small-scale mantle convection. Despite the thick crust of the <span class="hlt">plateau</span>, which can reach depths of 65-75 kilometers, the authors were able to capture for the first time major vertical offsets (ranging from 10 to 20 kilometers) in the Mohorovičić discontinuity, the boundary between the crust and the mantle underlying the region. These offsets, along with the presence of other structures, bear testament to the intricate evolution of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>; the authors posit different scenarios on the history of this evolution, including the presence of buried remnant slabs of possible oceanic origin that continue to sink and create mantle eddies. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, doi:10.1029/2011JB008545, 2012)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12444516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12444516"><span>Arthroscopy-assisted operative management of tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Asik, Mehmet; Cetik, Ozgur; Talu, Ufuk; Sozen, Yunus V</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>This retrospective review evaluated the results of arthroscopy-assisted surgery for tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures in 45 patients with closed tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures. The fracture involved articular depression in 27 patients in whom lifting and bone grafting with autogenous corticocancellous iliac bone graft was required. In 23 patients there were also meniscal lesions, which were treated by partial resection in 16 and repaired in 7. Internal fixation was performed using screws in 36 knees and plate in 10 knees. Radiological results were evaluated according to the Resnic-Niwoyama criteria; mean follow-up was 36 months (range 14-72). There was no intraoperative complication in the series, but postoperatively there were one infection and one loss of correction. Results were satisfactory in 89% of cases, according the Rasmussen criteria. Arthroscopy is thus an excellent and minimally invasive method for assessment and treatment of tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures. The advantages are complete and anatomical reduction in the fractured articular surface and evaluation of other concomitant intra-articular pathology and entails only little additional morbidity, especially compared to arthrotomy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6078353','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6078353"><span>Mesozoic tectonic features of the Floridan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> basement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lord, K.M. . Dept. of Geology)</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Digitally-filtered Bouguer gravity anomaly maps of the Floridan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> delineate the Mesozoic extensional basins in the southwestern half of the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> and suggest modification of existing basement models. The extension into Florida of the Triassic South Georgia Rift is marked by a gravity low and appears to have small ancillary rift basins paralleling its southeastern border. The Jurassic Apalachicola, Tampa, and South Florida Basins are delineated by positive anomalies, possibly attributable to the emplacement of hypabyssal rocks, and are separated by the negative anomalies of the Middle Ground and Sarasota Arches. The Tampa Basin is more aerially extensive than shown on previous basement maps, extending from the Jay Fault zone to the western edge of the <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. The South Florida Basin is likely comprised of three separate NW-trending grabens sharing a common northwestern boundary. Existing seismic reflection profiles provide a characterization of some of the boundaries of these features. All of them, with the possible exception of the Apalachicola Basin, are bounded by the Jay Fault zone, a probable Paleozoic right-lateral strike-slip zone, segments of which were reactivated during the Mesozoic to accommodate differential vertical movement related to extension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JSG....13..319A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JSG....13..319A"><span>Thrust kinematics in the Kohat <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, Trans Indus Range, Pakistan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abbasi, Iftikhar Ahmed; McElroy, Ronan</p> <p></p> <p>The Kohat <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> consists of a heavily deformed and structurally elevated thrust sheet. Pop-ups, broad synclines and narrow fault- and evaporite-cored anticlines record high-level translation of a large thrust mass along Eocene evaporites. A lower detachment level is also inferred, located at the base of the Mesozoic-Palaeozoic section. This lower detachment is common to both the Kohat and the adjacent Potwar Plateaux whereas the upper level is restricted to the Kohat. Beneath the Kohat, a blind imbricate stack of pre-Tertiary rocks is developed. Above their roof thrust, the foreland basin-fill of Kohat records greater internal deformation compared to that of the adjacent Potwar <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. In contrast, the Potwar thrust belt displays a greater amount of overthrusting on its basal surface, this displacement emerging in the Salt Range. Total shortening across the two plateaux is comparable, but is accommodated in an areally smaller thrust belt with a higher structural relief in the Kohat as compared to the Potwar structural province. The resultant geographical offset of the thrust front is denoted by the Hukni-Kalabagh lateral ramp. The differences in the thrust kinematics are tentatively suggested to be caused by the mechanical response of the orogenic wedge to different imposed geometries of the wedge laterally within the basin. The Kohat <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> appears to have a lower basal dip than does the western Potwar, and thus shows greater internal deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApJ...715..833O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApJ...715..833O"><span>The Standardized Candle Method for Type II <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Supernovae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olivares E., Felipe; Hamuy, Mario; Pignata, Giuliano; Maza, José; Bersten, Melina; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Morrel, Nidia I.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Matheson, Thomas</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>In this paper, we study the "standardized candle method" using a sample of 37 nearby (redshift z < 0.06) Type II <span class="hlt">plateau</span> supernovae having BVRI photometry and optical spectroscopy. An analytic procedure is implemented to fit light curves, color curves, and velocity curves. We find that the V-I color toward the end of the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> can be used to estimate the host-galaxy reddening with a precision of σ(AV ) = 0.2 mag. The correlation between <span class="hlt">plateau</span> luminosity and expansion velocity previously reported in the literature is recovered. Using this relation and assuming a standard reddening law (RV = 3.1), we obtain Hubble diagrams (HDs) in the BVI bands with dispersions of ~0.4 mag. Allowing RV to vary and minimizing the spread in the HDs, we obtain a dispersion range of 0.25-0.30 mag, which implies that these objects can deliver relative distances with precisions of 12%-14%. The resulting best-fit value of RV is 1.4 ± 0.1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V23C3000R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V23C3000R"><span>Mixing on the Heard Island <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> during HEOBI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robertson, R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>On the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> near Heard and McDonald Islands, the water column was nearly always well mixed. Typically, temperature differences between the surface and the bottom, 100-200 m, were less than 0.2oC and often less that 0.1oC. Surface stratification developed through insolation and deep primarily through a combination of upwelling from canyons and over the edge of the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> and tidal advection. This stratification was primarily removed by a combination of wind and tidal mixing. Persistent winds of 30 knots mixed the upper 20-50 m. Strong wind events, 40-60 knots, mixed the water column to 100-200 m depth, which over the <span class="hlt">plateau</span>, was often the entire water column. Benthic tidal friction mixed the bottom 30-50 m. Although the water column was unstratified at the two plume sites intensively investigated, tidal velocities were baroclinic, probably due to topographic controls. Tidal advection changed the bottom temperatures by 0.5oC within 8 hours, more than doubling the prior stratification. Wind mixing quickly homogenized the water column, resulting in the surface often showing the deeper upwelling and advective events. Although acoustic plumes with bubbles were observed in the water column, there was no evidence of geothermal vents or geothermal influence on temperatures. Mixing by bubbles rising in the water column was indistinguishable from the wind and tidal mixing, although the strongest upward vertical velocities were observed at the sites of these acoustic/bubble plumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1188918','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1188918"><span>Black Carbon Radiative Forcing over the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Gu, Yu; Qi, L.; Mao, Yuhao; Leung, Lai-Yung R.</p> <p>2014-11-28</p> <p>We estimate the snow albedo forcing and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> using a global chemical transport model in conjunction with a stochastic snow model and a radiative transfer model. Our best estimate of the annual BC snow albedo forcing in the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> is 2.9 W m-2 (uncertainty: 1.5–5.0 W m-226 ). We find that BC-snow internal mixing increases the albedo forcing by 40-60% compared with external mixing and coated BC increases the forcing by 30-50% compared with uncoated BC, whereas Koch snowflakes reduce the forcing by 20-40% relative to spherical snow grains. Our best estimate of the annual BC DRF at the top of the atmosphere is 2.3 W m-2 (uncertainty: 0.7–4.3 W m-230 ) in the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> after scaling the modeled BC absorption optical depth to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. The BC forcings are attributed to emissions from different regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/878135','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/878135"><span>Proteome analysis of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane from Neurospora crassa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schmitt, Simone; Prokisch, Holger; Schlunk, Tilman; Camp, David G.; Ahting, Uwe; Waizenegger, Thomas; Scharfe, Curt M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Imhof, Axel; Neupert, Walter; Oefner, Peter J.; Rapaport, Doron</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The mitochondrial <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane mediates numerous interactions between the metabolic and genetic systems of mitochondria and the rest of the eukaryotic cell. We performed a proteomic study to discover novel functions of components of the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane. Proteins of highly pure <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane vesicles (OMV) from Neurospora crassa were identified by a combination of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptide digests and gel electrophoresis of solubilized OMV proteins, followed by their identification using MALDI-MS peptide fingerprinting. Among the 30 proteins found in at least three of four separate analyses were 23 proteins with known functions in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane. These included components of the import machinery (the TOM and TOB complexes), a pore-forming component (Porin), and proteins that control fusion and fission of the organelle. In addition, proteins playing a role in various biosynthetic pathways, whose intracellular location had not been established previously, could be localized to the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane. Thus, the proteome of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane can help in identifying new mitochondria-related functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4072712','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4072712"><span>Dissecting Escherichia coli <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Membrane Biogenesis Using Differential Proteomics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martorana, Alessandra M.; Motta, Sara; Di Silvestre, Dario; Falchi, Federica; Dehò, Gianni; Mauri, Pierluigi; Sperandeo, Paola; Polissi, Alessandra</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is a complex multi-layered structure comprising an inner cytoplasmic membrane and an additional asymmetric lipid bilayer, the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane, which functions as a selective permeability barrier and is essential for viability. Lipopolysaccharide, an essential glycolipid located in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> leaflet of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane, greatly contributes to the peculiar properties exhibited by the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane. This complex molecule is transported to the cell surface by a molecular machine composed of seven essential proteins LptABCDEFG that form a transenvelope complex and function as a single device. While advances in understanding the mechanisms that govern the biogenesis of the cell envelope have been recently made, only few studies are available on how bacterial cells respond to severe envelope biogenesis defects on a global scale. Here we report the use of differential proteomics based on Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) to investigate how Escherichia coli cells respond to a block of lipopolysaccharide transport to the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane. We analysed the envelope proteome of a lptC conditional mutant grown under permissive and non permissive conditions and identified 123 proteins whose level is modulated upon LptC depletion. Most such proteins belong to pathways implicated in cell envelope biogenesis, peptidoglycan remodelling, cell division and protein folding. Overall these data contribute to our understanding on how E. coli cells respond to LPS transport defects to restore <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane functionality. PMID:24967819</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20616105','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20616105"><span>Assembly of <span class="hlt">outer</span>-membrane proteins in bacteria and mitochondria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tommassen, Jan</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria consists of two membranes separated by the periplasm. In contrast with most integral membrane proteins, which span the membrane in the form of hydrophobic alpha-helices, integral <span class="hlt">outer</span>-membrane proteins (OMPs) form beta-barrels. Similar beta-barrel proteins are found in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, probably reflecting the endosymbiont origin of these eukaryotic cell organelles. How these beta-barrel proteins are assembled into the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane has remained enigmatic for a long time. In recent years, much progress has been reached in this field by the identification of the components of the OMP assembly machinery. The central component of this machinery, called Omp85 or BamA, is an essential and highly conserved bacterial protein that recognizes a signature sequence at the C terminus of its substrate OMPs. A homologue of this protein is also found in mitochondria, where it is required for the assembly of beta-barrel proteins into the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane as well. Although accessory components of the machineries are different between bacteria and mitochondria, a mitochondrial beta-barrel OMP can be assembled into the bacterial <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane and, vice versa, bacterial OMPs expressed in yeast are assembled into the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane. These observations indicate that the basic mechanism of OMP assembly is evolutionarily highly conserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IAUS..321..217B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IAUS..321..217B"><span>Molecular gas in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> disks of galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Braine, Jonathan</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Molecular gas has still only been detected beyond the R25 radius in a few galaxies. Is this due to the low H2 content or to the difficulty of using Carbon Monoxide (CO) to trace H2? Similarly, star formation (SF) decreases sharply in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> disks of spirals although HI is often plentiful; is the decrease in SF because there is little H2 or because the SF is very inefficient in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> disk environment? Existing observations suggest that while <span class="hlt">outer</span> disk clouds tend to be smaller (steeper mass function), their CO brightness temperature is only slightly lower than in the inner disk, at least when observed with sufficiently high angular resolution. In near-solar metallicity galaxies (Z >= 0.5Zsol ), the CO does not become intrinsically difficult to detect when H2 is present, even in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> disk. While more observations of CO or other means of tracing H2 in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> disks are necessary, current data tend to show that the SF rate per unit H2 remains approximately constant with galactocentric distance, indicating that the star formation proceeds normally but the transformation of HI into H2 is very slow in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> disk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-10/pdf/2011-3004.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-10/pdf/2011-3004.pdf"><span>76 FR 7518 - <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-02-10</p> <p>... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska AGENCY... of the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Air Regulations. Requirements applying to OCS sources..., Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Continental Shelf, Ozone, Particulate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.126...15A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.126...15A"><span>Climatology of monsoon precipitation over the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> from 13-year TRMM observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aijuan, Bai; Guoping, Li</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Based on the 13-year data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite during 2001-2013, the influencing geographical location of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> (<span class="hlt">Plateau</span>) monsoon is determined. It is found that the domain of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> monsoon is bounded by the latitude between 27° N and 37° N and the longitude between 60° E and 103° E. According to the annual relative precipitation, the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> monsoon can be divided into three sections: the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> winter monsoon (PWM) over Iran and Afghanistan, the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> summer monsoon (PSM) over the central <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, and the transiting zone of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> monsoon (TPM) over the south, west, and east edges of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. In PWM and PSM, the monsoon climatology has a shorter rainy season with the mean annual rainfall of less than 800 mm. In TPM, it has a longer rainy season with the mean annual rainfall of more than 1800 mm. PWM experiences a single-peak monthly rainfall with the peak during January to March; PSM usually undergoes a multi-peak pattern with peaks in the warm season; TPM presents a double-peak pattern, with a strong peak in late spring to early summer and a secondary peak in autumn. The <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> monsoon also characterizes an asymmetrical seasonal advance of the rain belt. In the east of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, the rain belt migrates in a south-north orientation under the impact of the tropical and subtropical systems' oscillation. In the west of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, the rain belt advances in an east-west direction, which is mainly controlled by the regional <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> monsoon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20881634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20881634"><span>Three-column fixation for complex tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, Cong-Feng; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Bo; Zeng, Bing-Fang</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>1) To introduce a computed tomography-based "three-column fixation" concept; and 2) to evaluate clinical outcomes (by using a column-specific fixation technique) for complex tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures (Schatzker classification Types V and VI). Prospective cohort study. Level 1 trauma center. Twenty-nine cases of complex tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures were included. Based on routine x-ray and computed tomography images, all the fractures were classified as a "three-column fracture," which means at least one separate fragment was found in lateral, medial, and posterior columns in the proximal tibia (Schatzker classification Types V and VI). The patients were operated on in a "floating position" with a combined approach, an inverted L-shaped posterior approach combined with an anterior-lateral approach. All three columns of fractures were fixed. Operative time, blood loss, quality of reduction and alignment, fracture healing, complications, and functional outcomes based on Hospital for Special Surgery score and lower-extremity measure were recorded. All the cases were followed for average 27.3 months (range, 24-36 months). All the cases had satisfactory reduction except one case, which had a 4-mm stepoff at the anterior ridge of the tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> postoperatively. No case of secondary articular depression was found. One case had secondary varus deformity, one case had secondary valgus deformity, and two cases of screw loosening occurred postoperatively. No revision surgery was performed. Two cases had culture-negative wound drainage. No infection was noted. The average radiographic bony union time and full weightbearing time were 13.1 weeks (range, 11-16 weeks) and 16.7 weeks (range, 12-24 weeks), respectively. The mean Short Form 36, Hospital for Special Surgery score, and lower-extremity measure at 24 months postoperatively were 89 (range, 80-98), 90 (range, 84-98), and 87 (range, 80-95), respectively. The average range of motion of the affected knee was 2.7° to 123.4° at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMetR..31..514F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMetR..31..514F"><span>Analysis of the structure of different Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> vortex types</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Xinyuan; Liu, Changhai; Fan, Guangzhou; Zhang, Jie</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the structure of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> vortex (TPV) is of considerable importance for understanding the generation and development mechanisms of this mesoscale system. However, our understanding of vortex structures and our ability to classify them on a physical basis is limited due to insufficient observations. The highresolution new-generation NCEP-CFSR (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) dataset is used in the present paper to investigate the general structural features of various types of mature TPV through classification and composite structure analysis. Results indicate that the dynamic and thermodynamic structures show regional and seasonal dependency, as well as being influenced by attributes of translation, associated precipitation, and the South Asian high (SAH). The common precipitating TPV (type I), frequently occurring in the west-east-oriented zonal region between 33° and 36°N, is a notably low-level baroclinic and asymmetric system. It resides within a large-scale confluent zone and preferentially travels eastward, potentially moving out of the <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. The heavy rain vortex (type II) corresponds to a deep vortex circulation occurring in midsummer. The low-level baroclinic sub-category (type IIa) is associated with a low-level jet and mainly originates in the area 32°-35°N, 86°-94°E, preferentially moving east of 90°E and even away from the <span class="hlt">plateau</span>; meanwhile, the nearly upright sub-category (type IIb), which has a cold center at low levels and a warm center at mid-upper levels, is a quasi-stationary and quasi-symmetric system favorably occurring west of 92°E. A western-pattern SAH exists in the upper troposphere for these two sub-categories. The springtime dry vortex in the western <span class="hlt">plateau</span> (type III) is warm and shallow (approximately 100 hPa deep), and zonal circulation dominates the large-scale environmental flows in the middle and upper troposphere. The precipitating vortex in the southern <span class="hlt">plateau</span> occurring during July</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28000131','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28000131"><span>Transcranial Doppler Monitoring of Intracranial Pressure <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Waves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cardim, Danilo; Schmidt, Bernhard; Robba, Chiara; Donnelly, Joseph; Puppo, Corina; Czosnyka, Marek; Smielewski, Peter</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Transcranial Doppler (TCD) has been used to estimate ICP noninvasively (nICP); however, its accuracy varies depending on different types of intracranial hypertension. Given the high specificity of TCD to detect cerebrovascular events, this study aimed to compare four TCD-based nICP methods during <span class="hlt">plateau</span> waves of ICP. A total of 36 <span class="hlt">plateau</span> waves were identified in 27 patients (traumatic brain injury) with TCD, ICP, and ABP simultaneous recordings. The nICP methods were based on: (1) interaction between flow velocity (FV) and ABP using a "black-box" mathematical model (nICP_BB); (2) diastolic FV (nICP_FV d ); (3) critical closing pressure (nICP_CrCP), and (4) pulsatility index (nICP_PI). Analyses focused on relative changes in time domain between ICP and noninvasive estimators during <span class="hlt">plateau</span> waves and the magnitude of changes (∆ between baseline and <span class="hlt">plateau</span>) in real ICP and its estimators. A ROC analysis for an ICP threshold of 35 mmHg was performed. In time domain, nICP_PI, nICP_BB, and nICP_CrCP presented similar correlations: 0.80 ± 0.24, 0.78 ± 0.15, and 0.78 ± 0.30, respectively. nICP_FV d presented a weaker correlation (R = 0.62 ± 0.46). Correlations between ∆ICP and ∆nICP were better represented by nICP_CrCP and BB, R = 0.48, 0.44 (p < 0.05), respectively. nICP_FV d and PI presented nonsignificant ∆ correlations. ROC analysis showed moderate to good areas under the curve for all methods: nICP_BB, 0.82; nICP_FV d , 0.77; nICP_CrCP, 0.79; and nICP_PI, 0.81. Changes of ICP in time domain during <span class="hlt">plateau</span> waves were replicated by nICP methods with strong correlations. In addition, the methods presented high performance for detection of intracranial hypertension. However, absolute accuracy for noninvasive ICP assessment using TCD is still low and requires further improvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geomo.247...55B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geomo.247...55B"><span>Geomorphological significance of the palaeodrainage network on a karst <span class="hlt">plateau</span>: The Una-Korana <span class="hlt">plateau</span>, Dinaric karst, Croatia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bočić, Neven; Pahernik, Mladen; Mihevc, Andrej</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Karst plateaus often have a complex geological and geomorphological history. It is widely accepted that their development requires a long period of karst denudation. This study reconstructs the palaeodrainage network of a karst <span class="hlt">plateau</span>, analyses its properties and establishes its geomorphological significance. The main purpose of this research was to deepen our understanding of a key stage in the evolution of karst plateaus - the transition from a fluvial land surface to one dominated by karst surface processes. The study was conducted on a large part of the Una-Korana <span class="hlt">plateau</span>, the largest <span class="hlt">plateau</span> in the Dinaric karst. The majority of the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> is made of carbonate rocks of Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous age that set the conditions for the development of the karst. We have reconstructed the palaeodrainage network based on 1:25,000 topographic maps with 10 m contours. The transition of the surface drainage network to the underground karst drainage network is still in progress, so, depending on the degree of karstification, the drainage network was divided into three categories: active, dry and relict. It was found that 90.5% of the pre-existing drainage network has undergone some degree of karstification. The active surface drainage network gradually shifted to a dry network, then to a relict network. The surface drainage network is gradually replaced by a dense network of dolines. Today, the flat and karstified inter-fluvial area is drained underground towards the main watercourses and these drain the entire region over the surface towards the Pannonian basin. This is the largest known karst palaeodrainage network in the Dinaric karst that has been reconstructed in this way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.409..120H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.409..120H"><span>Soil moisture balance and magnetic enhancement in loess-paleosol sequences from the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> and Chinese Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Pengxiang; Liu, Qingsong; Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.; Jin, Chunsheng</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present a first combined environmental magnetic and geochemical investigation of a loess-paleosol sequence (<55 ka) from the Chuanxi <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> on the eastern margin of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. Detailed comparison between the Ganzi section and the Luochuan section from the Chinese Loess <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> (CLP) allows quantification of the effects of provenance and climate on pedogenic magnetic enhancement in Chinese loess. Rare earth element patterns and clay mineral compositions indicate that the Ganzi loess originates from the interior of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. The different Ganzi and CLP loess provenances add complexity to interpretation of magnetic parameters in terms of the concentration and grain size of eolian magnetic minerals. Enhanced paleosol magnetism via pedogenic formation of ferrimagnetic nanoparticles is observed in both sections, but weaker ferrimagnetic contributions, finer superparamagnetic (SP) particles and stronger chemical weathering are found in the Ganzi loess, which indicates the action of multiple pedogenic processes that are dominated by the combined effects of mean annual precipitation (MAP), potential evapotranspiration (PET), organic matter and aluminium content. Under relatively high MAP and low PET conditions, high soil moisture favours transformation of ferrimagnetic minerals to hematite, which results in a relatively higher concentration of hematite but weaker ferrimagnetism of Ganzi loess. Initial growth of superparamagnetic (SP) particles is also documented in the incipient loess at Ganzi, which directly reflects the dynamic formation of nano-sized pedogenic ferrimagnets. A humid pedogenic environment with more organic matter and higher Al content also helps to form finer SP particles. We therefore propose that soil water balance, rather than solely rainfall, dominates the type, concentration and grain size of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals produced by pedogenesis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22232019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22232019"><span>Effects of quinestrol and levonorgestrel on populations of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pikas, Ochotona curzoniae, in the Qinghai-Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming; Qu, Jiapeng; Yang, Min; Wang, Zengli; Wang, Yanling; Zhang, Yanming; Zhang, Zhibin</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plateau</span> pikas (Ochotona curzoniae, Hodgson, 1858) are viewed as a pest in the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> meadow ecosystem when their population densities are high. Traditional culling using rodenticides often poses a high risk to non-target species and even to humans. In this study, an investigation was made of the infertility effects of quinestrol (E), levonorgestrel (P) and a combination of the two (EP, ratio E:P = 1:2) on <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pikas during 2007 and 2008. Treatment with E or EP significantly decreased the pregnancy rate of female pikas in 2007. In 2008, there was a cross-year effect that still suppressed male reproduction in treated groups. Treatment with E obviously reduced the reproduction of pikas but not their population abundance in 2007; the reduction in population size was significant in 2008. Single baiting of quinestrol in early breeding season reduced the reproduction and population size of pikas throughout 2007. The effect of infertility lasted into the next breeding season through a cross-year effect, which resulted in a significant reduction of population size in 2008. Quinestrol is a very promising non-lethal approach to managing pika populations; however, several factors need to be investigated further to improve the practicality of this method. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC41A0886R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC41A0886R"><span>Early Human Occupation on the Northeast Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.; Brantingham, P.; Perrault, C.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> presents great challenges for human occupation: low oxygen, high ultraviolet radiation, harsh seasonal climate, low overall biological productivity. How and when early humans were able to cope physiologically, genetically, and behaviorally with these extremes is important for understanding the history of human adaptive flexibility. Our investigations of prehistoric human settlement on the northeast Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> focus on (a) establishing well-dated evidence for occupation of altitudes >3000 m, (b) the environmental context of high altitude adaptation, and (c) relations of hunting and pastoralism to lower-altitude agrarian systems. We observe two major prehistoric settlement patterns in the Qinghai Lake area. The earliest, ~15,000-7500 yr old, consists of small isolated firehearths with sparse associated stone tools and wild mammal remains (1). Numerous hearths often occur in the same localities, indicating repeated short-duration occupations by small hunting parties. A second pattern, ~9000-4000 yr old, was established during the Holocene climatic optimum. These sites represent prolonged seasonal residential occupation, containing dark anthropogenic midden, hearth and pit constructions, abundant stone tools, occasional ceramics, and abundant diverse faunal remains (including medium-large mammals but lacking domestic sheep/yak)(2). These <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>-margin base camps allowed greater intensity of use of the high <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. Residential occupation was strongly influenced by nearby lower-altitude farming communities; development of the socioeconomic landscape along the Yellow River likely played at least as great a role in <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> occupation patterns as did Holocene environmental changes. Holocene vegetation changes in the NE Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> have been attributed to climate (3) or anthropogenic modification (4). Our results document changes in shrub/tree presence from ~12,000-4000 BP, similar to pollen records, that likely reflect climate rather than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhDT........57H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhDT........57H"><span>Climatic Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols Over the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Cenlin</p> <p></p> <p>Black carbon (BC), also known as soot, has been identified as the second most important anthropogenic emissions in terms of global climate forcing in the current atmosphere. Ample evidence has shown that BC deposition is an important driver of rapid snow melting and glacier retreat over the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, which holds the largest snow/ice mass outside polar regions. However, the climatic effects of BC over the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> have not been thoroughly investigated in such a manner as to understand, quantify, and reduce large uncertainties in the estimate of radiative and hydrological effects. Thus, this Ph.D. study seeks to understand and improve key processes controlling BC life cycle in global and regional models and to quantify BC radiative effects over the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. First, the capability of a state-of-the-art global chemical transport model (CTM), GEOS-Chem, and the associated model uncertainties are systematically evaluated in simulating BC over the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, using in situ measurements of BC in surface air, BC in snow, and BC absorption optical depth. The effects of three key factors on the simulation are also delineated, including Asian anthropogenic emissions, BC aging process, and model resolution. Subsequently, a microphysics-based BC aging scheme that accounts for condensation, coagulation, and heterogeneous chemical oxidation processes is developed and examined in GEOS-Chem by comparing with aircraft measurements. Compared to the default aging scheme, the microphysical scheme reduces model-observation discrepancies by a factor of 3, particularly in the middle and upper troposphere. In addition, a theoretical BC aging-optics model is developed to account for three typical evolution stages, namely, freshly emitted aggregates, coated BC by soluble material, and BC particles undergoing further hygroscopic growth. The geometric-optics surface-wave (GOS) approach is employed to compute the BC single-scattering properties at each aging stage</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227955"><span>The development of the mammalian <span class="hlt">outer</span> and middle ear.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anthwal, Neal; Thompson, Hannah</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The mammalian ear is a complex structure divided into three main parts: the <span class="hlt">outer</span>; middle; and inner ear. These parts are formed from all three germ layers and neural crest cells, which have to integrate successfully in order to form a fully functioning organ of hearing. Any defect in development of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> and middle ear leads to conductive hearing loss, while defects in the inner ear can lead to sensorineural hearing loss. This review focuses on the development of the parts of the ear involved with sound transduction into the inner ear, and the parts largely ignored in the world of hearing research: the <span class="hlt">outer</span> and middle ear. The published data on the embryonic origin, signalling, genetic control, development and timing of the mammalian middle and <span class="hlt">outer</span> ear are reviewed here along with new data showing the Eustachian tube cartilage is of dual embryonic origin. The embryonic origin of some of these structures has only recently been uncovered (Science, 339, 2013, 1453; Development, 140, 2013, 4386), while the molecular mechanisms controlling the growth, structure and integration of many <span class="hlt">outer</span> and middle ear components are hardly known. The genetic analysis of <span class="hlt">outer</span> and middle ear development is rather limited, with a small number of genes often affecting either more than one part of the ear or having only very small effects on development. This review therefore highlights the necessity for further research into the development of <span class="hlt">outer</span> and middle ear structures, which will be important for the understanding and treatment of conductive hearing loss. © 2015 Anatomical Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2113847','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2113847"><span>Localization of phosphatidylcholine in <span class="hlt">outer</span> envelope membrane of spinach chloroplasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>We have examined the effects of phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus on the extent of phospholipid hydrolysis in envelope membrane vesicles and in intact chloroplasts. When isolated envelope vesicles were incubated in presence of phospholipase C, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol, but not phosphatidylinositol, were totally converted into diacylglycerol if they were available to the enzyme (i.e., when the vesicles were sonicated in presence of phospholipase C). These experiments demonstrate that phospholipase C can be used to probe the availability of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol in the cytosolic leaflet of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> envelope membrane from spinach chloroplasts. When isolated, purified, intact chloroplasts were incubated with low amounts of phospholipase C (0.3 U/mg chlorophyll) under very mild conditions (12 degrees C for 1 min), greater than 80% of phosphatidylcholine molecules and almost none of phosphatidylglycerol molecules were hydrolyzed. Since we have also demonstrated, by using several different methods (phase-contrast and electron microscopy, immunochemical and electrophoretic analyses) that isolated spinach chloroplasts, and especially their <span class="hlt">outer</span> envelope membrane, remained intact after mild treatment with phospholipase C, we can conclude that there is a marked asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across the <span class="hlt">outer</span> envelope membrane of spinach chloroplasts. Phosphatidylcholine, the major polar lipid of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> envelope membrane, is almost entirely accessible from the cytosolic side of the membrane and therefore is probably localized in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> leaflet of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> envelope bilayer. On the contrary, phosphatidylglycerol, the major polar lipid in the inner envelope membrane and the thylakoids, is probably not accessible to phospholipase C from the cytosol and therefore is probably localized mostly in the inner leaflet of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> envelope membrane and in the other chloroplast membranes. PMID:3988805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4484037','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4484037"><span>Recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of posterior tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Hongwei; Chang, Shimin; Pan, Jun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The posterior tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fracture is drawing increasing attention from orthopedists in recent years with the popularity of CT. However, due to the particular and severity of posterior tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fracture, there is still controversy in its classification and treatment. It is very difficult to achieve the ideal reduction and fixation by conventional techniques and approaches. The modified posterior approach is favorable for posterior tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fracture, but disadvantages remain. Recently, the lateral approach is applied by doctors. It is ideal for treatment of posterior tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fracture. Because of the complexity of local anatomical structure, the operative management of posterior tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures is a contentious issue as revealed in the recent surge of published literature addressing the surgical approach. This review mainly summaries the diagnosis, classification and surgery of the posterior tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures. PMID:26131147</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27441932"><span>Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Tibial <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Through the Anterolateral Approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hake, Mark E; Goulet, James A</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Fractures of the tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> are challenging injuries to treat. The lateral tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> is fractured more commonly than the medial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> and the workhorse approach for these fractures is the anterolateral approach. This approach allows visualization of the lateral joint, metaphysis, and can be extensile if there is shaft extension. We present our technique for performing the anterolateral approach while treating a Schatzker III tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fracture. Special attention is given to performing a submeniscal arthrotomy to view the joint surface and judge the reduction. A femoral distractor is placed to assist with elevation the joint surface and visualization of the lateral <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. A cortical window is created using a triple reamer from the sliding hip screw set. The reduction is performed and supported with cancellous bone chips. Finally, a lateral locking plate with rafting screws is placed. Knowledge of this approach and the strategies needed to address lateral and some bicondlar tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures are crucial to good patient outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678110','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678110"><span>Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> to the Hinterland of Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an “out of Tibet” hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an “into Tibet” scenario–earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V23A2780N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V23A2780N"><span>Four Flavours of Orogenic <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> Magmatism: What's Melting Beneath the Turkish-Iranian <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neill, I.; Allen, M. B.; Kaislaniemi, L.; Van Hunen, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Orogenic plateaux are first order topographic features of the continents, occurring in collision zones such as Tibet and Andean-style continental arcs. Plateaux are sites of abundant mantle-derived magmatism, but there is little understanding of its geodynamic cause in spite of assumptions that slab break-off or lithospheric thinning are controlling factors in melt production. The Turkish-Iranian <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> formed on the Eurasian Plate after the ~30 Ma Arabia-Eurasia collision. Neogene-recent volcanoes are found up to ~800 km from the suture, and have huge compositional variation. We define four varieties of recent mafic magmatism spatially and geochemically. (1) Close to the Bitlis Suture in Eastern Turkey, slab break-off is likely to have occurred at ~10 Myr, and there is little mantle lithosphere present. Magmatism is mostly calc-alkaline, sourced from the asthenosphere or any remaining mantle lithosphere, and is affected by crustal contamination. (2) In the Lesser Caucasus up to ~500 km from the suture, magmatism is more alkaline, less crustally-contaminated and is derived from subduction-modified lithospheric mantle. (3) Close to the Zagros Suture in Iran, the lithosphere may have thickened to >200 km during collision. Magmatism is volumetrically limited and derived almost exclusively from the lithospheric mantle, with trace element-enriched alkaline or ultrapotassic compositions. Unlike the Lesser Caucasus, there is little magmatism in the Iranian desert up to ~500 km from the suture. (4) Beyond ~500 km from the Bitlis-Zagros Suture Zone, there is sparse, compositionally variable magmatism: it is OIB-like in Eastern Iran, more akin to Zagros magmatism in the Alborz, and more felsic above the ~55 km thick crust of the Greater Caucasus. Geochemical data suggest that magmatism in (1) is caused by asthenospheric upwelling following slab breakoff, whereas in (2) it is dominated by melting of the base of the still-present lithospheric mantle during convective removal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5464275','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5464275"><span>M = 1 internal kink mode in the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> and banana regimes in tokamaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Tsypin, V.S.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A theory is derived for the m = 1 internal kink mode of a tokamak in the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> and banana regimes. The growth rate for this mode in the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> regime is shown to be smaller by a factor of a/R than the MHD prediction (a and R are the minor and major radii of the torus). The growth rate in the banana regime is higher than in the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> regime and approaches the standard MHD value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3761538','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3761538"><span>Kinetic Assessment of Golf Shoe <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Sole Design Features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Smith, Neal A.; Dyson, Rosemary J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study assessed human kinetics in relation to golf shoe <span class="hlt">outer</span> sole design features during the golf swing using a driver club by measuring both within the shoe, and beneath the shoe at the natural grass interface. Three different shoes were assessed: metal 7- spike shoe, alternative 7-spike shoe, and a flat soled shoe. In-shoe plantar pressure data were recorded using Footscan RS International pressure insoles and sampling at 500 Hz. Simultaneously ground reaction force at the shoe <span class="hlt">outer</span> sole was measured using 2 natural grass covered Kistler force platforms and 1000 Hz data acquisition. Video recording of the 18 right-handed golfers at 200 Hz was undertaken while the golfer performed 5 golf shots with his own driver in each type of shoe. Front foot (nearest to shot direction) maximum vertical force and torque were greater than at the back foot, and there was no significant difference related to the shoe type. Wearing the metal spike shoe when using a driver was associated with more torque generation at the back foot (p < 0. 05) than when the flat soled shoe was worn. Within shoe regional pressures differed significantly with golf shoe <span class="hlt">outer</span> sole design features (p < 0.05). Comparison of the metal spike and alternative spike shoe results provided indications of the quality of regional traction on the <span class="hlt">outer</span> sole. Potential golf shoe <span class="hlt">outer</span> sole design features and traction were presented in relation to phases of the golf swing movement. Application of two kinetic measurement methods identified that moderated (adapted) muscular control of foot and body movement may be induced by golf shoe <span class="hlt">outer</span> sole design features. Ground reaction force measures inform comparisons of overall shoe functional performance, and insole pressure measurements inform comparisons of the underfoot conditions induced by specific regions of the golf shoe <span class="hlt">outer</span> sole. Key points Assessments of within golf shoe pressures and beneath shoe forces at the natural grass interface were conducted</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26627837','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26627837"><span>A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Membrane in Escherichia coli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A</p> <p>2016-01-22</p> <p>Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4722468','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4722468"><span>A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Membrane in Escherichia coli*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H.; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM. PMID:26627837</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175068','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175068"><span><span class="hlt">Outer</span> Retinal Structure Following Closed Globe Blunt Ocular Trauma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Flatter, John A.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubow, Michael J.; Pinhas, Alexander; Singh, Ravi S.; Kapur, Rashmi; Shah, Nishit; Walsh, Ryan D.; Hong, Sang H.; Weinberg, David V.; Stepien, Kimberly E.; Wirostko, William J.; Robison, Scott; Dubra, Alfredo; Rosen, Richard B.; Connor, Thomas B.; Carroll, Joseph</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To evaluate <span class="hlt">outer</span> retinal structural abnormalities in patients with visual deficits following closed globe blunt ocular trauma (cgBOT). Methods Nine subjects with visual complaints following cgBOT were examined between 1 month post-trauma and 6 years post-trauma. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to assess <span class="hlt">outer</span> retinal architecture, while adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) was used to analyze photoreceptor mosaic integrity. Results Visual deficits ranged from central scotomas to decreased visual acuity. SD-OCT defects included focal foveal photoreceptor lesions, variable attenuation of the interdigitation zone, and mottling of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> segment band, with one subject having normal <span class="hlt">outer</span> retinal structure. AOSLO revealed disruption of the photoreceptor mosaic in all subjects, variably manifesting as foveal focal discontinuities, perifoveal hyporeflective cones, and paracentral regions of selective cone loss. Conclusions We observe persistent <span class="hlt">outer</span> retinal disruption in subjects with visual complaints following cgBOT, albeit to a variable degree. AOSLO imaging allows assessment of photoreceptor structure at a level of detail not resolvable using SD-OCT or other current clinical imaging tools. Multimodal imaging appears useful for revealing the cause of visual complaints in patients following cgBOT. Future studies are needed to better understand how photoreceptor structure changes longitudinally in response to various trauma. PMID:24752010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhFl...17c2101C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhFl...17c2101C"><span>Spraying modes in coaxial jet electrospray with <span class="hlt">outer</span> driving liquid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Xiaopeng; Jia, Laibing; Yin, Xiezhen; Cheng, Jiusheng; Lu, Jian</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Coaxial jet electrospray is a technique to generate microencapsules, which uses electric forces to create a coaxial microjet from two immiscible liquids. Compound droplets with narrow size distribution are produced after the jet breaks up. In this paper, the spraying modes are investigated experimentally with proper flow rates of the inner and <span class="hlt">outer</span> liquids. Ethanol/glycerol/tween mixture (<span class="hlt">outer</span> liquid) and cooking oil (inner liquid) are fed into the gap between <span class="hlt">outer</span> and inner capillaries and the inner capillary, respectively. The spraying modes presented in our experiments are "dripping mode," "dripping mode in spindle," "cone-jet mode," "pulse mode in cone," and "multijets mode" sequentially, as the applied voltage increases. The region of stable cone-jet mode extends with decrease of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> liquid flow rate and increase of the inner one. It is found that the spray phenomena are mainly determined by properties of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> liquid, which is viscous and electric conductive enough. A rudimentary physical model is developed, in which both the viscosity and liquid interface tension are taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2108104','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2108104"><span>THE OSMOTIC BEHAVIOR OF ROD PHOTORECEPTOR <span class="hlt">OUTER</span> SEGMENT DISCS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Heller, Joram; Ostwald, Thomas J.; Bok, Dean</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>The permeability properties of frog rod photoreceptor <span class="hlt">outer</span> segment discs were investigated in preparations of purified, dark-adapted, <span class="hlt">outer</span> segment fragments by the techniques of direct volume measurement and electron microscopy. <span class="hlt">Outer</span> segment discs were found to swell and contract reversibly in response to changes in the osmotic pressure of the bathing medium in accordance with the Boyle-van't Hoff law. By use of the criterion of reversible osmotic swelling, the disc membrane is impermeable to Na+, K+, Mg+2, Ca+2, Cl-, and (PO4)-3 ions, whereas it is freely permeable to ammonium acetate. The disc membrane is impermeable to sucrose, although its osmotic behavior towards this substance is different from its behavior towards impermeable ions. Electron microscopy showed that the osmotic effects on the rod <span class="hlt">outer</span> segment fragments represent changes in the intradiscal volume. Fixation with glutaraldehyde did not abolish the permeability properties of the disc membrane, and fixed membranes were still capable of osmotic volume changes. It is concluded from this study that the frog's rod photoreceptor <span class="hlt">outer</span> segment discs are free-floating membranous organelles with an inside space separate and distinct from the photoreceptor intracellular space. PMID:4100753</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=372877','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=372877"><span>Agents that increase the permeability of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vaara, M</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane of gram-negative bacteria provides the cell with an effective permeability barrier against external noxious agents, including antibiotics, but is itself a target for antibacterial agents such as polycations and chelators. Both groups of agents weaken the molecular interactions of the lipopolysaccharide constituent of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane. Various polycations are able, at least under certain conditions, to bind to the anionic sites of lipopolysaccharide. Many of these disorganize and cross the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane and render it permeable to drugs which permeate the intact membrane very poorly. These polycations include polymyxins and their derivatives, protamine, polymers of basic amino acids, compound 48/80, insect cecropins, reptilian magainins, various cationic leukocyte peptides (defensins, bactenecins, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, and others), aminoglycosides, and many more. However, the cationic character is not the sole determinant required for the permeabilizing activity, and therefore some of the agents are much more effective permeabilizers than others. They are useful tools in studies in which the poor permeability of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane poses problems. Some of them undoubtedly have a role as natural antibiotic substances, and they or their derivatives might have some potential as pharmaceutical agents in antibacterial therapy as well. Also, chelators (such as EDTA, nitrilotriacetic acid, and sodium hexametaphosphate), which disintegrate the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane by removing Mg2+ and Ca2+, are effective and valuable permeabilizers. PMID:1406489</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJS..224....7D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJS..224....7D"><span>An <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Arm in the Second Galactic Quadrant: Structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Du, Xinyu; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji; Sun, Yan; Li, Facheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Zhou, Xin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The lack of arm tracers, especially remote tracers, is one of the most difficult problems preventing us from studying the structure of the Milky Way. Fortunately, with its high-sensitivity CO survey, the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP) project offers such an opportunity. Since completing about one-third of its mission, an area of l = [100, 150]°, b = [-3, 5]° has nearly been covered. The <span class="hlt">Outer</span> arm of the Milky Way first clearly revealed its shape in the second galactic quadrant in the form of molecular gas—this is the first time that the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> arm has been reported in such a large-scale mapping of molecular gas. Using the 115 GHz 12CO(1-0) data of MWISP at the LSR velocity ≃[-100, -60] km s-1 and in the area mentioned above, we have detected 481 molecular clouds in total, and among them 332 (about 69%) are newly detected and 457 probably belong to the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> arm. The total mass of the detected <span class="hlt">Outer</span> arm clouds is ˜3.1 × 106 M ⊙. Assuming that the spiral arm is a logarithmic spiral, the pitch angle is fitted as ˜13.°1. Besides combining both the CO data from MWISP and the 21 cm H i data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS), the gas distribution, warp, and thickness of the <span class="hlt">Outer</span> arm are also studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA13C..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA13C..03P"><span>Interplanetary dust flux to the <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet atmospheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poppe, A. R.; Moses, J. I.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>It is now well established that an influx of external material is depositing significant amounts of oxygen into the atmospheres of the giant planets and Titan, which in turn impacts the energy budget, photochemistry, and structure of each body's atmosphere. While other sources (ie. Enceladus and/or the main ring system at Saturn, cometary impacts, etc.) also contribute, interplanetary dust grains are a significant source of external material to the <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet atmospheres. In this talk, we present results from an interplanetary dust dynamics model used to calculate the distribution(s) of dust grains in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system that arise from Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt objects, Jupiter-family comets, and Halley-type comets. We constrain the densities of these distributions using in-situ measurements by the Pioneer meteoroid detectors and the New Horizons Student Dust Counter. In turn, we calculate the total dust influx distribution to each <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet atmosphere, including any temporal or compositional variability and spatial anisotropies. Finally, we compare our influx estimates with those derived from extrapolating dust fluxes at 1 AU to the <span class="hlt">outer</span> solar system and discuss implications for the <span class="hlt">outer</span> planet atmospheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5165230','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5165230"><span>The Effects of Urethane on Rat <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Hair Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fu, Mingyu; Chen, Mengzi; Yang, Xueying</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The cochlea converts sound vibration into electrical impulses and amplifies the low-level sound signal. Urethane, a widely used anesthetic in animal research, has been shown to reduce the neural responses to auditory stimuli. However, the effects of urethane on cochlea, especially on the function of <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cells, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we compared the cochlear microphonic responses between awake and urethane-anesthetized rats. The results revealed that the amplitude of the cochlear microphonic was decreased by urethane, resulting in an increase in the threshold at all of the sound frequencies examined. To deduce the possible mechanism underlying the urethane-induced decrease in cochlear sensitivity, we examined the electrical response properties of isolated <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cells using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. We found that urethane hyperpolarizes the <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cell membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner and elicits larger outward current. This urethane-induced outward current was blocked by strychnine, an antagonist of the α9 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Meanwhile, the function of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cell motor protein, prestin, was not affected. These results suggest that urethane anesthesia is expected to decrease the responses of <span class="hlt">outer</span> hair cells, whereas the frequency selectivity of cochlea remains unchanged. PMID:28050287</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24631926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24631926"><span>An efficient depyrogenation method for recombinant bacterial <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane lipoproteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Basto, Afonso P; Morais, Joana; Marcelino, Eduardo; Leitão, Alexandre; Santos, Dulce M</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Bacterial <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane lipoproteins are anchored in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane lipid layer in close association with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and with other hydrophobic membrane proteins, making their purification technically challenging. We have previously shown that a thorough delipidation of <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane preparations from the Escherichia coli expression host is an important step to eliminate contaminant proteins when purifying recombinant antigens expressed in fusion with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa OprI lipoprotein. Here we report the cloning and expression of three antigens in fusion with OprI (ovalbumin, eGFP and BbPDI) and our efforts to deal with the variable LPS contamination levels observed in different batches of purified lipoproteins. The use of polymyxin B columns or endotoxin removal polycationic magnetic beads for depyrogenation of purified lipoproteins resulted in high protein losses and the use of Triton X-114 or sodium deoxycholate during the course of affinity chromatography showed to be ineffective to reduce LPS contamination. Instead, performing a hot phenol/water LPS extraction from <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane preparations prior to metal affinity chromatography allowed the purification of the recombinant fusion lipoproteins with LPS contents below 0.02EU/μg of protein. The purified recombinant lipoproteins retain their capacity to stimulate bone marrow-derived dendritic cells allowing for the study of their immunomodulatory properties through TLR2/1. This is a simple and easy to scale up method that can also be considered for the purification of other <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane lipoproteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4214711','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4214711"><span>Changes in <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Retinal Microstructures during Six Month Period in Eyes with Acute Zonal Occult <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Retinopathy-Complex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matsui, Yoshitsugu; Matsubara, Hisashi; Ueno, Shinji; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko; Kondo, Mineo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To study the changes in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> retinal microstructures during a six month period after the onset of acute zonal occult <span class="hlt">outer</span> retinopathy (AZOOR)-complex by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with the AZOOR-complex were studied. The integrity of the external limiting membrane (ELM), ellipsoid zone (EZ; also called the inner/<span class="hlt">outer</span> segment junction), and interdigitation zone (IDZ; also called the cone <span class="hlt">outer</span> segment tips) were evaluated in the SD-OCT images obtained at the initial visit and at six months. The three highly reflective bands were divided into three types; continuous, discontinuous, and absent. The integrity of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> nuclear layer (ONL) was also assessed. Results Among the three highly reflective bands, the IDZ was most altered at the initial visit and least recovered at six months. Fifteen of 17 eyes (88%) had a recovery of at least one of the three bands at six months in the retinal area where the ONL was intact, and these areas showed an improvement of visual field. Three eyes (18%) had retinal areas where the ONL was absent at the initial visit, and there was no recovery in both the retinal structures and visual fields in these areas. Conclusions Our results indicate that more than 85% eyes with AZOOR-complex show some recovery in the microstructures of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> retina during a six month period if the ONL is intact. We conclude that SD-OCT is a useful method to monitor the changes of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> retinal microstructure in eyes with the AZOOR-complex. PMID:25356549</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Tecto..36..229H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Tecto..36..229H"><span>Collision of Manihiki <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> fragments to accretional margins of northern Andes and Antarctic Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hochmuth, Katharina; Gohl, Karsten</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The Manihiki <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, a large igneous province (LIP), was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous as a single <span class="hlt">plateau</span> together with the Ontong Java <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> and the Hikurangi <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. Additional to the present Manihiki <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, fragments to its northeast and east have been formed. Plate kinematic reconstructions suggest the capturing of these fragments by the Farallon Plate and the Phoenix Plate, respectively. By tracing these fragments, we report a Paleocene collision of the northeastern Manihiki <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> fragment with the northern South American craton. The northern Andes exhibit multiple terranes of LIP origin. We infer, based on geophysical, petrological, and geochemical data, that the Piñón formation consists of crustal units of the former Manihiki <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. An Early Cretaceous collision of the eastern Manihiki <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> fragment is reconstructed for West Antarctica. The subduction of this fragment in the Palmer Land region can be associated with the so-called Palmer Land Event and a flattening of the subduction slab. By reconstructing the dispersal of the fragments of the Manihiki <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, we provide a deeper insight in the possible subduction scenarios and buildup of the accretional margins of the northern Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16730654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16730654"><span>Leptin cDNA cloning and its mRNA expression in <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) from different altitudes on Qinghai-Tibet <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, J; Zhao, X Q; Guo, S C; Li, H G; Qi, D L; Wang, D P; Cao, J H</p> <p>2006-07-14</p> <p>Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, plays an important role in body energy homeostasis. <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> pika (Ochotona curzoniae), an endemic and keystone species living only at 3000-5000 m above sea level on Qinghai-Tibet <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, is a typically high hypoxia and low temperature tolerant mammal with high resting metabolic rate (RMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST), and high ratio of oxygen utilization to cope with harsh <span class="hlt">plateau</span> environment. To explore the molecular mechanism of ecological acclimation in <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pika, we first cloned pika leptin cDNA and compared its mRNA expression in different altitudes (3200 and 3900 m) using real-time RT-PCR (Taqman probe) technology. The full-length pika leptin cDNA was 3015 with 504 bp open-reading frame encoding the precursor peptide of 167 amino acids including 21 residues of signal peptide. Pika leptin was 70-72% homologous to that of other species and was of similarly structural characteristics with other species. The pika-specific genetic diversity in leptin sequence occurred at twenty sites. With the increase in altitude, there were larger fat store and high level of ob gene expression in <span class="hlt">plateau</span> pika. Our results indicated that leptin is sensitive to cold and hypoxia <span class="hlt">plateau</span> environment and may play one of important roles in pika's ecological adaptation to harsh <span class="hlt">plateau</span> environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/924803','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/924803"><span>FINAL FRONTIER AT HANFORD TACKLING THE CENTRAL <span class="hlt">PLATEAU</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>GERBER MS</p> <p>2008-03-04</p> <p>The large land area in the center of the vast Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State is known as 'the <span class="hlt">plateau</span>'--aptly named because its surface elevations are 250-300 feet above the groundwater table. By contrast, areas on the 585-square mile Site that border the Columbia River sit just 30-80 feet above the water table. The Central <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, which covers an ellipse of approximately 70 square miles, contains Hanford's radiochemical reprocessing areas--the 200 East and 200 West Areas--and includes the most highly radioactive waste and contaminated facilities on the Site. Five 'canyons' where chemical processes were used to separate out plutonium (Pu), 884 identified soil waste sites (including approximately 50 miles of solid waste burial trenches), more than 900 structures, and all of Hanford's liquid waste storage tanks reside in the Central <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. (Notes: Canyons is a nickname given by Hanford workers to the chemical reprocessing facilities. The 177, underground waste tanks at Hanford comprise a separate work scope and are not under Fluor's management). Fluor Hanford, a DOE prime cleanup contractor at the Site for the past 12 years, has moved aggressively to investigate Central <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> waste sites in the last few years, digging more than 500 boreholes, test pits, direct soil 'pushes' or drive points; logging geophysical data sets; and performing electrical-resistivity scans (a non-intrusive technique that maps patterns of sub-surface soil conductivity). The goal is to identify areas of contamination areas in soil and solid waste sites, so that cost-effective and appropriate decisions on remediation can be made. In 2007, Fluor developed a new work plan for DOE that added 238 soil waste-site characterization activities in the Central <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> during fiscal years (FYs) 2007-2010. This number represents a 50 percent increase over similar work previously done in central Hanford. Work Plans are among the required steps in the Comprehensive</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7138V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7138V"><span><span class="hlt">Plateau</span> growth around the Changma Basin in NE Tibet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vernon, Rowan; Cunningham, Dickson; Zhang, Jin; England, Richard</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Qilian Mountains form one of the most actively uplifting regions of the northeastern Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> and provide an opportunity to study the ongoing, intermediate stages of <span class="hlt">plateau</span> growth. The crust of the Qilian Mountains consists of an orogenic collage of mid-Proterozoic to mid-Palaeozoic island arc terranes accreted to the North China Craton during the Palaeozoic. NE-directed compression related to the Indo-Asian collision began in the Early Neogene, uplifting fold-thrust mountain ranges which splay south-eastwards from the sinistral northeast-trending Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF). In this study, we investigate the post-Oligocene tectonic evolution of the northern margin of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> around the Changma Basin, at the very northeast corner of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, where the ATF forms a triple junction with the frontal Qilian Shan thrust. Our research involves synthesis of previous geological and geophysical data, remote sensing analysis and field mapping of structures along key transects. The Changma Basin is a relatively low intra-montane basin in the northeast Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> that is receiving alluvial infill from surrounding ranges, but is also being drained by the Su Le River, one of the largest river systems in the northeast Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. The basin is also internally deforming and inverting along fault and fold zones, as well as being overthrust along some of its margins. Where older basement trends are parallel to neotectonic faults, some reactivation is inferred and locally documented through field observations. Otherwise, the post-Oligocene thrust and oblique-slip faults which are responsible for uplifting various basement blocks and inverting the Changma Basin appear discordant to nearby basement trends. Range-bounding thrust faults with the greatest along-strike continuity and relief generation are assumed to have the largest displacements, whereas other intra-range thrusts that bound uplifted limestone blocks are assumed to have lower amounts of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13.4877B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13.4877B"><span>Re-evaluating the 1940s CO2 <span class="hlt">plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bastos, Ana; Ciais, Philippe; Barichivich, Jonathan; Bopp, Laurent; Brovkin, Victor; Gasser, Thomas; Peng, Shushi; Pongratz, Julia; Viovy, Nicolas; Trudinger, Cathy M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The high-resolution CO2 record from Law Dome ice core reveals that atmospheric CO2 concentration stalled during the 1940s (so-called CO2 <span class="hlt">plateau</span>). Since the fossil-fuel emissions did not decrease during the period, this stalling implies the persistence of a strong sink, perhaps sustained for as long as a decade or more. Double-deconvolution analyses have attributed this sink to the ocean, conceivably as a response to the very strong El Niño event in 1940-1942. However, this explanation is questionable, as recent ocean CO2 data indicate that the range of variability in the ocean sink has been rather modest in recent decades, and El Niño events have generally led to higher growth rates of atmospheric CO2 due to the offsetting terrestrial response. Here, we use the most up-to-date information on the different terms of the carbon budget: fossil-fuel emissions, four estimates of land-use change (LUC) emissions, ocean uptake from two different reconstructions, and the terrestrial sink modelled by the TRENDY project to identify the most likely causes of the 1940s <span class="hlt">plateau</span>. We find that they greatly overestimate atmospheric CO2 growth rate during the <span class="hlt">plateau</span> period, as well as in the 1960s, in spite of giving a plausible explanation for most of the 20th century carbon budget, especially from 1970 onwards. The mismatch between reconstructions and observations during the CO2 <span class="hlt">plateau</span> epoch of 1940-1950 ranges between 0.9 and 2.0 Pg C yr-1, depending on the LUC dataset considered. This mismatch may be explained by (i) decadal variability in the ocean carbon sink not accounted for in the reconstructions we used, (ii) a further terrestrial sink currently missing in the estimates by land-surface models, or (iii) LUC processes not included in the current datasets. Ocean carbon models from CMIP5 indicate that natural variability in the ocean carbon sink could explain an additional 0.5 Pg C yr-1 uptake, but it is unlikely to be higher. The impact of the 1940-1942 El Niño on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T33C2673A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T33C2673A"><span>Denudation Gradient Across the Eastern Margin of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ansberque, C.; Godard, V.; Bellier, O.; Ren, Z.; Liu, J.; Li, Y.; de Sigoyer, J.; Bourles, D. L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the spatial distribution of denudation in active mountain ranges is important to unravel their dynamics, as it allows both to determine the existence of actively uplifting areas or to assess the influence of precipitation on landscape evolution. The Eastern margin of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, along the Longmen Shan range, is characterized by one of the steepest topographic escarpment on Earth and a high seismogenic potential as demonstrated by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, but also a low convergence rate, such that the present dynamics of this area is still not clearly elucidated. For these reasons, a better knowledge of the rates and patterns of denudation across the margin can deliver important clues on the tectonic and geomorphic processes affecting the Earth surface and help to decipher the larger-scale processes acting in this active domain. This is of major interest as, over the last decade, Eastern Tibet in general and the Longmen Shan in particular has been one of the hotspots of the still ongoing debates about the actual modes of deformation of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. We present a new dataset for denudation rates, derived from 10Be concentration in detrital sediments, that allows to complement existing isolated data and provides the first near-continuous cross-range transect in this area. Denudation rates rises abruptly from ~0.2 mm/yr in the frontal foothills to ~0.5 mm/yr at the topographic maximum of the Longmen Shan range, and then progressively fall down to <0.1 mm/yr when reaching the low relief parts of the <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. Under the assumption that the distribution of denudation can be used as a proxy for tectonic uplift, this pattern confirms the existence of a relatively narrow band of active uplift at the range front as proposed by Kirby et al. [2003].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V43C4896E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V43C4896E"><span>Uplift of the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> via Lower Crustal Foundering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erdman, M.; Lee, C. T.; Jiang, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>How the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> reached its current elevation with little internal deformation compared to surrounding regions has perplexed researchers for nearly a century. Hypotheses to explain the two kilometers of uplift since the Late Cretaceous range from delamination of the Farallon plate following flat slab subduction, thermal expansion of upwelling mantle, dynamic topography in response to mantle upwelling, mid-crustal flow from over-thickened crust, and foundering of a dense lower crustal root. Many of these hypotheses are constrained by geodynamic modelling with limited evidence from the rock record. We report here the petrologic and geochemical makeup of lower crustal xenoliths from the Transition Zone in Arizona between the southern Basin and Range Province and the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. This xenolith suite erupted within a ~25 Ma volcanic host and is dominated by garnet pyroxenite with minor gabbro and amphibolite. Major and trace element geochemistry, petrography, and thermobarometry suggest these rocks represent deep-seated (12-25 kb) cumulates formed during arc magmatism. A preliminary U-Pb sphene age of ~50 Ma suggests that the cumulates formed during the end of the Laramide orogeny. Calculated compositional densities for these cumulates are up to 10% greater than the mantle, suggesting that early to mid-Tertiary arc magmatism generated a dense and unstable lower crustal root. Because these rocks are cold (580-840 °C), thermal contraction may further increase the density contrast. Foundering of this dense root could cause significant uplift. Isostatic calculations show that two kilometers of uplift may be explained by removal of a 20-km-thick root that is 10% denser than the underlying mantle. If lower crustal foundering is indeed responsible for uplift of the Colorado <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>, the eruption age of the xenolith suite constrains uplift to be younger than ~25 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5367528','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5367528"><span>Treatment strategy for tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures: an update</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prat-Fabregat, Salvi; Camacho-Carrasco, Pilar</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fractures are complex injuries produced by high- or low-energy trauma. They principally affect young adults or the ‘third age’ population. These fractures usually have associated soft-tissue lesions that will affect their treatment. Sequential (staged) treatment (external fixation followed by definitive osteosynthesis) is recommended in more complex fracture patterns. But one should remember that any type of tibial <span class="hlt">plateau</span> fracture can present with soft-tissue complications. Typically the Schatzker or AO/OTA classification is used, but the concept of the proximal tibia as a three-column structure and the detailed study of the posteromedial and posterolateral fragment morphology has changed its treatment strategy. Limb alignment and articular surface restoration, allowing early knee motion, are the main goals of surgical treatment. Partially articular factures can be treated by minimally-invasive methods and arthroscopy is useful to assist and control the fracture reduction and to treat intra-articular soft-tissue injuries. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is the gold standard treatment for these fractures. Complex articular fractures can be treated by ring external fixators and minimally-invasive osteosynthesis (EFMO) or by ORIF. EFMO can be related to suboptimal articular reduction; however, outcome analysis shows results that are equal to, or even superior to, ORIF. The ORIF strategy should also include the optimal reduction of the articular surface. Anterolateral and anteromedial surgical approaches do not permit adequate reduction and fixation of posterolateral and posteromedial fragments. To achieve this, it is necessary to reduce and fix them through specific posterolateral or posteromedial approaches that allow optimal reduction and plate/screw placement. Some authors have also suggested that primary total knee arthroplasty could be an option in specific patients and with specific fracture patterns. Cite this article: Prat</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.114..693W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.114..693W"><span>Late Cretaceous tectonic framework of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Zhenhan; Barosh, Patrick J.; Ye, Peisheng; Hu, Daogong</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>New research, coupled with previous data, reveals the Late Cretaceous paleo-geography, and related paleo-tectonic movement of the Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span>. A vast ocean, the Neo-Tethys Ocean, perhaps as wide as ∼7000 km, existed between the Indian and Eurasian Continental Plates in the early Late Cretaceous. In addition, a Himalaya Marginal Sea lay along the border of the Indian Plate and other marginal seas were present to the north in both the southern Lhasa and southwestern Tarim Blocks. Northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys Oceanic Plate along the Yalung-Zangbu Suture closed most of the ocean and led to intensive thrusting, tight folding, magmatic plutonism and volcanic eruptions in the central <span class="hlt">plateau</span> to the north. A magmatic arc up to 500 km wide formed across the southern margin of the continental plate in central Tibet and its varying granitic composition appears to reflect the depth to the subducted plate and define its geometry. A series of large, chiefly north-dipping thrust systems also developed across central Tibet. These include thrusts along the Yalung-Zangbu and Bangong-Nujiang Sutures, the North Gangdese and North Lhasa Thrusts in the Lhasa Block, the Qiangtang and North Tangula Thrusts in the Qiangtang block, the Hoh-Xil and Bayan Har Thrusts in the Hoh-Xil Block, as well as the sinistral-slip South Kunlun and Altyn Tagh Faults in northern Tibet. Uplifts formed above the hanging walls of the major thrusts and their eroded debris formed thick red-beds in basins below them. The central Tibetan <span class="hlt">Plateau</span> maintained a low elevation and coastal vegetation was dominant during the Late Cretaceous.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983ggt..conf.1050L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983ggt..conf.1050L"><span>Self-synchronizing <span class="hlt">outer</span> codes for the TDRSS decoder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, S.; Costello, D.; Miller, W.; Morakis, J.</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, various aspects of developing a self-synchronizing coding system are discussed for NASA's TDRSS satellite system. The coding system used is a concatenation of a (2, 1, 7) inner convolutional code with a (255,223) Reed-Solomon <span class="hlt">outer</span> code. The goal is to design the decoder in such a way that both symbol and word synchronization are achieved for the <span class="hlt">outer</span> code without the need for any separate synchronization patten. The system proposed in this paper uses the properties of the inner (Viterbi) decoder to provide symbol synchronization for the <span class="hlt">outer</span> code, and maintains word synchronization by making use of a coset code of the Reed-Solomon code.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920029033&hterms=Bohr+Niels&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBohr%252C%2BNiels','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920029033&hterms=Bohr+Niels&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBohr%252C%2BNiels"><span>The <span class="hlt">outer</span> layers of cool, non-Mira carbon stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, H. R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">outer</span> layers and near circumstellar envelope (CSE) of a typical carbon star have been studied using available data from theoretical and empirical models. An attempt is made to match the density-velocity structure of the photosphere-chromosphere region to values from the radio CO observations, which arise from the <span class="hlt">outer</span> CSE. It is concluded that the stellar atmosphere includes a relatively thin high-temperature region close to hydrostatic equilibrium and a much more extended cooler region of outflowing gas and dust. To extend the <span class="hlt">outer</span> photosphere and chromosphere to match the mass loss density appears to require an injection of energy and momentum by some mechanism rather close to the stellar surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16262341','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16262341"><span>Bacillus atrophaeus <span class="hlt">outer</span> spore coat assembly and ultrastructure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Plomp, Marco; Leighton, Terrance J; Wheeler, Katherine E; Pitesky, Maurice E; Malkin, Alexander J</p> <p>2005-11-08</p> <p>Our previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies successfully visualized native Bacillus atrophaeus spore coat ultrastructure and surface morphology. We have shown that the <span class="hlt">outer</span> spore coat surface is formed by a crystalline array of approximately 11 nm thick rodlets, having a periodicity of approximately 8 nm. We present here further AFM ultrastructural investigations of air-dried and fully hydrated spore surface architecture. In the rodlet layer planar and point defects as well as domain boundaries similar to those described for inorganic and macromolecular crystals were identified. For several Bacillus species rodlet structure assembly and architectural variation appear to be a consequence of species-specific nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the formation of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> spore coat. We propose a unifying mechanism for nucleation and self-assembly of this crystalline layer on the <span class="hlt">outer</span> spore coat surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9382C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9382C"><span>Energetic heavy ion dominance in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> magnetosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, Ian; Mitchell, Don; Mauk, Barry; Anderson, Brian; Ohtani, Shin; Kistler, Lynn; Hamilton, Doug; Turner, Drew; Blake, Bern; Fennell, Joe; Jaynes, Allison; Leonard, Trevor; Gerrard, Andy; Lanzerotti, Lou; Burch, Jim</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Despite the extensive study of ring current ion composition, little exists in the literature regarding the nature of energetic ions with energies >200 keV, especially in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> magnetosphere (r > 9 RE). In particular, information on the relative fluxes and spectral shapes of the different ion species over these energy ranges is lacking. However, new observations from the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) instruments on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft have revealed the dominance of heavy ion species (specifically oxygen and helium) at these energies in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> magnetosphere. This result is supported by prior but previously unreported observations obtained by the Geotail spacecraft, which also show that these heavy ion species are primarily dominated by multiply-charged populations from the solar wind. Using additional observations from the inner magnetosphere obtained by the RBSPICE instrument on the Van Allen Probes suggest, we will investigate whether this effect is due to a preferential loss of protons in the <span class="hlt">outer</span> magnetosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1069493','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1069493"><span>Substrate Specificity within a Family of <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Membrane Carboxylate Channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eren, Elif; Vijayaraghavan, Jagamya; Liu, Jiaming; Cheneke, Belete R.; Touw, Debra S.; Lepore, Bryan W.; Indic, Mridhu; Movileanu, Liviu; van den Berg, Bert; Dutzler, Raimund</p> <p>2012-01-17</p> <p>Many Gram-negative bacteria, including human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, do not have large-channel porins. This results in an <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane (OM) that is highly impermeable to small polar molecules, making the bacteria intrinsically resistant towards many antibiotics. In such microorganisms, the majority of small molecules are taken up by members of the OprD <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane protein family. Here we show that OprD channels require a carboxyl group in the substrate for efficient transport, and based on this we have renamed the family Occ, for <span class="hlt">outer</span> membrane carboxylate channels. We further show that Occ channels can be divided into two subfamilies, based on their very different substrate specificities. Our results rationalize how certain bacteria can efficiently take up a variety of substrates under nutrient-poor conditions without compromising membrane permeability. In addition, they explain how channel inactivation in response to antibiotics can cause resistance but does not lead to decreased fitness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780042490&hterms=WEATHER+MODIFICATION&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DWEATHER%2BMODIFICATION','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780042490&hterms=WEATHER+MODIFICATION&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DWEATHER%2BMODIFICATION"><span>Regimes for the ocean, <span class="hlt">outer</span> space, and weather</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brown, S.; Cornell, N. W.; Fabian, L. L.; Weiss, E. B.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The allocation of resources among users of the oceans, <span class="hlt">outer</span> space and the weather is discussed. Attention is given to the international management of maritime navigation, the control of fisheries, offshore oil and gas exploitation, mineral exploitation in the deep seabed (especially the mining of manganese nodules), and the regulation of oceanographic studies. The management of <span class="hlt">outer</span> space is considered, with special reference to remote sensing by satellites, television broadcasting, the technical requirements of maritime satellites, and problems associated with satellite frequency and orbit allocation. Rainmaking and typhoon modification, as well as the distribution of weather modification capabilities in the world, are also mentioned. The United Nations, international agencies and tribunals, and multi- or bilateral agreements are some of the implements suggested for use in the regulation of the oceans, <span class="hlt">outer</span> space and the weather.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780047974&hterms=Strategy+technical&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DStrategy%2Btechnical','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780047974&hterms=Strategy+technical&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DStrategy%2Btechnical"><span><span class="hlt">Outer</span> planets exploration - A mission strategy for the 1980's</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moore, J. W.; Beckman, J. C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a mission strategy for exploring the <span class="hlt">outer</span> planets in the 1980s. The strategy is based on the anticipated findings of the 1977 Voyager Jupiter/Saturn Mission, and the 1982 Jupiter Orbiter Probe (JOP) Mission, recently approved as a new project start, beginning in October 1977. The JOP Mission then becomes a principal element in the strategy presented here. Characteristics (launch energy, trajectory parameters, etc.) of other mission opportunities to the <span class="hlt">outer</span> planets in the 1980s are developed and presented. The need for and benefits from advanced propulsion systems, which can enable the more difficult missions to the <span class="hlt">outer</span> planets, also are cited. The overall mission strategy, including a description of the options, is evolved in consideration of scientific rationale and return, and technical and programmatic coupling factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936440','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936440"><span>Bacillus atrophaeus <span class="hlt">Outer</span> Spore Coat Assembly and Ultrastructure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Pitesky, M E; Malkin, A J</p> <p>2005-11-21</p> <p>Our previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies successfully visualized native Bacillus atrophaeus spore coat ultrastructure and surface morphology. We have shown that the <span class="hlt">outer</span> spore coat surface is formed by a crystalline array of {approx}11 nm thick rodlets, having a periodicity of {approx}8 nm. We present here further AFM ultrastructural investigations of air-dried and fully hydrated spore surface architecture. In the rodlet layer, planar and point defects, as well as domain boundaries, similar to those described for inorganic and macromolecular crystals, were identified. For several Bacillus species, rodlet structure assembly and architectural variation appear to be a consequence of species-specific nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the formation of the <span class="hlt">outer</span> spore coat. We propose a unifying mechanism for nucleation and self-assembly of this crystalline layer on the <span class="hlt">outer</span> spore coat surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IAUS..321..172M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IAUS..321..172M"><span><span class="hlt">Outer</span> Disk Star Formation in HI selected Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meurer, G. R.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The HI in galaxies often extends past their conventionally defined optical extent. I report results from our team which has been probing low intensity star formation in <span class="hlt">outer</span> disks using imaging in Hα and ultraviolet. Using a sample of hundreds of HI selected galaxies, we confirm that <span class="hlt">outer</span> disk HII regions and extended UV disks are common. Hence <span class="hlt">outer</span> disks are not dormant but are dimly forming stars. Although the ultraviolet light in galaxies is more centrally concentrated than the HI, the UV/HI ratio (the Star Formation Efficiency) is nearly constant, with a slight dependency on surface brightness. This result is well accounted for in a model where disks maintain a constant stability parameter Q. This model also accounts for how the ISM and star formation are distributed in the bright parts of galaxies, and how HI appears to trace the distribution of dark matter in galaxy outskirts.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> <script type="text/javascript"><!-- // var lastDiv = ""; function showDiv(divName) { // hide last div if (lastDiv) { document.getElementById(lastDiv).className = "hiddenDiv"; } //if value of the box is not nothing and an object with that name exists, then change the class if (divName && document.getElementById(divName)) { document.getElementById(divName).className = "visibleDiv"; lastDiv = divName; } } //--> </script> <script> /** * Function that tracks a click on an outbound link in Google Analytics. * This function takes a valid URL string as an argument, and uses that URL string * as the event label. */ var trackOutboundLink = function(url,collectionCode) { try { h = window.open(url); setTimeout(function() { ga('send', 'event', 'topic-page-click-through', collectionCode, url); }, 1000); } catch(err){} }; </script> <!-- Google Analytics --> <script> (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); ga('create', 'UA-1122789-34', 'auto'); ga('send', 'pageview'); </script> <!-- End Google Analytics --> <script> showDiv('page_1') </script> </body> </html>