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Sample records for outmigration mcnary dam

  1. Columbia River Salmonid Outmigration: McNary Dam Passage and Enhanced Smolt Quality, 1984 Second Year Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of the McNary Dam transportation system on emigrating fall and spring chinook smolts were evaluated using physiological indices of stress (e.g., plasma cortisol, hepatic glycogen, leucocrit, interrenal cell nuclear diameter) and performance tests (e.g., saltwater challenge, secondary stress challenge, disease resistance). Controlled experiments were conducted in a hatchery environment to characterize the fishes' physiological responses to stress, and disease resistance to allow a basis for judging the nature of the stress experienced by smolts at McNary Dam. 55 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. McNary Dam, Ice Harbor Dam, and Lower Monumental Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd; Lind, Sharon; Price, William

    1997-07-01

    The Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW) assumed responsibility for the Smolt Monitoring Program at McNary Dam on the Columbia River in 1990 and at the new juvenile collection facility at Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River in 1993. In 1996, Smolt Monitoring Program activities also began at the new juvenile collection facility located at Ice Harbor Dam. This report summarizes the 1996 Smolt Monitoring work at all three sites. The work at Ice Harbor consisted of Gas Bubble Trauma (GBT) monitoring only. In general, the 1996 passage season at both the McNary and Lower Monumental sites can be characterized by reduced passage of juveniles through the collection systems due to elevated river flows and spill, and low (<1%) overall facility mortality rates most likely resulting from cooler water temperatures. In accordance with the National Marine Fisheries Service recommendations (NMFS, 1995) all spring migrants were bypassed at McNary Dam in 1996. Mechanical problems within the McNary collection system resulted in collection and sampling activities being delayed until April 18 at this site, while sampling and collection began on the scheduled starting date of April 1 at Lower Monumental Dam. Monitoring operations were conducted through December 14 at McNary Dam and through October 28 at Lower Monumental Dam. An ongoing transportation evaluation summer migrant marking program was conducted at McNary Dam in 1996 by the NMFS. This necessitated the sampling of 394,211 additional fish beyond the recommended sampling guidelines. All total, 509,237 and 31,219 juvenile salmonids were anesthetized and individually counted, examined for scale loss, injuries, and brands by WDFW Smolt Monitoring personnel in 1996 at McNary Dam and Lower Monumental Dam, respectively.

  3. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XV : Evaluation of the 2007 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Salmon and Steelhead Smolts to Rock Island, Lower Granite, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams using Program RealTime.

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, Jim; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-12-01

    Program RealTime provided monitoring and forecasting of the 2007 inseason outmigrations via the internet for 26 PIT-tagged stocks of wild ESU Chinook salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams, one PIT-tagged hatchery-reared ESU of sockeye salmon to Lower Granite Dam, one PIT-tagged wild stock of sockeye salmon to McNary Dam, and 20 passage-indexed runs-at-large, five each to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville dams. Nineteen stocks are of wild yearling Chinook salmon which were captured, PIT-tagged, and released at sites above Lower Granite Dam in 2007 and have at least one year's historical migration data previous to the 2007 migration. These stocks originate in 19 tributaries of the Salmon, Grande Ronde and Clearwater Rivers, all tributaries to the Snake River, and are subsequently detected through tag identification and monitored at Lower Granite Dam. Seven wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large of Snake or Upper Columbia River ESU salmon and steelhead were monitored at McNary Dam. Three wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large were monitored at Lower Granite Dam, consisting of the yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and the steelhead runs. The hatchery-reared PIT-tagged sockeye salmon stock from Redfish Lake was monitored outmigrating through Lower Granite Dam. Passage-indexed stocks (stocks monitored by FPC passage indices) included combined wild and hatchery runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead forecasted to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville dams.

  4. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIV; Evaluation of 2006 Prediction of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Salmon and Steelhead at Rock Island, Lower Granite, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams using Program Real Time, Technical Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Program RealTime provided monitoring and forecasting of the 2006 inseason outmigrations via the internet for 32 PIT-tagged stocks of wild ESU chinook salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams, one PIT-tagged hatchery-reared ESU of sockeye salmon to Lower Granite Dam, and 20 passage-indexed runs-at-large, five each to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams. Twenty-four stocks are of wild yearling chinook salmon which were captured, PIT-tagged, and released at sites above Lower Granite Dam in 2006, and have at least one year's historical migration data previous to the 2006 migration. These stocks originate in drainages of the Salmon, Grande Ronde and Clearwater Rivers, all tributaries to the Snake River, and are subsequently detected through the tag identification and monitored at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, seven wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large of Snake or Upper Columbia River ESU salmon and steelhead were monitored at McNary Dam. Three wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large were monitored at Lower Granite Dam, consisting of the yearling and subyearling chinook salmon and the steelhead trout runs. The hatchery-reared PIT-tagged sockeye salmon stock from Redfish Lake was monitored outmigrating through Lower Granite Dam. Passage-indexed stocks (stocks monitored by FPC passage indices) included combined wild and hatchery runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout forecasted to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams.

  5. Survival and migration behavior of juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2008-01-01

    During 2006, we used acoustic telemetry and a route-specific survival model (RSSM, Skalski et al. 2002) to estimate behavior, passage, and survival of juvenile salmonids during two different spill operations and diel periods at McNary Dam. An evaluation of 12-h versus 24-h spill was proposed for the spring migration period at McNary Dam. However, high river discharge did not allow for the 12-h spill treatment, and thus, resource managers decided on testing two 24-h spill treatments having two distinct spill patterns. The first treatment, the “Fish Passage Plan” (FPP) treatment emphasized spill on the north end (bays 1-3) of the spillway and generally higher discharge through the north powerhouse. The second treatment, the “Test Spill” (TS) treatment emphasized spill on the south end (bays 18-20) of the spillway and relatively less discharge through the north powerhouse. During the summer, two dam operations were evaluated: 1) 24-h spill at 60% of total river discharge, and 2) 24-h spill at 40% of total river discharge. Both the Fish Passage Plan treatment in spring and the 40% spill treatment in summer had the more distinct pattern in powerhouse operations over the 24-h diel cycle, with generally higher powerhouse discharge and lower spill discharge during daytime hours (about 0600 to 1800 hours) compared to the alternative spill treatment.

  6. Accumulation of radionuclides in bed sediments of the Columbia River between Hanford reactors and McNary Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Jack L.; Haushild, W.L.

    1970-01-01

    Amounts of radionuclides from the Hanford reactors contained in bed sediments of the Columbia River were estimated by two methods: (1) from data on radionuclide concentration for the bed sediments between the reactors and McNary Dam, and (2) from data on radionuclide discharge for river stations at Pasco, Washington, and Umatilla, Oregon. Umatilla is 3.2 kilometers below McNary Dam. Accumulations of radionuclides in the Pasco to Umatilla reach estimated by the two methods agree within about 8%. In October 1965 approximately 16,000 curies of gamma emitting radionuclides were resident in bed sediments of the river between the Hanford reactors and McNary Dam. Concentrations and accumulations of chromium-51, zinc-65, cobalt-60, manganese-54, and scandium-46 generally are much higher near McNary Dam than they are in the vicinity of the reactors. These changes are caused by an increase downstream from the reactors in the proportion of the bed sediment that is fine grained and the proportions of the transported zinc, cobalt, manganese, and scandium radionuclides associated with sediment particles.

  7. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead at McNary Dam, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, James S.; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Batton, George; Carlson, Thomas J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Deng, Zhiqun; Etherington, D. J.; Fu, Tao; Greiner, Michael J.; Ingraham, John M.; Kim, Jin A.; Li, Xi; Martinez, Jayson J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Seaburg, Adam; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Wagner, Katie A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-12-23

    The study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at McNary Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. This study supports the USACE’s continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  8. Assessing survival of Mid-Columbia River released juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam, Washington, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Scott D.; Walker, Christopher E.; Brewer, Scott J.; Adams, Noah S.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated survival of juvenile salmon over long river reaches in the Columbia River and information regarding the survival of sockeye salmon at lower Columbia River dams is lacking. To address these information gaps, the U.S. Geological Survey was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate the possibility of using tagged fish released in the Mid-Columbia River to assess passage and survival at and downstream of McNary Dam. Using the acoustic telemetry systems already in place for a passage and survival study at McNary Dam, fish released from the tailraces of Wells, Rocky Reach, Rock Island, Wanapum, and Priest Rapids Dams were detected at McNary Dam and at the subsequent downstream arrays. These data were used to generate route-specific survival probabilities using single-release models from fish released in the Mid-Columbia River. We document trends in passage and survival probabilities at McNary Dam for yearling Chinook and sockeye salmon and juvenile steelhead released during studies in the Mid-Columbia River. Trends in the survival and passage of these juvenile salmonid species are presented and discussed. However, comparisons made across years and between study groups are not possible because of differences in the source of the test fish, the type of acoustic tags used, the absence of the use of passive integrated transponder tags in some of the release groups, differences in tagging and release protocols, annual differences in dam operations and configurations, differences in how the survival models were constructed (that is, number of routes that could be estimated given the number of fish detected), and the number and length of reaches included in the analysis (downstream reach length and arrays). Despite these differences, the data we present offer a unique opportunity to examine the migration behavior and survival of a group of fish that otherwise would not be studied. This is particularly true for sockeye salmon because

  9. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1989 through March 1990 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from McNary Dam, to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam, to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams, and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights from this work is also included. 47 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  10. An Assessment of Freeze Brand and PIT Tag Recovery Data at McNary Dam, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McCutcheon, Clinton Scott

    1989-01-01

    This study evaluated mark recovery data from PIT-tagged and freeze-branded fish recovered at McNary Dam in 1987. Hatchery and river-run populations of yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (O. nerka) and steelhead (O. mykiss) were used in this investigation. Paired groups of PIT-tagged and freeze-branded juvenile salmonids were released upstream from McNary Dam and subsequently recaptured at that site. PIT tags were recovered in significantly higher proportions than freeze brands regardless of species of stock. Furthermore, for chinook and sockeye salmon, PIT tag recovery data exhibited less variability. Reasons for the discrepant intermark recovery rates are discussed. 10 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. A multi-year analysis of passage and survival at McNary Dam, 2004-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Walker, C.E.; Perry, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed 6 years (2004–09) of passage and survival data collected at McNary Dam to determine how dam operations and environmental conditions affect passage and survival of juvenile salmonids. A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine how environmental variables and dam operations relate to passage behavior of juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam. We used the Cormack-Jolly-Seber release-recapture model to determine how the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through McNary Dam relates to environmental variables and dam operations. Total project discharge and the proportion of flow passing the spillway typically had a positive effect on survival for all species and routes. As the proportion of water through the spillway increased, the number of fish passing the spillway increased, as did overall survival. Additionally, survival generally was higher at night. There was no meaningful difference in survival for fish that passed through the north or south portions of the spillway or powerhouse. Similarly, there was no difference in survival for fish released in the north, middle, or south portions of the tailrace. For subyearling Chinook salmon migrating during the summer season, increased temperatures had a drastic effect on passage and survival. As temperature increased, survival of subyearling Chinook salmon decreased through all passage routes and the number of fish that passed through the turbines increased. During years when the temporary spillway weirs (TSWs) were installed, passage through the spillway increased for spring migrants. However, due to the changes made in the location of the TSW between years and the potential effect of other confounding environmental conditions, it is not certain if the increase in spillway passage was due solely to the presence of the TSWs. The TSWs appeared to improve forebay survival during years when they were operated.

  12. Survey of Potential Hanford Site Contaminants in the Upper Sediment for the Reservoirs at McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Priddy, M; Yokel, Jerel W.; Delistraty, Damon A.; Stoops, Thomas M.

    2005-02-01

    This report presents the results from a multi-agency cooperative environmental surveillance study. of the study looked at sediment from the pools upstream from dams on the Columbia River that are downstream from Hanford Site operations. The radiological and chemical conditions existing in the upper-level sediment found in the pools upstream from McNary Dam, John Day Dam, The Dalles Lock and Dam, and Bonneville Dam were evaluated. This study also evaluated beach sediment where available. Water samples were collected at McNary Dam to further evaluate potential Hanford contaminants in the lower Columbia River. Samples were analyzed for radionuclides, chemicals, and physical parameters. Results from this study were compared to background values from sediment and water samples collect from the pool upstream of Priest Rapids Dam (upstream of the Hanford Site) by the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project.

  13. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Collection Efficiency Estimates of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts at McNary Dam. 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stuehrenberg, Lowell; Johnson, Orlay W.

    1990-03-01

    During 1988, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) began a 2-year study to address possible sources of error in determining collection efficiency at McNary Dam. We addressed four objectives: determine whether fish from Columbia and Snake Rivers mix as they migrate to McNary Dam, determine whether Columbia and Snake River stocks are collected at the same rates assess whether the time of day fish are released influences their recovery rate, and determine whether guided fish used in collection efficiency estimates ten to bias results. 7 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Summary of juvenile salmonid passage and survival at McNary Dam-Acoustic survival studies, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Evans, Scott D.

    2011-01-01

    Passage and survival data were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Given the importance of these annual studies, the primary objectives of this report were to summarize the findings of these annual studies to ensure that passage and survival metrics are consistently calculated and reported across all years and to consolidate this information in a single document, thereby making it easier to reference. It is worth noting that this report does not contain all the information from all the annual reports. The intent of this report was to summarize the key findings from multiple years of research. The reader is encouraged to reference the annual reports if more detailed information is needed. Chapter 1 summarizes existing behavior, passage, and survival results for fish released 10 rkm upstream of McNary Dam and from the McNary Dam tailrace during 2006-09. Chapter 2 summarizes existing behavior, passage, and survival results for fish released in the mid-Columbia River and detected at McNary Dam during 2006-09. Results from 2006 indicated that higher spill discharge generally resulted in higher fish passage through spill, and in turn, higher fish survival through the entire dam. Within the spillway, passage effectiveness was highest for the south spill bays, adjacent to the powerhouse. Increased passage in this area, combined with detailed 3-dimensional approach paths, aided in the design and location of the temporary spillway weirs (TSWs) at McNary Dam prior to the 2007 migration of juvenile salmonids. During the 2007 study, the TSWs were tested under two spill treatments during the spring and summer: a "2006 Modified spill," and a "2007 test spill." In the spring, slightly higher discharge through spill bays 14-17 was the primary difference between the spill

  15. Survival and migration behavior of juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam, 2005: Final report of research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Braatz, Amy C.; Novick, Marc S.; Lucchesi, Joel N.; Rutz, Gary L.; Koch, Ryan C.; Schei, Jacquelyn L.; Adams, Noah S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    During 2005, we used radio-telemetry at McNary Dam to estimate passage and survival parameters of juvenile salmonids. During the spring migration period, two treatments were implemented: 1) 12-h spill operations with spill occurring between 1800 hours and 0600 hours, and 2) 24-h spill with spill occurring 24 hours per day. Treatments were not implemented during the summer migration period. However, a court-order was issued by Judge James Redden, U.S. 9th District Court, mandating a maximum powerhouse discharge of 50 kcfs with the remaining discharge to be spilled over the 24-h diel cycle between 1 July and 31 August 2005. Consequently, our study was conducted during two distinct periods: 1) a short period of involuntary spill for 24-h per day that occurred between 22 June and 30 June 2005, and 2) the period of court-ordered spill that was implemented after 1 July 2005.

  16. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume IX : Evaluation of the 2001 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Migrant Salmon and Steelhead Trout Migrating to Lower Granite, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day Dams using Program RealTime.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-12-01

    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 2001 inseason outmigration via the internet for eighteen PIT-tagged stocks of wild salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams and eleven passage-indexed stocks to Rock Island, McNary, or John Day dams. Nine of the PIT-tagged stocks tracked this year were new to the project. Thirteen ESUs of wild subyearling and yearling chinook salmon and steelhead, and one ESU of hatchery-reared sockeye salmon were tracked and forecasted to Lower Granite Dam. Eight wild ESUs of subyearling and yearling chinook salmon, sockeye salmon and steelhead were tracked to McNary Dam for the first time this year. Wild PIT-tagged ESUs tracked to Lower Granite Dam included yearling spring/summer chinook salmon release-recovery stocks (from Bear Valley Creek, Catherine Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Johnson Creek, Lostine River, Minam River, South Fork Salmon River, Secesh River, and Valley Creek), PIT-tagged wild runs-at-large of yearling chinook salmon and steelhead, and a PIT-tagged stock of subyearling fall chinook salmon. The stock of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon smolts outmigrating to Lower Granite Dam, consisted this year of a new stock of fish from Alturas Lake Creek, Redfish Lake Creek Trap and Sawtooth Trap. The passage-indexed stocks, counted using FPC passage indices, included combined wild- and hatchery-reared runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead migrating to Rock Island and McNary dams, and, new this year, combined wild and hatchery subyearling chinook salmon to John Day Dam. Unusual run-timing and fish passage characteristics were observed in this low-flow, negligible-spill migration year. The period for the middle 80% of fish passage (i.e., progress from the 10th to the 90th percentiles) was unusually short for nine out of ten PIT-tagged yearling spring/summer chinook salmon stocks tracked to Lower Granite Dam. It was the

  17. Juvenile Salmonid survival, passage, and egress at McNary Dam during tests of temporary spillway weirs, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, N.S.; Liedtke, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    The TSWs proved to be a relatively effective way to pass juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam (Summary Tables 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3), as was the case in 2007 and 2008. The TSWs passed about 14% of yearling Chinook salmon and 34% of juvenile steelhead with only 5-10% of total project discharge flowing through the TSWs. The TSWs and adjacent spill bays 16-18 passed 27% of subyearling Chinook salmon in the summer with 6-16% of total project discharge flowing through the TSWs. Based on the number of fish passing per the proportion of water flowing through the spillway (i.e., passage effectiveness), the TSWs were the most effective passage route. Passage effectiveness for fish passing through both TSW structures was 2.0 for yearling Chinook salmon, 5.2 for juvenile steelhead, and 2.7 subyearling Chinook salmon for TSW 20 alone. Higher passage of juvenile steelhead through the TSWs could have resulted from juvenile steelhead being more surface-oriented during migration (Plumb et al. 2004; Beeman et al. 2007; Beeman and Maule 2006). Based on passage performance and effectiveness metrics, TSW 4, located on the north end of the spillway, did not perform as well as TSW 20, located on the south end of the spillway. Passage proportions for TSW 4 were at least half that of the levels observed for TSW 20 for both yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. This difference may be attributed to TSW location or other variables such as dam operations. Regardless of which TSW was used by fish passing the dam, survival through both TSWs was high (> 0.98 for paired-release dam survival) for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead.

  18. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary Dams; 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Spellman, Bryant; Clark, Roy

    2001-10-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1999 to 30 September 2000. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates.

  19. A Markov chain analysis of the movements of juvenile salmonids in the forebay of McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2012-01-01

    Passage and survival data for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Much of the information collected at McNary Dam was in the form of three-dimensional tracks of fish movements in the forebay. These data depicted the behavior of multiple species (in three dimensions) during different diel periods, spill conditions, powerhouse operations, and test configurations of the surface bypass structures (temporary spillway weirs; TSWs). One of the challenges in reporting three-dimensional results is presenting the information in a manner that allows interested parties to summarize the behavior of many fish over many different conditions across multiple years. To accomplish this, we investigated the feasibility of using a Markov chain analysis to characterize fish movement patterns in the forebay of McNary Dam. The Markov chain analysis is one way that can be used to summarize numerically the behavior of fish in the forebay. Numerically summarizing the behavior of juvenile salmonids in the forebay of McNary Dam using the Markov chain analysis allowed us to confirm what had been previously summarized using visualization software. For example, proportions of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon passing the three powerhouse areas was often greater in the southern and middle areas, compared to the northern area. The opposite generally was observed for steelhead. Results of this analysis also allowed us to confirm and quantify the extent of milling behavior that had been observed for steelhead. For fish that were first detected in the powerhouse region, less than 0.10 of the steelhead, on average, passed within each of the powerhouse areas. Instead, steelhead transitioned to adjoining areas in the

  20. A Markov chain analysis of the movements of juvenile salmonids, including sockeye salmon, in the forebay of McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2012-01-01

    Passage and survival data were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Much of the valuable information collected at McNary Dam was in the form of three-dimensional (hereafter referred to as 3-D) tracks of fish movements in the forebay. These data depicted the behavior of multiple species (in three dimensions) during different diel periods, spill conditions, powerhouse operations, and testing of the surface bypass structures (temporary spillway weirs; TSWs). One of the challenges in reporting 3-D results is presenting the information in a manner that allows interested parties to summarize the behavior of many fish over many different conditions across multiple years. To accomplish this, we used a Markov chain analysis to characterize fish movement patterns in the forebay of McNary Dam. The Markov chain analysis allowed us to numerically summarize the behavior of fish in the forebay. This report is the second report published in 2012 that uses this analytical method. The first report included only fish released as part of the annual studies conducted at McNary Dam. This second report includes sockeye salmon that were released as part of studies conducted by the Chelan and Grant County Public Utility Districts at mid-Columbia River dams. The studies conducted in the mid-Columbia used the same transmitters as were used for McNary Dam studies, but transmitter pulse width was different between studies. Additionally, no passive integrated transponder tags were implanted in sockeye salmon. Differences in transmitter pulse width resulted in lower detection probabilities for sockeye salmon at McNary Dam. The absence of passive integrated transponder tags prevented us from determining if fish passed the powerhouse through the juvenile bypass system (JBS) or turbines. To

  1. Overview of the Performance of PIT-Tag Interrogation Systems for Adult Salmonids at Bonneville and McNary Dams, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Sandra L.; Prentice, Earl F.

    2003-06-01

    During winter 2001, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) installed a prototype orifice-based PIT-tag interrogation system into the Washington Shore Ladder at Bonneville Dam (BWSL). Detectors were installed into 12 weirs: 4 downstream (Weirs 334-337) and 8 upstream (Weirs 352-359) from the fish release point (i.e., the exit ladder for the Adult Fish Facility). NOAA Fisheries (National Marine Fisheries Service--NMFS) tagged and released salmonids during 2001 to determine tag-reading efficiencies for different salmonid populations. Data analyses focused on the upper eight weirs. The 2001 tagging results for spring chinook salmon indicated that having detectors in four consecutive weirs would have been sufficient to yield a reading efficiency of 95%. The BWSL orifice-based system performed well until the coho and fall chinook salmon migrations began. Coho and fall chinook salmon appeared to use the weir overflows, and thus avoid detection, at much higher rates than biologists expected. During 2001, technology advances led to the development of significantly larger antennas than had been available earlier, and thus it was possible to build antennas of approximately 2 x 6 ft. Consequently, it became feasible to design interrogation systems for ladder locations where all fish would have to go through the antennas and thus could not avoid detection by using the weir overflows (Fig. 1). Destron Technologies by Digital Angel designed a prototype interrogation system with two antennas that was installed into the counting-window area in the Oregon Ladder at McNary Dam, where its performance could then be directly compared to that of the orifice-based system in the same ladder. Although the orifice-based systems appeared less effective than the fisheries community wanted for fall chinook and coho salmon, the decision was made to proceed with installations planned for Bonneville and McNary Dams because valuable data would still be

  2. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume VI : Evaluation of the 2000 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin, and Combined Wild Hatchery Salminids Migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams using Program RealTime.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin

    1998-07-01

    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 2000 in season outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook salmon. These stocks were ESUs from nineteen release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Big Creek, Camas Creek (new), Cape Horn Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Johnson Creek (new), Lake Creek, Loon Creek, Lostine River, Marsh Creek, Minam River, East Fork Salmon River (new), South Fork Salmon River, Secesh River, Sulfur Creek and Valley Creek. Forecasts were also provided for two stocks of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon, from Redfish Lake and Alturas Lake (new); for a subpopulation of the PIT-tagged wild Snake River fall subyearling chinook salmon; for all wild Snake River PIT-tagged spring/summer yearling chinook salmon (new) and steelhead trout (new)detected at Lower Granite Dam during the 2000 outmigration. The 2000 RealTime project began making forecasts for combined wild- and hatchery-reared runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams on the mid-Columbia River and the mainstem Columbia River. Due to the new (in 1999-2000) Snake River basin hatchery protocol of releasing unmarked hatchery-reared fish, the RealTime forecasting project no longer makes run-timing forecasts for wild Snake River runs-at-large using FPC passage indices, as it has done for the previous three years (1997-1999). The season-wide measure of Program RealTime performance, the mean absolute difference (MAD) between in-season predictions and true (observed) passage percentiles, improved relative to previous years for nearly all stocks. The average season-wide MAD of all (nineteen) spring/summer yearling chinook salmon ESUs dropped from 5.7% in 1999 to 4.5% in 2000. The 2000 MAD for the hatchery-reared Redfish Lake sockeye salmon ESU was the lowest recorded, at 6.0%, down

  3. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    2002-09-17

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations. (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (9

  4. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary Dams; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    1999-12-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6

  5. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A. )

    1989-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1988 through March 1989 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Highlights of results of our work in the Dalles and Bonneville reservoirs are: using setlines, we caught 1,586 sturgeon in The Dalles Reservoir and 484 sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir in 1988. Fork length of fish caught ranged from 34 cm to 274 cm. Of the fish caught we marked 1,248 in The Dalles Reservoir and 341 in Bonneville Reservoir. Of the fish marked in 1988, we recaptured 82 in The Dalles Reservoir and none in Bonneville Reservoir. We recaptured 89 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 35 fish marked in 1988 and 16 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 2 sturgeon marked in 1988 in Bonneville Reservoir. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  6. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam: Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    1999-02-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1997 through March 1998 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS; Report D), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of the work from April 1997 through March 1998 listed.

  7. Effects of Mitigation Measures on Productivity of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, and Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1992-1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beamesdorfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A.

    1993-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 1992-March 1993 in research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and progress through 1992 was summarized in a comprehensive report in 2 volumes (Beamesderfer and Nigro 1993a, 1993b). This report details activities during the first year of Phase II of this sturgeon research. In Phase I, we assessed the status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Phase II will examine the effects on white sturgeon productivity of mitigative measures recommended in Phase I. The status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations upstream from McNary Dam will also be examined in Phase II. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Fisheries, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service. Work during the past year has focused on: (1) analysis of results of limited sampling conducted in 1992, (2) submission of Phase I results to the peer-review literature to ensure widespread dissemination, clarity of presentation, and credibility of findings, and (3) preparations for additional field work in 1993. In report sections A to D, each agency reports 1992 results if applicable and the current status of manuscripts. Results of field work conducted in 1993 will be reported in the 1994 annual report.

  8. Analyses of potential factors affecting survival of juvenile salmonids volitionally passing through turbines at McNary and John Day Dams, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John; Hansel, Hal; Perry, Russell; Hockersmith, Eric; Sandford, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This report describes analyses of data from radio- or acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids passing through hydro-dam turbines to determine factors affecting fish survival. The data were collected during a series of studies designed to estimate passage and survival probabilities at McNary (2002-09) and John Day (2002-03) Dams on the Columbia River during controlled experiments of structures or operations at spillways. Relatively few tagged fish passed turbines in any single study, but sample sizes generally were adequate for our analyses when data were combined from studies using common methods over a series of years. We used information-theoretic methods to evaluate biological, operational, and group covariates by creating models fitting linear (all covariates) or curvilinear (operational covariates only) functions to the data. Biological covariates included tag burden, weight, and water temperature; operational covariates included spill percentage, total discharge, hydraulic head, and turbine unit discharge; and group covariates included year, treatment, and photoperiod. Several interactions between the variables also were considered. Support of covariates by the data was assessed by comparing the Akaike Information Criterion of competing models. The analyses were conducted because there was a lack of information about factors affecting survival of fish passing turbines volitionally and the data were available from past studies. The depth of acclimation, tag size relative to fish size (tag burden), turbine unit discharge, and area of entry into the turbine intake have been shown to affect turbine passage survival of juvenile salmonids in other studies. This study indicates that turbine passage survival of the study fish was primarily affected by biological covariates rather than operational covariates. A negative effect of tag burden was strongly supported in data from yearling Chinook salmon at John Day and McNary dams, but not for subyearling Chinook salmon or

  9. Spawning and rearing habitat use by white sturgeons in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Beckman, Lance G.; McCabe, George T.

    1993-01-01

    Spawning and rearing habitats used by white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanuswere described from water temperature, depth, and velocity measurements and substrate types present at sites where eggs, larvae, young-of-the-year, and juveniles (ages 1–7) were collected. Spawning and egg incubation occurred in the swiftest water available (mean water column velocity, 0.8–2.8 m/s), which was within 8 km downstream from each of the four main-stem Columbia River dams in our study area. Substrates where spawning occurred were mainly cobble, boulder, and bedrock. Yolk-sac larvae were transported by the river currents from spawning areas into deeper areas with lower water velocities and finer substrates. Young-of-the-year white sturgeons were found at depths of 9–57 m, at mean water column velocities of 0.6 m/s and less, and over substrates of hard clay, mud and silt, sand, gravel, and cobble. Juvenile fish were found at depths of 2–58 m, at mean water column velocities of 1.2 m/s and less, and over substrates of hard clay, mud and silt, sand, gravel, cobble, boulder, and bedrock.

  10. Spawning and rearing habitat use by white sturgeons in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Parsley, M.J.; Beckman, L.G. )

    1993-03-01

    Spawning and rearing habitats used by white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus were described from water temperature, depth, and velocity measurements and substrate types present at sites where eggs, larvae, young-of-the-year, and juveniles (ages 1-7) were collected. Spawning and egg incubation occurred in the swiftest water available (mean water column velocity, 0.8-2.8 m/s), which was within 8 km downstream from each of the four main-stem Columbia River dams in our study area. Substrates where spawning occurred mainly cobble, boulder, and bedrock. Yolk-sac larvae were transported by the river currents from spawning areas into deeper areas with lower water velocities and finer substrates. Young-of-the-year white sturgeons were found at depths of 9-57 m, at mean water column velocities of 0.6 m/s and less, and over substrates of hard clay, mud and silt, sand, gravel, and cobble. Juvenile fish were found at depths of 2-58 m, at mean water column velocities of 1.2 m/s and less, and over substrates of hard clay, mud and silt, sand, gravel, cobble, boulder, and bedrock. 38 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Factors influencing the survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids through multiple dam passages: an individual-based approach.

    PubMed

    Elder, Timothy; Woodley, Christa M; Weiland, Mark A; Strecker, Angela L

    2016-08-01

    Substantial declines of Pacific salmon populations have occurred over the past several decades related to large-scale anthropogenic and climatic changes in freshwater and marine environments. In the Columbia River Basin, migrating juvenile salmonids may pass as many as eight large-scale hydropower projects before reaching the ocean; however, the cumulative effects of multiple dam passages are largely unknown. Using acoustic transmitters and an extensive system of hydrophone arrays in the Lower Columbia River, we calculated the survival of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) passing one, two, or three dams. We applied a unique index of biological characteristics and environmental exposures, experienced by each fish individually as it migrated downstream, in order to examine which factors most influence salmonid survival. High outflow volumes led to involuntary spill in 2011 and created an environment of supersaturated dissolved gas concentrations. In this environment, migrating smolt survival was strongly influenced by barometric pressure, fish velocity, and water temperature. The effect of these variables on survival was compounded by multiple dam passages compared to fish passing a single dam. Despite spatial isolation between dams in the Lower Columbia River hydrosystem, migrating smolt appear to experience cumulative effects akin to a press disturbance. In general, Chinook salmon and steelhead respond similarly in terms of survival rates and responses to altered environmental conditions. Management actions that limit dissolved gas concentrations in years of high flow will benefit migrating salmonids at this life stage.

  12. Renibacterium salmoninarum in spring-summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Jackson, L.M.; Matthews, G.M.; Harmon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated Renibacterium salmoninarum infection in smolts of hatchery and wild spring-summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sampled during most of the out-migration at Little Goose (1988) and Lower Granite dams (1988-1991) on the Snake River and at Priest Rapids and McNary dams on the Columbia River (1988-1990). We sampled 860-2,178 fish per dam each year. Homogenates of kidney-spleen tissue from all fish were tested for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigens by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and homogenates from 10% of the fish were examined by the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Although only 1-11% of fish sampled at a given dam during any 1 year exhibited lesions characteristic of bacterial kidney disease, 86-100% of the fish tested positive for R. salmoninarum antigen by ELISA, whereas 4-17% of the fish tested positive by the FAT. During most years, a majority (68-87%) of fish testing positive by the ELISA had low R. salmoninarum antigen levels, but in 1989, 53% of positive fish from Lower Granite Dam and 52% from McNary Dam showed medium-to-high antigen levels. For most years, the highest mean antigen levels were measured in fish sampled after 75% of the total out-migrants had passed a given dam. When the largest numbers of fish were being collected for bypass or downriver transportation, mean antigen levels were relatively low.

  13. A multi-year analysis of spillway survival for juvenile salmonids as a function of spill bay operations at McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2004-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Hansel, Hal C.; Perry, Russell W.; Evans, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 6 years (2004-09) of passage and survival data collected at McNary Dam to examine how spill bay operations affect survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the spillway at McNary Dam. We also examined the relations between spill bay operations and survival through the juvenile fish bypass in an attempt to determine if survival through the bypass is influenced by spill bay operations. We used a Cormack-Jolly-Seber release-recapture model (CJS model) to determine how the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through McNary Dam relates to spill bay operations. Results of these analyses, while not designed to yield predictive models, can be used to help develop dam-operation strategies that optimize juvenile salmonid survival. For example, increasing total discharge typically had a positive effect on both spillway and bypass survival for all species except sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Likewise, an increase in spill bay discharge improved spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and an increase in spillway discharge positively affected spillway survival for juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The strong linear relation between increased spill and increased survival indicates that increasing the amount of water through the spillway is one strategy that could be used to improve spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. However, increased spill did not improve spillway survival for subyearling Chinook salmon and sockeye salmon. Our results indicate that a uniform spill pattern would provide the highest spillway survival and bypass survival for subyearling Chinook salmon. Conversely, a predominantly south spill pattern provided the highest spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. Although spill pattern was not a factor for spillway survival of sockeye salmon, spill bay operations that optimize passage through the north and south spill bays maximized

  14. Survival of Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs in 2003 and from McNary Dam Tailrace to John Day Dam Tailrace in the Columbia River from 1999 to 2002, 1999-2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Axel, Gordon A.; Smith, Steven G.

    2004-12-01

    We report results from an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River during 2003 and in the Columbia River during 1999-2002. Earlier years of the study included serial releases of PIT-tagged hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon upstream from Lower Granite Dam, but these were discontinued in 2003. Instead, we estimated survival from a large number of PIT-tagged fish released upstream from Lower Granite Dam to evaluate transportation from Snake River Dams. During late May and early June 2003, 68,572 hatchery-reared subyearling fall Chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released at Couse Creek and Pittsburg Landing in the free-flowing Snake River. We estimated survival for these fish from release to Lower Granite Dam tailrace. In comparison to wild subyearling fall Chinook salmon PIT tagged and released in the free-flowing Snake River, the hatchery fish we released traveled faster and had higher survival to Lower Granite Dam, likely because of their larger size at release. For fish left in the river to migrate we estimated survival from Lower Granite Dam tailrace to McNary Dam tailrace. Each year, a small proportion of fish released are not detected until the following spring. However, the number of fish released in 2003 that overwintered in the river and were detected as they migrated seaward as yearlings in 2004 was small (<1.0%) and had minimal effect on survival estimates. We evaluated a prototype floating PIT-tag detector deployed upstream from Lower Granite reservoir to collect data for use in partitioning travel time and survival between free-flowing and reservoir habitats. The floating detector performed poorly, detecting only 27 PIT tags in 340 h of operation from a targeted release of 68,572; far too few to partition travel time and survival between habitats. We collected river-run subyearling Chinook salmon (mostly wild fish from the Hanford Reach) at McNary

  15. Prevalence and levels of Renibacterium salmoninarum in spring-summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Jackson, L.M.; Mathews, G.M.; Harmon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated Renibaeterium salmoninarum infection in smolts of hatchery and wild spring-summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sampled during most of the outmigration at Little Goose (1988) and Lower Granite dams (1988–1991) on the Snake River and at Priest Rapids and McNary dams on the Columbia River (1988–1990). We sampled 860–2,178 fish per dam each year. Homogenates of kidney–spleen tissue from all fish were tested for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigens by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and homogenates from 10% of the fish were examined by the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Although only 1–11% of fish sampled at a given dam during any l year exhibited lesions characteristic of bacterial kidney disease, 86–100% of the fish tested positive for R. salmoninarum antigen by ELISA, whereas 4–17% of the fish tested positive by the FAT. During most years, a majority (68–87%) of fish testing positive by the ELISA had low R. salmoninarum antigen levels, but in 1989, 53% of positive fish from Lower Granite Dam and 52% from McNary Dam showed medium-to-high antigen levels. For most years, the highest mean antigen levels were measured in fish sampled after 75% of the total out-migrants had passed a given dam. When the largest numbers of fish were being collected for bypass or downriver transportation, mean antigen levels were relatively low.

  16. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam Volume II; Supplemental Papers and Data Documentation, 1986-1992 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary.

  17. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    2003-04-01

    In 2001 a total of 309 adult fall chinook and 264 chum were sampled in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 48. The peak redd count for chum was 181. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 16 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 26 November. There were estimated to be a total of 721 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2001. The 2001 chum population below Bonneville Dam was estimated to be 532 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2001 brood chinook emergence began on 11 March 2002 and ended 18 May 2002, with peak emergence occurring 26 April. 2001 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 29 January and continued through 31 March 2002. Peak chum emergence took place 25 February. A total of 5,487 juvenile chinook and 678 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 22 January and 30 July 2002 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place from mid June through early July 2002 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI analysis, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2001 and 2002 the majority of fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning bright stock of fall chinook. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI analysis, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration

  18. Nonmetro Net Outmigration Stops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Annual population losses from net migration for nonmetro areas declined from 0.38-0.20 percent during the period of 1988-91. However, annual inmigration and outmigration flows were consistently above 1.5 million (about 3 percent of nonmetro population). During the three-year period, nonmetro areas consistently lost young adults and those with…

  19. Nonmetro Net Outmigration Stops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Annual population losses from net migration for nonmetro areas declined from 0.38-0.20 percent during the period of 1988-91. However, annual inmigration and outmigration flows were consistently above 1.5 million (about 3 percent of nonmetro population). During the three-year period, nonmetro areas consistently lost young adults and those with…

  20. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  1. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  2. Relationship of the Ben Franklin Dam Alternative to Water and Land Uses, Plans, Policies, and Controls for the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    fish spawning and wildlife habitat loss. , North Pacific Division. Reach Inventory, Columbia River Headwater McNary Reservoir to Grand Coulee Dam . Portland...River. This book is an inventory of existing land uses and conditions of the river from McNary Reservoir to Grand Coulee Dam . This inventory was part of

  3. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Cameron, William A.; Shapleigh, Stacey L.

    1995-12-01

    This is the first year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla river basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural fish populations. This project also completed tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  4. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Kern, J. Chris; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the second year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally-produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. The authors also report on tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  5. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1990-04-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1989 spring outmigration at a migrant trap on the Snake River and the Clearwater River. Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was much higher in 1989 than in either of the 1987 or 1988 drought years. The 1989 Snake River trap catch was similar to 1986. Effort was the same during the four years. Steelhead trout catch was greater than in any previous year. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout catch at the Clearwater River trap was similar to 1986, even though effort was greatly reduced in 1989 due to high runoff during most of the season. The 1989 Clearwater River trap catch was lower than in the two drought years (1987 and 1988) and was due to the minimal number of days the trap was operated. Fish tagged with Passive Interrogated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were recovered at the three dams (Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary) with PIT tag detection systems. Travel time (days) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that as discharge increased from 40 kcfs to 80 kcfs, chinook salmon travel time decreased three-fold and steelhead trout travel time decreased two-fold. 11 refs., 8 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    1994-10-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1994 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River, Clearwater River, and Salmon River. The 1994 snowpack was among the lowest since the beginning of the present drought, and the subsequent runoff was very poor. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1994. Total annual (hatchery + wild) chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.5 times greater than in 1993. Hatchery and wild steelhead trout catches were similar to 1993. The Snake River trap collected 30 age 0 chinook salmon. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Clearwater River trap was 3.5 times higher than in 1993, and wild chinook salmon catch was 4.2 times higher. Hatchery steelhead trout trap catch was less than half of 1993 numbers because the trap was fishing near the north shore during the majority of the hatchery steelhead movement due to flow augmentations from Dworshak. Wild steelhead trout trap catch was 2 times higher than in 1993. The Salmon River trap was operated for about a month longer in 1994 than in 1993 due to extremely low flows. Hatchery chinook salmon catch was 1.4 times greater in 1994 than the previous year. Wild chinook salmon catch was slightly less in 1994. The 1994 hatchery steelhead trout collection did not change significantly from 1993 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1994 was 59% of the 1993 catch. Fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993, cumulative interrogation data is not comparable with the prior five years (1988-1992).

  7. Relationship of external fish condition to pathogen prevalence and out-migration survival in juvenile steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostetter, N.J.; Evans, A.F.; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.; Hawbecker, M.; Sandford, B.P.; Thompson, D.E.; Loge, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how the external condition of juvenile salmonids is associated with internal measures of health and subsequent out-migration survival can be valuable for population monitoring programs. This study investigated the use of a rapid, nonlethal, external examination to assess the condition of run-of-the-river juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss migrating from the Snake River to the Pacific Ocean. We compared the external condition (e.g., body injuries, descaling, external signs of disease, fin damage, and ectoparasite infestations) with (1) the internal condition of a steelhead as measured by the presence of selected pathogens detected by histopathology and polymerase chain reaction analysis and (2) out-migration survival through the Snake and Columbia rivers as determined by passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag technology. The results from steelhead captured and euthanized (n = 222) at Lower Monumental Dam on the lower Snake River in 2008 indicated that external condition was significantly correlated with selected measures of internal condition. The odds of testing positive for a pathogen were 39.2, 24.3, and 5.6 times greater for steelhead with severe or moderate external signs of disease or more than 20% descaling, respectively. Capture-recapture models of 22,451 PIT-tagged steelhead released at Lower Monumental Dam in 2007-2009 indicated that external condition was significantly correlated with juvenile survival. The odds of outmigration survival for steelhead with moderate or severe external signs of disease, more than 20% descaling, or severe fin damage were 5.7, 4.9, 1.6, and 1.3 times lower, respectively, than those for steelhead without these external conditions. This study effectively demonstrated that specific measures of external condition were associated with both the internal condition and out-migration survival of juvenile steelhead. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  8. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Snake River stock) yearling fall chinook salmon that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 1998. The three fall chinook acclimation facilities are operated by the Nez Perce Tribe and located at Pittsburg Landing and Captain John Rapids on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Yearlings at the Big Canyon facility consisted of two size classes that are referred to in this report as 9.5 fish per pound (fpp) and 30 fpp. The Big Canyon 9.5 fpp were comparable to the yearlings at Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. A total of 9,942 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Pittsburg Landing. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 159.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.19. Of the 9,942 PIT tagged fish released, a total of 6,836 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary). A total of 4,926 9.5 fpp and 2,532 30 fpp yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Big Canyon. PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 156.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.13. PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 113.1 mm and mean condition factor of 1.18. Of the 4,926 PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings released, a total of 3,042 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. Of the 2,532 PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings released, a total of 1,130 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. A total of 1,253 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Captain John Rapids. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 147.5 mm and mean condition factor of 1.09. Of

  9. Evaluation of a Behavioral Guidance Structure at Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse including Passage Survival of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead using Acoustic Telemetry, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; McComas, Roy L.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R. L.; Fu, Tao; Skalski, J. R.; Fischer, Eric S.

    2010-02-12

    Summarizes research conducted at Bonneville Dam in 2008 to evaluate a prototype Behavioral Guidance Structure, that was deployed by the US Army Corps of Engineers in an effort to increase survival of outmigrating smolts at Bonneville Dam.

  10. Minimizing effects of over-water docks on federally listed fish stocks in McNary Reservoir: A literature review for criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Rutz, Gary L.; Charrier, Jodi C.

    2010-01-01

    McNary Lock and Dam were completed in 1953, creating McNary Reservoir, or Lake Wallula. The shoreline of the reservoir is federally owned and as a result the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has certain land and fish habitat management responsibilities to balance with other multipurpose benefits. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listing of Columbia and Snake River salmon stocks has changed the management of salmon harvest, hydropower operations, hatchery practices, and habitat management in recent years. There are 12 salmon Oncorhynchus spp., steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss, and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus evolutionarily significant units (ESU‘s) that use this reach of the Columbia River at one or more stages in their life history. Of those 12, 8 are listed as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act. The entire portion of the Columbia River in the Hanford Reach and McNary Reservoir is designated critical habitat for seven ESA-listed salmon species. The USACE is in the process of updating the 1983 McNary Lakeshore Management Plan. The updated Shoreline Plan provides criteria for private use of the federal shoreline of McNary Reservoir, specifically the permitting of private docks, over-water structures, and modifications to shoreline vegetation by adjacent land owners. The previous Shoreline Plan was written prior to the federal listing of salmon species. At the request of the USACE, the purpose of this report is to review information from the literature and determine the extent to which the criteria proposed by USACE for the docks and over-water structures are supported by the current body of scientific knowledge.

  11. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    1993-11-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout 0. mykiss smolts during the 1992 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River and the Clearwater River. Annual chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was the second lowest since the beginning of this project. The low trap catch wall due to extremely poor trap efficiency associated with severe low flows. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was similar to 1988 through 1991. Wild steelhead trout catch was 35% less than in 1991. Operations at the Snake River trap and a new screw trap were extended through the end of July to collect summer-migrating age-0 chinook. The differentiation of age-0 chinook from spring and Bummer chinook (age-1) using physical characteristics was again employed in 1992. The Snake River trap and the screw trap collected 20 and 18 age-0 chinook salmon, respectively, due to extremely low discharge. Chinook salmon catch at the Clearwater River trap was the highest since trap operation began in 1984. Hatchery steelhead trout trap catch was 23% lower than in 1991. Wild steelhead trout trap catch wall the highest since trap operation began. Fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were interrogated at three dams with PIT-tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary dams). Cumulative interrogation, for fish marked at the Snake River trap, was not calculated for chinook salmon due to a lack of data over the entire migration season. The rates for hatchery steelhead trout and wild steelhead trout were 44.9% and 72.9% respectively. Cumulative interrogation at the three dams for fish PIT-tagged at the Clearwater River trap was 55.1% for chinook salmon, 60.4% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 73.1% for wild steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogations for hatchery steelhead tagged at the Snake River trap and recovered at the downstream dams was about 50% less than in previous years.

  12. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1991-05-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mvkiss smolts during the 1990 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River and the Clearwater River. Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was similar to 1987 and 1988, drought years, but considerably less than 1989, a near normal flow year. Trapping effort was the same during the four years. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was similar to 1988 and 1989. Wild steelhead trout catch was greater than in any previous year. Chinook salmon catch at the Clearwater River trap was slightly less than in 1987 or 1988 and considerably higher than in 1989. Hatchery steelhead trout trap catch was 3 to 26 times greater than in previous years. Wild steelhead trout trap catch was 2 to 11 times greater than in previous years. Fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were recovered at the three dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary dams). Cumulative recovery at the three dams for fish marked at the Snake River trap was 64.4% for chinook salmon, 83.1% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 79.0% for wild steelhead trout. Cumulative recovery at the three dams for fish PIT-tagged at the Clearwater River trap was 54.6% for chinook salmon, 77.6% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 70.4% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time (days) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that a two-fold increase in discharge increased migration rate by 2.2 times for PIT-tagged chinook salmon released from the Snake River trap and 1.8 times for chinook salmon released from the Clearwater River trap. A two-fold increase in discharge increased migration rate by 3.1 times for PIT-tagged hatchery steelhead trout released from the Snake River trap

  13. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rien, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris

    2006-03-01

    We report on our progress from April 2004 through March 2005 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  14. White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris

    2005-08-01

    We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  15. Rural Youth Outmigration: How Big Is the Problem and for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert M.; Cromartie, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of outmigration and inmigration rates for nonmetropolitan counties during 1985-90 reveals that high levels of outmigration in rural areas among young adults are mitigated by inmigration of this age group; that net outmigration is more severe among college-educated young people; and that high net-loss counties are distinguished by low…

  16. Rural Youth Outmigration: How Big Is the Problem and for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert M.; Cromartie, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of outmigration and inmigration rates for nonmetropolitan counties during 1985-90 reveals that high levels of outmigration in rural areas among young adults are mitigated by inmigration of this age group; that net outmigration is more severe among college-educated young people; and that high net-loss counties are distinguished by low…

  17. Higher Inmigration, Lower Outmigration Contribute to Nonmetro Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, John

    1996-01-01

    For 1993-94, data from the Internal Revenue Service indicate that nonmetro areas showed positive net migration for the United States, all regions, and all economic county types, with the greatest gains in the West and in retirement-destination counties. The most rapidly growing counties had the highest rates for both inmigration and outmigration.…

  18. Higher Inmigration, Lower Outmigration Contribute to Nonmetro Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, John

    1996-01-01

    For 1993-94, data from the Internal Revenue Service indicate that nonmetro areas showed positive net migration for the United States, all regions, and all economic county types, with the greatest gains in the West and in retirement-destination counties. The most rapidly growing counties had the highest rates for both inmigration and outmigration.…

  19. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2006 - March 2007. Report C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2008-01-01

    Describe reproduction and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Progress updates on young-of-the-year recruitment in Bonneville Reservoir and indices of white sturgeon spawning habitat for 2006 for McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville dam tailrace spawning areas.

  20. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmonid Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.; Osborne, Randall S.

    1996-04-01

    For the second consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 6 to June 20, 1995. We PIT tagged and released 421 wild chinook salmon smolts, 747 hatchery chinook salmon smolts (445 HxW and 302 HxH), 227 wild steelhead trout smolts and 1,296 hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 78.4% for wild chinook salmon, 58.9% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxW), 56.6% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxH), 76.2% for wild steelhead trout, and 69.2% for hatchery steelhead trout. Peak outmigration of NPT tagged wild Imnaha River chinook salmon smolts occurred from early to mid-May at Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental Dams. Median and 90% passage dates for wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam were May 1 and May 11, respectively. Continuous spill at Lower Granite Dam was initiated on May 3 and lasted for 51 days. The 90% passage date of wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam (May 11) preceded peak Snake River and Lower Granite (June 6) flows by 26 days. Although hatchery chinook salmon exhibited a shorter outmigration period through the Snake River than their wild counterparts, peak arrival for both groups occurred at approximately the same time. Median and 90% passage dates at Lower Granite Dam for other PIT tagged groups were: hatchery chinook salmon (NPT-HxW) - May 2 and May 13; hatchery chinook salmon (FPC-HxH) - May 8 and May 15; wild steelhead trout - May 2 and May 9; and hatchery steelhead trout (NPT and FPC) - May 31 and June 16. Hatchery steelhead trout displayed small peaks in arrival timing at Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams in mid-May to mid-June.

  1. The Sensor Fish - Making Dams More Salmon-Friendly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Keilman, Geogre

    2004-07-31

    This article describes the Sensor Fish, an instrument package that travels through hydroelectric dams collecting data on the hazardous conditions that migrating salmon smolt encounter. The Sensor Fish was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory with funding from DOE and the US Army Corps of Engineers and has been used at several federal and utility-run hydroelectric projects on the Snake and Columbia Rivers of the US Pacific Northwest. The article describes the evolution of the Sensor Fish design and provides examples of its use at McNary and Ice Harbor dams.

  2. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M.

    2005-10-01

    In 2004, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the twelfth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,621 hatchery steelhead, 8,128 wild steelhead, and 9,227 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2004 were to (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2004 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival and detection probabilities were estimated precisely for most of the 2004 yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead migrations. Hatchery and

  3. Three-Dimensional Flow Modeling of McNary Dam Forebay, Columbia River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-12-15 ii Abstract The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District (NWW), requested that the U.S...report was sponsored by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District (NWW) and the Navigation Systems Research Program (NSRP). This work was...operations do not negatively impact the passage behavior of fish causing migration delays. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District (NWW

  4. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2003-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tara

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes activities conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Juvenile Outmigration and Survival M&E project in the Umatilla River subbasin between 2004-2006. Information is used to make informed decisions on hatchery effectiveness, natural production success, passage improvement and flow enhancement strategies. Data collected includes annual estimates of smolt abundance, migration timing, and survival, life history characteristics and productivity status and trends for spring and fall Chinook salmon, coho salmon and summer steelhead. Productivity data provided is the key subbasin scale measure of the effectiveness of salmon and steelhead restoration actions in the Umatilla River. Information is also used for regional planning and recovery efforts of Mid-Columbia River (MCR) ESA-listed summer steelhead. Monitoring is conducted via smolt trapping and PIT-tag interrogation at Three Mile Falls Dam. The Umatilla Juvenile Outmigration and Survival Project was established in 1994 to evaluate the success of management actions and fisheries restoration efforts in the Umatilla River Basin. Project objectives for the 2004-2006 period were to: (1) operate the PIT tag detection system at Three Mile Falls Dam (TMFD), (2) enhance provisional PIT-tag interrogation equipment at the east bank adult fish ladder, (3) monitor the migration timing, abundance and survival of naturally-produced juvenile salmonids and trends in natural production, (4) determine migration parameters and survival of hatchery-produced fish representing various rearing, acclimation and release strategies, (5) evaluate the relative survival between transported and non-transported fish, (6) monitor juvenile life history characteristics and evaluate trends over time, (7) investigate the effects of river, canal, fishway operations and environmental conditions on smolt migration and survival, (8) document the temporal distribution and diversity of resident fish species, and (9

  5. Outmigration and Human Capital: Homeward Bound or Gone for Good? Policy Research: IERC 2014-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberger, Eric J.; Dietrich, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of student outmigration on Illinois employment and earnings. Our intent is for this study to inform policy to both decrease the outmigration of students and to collect appropriate data to track these students and quantify the impact. Appended are: (1) STEM-Designated Degree Program List 2012 Revised List; and (2)…

  6. Outmigration among Rural High School Graduates: The Effect of Academic and Vocational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Gary G.; Weng, Stanley; Zhang, Fan; Cohen, Michael P.

    1997-01-01

    Data from the High School and Beyond Study (National Center for Education Statistics) are used to examine the post-school outmigration of students from rural areas in connection with student coursework and curriculum program enrollment (school level). Results show a connection between outmigration and high academic achievement and the schools'…

  7. Rural out-migration in southern Manitoba: a simple path analysis of "push" factors.

    PubMed

    Todd, D

    1981-01-01

    "Rural out-migration from southern Manitoba over the period 1971-76 is subjected to a path-analytic model which claims that the exodus is due to unsatisfactory economic and social conditions. In particular, the model is structured so that migration and community satisfaction both depend upon the economic standing of a community. Results indicate that while economic conditions are key factors in rural out-migration, other variables, especially those representative of rural isolation, are also of great importance. These conclusions remain tenable even after allowing for feedback effects from the rural out-migration." (summary in FRE) excerpt

  8. Trends in organic pollutants and lipids in juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon with different outmigrating histories through the Lower Snake and Middle Columbia Rivers.

    PubMed

    Arkoosh, Mary R; Strickland, Stacy; Van Gaest, Ahna; Ylitalo, Gina M; Johnson, Lyndal; Yanagida, Gladys K; Collier, Tracy K; Dietrich, Joseph P

    2011-11-01

    A three-year field study was conducted from 2006 to 2008 to monitor the spatial and temporal trends of organic pollutants in migrating juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sampled from the Lower Snake and Middle Columbia River Basins. Specifically, hatchery-reared juvenile salmon were monitored as they navigated the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) by either transport barge (Barged) or remained in the river (In-River) from Lower Granite Dam to a terminal collection dam, either John Day Dam or Bonneville Dam. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine (OC) pesticides were detected in the bodies of both In-River and Barged salmon during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 outmigrating season. At the terminal dam, In-River fish had greater concentrations of persistent organic pollutants POPs than Barged salmon. Of the POPs detected, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were found at the greatest concentrations in the salmon bodies. These elevated lipid-normalized concentrations in the In-River fish were due to lipid depletion in all years as well as increased exposure to POPs in some years as indicated by an increase in wet weight contaminant concentrations. Salmon were also exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as indicated by the phenanthrene (PHN) signal for biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) at the hatcheries or prior to Lower Granite Dam. There were detectable levels of biliary FACs as fish migrated downstream or were barged to the terminal dam. Therefore, the potential exists for these organic pollutants and lipid levels to cause adverse effects and should be included as one of the variables to consider when examining the effects of the FCRPS on threatened and endangered juvenile salmon. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Environmental Change and Out-Migration: Evidence from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.

    2011-01-01

    Scholars and activists have hypothesized a connection between environmental change and out-migration. In this paper we test this hypothesis using data from Nepal. We operationalize environmental change in terms of declining land cover, rising times required to gather organic inputs, increasing population density, and perceived declines in agricultural productivity. In general, environmental change is more strongly related to short- than long-distance moves. Holding constant the effects of other social and economic variables, we find that local moves are predicted by perceived declines in productivity, declining land cover, and increasing time required to gather firewood. Long-distance moves are predicted by perceived declines in productivity, but the effect is weaker than in the model of short-distance mobility. We also show that effects of environmental change vary by gender and ethnicity, with women being more affected by changes in the time required to gather fodder and men by changes in the time to gather firewood, and high caste Hindus generally being less affect than others by environmental change. PMID:21350676

  10. Native out-migration and neighborhood immigration in new destinations.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Crowder, Kyle

    2014-12-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics linked to three decades of census data on immigrant settlement patterns, this study examines how the migration behaviors of native-born whites and blacks are related to local immigrant concentrations, and how this relationship varies across traditional and nontraditional metropolitan gateways. Our results indicate that regardless of gateway type, the likelihood of neighborhood out-migration among natives increases as the local immigrant population grows-an association that is not explained by sociodemographic characteristics of householders or by features of the neighborhoods and metropolitan areas in which they reside. Most importantly, we find that this tendency to move away from immigrants is pronounced for natives living in metropolitan areas that are developing into a major gateway-that is, a community that has experienced rapid recent growth in foreign-born populations. We also demonstrate that among mobile natives, the neighborhoods that they move to have substantially smaller immigrant concentrations than the ones they left, a finding that is especially evident in new gateway areas.

  11. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tara C.; Hanson, Josh T.; Jewett, Shannon M.

    2004-01-01

    The year of 2002 represented the eighth year of a multi-year project, monitoring the outmigration and survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project both supplements and complements various ongoing and completed work within the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on juvenile outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts of natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also assist in assessment of the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program. General project objectives include: Evaluation of the outmigration and survival of natural and hatchery juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River, in an effort to enhance the understanding of migration characteristics, survival bottlenecks, species interactions and effects of management strategies. Specific objectives for 2002 included: (1) Operation of the remote interrogation system at Three Mile Falls Dam, West Extension Canal; (2) Design of improved PIT tag detection capabilities at Three Mile Falls Dam east bank adult fish ladder; (3) Estimates of migrant abundance, migration timing and in-basin survival of tagged juvenile salmonids representing various hatchery, rearing, acclimation and release strategies; (4) Monitoring of abundance and trends in natural production of salmon, steelhead and pacific lamprey; (5) Continuation of transport evaluation studies to evaluate the relative survival between transported and nontransported fish; (6) Assessment of the condition, health, size, growth and smolt status of hatchery and natural migrants; (7) Investigation of the effects of canal and fishway operations and environmental conditions on fish migration and survival; (8) Documentation of temporal distribution and diversity of resident

  12. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Mallette, Christine

    2009-07-28

    We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  13. Urban immigration and outmigration in Egypt: an analytical study of birthplace in the 1976 census.

    PubMed

    Al-nasr, A S; Attiya, M

    1985-06-01

    The 1976 census was used as the basic data source to study 4 principal migratory trends in Egypt: urban-urban inmigration; rural-urban inmigration; urban-urban outmigration; and urban-rural outmigration. First, a general comparison was made of the 4 principal trends and of overall migration to and from urban areas. Next, the 2 principal trends -- rural-urban inmigration and urban-urban outmigration -- and their respective influences on net migration to urban areas were compared. Finally, net migration to each of the 3 principal areas of attraction (Cairo, Giza, and Alexandria) was studied and the manner in which it is influenced by the 2 principal trends. Rural to urban migrants make up about 6.4% of the urban population whereas migrants from other urban areas constitute about 19% of the urban population. Rural to urban inmigration rates are characterized by the fact that they are more dispersed, varied, and uneven than urban outmigration rates. Cairo and Giza are approximately equal in regard to their volume of inmigration from rural and other urban areas. Overall net migration to urban areas is more closely related to urban inmigration from rural areas than to urban to urban outmigration (0.83 as against 0.63). Positive net migration results more from a high volume of urban inmigration from rural areas than from a low volume of urban to urban outmigration, while negative net migration is attributable primarily to a low volume of urban inmigration from rural areas as compared with the volume of urban to urban outmigration. The correlation between rural to urban inmigrations rates and the overall net migration rates was much stronger than the correlation between them and the urban to urban outmigration rates. The data confirmed the important role of urban areas as both recipients and as sources of migrants. Areas which "acquire" migrants at the expense of other areas, i.e., areas with positive net migration, and areas which "lose" migrants do not differ greatly in

  14. The Impact of Out-Migration on the Nursing Workforce in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Jessica M; Rogers, Martha F; Teplinskiy, Ilya; Oywer, Elizabeth; Wambua, David; Kamenju, Andrew; Arudo, John; Riley, Patricia L; Higgins, Melinda; Rakuom, Chris; Kiriinya, Rose; Waudo, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of out-migration on Kenya's nursing workforce. Study Setting This study analyzed deidentified nursing data from the Kenya Health Workforce Informatics System, collected by the Nursing Council of Kenya and the Department of Nursing in the Ministry of Medical Services. Study Design We analyzed trends in Kenya's nursing workforce from 1999 to 2007, including supply, deployment, and intent to out-migrate, measured by requests for verification of credentials from destination countries. Principle Findings From 1999 to 2007, 6 percent of Kenya's nursing workforce of 41,367 nurses applied to out-migrate. Eighty-five percent of applicants were registered or B.Sc.N. prepared nurses, 49 percent applied within 10 years of their initial registration as a nurse, and 82 percent of first-time applications were for the United States or United Kingdom. For every 4.5 nurses that Kenya adds to its nursing workforce through training, 1 nurse from the workforce applies to out-migrate, potentially reducing by 22 percent Kenya's ability to increase its nursing workforce through training. Conclusions Nurse out-migration depletes Kenya's nursing workforce of its most highly educated nurses, reduces the percentage of younger nurses in an aging nursing stock, decreases Kenya's ability to increase its nursing workforce through training, and represents a substantial economic loss to the country. PMID:21413982

  15. Outmigration of landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts and effectiveness of an angled trash rack/fish bypass structure at a small scale hydroelectric facility. [Salmo salar

    SciTech Connect

    Nettles, D.C.; Gloss, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Modes of downstream passage (penstock, spillway, diversion chute) by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts were monitored using radio telemetry to assess the effectiveness of an angled trash rack/fish bypass structure at a small hydroelectric dam on the Boquet River, New York. Telemetry of 170 Atlantic salmon smolts and visual observations of stocked smolts were used to determine aspects of Atlantic salmon outmigration behavior. Smolts initiated mass migrations after river temperatures reached or exceeded 10/sup 0/C. Many radio-tagged smolts interrupted movements upon reaching ponded waters and/or the dam. River flow did not (P > .05) affect the frequency of migratory movements, passages, or rate of movement. Migrations were of approximately 30 days duration. Passages at the dam occurred primarily at night (61%) with diurnal passages (17%) and crepuscular passages (17%) of secondary importance. Timing of 5% of the passages was undetermined. All passages which occurred when angled trash racks were in place were through the bypass or over the spillway. Six (6) passages occurred when trash racks perpendicular to the penstock were in place: 3 of these were penstock passages. The angled trash rack and bypass structure served to reduce entrainment.

  16. AGRO-ECOLOGICAL DRIVERS OF RURAL OUT-MIGRATION TO THE MAYA BIOSPHERE RESERVE, GUATEMALA

    PubMed Central

    López-Carr, David

    2013-01-01

    Migration necessarily precedes environmental change in the form of deforestation and soil degradation in tropical agricultural frontiers. But what environmental factors may contribute to these migration streams in the first place? Identifying environmental characteristics related to this process is crucial for understanding how environmental change and migration may form recurrent feedback loops. Further understanding this process could be useful for developing policies to reduce both environmentally induced migration from origin areas and also to palliate significant environmental change unleashed by settler deforestation in destination areas. Evidently, apprehending this holistic process cannot be approached only from the destination since this ignores environmental and other antecedents to rural out-migration. This paper presents data from surveys conducted in areas of high out-migration to the agricultural frontier in northern Guatemala. Results suggest that land scarcity and degradation in origin communities are linked to out-migration in general and to the forest frontier of northern Guatemala in particular. PMID:24069068

  17. Gender-specific out-migration, deforestation and urbanization in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Alisson F.; Carr, David L.

    2005-07-01

    The Ecuadorian Amazon, one of the richest reserves of biodiversity in the world, has faced one of the highest rates of deforestation of any Amazonian nation. Most of this forest elimination has been caused by agricultural colonization that followed the discovery of oil fields in 1967. Since the 1990s, an increasing process of urbanization has also engendered new patterns of population mobility within the Amazon, along with traditional ways by which rural settlers make their living. However, while very significant in its effects on deforestation, urbanization and regional development, population mobility within the Amazon has hardly been studied at all, as well as the distinct migration patterns between men and women. This paper uses a longitudinal dataset of 250 farm households in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon to understand differentials between men and women migrants to urban and rural destinations and between men and women non-migrants. First, we use hazard analysis based on the Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimator to obtain the cumulative probability that an individual living in the study area in 1990 or at time t, will out-migrated at some time, t+ n, before 1999. Results indicate that out-migration to other rural areas in the Amazon, especially pristine areas is considerably greater than out-migration to the growing, but still incipient, Amazonian urban areas. Furthermore, men are more likely to out-migrate to rural areas than women, while the reverse occurs for urban areas. Difference-of-means tests were employed to examine potential factors accounting for differentials between male and female out-migration to urban and rural areas. Among the key results, relative to men younger women are more likely to out-migrate to urban areas; more difficult access from farms to towns and roads constrains women's migration; and access to new lands in the Amazon-an important cause of further deforestation-is more associated with male out-migration. Economic factors such as

  18. Gender-specific out-migration, deforestation and urbanization in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Alisson F; Carr, David L

    2005-07-01

    The Ecuadorian Amazon, one of the richest reserves of biodiversity in the world, has faced one of the highest rates of deforestation of any Amazonian nation. Most of this forest elimination has been caused by agricultural colonization that followed the discovery of oil fields in 1967. Since the 1990s, an increasing process of urbanization has also engendered new patterns of population mobility within the Amazon, along with traditional ways by which rural settlers make their living. However, while very significant in its effects on deforestation, urbanization and regional development, population mobility within the Amazon has hardly been studied at all, as well as the distinct migration patterns between men and women. This paper uses a longitudinal dataset of 250 farm households in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon to understand differentials between men and women migrants to urban and rural destinations and between men and women non-migrants. First, we use hazard analysis based on the Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimator to obtain the cumulative probability that an individual living in the study area in 1990 or at time t, will out-migrated at some time, t+n, before 1999. Results indicate that out-migration to other rural areas in the Amazon, especially pristine areas is considerably greater than out-migration to the growing, but still incipient, Amazonian urban areas. Furthermore, men are more likely to out-migrate to rural areas than women, while the reverse occurs for urban areas. Difference-of-means tests were employed to examine potential factors accounting for differentials between male and female out-migration to urban and rural areas. Among the key results, relative to men younger women are more likely to out-migrate to urban areas; more difficult access from farms to towns and roads constrains women's migration; and access to new lands in the Amazon-an important cause of further deforestation-is more associated with male out-migration. Economic factors such as

  19. 106. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE CONN. AT MOVABLE DAM (ML-8-52/2-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  20. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2004 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2004 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.1 times greater in 2004 than in 2003. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.2 times greater than in 2003. Wild steelhead trout catch was 1.6 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 978 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2004, the Snake River trap captured 23 hatchery and 18 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 60 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on June 4. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 10.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 19.0% less than in 2003. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2004 was 20.0% less and wild steelhead trout collection was 22.3% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on May 28 due to high flows. There were two days when the trap was taken out of service because wild Chinook catch was very low, hatchery Chinook catch was very high, and the weekly quota of PIT tagged hatchery Chinook had been met. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km

  1. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2002 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2002 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11.4 times greater in 2002 than in 2001. The wild Chinook catch was 15.5 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 2.9 times greater than in 2001. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.8 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 3,996 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2002, the Snake River trap captured 69 hatchery and 235 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 114 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant increase in catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery Chinook production and a more normal spring runoff. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on June 7. The trap was out of operation for a total of four days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 4.2 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 2.4 times greater than in 2001. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the 2001 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on May 29 due to high flows. The trap was out of operation for four days due to high flow or debris. The increase

  2. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2005 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2005 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, the age-1 and older fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Age-0 Chinook salmon are more difficult to distinguish between wild and non-adclipped hatchery fish and therefore classified as unknown rearing. The total annual hatchery spring/summer Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 0.34 times greater in 2005 than in 2004. The wild spring/summer Chinook catch was 0.34 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 0.67 times less than in 2004. Wild steelhead trout catch was 0.72 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 1,152 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2005, the Snake River trap captured 219 hatchery and 44 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 110 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 6 and were terminated on June 3. The trap was out of operation for a total of one day due to heavy debris. FPC requested that the trap be restarted on June 15 through June 22 to collect and PIT tag age-0 Chinook salmon. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 1.06 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.26 times greater than in 2004. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2005 was 1.41 times greater and wild steelhead trout collection was 1.27 times greater than the previous year. Trap operations

  3. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2003 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2003 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 2.1 times less in 2003 than in 2002. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times less than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.7 times less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.1 times less than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 579 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2003, the Snake River trap captured five hatchery and 13 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 36 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant differences in catch between 2003 and the previous year were due mainly to low flows during much of the trapping season and then very high flows at the end of the season, which terminated the trapping season 12 days earlier than in 2002. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 27. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 16.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 1.7 times greater than in 2002. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2003 was 5.6% less than in 2002. Wild steelhead trout collection was 19.2% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 9 and were terminated on May 24 due to high

  4. Nonmetro Outmigration Exceeds Inmigration for the First Time in a Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, John B.

    2001-01-01

    More people moved from nonmetro to metro areas than in the opposite direction during 1999-2000. Only the Midwest saw nonmetro growth. Nonmetro outmigration is concentrated among young adults leaving for college and jobs in cities, while inmigration among the college-educated dropped to near zero. Migration decisions of baby boomers will determine…

  5. The Determinants of Out-Migration among In-State College Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishitani, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    Using national data, this study examined out-migration behavior of college graduates who attended in-state institutions in the United States. Unlike previous studies on the issue of student migration, in which researchers used a single equation approach, the present study employed a multi-level technique to assess the effects of factors from…

  6. Farming Systems and Rural Out-Migration in Nang Rong, Thailand, and Chitwan Valley, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Martin; Ghimire, Dirgha; Rindfuss, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Using data from two postfrontier rural settings, Nang Rong, Thailand (N = 2,538), and Chitwan Valley, Nepal (N = 876), this article examines agricultural push factors determining the out-migration of young people age 15 to 19. We focus on different dimensions of migration, including distance and duration. Our study examines a wide array of…

  7. The Determinants of Out-Migration among In-State College Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishitani, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    Using national data, this study examined out-migration behavior of college graduates who attended in-state institutions in the United States. Unlike previous studies on the issue of student migration, in which researchers used a single equation approach, the present study employed a multi-level technique to assess the effects of factors from…

  8. The Determinants of Out-Migration among In-State College Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishitani, Terry T.

    2010-01-01

    Using national data, this study examined out-migration behavior of college graduates who attended in-state institutions in the United States. Unlike previous studies on the issue of student migration, in which researchers used a single equation approach, the present study employed a multi-level technique to assess effects of factors from…

  9. Farming Systems and Rural Out-Migration in Nang Rong, Thailand, and Chitwan Valley, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Martin; Ghimire, Dirgha; Rindfuss, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Using data from two postfrontier rural settings, Nang Rong, Thailand (N = 2,538), and Chitwan Valley, Nepal (N = 876), this article examines agricultural push factors determining the out-migration of young people age 15 to 19. We focus on different dimensions of migration, including distance and duration. Our study examines a wide array of…

  10. Nonmetro Outmigration Exceeds Inmigration for the First Time in a Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, John B.

    2001-01-01

    More people moved from nonmetro to metro areas than in the opposite direction during 1999-2000. Only the Midwest saw nonmetro growth. Nonmetro outmigration is concentrated among young adults leaving for college and jobs in cities, while inmigration among the college-educated dropped to near zero. Migration decisions of baby boomers will determine…

  11. Recreation Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 6. McNary Lock and Dam, Lake Wallula Project Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Jj CREATION CARRYING PPACITY FACTS AND Report 6 of a series _ . I N SI D E R A T I O N S o R p o r t 6 9 1 p ti: A R Y J 0 C K . P R O M N R O E O T N...65 0 >12 13* Travel Tirue to Percent of Visit Percent of Project Area Boaters/Waterskiers Duration Boaters/aterskiers ᝿ minutes 25* 1 - 4 hours 6 ...15 - 30 minutes 44* 5 - 8 hours 78 30 - 60 minutes 13 1 day 3 I - 2 hours 16 2 days 6 2 - 3 hours 0 3 days 6 3 - 5 hours 3 4 days 0 >5 hours 0 5 - 7

  12. 107. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS - PLANS & SECTIONS (ML-8-52/3-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  13. Mass Media and Rural Out-Migration in the Context of Social Change: Evidence from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This work examines the influence of mass media on rural out-migration using historical and contemporary data from a setting experiencing massive social and economic development in the last half-century. Data come from the Chitwan Valley Family Study, an ongoing study of an agrarian region in rural Nepal. Media are hypothesized to affect migration by inducing attitudinal and behavioral changes similar to those of other determinants of migration. As their influence differs from other determinants in important ways, media represent a unique form of influence that should be taken into account. I find that movie and television exposure are significant determinants of out-migration in historical contexts, although television exposure was important in more contemporary contexts. Differences in these effects probably indicate the timing of the spread of each type of media and changing preferences among media consumers. PMID:23894210

  14. Mass Media and Rural Out-Migration in the Context of Social Change: Evidence from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Martin

    2013-06-01

    This work examines the influence of mass media on rural out-migration using historical and contemporary data from a setting experiencing massive social and economic development in the last half-century. Data come from the Chitwan Valley Family Study, an ongoing study of an agrarian region in rural Nepal. Media are hypothesized to affect migration by inducing attitudinal and behavioral changes similar to those of other determinants of migration. As their influence differs from other determinants in important ways, media represent a unique form of influence that should be taken into account. I find that movie and television exposure are significant determinants of out-migration in historical contexts, although television exposure was important in more contemporary contexts. Differences in these effects probably indicate the timing of the spread of each type of media and changing preferences among media consumers.

  15. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Matthews, Gene M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing. The authors PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1993, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary Dams during spring, summer, and fall 1994. This report details their findings.

  16. Out-migration and land-use change in agricultural frontiers: insights from Altamira settlement project.

    PubMed

    Vanwey, Leah K; Guedes, Gilvan R; D'Antona, Alvaro O

    2012-09-01

    One of Daniel Hogan's lasting impacts on international demography community comes through his advocacy for studying bidirectional relationships between environment and demography, particularly migration. We build on his holistic approach to mobility and examine dynamic changes in land use and migration among small farm families in Altamira, Pará, Brazil. We find that prior area in either pasture or perennials promotes out-migration of adult children, but that out-migration is not directly associated with land-use change. In contrast to early formulations of household life cycle models that argued that aging parents would decrease productive land use as children left the farm, we find no effect of out-migration of adult children on land-use change. Instead, remittances facilitate increases in area in perennials, a slower to pay off investment that requires scarce capital, but in pasture. While remittances are rare, they appear to permit sound investments in the rural milieu and thus to slow rural exodus and the potential consolidation of land into large holdings. We would do well to promote the conditions that allow them to be sent and to be used productively to keep families on the land to avoid the specter of extensive deforestation for pasture followed by land consolidation.

  17. Networks Versus Need: Drivers of Urban Out-Migration in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Randell, Heather F; VanWey, Leah K

    2014-12-01

    As urbanization rates rise globally, it becomes increasingly important to understand the factors associated with urban out-migration. In this paper, we examine the drivers of urban out-migration among young adults in two medium-sized cities in the Brazilian Amazon-Altamira and Santarém-focusing on the roles of social capital, human capital, and socioeconomic deprivation. Using household survey data from 1,293 individuals in the two cities, we employ an event history model to assess factors associated with migration and a binary logit model to understand factors associated with remitting behavior. We find that in Altamira, migration tends to be an individual-level opportunistic strategy fostered by extra-local family networks, while in Santarém, migration tends to be a household-level strategy driven by socioeconomic deprivation and accompanied by remittances. These results indicate that urban out-migration in Brazil is a diverse social process, and that the relative roles of extra-local networks versus economic need can function quite differently between geographically proximate but historically and socioeconomically distinct cities.

  18. Networks Versus Need: Drivers of Urban Out-Migration in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    VanWey, Leah K.

    2014-01-01

    As urbanization rates rise globally, it becomes increasingly important to understand the factors associated with urban out-migration. In this paper, we examine the drivers of urban out-migration among young adults in two medium-sized cities in the Brazilian Amazon—Altamira and Santarém—focusing on the roles of social capital, human capital, and socioeconomic deprivation. Using household survey data from 1,293 individuals in the two cities, we employ an event history model to assess factors associated with migration and a binary logit model to understand factors associated with remitting behavior. We find that in Altamira, migration tends to be an individual-level opportunistic strategy fostered by extra-local family networks, while in Santarém, migration tends to be a household-level strategy driven by socioeconomic deprivation and accompanied by remittances. These results indicate that urban out-migration in Brazil is a diverse social process, and that the relative roles of extra-local networks versus economic need can function quite differently between geographically proximate but historically and socioeconomically distinct cities. PMID:25419021

  19. Out-migration and land-use change in agricultural frontiers: insights from Altamira settlement project

    PubMed Central

    D’Antona, Álvaro O.

    2012-01-01

    One of Daniel Hogan’s lasting impacts on international demography community comes through his advocacy for studying bidirectional relationships between environment and demography, particularly migration. We build on his holistic approach to mobility and examine dynamic changes in land use and migration among small farm families in Altamira, Pará, Brazil. We find that prior area in either pasture or perennials promotes out-migration of adult children, but that out-migration is not directly associated with land-use change. In contrast to early formulations of household life cycle models that argued that aging parents would decrease productive land use as children left the farm, we find no effect of out-migration of adult children on land-use change. Instead, remittances facilitate increases in area in perennials, a slower to pay off investment that requires scarce capital, but in pasture. While remittances are rare, they appear to permit sound investments in the rural milieu and thus to slow rural exodus and the potential consolidation of land into large holdings. We would do well to promote the conditions that allow them to be sent and to be used productively to keep families on the land to avoid the specter of extensive deforestation for pasture followed by land consolidation. PMID:23129878

  20. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    Pittsburg Landing to 1.23 at Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 87.8% (82.1-93.4%) for Big Canyon Surplus to 94.1% (90.1-98.1%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 58.7% (49.3-68.1%) for Big Canyon Surplus to 71.3% (60.1-82.5%) for Captain John Rapids. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 9.3 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain John Rapids to 18.7 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration rates to McNary Dam ranged from 9.0 rkm/d for Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 17.3 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median travel times from the FCAP facilities were about 7-10 days to Lower Granite Dam and 21-23 days to McNary Dam. Median arrival dates at Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearling groups from the FCAP facilities, were all from April 23-25. The median arrival date for Big Canyon Surplus was May 4. Median arrival dates at McNary Dam for Pittsburg Landing, Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids groups were all from May 7-8. Median arrival dates at McNary Dam were May 17 for Big Canyon Surplus and April 26 for Lyons Ferry Hatchery.

  1. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    McNary Dam ranged from 65.8% (58.5-73.1%) for Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 84.0% (76.2-91.8%) for Captain John Rapids. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 10.1 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain John Rapids to 19.1 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration rates to McNary Dam ranged from 6.0 rkm/d for Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 17.3 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median travel times from the FCAP facilities were about 9-10 days to Lower Granite Dam and 22-25 days to McNary Dam. Median arrival dates at Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearling groups from Pittsburg Landing, Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids, were all from April 21-22. Median arrival dates at McNary Dam for Pittsburg Landing, Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids groups were all from May 5-6. The median arrival date at McNary Dam was April 24 for Lyons Ferry Hatchery yearlings.

  2. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    to McNary Dam ranged from 37.9% (36.0-40.0%) for Pittsburg Landing to 57.9% (53.0-62.8%) for Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 6.3 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Big Canyon to 10.8 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration rates to McNary Dam ranged from 5.2 rkm/d for Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 10.9 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median travel times from the FCAP facilities were about 13-17 days to Lower Granite Dam and 31-37 days to McNary Dam. Median arrival dates at Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearling groups from Pittsburg Landing, Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids, were all from April 26-27. Median arrival dates at McNary Dam for Pittsburg Landing, Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids groups were all from May 14-18. The median arrival date at McNary Dam was May 13 for Lyons Ferry Hatchery yearlings.

  3. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.

    2000-03-01

    This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for PIT-tagged hatchery and wild juvenile steelhead and yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers during 1998. Estimates of post-detection bypass survival for yearling chinook salmon at McNary Dam are also reported. Results are reported primarily in the form of data tables and figures with minimal description of methods and analysis. Detailed information on the methodology and statistical models used for this report is provided in five previous annual reports on this study, which are cited here.

  4. Transporting juvenile salmonids around dams impairs adult migration.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Matthew L; Caudill, Christopher C; Peery, Christopher A; Lee, Steven R

    2008-12-01

    Mitigation and ecosystem-restoration efforts may have unintended consequences on both target and nontarget populations. Important effects can be displaced in space and time, making them difficult to detect without monitoring at appropriate scales. Here, we examined the effects of a mitigation program for juvenile salmonids on subsequent adult migration behaviors and survival. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) were collected and uniquely tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at Lower Granite Dam (Washington State, USA) on the Snake River and were then either transported downstream in barges in an effort to reduce out-migration mortality or returned to the river as a control group. Returning adults were collected and radio-tagged at Bonneville Dam (Washington-Oregon, USA) on the Columbia River 1-3 years later and then monitored during approximately 460 km of their homing migrations. The proportion of adults successfully homing was significantly lower, and unaccounted loss and permanent straying into non-natal rivers was higher, for barged fish of both species. On average, barged fish homed to Lower Granite Dam at rates about 10% lower than for in-river migrants. Barged fish were also 1.7-3.4 times more likely than in-river fish to fall back downstream past dams as adults, a behavior strongly associated with lower survival. These results suggest that juvenile transport impaired adult orientation or homing abilities, perhaps by disrupting sequential imprinting processes during juvenile out-migration. While juvenile transportation has clear short-term juvenile-survival benefits, the delayed effects that manifest in adult stages illustrate the need to assess mitigation success throughout the life cycle of target organisms, i.e., the use of fitness-based measures. In the case of Snake River salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act, the increased straying and potential associated genetic and demographic

  5. Conforth Ranch Wildlife Mitigation Feasibility Study, McNary, Oregon : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Larry; Wright, Patrick; Giger, Richard

    1991-03-01

    The 2,860-acre Conforth Ranch near Umatilla, Oregon is being considered for acquisition and management to partially mitigate wildlife losses associated with McNary Hydroelectric Project. The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) estimated that management for wildlife would result in habitat unit gains of 519 for meadowlark, 420 for quail, 431 for mallard, 466 for Canada goose, 405 for mink, 49 for downy woodpecker, 172 for yellow warbler, and 34 for spotted sandpiper. This amounts to a total combined gain of 2,495 habitat units -- a 110 percent increase over the existing values for these species combined of 2,274 habitat units. Current water delivery costs, estimated at $50,000 per year, are expected to increase to $125,000 per year. A survey of local interest indicated a majority of respondents favored the concept with a minority opposed. No contaminants that would preclude the Fish and Wildlife Service from agreeing to accept the property were identified. 21 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of Wanapum Dam Bypass Configurations for Outmigrating Juvenile Salmon Using Virtual Fish: Numerical Fish Surrogate (NFS) Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    modelling,” Ecological Modelling 157, 23-41. Goodwin, R., Nestler, J., Loucks , D., and Chapman, J. (2001). “Simulating mobile populations in aquatic...studying spatial behaviour of freshwater fishes in the natural environment,” Fish and Fisheries 1, 283-316. Nestler, J. M., Goodwin, R. A., and Loucks

  7. Bulletins examine dam issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ervine, A.

    1994-12-31

    This month`s Tech Notes includes discussions of bulletins on upstream slope protection of embankment dams, dams and environmental geophysical impacts, rock materials for rockfill dams, and a scathing review of various hydro efforts accross the world.

  8. Dam safety: Morris Sheppard Dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, J.D.; Waters, R.H.; Focht, J.A. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Morris Sheppard Dam is one of the world`s largest flat slab buttress dams. It is located on the Brazos River about 96 km (60 miles) west of Dallas - Fort Worth. Designed by Ambursen Dam Company, the dam was constructed between 1938 and 1941 at a cost of $8.7 million. In 1987, a maximum buttress movement of 114 mm (4.5 inches) was discovered. The dam was successfully rehabilitated between 1987 and 1994 at a cost of $36 million. This paper will describe: (1) the dam`s construction and operational history, (2) the lowering of the reservoir by 3.94 m (13 feet) as an emergency response when the movement was discovered, (3) the initial stabilization of the dam by the addition of relief wells and grouting, (4) the final stabilization using ballast to increase the weight of the dam, (5) the use of actual dam performance as a full-scale, long-term, load test to back-calculate realistic strength parameters, (6) the multiple sets of design stability criteria used to analyze the structure, and (7) the use of model studies to enlarge the dam`s stilling basin and design an emergency spillway to handle the PMF.

  9. Changes in habitat availability for outmigrating juvenile salmon (Oncorhychus spp.) following estuary restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellings, Christopher S.; Davis, Melanie; Grossman, Eric; Hodgson, Sayre; Turner, Kelley L.; Woo PR, Isa; Nakai, Glynnis; Takekawa, Jean E.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    The restoration of the Nisqually River Delta (Washington, U.S.A.) represents one of the largest efforts toward reestablishing the ecosystem function and resilience of modified habitat in the Puget Sound, particularly for anadromous salmonid species. The opportunity for outmigrating salmon to access and benefit from the expansion of available tidal habitat can be quantified by several physical attributes, which are related to the ecological and physiological responses of juvenile salmon. We monitored a variety of physical parameters to measure changes in opportunity potential from historic, pre-restoration, and post-restoration habitat conditions at several sites across the delta. These parameters included channel morphology, water quality, tidal elevation, and landscape connectivity. We conducted fish catch surveys across the delta to determine if salmon was utilizing restored estuary habitat. Overall major channel area increased 42% and major channel length increased 131% from pre- to post-restoration conditions. Furthermore, the results of our tidal inundation model indicated that major channels were accessible up to 75% of the time, as opposed to 30% pre-restoration. Outmigrating salmon utilized this newly accessible habitat as quickly as 1 year post-restoration. The presence of salmon in restored tidal channels confirmed rapid post-restoration increases in opportunity potential on the delta despite habitat quality differences between restored and reference sites.

  10. Consequences of Out-Migration for Land Use in Rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clark L; Bilsborrow, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    In rural Ecuador and elsewhere in Latin America, the departure of migrants and the receipt of migrant remittances have led to declining rural populations and increasing cash incomes. It is commonly assumed that these processes will lead to agricultural abandonment and the regrowth of native vegetation, thus undermining traditional livelihoods and providing a boon for biodiversity conservation. However, an increasing number of household-level studies have found mixed and complex effects of out-migration and remittances on agriculture. We advance this literature by using household survey data and satellite imagery from three study areas in rural Ecuador to investigate the effects of migration and remittances on agricultural land use. Multivariate methods are used to disaggregate the effects of migration and remittances, to account for other influences on land use and to correct for the potential endogeneity of migration and remittances. Contrary to common assumptions but consistent with previous studies, we find that migrant departure has a positive effect on agricultural activities that is offset by migrant remittances. These results suggest that rural out-migration alone is not likely to lead to a forest transition in the study areas.

  11. An evaluation of silver-stage American Eel conspecific chemical cueing during outmigration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmucker, Andrew K.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Galbraith, Heather S.; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    American Eel Anguilla rostrata abundance has declined in recent decades, in part because sexually maturing, silver-stage adults, outmigrating from freshwater to oceanic spawning grounds, encounter migratory blockades or perish when passing through active hydroelectric turbines. To help improve downstream passage effectiveness and increase survival rates, the role of silver-stage American Eel conspecific chemical cueing during outmigration was investigated using a new type of bioassay. Inside a laboratory flume, downstream-swimming eels were exposed to both live (putative attractant) and dead (putative repellent) conspecific washings to determine whether their trajectory of downstream movement, level of activity, or time spent inside targeted areas of the arena changed after exposure. Silver eels were not attracted to or repulsed by either odor, as none of five scoring metrics indicated a behavioral response. Results did not support the hypothesis that conspecific chemical cueing is a mechanism for downstream migration coordination or danger avoidance; however responses may not have been readily apparent in this type of assay. Fisheries managers may opt to focus future research on more feasible restoration efforts using alternate experimental designs to remedy this ecological issue.

  12. Consequences of Out-Migration for Land Use in Rural Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clark L.; Bilsborrow, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    In rural Ecuador and elsewhere in Latin America, the departure of migrants and the receipt of migrant remittances have led to declining rural populations and increasing cash incomes. It is commonly assumed that these processes will lead to agricultural abandonment and the regrowth of native vegetation, thus undermining traditional livelihoods and providing a boon for biodiversity conservation. However, an increasing number of household-level studies have found mixed and complex effects of out-migration and remittances on agriculture. We advance this literature by using household survey data and satellite imagery from three study areas in rural Ecuador to investigate the effects of migration and remittances on agricultural land use. Multivariate methods are used to disaggregate the effects of migration and remittances, to account for other influences on land use and to correct for the potential endogeneity of migration and remittances. Contrary to common assumptions but consistent with previous studies, we find that migrant departure has a positive effect on agricultural activities that is offset by migrant remittances. These results suggest that rural out-migration alone is not likely to lead to a forest transition in the study areas. PMID:24187416

  13. Temperature seasonality during fry out-migration influences the survival of hatchery-reared chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nakashima, A

    2015-10-01

    Among years, fry-to-adult survival of hatchery-reared chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta was positively correlated with the length (in days) of the fry out-migration period with temperatures suitable for migration. Furthermore, survival decreased with increasing difference in mean temperature between May and June. Thus, prolonged out-migration periods increased the probability of survival from fry to adult, lending support to the hypothesis that long migration periods decrease the risk of mortality (bet-hedging), and increase the probability of migration when environmental conditions in fresh water and the ocean are suitable (match-mismatch).

  14. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 1999-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Ehlers, Danette L.

    2002-04-01

    This is the sixth annual report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and natural juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also measure the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program.

  15. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, J. Chris; Ward, David L.; Farr, Ruth A.

    2002-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2000 through March 2001 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Oregon State University (OSU; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 2000 through March 2001 are listed.

  16. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    2000-12-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

  17. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    2001-04-01

    We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given.

  18. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2004 - March 2005. Report C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2006-01-01

    River discharge and water temperatures that occurred during April through July 2004 provided conditions suitable for spawning by white sturgeon downstream from Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary dams. Optimal spawning temperatures in the four tailraces occurred for 3-4 weeks and coincided with the peak of the river hydrograph. However, the peak of the hydrograph was relatively low compared to past years, which is reflected in the relatively low monthly and annual indices of suitable spawning habitat. Bottom-trawl sampling in the Bonneville Reservoir revealed the presence of young-of-theyear (YOY) white sturgeon.

  19. DAM Safety and Deformation Monitoring in Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.; Potts, L.; Miiama, J.; Mahgoub, M.; Rahman, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water is the life and necessity to water is increasing day by day with respect to the World population, rising of living standards and destruction of nature. Thus, the importance of water and water structures have been increasing gradually. Dams are among the most important engineering structures used for water supplies, flood controls, agricultural purposes as well as drinking and hydroelectric power. There are about 150.000 large size dams in the World. Especially after the Second World War, higher and larger capacity dams have been constructed. Dams create certain risks like the other manmade structures. No one knows precisely how many dam failures have occurred in the World, whereas hundreds of dam failures have occurred throughout the U.S. history. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. These physical data are measured and monitored by the instruments and equipment. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Monitoring the performance of the dams is critical for producing and maintaining the safe dams. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the

  20. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam; Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Entities, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2003-06-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2001 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2001 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11% of the 2000 numbers. The wild chinook catch was 3% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 49% of 2000 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 69% of 2000 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 28 age-0 chinook salmon. During 2001 the Snake River trap captured zero hatchery and zero wild/natural sockeye salmon and six hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant reduction in catch during 2001 was due to a reduction in hatchery chinook production (60% of 2000 release) and due to extreme low flows. Trap operations began on March 11 and were terminated on June 29. The trap was out of operation for a total of two days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 47% and wild chinook salmon catch was 67% of 2000 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2001 was 178% of the 2000 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2001 was 145% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 11 and were terminated on June 8 due to the end of the smolt monitoring season. There were no days where the trap was out of operation due to high flow or debris. The decrease in hatchery chinook catch in 2001 was due to a

  1. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam; Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Entities, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2002-08-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2000 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2000 the Nez Perce Tribe released significant numbers of hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 36% of the 1999 number. The wild chinook catch was 34% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 121% of 1999 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 139% of 1999 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 689 age-0 chinook salmon. During 2000, the Snake River trap captured 40 hatchery and 92 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 159 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 13 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on June 16. There were no down days due to high flows or debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 96%, and wild chinook salmon catch was 66% of 1999 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2000 was 90% of the 1999 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2000 was 147% of the previous years catch. Trap operations began on March 13 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 22. There were no days where the trap was out of operation due to high flow or debris. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, were affected by discharge. For fish

  2. Passage behavior of radio-tagged subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reagan, R.E.; Evans, S.D.; Wright, L.S; Farley, M.J.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    Flow augmentation, spill, surface collection, and improved turbine guidance systems have been identified as potential management actions to improve passage efficiency and survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), along with regional, state, and federal resource agencies, has designed and implemented studies to determine which management actions would provide significant biological benefits to juvenile salmonids. From 1994 to 2004, the USACE has contracted the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior in relation to passage improvement tests at Lower Granite, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams

  3. Male out-migration: a factor for the spread of HIV infection among married men and women in rural India.

    PubMed

    Saggurti, Niranjan; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Sabarwal, Shrutika; Ghosh, Subash; Johri, Aradhana

    2012-01-01

    Thus far, the reasons for increasing HIV prevalence in northern and eastern Indian states are unknown. We investigated the role of male out-migration in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection through a case-control study in rural India. Currently married men and women were recruited from HIV testing and treatment centers across seven selected districts with high rates of male out-migration in eastern and northern India in 2010 using a case-control study design. Case subjects (men: 595, women: 609) were people who tested HIV seropositive and control subjects (men: 611, women: 600) were those tested HIV seronegative. For each gender, we obtained adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and population attributable risks (PARs) for migration, and behavioral factors. For men, the prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among those with a migration history (AOR, 4.4); for women, the prevalence of HIV was higher among those with migrant husbands (AOR, 2·3). For both genders, the returned male migration (men: AOR, 3·7; women: AOR, 28) was significantly associated with higher prevalence of HIV infection. The PAR associated with male migration was higher for men (54.5%-68.6%) than for women (32·7%-56·9%) across the study areas. Male out-migration is the most important risk factor influencing the spread of HIV infection in rural areas with high out-migration rates, thereby emphasizing the need for interventions, particularly, for returned migrants and spouses of those migrants.

  4. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J. Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapawi, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2004. This was the ninth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 414,452 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 4,983 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 4,984 from Big Canyon and 4,982 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered low with 53-94% rating not detected to low. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 154.6 mm (154.0-155.2 mm) at Pittsburg Landing to 163.0 mm (162.6-163.4 mm) at Captain John Rapids. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.16 at Big Canyon. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 74.7% (72.9-76.5%) for Big Canyon to 88.1% (85.7-90.6%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 45.3% (39.2-51.5%) for Pittsburg Landing to 52.1% (42.9-61.2%) for Big Canyon. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 5.5 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain John Rapids to 12.8 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration

  5. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2003. This was the eighth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 437,633 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,492 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,494 from Big Canyon and 2,497 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels at the acclimation facilities could be considered medium with 37-83% of the fish sampled rating medium to very high. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 153.7 mm (153.2-154.2 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 164.2 mm (163.9-164.5 mm) at Pittsburg Landing. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.22 at Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 83.1% (80.7-85.5%) for Big Canyon to 91.7% (87.7-95.7%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 59.9% (54.6-65.2%) for Big Canyon to 69.4% (60.5-78.4%) for Captain John Rapids. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 5.8 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain

  6. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2002. This was the seventh year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 479,358 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities exceeded the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,545 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,482 from Big Canyon and 2,487 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels at the acclimation facilities could be considered medium to high with 43-62% of fish sampled rating medium to very high. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 146.7 mm (146.2-147.2 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 164.8 mm (163.5-166.1 mm) at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.14 at Pittsburg Landing and Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 88.6% (86.0-91.1%) for Pittsburg Landing to 97.0% (92.4-101.7%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 54.3% (50.2-58.3%) for Big Canyon to 70.5% (65.4-75.5%) for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 8.1 river kilometers per

  7. Will They Stay? Foreign-Born Out-Migration from New U.S. Destinations

    PubMed Central

    Gurak, Douglas T.; Lee, Min-Ah

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants living in new destinations in 1995 were 2.5 times more likely to have migrated to another labor market by 2000 as immigrants living in traditional places. The researchers look at two competing explanations for immigrants’ differential internal migration patterns, namely that immigrants prefer areas with relatively large nativity concentrations which provide them with social support versus immigrants are target earners who prefer robust labor markets with strong employment growth and high wages. Utilizing confidential Census data for 1990 and 2000, the authors develop new destination classifications for 741 labor markets that take into account the differential growth and composition characteristics of 24 Asian, Latin American and Caribbean immigrant groups living in those markets. The empirical analysis of labor market out-migration indicates that immigrants do not see internal migration as an either/or choice between economics and social support but prefer residence places that allow them to maximize both conditions. PMID:22923857

  8. Farming Systems and Rural Out-Migration in Nang Rong, Thailand and Chitwan Valley, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Martin; Ghimire, Dirgha; Rindfuss, Ronald R.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from two post-frontier rural settings, Nang Rong, Thailand (N=2,538) and Chitwan Valley, Nepal (N=876), this paper examines agricultural push factors determining the outmigration of young people age 15 to 19. We focus on different dimensions of migration, including distance and duration. Our study examines a wide array of agricultural determinants, each with its own potential effect on migration. These determinants include land tenure, crop portfolios, animal husbandry activities, and use of farm inputs. We link these proximal causes to two underlying mechanisms: risk and amenities. We examine these determinants using separate models across settings. Our results indicate that agricultural factors are significant determinants of migration in both contexts. However, different factors operate in different settings, indicating the importance of contextual variation in explaining the manner in which risks and amenities influence agricultural determinants of migration. PMID:24672139

  9. Farming Systems and Rural Out-Migration in Nang Rong, Thailand and Chitwan Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Martin; Ghimire, Dirgha; Rindfuss, Ronald R

    2013-03-01

    Using data from two post-frontier rural settings, Nang Rong, Thailand (N=2,538) and Chitwan Valley, Nepal (N=876), this paper examines agricultural push factors determining the outmigration of young people age 15 to 19. We focus on different dimensions of migration, including distance and duration. Our study examines a wide array of agricultural determinants, each with its own potential effect on migration. These determinants include land tenure, crop portfolios, animal husbandry activities, and use of farm inputs. We link these proximal causes to two underlying mechanisms: risk and amenities. We examine these determinants using separate models across settings. Our results indicate that agricultural factors are significant determinants of migration in both contexts. However, different factors operate in different settings, indicating the importance of contextual variation in explaining the manner in which risks and amenities influence agricultural determinants of migration.

  10. WHITE FLIGHT REVISITED: A MULTIETHNIC PERSPECTIVE ON NEIGHBORHOOD OUT-MIGRATION

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Jeremy F.; South, Scott; Crowder, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    Using geo-linked data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the decennial census, we compare probabilities of neighborhood out-migration for Anglos, blacks, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans by varying ethno-racial neighborhood compositions. Analyses for Latinos are disaggregated by nativity status. The results indicate that Anglos have a higher likelihood of moving when they have many minority neighbors and there is little difference whether minority neighbors are black or Latino. Among minorities there is some evidence of “minority flight” from whiter neighborhoods. Cubans, especially foreign-born Cubans, demonstrate the strongest propensity to flee neighborhoods with large black populations, whereas the probability of moving out decreases for Mexicans and Puerto Ricans when their neighbors are more likely to be black. Ethno-racial neighborhood composition has little effect on blacks’ decision to leave their neighborhood. PMID:20161367

  11. Will They Stay? Foreign-Born Out-Migration from New U.S. Destinations.

    PubMed

    Kritz, Mary M; Gurak, Douglas T; Lee, Min-Ah

    2011-08-01

    Immigrants living in new destinations in 1995 were 2.5 times more likely to have migrated to another labor market by 2000 as immigrants living in traditional places. The researchers look at two competing explanations for immigrants' differential internal migration patterns, namely that immigrants prefer areas with relatively large nativity concentrations which provide them with social support versus immigrants are target earners who prefer robust labor markets with strong employment growth and high wages. Utilizing confidential Census data for 1990 and 2000, the authors develop new destination classifications for 741 labor markets that take into account the differential growth and composition characteristics of 24 Asian, Latin American and Caribbean immigrant groups living in those markets. The empirical analysis of labor market out-migration indicates that immigrants do not see internal migration as an either/or choice between economics and social support but prefer residence places that allow them to maximize both conditions.

  12. 50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT -- SECTION AND ELEVATIONS. M-L 26(R) 40/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  13. 49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- TYPICAL PIER ISOMETRIC. M-L 26(R) 40/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  14. CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK SHEATHING IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO EAST - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  15. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A.

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  16. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at John Day Dam during the spring and summer outmigrations in 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.96 for spring migrants and greater than or equal to 0.93 for summer migrants, estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 3 km downstream of the dam, as well as the forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords (Fish Accords). A virtual/paired-release design was used to estimate dam passage survival at John Day Dam. The approach included releases of smolts, tagged with acoustic micro-transmitters, above John Day Dam that contributed to the formation of a virtual release at the face of John Day Dam. A survival estimate from this release was adjusted by a paired release below John Day Dam. A total of 3376 yearling Chinook salmon, 5726 subyearling Chinook salmon, and 3239 steelhead smolts were used in the virtual releases. Sample sizes for the below-dam paired releases (R2 and R3, respectively) were 997 and 995 for yearling Chinook salmon smolts, 986 and 983 for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts, and 1000 and 1000 for steelhead smolts. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tags were manufactured by Advanced Telemetry Systems. Model SS300 tags, weighing 0.304 g in air, were surgically implanted in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon, and Model SS130 tag, weighing 0.438 g in air, were surgically implanted in juvenile steelhead for this investigation. The intent of the spring study was to estimate dam passage survival during both 30% and 40% spill conditions. The two

  17. Smolt Passage Behavior and Flow-Net Relationship in the Forebay of John Day Dam, 1984-1985 Final Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Albert E.

    1985-12-01

    The migration routes of downstream migrant salmonids in the forebay of John Day Dam were defined and assessed in relation to current velocities and water turbidity and temperature. Forebay current patterns were obtained from current meters at fixed sampling stations, the distribution of outmigrants was determined from purse seine sampling, and migration routes of yearling chinook salmon and steelhead were identified by radio telemetry techniques. All species of emigrating salmonids alter their distribution across the forebay as they approach the dam. Fish abundance was positively correlated with water clarity. There was no evidence to suggest that the migration routes were in response to current patterns in the forebay. Radio telemetry studies demonstrated that a certain segment of yearling chinook salmon approaching the dam are predisposed to spill passage (Washington side of the river) by virtue of their lateral position across the forebay. A new application of radio tag methodology was assessed and found to be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of spill for bypassing outmigrant salmon. A program system and cartographic model was developed which displays for any specified hour forebay current patterns at prevailing river flows and dam operations. The system can be used at other dam sites where investigations may wish to detail forebay current patterns.

  18. Focusing on dam safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lagassa, G.

    1993-01-01

    With increased relicensing activity and a federal emphasis on safety, dam repair and refurbishment is a growing business. Providers of goods and services are gearing up to meet the dam repair and rehabilitation needs that result.

  19. Hoover Dam Learning Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This learning packet provides background information about Hoover Dam (Nevada) and the surrounding area. Since the dam was built at the height of the Depression in 1931, people came from all over the country to work on it. Because of Hoover Dam, the Colorado River was controlled for the first time in history and farmers in Nevada, California, and…

  20. Dam removal: Listening in

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Melissa M.; Bellmore, James; O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff; East, Amy E.; Grant, Gordon G.; Anderson, Chauncey; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Collins, Mathias J.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Craig, Laura S.; Evans, James E.; Greene, Samantha; Magilligan, Francis J.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Major, Jon J.; Pess, George R.; Randle, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Torgersen, Christian; Tullos, Desiree D.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (< 5 years) and do not adequately represent the diversity of dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  1. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-23

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release strategies. Actions will take place in the following Columbia River mainstem reaches: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Reservoirs; Hanford Reach, as well as the Wanapum and Rock Island Reservoirs; and the following Snake River mainstem reaches: Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental and Little Goose Reservoirs. Spawning and rearing are undertaken at established hatcheries at McNary Dam and also the Abernathy Fish Technology Center. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1367, April 2003) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  2. Impacts of male outmigration on women: a case study of Kutum / Northern Darfur / Sudan.

    PubMed

    Grawert, E

    1992-12-01

    This case study of 313 households in the Kutum area in Western Sudan focuses on female headed households with migrant husbands. Free leases of land by women were common. 65% of the sample owned fields, and over 50% had home gardens in town. Among villagers 94% owned fields, and 74% had additional gardens. 28.3% of town owners of fields or gardens employed seasonal wage laborers, of whom 33% were female workers. None of the villages hired agricultural laborers. Labor shortages appeared only during weeding times. Fields were cultivated and housing was repaired mostly by unpaid female labor: a gender-specified role. Strategies for preventing poverty included cash crop cultivation, petty trade, sales of property, seasonal wage labor, and migration. The number of agricultural wage workers increased during famines. Findings show that 69 men migrated to Arab countries and 35 to other areas outside Darfur. 62.5% of the 115 migrants were married, and 20.8% did not send remittances home after more than a 6 months absence. 46.5% of unmarried migrants did not send remittances. 15.6% of the 77 rural women were dissatisfied with remittances. 21.5% of 121 migrants were away for more than a year; 66.1% were away 2-5 years. 12.4% were gone for more than 5 years. Irregular remittances were attributed to high urban living costs, to irregular means of sending money, and to saving for a family chaperone. Remittances satisfied immediate consumption needs. Outmigration was not really a survival strategy but an anti-destitution measure. Higher wage rates were not considered a primary motive for outmigration. Under drought conditions strategies included development of gardening for food and cash production. Out migration resulted in female household heads, in the need for cash income for supplementary items, in an increased work load including the men's activities, in women as the main food producers and thus more subject to environmental effects, and in overwork, which reduced input in

  3. PERSPECTIVE ON LANDSLIDE DAMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.; Costa, John E.; ,

    1986-01-01

    The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and soil slumps and slides; mud, debris, and earth flows: and rock and debris avalanches. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snow melt, and earthquakes. Most landslide dams are remarkable short-lived. In a sample of 63 documented cases, 22 percent of the landslide dams failed in less than 1 day after formation, and half failed within 10 days. Overtopping was by far the most frequent cause of landslide-dam failure. Backwater flooding behind landslide dams can inundate communities and valuable agricultural land. Floods from the failure of landslide dams are smaller than floods from constructed dams impounding bodies of water with the same potential energy, but larger than floods from failure of ice dams. Secondary effects of landslide-dam failures include additional landslides as reservoir levels drop rapidly, aggradation of valleys upstream and downstream of the dams, and avulsive channel changes downstream.

  4. Study 8: Prevalence and load of Nanophyetus salmincola infection in outmigrating steelhead trout from five Puget Sound rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, M.F.; Stewart, B.A.; Senkvik, Kevin; Hershberger, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Nanophyetus salmincola is a parasitic trematode, or flatworm, that infects salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest, including Washington, Oregon, and portions of California. The adult worm lives in the intestine of fish-eating birds and mammals. Eggs shed into the water hatch into miracidia which penetrate the first intermediate host, one of two species of snail Juga plicifera or J. silicula. Asexual reproduction occurs within the snail. Free-swimming cercaria are released from the snail and penetrate the secondary intermediate host, often a salmonid fish, in fresh and brackish water. The cercaria encyst as metacercaria in various organs of the fish, including gills, muscle and heart, but favor the posterior kidney. Penetration and migration by the cercaria through the fish causes damage to nearly every organ system. Once encysted, metacercaria survive the ocean phase of salmonid life cycle. N. salmincola is a likely contributor to mortality of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) during the early ocean rearing phase, and it is the most prevalent pathogen of outmigrating steelhead in the estuaries of the Pacific Northwest.A field survey was implemented from March-June 2014 to compare the prevalence and parasite load of N. salmincola infections in outmigrating steelhead from five Puget Sound watersheds and to assess changes in infection levels that occurred during the smolt out-migration through each watershed. N. salmincola infection prevalence and parasite loads were determined by counting metacercaria in posterior kidney samples. Tissue samples were collected and examined by standard histological methods.

  5. Foreign-Born Out-Migration from New Destinations: Onward or Back to the Enclave?1

    PubMed Central

    Kritz, Mary M.; Gurak, Douglas T.; Lee, Min-Ah

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants have a markedly higher likelihood of migrating internally if they live in new destinations. This paper looks at why that pattern occurs and at how immigrants’ out-migration to new versus traditional destinations responds to their labor market economic and industrial structure, nativity origins and concentration, geographic region, and 1995 labor market type. Confidential data from the 2000 and 1990 decennial censuses are used for the analysis. Metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas are categorized into 741 local labor markets and classified as new or traditional based on their nativity concentrations of immigrants from the largest Asian, Caribbean and Latin American origins. The analysis showed that immigrants were less likely to migrate to new destinations if they lived in areas of higher nativity concentration, foreign-born population growth, and wages but more likely to make that move if they were professionals, agricultural or blue collar workers, highly educated, fluent in English, and lived in other new destinations. While most immigrants are more likely to migrate to new rather than traditional destinations that outcome differs sharply for immigrants from different origins and for some immigrants, particularly those from the Caribbean, the dispersal process to new destinations has barely started. PMID:23347493

  6. Bioenergetics of Juvenile Salmon During the Spring Outmigration, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.

    1985-07-01

    Main stem reservoirs in the Columbia River Basin may have increased the energy demands of smolts during outmigration by prolonging migration and exposing smolts to seasonally rising water temperatures. A bioenergetic model for spring chinook salmon smolts (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is being developed to test these hypotheses. Results have thus far indicated that the seaward migration can be separated into two distinct phases. Phase I can be described as a period of intense smolt development in which there was a post hatchery release surge in gill Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ ATPase activity, depletion of energy available in body lipids, and a concurrent decline in caloric density. Phase II was characterized by maintenence of smolt status in apparent anticipation of reaching the estuary. Phase II is the period most affected by impoundments and annual changes in water flow; the latter period will therefore be modeled in bioenergetic simulations. Laboratory and field observations provided input parameters for the model and empirical data to verify model simmulations. Total calories, caloric density, proximate body composition, ration, and caloric intake were determined in smolts as seaward migration progressed. The effect of swimming and starvation on energy reserves and seawater survival were determined in the laboratory. Fatty acid analysis indicated ..omega..3 neutral fatty acids influenced smolt development and seawater survival. 46 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Foreign-born out-migration from new destinations: Onward or back to the enclave?

    PubMed

    Kritz, Mary M; Gurak, Douglas T; Lee, Min-Ah

    2013-03-01

    Immigrants have a markedly higher likelihood of internal mignation if they live in new destinations. This paper looks at why that pattern occurs and at how immigrants' out-migration to new versus traditional destinations responds to their labor market economic and industrial structure, nativity origins and concentration, geographic region, and labor market type. Confidential data from the 2000 and 1990 decennial censuses are used for the analysis. Metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas are categorized into 741 local labor markets and classified as new or traditional based on the nativity concentrations of immigrants from the 24 largest Asian, Caribbean and Latin American origins. The analysis shows that immigrants are less likely to migrate to new destinations if they live in areas of higher nativity concentration, foreign-born population growth, and wages but more likely to make that move if they are professionals, agricultural or blue collar workers, highly educated, fluent in English, and live in new destinations. While immigrants are more likely to migrate to new rather than traditional destinations that outcome differs sharply for immigrants from different origins and for some immigrants, particularly those from the Caribbean, the dispersal process to new destinations has barely started. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Guiding out-migrating juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) with pulsed direct current

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Miehls, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-physical stimuli can deter or guide fish without affecting water flow or navigation and therefore have been investigated to improve fish passage at anthropogenic barriers and to control movement of invasive fish. Upstream fish migration can be blocked or guided without physical structure by electrifying the water, but directional downstream fish guidance with electricity has received little attention. We tested two non-uniform pulsed direct current electric systems, each having different electrode orientations (vertical versus horizontal), to determine their ability to guide out-migrating juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Both systems guided significantly more juvenile sea lamprey to a specific location in our experimental raceway when activated than when deactivated, but guidance efficiency decreased at the highest water velocities tested. At the electric field setting that effectively guided sea lamprey, rainbow trout were guided by the vertical electrode system, but most were blocked by the horizontal electrode system. Additional research should characterize the response of other species to non-uniform fields of pulsed DC and develop electrode configurations that guide fish over a range of water velocity.

  9. Evaluation of Behavioral Guidance Structure on Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an acoustic-telemetry study at Bonneville Dam in 2009 to evaluate the effects of a behavioral guidance structure (BGS) in the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse forebay on fish passage and survival through the second powerhouse (B2), the dam as a whole, and through the first powerhouse and spillway combined. The BGS was deployed to increase the survival of fish passing through B2 by increasing the percentage of outmigrating smolts entering the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC)—a surface flow outlet known to be a relatively benign route for downstream passage at this dam. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. Study results indicated that having turbine 11 in service is important for providing flow conditions that are comparable to those observed in pre-BGS years (2004 and 2005) and in 2008. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  10. Predicting the thermal effects of dam removal on the Klamath River.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, John M; Campbell, Sharon G; Flug, Marshall

    2004-12-01

    The Klamath River once supported large runs of anadromous salmonids. Water temperature associated with multiple mainstem hydropower facilities might be one of many factors responsible for depressing Klamath salmon stocks. We combined a water quantity model and a water quality model to predict how removing the series of dams below Upper Klamath Lake might affect water temperatures, and ultimately fish survival, in the spawning and rearing portions of the mainstem Klamath. We calibrated the water quantity and quality models and applied them for the hydrometeorological conditions during a 40-year postdam period. Then, we hypothetically removed the dams and their impoundments from the models and reestimated the river's water temperatures. The principal thermal effect of dam and reservoir removal would be to restore the timing (phase) of the river's seasonal thermal signature by shifting it approximately 18 days earlier in the year, resulting in river temperatures that more rapidly track ambient air temperatures. Such a shift would likely cool thermal habitat conditions for adult fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during upstream migration and benefit mainstem spawning. By contrast, spring and early summer temperatures could be warmer without dams, potentially harming chinook rearing and outmigration in the mainstem. Dam removal might affect the river's thermal regime during certain conditions for over 200 km of the mainstem.

  11. 16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at 320' high, Parker Dam is one of the highest in the world. Much of this height is because dam penetrates well below river bottom to fasten to bedrock. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  12. Juvenile Passage Program : A Plan for Estimating Smolt Travel Time and Survival in the Snake and Columbia Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Giorgi, Albert E.

    1993-10-01

    A plan for developing a program to evaluate juvenile salmon passage is presented that encompasses the Snake (Lower Granite to McNary Dams), Mid-Columbia (Wells to McNary Dams), and Lower Columbia (McNary to Bonneville Dams) segments of the Snake/Columbia River system. This plan focuses on the use of PIT-tag technology to routinely estimate travel times and reach survival of outmigrating yearling and subyearling Chinook, sockeye, and steelhead during spring and summer months. The proposed program outlines tagging studies that could be implemented in (a) 1992, (b) near term (1993--94), and (c) long term (1995 to the next decade). The evolution of this program over time parallels plans to establish additional PIT-tag detector and slide-gate systems at Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams. The eventual ability to concurrently estimate travel time and survival of release groups will permit evaluation of travel time-survival-flow relationships and identify possible mortality {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} for remediation.

  13. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.

    1998-02-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature.

  14. 51. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- TAINTER GATE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT. M-L 26(R) 45/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  15. 9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Understanding out-migration among female sex workers in South India

    PubMed Central

    Banandur, Pradeep; Ramnaik, Satyanarayana; Manhart, Lisa E.; Buzdugan, Raluca; Mahapatra, Bidhubhushan; Isac, Shajy; Halli, Shiva S; Washington, Reynold G; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Migrant sex workers are known to be vulnerable to HIV. There is substantial female sex worker (FSW) mobility between the borders of Maharashtra and Karnataka, but little programming emphasis on migrant FSWs in India. We sought to understand the individual/cultural, structural and contextual determinants of migration among FSWs from Karnataka. METHODS A cross sectional face-to-face interview of 1567FSWs from 142 villages in 3 districts of northern Karnataka, India was conducted from January–June 2008. Villages having 10+FSWs, a large number of whom were migrant, were selected following mapping of FSWs. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify characteristics associated with migrant (travelled for ≥2weeks outside the district past year) and mobile (travelled for <2weeks outside the district past year) FSWs; adjusting for age and district. RESULTS Compared to non-migrants, migrant FSWs were more likely to be brothel than street-based (AOR 5.7; 95%CI 1.6–20.0), have higher income from sex work (AOR 42.2; 12.6–142.1), speak >2languages (AOR 5.6%; 2.6–12.0), have more clients (AORper client 2.9; 1.2–7.2) and have more sex acts/day (AORper sex act 3.5; 1.3–9.3). Mobile FSWs had higher income from sex work (AOR=13.2; 3.9–44.6) relative to non-migrants, but not as strongly as for migrant FSWs. CONCLUSION Out-migration of FSWs in Karnataka was strongly tied to sex work characteristics; thus, the structure inherent in sex work should be capitalized on when developing HIV preventive interventions. The important role of FSWs in HIV epidemics, coupled with the potential for rapid spread of HIV with migration, requires the most effective interventions possible for mobile and migrant FSWs. PMID:23001264

  17. Focusing attention on dam safety

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1992-09-01

    When people think of hydropower, an image of a dam often comes to mind. Indeed, at most high-hazard dams, there is a hydro plant. A North American hydro industry survey shows that dams and their safety are a priority among project owners. The survey identified several recent dam safety activities: development of safety evaluation programs; dam rehabilitation for greater stability; dam monitoring installations; seismic strengthening; and emergency preparedness.

  18. Proceedings of Dam Safety Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, D.T.; Sloan, R.C.; Tockstein, C.D.; Price, J.T.; Stone, S.D.; Newton, D.; Spearman, E.L.; Hodge, R.D.; Jenkins, C.; Chapman, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    The papers included are titled: Assessment of Instrumentation Data, Design of Concrete Dams, Instrumentation of Dams, TVA's Dam Safety Program, Design of Earth Dams, Hydrologic Design of Dams, Emergency Action Plans, TVA Dam Safety Studies and Project Rehabilitation, Collection of Instrumentation Data, Structural Inspection at Non-Power Dams, Construction of Dams, and Site Selection and Geology.

  19. Detecting dam failures

    SciTech Connect

    Knarr, C.M.; Barker, T.J.; McKenery, S.F. )

    1994-06-01

    This article describes efforts by Southern California Edison to meet Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requirements for unattended dam monitoring against failure. The topics include a description of the two dam systems, monitoring system design and operation including warning sirens for remote camping areas, and installation of the systems.

  20. Dammed or Damned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes issues raised at a workshop on "People and Dams" organized by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia. Objectives were to (1) understand problems created by dams for people, (2) consider forces affecting displaced populations and rehabilitation efforts, and (3) gain a perspective on popular education efforts among…

  1. Comparison Of Intake Gate Closure Methods At Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, And Mcnary Dams Using Risk-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, Bryan F.; Blackburn, Tyrone R.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Mara, Neil L.; Phan, Hahn K.; Bardy, David M.; Hollenbeck, Robert E.

    2001-01-19

    The objective of this report is to compare the benefits and costs of modifications proposed for intake gate closure systems at four hydroelectric stations on the Lower Snake and Upper Columbia Rivers in the Walla Walla District that are unable to meet the COE 10-minute closure rule due to the installation of fish screens. The primary benefit of the proposed modifications is to reduce the risk of damage to the station and environs when emergency intake gate closure is required. Consequently, this report presents the results and methodology of an extensive risk analysis performed to assess the reliability of powerhouse systems and the costs and timing of potential damages resulting from events requiring emergency intake gate closure. As part of this analysis, the level of protection provided by the nitrogen emergency closure system was also evaluated. The nitrogen system was the basis for the original recommendation to partially disable the intake gate systems. The risk analysis quantifies this protection level.

  2. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1986-1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Jr., George T.; Beckman, Lance G.; Kreitman, Gayle

    1987-06-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts.

  3. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume IV; Washington Subbasin Above McNary Dam, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hymer, Joe; Wastel, Mike; Hatch, Keith

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports is given.

  4. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume III; Washington Subbasin Below McNary Dam, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Keith; Hymer, Joe; Wastel, Mike

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports is given.

  5. Comparison of Intake Gate Closure Methods At Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, And McNary Dams Using Risk-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, Bryan F; Blackburn, Tye R; Heasler, Patrick G; Mara, Neil L

    2001-01-19

    The objective of this report is to compare the benefits and costs of modifications proposed for intake gate closure systems at four hydroelectric stations on the Lower Snake and Upper Columbia Rivers in the Walla Walla District that are unable to meet the COE 10-minute closure rule due to the installation of fish screens. The primary benefit of the proposed modifications is to reduce the risk of damage to the station and environs when emergency intake gate closure is required. Consequently, this report presents the results and methodology of an extensive risk analysis performed to assess the reliability of powerhouse systems and the costs and timing of potential damages resulting from events requiring emergency intake gate closure. As part of this analysis, the level of protection provided by the nitrogen emergency closure system was also evaluated. The nitrogen system was the basis for the original recommendation to partially disable the intake gate systems. The risk analysis quantifies this protection level.

  6. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1991-09-01

    We report on our effort from April 1990 to March 1991 to describe the life history and population dynamics of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in.John Day Reservoir. We set 1188 set lines and 26 gill nets. We caught 623 white sturgeon with set lines and 236 with gill nets. Catch per unit effort was much higher in areas near the tailrace than in downstream sites. Our setlines were size selective. We recaptured 3 fish released in John Day Reservoir in 1989 and 28 fish released in 1990. Sport and commercial fishermen recovered 62 tags from fish we tagged in Bonneville, The Dalles and John Day reservoirs, 1987-1990. We observed extensive movements of marked sturgeon within the reservoirs. We completed aging of available samples from all three reservoirs from 1987-1990. We aged fish as old as 46 years. Bone marks were observed on 74 of 78 fish previously injected with oxytetracycline and annulus formation was generally complete after June. We estimated parameters in a length-weight equation. About 1.5% of the female white sturgeon we examined to date had early or late vitellogenic eggs and would be expected to spawn the following year.

  7. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tara C.; Jewett, Shannon M.; Hanson, Josh T.

    2003-04-11

    This is the seventh year of a multi-year project, monitoring the outmigration and survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project both supplements and complements ongoing and completed work within the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on juvenile outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts of natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also measure the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program. The general objectives for 2001 were to: (1) Estimate migrant abundance and survival and determine migration parameters of PIT-tagged hatchery and natural juvenile salmonids; (2) Monitor natural production and estimate overall abundance of pacific lamprey, chinook and coho salmon and summer steelhead; (3) Assess the condition and health of migrants and determine length-frequency distributions through time; (4) Investigate the effects of canal and fishway operations and environmental conditions on fish migration and survival; (5) Investigate and implement improved tag monitoring capabilities; and (6) Participate in planning and coordination activities within the basin and disseminate results. More specifically, 2001 objectives included the ongoing evaluation of migrant abundance and survival of tagged hatchery fish groups from various species-specific hatchery, rearing, acclimation and release strategies; fourth year reach survival results; continuation of transport evaluation studies; outmigrant monitoring and estimation of natural abundance, and further investigation of the effects of canal operations, environmental factors, fish condition and health on migration, abundance and survival. Some of the key findings for 2001 are: (1) A significant decline in outmigrant abundance of

  8. 1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A GRAVITY SECTION IS THE THIRD DAM BUILT BY SEATTLE CITY LIGHT TO PROVIDE WATER FOR GORGE POWERHOUSE AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1961, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  9. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river.

    PubMed

    Furey, N B; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Beauchamp, D A

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0-12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems.

  10. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furey, Nathan B.; Hinch, Scott G.; Lotto, A.G.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0–12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems.

  11. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF WHITE FLIGHT: THE EFFECTS OF LOCAL AND EXTRALOCAL RACIAL CONDITIONS ON NEIGHBORHOOD OUT-MIGRATION*

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Kyle; South, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    We use longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, data from three U.S. censuses, and techniques of spatial data analysis to examine how the composition of extralocal areas – those areas surrounding a householder’s neighborhood of residence – affect the likelihood that whites will move out of their neighborhood. Net of the influence of local neighborhood conditions and other predictors of residential mobility, high concentrations of minorities in surrounding neighborhoods reduce the likelihood that white householders will move, presumably by reducing the attractiveness of the most likely residential alternatives. This effect suppresses the influence of the racial composition of the immediate neighborhood so that controlling for extralocal conditions provides substantially greater support for the white flight thesis than has previously been observed. We also find that recent growth in the size of the extralocal minority population increases the likelihood of white out-migration and accounts for much of the influence previously attributed to racial change in the local neighborhood. Finally, high levels of minority concentration in surrounding neighborhoods exacerbate the positive effect of local minority concentration on white out-migration. These results highlight the importance of looking beyond reactions to local racial conditions to understand mobility decisions and resulting patterns of segregation. PMID:20221414

  12. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) outmigrating through a contaminated urban estuary: dynamics and application.

    PubMed

    Meador, James P; Ylitalo, Gina M; Sommers, Frank C; Boyd, Daryle T

    2010-01-01

    A field study was conducted to examine bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for hatchery-raised and naturally reared (wild) ocean-type juvenile chinook salmon outmigrating through the Lower Duwamish Waterway (LDW), a contaminated urban estuary in Seattle, WA, USA. These results show differences in bioaccumulation of PCBs over time and space in this estuary, which may also occur for any contaminant that is distributed heterogeneously in this system. Highly mobile, outmigrating salmon accumulated approximately 3-5 times more PCBs on the east side of the LDW than fish on the west side, which is supported by an almost identical difference in mean sediment concentrations. The tPCB concentration data suggest that for most of the spring and early summer, juvenile chinook were likely segregated between the east and west side of the LDW, but may have crossed the channel later in the year as larger fish. Additionally, we used biota-sediment accumulation factors to assess the relative degree of bioaccumulation and explore these factors as potential metrics for predicting adverse sediment concentrations. These results highlight the importance of time and space in sampling design for a highly mobile species in a heterogeneous estuary.

  13. Feeding of predaceous fishes on out-migrating juvenile-salmonids in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poe, Thomas P.; Hansel, Hal C.; Vigg, S.; Palmer, D.E.; Prendergast, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Diets of northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus from John Day Reservoir were examined to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids during seaward migrations of the salmonids during April–August 1983–1986. Juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss were the most important food group (by weight) of northern squawfish – about 67% – but made up smaller proportions of the food of the other predators: channel catfish, 33%; walleyes, 14%; smallmouth bass, 4%. Seasonal changes in diets indicated that northern squawfish preferred juvenile salmonids in May and August (generally the peak period of salmonid out-migration), and switched to prickly sculpin Cottus asper when numbers of juvenile salmonids declined; walleyes and smallmouth bass showed a preference only for prickly sculpin among the prey fishes analyzed. As judged by dietary composition and prey selectivity, the northern squawfish was the major fish predator on juvenile salmonids in the reservoir; channel catfish also were important predators in the upper reservoir in spring. Walleyes and smallmouth bass were much less important predators on salmonids, and appeared to select subyearling chinook salmon only in August when the distribution of this prey overlapped with that of the predators. Size-selective predation by northern squawfish may also play an important role in reducing survival of the smaller individuals within each run of out-migrating juvenile salmonids.

  14. Passage behavior of radio-tagged yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead at Bonneville Dam, 2004: Revised for corrected spill annual report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reagan, R.E.; Evans, S.D.; Wright, L.S; Farley, M.J.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    Flow augmentation, spill, surface collection, and improved turbine guidance systems have been identified as potential management actions to improve passage efficiency and survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), along with regional, state, and federal resource agencies, has designed and implemented studies to determine which management actions would provide significant biological benefits to juvenile salmonids. From 1994 to 2004, the USACE has contracted the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior in relation to passage improvement tests at Lower Granite, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams.

  15. Wynoochee Dam Foundation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    metamorphosed tholeiitic basalt, diabase , volcaniclastic, and associated sediments. From 8 miles upstream to 10 miles downstream from the dam the rocks are...clay and fine sandy interbeds are occasion- ally present at flow contacts. locally, the basalt is cut by dark gray, moderately jointed diabase dike...rock. 3.03.2 All of the concrete dam is founded on bedrock (figure 3-3). Basalt forms the right abutment, diabase forms the left, and a contact zone

  16. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1997-04-01

    For the third consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 23 to June 24, 1996. A total of 1,797 wild chinook salmon, 11,896 hatchery chinook salmon, 3,786 wild steelhead trout, and 31,094 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during outmigration studies on the Imnaha River in 1996. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low, being 1.4% for wild chinook, 0.18% for hatchery chinook, 0.21% for wild steelhead and 0.28% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts.

  17. 140. PLAN AND SECTION OF NEW DAM AND OLD DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140. PLAN AND SECTION OF NEW DAM AND OLD DAM From Annual Report of 1872, Water Department of Philadelphia - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in outmigrant juvenile Chinook salmon from the lower Columbia River and Estuary and Puget Sound, Washington.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Catherine A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Bolton, Jennie L; Boyd, Daryle; Olson, O Paul; Sol, Sean Y; Ylitalo, Gina M; Johnson, Lyndal L

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have examined the presence, distribution, and concentrations of toxic contaminants in two major waterways in the Pacific Northwest: the lower Columbia River and Estuary (LCR&E) and Puget Sound, Washington. However, those studies have not reported on the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in juvenile Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha). Populations of Chinook salmon from the LCR&E and Puget Sound are declining, and some stocks are currently listed as "threatened" under the Endangered Species Act. Bioaccumulation of contaminants, including PBDEs, by juvenile Chinook salmon in the LCR&E and Puget Sound is of concern due to the potential toxicity of the contaminants and associated sublethal effects in fish. In this article, we present the concentrations of PBDEs measured in gutted bodies and stomach contents of outmigrant juvenile Chinook salmon collected at six sites in the LCR&E and four sites in Puget Sound. For comparison, we also analyzed gutted bodies of juvenile Chinook salmon from eight hatcheries in the LCR&E as well as samples of the hatchery fish feeds. The mean summation SigmaPBDE concentrations measured in bodies of juvenile Chinook salmon from the different sites ranged from 350 to 2800 ng/g lipid weight, whereas those in stomach contents ranged from less than the quantitation limit (<2 ng/g wet weight) to 39 ng/g wet weight. The levels of PBDEs in the hatchery fish were significantly lower than those measured in the salmon samples collected from the LCR&E and Puget Sound. These results show that outmigrant juvenile Chinook salmon in the LCR&E and Puget Sound have been exposed to PBDEs in the environment and that these chemicals are bioaccumulating in their tissues; thus, the potential effects of PBDEs on these salmon should be further investigated.

  20. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2005 - March 2006. Report C.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2007-01-01

    River discharge and water temperatures that occurred during April through July 2005 provided conditions suitable for spawning by white sturgeon downstream from Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary dams. Optimal spawning temperatures in the four tailraces occurred for 3-4 weeks and coincided with the peak of the river hydrograph. However, the peak of the hydrograph occurred in mid May and discharges dropped quickly and water temperature rose during June, which is reflected in the monthly and annual indices of suitable spawning habitat. Indices of available spawning habitat for the month of June 2005 were less than one-half of the average of the period from 1985-2004. Bottom-trawl sampling in the Bonneville Reservoir revealed the presence of young-of-the-year (YOY) white sturgeon but the proportion of positive tows was quite low at 0.06.

  1. ECHETA DAM RIPRAP ON RESERVOIR SIDE OF THE DAM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ECHETA DAM RIP-RAP ON RESERVOIR SIDE OF THE DAM AT BREACH. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Echeta Dam & Reservoir, 2.9 miles east of Echeta Road at Echeta Railroad Siding at County Road 293, Echeta, Campbell County, WY

  2. Coupled dam safety analysis using WinDAM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Windows® Dam Analysis Modules (WinDAM) is a set of modular software components that can be used to analyze overtopping and internal erosion of embankment dams. Dakota is an extensive software framework for design exploration and simulation. These tools can be coupled to create a powerful framework...

  3. 52. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- TAINTER GATE HOIST-ASSEMBLY -- PLANS AND ELEVATIONS. M-L 26(R) 46/2 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  4. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON DAM, UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON DAM, UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM (Trashrack-structure for outlet at lower left in reservoir, spillway at upper left. Reservoir nearly empty due to drought.) - Tieton Dam, South & East of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  5. Small dams need better management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

  6. Dam health diagnosis and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongru; Su, Huaizhi

    2005-06-01

    Based on the bionics principle in the life sciences field, we regard a dam as a vital and intelligent system. A bionics model is constructed to observe, diagnose and evaluate dam health. The model is composed of a sensing system (nerve), central processing unit (cerebrum) and decision-making implement (organism). In addition, the model, index system and engineering method on dam health assessment are presented. The proposed theories and methods are applied to evaluate dynamically the health of one concrete dam.

  7. Demographic population model for American shad: will access to additional habitat upstream of dams increase population sizes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline in their native range, and modeling possible management scenarios could help guide their restoration. We developed a density-dependent, deterministic, stage-based matrix model to predict the population-level results of transporting American shad to suitable spawning habitat upstream of dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia. We used data on sonic-tagged adult American shad and oxytetracycline-marked American shad fry both above and below dams on the Roanoke River with information from other systems to estimate a starting population size and vital rates. We modeled the adult female population over 30 years under plausible scenarios of adult transport, effective fecundity (egg production), and survival of adults (i.e., to return to spawn the next year) and juveniles (from spawned egg to age 1). We also evaluated the potential effects of increased survival for adults and juveniles. The adult female population size in the Roanoke River was estimated to be 5,224. With no transport, the model predicted a slow population increase over the next 30 years. Predicted population increases were highest when survival was improved during the first year of life. Transport was predicted to benefit the population only if high rates of effective fecundity and juvenile survival could be achieved. Currently, transported adults and young are less likely to successfully out-migrate than individuals below the dams, and the estimated adult population size is much smaller than either of two assumed values of carrying capacity for the lower river; therefore, transport is not predicted to help restore the stock under present conditions. Research on survival rates, density-dependent processes, and the impacts of structures to increase out-migration success would improve evaluation of the potential benefits of access to additional spawning habitat for American shad.

  8. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation, 1992-1993 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DosSantos, Joe; Vashro, Jim; Lockard, Larry

    1994-06-01

    In February of 1900, over forty agency representatives and interested citizens began development of the 1991 Mitigation Plan. This effort culminated in the 1993 Implementation Plan for mitigation of fish losses attributable to the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The primary purpose of this biennial report is to inform the public of the status of ongoing mitigation activities resulting from those planning efforts. A habitat improvement project is underway to benefit bull trout in Big Creek in the North Fork drainage of the Flathead River and work is planned in Hay Creek, another North Fork tributary. Bull trout redd counts have been expanded and experimental programs involving genetic evaluation, outmigrant monitoring, and hatchery studies have been initiated, Cutthroat mitigation efforts have focused on habitat improvements in Elliott Creek and Taylor`s Outflow and improvements have been followed by imprint plants of hatchery fish and/or eyed eggs in those streams. Rogers Lake west of Kalispell and Lion Lake, near Hungry Horse, were chemically rehabilitated. Cool and warm water fish habitat has been improved in Halfmoon Lake and Echo Lake. Public education and public interest is important to the future success of mitigation activities. As part of the mitigation team`s public awareness responsibility we have worked with numerous volunteer groups, public agencies, and private landowners to stimulate interest and awareness of mitigation activities and the aquatic ecosystem. The purpose of this biennial report is to foster public awareness of, and support for, mitigation activities as we move forward in implementing the Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation Implementation Plan.

  9. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from the McNary Dam, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beiningen, Kirk T.

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1995 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on sub-adult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of sub-adult a nd adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River.

  10. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rien, Thomas A.; Beiningen, Kirk T.

    1997-07-01

    This project began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state, and tribal fisheries entities to determine (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Colombia and Snake rivers.

  11. Dams and water developments

    Treesearch

    Robert H. Schueneman

    1979-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is involved in the construction and regulation of many activities relating to water resource development. Such activities include dams and reservoirs, channelization and erosion control on rivers and tributaries, and coastal works. These activities can result in an array of visual effects depending on the specific activity type and...

  12. CG-DAMS: Concrete gravity dam stability analysis software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    CG-DAMS is a finite element based program written specifically for the stability analysis of concrete gravity dams. The code automates the prediction and evaluation of cracking in the dam, along the dam-rock interface, and in the foundation using incremental nonlinear analysis techniques based on the smeared crack'' approach. Its primary application is in the computation of dam-rock interface sliding stability factors of safety. The automated procedure for crack propagation analysis replaces the trial-and-error cracked-base analysis method commonly used in gravity dam safety analyses. This Application manual of CG-DAMS illustrates, through sample problems, the many features of the software. Example problems illustrate the capabilities of both CG-DAMS-PC and CG-DAMS-ABAQUS. CG-DAMS-PC is a menu driven program that runs on 386/486 PCs under the DOS operating system (4 Megabytes RAM, 25 Megabytes of hard disk space). CG-DAMS-ABAQUS is a pre- and post-processor along with a concrete constitutive model and distributed load module that interfaces with the ABAQUS general purpose finite element program. The PC program contains thermal analysis capabilities, a rough crack constitutive model, and an interface to the CRFLOOD software not available with the ABAQUS version. The CG-DAMS-ABAQUS program contains time marching dynamic analysis capabilities not available with the PC program. Example analyses presented include static, pseudo dynamic, and time marching dynamic analyses. The manual also presents sensitivity evaluations on mesh size and foundation material strength. Comparisons are presented between CG-DAMS and gravity method calculations. Comparisons with other finite element software are included for the dynamic time history analyses.

  13. Environmental Assessment : Tumwater Dam and Dryden Dam Fish Passage Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-01-01

    Existing fish passage facilities at Tumwater Dam and Dryden Dam currently do not effectively pass the anadromous fish runs in the Wenatchee River. At Tumwater Dam, the proposed action includes the construction of a new fish ladder which will improve water flow characteristics and, subsequently, fish passage. In order to improve fish passage at Dryden Dam, a new fish ladder will be constructed to replace the existing ladder and another ladder will be constructed. The proposed action will supplement mitigation of adverse hydroelectric impacts to the fisheries of the Columbia River basin. The proposal to fund the Tumwater Dam and Dryden Dam Fish Passage facilities does not appear to constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment and would not require an environmental impact statement.

  14. Post Falls Dam stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gorny, R.H.; Gibson, J.Z.

    1995-12-31

    The stability of Washington Water Power`s (WWP) Middle Channel and South Channel Dams at Post Falls, Idaho, were evaluated as required by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and did not meet guideline stability criteria under Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) loading. This paper describes the stability analysis, stabilization design, design parameters, construction of the anchors, and compares the design and as-built conditions. Value engineering was used to select the optimal stabilization measure. Constructibility, cost, and schedule were major considerations. The value engineering study evaluated 41 potential stabilization alternatives, selected post tensioning, and used scheduling criteria to optimize the design. Access considerations required the installation of five 47 strand, 7400 kN (1645{sup k}) anchors in the Middle Dam, and installation of six anchors with different capacities anchors in the South Channel Dam. The Washington Water Power - Black & Veatch team used value engineering, contractor prequalification, resident engineering services provided by the engineer, and strong construction support provided by the Owner to successfully complete the project on a very tight schedule.

  15. Dam Failure Planning Report, Winnibigoshish Dam, Mississippi River, Minnesota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    A ̂ 57 231 DAM FAILUR PLANNING R-PORT WINNISIGOSI4IS OAl -- I 7 A1 723 MISSISSIPPI RIVER iINNESO&(US ARMy 1INEIlSIRCI SI LOUIS M0 JAN 85 A,’ F I F D...TSCATALOG NME 4. TITLE (and Subti.) Dam Failure’Planning Report, s. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Winnibigoshish Dam, Mississippi River , Minnesota 6...safety at Winnibigoshish Dam near Deer River , Minnesota. Discussion is made including computer programs used, routing methods used, assumptions made

  16. Contaminant exposure and biochemical effects in outmigrant juvenile chinook salmon from urban and nonurban estuaries of Puget Sound, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.E.; Hom, T.; Collier, T.K.; Brown, D.W.; Varanasi, U.

    1995-06-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were sampled in Puget Sound, Washington, for 2 consecutive years from contaminated urban estuaries, a nonurban estuary, and from the respective hatcheries to assess exposure to anthropogenic chemicals and to determine if biochemical changes were occurring as a consequence of exposure. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated hydrocarbons, and butyltins was determined. The mean concentrations of PAHs and PCBs in stomach contents and PCBs in liver were significantly higher in salmon from the urban estuaries compared to fish from the nonurban estuary in both sampling years. Higher hepatic concentrations of PCBs than DDTs were found in fish from the urban estuaries, but butyltins were rarely detected. Further, mean concentrations of fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile, an estimate of exposure to PAHs, and hepatic cytochrome P4501A and levels of hepatic DNA adducts were also significantly higher in salmon from the urban estuaries compared to either the nonurban estuary or the hatcheries. Results demonstrated increased exposure to chemical contaminants in outmigrant juvenile salmon during their relatively brief residence in urban estuaries of Puget Sound. Moreover, the exposure was sufficient to elicit biochemical responses, which suggest a potential for other biological effects to ensue.

  17. Physiological development and migratory behavior of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Wagner, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the migratory behavior and physiological development of subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha migrating through John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon. Fish were freeze-branded and coded-wire-tagged at McNary Dam, Oregon, from 1991 to 1994, to determine travel time to John Day Dam and subsequent adult contribution. Stepwise multiple regression showed that 47% of the variation in subyearling fall chinook salmon travel time was explained by the reciprocal of minimum flow and fish size. Smoltification, as measured by gill Na+-K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, was not important in explaining variability in travel time of subyearling chinook salmon. Fish marked early in the out-migration generally traveled faster than middle and late migrants. Seawater challenges were used to describe physiological development and showed that osmoregulatory competence of premigrants in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River increased with fish size and gill ATPase activity. Once active migrants began passing McNary Dam, fish generally had survival exceeding 90% and were able to regulate their blood plasma Na+ in seawater. Gill ATPase activity increased as premigrants, reared in nearshore areas of the Hanford Reach, reached a peak among active migrants in late June and early July then decreased through the remainder of the out-migration. Salinity preference also peaked in subyearling fall chinook salmon during late June to mid July in 1995. Return of adults from marked groups showed no consistent patterns that would suggest a survival advantage for any portion of the juvenile out-migration. Presumed wild migrants from the middle and late portions of the out-migration were primary contributors to all fisheries, except the Priest Rapids Hatchery. As such, fishery managers should take action to ensure the survival of these fish, especially because they migrate under more unfavorable environmental conditions than early

  18. Ecohydrology of a Dammed Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timpe, K. A.; Kaplan, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Amazon River watershed is the world's largest river basin and provides >US$30 billion/yr in ecosystem services to local populations, national societies and humanity at large. Construction of >30 large hydroelectric dams and >170 small dams in the Brazilian Amazon is currently underway as a result of governmental plans geared toward increased energy security, economic growth, improved living standards and industrialization. Changes in the Amazon's freshwater ecosystems from the development of hydropower will have a cascade of physical, ecological, and social effects at local to global scales. Here we demonstrate the extensive and large-scale effects of hydroelectric dams in the Amazon region on hydrologic parameters calculated using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) method applied to 33 small and large dams in the Brazilian Amazon. Our analysis provides the first holistic assessment of hydrological alterations (HA) caused by Amazonian dams and offers insight on the primary physical and management drivers of dam impacts. Across sites, results show that dams have affected all ecologically important flow characteristics (i.e., magnitude, duration, timing, frequency and rate of change of pulse events). While each dam/river system are unique, some dams cause substantially greater HA. The "worst" dams were Balbina (HA=108%), Manso (HA=62%), and Serra da Mesa (HA=48%). All three are "large" dams with substantial reservoirs, however Serra da Mesa produces 6 times more electricity than either Balbina or Manso, with lower impact. The most dramatic dam-induced shifts in hydrologic regime were related to the frequency/duration and frequency/rate of change of pulse events. HA on rivers with multiple dams was only 8% higher than those with individual dams. Dam elevation and reservoir area were the best environmental predictors of HA. Results suggest that hydrological impacts from dams are similar among temperate and tropical climates (i.e., peak flows are often

  19. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam 2008-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2009-09-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam (TDA) sluiceway and turbines during fall/winter 2008 and early spring 2009, respectively. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). Operating the sluiceway reduces the potential for hydropower production. However, this surface flow outlet may be the optimal non-turbine route for fallbacks in late fall after the sluiceway is typically closed for juvenile fish passage and for overwintering summer steelhead and kelt passage in the early spring before the start of the voluntary spill season. The goal of this study was to characterize adult steelhead spatial and temporal distributions and passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines, and their movements in front of the sluiceway at TDA to inform fisheries managers’ and engineers’ decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. The study periods were from November 1 to December 15, 2008 (45 days) and from March 1 to April 9, 2009 (40 days). The study objectives were to 1) estimate the number and distribution of overwintering summer steelhead fallbacks and kelt-sized acoustic targets passing into the sluiceway and turbines at TDA during the two study periods, respectively, and 2) assess the behavior of these fish in front of sluice entrances. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics and fish behavior data using acoustic imaging. For the overwintering summer steelhead, fallback occurred throughout the 45-day study period. We estimated that a total of 1790 ± 250 (95% confidence interval) summer steelhead targets passed through the powerhouse intakes and operating sluices during November 1 to December 15, 2008. Ninety five percent of these fish passed through the sluiceway. Therefore, without the sluiceway as

  20. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2009-06-23

    In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival

  1. 1000 dams down and counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff J.; Grant, Gordon E.

    2015-01-01

    Forty years ago, the demolition of large dams was mostly fiction, notably plotted in Edward Abbey's novel The Monkey Wrench Gang. Its 1975 publication roughly coincided with the end of large-dam construction in the United States. Since then, dams have been taken down in increasing numbers as they have filled with sediment, become unsafe or inefficient, or otherwise outlived their usefulness (1) (see the figure, panel A). Last year's removals of the 64-m-high Glines Canyon Dam and the 32-m-high Elwha Dam in northwestern Washington State were among the largest yet, releasing over 10 million cubic meters of stored sediment. Published studies conducted in conjunction with about 100 U.S. dam removals and at least 26 removals outside the United States are now providing detailed insights into how rivers respond (2, 3).

  2. Evaluation of the 1996 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Spring/Summer Yearling Chinook in the Snake River Basin Using Program RealTime.

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Richard L.; Yasuda, Dean; Skalski, J.R.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a post-season analysis of the accuracy of the 1996 predictions from the program RealTime. Observed 1996 migration data collected at Lower Granite Dam were compared to the predictions made by RealTime for the spring outmigration of wild spring/summer chinook. Appendix A displays the graphical reports of the RealTime program that were interactively accessible via the World Wide Web during the 1996 migration season. Final reports are available at address http://www.cqs.washington.edu/crisprt/. The CRISP model incorporated the predictions of the run status to move the timing forecasts further down the Snake River to Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary Dams. An analysis of the dams below Lower Granite Dam is available separately.

  3. USGS Dam Removal Science Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellmore, J. Ryan; Vittum, Katherine; Duda, Jeff J.; Greene, Samantha L.

    2015-01-01

    This database is the result of an extensive literature search aimed at identifying documents relevant to the emerging field of dam removal science. In total the database contains 179 citations that contain empirical monitoring information associated with 130 different dam removals across the United States and abroad. Data includes publications through 2014 and supplemented with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Inventory of Dams database, U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and aerial photos to estimate locations when coordinates were not provided. Publications were located using the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Clearinghouse for Dam Removal Information.

  4. Health impacts of large dams

    SciTech Connect

    Lerer, L.B.; Scudder, T.

    1999-03-01

    Large dams have been criticized because of their negative environmental and social impacts. Public health interest largely has focused on vector-borne diseases, such as schistosomiasis, associated with reservoirs and irrigation projects. Large dams also influence health through changes in water and food security, increases in communicable diseases, and the social disruption caused by construction and involuntary resettlement. Communities living in close proximity to large dams often do not benefit from water transfer and electricity generation revenues. A comprehensive health component is required in environmental and social impact assessments for large dam projects.

  5. Route-Specific Passage and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at The Dalles and Bonneville Dams, 2012 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rayamajhi, Bishes; Ploskey, Gene R.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derek M.; Kim, Jin A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao

    2013-07-31

    This study was mainly focused on evaluating the route-specific passage and migration success of steelhead kelts passing downstream through The Dalles Dam (TDA) and Bonneville Dam (BON) at Columbia River (CR) river kilometers 309 and 234 respectively. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel collected, tagged and released out-migrating steelhead kelts in the tributaries of the Deschutes River, 15 Mile Creek and Hood River between April 14 and June 4, 2012. A PIT tag was injected into each kelt’s dorsal sinus whereas a Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic micro-transmitter was attached to an external FLoy T-bar tag and inserted into the dorsal back musculature using a Floy tagging gun. JSATS cabled arrays were deployed at TDA and BON and autonomous node arrays were deployed near Celilo, Oregon (CR325); the BON forebay (CR236); the BON tailrace (CR233); near Knapp, Washington (CR156); and near Kalama, Washington (CR113) to monitor the kelts movement while passing through the dams and above mentioned river cross-sections.

  6. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    SciTech Connect

    Nonveiller, E.; Rupcic, J. |; Sever, Z.

    1999-04-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described.

  7. 6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND FOR MONITORING MOVEMENT OF DAM AND EARTH. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. Synthesizing Studies of Dam Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Jim; East, Amy

    2014-10-01

    Dam decommissioning is rapidly emerging as an important river restoration strategy in the United States. Hundreds of dams have been removed in the past few decades, including several large ones (>10-15 meters) impounding large sediment volumes (>106 cubic meters) in the past 3 years, notably Condit Dam and the Elwha River dams in Washington State. These removals and the associated studies provide for the first time an opportunity to evaluate the immediate and persistent consequences of these significant fluvial—and in some cases, coastal—perturbations. Understanding dam removal response not only improves understanding of landscape and ecosystem adjustment to profound sediment pulses but also provides important lessons for future watershed restoration efforts.

  9. Geotechnical practice in dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings, Geotechnical Practice in Dam Rehabilitation, consists of papers presented at the Specialty Conference sponsored by the Geotechnical Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 25-28, 1993. The conference provided a forum for the discussion of the rehabilitation of dams, including case histories and current geotechnical practice. The topics covered by this proceeding include: (1) inspection and monitoring of dams; (2) investigation and evaluation of dams and foundations; (3) risk and reliability assessment; (4) increasing reservoir capacity, spillway modifications and overtopping; (5) seepage control; (6) improving stability of dams, foundations and reservoir slopes; (7) rehabilitation for seismic stability; and (8) geosynthetics and ground improvement techniques.

  10. Three Gorges Dam, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-07-25

    This ASTER image shows a 60 km stretch of the Yangtze River in China, including the Xiling Gorge, the eastern of the three gorges. In the left part of the image is the construction site of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest. This image was acquired on July 20, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03852

  11. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55 Agriculture... § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this section apply only to RUS financed electric system... for Dam Safety,”(Guidelines), as applicable. A dam, as more fully defined in the Guidelines,...

  12. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55 Agriculture... § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this section apply only to RUS financed electric system... for Dam Safety,”(Guidelines), as applicable. A dam, as more fully defined in the Guidelines,...

  13. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55 Agriculture... § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this section apply only to RUS financed electric system... for Dam Safety,”(Guidelines), as applicable. A dam, as more fully defined in the Guidelines,...

  14. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55 Agriculture... § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this section apply only to RUS financed electric system... for Dam Safety,”(Guidelines), as applicable. A dam, as more fully defined in the Guidelines,...

  15. Is it worth a dam?

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, S

    1997-01-01

    Once a sign of modernization and growth, dams are often seen today as symbols of environmental and social devastation. Over 800,000 dams have been built worldwide to provide drinking water, flood control, hydropower, irrigation, navigation, and water storage. Dams do indeed provide these things,but at the cost of several adverse, unexpected effects: disruption of ecosystems, decline of fish stocks, forced human and animal resettlements, and diseases such as malaria, which are borne by vectors that thrive in quiet waters. PMID:9349830

  16. Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of dam complex access road and U.S. Highway 189 to center of dam, 874 feet/352 degrees from Hydroelectric Powerplant (HAER UT-93-B) to center of dam, Charleston, Wasatch County, UT

  17. Juvenile Salmonid Pit-Tag Studies at Prosser Dam and the Chandler Canal Fish Collection Facility, Yakima River, 1991 and 1992 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehle, Thomas E.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991 and 1992, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the second and third years of a 3-year study to estimate juvenile salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) timing and survival characteristics related to passage through the Prosser Dam complex, including the Chandler Canal and the Chandler fish collection facility, on the Yakima River. Yearling chinook (O. tshawyacha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) were collected at the Chandler facility, PIT tagged, and released at various locations in the Yakima River, Chandler Canal, and the Chandler facility. Individual fish were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection monitors at the Chandler facility and/or McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Survival through various reaches, PIT-tag detection efficiency, and Chandler Canal fish entrainment proportion parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood techniques. The research objectives in 1991 and 1992 were to: (1) assess the effects of passage through the Chandler Canal and the Chandler facility on the survival of juvenile salmonids, (2) determine the entrainment rate of juvenile salmonids into the Chandler Canal as a function of river flow, and (3) determine the efficiency and reliability of the PIT-tag monitoring system at the Chandler facility. The initial 1990 research plan was expanded in 1991 and 1992 to include several more release locations and many more release days.

  18. FORMATION AND FAILURE OF NATURAL DAMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, John E.; Schuster, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Of the numerous kinds of dams that form by natural processes, dams formed from landslides, glacial ice, and late-neoglacial moraines present the greatest threat to people and property. Landslide dams form a wide range of physiographic settings. The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and debris avalanches; rock and soil slumps and slides; and mud, debris, and earth flows. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snowmelt and earthquakes. Natural dams may cause upstream flooding as the lake rises and downstream flooding as a result of failure of the dam. Although data are few, for the same potential energy at the dam site, downstream flood peaks from the failure of glacier-ice dams are smaller than those from landslide, moraine, and constructed earth-fill and rock-fill dam failures.

  19. Concrete gravity dam stability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.

    1992-09-01

    Under Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) guidelines, dam owners must evaluate the stability of their structures every five years. Because traditional approaches typically yield overly conservative stability estimates, EPRI sponsored the development of a computer code, CG-DAMS, to provide more-realistic assessments that reflect site-specific conditions. This finite-element code-which is available in mainframe, workstation, and personal computer versions-can be used to predict crack growth, shear, and stress under a variety of loads.

  20. Structural Stability Evaluation, Pokegama Dam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    rock - filled timber crib construction; the original structure was essentially replaced in 1903 by a new timber and concrete structure. Construction after...1279.27. Pertinent dam data are given in Table 1. 5 Structure evolution 8. Reconstruction in 1903. Because the original structure was of timber and rock ...were the timber sluiceway floor aprons and the rock -filled timber cribs in the embankment at each end of the dam. The left and right cribs are 50 and

  1. "U.S. Reclamation Service, Grand River Dam, topographical map of dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "U.S. Reclamation Service, Grand River Dam, topographical map of dam site and construction plant. September 15, 1914." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  2. Elwha River Riparian Vegetation Response to Dams and Dam Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafroth, P. B.; Brown, R. L.; Clausen, A. J.; Chenoweth, J.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian vegetation is highly diverse and influences habitat of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Riparian vegetation dynamics are driven by stream flow regime, and fluxes of sediment and large woody debris, all of which can be altered by river damming. Dam removal is often implemented, in part, to help restore degraded riparian vegetation by reversing the alteration of these key drivers. However, increased disturbance and sediment flux associated with transport and exposure of trapped reservoir sediment can complicate a simple return to pre-dam conditions and can favor exotic species. We are studying the effects of dams and their removal on riparian vegetation along the Elwha River in Washington State, where removal of two large dams began in September 2011. To characterize vegetation composition, structure, and diversity prior to dam removal, we sampled 60-150 vegetation plots in 2004, 2005, and 2010 along five cross-valley transects in each of three river reaches: above both dams (upper reach), between the dams (middle reach), and downstream of both dams (lower reach). In summer 2012, we resampled a subset of our plots in the lower and middle reaches to evaluate vegetation and geomorphic change. We also sampled vegetation, topography, and grain size along newly-established transects within the exposed former reservoir behind Elwha Dam, which was removed in 2011 and 2012. Plant community distribution on bottomland geomorphic surfaces along the Elwha is typical of other systems in the region. We identified 8 overstory and 26 understory communities using multivariate analyses. Young bar surfaces (5-20 yrs) were dominated by willow, red alder, and black cottonwood. Floodplains and transitional fluvial terraces (<90yrs) were generally dominated by alder and cottonwood. Mature terraces (>90yrs) were often dominated by big-leaf maple. Douglas fir occurred on both young and old floodplains and terraces. Overstory species composition was more stable from 2005 to 2010

  3. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M; Arima, Eugenio Y; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R; d'Horta, Fernando M; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A; Ribas, Camila C; Norgaard, Richard B; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C

    2017-06-14

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin's floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  4. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R.; D'Horta, Fernando M.; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A.; Ribas, Camila C.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C.

    2017-06-01

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin’s floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  5. Floods from tailings dam failures.

    PubMed

    Rico, M; Benito, G; Díez-Herrero, A

    2008-06-15

    This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released, and this outflow volume is difficult to estimate prior the incident. In this study, tailings' volume stored at the time of failure was shown to have a good correlation (r2=0.86) with the tailings outflow volume, and the volume of spilled tailings was correlated with its run-out distance (r2=0.57). An envelope curve was drawn encompassing the majority of data points indicating the potential maximum downstream distance affected by a tailings' spill. The application of the described regression equations for prediction purposes needs to be treated with caution and with support of on-site measurement and observations. However, they may provide a universal baseline approximation on tailing outflow characteristics (even if detailed dam information is unavailable), which is of a great importance for risk analysis purposes.

  6. Personal computer accelerates dam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Slopek, R.J. )

    1991-12-01

    Analyzing the stability of a dam can require several months of calculations - depending upon the number of dam cross sections and the variety of loadings that are studied. Monenco Consultants Limited, an engineering firm with its head office in Calgary, Alberta, has evaluated the safety of existing dams at more than 40 water resource developments in the last 20 years. Realizing the complexity of these evaluations, Monenco engineers were interested in developing techniques that would reduce the hours of professional time required for stability calculations, and therefore the cost to the dams owners. The firm eventually developed a microcomputer program for its engineers to use in the stability analysis of concrete gravity dams and two spread-sheets to use with the program for analyzing uplift and internal stresses. Using the computer programs cuts man-hours spent in analysis by about 75 percent and reduces the possibility of error in multiple calculations. Ultimately, the programs allow the engineer to spend more time in detailed analysis of a structure during a safety evaluation and less time performing tedious calculations.

  7. OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM DIRECTION OF KACHESS DAM. VIEW TO NORTH - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  8. 17. VIEW OF MAIN AND DIVERSION DAMS FROM WATERGATE AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF MAIN AND DIVERSION DAMS FROM WATER-GATE AFTER REMOVAL OF DRIFTWOOD. DIVERSION DAM IN LEFT FOREGROUND, MAIN DAM TO THE RIGHT. Photographed July 18, 1938. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  9. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashe, Becky L.; Miller, Alan C.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began a smolt monitoring study on the Imnaha River in cooperation with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from March 1 to June 15, 1994. We PIT tagged and released 956 wild chinook salmon, 661 hatchery chinook salmon, 1,432 wild steelhead trout and 2,029 hatchery steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 62.2% for wild chinook salmon, 45.2% for hatchery chinook salmon, 51.3% for wild steelhead trout, and 34.3% for hatchery steelhead trout.

  10. A Study of Education, Out-Migration of Young Adults, and the Impact of Information and Communications Technologies on the Economies of Rural Communities in Newfoundland and Labrador [Avalon West School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jean; Handrigan, Rachel; Stone, Gordon; Downey, Sherman

    2002-01-01

    This research project is a study of education, out-migration of young adults, and the impact of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) on the education and economies of rural communities in Newfoundland and Labrador. A qualitative study of Newfoundland and Labrador's rural schools were conducted from January to August 2001. This report…

  11. Three Gorges Dam, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This ASTER image shows a 60 km stretch of the Yangtze River in China, including the Xiling Gorge, the eastern of the three gorges. In the left part of the image is the construction site of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest.

    This image was acquired on July 20, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Size: 60 x 24 km (36 x 15 miles) Location: 30.6 deg. North lat., 111.2 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER

  12. Three Gorges Dam, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This ASTER image shows a 60 km stretch of the Yangtze River in China, including the Xiling Gorge, the eastern of the three gorges. In the left part of the image is the construction site of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest.

    This image was acquired on July 20, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Size: 60 x 24 km (36 x 15 miles) Location: 30.6 deg. North lat., 111.2 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER

  13. 97. DAM OPERATING HOUSE WALL SECTION & MISCELLANEOUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. DAM - OPERATING HOUSE - WALL SECTION & MISCELLANEOUS DETAIL (ML-8-41/2-FS) June 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  14. 105. DAM TAINTER GATE SUBMERGIBLE SECTION & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. DAM - TAINTER GATE - SUBMERGIBLE - SECTION & ELEVATION (ML-8-48/8-FS) June 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  15. 103. DAM TAINTER GATE NONSUBMERGIBLE SECTION & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. DAM - TAINTER GATE - NON-SUBMERGIBLE - SECTION & ELEVATION (ML-8-48/1-FS) June 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  16. 102. DAM TAINTER GATE SUBMERGIBLE DESIGN DATA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. DAM - TAINTER GATE - SUBMERGIBLE - DESIGN DATA - CHANNEL RIBS (ML-8-48/C-FS) June 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  17. Have Large Dams Altered Extreme Precipitation Patterns?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Faisal; Jeyachandran, Indumathi; Pielke, Roger

    2009-12-01

    Dams and their impounded waters are among the most common civil infrastructures, with a long heritage of modern design and operations experience. In particular, large dams, defined by the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) as having a height greater than 15 meters from the foundation and holding a reservoir volume of more than 3 million cubic meters, have the potential to vastly transform local climate, landscapes, regional economics, and urbanization patterns. In the United States alone, about 75,000 dams are capable of storing a volume of water equaling almost 1 year's mean runoff of the nation [Graf, 1999]. The World Commission on Dams (WCD) reports that at least 45,000 large dams have been built worldwide since the 1930s. These sheer numbers raise the question of the extent to which large dams and their impounded waters alter patterns that would have been pervasive had the dams not been built.

  18. The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Water, Manon

    1994-01-01

    Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

  19. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmon Behavior at Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Using a Multibeam Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert L. ); Moursund, Russell A. )

    1999-11-01

    In recent years, with increased effort to bypass and guide fragile stocks of juvenile salmon in the Columbia Basin past hydroelectric projects, it has been increasingly important to obtain fine-scale fish behavior data in a non-intrusive manner. The Dual-Head Multibeam Sonar is an emerging technology for fisheries applications that addresses that requirement. It has two principal advantages over traditional hydroacoustic techniques: (1) it allows for simultaneous large-volume coverage of a region of interest, and (2) it affords 3-D tracking capability. The use of Dual-Head Multibeam Sonar in this study resulted in unprecedented insight into fine-scale smolt behavior upstream of a prototype surface collector at Bonneville Dam first powerhouse in 1998. Our results indicated that outmigrant juvenile salmon had an increased likelihood of milling or holding. This discovery will lead to better design criteria for future bypass and collector systems. Future fisheries multibeam sonar systems will likely be fully integrated systems with built-in real time tracking capability. These systems may be used to track targets relative to physical guidance structures or other behavior modifying stimuli such as light, turbulent flow, electrical/magnetic fields, or low-frequency sound and vibration. The combination of fine-scale fish behavior data and environmental parameters will yield better design criteria for the safe passage of listed or endangered species of Pacific salmon.

  20. WinDAM C earthen embankment internal erosion analysis software

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two primary causes of dam failure are overtopping and internal erosion. For the purpose of evaluating dam safety for existing earthen embankment dams and proposed earthen embankment dams, Windows Dam Analysis Modules C (WinDAM C) software will simulate either internal erosion or erosion resulting f...

  1. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W.

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  2. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G.

    2002-06-01

    In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  3. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M.

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

  4. Spatially and Temporally Varying Associations between Temporary Outmigration and Natural Resource Availability in Resource-Dependent Rural Communities in South Africa: A Modeling Framework

    PubMed Central

    Leyk, Stefan; Maclaurin, Galen J.; Hunter, Lori M.; Nawrotzki, Raphael; Twine, Wayne; Collinson, Mark; Erasmus, Barend

    2012-01-01

    Migration-environment models tend to be aspatial within chosen study regions, although associations between temporary outmigration and environmental explanatory variables likely vary across the study space. This research extends current approaches by developing migration models considering spatial non-stationarity and temporal variation – through examination of the migration-environment association at nested geographic scales (i.e. whole-population, village, and subvillage) within a specific study site. Demographic survey data from rural South Africa, combined with indicators of natural resource availability from satellite imagery, are employed in a nested modeling approach that brings out distinct patterns of spatial variation in model associations derived at finer geographic scales. Given recent heightened public and policy concern with the human migratory implications of climate change, we argue that consideration of spatial variability adds important nuance to scientific understanding of the migration-environment association. PMID:23008525

  5. Arch dam of the Khudoni hydroelectric station

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhakeli, P.A.; Kobakhidze, V.D.; Koridze, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the Khudoni hydroelectric station. The selection of the type and site of the dam are described. A plan of the hydro development with the chosen concrete arch dam is shown. Engineering-geologic and seismotectonic conditions of the chosen site are examined. Two types of design were examined for the arch dam, and they are described. Structural elements of the dam are discussed as is reinforcement, stress-strain state, underground contour and outlet works.

  6. Webinar: Stepped chute design for embankment dams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Changing demographics in the vicinity of dams have led to hazard creep in a number of dams worldwide. Many of these dams now have insufficient spillway capacity as a result of these changes in hazard classification from low to significant or high hazard. Stepped chutes applied to the embankment da...

  7. 75 FR 49429 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... embankment material strengths, and stability analyses to verify that the slopes of the dam would have... design the dam; several design and construction deficiencies, such as poor compaction, steep slopes, and... slope failure in 1987, the mine operator installed instruments in the dam to monitor internal water...

  8. Inception point for embankment dam stepped spillways

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams have become a common design practice with the rehabilitation of aging watershed dams, especially those experiencing a hazard classification change from low to high hazard. Previous research on stepped spillways focused on gravity dams where aerated flow ...

  9. 30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

  12. 30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

  13. 30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

  14. 30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be...

  15. 30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

  16. 30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be...

  17. 30 CFR 57.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retaining dams. 57.20010 Section 57.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....20010 Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 56.20010 - Retaining dams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retaining dams. 56.20010 Section 56.20010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Retaining dams. If failure of a water or silt retaining dam will create a hazard, it shall be of...

  19. The formation and failure of natural dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, J.E.; Schuster, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Of the numerous kinds of dams that form by natural processes, dams formed from landslides, glacial ice, and neoglacial moraines present the greatest threat to people and property. The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and debris avalanches, rock and soil slumps and slides, and mud, debris, and earth flows. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snowmelt and earthquakes. Landslide dams can be classified into six categories based on their relation with the valley floor. Type I dams (11%) of the 81 landslide dams around the world that were classifed do not reach from one valley side to the other. Type II dams (44%) span the entire valley flood, occasionally depositing material high up on opposite valley sides. Type III dams (41%) move considerable distances both upstream and downstream from the landslide failure. Type IV dams (1%) are rare and involve the contemporaneous failure of material from both sides of a valley. Type V dams (1%) are also rare, and are created when a single landslide sends multiple tongues of debris into a valley forming two or more landslide dams in the same surfaces, that extend under the stream or valley and emerge on the opposite valley side. Many landslide dams fail shortly after formation. Overtopping is by far the most common cause of failure. Glacial ice dams can produce at least nine kinds of ice-dammed lakes. The most dangerous are lakes formed in main valleys dammed by tributary glaciers. Failure can occur by erosion of a drainage tunnel under or through the ice dam or by a channel over the ice dam. Cold polar ice dams generally drain supraglacially or marginally by downmelting of an outlet channel. Warmer temperate-ice dams tend to fail by sudden englacial or subglacial breaching and drainage. Late neoglacial moraine-dammed lakes are located in steep mountain areas affected by the advances and retreats of valley glaciers in the last several

  20. Wanaket Wildlife Area Management Plan : Five-Year Plan for Protecting, Enhancing, and Mitigating Wildlife Habitat Losses for the McNary Hydroelectric Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2001-09-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to continue to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat at the Wanaket Wildlife Area. The Wanaket Wildlife Area was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1993. This management plan will provide an update of the original management plan approved by BPA in 1995. Wanaket will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the McNary Hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Wanaket Wildlife Area, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Wanaket Wildlife Area management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Wanaket Wildlife Area will be managed over the next five years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management. Specific project objectives are related to protection and enhancement of wildlife habitats and are expressed in terms of habitat units (HU's). Habitat units were developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP), and are designed to track habitat gains and/or losses associated with mitigation and/or development projects. Habitat Units for a given species are a product of habitat quantity (expressed in acres) and habitat quality estimates. Habitat quality estimates are developed using Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI). These indices are based on quantifiable habitat features such as vegetation

  1. Composition and Relative Abundance of Fish Species in the Lower White Salmon River, Washington, Prior to the Removal of Condit Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the composition and relative abundance of fish species was collected by a rotary screw trap and backpack electrofishing in the lower White Salmon River, Washington. The information was collected downstream of Condit Dam, which is at river kilometer (rkm) 5.2, and is proposed for removal in October 2011. A rotary screw trap was installed in the White Salmon River at rkm 1.5 and operated from March through June during 2006-09. All captured fish were identified to species and enumerated. Daily subsets of fish were weighed, measured, and fin clipped for a genetic analysis by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. *Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were captured in the highest numbers (n=18, 640), and were composed of two stocks: tule and upriver bright. Almost all captured fall Chinook salmon were age-0, with only 16 (0.09 percent) being age-1 or older. *Tule fall Chinook salmon, the native stock, generally out-migrated from mid-March through early April. The tule stock was the more abundant fall Chinook salmon subspecies, comprising 85 percent of those captured in the trap. *Upriver bright fall Chinook salmon comprised 15 percent of the Chinook salmon catch and generally out-migrated from late May to early June. *Coho salmon (O. kisutch) and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) were captured by the rotary screw trap in all years. Coho salmon were caught in low numbers (n=661) and 69 percent were age-0 fish. Steelhead were slightly more abundant (n=679) than coho salmon and 84 percent were age-1 or older fish. Trap efficiency estimates varied widely (range, 0-10 percent) by species, fish size, and time of year. However, if we use only the estimates from efficiency tests where more than 300 wild age-0 Chinook salmon were released, there was a mean trapping efficiency of 1.4 percent (n=4, median, 1.3 percent, range, 0.3-2.4 percent) during the tule out-migration period, and a mean trapping efficiency of 0.8 percent (n=2, range, 0.3-1.2 percent) during

  2. Seismic safety of high concrete dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Houqun

    2014-08-01

    China is a country of high seismicity with many hydropower resources. Recently, a series of high arch dams have either been completed or are being constructed in seismic regions, of which most are concrete dams. The evaluation of seismic safety often becomes a critical problem in dam design. In this paper, a brief introduction to major progress in the research on seismic aspects of large concrete dams, conducted mainly at the Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR) during the past 60 years, is presented. The dam site-specific ground motion input, improved response analysis, dynamic model test verification, field experiment investigations, dynamic behavior of dam concrete, and seismic monitoring and observation are described. Methods to prevent collapse of high concrete dams under maximum credible earthquakes are discussed.

  3. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C R; Nuss, L K

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  4. Earthquake resistance of the Nurek dam

    SciTech Connect

    Lyatkher, V.M.; Ivashchenko, I.N.; Li, A.T.

    1985-06-01

    The 300-m-high Nurek dam was designed and constructed with compressed, economical profile with a steepness of the upstream slope of 1:2.25. Modern earth dams in seismically active regions are often designed with flatter upstream slopes. Longterm investigation into the design and construction of the Nurek dam have made possible considerable progress in solving the problem of increasing the reliability and earthquake resistance of high earth dams being built in regions with high seismicity. The Nurek dam was constructed with a high earthquake resistance in conformity with standards. The technical decision on reinforcing earth dams by means of structural methods of the antiseismic collar type, accomplished at the Nurek dam, is reliable, cost effective and promising. The authors conclude that it is expedient to continue the development and investigation of such measures and to broaden the sphere of their use.

  5. Egypt: after the Aswan Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, S.

    1981-05-01

    Ten years after its completion, the controversial Aswan High Dam's hydrologic and human consequences are clearer because of a joint US-Egyptian interdisciplinary study. Water supply and distribution is emerging as a major world resource problem with the recognition that unsafe drinking water and inadequate sanitation contribute to health problems. Dams provide water supplies, but they also create conditions favorable to the spread of water-borne diseases. The Aswan Dam solved problems of flooding and drought by opening 2.5 million acres to year-round irrigation, although some of the reclaimed land has been lost to urban expansion and shoreline erosion, and provides hydroelectric power. The negative effects include increasing soil salinity, changes in the water table, excessive downstream water plant growth, and diseases such as schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasites, and the social impact on the Nubians, whose homeland was flooded. Planners must use the information gathered in this study to see that the benefits outweigh the human costs. 22 references, 7 figures.

  6. Seismicity around Brazilian dam reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, P.E.F.P. )

    1987-01-01

    More than 30 cases of seismicity associated with dam reservoir sites are known throughout the world. Despite the lack of data in some areas, where seismicity occurred after reservoir impounding, there have been distinct seismic patterns observed in seismic areas after dam projects implantation. This has demonstrated that reservoir loading can trigger earthquakes. A mechanism of earthquake generation by reservoir impounding is proposed here with particular application to the Brazilian cases and to areas subject to low confining stress conditions in stable regions. Six artificial lakes are described and the associated earthquake sources are discussed in terms of natural or induced seismicity. Earthquake monitoring in Brazil up to 1967, when Brasilia's seismological station started operation, was mainly based in personal communications to the media. Therefore, there is a general lack of seismic records in relatively uninhabited areas, making it difficult to establish a seismic risk classification for the territory and to distinguish natural from induced seismicity. Despite this, cases reported here have shown an alteration of the original seismic stability in dam sites after reservoir loading, as observed by the inhabitants or records from Brasilia's seismological station. All cases appear to be related to an increase in pore pressure in permeable rocks or fracture zones which are confined between impermeable rock slabs or more competent rock. It is apparent that some cases show some participation of high residual stress conditions in the area.

  7. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam, 2009-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2010-07-31

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam (TDA) sluiceway and turbines during fall/winter 2009 through early spring 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of this study was to characterize adult steelhead spatial and temporal distributions and passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines for fisheries managers and engineers to use in decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. The study was from November 1, 2009 to April 10, 2010. The study was divided into three study periods: Period 1, November 1 - December 15, 2009 for a fall/winter sluiceway and turbine study; Period 2, December 16, 2009 - February 28, 2010 for a turbine only study; Period 3, March 1 - April 10, 2010 for a spring sluiceway and turbine study. Sluiceway operations were scheduled to begin on March 1 for this study; however, because of an oil spill cleanup near the sluice outfall, sluiceway operations were delayed until March 8, 2010, therefore the spring study period did not commence until March 8. The study objectives were to (1) estimate the number and distribution of overwintering summer steelhead fallbacks and kelt-sized acoustic targets passing into the sluiceway and turbines at TDA between November 1 and December 15, 2009 and March 1 and April 10, 2010, and (2) estimate the numbers and distribution of adult steelhead and kelt-sized targets passing into turbine units between December 16, 2009 and February 28, 2010. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics. For Period 1, overwintering summer steelhead fallback occurred throughout the 45-day study period. A total of 879 {+-} 165 (95% CI) steelhead targets passed through the powerhouse and sluiceway during November 1 to December 15, 2009. Ninety two

  8. Optimization of Concurrent Deployments of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System and Other Hydroacoustic Equipment at John Day Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Khan, Fenton; Kim, Jina; Lamarche, Brian L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Choi, Eric Y.; Faber, Derrek M.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Fischer, Eric S.; Cushing, Aaron W.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the acoustic optimization study conducted at John Day Dam during January and February 2008. The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods to minimize electrical and acoustic interference from various other acoustic sampling devices. Thereby, this would allow concurrent sampling by active and passive acoustic methods during the formal evaluations of the prototype surface flow outlets at the dam during spring and summer outmigration seasons for juvenile salmonids. The objectives for the optimization study at John Day Dam were to: 1. Design and test prototypes and provide a total needs list of pipes and trolleys to deploy JSATS hydrophones on the forebay face of the powerhouse and spillway. 2. Assess the effect on mean percentage decoded of JSATS transmissions from tags arrayed in the forebay and detected on the hydrophones by comparing: turbine unit OFF vs. ON; spill bay OPEN vs. CLOSED; dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) both OFF vs. ON at a spill bay; and, fixed-aspect hydroacoustic system OFF vs. ON at a turbine unit and a spill bay. 3. Determine the relationship between fixed-aspect hydroacoustic transmit level and mean percentage of JSATS transmissions decoded. The general approach was to use hydrophones to listen for transmissions from JSATS tags deployed in vertical arrays in a series perpendicular to the face of the dam. We used acoustic telemetry equipment manufactured by Technologic and Sonic Concepts. In addition, we assessed old and new JSATS signal detectors and decoders and two different types of hydrophone baffling. The optimization study consisted of a suite of off/on tests. The primary response variable was mean percentage of tag transmissions decoded. We found that there was no appreciable adverse effect on mean percentage

  9. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearnside, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with < 30 MW installed capacity number in the hundreds. Amazonian dams have substantial environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Loss of forest to flooding is one, the Balbina and Tucuruí Dams being examples (each 3000 km2). If the Babaquara/Altamira Dam is built it will flood as much forest as both of these combined. Some planned dams imply loss of forest in protected areas, for example on the Tapajós River. Aquatic and riparian ecosystems are lost, including unique biodiversity. Endemic fish species in rapids on the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers are examples. Fish migrations are blocked, such as the commercially important "giant catfish" of the Madeira River. Dams emit greenhouse gases, including CO2 from the trees killed and CH4 from decay under anoxic conditions at the bottom of reservoirs. Emissions can exceed those from fossil-fuel generation, particularly over the 20-year period during which global emissions must be greatly reduced to meet 1.5-2°C limit agreed in Paris. Carbon credit for dams under the Climate Convention causes further net emission because the dams are not truly "additional." Anoxic environments in stratified reservoirs cause methylation of mercury present in Amazonian soils, which concentrates in fish, posing a health risk to human consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country

  10. 18. DETAIL AT JUNCTION OF MAIN DAM AT LEFT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL AT JUNCTION OF MAIN DAM AT LEFT AND DIVERSION DAM AT RIGHT SHOWING LOG CRIBBING. SPACES INSIDE CRIBBING WERE FILLED WITH STONE TO ANCHOR DAM; DETERIORATION OF DAM HAS ALLOWED STONE BALLAST TO WASH AWAY. Photographed July 18, 1938. - Forge Creek Dam-John Cable Mill, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  11. View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of the forebay dam of Grand Coulee Dam, looking west. Construction of the forebay dam, which replaced the eastern end of the original Grand Coulee Dam, was completed in 1974. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  12. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

  13. Comparison of Dam Breach Parameter Estimators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    from a large storm in 1975 (CEATI). The dam was constructed of a clay core containing shale. The upstream and downstream fill was homogeneous earth ...Comparison of Dam Breach Parameter Estimators D. Michael Gee1 1 Senior Hydraulic Engineer, Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering...Center, 609 2nd St., Davis, CA 95616; email: michael.gee@usace.army.mil. ABSTRACT Analytical techniques for the estimation of dam breach

  14. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  15. National Dam Safety Program. Inventory of Dams, Delaware.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    of these regions and basins follows. 0 13. Item 17. River /Stream. Official name of river or stream on which dam is built. If un-named, listing should...0208 Lover Chesapeake Bay South Atlantic Oulf 03 I -two0301 R~oanoke 0302 Tar -Neuse 0305 Cape Fear 303-\\004& Pee Dee 0305 Santee- Edisto 0306 Savannab...has an official name. 12. Items 15 & 16. Codes for Region & Basin respectively in accordance with the following: Region 02 Middle Atlantic Basin 01

  16. A ravenous river reclaims its true course: the tale of Marmot Dam''s demise

    Treesearch

    Noreen Parks; Gordon Grant

    2009-01-01

    Removing dams that are outdated, unsafe, or pose significant economic or environmental costs has emerged in the last 10 years as a major river restoration strategy. The removal of the 45-foot-high Marmot Dam on the Sandy River in 2007 resulted in the biggest sediment release accompanying any dam removal to date. It also provided an unprecedented opportunity...

  17. 4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  18. 56. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND REMAINDER OF DAM -- CONCRETE MONOLITH PLAN AND WALL ELEVATIONS (WITH LOCK APPURTENANCES). Drawing V-601 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  19. 34. VIEW OF COFFERDAM USED IN DAM CAPPING OPERATIONS. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW OF COFFERDAM USED IN DAM CAPPING OPERATIONS. NOTE BARGE AT RIGHT DUMPING FILL DIRT TO INCREASE WATER TIGHTNESS OF COFFER DAM, c. 1918. - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

  20. GENERAL VIEW OF THE WILSON DAM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, GENERATING PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF THE WILSON DAM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, GENERATING PLANT IN THE BACKGROUND. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  1. 2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. East side of lower dam shown with water flowing over dam. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  2. 10. BRIDGE IN CONTEXT OF DAM, THIRD POWER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BRIDGE IN CONTEXT OF DAM, THIRD POWER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH BY 360 DEGREES - Columbia River Bridge at Grand Coulee Dam, Spanning Columbia River at State Route 155, Coulee Dam, Okanogan County, WA

  3. 91. photographer unknown undated TOP OF SPILLWAY DAM PIERS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. photographer unknown undated TOP OF SPILLWAY DAM PIERS WITH ASSEMBLY OF DAM GATES UNDERWAY. WASHINGTON SHORE WING WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  4. View of upstream face of Lake Sabrina Dam showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Lake Sabrina Dam showing the redwood planks and base of dam from Lake Sabrina Basin, view north - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. View of Lake Sabrina Dam downstream face from parking lot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam downstream face from parking lot showing concrete outlet structure on tow of dam at left edge of photo, view southeast - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. Dam located to east of powerhouse, view from south. This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dam located to east of powerhouse, view from south. This dam holds back the waters of the Chattahoochee River to form the mill pond north of Riverdale Cotton Mill - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Powerhouse & Dam, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  7. 6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  8. 5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  9. 3. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  10. 4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING A LARGE FIELDSTONE DAM (KNOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING A LARGE FIELD-STONE DAM (KNOWN LOCALLY AS DAM NO. 1), BUILT BY THE CCC - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  11. 3. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING A SMALL FIELDSTONE DAM (KNOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING A SMALL FIELD-STONE DAM (KNOWN LOCALLY AS DAM NO. 2), BUILT BY THE CCC - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  12. 8. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OLD SOURIS RIVER CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OLD SOURIS RIVER CHANNEL FROM THE DOWNSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM WITH POND A IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  13. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER GATES, PIERS, HEADHOUSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER GATES, PIERS, HEADHOUSES AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST, DOWNSTREAM - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  14. 3. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER AND TAINTER GATES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER AND TAINTER GATES, PIERS, HEADHOUSES AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, DOWNSTREAM - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  15. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER GATES, GATE PIERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER GATES, GATE PIERS, HEADHOUSES AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, UPSTREAM - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  16. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER AND TAINTER GATES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER AND TAINTER GATES, GATE PIERS, HEADHOUSES AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, UPSTREAM - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  17. 55. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND REMAINDER OF DAM CONTROL HOUSE -- BUILDING SECTION. M-L 26(R) 92/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  18. 54. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND REMAINDER OF DAM CONTROL HOUSE -- BUILDING SECTION. M-L 26(R) 92/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  19. 53. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND REMAINDER OF DAM CONTROL HOUSE -- ELEVATIONS. M-L 26 (R) 92/2 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  20. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING CREST AND DOWNSTREAM FACE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING CREST AND DOWNSTREAM FACE, WITH CONCRETE EXTENSION IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  1. 11. 'CONSTRUCTION OF TRIAL LAKE DAM OF THE UNION RESERVOIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 'CONSTRUCTION OF TRIAL LAKE DAM OF THE UNION RESERVOIR CO., SEPTEMBER 7, 1912, AT 20 FEET ABOVE OUTLET. C.S. JARVIS, ENG.' - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Trial Lake Dam, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  2. 3. VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, SHOWING OUTLET GATE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, SHOWING OUTLET GATE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Island Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.8 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  3. 9. VIEW OF LATERAL GATE ON CANAL NEAR DAM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF LATERAL GATE ON CANAL NEAR DAM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  4. 5. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west (Diversion into Irrigation District canal) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  5. 24. VIEW OF DAM ROLLER GATE BULKHEADS, BULKHEAD CARS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF DAM ROLLER GATE BULKHEADS, BULKHEAD CARS AND TRACKS IN STORAGE YARD, WITH MOVABLE CRANE AND DAM BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING WEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 3, Red Wing, Goodhue County, MN

  6. Key Impact Factors on Dam Break Fatalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, D.; Yu, Z.; Song, Y.; Han, D.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Dam failures can lead to catastrophes on human society. However, there is a lack of research about dam break fatalities, especially on the key factors that affect fatalities. Based on the analysis of historical dam break cases, most studies have used the regression analysis to explore the correlation between those factors and fatalities, but without implementing optimization to find the dominating factors. In order to understand and reduce the risk of fatalities, this study has proposed a new method to select the impact factors on the fatality. It employs an improved ANN (Artificial Neural Network) combined with LOOCV (Leave-one-out cross-validation) and SFS (Stepwise Forward Selection) approach to explore the nonlinear relationship between impact factors and life losses. It not only considers the factors that have been widely used in the literature but also introduces new factors closely involved with fatalities. Dam break cases occurred in China from 1954 to 2013 are summarized, within which twenty-five cases are selected with a comprehensive coverage of geographic position and temporal variation. Twelve impact factors are taken into account as the inputs, i.e., severity of dam break flood (SF), population at risk (PR), public understanding of dam break (UB), warning time (TW), evacuation condition (EC), weather condition during dam break (WB), dam break mode (MB), water storage (SW), building vulnerability (VB), dam break time (TB), average distance from the affected area to the dam (DD) and preventive measures by government (PG).From those, three key factors of SF, MB and TB are chosen. The proposed method is able to extract the key factors, and the derived fatality model performs well in various types of dam break conditions.

  7. Fragility Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekie, Paulos B.; Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2002-09-01

    Concrete gravity dams are an important part ofthe nation's infrastructure. Many dams have been in service for over 50 years, during which time important advances in the methodologies for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards have caused the design-basis events to be revised upwards, in some cases significantly. Many existing dams fail to meet these revised safety criteria and structural rehabilitation to meet newly revised criteria may be costly and difficult. A probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) provides a rational safety assessment and decision-making tool managing the various sources of uncertainty that may impact dam performance. Fragility analysis, which depicts fl%e uncertainty in the safety margin above specified hazard levels, is a fundamental tool in a PSA. This study presents a methodology for developing fragilities of concrete gravity dams to assess their performance against hydrologic and seismic hazards. Models of varying degree of complexity and sophistication were considered and compared. The methodology is illustrated using the Bluestone Dam on the New River in West Virginia, which was designed in the late 1930's. The hydrologic fragilities showed that the Eluestone Dam is unlikely to become unstable at the revised probable maximum flood (PMF), but it is likely that there will be significant cracking at the heel ofthe dam. On the other hand, the seismic fragility analysis indicated that sliding is likely, if the dam were to be subjected to a maximum credible earthquake (MCE). Moreover, there will likely be tensile cracking at the neck of the dam at this level of seismic excitation. Probabilities of relatively severe limit states appear to be only marginally affected by extremely rare events (e.g. the PMF and MCE). Moreover, the risks posed by the extreme floods and earthquakes were not balanced for the Bluestone Dam, with seismic hazard posing a relatively higher risk.

  8. Potential for seepage erosion of landslide dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, W.; Schuster, R.L.; Sabol, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The failure potential of the debris-avalanche dam at Castle Lake near Mount St. Helens, Washington, by three processes of seepage erosion (1) Heave; (2) piping; and (3) internal erosion, is examined. Results indicated that the dam is stable against piping but potentially locally unstable against heave. -from Authors

  9. 104. DAM TAINTER GATE NONSUBMERGIBLE UPPER FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. DAM - TAINTER GATE - NON-SUBMERGIBLE - UPPER FRAME AND SKIN PLATE (ML-8-48/2-FS) June 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  10. 75 FR 62024 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 56 and 57 RIN 1219-AB70 Metal and Nonmetal Dams AGENCY... measures to assure that metal and nonmetal mine operators design, construct, operate and maintain dams in...

  11. 76 FR 12094 - Whitman River Dam, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ..., 38.5-foot-high Crocker Pond dam; (2) an existing 99.7- acre impoundment with a normal water surface... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Whitman River Dam, Inc. Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional Study Requests Take notice that the...

  12. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-07-08

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams.

  13. National Dam Safety Program. Brushy Creek Tailings Dam (MO 30951), White Basin, Reynolds County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    a crushed rock underdrainage system and earth starter dam . The configuration of the dam , reservoir, and appurtenant structures are best described by...AO-AI06 458 ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT ST LOUIS MO F/6 13/13 NATIONAL DAM SAFETY PROGRAM. BRUSHY CREEK TAILINGS DAM (MO 3095--ETC(U) AUG 79 W ft...CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (ind Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Phase I Dam Inspection Report National Dam Safety Program Final F’eprt . Brushy

  14. Do we need construct more dams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Shi, H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews global dam development in association with the growths of global population, economy, and energy consumption in the past several decades, and also evaluates contributions of dam development to future world sustainable development. Eventually, this paper answers whether we need more dams in the future or not. The world population has rapidly increased from 1.6 billion in 1900, 2.5 billion in 1950, 6.1 billion in 2000, to 7.0 billion in 2011, and is projected to reach 9.5 billion in 2050; similarly, the world economy has dramatically expanded. To maintain socioeconomic development, the consumption of water, food and energy has increased rapidly as well. However, the total volume of available water resource over the world is limited, the food production largely depends on water supply, and the main energy sources are still oil, coal and gas at present, which are regarded as non-renewable resources. Accordingly, it is expected that we will face serious problems to deal with the challenges of water crisis, food security and energy shortage in the near future. In order to enhance the capability of regulating water resource, a great number of global dams (and related reservoirs) have been constructed in the last one hundred years; currently, almost all large rivers over the world have been regulated by dams. The reservoirs can supply sufficient water for irrigated land to ensure food production, and the associated hydropower stations can generate electricity. This article collects the dam data from the ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams) and GRanD (Global Reservoir and Dam) databases, and some socioeconomic data, including population, economy, and consumptions of water, food and energy over the world. Analysis of these data reveals that global dam development has a great impact on the world sustainable development. Further, it is concluded that we need further dam development to maintain our future development.

  15. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, William R.

    1999-04-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1997 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1997. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 49% of the 1996 number but only 6% of the 1995 catch. The wild chinook catch was 77% of the 1996 but was only 13% of 1995. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 18% of 1996 numbers but only 7% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 22% of 1996 but only 11% of the 1995 numbers. The Snake River trap collected eight age-0 chinook salmon and one sockeye/kokanee salmon O. nerka. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 8 and were out of operation for 23 d due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 37% and wild chinook salmon catch was 60% of 1996 numbers but only 5% and 11% of 1995 catch, respectively. The 1997 hatchery steelhead trout collection was 13% of the 1996 catch and 32% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1997 was 21% of the 1996 catch and 13% of the 1995 numbers. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 7 and were out of operation for 19 d due to high flow and debris.

  16. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2001-06-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 1999 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1999. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 440% of the 1998 number. The wild chinook catch was 603% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 93% of 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 68% of 1998 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 62 age-0 chinook salmon. During 1998 the Snake River trap captured 173 hatchery and 37 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 130 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 25. The trap was out of operation for 18 d during the season due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 214%, and wild chinook salmon catch was 384% of 1998 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 210% of the 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 203% of the 1998 catch. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 21. The trap was out of operation for 17 d during the season due to high flow and debris.

  17. Modeling an ancient Iranian dam system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits; De Schacht, Tijs

    2013-04-01

    In Iran, along the northern and eastern fringes of the Pasargadae plain, five dam remains from the Achaemenid period (550-330 BCE) present an important footprint of the human impact and reshaping of the region. The dams are predominantly found in dry wadi beds. In the framework of the Joint Iranian-French Archaeological Project at Pasargadae, these dam sites were studied and excavated. Located 22 km to the north of Pasargadae in a small wadi, the Sad-i Didegan dam has a watershed of circa 46 square km, small compared with catchments of other known Achaemenid dams. It is an earth built gravity dam of circa 90 m wide, 21 m high and with a crown length of about 150 m. In the lower body of the dam, remains of a feeder canal and an accessible control infrastructure at the downstream flank of the dam were found. To the northwest, the dam site of Sad-i Shahidabad can be found, another large Achaemenid dam, which stored water from the perennial river of the Rud-i Polvar. This dam also had a similar canal and control structure. Close to the Sad-i Didegan area is a large earthwork, found to cross the watershed divide between Didegan and Shahidabad, consisting of a wide V-shaped trench of remarkable size: up to 100 m wide, a total length of at least 900 m and a maximum present day depth of 7.5 m. Even though the construction of the system in this case clearly was left unfinished, the remains echo the major investment of available labor. Given the contemporaneity of both dam sites, it is clear evidence of the more regionally and elaborately planned character of the hydrological endeavors in the Pasargadae area. Only through further study and future fieldwork (also obtaining absolute dating material), this impressive feature will be fully understood. This contribution proposes a possible use of the two dam system using a modern control simulation model. This analysis will also shed light on the question why the system probably never functioned.

  18. Deformation Monitoring and Bathymetry Analyses in Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey has 595 dams constructed between 1936 and 2013 for the purposes of irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric energy and drinking water. A major portion of the dam basins in Turkey are deprived of vegetation and have slope topography on near surrounding area. However, landscaping covered with forest around the dam basin is desirable for erosion control. In fact; the dams, have basins deprived of vegetation, fill up quickly due to sediment transport. Erosion control and forestation are important factors, reducing the sediment, to protect the water basins of the dams and increase the functioning life of the dams. The functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Dams are very large and critical structures and they demand the use or application of precise measuring systems. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Monitoring is an essential component of the dam after construction and during operation and must en­able the timely detection of any behavior that could deteriorate the dam, potentially result in its shutdown or failure. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation measurements of Atatürk Dam in Turkey which is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Brief information is given about the

  19. CG-DAMS: Concrete gravity dam stability analysis software. Application manual, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    CG-DAMS is a finite element based program written specifically for the stability analysis of concrete gravity dams. The code automates the prediction and evaluation of cracking in the dam, along the dam-rock interface, and in the foundation using incremental nonlinear analysis techniques based on the ``smeared crack`` approach. Its primary application is in the computation of dam-rock interface sliding stability factors of safety. The automated procedure for crack propagation analysis replaces the trial-and-error cracked-base analysis method commonly used in gravity dam safety analyses. This Application manual of CG-DAMS illustrates, through sample problems, the many features of the software. Example problems illustrate the capabilities of both CG-DAMS-PC and CG-DAMS-ABAQUS. CG-DAMS-PC is a menu driven program that runs on 386/486 PCs under the DOS operating system (4 Megabytes RAM, 25 Megabytes of hard disk space). CG-DAMS-ABAQUS is a pre- and post-processor along with a concrete constitutive model and distributed load module that interfaces with the ABAQUS general purpose finite element program. The PC program contains thermal analysis capabilities, a rough crack constitutive model, and an interface to the CRFLOOD software not available with the ABAQUS version. The CG-DAMS-ABAQUS program contains time marching dynamic analysis capabilities not available with the PC program. Example analyses presented include static, pseudo dynamic, and time marching dynamic analyses. The manual also presents sensitivity evaluations on mesh size and foundation material strength. Comparisons are presented between CG-DAMS and gravity method calculations. Comparisons with other finite element software are included for the dynamic time history analyses.

  20. Dam Failure Inundation Map Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Carl; Iokepa, Judy; Dahlman, Jill; Michaud, Jene; Paylor, Earnest (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    At the end of the first year, we remain on schedule. Property owners were identified and contacted for land access purposes. A prototype software package has been completed and was demonstrated to the Division of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR), National Weather Service (NWS) and Pacific Disaster Center (PDC). A field crew gathered data and surveyed the areas surrounding two dams in Waimea. (A field report is included in the annual report.) Data sensitivity analysis was initiated and completed. A user's manual has been completed. Beta testing of the software was initiated, but not completed. The initial TNK and property owner data collection for the additional test sites on Oahu and Kauai have been initiated.

  1. Trapping efficiency of three types check dams experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hui-Kai; CHEN, Su-Chin; AN, Hsuan-Pei

    2015-04-01

    The check dams constructed to trap debris flow. This study divide check dams into three types as closed-type check dam, slit dam, and modular steel check dam. Closed-type check dam which can trap all kind of sediment or driftwood. Slit check dam is permeable dam, so it can prevent from depositing all of sediment or driftwood. A modular steel check dam improves the existing hard-to-change disadvantages of slit dam structure. The assembling of longitudinal and transverse beams can be constructed independently, and then it could be freely configured to form a flexibly adjustable modular steel check dam. This study used the laws of geometric similitude to design model of dam. To explore the trapping mechanisms and phenomenon in different dismantle transverse beams conditions and compared the trapping efficiency with different type of check dams. This study used different volume ratio with driftwood and sediment. In order to capture the trace of debris flow and calculate accuracy velocity of debris flow the study used several high-speed photography combining the method of 3D Remodeling from Motion Structure with Multi-View Stereo which constructed with multiple photos of overlapping coefficient at least 70% and established three-dimensional system of coordinate in laboratory experiment. As a result, the driftwood deposition rate of modular steel check dam increase 60% than slit dam and 40% than closed-type dam; the debris deposition rate increase 30% than slit dam. In addition, the increment of driftwood volume ratio led to the increment of trapping efficiency of three type of check dams. Meanwhile slit dam is the most effective type in trapping driftwood and sediment with more than 50% of increased rate, because of more driftwood flow through the slit dam jam together easily. Finally, transverse beams which installed the modular steel check dam can suppress the upward movement of driftwood, therefore driftwood can easily form the arched stacking efficiency with

  2. 46. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1933. VIEW OF DAM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1933. VIEW OF DAM AND FOREBAY. NOTE ALL WATER FLOWING THROUGH FOREBAY AND OUT EITHER TAILRACE OR SLUICE GATE (INSTEAD OF OVER DAM) BECAUSE OF LOW WATER FLOW. (Courtesy of the Potomac Edison Company Library (Hagerstown, MD), Historical Data Files, Dam No. 5 listing - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

  3. 8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST DAM, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OUTLET TO RIGHT OF DAM, NEW PUMP PLANT BUILDING AND CANAL TO LEFT OF DAM. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  4. 8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  5. 4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, WITH SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Five Point Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  6. 9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF BASIN BEHIND DAM, SHOWING SCARS FROM EARTH MOVING TO CONSTRUCT DAM, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  7. 66. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, May 22, 1908 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.) W.J.Lubken, photographer 'VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM WEST END OF AVALON DAM, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  8. 2. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview of the Lost River Diversion Dam House complex taken from west edge of horseshoe-shaped Lost River Diversion Dam. Interior of east side of dam in the foreground. Facing East. - Klamath Basin Project, Lost River Diversion Dam House, Lost River near intersection of State Highway 140 & Hill Road, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

  9. 53. AVALON DAM Photographic copy of historic photo, August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. AVALON DAM - Photographic copy of historic photo, August 9, 1893 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'EDDY DAM. LOOKING EAST.' VIEW OF COLLAPSED DAM - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  10. 43. Credit TR. Reconstruction of Dam No. 4 after 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Credit TR. Reconstruction of Dam No. 4 after 1936 flood. Pouring concrete for new dam section; opening at left for flume to remove water from behind coffer dam. Photo c. 1936 - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  11. 43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section 418... and Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam...) Increases in canal diversions which would reduce Truckee River flows below Derby Dam by more than 20...

  12. 6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DAM AFTERBAY, WITH OWYEE RIVER IN FOREGROUND, SHOWING OUTLET TUNNEL PORTAL (LEFT) AND POWERHOUSE AND ENTRANCE PORTAL TO DAM INTERIOR (RIGHT). NOTE RELEASE OF WATER FROM NEEDLE VALVE NUMBER 2 IN VALVEHOUSE ON DAM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  13. 7. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE MULTIPLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE MULTIPLE ARCHES, AN UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE PARAPET WALL ALONG THE CREST OF THE DAM, AND THE SHELTER HOUSE AT THE EAST END OF THE DAM. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Geophysics Methods in Electrometric Assessment of Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, V. A. Baidikov, S. V. Gorshkov, V. Yu. Malikov, A. V.

    2016-07-15

    The safety assessment of hydraulic structures is proposed to be conducted via geoelectric measurements, which are capable of assessing the health of earth dams in their natural bedding without intervention in their structure. Geoelectric measurements are shown as being capable of pinpointing hazardous parts of a dam, including areas of elevated seepage. Applications of such methods are shown for a number of mini-dams in the Sverdlovsk region. Aparameter (effective longitudinal conductivity) that may be used to monitor the safety of hydraulic structures is proposed. Quantitative estimates of this parameter are given in terms of the degree of safely.

  15. Concrete dam on the Bratsk hydroelectric station

    SciTech Connect

    Solov'eva, Z.I.

    1988-07-01

    The Bratsk concrete dam was designed and constructed with a sufficient degree of reliability. Settlement of the dam together with the powerhouse developed uniformly under the entire foundation. Two irreversible processes causing aging of the dam have been established by operating observations: leaching of the concrete and decompression of the contact zone of the foundation near the upstream face of the powerhouse sections. The decompression is due to the fact that the powerhouse sections are lighter than the spillway sections. At the present level this process can only be slowed by the combined use of grouting and drainage unloading.

  16. The role of dams in development.

    PubMed

    Altinbilek, Doğan

    2002-01-01

    Dams are a major issue in sustainable management of finite water resources; they have also become the subject of vigorous public debate. This article considers them in the light of the report of the World Commission on Dams and using the example of Turkey. It is argued that economic development and population growth, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions, make plain the need for dams for hydropower and irrigation. Environmental impact assessment is essential, as are effective programmes for resettlement to avoid the impoverishment of displaced people.

  17. Sustainability of dams-an evaluation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, E.

    2003-04-01

    Situated in the stream bed of a river, dams and reservoirs interrupt the natural hydrological cycle. They are very sensitive to all kinds of changes in the catchment, among others global impacts on land use, climate, settlement structures or living standards. Vice versa dams strongly affect the spatially distributed, complex system of ecology, economy and society in the catchment both up- and downstream of the reservoir. The occurrence of negative impacts due to large dams led to serious conflicts about future dams. Nevertheless, water shortages due to climatic conditions and their changes, that are faced by enormous water and energy demands due to rising living standards of a growing world population, seem to require further dam construction, even if both supply and demand management are optimised. Although environmental impact assessments are compulsory for dams financed by any of the international funding agencies, it has to be assumed that the projects lack sustainability. Starting from an inventory of today's environmental impact assessments as an integral part of a feasibility study the presentation will identify their inadequacies with regard to the sustainability of dams. To improve the sustainability of future dams and avoid the mistakes of the past, the planning procedures for dams have to be adapted. The highly complex and dynamical system of interrelated physical and non-physical processes, that involves many different groups of stakeholders, constitutes the need for a model-oriented decision support system. In line with the report of the World Commission of Dams an integrated analysis and structure of the complex interrelations between dams, ecology, economy and society will be presented. Thus the system, that a respective tool will be based on, is analysed. Furthermore an outlook will be given on the needs of the potential users of a DSS and how it has to be embedded in the overall planning process. The limits of computer-based decision-support in the

  18. Weighing a dam's economic and environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While some people claim that it was a publicity stunt or criticize it as an economic loss and a move in the wrong direction, the breaching of the low-slung Edwards Dam on July 1 has changed the landscape of the Kennebec River flowing through Augusta, Maine, and may also change the landscape for some other dammed rivers nationwide.The breaching marks the first time that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which licenses nonfederal hydroelectric projects, has ruled that a dam should be removed because the environmental damage that it causes outweighs its economic benefits.

  19. Safety evaluation of arch dam stability

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Defu

    1995-12-31

    The abutment sliding is the main form of failure in arch dams. Two approaches are used in defining and evaluating the stability safety factor which are the load safety factor Kp and strength safety factor Kf. So far, the Kp method is still the main method in stability model test of arch dams. This paper, to begin with the analysis of the stability formulas and the influence factors of stability in arch dams, will discuss in detail the merits and demerits of Kp and Kf methods and compare Kp with Kf for same structure. A new approach is proposed and the test steps existing problems and their solutions are all discussed.

  20. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brimmer, Arnold F.

    1998-09-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O.mykiss smolts during the 1996 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River.

  1. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    1995-03-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1993 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River, Clearwater River and Salmon River.

  2. Reliablity analysis of gravity dams by response surface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humar, Nina; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Brilly, Mitja; Schnabl, Simon

    2013-04-01

    A dam failure is one of the most important problems in dam industry. Since the mechanical behavior of dams is usually a complex phenomenon existing classical mathematical models are generally insufficient to adequately predict the dam failure and thus the safety of dams. Therefore, numerical reliability methods are often used to model such a complex mechanical phenomena. Thus, the main purpose of the present paper is to present the response surface method as a powerful mathematical tool used to study and foresee the dam safety considering a set of collected monitoring data. The derived mathematical model is applied to a case study, the Moste dam, which is the highest concrete gravity dam in Slovenia. Based on the derived model, the ambient/state variables are correlated with the dam deformation in order to gain a forecasting tool able to define the critical thresholds for dam management.

  3. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. 208.19 Section 208.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. In the interest of flood control, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam and...

  4. Analysis of seismic disaster failure mechanism and dam-break simulation of high arch dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingkui; Zhang, Liaojun

    2014-06-01

    Based on a Chinese national high arch dam located in a meizoseismal region, a nonlinear numerical analysis model of the damage and failure process of a dam-foundation system is established by employing a 3-D deformable distinct element code (3DEC) and its re-development functions. The proposed analysis model considers the dam-foundation-reservoir coupling effect, influence of nonlinear contact in the opening and closing of the dam seam surface and abutment rock joints during strong earthquakes, and radiation damping of far field energy dissipation according to the actual workability state of an arch dam. A safety assessment method and safety evaluation criteria is developed to better understand the arch dam system disaster process from local damage to ultimate failure. The dynamic characteristics, disaster mechanism, limit bearing capacity and the entire failure process of a high arch dam under a strong earthquake are then analyzed. Further, the seismic safety of the arch dam is evaluated according to the proposed evaluation criteria and safety assessment method. As a result, some useful conclusions are obtained for some aspects of the disaster mechanism and failure process of an arch dam. The analysis method and conclusions may be useful in engineering practice.

  5. Water Control Manual: Fullerton Dam, Fullerton Creek, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    t. .0 Crest elevation .................................. ft... 290 Design nur.harge (modified Rational Method ) ...... ft... 8.4 Design...discharge (modified Rational Method ) ...... ft... 3380 Outlets: Uncontrolled Number and size .................................. 1 - 3’W x 2’H Entrance invert...Corps of Engineer dams, Brea Dam and Carbon Canyon Dam, are located near Fullerton Dam, but each dam primarily protects its separate downstream channel

  6. Research on Dam Simulation System Based on OpenGL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kairong; Wang, Juanni; Zuo, Kui; Yun, Jian

    Dam, not only has great ability to alleviate water shortages especially during the dry season which improve hydropower capacity, but also plays an imporant rule in the river ecosystem. Dam has significant effect in improving our water environment and protecting ecological system.This paper copes with the three-dimensional model of dams and discusses OpenGL modeling, lighting, material, model transformation, perspective transformation technologies to achieve visualization of the dam, and eventually we visualize the dam through concrete examples.

  7. Allergic reaction after rubber dam placement.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, E D; Ranali, J; Volpato, M C; de Oliveira, M M

    2000-03-01

    In the last few years allergic reactions to natural rubber latex (NRL) have increased in dental practice affecting both the dental team and patients. Some case reports discuss the potential risks of hypersensitivity to NRL products. An adverse patient reaction after dental rubber dam placement is reported. About 1 min after the isolation of the tooth with a rubber dam the patient presented signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity. Oxygen and intravenous hydrocortisone were administered and the patient kept under observation. After 2 h she had stable vital signs and no more allergics symptoms. It is unclear whether components of the NRL dam or the cornstarch powder incorporated with the rubber dam was responsible for the allergic reaction. Dentists must be aware of the health problem and be prepared for an adequate management in dental practice.

  8. Industrial design of an earth overflow dam

    SciTech Connect

    Pravdivets, Yu.P.

    1988-06-01

    As a result of theoretical and experimental investigations of earth overflow dams of various types and purpose conducted by the author in the past ten years, methods of calculating the stability of protective structures of riprap, reinforcement meshes, gabions, and in situ and precast reinforced concrete were substantiated; the limits of economic applicability of various types of revetments and structures were determined; and new efficient designs of dams and revetments allowing the overflow of water with large discharge intensities were proposed. An earth overflow dam with the downstream slope protected by a precast reinforced-concrete revetment was determined to be the most effective design-technological solution. Both the entire dam or a part of it can be made overflow. The design has been realized on a number of experimental water-management objects which are reviewed.

  9. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... impounding capacity at maximum water storage elevation of 55 acre-feet (68,000 m3) or more. (ii) The“Federal... publications regarding dam safety are available from FEMA: (i)“Emergency Action Planning Guidelines for...

  10. White Sturgeon Passage at The Dalles Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, sought to better understand upstream and downstream passage of white sturgeon at dams. A study at The Dalles Dam provided the opportunity to compare two fish ladders; one that passes sturgeon upstream to one that does not, to determine if subtle differences in construction result in better passage of white sturgeon. Researchers conducted a study using a combination of acoustic and radio telemetry technologies to obtain information on juvenile and adult white sturgeon near The Dalles Dam, with the objectives of characterizing the distribution and movements of white sturgeon in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of upstream and downstream passage.

  11. Geologic Conceptual Model of Mosul Dam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    options in the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) • MODFLOW modeling • ERDC Hydrogeologic Flow Model for Mosul Dam Most of the workshop time was...L., T. J. Budge, A. M. Lemon, and A. K. Zundel. 2002. Generating MODFLOW grids from boundary representation solid models. Ground Water 40(2):194-200...Modeling System (GMS) • MODFLOW Modeling • ERDC Hydrogeologic Flow Model for Mosul Dam ERDC TR-07-6 31 Trainees To fully benefit from the

  12. Big dams rise in little Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-26

    A team of international consultants, dam builders, tunnelers and workers are putting together a $2-billion, four-dam hydropower and irrigation development ot the Mahaweli River in Sri Lanka, India. The 30-year project is to be completed in 7 years and will harness the Mahaweli and its tributaries, initially for irrigation 350,000 acres and developing over 400 Mw of electrical capacity.

  13. Stability of the Zhitomir cellular buttress dam

    SciTech Connect

    Zeryukov, V.I.; Karlin, S.I.

    1985-05-01

    This paper reports on the results of inspections of the Zhitomir dam, which show that during its 15-year operation the negligible cracks that have appeared have not affected the strength of the structure. This confirms the main theoretical and construction decisions made in planning the dam. Secondly, to improve monitoring of the conditions of hydraulic structures in general, the authors recommend that they be equipped with measuring instruments such as height markers and piezometers.

  14. Global phosphorus retention by river damming

    PubMed Central

    Maavara, Taylor; Parsons, Christopher T.; Ridenour, Christine; Stojanovic, Severin; Dürr, Hans H.; Powley, Helen R.; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    More than 70,000 large dams have been built worldwide. With growing water stress and demand for energy, this number will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Damming greatly modifies the ecological functioning of river systems. In particular, dam reservoirs sequester nutrient elements and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to floodplains, lakes, wetlands, and coastal marine environments. Here, we quantify the global impact of dams on the riverine fluxes and speciation of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P), using a mechanistic modeling approach that accounts for the in-reservoir biogeochemical transformations of P. According to the model calculations, the mass of total P (TP) trapped in reservoirs nearly doubled between 1970 and 2000, reaching 42 Gmol y−1, or 12% of the global river TP load in 2000. Because of the current surge in dam building, we project that by 2030, about 17% of the global river TP load will be sequestered in reservoir sediments. The largest projected increases in TP and reactive P (RP) retention by damming will take place in Asia and South America, especially in the Yangtze, Mekong, and Amazon drainage basins. Despite the large P retention capacity of reservoirs, the export of RP from watersheds will continue to grow unless additional measures are taken to curb anthropogenic P emissions. PMID:26644553

  15. Floodplain Hyporheic Response under Dam Release Hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T.; Ward, A. S.; O'Connor, B. L.; Endreny, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Hydropower operations cause altered hydrograph patterns downstream of dams, which regulates the direction and magnitude of floodplain and riverbed hyporheic flux. Periodic adjustments in river stage changes temporal and spatial patterns in hydraulic pressure, initiates propagation of lateral and vertical hyporheic flux, and affects the riparian ecological system by changing the hyporheic penetration distance, hyporheic flux rate, and thermal conditions in river banks. While this issue has been largely neglected by watershed scientists and managers, there is the potential to use hyporheic metrics in setting dam release rules and restoring downstream river reaches. In order to evaluate the hyporheic feedbacks of various dam release patterns, this study applied a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate the interaction of open water hydrographs on porous media lateral hyporheic exchange for the Green River, Utah, downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam. The CFD initially represented the river as a straight channel with a thick porous media extending from the channel banks and bottom. The dam release hydrographs changed the patterns of hyporheic flux at the river banks, the penetration distance of the hyporheic flux, the subsurface thermal patterns, and the residence time of water in the subsurface. The results suggest the undulating river stage downstream of dam releases can initiate patterns of hyporheic exchange similar to those induced by restoration of river bed morphology.

  16. Distributional Impacts of Large Dams in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.

    2010-12-01

    Dams on a river are believed to have heterogeneous impacts to the upstream, local and downstream areas. Generally, irrigation dams will bring benefits to the downstream by facilitating more irrigation, while it will bring negative impacts to upstream due to inundation or no impact to local area as a combination result of population dislocation and economic benefits. This paper checked the impacts of large dams (above 100 meters) on the upstream, downstream and local area, using 2000-2008 county level data in China. Robust heterogeneous impacts of different categories of dams (mainly dams serving for irrigation, hydropower, or other purposes) were found on different areas, using IV regression approaches. Dams higher than 100 meters are significantly and heterogeneously impacting agricultural production, urban employment and rural per capita income. Its beneficial impact on agriculture production is significant for downstream especially in continuous drought years. But its impacts on social welfare indicators, such as primary school enrollment and hospital beds, are not heterogeneously different across regions.

  17. Stability analysis of White Oak Dam

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-11

    White Oak Dam is located in the White Oak Creek watershed which provides the primary surface drainage for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A stability analysis was made on the dam by Syed Ahmed in January 1994 which included an evaluation of the liquefaction potential of the embankment and foundation. This report evaluates the stability of the dam and includes comments on the report prepared by Ahmed. Slope stability analyses were performed on the dam and included cases for sudden drawdown, steady seepage, partial pool and earthquake. Results of the stability analyses indicate that the dam is stable and failure of the structure would not occur for the cases considered. The report prepared by Ahmed leads to the same conclusions as stated above. Review of the report finds that it is complete, well documented and conservative in its selection of soil parameters. The evaluation of the liquefaction potential is also complete and this report is in agreement with the findings that the dam and foundation are not susceptible to liquefaction.

  18. Crosshole seismic tomography across a masonry dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Joe

    1995-05-01

    An intensive crosshole seismic survey was done across a 700-foot-long stone-masonry dam. It involved measurements on six connected panels each approximately 100 feet in width extending completely across the dam from abutment to abutment. The objective was to provide tomographic images of P-wave velocity and dynamic elastic moduli of the dam and foundation materials along the axis of the dam. Field seismograms were recorded with an airgun source and hydrophone detectors. Data analysis included interactive time-picking, plotting of common source gathers, and tomographic imaging using an iterative back-propagation technique. Color-coded tomograms of velocity and dynamic Young's modulus were produced and correlated with geological and geophysical data measured on drill core samples. Low values of velocity and dynamic elastic modulus correlated with low RQD and high fracture frequency. The tomograms showed significant variations of mechanical properties in the stone masonry dam and its foundation. The colored tomograms were useful in highlighting zones of weak rock possibly requiring remedial action. They also assisted engineering evaluation of the dam by providing a detailed two-dimensional distribution of mechanical properties which can be used as ground truth data for numerical modeling of stress-strain fields.

  19. Geodetic deformation monitoring at Pendidikan Diponegoro Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuwono, Bambang Darmo; Awaluddin, Moehammad; Yusuf, M. A.; Fadillah, Rizki

    2017-07-01

    Deformation monitoring is one indicator to assess the feasibility of Dam. In order to get the correct result of the deformation, it is necessary to determine appropriate deformation monitoring network and the observation data should be analyse and evaluated carefully. Measurement and analysis of deformation requires relatively accurate data and the precision is high enough, one of the observation method that used is GPS (Global Positioning System). The research was conducted at Pendidikan Undip Dams is Dam which is located in Tembang. Diponegoro Dam was built in 2013 and a volume of 50.86 m3 of water, inundation normal width of up to 13,500 m2. The main purpose of these building is not only for drainage but also for education and micro hydro power plant etc. The main goal of this reasearch was to monitor and analyze the deformation at Pendidikan Undip Dam and to determaine whether GPS measurement could meet accuracy requirement for dam deformation measurements. Measurements were made 2 times over 2 years, 2015 and 2016 using dual frequency GPS receivers with static methods and processed by Scientific Software GAMIT 10.6

  20. National Dam Safety Program. Welch Lake Dam (MO 10733), Missouri - Kansas City Basin, Boone County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    of Non-Federal Dams. This report assesses the general condition of the dam with respect to safety, based on available data and on visual inspection...Corps of Engi- neers. The purpose of the inspection wa to make an assessment of the general condition of the dam with respect to safety, based upon...professional engineering organizations, and private engineers. Based on these guidelines, this dam is classified as a small size dam with a high

  1. Dam failure analysis for the Lago de Matrullas Dam, Orocovis, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    Results from the simulated dam failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam using the HEC–RAS model for the 6- and 24-hour PMP events showed peak discharges at the dam of 3,149.33 and 3,604.70 m3/s, respectively. Dam failure during the 100-year-recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event resulted in a peak discharge of 2,103.12 m3/s directly downstream from the dam. Dam failure under sunny day conditions produced a peak discharge of 1,695.91 m3/s at the dam assuming the antecedent lake level was at the morning-glory spillway invert elevation. Flood-inundation maps prepared as part of the study depict the flood extent and provide valuable information for preparing an Emergency Action Plan. Results of the failure analysis indicate that a failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam could cause flooding to many of the inhabited areas along stream banks from the Lago de Matrullas Dam to the mouth of the Río Grande de Manatí. Among the areas most affected are the low-lying regions in the vicinity of the towns of Ciales, Manatí, and Barceloneta. The delineation of the flood boundaries near the town of Barceloneta considered the effects of a levee constructed during 2000 at Barceloneta in the flood plain of the Río Grande de Manatí to provide protection against flooding to the near-by low-lying populated areas. The results showed overtopping can be expected in the aforementioned levee during 6- and 24-hour probable-maximum-precipitation dam failure scenarios. No overtopping of the levee was simulated, however, during dam failure scenarios under the 100-year recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event or sunny day conditions.

  2. Hydraulics of embankment-dam breaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walder, J. S.; Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Godt, J. W.; Solovitz, S.

    2012-12-01

    Constructed or natural earthen dams can pose hazards to downstream communities. Experiments to date on earthen-dam breaching have focused on dam geometries relevant to engineering practice. We have begun experiments with dam geometries more like those of natural dams. Water was impounded behind dams constructed at the downstream end of the USGS debris-flow flume. Dams were made of compacted, well-sorted, moist beach sand (D50=0.21 mm), 3.5 m from toe to toe, but varying in height from 0.5 to 1 m; the lower the dam, the smaller the reservoir volume and the broader the initially flat crest. Breaching was started by cutting a slot 30-40 mm wide and deep in the dam crest after filling the reservoir. Water level and pore pressure within the dam were monitored. Experiments were also recorded by an array of still- and video cameras above the flume and a submerged video camera pointed at the upstream dam face. Photogrammetric software was used to create DEMs from stereo pairs, and particle-image velocimetry was used to compute the surface-velocity field from the motion of tracers scattered on the water surface. As noted by others, breaching involves formation and migration of a knickpoint (or several). Once the knickpoint reaches the upstream dam face, it takes on an arcuate form whose continued migration we determined by measuring the onset of motion of colored markers on the dam face. The arcuate feature, which can be considered the head of the "breach channel", is nearly coincident with the transition from subcritical to supercritical flow; that is, it acts as a weir that hydraulically controls reservoir emptying. Photogenic slope failures farther downstream, although the morphologically dominant process at work, play no role at all in hydraulic control aside from rare instances in which they extend upstream so far as to perturb the weir, where the flow cross section is nearly self-similar through time. The domain downstream of the critical-flow section does influence

  3. National Dam Safety Program. Windmiller Dam Number 1 (MO 10035), Windmiller Dam Number 2 (MO 11675), Missouri - Kansas City Basin, Boone County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    excavated through limestone bedrock approx- Cimately 1300 feet north of the left end of the dam. See Plate A-l. (b) Dam No. 2 discharge is through a...flows and flow from the spring are not periodi- cally monitored for change of color or change in volume. b. Dam No. 2. The lack of control of erosion of...which is considered a deficiency. c. Operating Records. There are no controlled operating facilities for these dams. d. Post Construction Changes . It

  4. 78 FR 53494 - Dam Safety Modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... of Dam Structures: Combination of Concrete Floodwalls and Earthen Embankments, will protect the four... Watts Bar). TVA also installed a permanent concrete apron on approximately 2 acres of the downstream...--Permanent Modifications of Dam Structures: Combination of Concrete Floodwalls and Earthen Embankments....

  5. Out, out, dam spot! The geomorphic response of rivers to dam removal.

    Treesearch

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    About 75,000 irrigation, flood control, and hydropower dams in the United States are aging, deteriorating, or have outlived their useful lives and purposes. Not surprisingly, dam removal is emerging as both a challenge and opportunity for river management and research. Scientists at the PNW Research Station in Corvallis, Oregon, are using scale models and monitoring...

  6. The remains of the dam: what have we learned from 15 years of US dam removals?

    Treesearch

    Gordon E. Grant; Sarah L. Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Important goals for studying dam removal are to learn how rivers respond to large and rapid introductions of sediment, and to develop predictive models to guide future dam removals. Achieving these goals requires organizing case histories systematically so that underlying physical mechanisms determining rates and styles of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition...

  7. Project Planning for Cougar Dam during 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Cougar Dam is a 158 m-tall, rock fill dam located about 63 km east of Springfield, Oregon. Completed in 1963, the dam is owned and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). It impounds Cougar Reservoir, which is 9.7 km long, has a surface area of 518 ha, and is predominately used for flood control. The pool elevation typically ranges from a maximum conservation pool of 515 m (1,690 ft) National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) in summer to a minimum flood control elevation of 467 m (1,532 ft NGVD) in winter. The reservoir thermally stratifies in the summer, has an average depth of 37 m, and holds 153,500 acre-feet when full. Cougar Dam is located on the South Fork of the McKenzie River 7 km upstream from the mainstem McKenzie River, a tributary of the Willamette River. The McKenzie River Basin basin supports the largest remaining population of wild spawning spring Chinook salmon in the Willamette River Basin (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; NOAA, 2008). Cougar Dam and others were collectively deemed to cause jeopardy to the sustainability of anadromous fish stocks in the Willamette River Basin (NOAA, 2008). Prior to dam construction, as many as 805 redds were observed in the South Fork of the McKenzie River (Willis and others, 1960) and it is estimated that 40 km of spawning habitat were lost when access was blocked after dam construction. The 2008 Willamette Biological Opinion (BIOP) requires improvements to operations and structures to reduce impacts on Upper Willamette River (UWR) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and UWR steelhead (O. mykiss; NOAA, 2008). In 2010, an adult fish collection facility was completed below Cougar Dam to collect returning adult salmon for transport to spawning habitats above the dam. Before that time, returning adult spring Chinook salmon were transported to upstream spawning areas as part of a trap-and-haul program with adults passed ranging annually from 0 to 1,038 (Taylor, 2000). The progeny of

  8. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam Turbines, Early Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.

    2012-02-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam turbines during early spring 2011. The study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) to investigate whether adult steelhead are passing through turbines during early spring before annual sluiceway operations typically begin. The sluiceway surface flow outlet is the optimal non-turbine route for adult steelhead, although operating the sluiceway reduces hydropower production. This is a follow-up study to similar studies of adult steelhead passage at the sluiceway and turbines we conducted in the fall/winter 2008, early spring 2009, fall/winter 2009, and early spring 2010. The goal of the 2011 study was to characterize adult steelhead passage rates at the turbines while the sluiceway was closed so fisheries managers would have additional information to use in decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. Sluiceway operations were not scheduled to begin until April 10, 2011. However, based on a management decision in late February, sluiceway operations commenced on March 1, 2011. Therefore, this study provided estimates of fish passage rates through the turbines, and not the sluiceway, while the sluiceway was open. The study period was March 1 through April 10, 2011 (41 days total). The study objective was to estimate the number and distribution of adult steelhead and kelt-sized targets passing into turbine units. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics with transducers deployed at all 22 main turbine units at The Dalles Dam. Adult steelhead passage through the turbines occurred on 9 days during the study (March 9, 12, 30, and 31 and April 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9). We estimated a total of 215 {+-} 98 (95% confidence interval) adult steelhead targets passed through the

  9. Survival Rates of Out-Migrating Yearling Chinook Salmon in the Lower Columbia River and Plume after Exposure to Gas-Supersaturated Water.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Ian G; Welch, David W; Jacobs Scott, Melinda

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, unusually high flows caused total dissolved gas (TDG) levels in the Columbia River, USA, to escalate well above the 120% regulatory limit that was imposed to prevent harmful impacts to aquatic organisms. After observing gas bubble trauma (GBT) in dead yearling Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (smolts) held in tanks, we compared estimated survival rates of acoustic-tagged in-river-migrating (IR) and transported (TR) smolts that were released below Bonneville Dam prior to and during the period of elevated TDG (>120%). The log odds of estimated daily survival in the lower river and plume was significantly lower for IR smolts that were released during elevated TDG (maximum possible exposure = 134%) than for IR smolts released when TDG was less than 120%. The TR smolts that were released 10-13 km below Bonneville Dam during elevated TDG had lower maximum possible exposure levels (126% TDG), and the log odds of estimated daily survival in the lower river and plume did not differ from that of TR smolts released when TDG was less than 120%. Direct mortality due to GBT is probably reduced in natural settings relative to laboratory experiments because smolts can move to deeper water, where pressure keeps gasses in solution, and can migrate downstream of the spillway, where TDG levels decrease as the river returns to equilibrium with the atmosphere. However, initially nonlethal GBT may reduce survival rates by increasing smolt susceptibility to predation and infection. Although our findings are limited by the observational nature of the study, our analysis is the first direct assessment of gas supersaturation's potential influence on survival of free-ranging smolts in the river and coastal ocean below a large dam. Experiments using simultaneous releases of control and gas-exposed groups are warranted and should consider the possibility that the chronic effects of TDG exposure on survival are important and persist into the early marine period. Received October

  10. Hydrogeophysical investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minsley, Burke J.; Burton, Bethany; Ikard, Scott; Powers, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Self-potential and direct current resistivity surveys are carried out at the Hidden Dam site in Raymond, California to assess present-day seepage patterns and better understand the hydrogeologic mechanisms that likely influence seepage. Numerical modeling is utilized in conjunction with the geophysical measurements to predict variably-saturated flow through typical two-dimensional dam cross-sections as a function of reservoir elevation. Several different flow scenarios are investigated based on the known hydrogeology, as well as information about typical subsurface structures gained from the resistivity survey. The flow models are also used to simulate the bulk electrical resistivity in the subsurface under varying saturation conditions, as well as the self-potential response using petrophysical relationships and electrokinetic coupling equations.The self-potential survey consists of 512 measurements on the downstream area of the dam, and corroborates known seepage areas on the northwest side of the dam. Two direct-current resistivity profiles, each approximately 2,500 ft (762 m) long, indicate a broad sediment channel under the northwest side of the dam, which may be a significant seepage pathway through the foundation. A focusing of seepage in low-topography areas downstream of the dam is confirmed from the numerical flow simulations, which is also consistent with past observations. Little evidence of seepage is identified from the self-potential data on the southeast side of the dam, also consistent with historical records, though one possible area of focused seepage is identified near the outlet works. Integration of the geophysical surveys, numerical modeling, and observation well data provides a framework for better understanding seepage at the site through a combined hydrogeophysical approach.

  11. Dental dam patch: an effective intraoral repair technique using cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W H

    1998-10-01

    Secondary dental dam retention is a critical component of successful dental dam isolation and relates to the provision of an effective seal at the dam/tooth junction. Restorative success can be compromised if this seal is inadvertently interrupted during the operative effort. One such periodic mishap is entanglement of the bur and the interdental dam strip during caries or restorative removal. This invariably results in a gaping interproximal defect in the dam. This article discusses the importance of optimum isolation as it relates to current "wet bonding" adhesive procedures, and introduces a repair technique using a patch of dental dam and cyanoacrylate.

  12. Concrete dam of the Lenin Dnepr hydroelectric station

    SciTech Connect

    Durcheva, V.N.; Kazachenko, A.N.; Puchkova, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the Dnepr dam, which has been operating for 50 years. The construction of the Dnepr hydroelectric station is described, and the problem of cracking is examined and illustrated. The dam was reconstructed and the characteristics damages of the dam are described. An additional powerhouse was constructed called Dnepr-II. The static behavior of the Dnepr dam is characterized by a thermal stress state of the concrete with extreme values of opening of the joints and of the hydrostatic levels in April and October. The current state of the dam is examined, including seepage through the dam, uplift in the construction joints and uplift in the foundation.

  13. Marmot Dam Removal: Predictions and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Orr, B. K.; Wilcox, A.; Vick, J.; Podolak, C.; Wilcox, P.

    2008-12-01

    The 14-m tall Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon was removed in the summer of 2007, allowing the approximately 730,000 cubic meters of sand and gravel to remain in the river for natural erosion by the flow. Pre-dam removal studies included sediment transport modeling that simulated several dam removal alternatives and provided key pieces of information that allowed a diverse stakeholder group to unanimously agree on the "blow-and-go" alternative, allowing a large amount of sediment to be released to a major salmonid-bearing river in the Columbia River basin. Although it is still too early to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the model performance because morphological responses in the downstream reaches, if any, are likely years away, observations to date (one year after dam removal) indicate that model predictions are generally accurate. Here we present some of the key findings of pre-dam-removal sediment transport modeling predictions and compare them with post-removal observations.

  14. The Remains of the Dam: What Have We Learned From 10 Years of Dam Removals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, G. E.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 10 years in the U.S., dam removal has evolved from an occasionally implemented, rarely studied, and poorly understood intervention to improve rivers, to a much more frequently accomplished and better studied and understood approach to river restoration. Over that same time period, the numbers and sizes of dams and volumes of sediment released have dramatically increased. By some estimates close to 1000 dams have been removed over the last 100 years, with most of those occurring within the last 10. While most of these are small (less than 15 m high) dams, removals of dams up to 70 m high are presently underway. Releases of sediment associated with these removals over the past 10 years have also increased by close to four orders of magnitude; for example removal of the Elwha River dams in Washington is estimated to release almost 107 m3 of sediment into the lower Elwha River. Given a decade's worth of dam removals and, in some cases, well-orchestrated case studies of the effects of removal on the geomorphology and (to a lesser extent) ecology of rivers, what have we learned? More specifically, where do we now stand with respect to being able to predict the consequences of future dam removals? Drawing on both field examples and numerical models of dam removals in the western U.S., several key lessons stand out. Although every dam removal and river are different, removals initiate very rapid upstream river response and reservoir erosion and evacuation of sediment by various mechanisms that are strongly controlled by grain size of the deposit, volumes of residual sediment relative to total reservoir volume, and style of dam removal (instantaneous versus staged). Erosion of sediment accumulations in fully and partially filled (by sediment) reservoirs proceeds by different trajectories and rates, with full reservoirs releasing sediment primarily by upstream knickpoint retreat while erosion and sediment release in partially-filled reservoirs proceeds by

  15. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam Report C, Annual Progress Report April 2003 - March 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Gadomski, Dena M.; Kofoot, Pete

    2005-01-01

    River discharge and water temperatures that occurred during April through July 2003 provided conditions suitable for spawning by white sturgeon downstream from Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary dams. Although optimal spawning temperatures in the four tailraces occurred for less than two weeks, they coincided with a period of relatively high river discharge. Bottom-trawl sampling in Bonneville and The Dalles Reservoirs revealed the presence of young-of-the-year (YOY) white sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir, but none were captured in The Dalles Reservoir. A comparison of five years of indices of abundance of YOY sturgeon from sampling done by ODFW with gillnets and the USGS with bottom trawls was completed. Despite obvious differences in gear sampling characteristics (e.g. one gear is actively fished, one passively fished), it appears that either gear can be used to assess relative trends in YOY white sturgeon abundance. The analyses suffered due to poor catches of YOY fish, as YOY were only captured in The Dalles Reservoir during three of the five years of comparison sampling, and during only one of four years in John Day Reservoir. However, both gears detected the presence or absence of YOY white sturgeon within a reservoir equally. That is, if any YOY white sturgeon were captured in any year in a reservoir, both gears captured at least one fish, and if one gear failed to collect any YOY white sturgeon, both gears failed. Concerns have been raised that the Wang et al. (1985) egg development relationships for Sacramento River white sturgeon may not be applicable to Columbia Basin stocks. However, using laboratory experiments with white sturgeon eggs incubated at 10, 12, 15, and 18o C, we found no significant differences in development rates of eggs of Columbia, Kootenai, Snake, and Sacramento river fish.

  16. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2007-11-13

    suitability criteria to measured and modeled habitat data from the Snake River study areas. Channel morphology data from the Wanapum reference reach and the Snake River study areas were evaluated to identify geomorphically suitable fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The results of this study indicate that a majority of the Ice Harbor and Lower Granite study areas contain suitable fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat under existing hydrosystem operations. However, a large majority of the currently available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Ice Harbor and Lower Granite study areas is of low quality. The potential for increasing, through modifications to hydrosystem operations (i.e., minimum pool elevation of the next downstream dam), the quantity or quality of fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat appears to be limited. Estimates of the amount of potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Ice Harbor study area decreased as the McNary Dam forebay elevation was lowered from normal to minimum pool elevation. Estimates of the amount of potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Lower Granite study area increased as the Little Goose Dam forebay elevation was lowered from normal to minimum pool elevation; however, 97% of the available habitat was categorized within the range of lowest quality. In both the Ice Harbor and Lower Granite study areas, water velocity appears to be more of a limiting factor than water depth for fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, with both study areas dominated by low-magnitude water velocity. The geomorphic suitability of both study areas appears to be compromised for fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, with the Ice Harbor study area lacking significant bedforms along the longitudinal thalweg profile and the Lower Granite study area lacking cross-sectional topographic diversity. To increase the quantity of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Ice Harbor and Lower Granite study area, modifications to

  17. Toward policies and decision-making for dam removal.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Martin W; Harbor, Jon M; Stanley, Emily H

    2003-04-01

    Dam removal has emerged as a critical issue in environmental management. Agencies responsible for dams face a drastic increase in the number of potential dam removals in the near future. Given limited resources, these agencies need to develop ways to decide which dams should be removed and in what order. The underlying science of dam removal is relatively undeveloped and most agencies faced with dam removal lack a coherent purpose for removing dams. These shortcomings can be overcome by the implementation of two policies by agencies faced with dam removal: (1) the development and adoption of a prioritization scheme for what constitutes an important dam removal, and (2) the establishment of minimum levels of analysis prior to decision-making about a dam removal. Federal and state agencies and the scientific community must encourage an initial experimental phase of dam removal during which only a few dams are removed, and these are studied intensively. This will allow for the development of the fundamental scientific understanding needed to support effective decision-making in the future and minimize the risk of disasters arising from poorly thought out dam removal decisions.

  18. International small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks to avoid dam failure flood disasters in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Dam, Tuyet Thi; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne L.

    2015-12-01

    In developing countries small dam failure disasters are common yet research on their dam safety management is lacking. This paper reviews available small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks from international literature, synthesises them for applicability in developing countries, and provides example application through a case study of Vietnam. Generic models from 'minimum' to 'best' practice (Pisaniello, 1997) are synthesised with the World Bank's 'essential' and 'desirable' elements (Bradlow et al., 2002) leading to novel policy analysis and design criteria for developing countries. The case study involved 22 on-site dam surveys finding micro level physical and management inadequacies that indicates macro dam safety management policy performs far below the minimum benchmark in Vietnam. Moving assurance policy towards 'best practice' is necessary to improve the safety of Vietnam's considerable number of hazardous dams to acceptable community standards, but firstly achieving 'minimum practice' per the developed guidance is essential. The policy analysis/design process provides an exemplar for other developing countries to follow for avoiding dam failure flood disasters.

  19. Channel changes downstream from a dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hadley, R.F.; Emmett, W.W.

    1998-01-01

    A flood-control dam was completed during 1979 on Bear Creek, a small tributary stream to the South Platte River in the Denver, Colorado, area. Before and after dam closure, repetitive surveys between 1977 and 1992 at five cross sections downstream of the dam documented changes in channel morphology. During this 15-year period, channel width increased slightly, but channel depth increased by more than 40 percent. Within the study reach, stream gradient decreased and median bed material sizes coarsened from sand in the pools and fine gravel on the riffle to a median coarse gravel throughout the reach. The most striking visual change was from a sparse growth of streamside grasses to a dense growth of riparian woody vegetation.

  20. DSM saves the dam. [Deep Soil Mix

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.D. )

    1994-12-01

    As US dams age and deteriorate, there is a growing need to upgrade them to meet new regulations and factors of safety. This article describes how, at Lockington Dam in Ohio's Miami Valley, construction of a deep-soil-mix soil-cement cutoff wall offered the best solution, both technically and economically, to prevent potential seepage-induced failure. Seventy-five years ago, the largest single constructing project in the US was the flood-control works of the Miami Conservancy District in Ohio. Begun in 1918 and completed in 1921 at a cost of $33 million, the project included five hydraulic-fill flood-control dams and 73 mi of levees constructed in response to 10 major floods, including a catastrophic 1913 flood in Dayton, that had caused more than 1,000 deaths and $100 million in damages over the previous century.

  1. Stability of concrete dam: case history

    SciTech Connect

    Stelle, W.W.; Rubin, D.I.; Buhac, H.J.

    1983-09-01

    The stability of Claytor Dam was reevaluated under probable maximum flood conditions. The structure is a concrete gravity dam with a gated spillway. The foundation is karstic limestone that was treated before construction. The anchor wall at the upstream face of the dam plays an important role in the stability of the structure. The pressure relief wells' efficiency is examined in detail as well as the hydraulic conditions used in the stability analyses. Drilling and laboratory test results of rock and concrete including direct tensile tests of the critical core-rock interface are described. Stability analysis using two different uplift assumptions are discussed and a method of determining the increase head above tailwater level at the line of drains caused by flooding conditions are given.

  2. Optimizing the dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California.

    PubMed

    Null, Sarah E; Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lent, Michelle; Lund, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but also harm native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some rivers reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to preliminarily evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight promising habitat and unpromising economic use tradeoffs for water supply and hydropower. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model, is used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model for a 30-year period centered at 2085, and a population growth scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between hydropower generation and water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river kilometers of habitat accessible to anadromous fish species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Removing individual dams decreases statewide delivered water by 0-2282 million cubic meters and provides access to 0 to 3200 km of salmonid habitat upstream of dams. The method described here can help prioritize dam removal, although more detailed, project-specific studies also are needed. Similarly, improving environmental protection can come at substantially lower economic cost, when evaluated and operated as a system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Channel Recovery Following Dam Removal: Lessons From Three Historic Dam Removals of the Middle Atlantic Piedmont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzuto, J. E.; Skalak, K. J.; Brown, R.; Tomlinson, J.; Moskalski, S.

    2003-12-01

    To determine the rates and processes of channel recovery following dam removal, we studied 3 sites along Muddy Creek in southeastern Pennsylvania. Garthridge Dam, 12.2 m high and located the farthest downstream, was breached in 1933. Highrock Dam, 1.8 m high and located the farthest upstream, was breached in 1972. Castle Fin Dam, 3.1 m high, was removed in 1997. We surveyed the longitudinal profile and channel cross-sections upstream of the former dam site. We also sampled the bed material and mapped floodplain and channel deposits. Undammed reaches far upstream were used as controls. At all sites, laminated muddy reservoir deposits are still preserved as terraces up to 5 m high bordering the channel. These deposits are persistent and will likely remain in place for decades, if not centuries. In addition, these deposits are a preferred habitat for exotic plant species, which had exceptionally high cover values at all three sites. At Castle Fin, laminated muddy reservoir deposits underlie the channel bed, indicating that the channel has not incised to its predam elevation after 5 years. At the other sites, vertical incision has completely removed fine-grained reservoir deposits from beneath the channel. Bed material is finer grained near the former dam site than at the control reaches at all the sites, and the water surface slope is higher near the former dam site than at the control reaches. These data suggest that, even after many years, channels above locations of removed dams are noticeably different from nearby control reaches, possibly indicating that complete recovery from dam removal is an inherently slow process.

  4. View of Read Sawmill masonry dam, site of submerged sawmill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Read Sawmill masonry dam, site of submerged sawmill remains and earthen dam, facing north - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  5. 32. Otter Lake Dam. View from downstream show how the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Otter Lake Dam. View from downstream show how the dam blends into its environment. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  6. 10. DETAIL OF NONOVERFLOW SECTION OF DAM SHOWING PENSTOCK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF NON-OVERFLOW SECTION OF DAM SHOWING PENSTOCK OF SUBMERSIBLE TURBINE-GENERATOR - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

  7. 45. Reinforcement work to buttresses at Pleasant Dam. Support work ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Reinforcement work to buttresses at Pleasant Dam. Support work for roadway and roadway visible. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. Macrobenthic Communities of the Dam Neck Disposal Site.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    Leptosynapta inhaerens (Ayres) ECHINODERMATA : OPHIUROIDEA Ophiuroidea spp. CHORDATA : HEMICHORDATA Saccoglossus app. CHORDATA : UROCHORDATA Cnemidocarpa...mollis (Stlimpson) CHORDATA : CEPHALOCHORDATA Branchiostona virginiae Hubbs 17 TABLE 1 : Sediment Characteristics of Dam Neck Stations (A) - Dam Neck

  9. 10. VIEW OF DOG CRIB DAM DURING DISCHARGE FROM EASTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF DOG CRIB DAM DURING DISCHARGE FROM EASTERN EXTENT OF DAM, FACING WEST. November 1927 - Cushman No. 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant, Spillway, North Fork of Skokomish River, 5 miles West of Hood Canal, Hoodsport, Mason County, WA

  10. 98. DAM ROLLER GATE GENERAL ARRANGEMENTSECTION AND ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. DAM - ROLLER GATE - GENERAL ARRANGEMENT-SECTION AND ELEVATION (ML-8-47/1-FS) June 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  11. 93. DAM ROLLER GATE PIER SECTION AND ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. DAM - ROLLER GATE PIER - SECTION AND ELEVATION (ML-8-40/3-FS) June 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  12. VIEW FROM NORTH BANK LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING DAM CREST, FISH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM NORTH BANK LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING DAM CREST, FISH ATTRACTION FLOW STRUCTURE (LEFT) AND WASTE FLOW GATE OUTLET (RIGHT) - Trout Creek Dam, River Mile 1.8 on Trout Creek, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  13. 1. VIEW OF DAM 332, LOOKING TO THE SOUTHWEST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF DAM 332, LOOKING TO THE SOUTHWEST ALONG THE CREST FROM THE RIGHT ABUTMENT, SHOWING CONCRETE MONUMENT SURVIVING FROM CCC CAMP DING - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 332, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  14. 6. AVALON DAM GATE KEEPER'S COMPLEX: GARAGE AND WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AVALON DAM - GATE KEEPER'S COMPLEX: GARAGE AND WAREHOUSE (LEFT), HOUSE (RIGHT), AND CCC LANDSCAPING (FOREGROUND). VIEW TO NORTH - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  15. 5. AVALON DAM GATE KEEPER'S COMPLEX: HOUSE (LEFT), WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AVALON DAM - GATE KEEPER'S COMPLEX: HOUSE (LEFT), WAREHOUSE (RIGHT), AND CCC LANDSCAPING (FOREGROUND). VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Avalon Dam, On Pecos River, 4 miles North of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  16. 20. View of Mormon Flat Dam, power plant, and reservoir. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of Mormon Flat Dam, power plant, and reservoir. Photographer unknown, 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Site of Mormon Flat Dam looking upstream. Photographer unknown, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 26. Original hydroelectric unit at Mormon Flat Dam. Unit is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Original hydroelectric unit at Mormon Flat Dam. Unit is still in operation. Photographer Mark Durben, 1988. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 19. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Power plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Power plant is nearing completion. Photographer unknown, 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 15. SOUTH SIDE OF DAM SHOWING BAFFLE PIERS AT FOOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SOUTH SIDE OF DAM SHOWING BAFFLE PIERS AT FOOT OF SPILLWAY TO LEFT AND PARTIAL VIEW OF BUTTRESSES AND SIDEWALKS TO RIGHT. - Pit 4 Diversion Dam, Pit River west of State Highway 89, Big Bend, Shasta County, CA

  1. 77. Plan of Proposed Concrete of Rubble Masonry Dam at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Plan of Proposed Concrete of Rubble Masonry Dam at Frog Tanks on the Agua Fria River, Arizona. September 1903. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 20. HORSESHOE DAM LOOKING EAST WITH UPPER END DEMOLISHED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. HORSESHOE DAM LOOKING EAST WITH UPPER END DEMOLISHED FOR NEW SPILLWAY (negative reversed) - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  3. 3. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM AT LEFT CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM AT LEFT CENTER, HEADGATE STRUCTURE AT CENTER - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Dam, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  4. 2. VIEW EAST, WEST END OF DAM AT CENTER, HEADGATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, WEST END OF DAM AT CENTER, HEADGATE OPERATING MECHANISMS AT LEFT - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Dam, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  5. 1. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FACE OF DAM AT RIGHT CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FACE OF DAM AT RIGHT CENTER, HEADGATES AND CANAL AT LEFT - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Dam, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  6. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  7. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  8. 7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM SUPPORT TIMBERS, THREE BEARS LAKE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF LAKE - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  9. 7. ISLAND PLANT AND HORSESHOE DAM FROM WEST BANK (negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ISLAND PLANT AND HORSESHOE DAM FROM WEST BANK (negative reversed) - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  10. 1. East side of lower dam shown with water level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East side of lower dam shown with water level dropped. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  11. 3. Side view of upper dam overspill, taken from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Side view of upper dam overspill, taken from east bank of Millstone Creek. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  12. 5. View of upper dam side sluice taken from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of upper dam side sluice taken from east bank of Millstone Creek. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  13. 4. Side of view of upper dam overspill, taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Side of view of upper dam overspill, taken from west bank of Millstone Creek, VIEW EAST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  14. Panoramic view from bluff south of Grand Coulee Dam; this ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Panoramic view from bluff south of Grand Coulee Dam; this segment of the panorama shows the westernmost extend of Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake and part of Grand Coulee Dam, looking north. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  15. 61. 'LITTLEROCK DAM LOOKING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ABUTMENTSPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. 'LITTLEROCK DAM - LOOKING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ABUTMENT-SPILLWAY DISCHARGING.' No date; probably 1960s. Photographer unknown. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam and village (left), Gene Wash Reservoir, Gene Pump Plant and village (right). - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  17. 19. View of low crib dam, headworks, and tramway above ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of low crib dam, headworks, and tramway above dam, looking southeast. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  18. 5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM AND POWER HOUSE, LOOKING UPSTREAM TO SOUTH FROM THE A MOUND OF DEBRIS ABOUT THIRTY TO FORTY FEET ABOVE THE RIVER - Swan Falls Dam, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  19. AERIAL PHOTO OF ELWHA RIVER, SPILLWAYS AT GLINES DAM, POWERHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL PHOTO OF ELWHA RIVER, SPILLWAYS AT GLINES DAM, POWERHOUSE, SURGE TANK AND TRANSFORMER YARD WITH HISTORIC SHED (WAREHOUSE). PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  20. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTH OF ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTH OF ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE WITH NORTH END OF RESERVOIR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  1. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, AT GLINES DAM AND POWERHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, AT GLINES DAM AND POWERHOUSE, LAKE MILLS RESERVOIR, AND THE ELWHA RIVER. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  2. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF LAKE ALDWELL AND ELWHA DAM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF LAKE ALDWELL AND ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE, WITH STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA TO THE NORTH. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  3. CONVENTIONAL OVERVIEW OF RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX TO WEST OF DAM, TAINTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONVENTIONAL OVERVIEW OF RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX TO WEST OF DAM, TAINTER GATES, AND SPILLWAYS WITH LIGHT STANDARD ON EAST ABUTMENT. JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  4. 24. CLOSEUP VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM. HEFU PENSTOCK IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM. HEFU PENSTOCK IS AT CENTER RIGHT, AND LEFT (OR SOUTH) SPILLWAY CHUTE IS AT UPPER RIGHT - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 22. VIEW SHOWING THE COMPLETED HORSE MESA DAM, EXCEPT FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SHOWING THE COMPLETED HORSE MESA DAM, EXCEPT FOR TRANSFORMER EQUIPMENT BEING INSTALLED ABOVE THE POWER PLANT 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL AT LEFT, RIGHT (OR NORTH) SPILLWAY, HEFU POWER UNIT, AND ORIGINAL POWER PLANT - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RINGGATE SPILLWAY. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RING-GATE SPILLWAY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Aerial photo by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, September 29, 1989. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  8. View of upstream face of Lake Sabrina Dam showing redwood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Lake Sabrina Dam showing redwood planks and boulders in Lake Sabrina Basin, view north - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  9. View of Lake Sabrina Dam upstream face from ridge showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam upstream face from ridge showing spillway at lower right of photo, view southwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  10. View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ridge showing spillway at photo center, view southwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  11. View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing the wooden planks along ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing the wooden planks along the upstream side face and the spillway at the right center of photo, view north - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  12. 76. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION, SHEET 3; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 78. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: DIMENSIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: DIMENSIONS, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, SHEET 5; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 79. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: REINFORCEMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: REINFORCEMENT, SHEET 6; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 77. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: CROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: CROSS SECTIONS, SHEET 4; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 74. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: PLAN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: PLAN, SHEET 1, OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 75. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED TYPE: UPSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, LITTLEROCK DAM, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED TYPE: UPSTREAM ELEVATION, SHEET 2; OCTOBER 2, 1919. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING RIVER COBBLE PAVING (FOREGROUND) AND WINGWALL, LOOKING EAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  20. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM 87, SHOWING STOPLOG STRUCTURE (PARTIALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM 87, SHOWING STOPLOG STRUCTURE (PARTIALLY HIDDEN BY MARSH GRASSES IN LOWER PART OF PHOTO) AT RIGHT (WEST) END OF SPILLWAY - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 87, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  1. 11. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING REFUGE HEADQUARTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING REFUGE HEADQUARTERS ON THE HORIZON (LEFT, CENTER), LOOKING EAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  2. 9. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING LOCATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SPILLWAY AT DAM 83, SHOWING LOCATION OF FORMER CONCRETE FLASHBOARD STRUCTURE ON RIGHT, LOOKING WEST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  3. 1. VIEW OF DAM 83, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE LOOKOUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF DAM 83, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE LOOKOUT TOWER AT THE REFUGE HEADQUARTERS (see HAER No. ND-3-A-13 for comparison) - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  4. 68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 3; DECEMBER 20, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 9. VIEW OF DAM FROM LEFT SIDE. PUMPCRETE PIPE LINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF DAM FROM LEFT SIDE. PUMPCRETE PIPE LINES ARE CARRIED ON WALKWAY. UPSTREAM PARTS OF BUTTRESSES ARE FOG-SPRAYED TO PERMIT PROMPT FILLING OF CONTRACTION JOINTS. July 30, 1938 - Bartlett Dam, Verde River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER GATE HEADHOUSES, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING ROLLER GATE HEADHOUSES, WITH AUXILIARY LOCK IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST, UPSTREAM - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  8. 25. VIEW OF MOVABLE CRANE ON DAM BRIDGE, WITH ROLLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF MOVABLE CRANE ON DAM BRIDGE, WITH ROLLER GATE HEADHOUSE/PIERS IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  9. 87. DAM TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY TRAVELING HOIST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. DAM - TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY - TRAVELING HOIST - AMERICAN TYPE ASSEMBLY (ML-5-55/111-FS), February 1938 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  10. 86. DAM TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY HOIST CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. DAM - TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY - HOIST CAR NO. 2 - ELECTRIFICATION HOIST CLUTCH MODIFICATION (ML-5-55/6), March 1956 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  11. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF STEPPED CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM FACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF STEPPED CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM FACE AND ROCK OUTCROPPING, WITH LAKE IN BACKGROUND, SHOWN AT MINIMUM WATER FLOW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (UPSTREAM) - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

  12. 11. VIEW OF HOCK OUTCROPPING, CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM FACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF HOCK OUTCROPPING, CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM FACE AND LAKE WITH TUNNEL INLET STRUCTURE IN DISTANCE, SHOWN AT MINIMUM WATER FLOW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (UPSTREAM) - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

  13. 1. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING FACE OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING FACE OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM AND FISH LADDER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST (UPSTREAM) FROM SNORE OPPOSITE FISH LADDER - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

  14. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF LOCK. CONTROL TOWER AT REAR. DAM GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF LOCK. CONTROL TOWER AT REAR. DAM GATE STRUCTURE AT RIGHT. NOTE TRAFFIC LIGHT FOR SHIPPING. LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST. - Illinois Waterway, Peoria Lock and Dam, 1071 Wesley Road, Creve Coeur, Tazewell County, IL

  15. 22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. 23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection, University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Library. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 21. THE WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION CAMP AT THE DIVERSION DAM, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. THE WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION CAMP AT THE DIVERSION DAM, FACING SOUTH. WOOD BURNING PLANT AT RIGHT, INTAKE GATES AT CENTER LEFT. Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, June 13, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  19. 41. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK -- LOCK GATES -- LIFT GATE, GATE LEAVES -- GENERAL ASSEMBLY. M-L 26(R) 21/28 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  20. 39. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK -- LOCK GATES -- MITER GATE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT AND SECTION. M-L 26(R) 21/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  1. 73. GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF MECHANISM, FOR OPERATING DIVERSION DAM SLUICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF MECHANISM, FOR OPERATING DIVERSION DAM SLUICE GATES Courtesy of U.S.R.S., Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  2. 44. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK -- LOCK GUIDEWALLS -DOWNSTREAM GUIDEWALL, PARTIAL ISOMETRIC VIEW. M-L 26(R) 26/40 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  3. 80. LITTLE ROCK DAM: DIMENSIONS, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, AMENDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. LITTLE ROCK DAM: DIMENSIONS, SECTION THROUGH ARCH RING, AMENDED SHEET 5; SEPTEMBER, 1922. Palmdale Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement storage shed is at center right. Photographer unknown, September 1924. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. View of powerhouse and dam from third floor of original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of powerhouse and dam from third floor of original section of Langdale Cotton Mill, looking northeast - Langdale Cotton Mill, Powerhouse & Dam, 5910 Nineteenth Avenue, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  6. 2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE MECHANISM AND DAM EDGE AT RIGHT - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  7. 54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing initial masonry construction and poured concrete capping. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 33. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON STORAGE DAM AND RIMROCK LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON STORAGE DAM AND RIMROCK LAKE (View of downstream face, spillway at center of photo, outlet works in operation.) - Tieton Dam, South & East of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  9. "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing into high line. June, 1917. R.B.D." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  10. 15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION AND SPILLWAY APRON EXCAVATION IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 10, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  11. 6. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM DURING CONSTRUCTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM DURING CONSTRUCTION OF FISHWAY, DECEMBER 1995, SHOWING REMOVAL OF PLANKING - Norwich Water Power Company, Dam, West bank of Shetucket River opposite Fourteenth Street, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

  12. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF TOE SPILLWAY SECTION OF LOWWATER DAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF TOE SPILLWAY SECTION OF LOW-WATER DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST (UPSTREAM). ST. LOUIS WATER DEPARTMENT INTAKE IN BACKGROUND - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  13. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF LOWWATER DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM. CHAIN OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF LOW-WATER DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM. CHAIN OF ROCKS BRIDGE AND ST. LOUIS WATER DEPARTMENT INTAKE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  14. 1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  15. 50. Upstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam showing sluice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Upstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam showing sluice opening. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 60. Waddell Dam in relation and spillway tailrace. Photographer Mark ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Waddell Dam in relation and spillway tailrace. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 57. Downstream side of left section of diversion dam. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Downstream side of left section of diversion dam. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 56. Upstream face of diversion dam looking east. Headgates are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Upstream face of diversion dam looking east. Headgates are partially visible at far left. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 70. Downstream view of Waddell Dam spillway and taintor gates. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Downstream view of Waddell Dam spillway and taintor gates. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 49. Downstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam with sluice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Downstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam with sluice opening at center. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 40. Reservoir behind Pleasant Dam, looking downstream, spillway is at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Reservoir behind Pleasant Dam, looking downstream, spillway is at right. Photographer unknown, c. late 1920s. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under construction. Part of construction camp housing is visible in foreground. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 39. Pleasant Dam from east abutment with spillway visible at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Pleasant Dam from east abutment with spillway visible at center. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 55. Downstream face of diversion dam looking northwest. Photographer Mark ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Downstream face of diversion dam looking northwest. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH WHEEL, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 37. DAM 80' X 25' TAINTER GATE RIVETED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DAM -- 80' X 25' TAINTER GATE -- RIVETED GENERAL ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS M-L 24 48A/1. December 1937 - Upper Mississippi River Nine-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 24, Clarksville, Pike County, MO

  7. 6. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION VIEW ALONG AXIS OF DAM FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION VIEW ALONG AXIS OF DAM FROM THE EAST ABUTMENT.... Volume XVII, No. 18, December 18, 1939. - Prado Dam, Embankment, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  8. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM; SPILLWAY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM; SPILLWAY IN FOREGROUND, LOCK IN BACKGROUND ON NORTH RIVER BANK. VIEW TO NORTH. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  9. 117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Maricopa Dam Water System, Electric Transmission Lines, Catwalk, Derrick at Elev. +65. October 15, 1934. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, May 1981. - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  11. 5. UPSTREAM (WEST) VIEW OF SPILLWAY, WITH COOKE DAM POND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. UPSTREAM (WEST) VIEW OF SPILLWAY, WITH COOKE DAM POND IN FOREGROUND AND NORTH EMBANKMENT (MI-98-A) AT LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  12. 2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM IN MIDDLE GROUND, WEST DAM IN DISTANCE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  13. 12. VIEW SHOWING CCC CREWS FREEING FLOOD GATES AT DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW SHOWING CCC CREWS FREEING FLOOD GATES AT DAM 326 OF ICE TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO STRUCTURE - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 326, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  14. INTAKE AND DAM #3; FACING NORTHEAST Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE AND DAM #3; FACING NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  15. OVERVIEW OF FALLS AND DAM COMPLEX, SPILLWAY AT RIGHT; FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF FALLS AND DAM COMPLEX, SPILLWAY AT RIGHT; FACING EAST-NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  16. OVERVIEW OF DAM COMPLEX FROM SPILLWAY TO INTAKE; FACING WESTNORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF DAM COMPLEX FROM SPILLWAY TO INTAKE; FACING WEST-NORTHWEST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  17. INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTHNORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Intake, North Bank of Snake River, immediately West/Northwest of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project Dam No. 1, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  18. Detail of downstream face of dam showing water being discharged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of downstream face of dam showing water being discharged through diversion tube. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  19. View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of upstream face of Grand Coulee Dam, looking northeast. This image features a cloudless sky.) - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  20. View of downstream face of Grand Coulee Dam (from just ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of downstream face of Grand Coulee Dam (from just below No. 3 Powerhouse), looking southwest. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA