Science.gov

Sample records for ovarian mucinous cystadenoma

  1. A weeping umbilical hernia: bilateral ovarian mucinous cystadenoma with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varun Kumar; Nishant, Kumar; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Lamichaney, Rachna

    2014-01-01

    A young woman was referred to us for the management of an umbilical hernia with macerated overlying skin through which massive ascites was leaking. On examination we found a jelly-like substance seeping out of the opening. A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen revealed bilateral ovarian cystadenocarcinoma with pseudomyxoma peritonei. The patient underwent cytoreductive surgery along with hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with mitomycin C. Histopathological examination showed bilateral borderline cystadenoma with peritoneal adenomucinosis. Follow-up at 1 year showed no signs of recurrence. PMID:24855082

  2. A huge ovarian mucinous cystadenoma associated with contralateral teratoma and polycystic ovary syndrome in an obese adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Thaweekul, Patcharapa; Thaweekul, Yuthadej; Mairiang, Karicha

    2016-12-01

    A 13-year-old, obese girl presented with acute abdominal pain with abdominal distension for a year. The physical examination revealed marked abdominal distension with a large well-circumscribed mass sized 13×20 cm. Her body mass index (BMI) was 37.8 kg/m2. An abdominal CT scan revealed a huge multiloculated cystic mass and a left adnexal mass. She had an abnormal fasting plasma glucose and low HDL-C. Laparotomy, right salpingooophorectomy, left cystectomy, lymph node biopsies and partial omentectomy were performed. The left ovary demonstrated multiple cystic follicles over the cortex. The histologic diagnosis was a mucinous cystadenoma of the right ovary and a matured cystic teratoma of the left ovary. Both obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with a greater risk of ovarian tumours, where PCOS could be either the cause or as a consequence of an ovarian tumour. We report an obese, perimenarchal girl with bilateral ovarian tumours coexistent with a polycystic ovary and the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Giant Appendicular Mucocele Due to Mucinous Cystadenoma.

    PubMed

    Sertkaya, Mehmet; Emre, Arif; Pircanoglu, Eyüp Mehmet; Peker, Onur; Cengiz, Emrah; Karaagaç, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Mucocele of the appendix is a rare clinicopathological entity simulating acute appendicitis. The most common form of the mucocele is cystadenoma, which is characterized by luminal dilatation producing large amounts of mucin. We present a new case of a giant mucocele of appendix with mucinous cystadenoma. A 61-year-old female was admitted with complaints of severe lower right quadrant pain. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) suggested that it was a mucocele, but due to severity of pain, she underwent an emergency operation. Fortunately, without a perforation, it was a giant mucocele and the operation was terminated with an uneventful appendectomy with segmental cecal resection. The histopathological evaluation of the specimen reported to be a mucocele with mucinous cystadenoma with negative surgical margins. The patient was discharged postoperative 6th day, and a control colonoscopy and abdominal CT was planned for 6 months following surgery. Appendicular mucocele is rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively, and sometimes it may be of large size which increases the risk of perforation. Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PP) is the most feared complication of mucocele perforation. Appendectomy with negative margins is a requirement for adequate treatment for most cases. Utmost care should be taken during surgery to avoid perforation of mucocele. Sertkaya M, Emre A, Pircanoglu EM, Peker O, Cengiz E, Karaagaç M. Giant Appendicular Mucocele Due to Mucinous Cystadenoma. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(2):186-189.

  4. A 27-kg mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary presenting with deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tola, Esra Nur; Erdemoğlu, Evrim; Yalçın, Yakup; Alkaya Solmaz, Filiz; Erdemoğlu, Ebru

    2016-03-01

    Giant ovarian adenomas are rarely observed today because of early diagnosis and treatment. Mucinous cystadenomas is a kind of tumor that mostly causes the ovary to enlarge. Theu can present with various and non-specific clinical manifestations such as deep vein thrombosis. The primary symptoms of giant ovarian tumors are abdominal enlargement and distension. Therefore, making the correct preoperative diagnosis is sometimes difficult. The appropriate treatment must include oncologic procedures and a multidisciplinary approach to minimalize complications and save the patient's life. Herein, we report a woman aged 53 years with a 27-kg ovarian mucinous cystadenoma that presented as a left popliteal vein thrombosis.

  5. Hepatobiliary Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms With Ovarian Type Stroma (So-Called "Hepatobiliary Cystadenoma/Cystadenocarcinoma"): Clinicopathologic Analysis of 36 Cases Illustrates Rarity of Carcinomatous Change.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Brian; Reid, Michelle D; Pehlivanoglu, Burcin; Squires, Malcolm H; Maithel, Shishir; Xue, Yue; Hyejeong, Choi; Akkas, Gizem; Muraki, Takashi; Kooby, David A; Sarmiento, Juan M; Cardona, Ken; Sekhar, Aarti; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Adsay, Volkan

    2018-01-01

    The literature is highly conflicting on hepatobiliary mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), aka "hepatobiliary cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma," largely because ovarian stroma (OS) was not a requirement until WHO-2010 and is not widely applied even today. In this study, MCNs (with OS) accounted for 24 of 229 (11%) resected hepatic cysts in one institution. Eight of the 32 (25%) cysts that had been originally designated as hepatobiliary cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma at the time of diagnosis proved not to have an OS during this review and were thus re-classified as non-MCN. In total, 36 MCNs (with OS) were analyzed-24 from the institutional files and 12 consultation cases. All were women. Mean age was 51 (28 to 76 y). Mean size was 11 cm (5 to 23 cm). Most (91%) were intrahepatic and in the left lobe (72%). Preoperative imaging mentioned "neoplasm" in 14 (47%) and carcinoma was a differential in 6 (19%) but only 2 proved to have carcinoma. Microscopically, only 47% demonstrated diffuse OS (>75% of the cyst wall/lining); OS was often focal. The cyst lining was often composed of non-mucinous biliary epithelium, and this was predominant in 50% of the cases. Degenerative changes of variable amount were seen in most cases. In situ and invasive carcinoma was seen in only 2 cases (6%), both with small invasion (7 and 8 mm). Five cases had persistence/recurrence, 2 confirmed operatively (at 7 mo and 15 y). Of the 2 cases with carcinoma, one had "residual cyst or hematoma" by radiology at 4 months, and the other was without disease at 3 years. In conclusion, many cysts (25%) previously reported as hepatobiliary cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma are not MCNs. True MCNs are uncommon among resected hepatic cysts (11%), occur exclusively in females, are large, mostly intrahepatic and in the left lobe (72%). Invasive carcinomas are small and uncommon (6%) compared with their pancreatic counterpart (16%). Recurrences are not uncommon following incomplete excision.

  6. Mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary with stromal luteinization and hilar cell hyperplasia during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pascal, R R; Grecco, L A

    1988-02-01

    A 32-year-old woman was delivered of a healthy, full-term infant by cesarean section, at which time a large ovarian cyst was removed. The cyst proved to be a mucinous cystadenoma with prominent luteinization of the stroma subtending the epithelium and with numerous foci of hyperplastic Leydig cells in the cyst wall and ovarian hilum. These hormonally induced changes must be recognized in order to avoid mistaking them for invasive epithelial components.

  7. Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix presenting as an umbilical hernia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ren, Bingbing; Meng, Xiangchao; Cao, Z I; Guo, Chunli; Zhang, Zili

    2016-06-01

    Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix is a rare condition that develops as a result of proliferation of mucin-secreting cells in an occluded appendix. Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix presenting as an umbilical hernia is a rare clinical entity. The most common causes of this condition are known to be ascites, hepatitis and cirrhosis; however, the patient in the present study, was diagnosed as hepatitis- and cirrhosis-negative, with no history of chronic coughing or constipation. The aim of the present study was to report a rare case of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix presenting as an umbilical hernia in a 66-year-old female patient. The patient had a 6-month history of a reducible mass in the umbilical region and was diagnosed with umbilical hernia. Computed tomography and ultrasonography were performed and revealed massive ascites. Ultimately, a laparoscopic appendectomy was performed and borderline mucinous appendiceal cystadenoma of low malignant potential was confirmed. In addition, the present study discussed the association between mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and umbilical hernia, as well as the diagnostic process and treatment strategies.

  8. Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix presenting as an umbilical hernia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    REN, BINGBING; MENG, XIANGCHAO; CAO, ZI; GUO, CHUNLI; ZHANG, ZILI

    2016-01-01

    Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix is a rare condition that develops as a result of proliferation of mucin-secreting cells in an occluded appendix. Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix presenting as an umbilical hernia is a rare clinical entity. The most common causes of this condition are known to be ascites, hepatitis and cirrhosis; however, the patient in the present study, was diagnosed as hepatitis- and cirrhosis-negative, with no history of chronic coughing or constipation. The aim of the present study was to report a rare case of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix presenting as an umbilical hernia in a 66-year-old female patient. The patient had a 6-month history of a reducible mass in the umbilical region and was diagnosed with umbilical hernia. Computed tomography and ultrasonography were performed and revealed massive ascites. Ultimately, a laparoscopic appendectomy was performed and borderline mucinous appendiceal cystadenoma of low malignant potential was confirmed. In addition, the present study discussed the association between mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and umbilical hernia, as well as the diagnostic process and treatment strategies. PMID:27313766

  9. Guanylyl Cyclase C Is a Specific Marker for Differentiating Primary and Metastatic Ovarian Mucinous Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ciocca, Vincenzo; Bombonati, Alessandro; Palazzo, Juan P.; Schulz, Stephanie; Waldman, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Distinguishing primary ovarian mucinous neoplasms from metastatic mucinous adenocarcinomas with ovarian involvement can be difficult, especially when characteristic gross and microscopic features are not present. CK7/CK20 expression appears to be more useful for distinguishing metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas from the lower tract. The addition of CDX2 for distinguishing metastatic upper gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas from primary ovarian mucinous neoplasms offers little advantage over CK7/CK20 coordinate expression. Guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) is a brush border membrane receptor for the endogenous peptides guanylin and uroguanylin, and the homologous diarrheagenic bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins that is selectively expressed by epithelial cells from the duodenum to the rectum, but not by normal epithelia of the stomach or esophagus, or normal extramucosal cells in humans. We studied 50 ovarian tumors: 27 primary ovarian mucinous neoplasms (7 cystadenomas, 10 borderline tumors, and 10 cystadenocarcinomas) and 23 metastatic mucinous adenocarcinomas with ovarian involvement (13 colorectal adenocarcinomas, 4 gastric adenocarcinomas, 6 appendiceal mucinous tumors (4 adenocarcinomas, 1 with neuroendocrine features, and 2 appendiceal mucinous cystadenomas). For primary ovarian mucinous neoplasms, 25 of 27 were negative for GCC. Twelve of thirteen cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma (except for 1 neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma) were positive for GCC. Three of four appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinomas were positive for GCC in both the primary and metastatic tumors (except for 1 neuroendocrine adenocarcinoma). Two of two appendiceal mucinous cystadenomas were positive for GCC. Of four cases of gastric adenocarcinoma with ovarian involvement, only one (primary tumor) exhibited focal GCC staining. These findings suggest GCC may be a useful marker for differentiating primary and secondary ovarian mucinous neoplasms. PMID:19694825

  10. Ovarian Epithelial Inclusions With Mucinous Differentiation: A Clinicopathologic Study of 42 Cases.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Jeffrey D; Krishnan, Jayashree

    2017-07-01

    Ovarian epithelial inclusions lined by mucinous epithelium are rare and of uncertain origin. Ovaries containing such inclusions were studied in 42 women. The inclusions were divided into 3 groups: serous epithelial lined with typical ciliated morphology but with distinct basophilic cytoplasmic mucin in some or all of the lining cells, those lined by typical mucinous epithelium, and those lined by a combination of typical mucinous epithelium and serous epithelium. The mean patient age was 61.5 years. Pure mucinous inclusions were found in 27 patients, serous-type inclusions with cytoplasmic mucin in 20, and mixed type in 10. All 3 types of inclusions were found in 1 patient. Two types of inclusions were found in 13. Four patients had associated mucinous neoplasms (1 mucinous cystadenoma, 1 atypical proliferative seromucinous tumor, and 2 seromucinous cystadenomas), and 11 patients (26%) had endometriosis. The fallopian tubes in 4 patients (9.5%) also displayed mucinous metaplasia; this was not significantly different from the 3.1% we found in our previously reported series of unselected tubes from the same population. These findings suggest that mucinous inclusions may arise as a direct metaplastic change in serous-type inclusions. Other possible origins of mucinous inclusions in the ovarian cortex include endometriosis and Brenner (transitional cell) nests. Whether such inclusions can be a source of mucinous ovarian neoplasms as are Brenner tumors and mature cystic teratomas is unknown and may warrant further investigation.

  11. [Pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma doubly complicated by acute pancreatitis and retroperitoneal rupture].

    PubMed

    Maghrebi, Houcine; Makni, Amine

    2017-01-01

    Mucinous cystadenomas are benign tumors with malignant potential. They are often revealed by non-specific abdominal pain, jaundice or an episode of acute pancreatitis. We here report an exceptional case of mucinous cystadenoma doubly complicated by acute pancreatitis and retroperitoneal rupture. The study involved a 30-year old non-weighted female patient, presenting with epigastric pain associated with left hypochondrium evolving over the last three months and which had intensified without fever or jaundice in the last 3 days. Clinical examination showed impingement on palpation of the epigastrium and of the left hypochondrium. There was no palpable mass. Laboratory tests were without abnormalities, except for lipasemia that was 8-times the upper normal. Abdominal CT scan showed bi-loculated cystic mass in the pancreas tail, measuring 111 mm * 73 mm, with a thin wall and a fluid content, associated with an infiltration of the left perirenal fascia. MRI (Panel A) showed mucinous cystadenoma with retroperitoneal rupture. The caudal portion of the main pancreatic duct was slightly dilated and communicated with the pancreatic cyst. The patient underwent surgery via bi-sub-costal approach. A cystic mass in the pancreas tail with retroperitoneal rupture associated with acute pancreatitis (outflow of necrotic content from left anterior prerenal space) was found. Caudal splenopancreatectomy was performed (Panel B). The postoperative course was uneventful. The anatomo-pathological examination of the surgical specimen showed pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma with low-grade dysplasia.

  12. Preoperative Diagnosis and Surgical Approach of Appendiceal Mucinous Cystadenoma: Usefulness of Volcano Sign.

    PubMed

    Shiihara, Masahiro; Ohki, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma that was successfully diagnosed preoperatively and treated by laparoscopic resection. We could find volcano sign on colonoscopy and cystic lesion without any nodules at the appendix on computed tomography (CT). Without any malignant factors in preoperative examinations, we performed laparoscopic appendectomy including the cecal wall. We could avoid performing excessive operation for cystadenoma with accurate preoperative diagnosis and intraoperative finding and pathological diagnosis during surgery. Appendiceal mucocele is a rare disease that is divided into 3 pathological types: hyperplasia, cystadenoma, and cystadenocarcinoma. The surgical approaches for it remain controversial and oversurgery is sometimes done for benign tumor, because preoperative diagnosis is difficult and rupturing an appendiceal tumor results in dissemination. Based on our study, volcano sign on colonoscopy and CT findings were important for the preoperative diagnosis of appendiceal mucocele. Furthermore, we think that laparoscopic resection will become a surgical option for the treatment of appendiceal mucocele.

  13. Ovarian Cystadenoma in a Trafficked Patient.

    PubMed

    Titchen, Kanani E; Katz, Douglas; Martinez, Kidian; White, Krishna

    2016-05-01

    The topic of child sex trafficking is receiving increased attention both in the lay press and in research articles. Recently, a number of physician organizations have issued policy statements calling for the education and involvement of physicians in combating this form of "modern-day slavery." Primary care and emergency medicine physicians have led these efforts, but a number of these victims may present to surgeons. Surgeons are in a unique position to identify trafficked patients; during the process of undraping, intubation, and surgical preparation, signs of trafficking such as tattoos, scars, dental injuries, and bruising may be evident. In addition, these patients may have specific needs in terms of anesthesia and postoperative care due to substance abuse. Here, we report the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of sexual exploitation who presents for cystadenoma excision. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a sex-trafficked pediatric patient presenting for surgery. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Combined adenocarcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Adenocarcinoid of the appendix is a rare malignant tumour with features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid, showing both epithelial and endocrine differentiation. Mucinous cystadenoma is the commonest of the benign neoplasms of the appendix, with an incidence of 0.6% in appendicectomy specimens. We report a rare combination of these tumours and discuss the latest treatment options. To the best of our knowledge, only six cases have been reported in the literature to date. Case presentation A 71-year-old Caucasian man presented to our department with a right iliac fossa mass associated with pain. Laparoscopy revealed an adenocarcinoid of the appendix in combination with mucinous cystadenoma. He underwent a radical right hemicolectomy with clear margins and lymph nodes. Conclusion Adenocarcinoids account for 2% of primary appendiceal malignancies. Most tumours are less than 2 cm in diameter and 20% of them metastasize to the ovaries. The mean age for presentation is 59 years and the 5-year survival rate ranges from 60% to 84%. Right hemicolectomy is generally advised if any of the following features are present: tumours greater than 2 cm, involvement of resection margins, greater than 2 mitoses/10 high-power fields on histology, extension of tumour beyond serosa. Chemotherapy mostly with 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin is advised for remnant disease after surgery. Cytoreductive surgery with intraperitoneal chemotherapy can offer improved survival for advanced peritoneal dissemination. PMID:19171048

  15. Targeting Src in Mucinous Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koji; Nishimura, Masato; Bottsford-Miller, Justin N.; Huang1, Jie; Komurov, Kakajan; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Shahzad, Mian M. K.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Roh, Ju Won; Sanguino, Angela M.; Lu, Chunhua; Im, Dwight D.; Rosenshien, Neil B.; Sakakibara, Atsuko; Nagano, Tadayoshi; Yamasaki, Masato; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Tadashi; Ram, Prahlad T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Gallick, Gary E.; Wong, Kwong K.; Frumovitz, Michael; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Mucinous ovarian carcinomas have a distinct clinical pattern compared to other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Here, we evaluated (i) stage-specific clinical significance of mucinous ovarian carcinomas in a large cohort and (ii) the functional role of src kinase in pre-clinical models of mucinous ovarian carcinoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 1302 ovarian cancer patients including 122 (9.4%) cases of mucinous carcinoma were evaluated for survival analyses. Biological effects of src kinase inhibition were tested in a novel orthotopic mucinous ovarian cancer model (RMUG-S-ip2) using dasatinib-based therapy. RESULTS Patients with advanced-stage mucinous ovarian cancer had significantly worse survival compared to those with serous histology: median overall survival, 1.67 versus 3.41 years, p=0.002; and median survival time after recurrence of 0.53 versus 1.66 years, p<0.0001. Among multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, RMUG-S-ip2 mucinous ovarian cancer cells showed the highest src kinase activity. Moreover, oxaliplatin treatment induced phosphorylation of src kinase. This induced activity by oxaliplatin therapy was inhibited by concurrent administration of dasatinib. Targeting src with dasatinib in vivo showed significant anti-tumor effects in the RMUG-S-ip2 model, but not in the serous ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3-TR) model. Combination therapy of oxaliplatin with dasatinib further demonstrated significant effects on reducing cell viability, increasing apoptosis, and in vivo anti-tumor effects in the RMUG-S-ip2 model. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that poor survival of women with mucinous ovarian carcinoma is associated with resistance to cytotoxic therapy. Targeting src kinase with combination of dasatinib and oxaliplatin may be an attractive approach in this disease. PMID:21737505

  16. Cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis and ovarian cystadenoma associated with deficiency of fumarate hydratase

    PubMed Central

    Hüller, Cornelia; Grunow, Norbert; Nadler, Torsten; Bär, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We report on an exceedingly rare case of cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis in a 58-year-old Caucasian woman associated with ovarian cystadenoma and complete deletion of the fumarate hydratase gene. All patients and their family members with verified mutation have to be regularly screened for associated neoplasms, in particular papillary renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer). PMID:24396716

  17. A Mouse Model to Investigate Postmenopausal Biology as an Etiology of Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    1 mucinous adenocarcinomas 3 clear-cell carcinomas 1 malignant mixed mesodermal tumor 3 metastatic ovarian carcinomas 5 undifferentiated carcinomas 2...serous LMP tumors 2 mucinous LMP tumors 1 benign serous cystadenoma Ovarian tumor blocks 38 18 serous adenocarcinomas 5 mucinous adenocarcinomas 2...endometrioid adenocarcinomas 3 clear cell carcinomas 6 serous LMP 3 mucinous LMP 1 benign fibrous cystadenoma MMPs IN EARLY OVARIAN CANCER DEVELOPMENT

  18. A case report and a literature review of primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma: the importance of imaging in diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Pesapane, Filippo; Renterghem, Sofie Van; Patella, Francesca; Visschere, Pieter De; Villeirs, Geert

    2018-01-29

    Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma (PRMC) is an extremely rare tumor: its histogenesis and its biological behavior remain speculative. Since most retroperitoneal tumors are malignant, a preoperative diagnosis of benignity is essential and it can be reached through imaging examinations, allowing a conservative management approach. We describe the case of a 52-year-old woman with abdominal pain and a palpable mass. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a retroperitoneal cystic mass, which was resected successfully through laparoscopy and diagnosed as PRMC. Although there are no pathognomonic, clinical or radiological findings for PRMC, it should be included in the list of differential diagnoses and its imaging criteria of benignity should always be sought, with the aim to exclude malignant tumors.

  19. Targeting Src and tubulin in mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Hu, Wei; Dalton, Heather J.; Choi, Hyun Jin; Huang, Jie; Kang, Yu; Pradeep, Sunila; Miyake, Takahito; Song, Jian H.; Wen, Yunfei; Lu, Chunhua; Pecot, Chad V.; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Zand, Behrouz; Jennings, Nicholas B; Ivan, Cristina; Gallick, Gary E.; Baggerly, Keith A; Hangauer, David G.; Coleman, Robert L.; Frumovitz, Michael; Sood, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the antitumor effects of targeting Src and tubulin in mucinous ovarian carcinoma. Experimental design The in vitro and in vivo effects and molecular mechanisms of KX-01, which inhibits Src pathway and tubulin polymerization, were examined in mucinous ovarian cancer models. Results In vitro studies using RMUG-S and RMUG-L cell lines showed that KX-01 inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase, and enhanced the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin in the KX-01-sensitive cell line, RMUG-S. In vivo studies showed that KX-01 significantly decreased tumor burden in RMUG-S and RMUG-L mouse models relative to untreated controls, and the effects were greater when KX-01 was combined with oxaliplatin. KX-01 alone and in combination with oxaliplatin significantly inhibited tumor growth by reducing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in vivo. PTEN knock-in experiments in RMUG-L cells showed improved response to KX-01. Reverse phase protein array analysis showed that in addition to blocking downstream molecules of Src family kinases, KX-01 also activated acute stress-inducing molecules. Conclusion Our results showed that targeting both the Src pathway and tubulin with KX-01 significantly inhibited tumor growth in preclinical mucinous ovarian cancer models, suggesting that this may be a promising therapeutic approach for patients with mucinous ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24100628

  20. Risk factors for benign serous and mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Susan J; Green, Adèle C; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the risk factors for benign serous and mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors. Cases were women newly diagnosed with benign serous ovarian tumors (n=230) or benign mucinous tumors (n=133) between 2002 and 2005. Control women were selected at random from the general population (n=752). All participants completed a comprehensive reproductive and lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and to simultaneously adjust for potential confounding factors. Current smoking was associated with a three-fold increase in risk of benign mucinous tumors (OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.97-5.34), and there was a trend of increasing risk with increasing amount smoked (P<.001). Both recent obesity (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.30-2.88) and obesity at age 20 (OR 4.38, 95% CI 1.88-10.20) were associated with increased risk of benign serous ovarian tumors, and having had a hysterectomy was also related to increased risk of serous (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.90-3.96), but not mucinous tumors. Ever having had a term pregnancy was inversely associated with both tumor types (combined OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.97), although greater numbers of pregnancies did not decrease risk further. Use of hormonal contraceptives was unrelated to risk. Our results suggest some differences in risk factors between benign serous and mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors and that risk factors for benign serous tumors differ from those well established for ovarian cancer. The results also suggest that there is potential for prevention of these common conditions through avoidance of smoking and obesity. II.

  1. Role of BRCA1 in Controlling Mitotic Arrest in Ovarian Cystadenoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Vanessa M.; Marion, Christine M.; Austria, Theresa M.; Yeh, Jennifer; Schönthal, Axel H.; Dubeau, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Cancers that develop in BRCA1 mutation carriers are usually near tetraploid/polyploid. This led us to hypothesize that BRCA1 controls the mitotic checkpoint complex, as loss of such control could lead to mitotic errors resulting in tetraploidy/polyploidy with subsequent aneuploidy. We used an in vitro system mimicking pre-malignant conditions, consisting of cell strains derived from the benign counterparts of serous ovarian carcinomas (cystadenomas) and expressing SV40 large T antigen, conferring the equivalent of a p53 mutation. We previously showed that such cells undergo one or several doublings of their DNA content as they age in culture and approach the phenomenon of in vitro crisis. Here we show that such increase in DNA content reflects a cell cycle arrest possibly at the anaphase promoting complex, as evidenced by decreased BrdU incorporation and increased expression of the mitotic checkpoint complex. Down-regulation of BRCA1 in cells undergoing crisis leads to activation of the anaphase promoting complex and resumption of growth kinetics similar to those seen in cells before they reach crisis. Cells recovering from crisis after BRCA1 down-regulation become multinucleated, suggesting that reduced BRCA1 expression may lead to initiation of a new cell cycle without completion of cytokinesis. This is the first demonstration that BRCA1 controls a physiological arrest at the M phase apart from its established role in DNA damage response, a role that could represent an important mechanism for acquisition of aneuploidy during tumor development. This may be particularly relevant to cancers that have a near tetraploid/polyploid number of chromosomes. PMID:21792894

  2. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kelemen, Linda E.; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan; Li, Qiyuan; M. Lee, Janet; Seo, Ji-Heui; Phelan, Catherine M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqin; Spindler, Tassja J.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T.; Edwards, Robert P.; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B.; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wlodzimierz, Sawicki; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sellers, Thomas A.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D.; Gayther, Simon A.; Berchuck, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas (OC) but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOC). Genotypes from OC cases and controls were imputed into the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. Analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls identified three novel risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 × 10−8), rs711830 at 2q31.1 (P = 7.5 × 10−12) and rs688187 at 19q13.2 (P = 6.8 × 10−13). Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis in ovarian and colorectal tumors (which are histologically similar to MOC) identified significant eQTL associations for HOXD9 at 2q31.1 in ovarian (P = 4.95 × 10−4, FDR = 0.003) and colorectal (P = 0.01, FDR = 0.09) tumors, and for PAX8 at 2q13 in colorectal tumors (P = 0.03, FDR = 0.09). Chromosome conformation capture analysis identified interactions between the HOXD9 promoter and risk SNPs at 2q31.1. Overexpressing HOXD9 in MOC cells augmented the neoplastic phenotype. These findings provide the first evidence for MOC susceptibility variants and insights into the underlying biology of the disease. PMID:26075790

  3. Mucin-1 and its relation to grade, stage and survival in ovarian carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mucin-1 is known to be over-expressed by various human carcinomas and is shed into the circulation where it can be detected in patient’s serum by specific anti-Mucin-1 antibodies, such as the tumour marker assays CA 15–3 and CA 27.29. The prognostic value of Mucin-1 expression in ovarian carcinoma remains uncertain. One aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of Mucin-1 in a cohort of patients with either benign or malignant ovarian tumours detected by CA 15–3 and CA 27.29. Another aim of this study was to evaluate Mucin-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in a different cohort of ovarian carcinoma patients with respect to grade, stage and survival. Methods Patients diagnosed with and treated for ovarian tumours were included in the study. Patient characteristics, histology including histological subtype, tumour stage, grading and follow-up data were available from patient records. Serum Mucin-1 concentrations were measured with ELISA technology detecting CA 15–3 and CA 27.29, Mucin-1 tissue expression was determined by immunohistochemistry using the VU4H5 and VU3C6 anti-Mucin-1 antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 18.0. Results Serum samples of 118 patients with ovarian tumours were obtained to determine levels of Mucin-1. Median CA 15–3 and CA 27.29 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with malignant disease (p< 0.001) than in patients with benign disease. Paraffin-embedded tissue of 154 patients with ovarian carcinoma was available to determine Mucin-1 expression. The majority of patients presented with advanced stage disease at primary diagnosis. Median follow-up time was 11.39 years. Immunohistochemistry results for VU4H5 showed significant differences with respect to tumour grade, FIGO stage and overall survival. Patients with negative expression had a mean overall survival of 9.33 years compared to 6.27 years for patients with positive Mucin-1 expression. Conclusions This study found

  4. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Linda E; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan; Li, Qiyuan; Lee, Janet M; Seo, Ji-Heui; Phelan, Catherine M; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Spindler, Tassja J; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia

    2015-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOCs). Our analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls with imputation identified 3 new risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 × 10(-8)), rs711830 at 2q31.1 (P = 7.5 × 10(-12)) and rs688187 at 19q13.2 (P = 6.8 × 10(-13)). We identified significant expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) associations for HOXD9 at 2q31.1 in ovarian (P = 4.95 × 10(-4), false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.003) and colorectal (P = 0.01, FDR = 0.09) tumors and for PAX8 at 2q13 in colorectal tumors (P = 0.03, FDR = 0.09). Chromosome conformation capture analysis identified interactions between the HOXD9 promoter and risk-associated SNPs at 2q31.1. Overexpressing HOXD9 in MOC cells augmented the neoplastic phenotype. These findings provide the first evidence for MOC susceptibility variants and insights into the underlying biology of the disease.

  5. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vitiazeva, Varvara; Kattla, Jayesh J.; Flowers, Sarah A.; Lindén, Sara K.; Premaratne, Pushpa; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Sundfeldt, Karin; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Methods In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant) and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC) coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes. Results The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline) and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC). Conclusion Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas

  6. Potential signaling pathways as therapeutic targets for overcoming chemoresistance in mucinous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niiro, Emiko; Morioka, Sachiko; Iwai, Kana; Yamada, Yuki; Ogawa, Kenji; Kawahara, Naoki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Cases of mucinous ovarian cancer are predominantly resistant to chemotherapies. The present review summarizes current knowledge of the therapeutic potential of targeting the Wingless (WNT) pathway, with particular emphasis on preclinical and clinical studies, for improving the chemoresistance and treatment of mucinous ovarian cancer. A review was conducted of English language literature published between January 2000 and October 2017 that concerned potential signaling pathways associated with the chemoresistance of mucinous ovarian cancer. The literature indicated that aberrant activation of growth factor and WNT signaling pathways is specifically observed in mucinous ovarian cancer. An evolutionarily conserved signaling cascade system including epidermal growth factor/RAS/RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and WNT signaling regulates a variety of cellular functions; their crosstalk mutually enhances signaling activity and induces chemoresistance. Novel antagonists, modulators and inhibitors have been developed for targeting the components of the WNT signaling pathway, namely Frizzled, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6, Dishevelled, casein kinase 1, AXIN, glycogen synthase kinase 3β and β-catenin. Targeted inhibition of WNT signaling represents a rational and promising novel approach to overcome chemoresistance, and several WNT inhibitors are being evaluated in preclinical studies. In conclusion, the WNT receptors and their downstream components may serve as novel therapeutic targets for overcoming chemoresistance in mucinous ovarian cancer. PMID:29564122

  7. Giant ovarian serous cystadenoma in a postmenopausal woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Sunkavalli Chinna

    2009-01-01

    A case of 66-year-old South Indian post menopausal woman presenting a giant ovarian serous cyst adenoma weighing 23 kg is reported here. A 66-year-old woman was referred to our clinic from a local medical center. When she was seen first at our outpatient clinic, she had gross abdominal distension since 2 years and she was unable to walk. On abdominal ultrasound, a giant cyst was found which encompassed the whole abdomen. At laparotomy, a giant, totally cystic, vascularized and smooth mass attached to the right ovary was encountered. Staging laparotomy was performed. On the postoperative tenth day, she was discharged without any problem. Her pathology report disclosed a 60×47×30 cm serous cyst adenoma weighing 23 kg. This is the largest ovarian cyst that ever reported from our hospital and one of the largest among the reported cases in the literature. PMID:19830023

  8. Optical Biomarkers of Serous and Mucinous Human Ovarian Tumor Assessed with Nonlinear Optics Microscopies

    PubMed Central

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Baratti, Mariana O.; Almeida, Diogo B.; Andrade, L. A. L. A.; Bottcher-Luiz, Fátima; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy techniques have potential to improve the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer. In this study we showed that multimodal NLO microscopies, including two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), third-harmonic generation (THG) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with ovarian cancer progression. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained strong TPEF + SHG + THG signals from fixed samples stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) and robust FLIM signal from fixed unstained samples. Particularly, we imaged 34 ovarian biopsies from different patients (median age, 49 years) including 5 normal ovarian tissue, 18 serous tumors and 11 mucinous tumors with the multimodal NLO platform developed in our laboratory. We have been able to distinguish adenomas, borderline, and adenocarcinomas specimens. Using a complete set of scoring methods we found significant differences in the content, distribution and organization of collagen fibrils in the stroma as well as in the morphology and fluorescence lifetime from epithelial ovarian cells. Conclusions/Significance NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns for serous and mucinous ovarian tumors. The results provide a basis to interpret future NLO images of ovarian tissue and lay the foundation for future in vivo optical evaluation of premature ovarian lesions. PMID:23056557

  9. Comparison of tumor markers and clinicopathological features in serous and mucinous borderline ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Alanbay, I; Aktürk, E; Coksuer, H; Ercan, C M; Karaşahin, E; Dede, M; Yenen, M C; Ozan, H; Dilek, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess tumor markers and clinicopathological findings of patients with serous and mucinous borderline ovarian tumor (BOT) features. The study consisted of 50 patients that were diagnosed with and treated for BOT between 2005-2010 in three centers. CA125, CA19-9, and CA125+CA19-9 levels and clinicopathological features were compared in serous and mucinous histotypes. In serous and mucinous BOTs, correlations between tumor markers and demographics such as age, menopausal status, parity, clinical findings (stage, relapse, adjuvant chemotherapy, cytology, lymph node involvement and tumoral morphology (cystic-solid content, papilla, septation) were evaluated. There were no significant differences between serous and mucinous tumors in the clinicopathological features such as stage, tumor markers, age, menopausal status, or cytology. In serous BOTs we found a significant relation between elevated CA125+ CA19-9, CA19-9 and recurrence (p < 0.05). Also there was a significant relation between elevated CA125+ CA19-9, CA19-9 and cytology positivity (p < 0.05). We found a significant relation in serous BOTs between elevated CA125+CA19-9, adjuvant chemotherapy and lymph node metastases (p < 0.05). Also In mucinous BOTs with papilla formation we found a significant relation between elevated CA125 and CA125+ CA19-9 (p < 0.05). There was significant relation between cytology positivity and elevated CA19-9 in mucinous BOTs (p < 0.05). Serum tumor markers of serous and mucinous BOTs were different in relation to their clinicopathological features. This may reflect differences of serous and mucinous BOTs.

  10. Massively parallel sequencing analysis of mucinous ovarian carcinomas: genomic profiling and differential diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jennifer J; Schlappe, Brooke A; Kumar, Rahul; Olvera, Narciso; Dao, Fanny; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem; Aghajanian, Carol; DeLair, Deborah; Hussein, Yaser R; Soslow, Robert A; Levine, Douglas A; Weigelt, Britta

    2018-05-21

    Mucinous ovarian cancer (MOC) is a rare type of epithelial ovarian cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy regimens. We sought to characterize the repertoire of somatic mutations in MOCs and to define the contribution of massively parallel sequencing to the classification of tumors diagnosed as primary MOCs. Following gynecologic pathology and chart review, DNA samples obtained from primary MOCs and matched normal tissues/blood were subjected to whole-exome (n = 9) or massively parallel sequencing targeting 341 cancer genes (n = 15). Immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, PTEN, ARID1A/BAF250a, and the DNA mismatch (MMR) proteins MSH6 and PMS2 was performed for all cases. Mutational frequencies of MOCs were compared to those of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) and mucinous tumors from other sites. MOCs were heterogeneous at the genetic level, frequently harboring TP53 (75%) mutations, KRAS (71%) mutations and/or CDKN2A/B homozygous deletions/mutations (33%). Although established criteria for diagnosis were employed, four cases harbored mutational and immunohistochemical profiles similar to those of endometrioid carcinomas, and one case for colorectal or endometrioid carcinoma. Significant differences in the frequencies of KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, FBXW7, PIK3CA and/or APC mutations between the confirmed primary MOCs (n = 19) and HGSOCs, mucinous gastric and/or mucinous colorectal carcinomas were found, whereas no differences in the 341 genes studied between MOCs and mucinous pancreatic carcinomas were identified. Our findings suggest that the assessment of mutations affecting TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, ARID1A and POLE, and DNA MMR protein expression may be used to further aid the diagnosis and treatment decision-making of primary MOC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ovarian mucinous tumors arising from mature cystic teratomas--a molecular genetic approach for understanding the cellular origin.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Kaho; Yamashita, Yoriko; Yamamoto, Toshimichi; Takahashi, Koji; Hashimoto, Katsunori; Miyata, Tomoko; Kawai, Kumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya; Nagasaka, Tetsuro

    2014-04-01

    Mucinous tumors of the ovary are frequently associated with mature cystic teratomas, and it has been speculated that the mucinous tumors arise from teratoma components. The cellular origins of mature cystic teratomas are believed to be post-meiotic ovarian germ cells, and the analysis of microsatellite markers such as short tandem repeats is suitable for determining the cellular origin of tumors. In this study, we analyzed 3 ovarian mature cystic teratomas, all of which were associated with simultaneous ovarian mucinous tumors within the same ovary. Two of the 3 mucinous tumors were intestinal-type and the other was endocervical type. A laser capture microdissection technique was used to separate the epithelial component of the mucinous tumor, the components of the mature cystic teratoma, and control ovarian somatic tissue. Using short tandem repeat analysis based on 6 markers (D20S480, D6S2439, D6S1056, D9S1118, D4S2639, and D17S1290), we could distinguish the germ cell (homozygous) or somatic (heterozygous) origin of a given component in each sample. The epithelial components of the intestinal-type mucinous tumors in cases 1 and 2 were homozygous, and the epithelial component in case 3 (endocervical type) was heterozygous. All teratomatous components were homozygous, and the control components were heterozygous. In addition, we analyzed 3 mature cystic teratomas without mucinous tumors, and all 3 were homozygous in the tumor component. Our data suggest that the origin of mucinous tumors in the ovary may differ among histological subtypes, and intestinal-type mucinous tumors may arise from mature cystic teratomas, although endocervical-type mucinous tumors may not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Establishment and characterization of a cell line derived from human ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wan, Q; Xu, D; Li, Z

    2001-07-01

    To establish a cell line of human ovarian cancer, and study its characterization. The cell line was established by the cultivation of subsides walls, and kept by freezing. The morphology was observed by microscope and electromicroscope. The authors studied its growth and propagation, the agglutination test of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the chromosome analysis, heterotransplanting, immuno-histochemistry staining, the analysis of hormone, the pollution examination and the test of sensitivity to virus etc. A new human ovarian carcinoma cell line, designated ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma 685 (OMC685), was established from mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. This cell line had subcultured to 91 generations, and some had been frozen for 8 years and revived, still grew well. This cell line possessed the feature of glandular epithelium cancer cell. The cells grew exuberantly, and the agglutinating test of PHA was positive. Karyotype was subtriploid with distortion. Heterotransplantations, alcian blue periobic acid-schiff (AbPAS), mucicarmine, alcian blue stainings, estradiol (E2) and progesterone were all positive. Without being polluted, it was sensitive to polivirus-I, adenovirus 7 and measles virus. OMC685 is a distinct human ovarian tumous cell line.

  13. Pattern of HER-2 Gene Amplification and Protein Expression in Benign, Borderline, and Malignant Ovarian Serous and Mucinous Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Rabab A A; Makboul, Rania; Elsers, Dalia A H; Elsaba, Tarek M A M; Thalab, Abeer M A B; Shaaban, Omar M

    2017-01-01

    Amplification of HER-2 gene and overexpression of HER-2 receptor play a significant role in the progression of a number of malignancies such as breast cancer. Trastuzumab (anti-HER-2 therapeutic agent) has been used successfully in treatment of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of HER-2 gene amplification and of HER-2 receptor expression in a spectrum of serous and mucinous ovarian tumors to determine whether HER-2 is altered in these neoplasms similar to that occurring in breast cancer. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded microarray tissue sections from 212 specimens were stained with HER-2 antibody using immunohistochemistry and with anti-HER-2 DNA probe using chromogenic in situ hybridization. Specimens consisted of 65 benign tumors (50 serous and 15 mucinous), 26 borderline (13 serous and 13 mucinous), 73 malignant tumors (53 serous carcinoma and 20 mucinous carcinoma), 18 metastatic deposits (13 serous and 5 mucinous), in addition to 30 normal tissues (16 ovarian surface and 14 normal fallopian tube). HER-2 protein-positive expression was not detected in the normal or the benign tissues. Borderline neoplasms showed positive staining, but no overexpression. HER-2 overexpression was seen only in 4 carcinoma specimens: 1/53 (1.8%) primary serous carcinomas and 3/20 (15%) primary mucinous carcinomas. HER-2 gene amplification was seen in 4 specimens: 2 primary mucinous carcinomas and 2 malignant deposits of these 2 mucinous carcinomas. In conclusion, alteration of HER-2 was not detected in ovarian serous neoplasms; however, in mucinous carcinoma, HER-2 amplification and overexpression occur.

  14. Expression and Mutational Analysis of c-kit in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung-Hoon; Park, Tae-In; Bae, Han-Ik

    2006-01-01

    Coexpression of Kit ligand and c-kit has been reported in some gynecologic tumors. To determine whether imatinib mesylate is useful in ovarian epithelial tumors, we performed immunohistochemical and mutational analysis. The cases consisted of 33 cases, which included 13 serous cystadenocarcinomas, 1 borderline serous tumor, 8 mucinous cystadenocarcinomas, 6 borderline mucinous tumors and 5 clear cell carcinomas. Five cases of serous cystadenoma and 5 cases of mucinous cystadenoma were also included. In the immunohistochemical study, 3 cases (3/6, 50%) of borderline mucinous cystic tumor and two cases (2/8, 25%) of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma show positive staining for KIT protein. Only one case (1/13, 7.7%) of serous cystadenocarcinoma had positive staining. On mutational analysis, no mutation was identified at exon 11. However, two cases of borderline mucinous tumors and one case of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma had mutations at exon 17. In these cases, the immunohistochemistry also shows focal positive staining at epithelial component. Although, KIT protein expression showed higher incidence in mucinous tumors than serous tumors, they lack KIT-activating mutations in exon 11. Thus, ovarian surface epithelial tumors are unlikely to respond to imatinib mesylate. PMID:16479070

  15. Low meprin α expression differentiates primary ovarian mucinous carcinoma from gastrointestinal cancers that commonly metastasise to the ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Heinzelmann‐Schwarz, Viola A; Scolyer, Richard A; Scurry, James P; Smith, Alison N; Gardiner‐Garden, Margaret; Biankin, Andrew V; Baron‐Hay, Sally; Scott, Carolyn; Ward, Robyn L; Fink, Daniel; Hacker, Neville F; Sutherland, Robert L; O'Brien, Philippa M

    2007-01-01

    Background Currently, no specific immunohistochemical markers are available to differentiate primary mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (MOC) from adenocarcinomas originating at other sites that have metastasised to the ovary, which may have an impact on patient management and prognosis. Aim To investigate the expression of two intestinal markers, galectin 4 and meprin α, in mucinous carcinomas of the ovary and gastrointestinal tract. Methods Using immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of galectin 4 and meprin α was investigated in 10 MOCs and in 38 mucinous adenocarcinomas of colon, pancreas, stomach and appendix, the most common sites of origin of ovarian metastases. Results Total cytoplasmic galectin 4 expression was relatively consistent between the different carcinomas. Membranous meprin α expression was significantly lower in MOCs compared with gastrointestinal carcinomas. Moreover, meprin α expression showed greater discrimination between the ovarian and gastrointestinal carcinomas than the cytokeratins CK7 and CK20, the current standard immunohistochemical markers used to determine the tissue origin of mucinous carcinomas involving the ovaries. Conclusions Meprin α is a useful additional marker in differentiating primary from secondary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the ovary. PMID:16822880

  16. Activity of chemotherapy in mucinous ovarian cancer with a recurrence free interval of more than 6 months: results from the SOCRATES retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Pignata, Sandro; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Scarfone, Giovanna; Scollo, Paolo; Odicino, Franco; Cormio, Gennaro; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Villa, Antonella; Mereu, Liliana; Ghezzi, Fabio; Manzione, Luigi; Lauria, Rossella; Breda, Enrico; Alletti, Desiderio Gueli; Ballardini, Michela; Lombardi, Alessandra Vernaglia; Sorio, Roberto; Mangili, Giorgia; Priolo, Domenico; Magni, Giovanna; Morabito, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Background Mucinous ovarian carcinoma have a poorer prognosis compared with other histological subtypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, the activity of chemotherapy in patients with platinum sensitive recurrent mucinous ovarian cancer. Methods The SOCRATES study retrospectively assessed the pattern of care of a cohort of patients with recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer observed in the years 2000–2002 in 37 Italian centres. Data were collected between April and September 2005. Patients with recurrent ovarian cancer with > 6 months of platinum free interval were considered eligible. Results Twenty patients with mucinous histotype and 388 patients with other histotypes were analyzed. At baseline, mucinous tumours differed from the others for an higher number of patients with lower tumor grading (p = 0.0056) and less advanced FIGO stage (p = 0.025). At time of recurrence, a statistically significant difference was found in performance status (worse in mucinous, p = 0.024). About 20% of patients underwent secondary cytoreduction in both groups, but a lower number of patients were optimally debulked in the mucinous group (p = 0.03). Patients with mucinous cancer received more frequently single agent platinum than platinum based-combination therapy or other non-platinum schedules as second line therapy (p = 0.026), with a response rate lower than in non-mucinous group (36.4% vs 62.6%, respectively, p = 0.04). Median time to progression and overall survival were worse for mucinous ovarian cancer. Finally, mucinous cancer received a lower number of chemotherapy lines (p = 0.0023). Conclusion This analysis shows that platinum sensitive mucinous ovarian cancer has a poor response to chemotherapy. Studies dedicated to this histological subgroup are needed. PMID:18761742

  17. Results of Fertility-Sparing Surgery for Expansile and Infiltrative Mucinous Ovarian Cancers.

    PubMed

    Gouy, Sebastien; Saidani, Marine; Maulard, Amandine; Bach-Hamba, Slim; Bentivegna, Enrica; Leary, Alexandra; Pautier, Patricia; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Genestie, Catherine; Morice, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    No series had been reported focusing on the results of fertility-sparing surgery in stage I mucinous ovarian cancers according to histotype (infiltrative vs. expansile). Investigating such outcomes was the aim of the present study. The present study was a retrospective analysis of patients treated conservatively with preservation of the uterus and contralateral ovary from 1976 to 2016. The pathology of the tumors was reviewed by two expert pathologists according to the 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) classification criteria. Oncologic and fertility results were analyzed. Twenty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, twelve with expansile and nine with infiltrative cancer. All patients had a unilateral tumor and underwent unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in one-step ( n  = 6) or two-step ( n  = 15) surgeries. All but one had complete peritoneal staging surgery based on cytology, omentectomy, and random peritoneal biopsies. Ten had nodal staging surgery. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages were IA ( n  = 9), IC1 ( n  = 6), and IC2 ( n  = 6); the nuclear grades were grade 1 ( n  = 9), grade 2 ( n  = 5), and grade 3 ( n  = 1). Two patients recurred (one expansile and one infiltrative type) 19 and 160 months after surgery, respectively. One stage IA, nuclear grade 2 expansile tumor recurred on the spared ovary; the patient remains alive. The other stage IA infiltrative tumor recurred as peritoneal spread; the patient is alive with disease. Six patients became pregnant; four with expansile tumors and two with infiltrative tumors. The type of mucinous cancer has no impact on the oncologic outcome in this series of patients treated conservatively. Fertility-sparing surgery should be considered for early-stage infiltrative-type tumors. According to the most recently updated World Health Organization classification guidelines, mucinous cancers should be classified as either expansile or infiltrative

  18. Experience-based surgical approach to pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms with ovarian-type stroma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chang Moo; Matsushita, Akira; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Matsuda, Yoko; Kim, Hyunki; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Lee, Woo Jung

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological characteristics of resected mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) with ovarian-type stroma and identify a surgical approach for MCN treatment, on the basis of Republic of Korean (Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea) and Japanese (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan) bi-institutional collaboration. The present study retrospectively reviewed 55 MCNs with ovarian-type stroma using pathological re-examination. Clinicopathological features and preoperative clinical parameters were evaluated to predict malignant alterations in MCNs. The proportion of surgically treated MCNs has recently been increasing. All patients included in the present study were female, with a mean age of 47.9±13.3 years. Mural nodules were noted in 8 patients (14.5%) and the mean cyst size was 6.1±4.2 cm. A total of 9 patients (16.4%) were identified to exhibit non-invasive mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. The number of patients with small tumors (R2=−0.079, P=0.038) and asymptomatic pancreatic MCNs (P=0.022) was significantly increased (P<0.05), which resulted in the more frequent application of minimally invasive surgery (P<0.001). During the follow-up period (mean, 51.6 months; range, 1.1–242.8 months), no recurrence or tumor-associated mortality was identified. The presence of mural nodules (P=0.002) and a tumor size ≥4.5 cm (P=0.027) were identified as potential clinical parameters for predicting malignant transformation. The significance of mural nodules in predicting malignant transformation was increased in large MCNs (≥4.5 cm) of the pancreas compared with small MCNs (<4.5 cm) (P=0.002). Overall, non-invasive pancreatic MCNs are not aggressive, and minimally invasive pancreatectomy may be an effective approach for suitable patients. PMID:29434957

  19. Puerperal Mastitis: a Reproductive Event of Importance Affecting Anti-Mucin Antibody Levels and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Daniel W.; Williams, Kristina; Vitonis, Allison F.; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Stuebe, Alison; Welch, William R.; Titus, Linda; Fichorova, Raina N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Test the hypothesis that puerperal mastitis may alter immunity related to the mucin (MUC) family of glycoproteins and lower risk for ovarian cancer. Methods In two case-control studies conducted in New England between 1998–2008, we examined the association between self-reported mastitis and ovarian cancer in 1,483 women with epithelial ovarian cancer and 1,578 controls. IgG1 antibodies against (MUC1) CA15.3 and (MUC16) CA125 were measured using electrochemiluminescence assays in a subset of controls (n=200). Preoperative CA125 was recorded in 649 cases. The association between ovarian cancer and mastitis was assessed using unconditional logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios, OR, and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Associations between mastitis and anti-CA15.3 and anti-CA125 antibodies and preoperative CA125 levels were evaluated using adjusted linear regression models. Results Prior mastitis was associated with a significantly lower risk for ovarian cancer: OR (and 95% CI) of 0.67 (0.48, 0.94) adjusted for parity, breastfeeding, and other potential confounders. The association was strongest with 2 or more episodes of mastitis; and risk declined progressively with increasing number of children and episodes of mastitis. Among controls, prior mastitis was associated with significantly higher anti-CA15.3 and anti-CA125 antibody levels and, among cases, with significantly lower preoperative CA125 levels. Conclusion Puerperal that mastitis may produce long-lasting anti-mucin antibodies that may lower the risk for ovarian cancer, plausibly through enhanced immune surveillance. Studying immune reactions related to MUC1 and MUC16 in the 10–20% of breastfeeding women who develop mastitis may suggest ways to duplicate its effects through vaccines based on both antigens. PMID:23925696

  20. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Stage III Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-08

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  1. Mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Metaxas, Georgios; Tangalos, Athanasios; Pappa, Polyxeni; Papageorgiou, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Background Mucinous cystic neoplasms arise in the ovary and various extra-ovarian sites. While their pathogenesis remains conjectural, their similarities suggest a common pathway of development. There have been rare reports involving the mesentery as a primary tumour site. Case presentation A cystic mass of uncertain origin was demonstrated radiologically in a 22 year old female with chronic abdominal pain. At laparotomy, the mass was fixed within the colonic mesentery. Histology demonstrated a benign mucinous cystadenoma. Methods and results We review the literature on mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery and report on the pathogenesis, biologic behavior, diagnosis and treatment of similar extra-ovarian tumors. We propose an updated classification of mesenteric cysts and cystic tumors. Conclusion Mucinous cystic neoplasms of the mesentery present almost exclusively in women and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenteric tumors. Only full histological examination of a mucinous cystic neoplasm can exclude a borderline or malignant component. An updated classification of mesenteric cysts and cystic tumors is proposed. PMID:19454018

  2. Successful pregnancy after mucinous cystic neoplasm with invasive carcinoma of the pancreas in a patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Holloman, Conisha; Carlan, S J; Sundharkrishnan, Lohini; Guzman, Angela; Madruga, Mario

    2017-07-11

    The incidence of invasive cancer within a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas varies between 6 and 36%. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and anovulatory infertility. One surgical treatment that can restore endocrine balance and ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome is partial ovarian destruction. Successful pregnancies following preconception pancreaticoduodenectomies (Whipple procedures) and chemoradiation to treat pancreatic neoplasms have been reported rarely but none were diagnosed with pre-cancer polycystic ovarian syndrome-associated infertility. Gemcitabine is an antimetabolite drug used for the treatment of pancreatic cancer that can have profound detrimental effects on oogenesis and ovarian function. Whether the ovarian destructive property of gemcitabine could act as a method to restore ovulation potential in polycystic ovarian syndrome is unknown. A 40-year-old white American woman with a history of pancreatic cancer treatment with a Whipple procedure and chemoradiation with gemcitabine had a successful pregnancy after years of pre-cancerous anovulatory infertility and polycystic ovarian syndrome. She received no fertility agents and delivered full term via a spontaneous vaginal delivery with no pregnancy complications. Gemcitabine treatment for pancreatic cancer may result in resumption of ovulation in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and these women should be counseled accordingly.

  3. MV-NIS Infected Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-31

    Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. Polyglutamate Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  5. MUC4 mucin-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition: a novel mechanism for metastasis of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, M P; Lakshmanan, I; Jain, M; Das, S; Chakraborty, S; Dey, P; Batra, S K

    2010-10-21

    The acquisition of invasiveness in ovarian cancer (OC) is accompanied by the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The MUC4 mucin is overexpressed in ovarian tumors and has a role in the invasiveness of OC cells. The present study was aimed at evaluating the potential involvement of MUC4 in the metastasis of OC cells by inducing EMT. Ectopic overexpression of MUC4 in OC cells (SKOV3-MUC4) resulted in morphological alterations along with a decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin (CK)-18) and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) compared with the control cells (SKOV3-vector). Also, pro-EMT transcription factors TWIST1, TWIST2 and SNAIL showed an upregulation in SKOV3-MUC4 cells. We further investigated the pathways upstream of N-cadherin, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), MKK7, JNK1/2 and c-Jun, which were also activated in the SKOV3-MUC4 cells compared with SKOV3-vector cells. Inhibition of phospho-FAK (pFAK) and pJNK1/2 decreased N-cadherin expression in the MUC4-overexpressing cells, which further led to a significant decrease in cellular motility. Knockdown of N-cadherin decreased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), AKT and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and inhibited the motility in the SKOV3-MUC4 cells. Upon in vivo tumorigenesis and metastasis analysis, the SKOV3-MUC4 cells produced significantly larger tumors and demonstrated a higher incidence of metastasis to distance organs (peritoneal wall, colon, intestine, stomach, lymph nodes, liver and diaphragm). Taken together, our study reveals a novel role for MUC4 in inducing EMT through the upregulation of N-cadherin and promoting metastasis of OC cells.

  6. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775 in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-04

    Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. Denileukin Diftitox Used in Treating Patients With Advanced Refractory Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, or Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-01

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  8. Mucinous metaplasia of breast carcinoma with macrocystic transformation resembling ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a case of synchronous bilateral infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Huang; Chaung, Chen-Rong

    2008-09-01

    Mammary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA) is a rare, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast that is virtually identical morphologically to MCA of the ovary, pancreas or appendix. Synchronous bilateral breast tumors, not uncommonly encountered in fibroadenoma and lobular carcinoma, are unusual in IDC. Reported herein is a primary MCA of the right breast coexisting with a bilateral ordinary IDC in a 55-year-old Taiwanese woman who underwent modified radical mastectomy of both breasts with bilateral axillary level I and II lymph node dissection. In the right breast a 2.5 cm unilocular mucus-filled cyst was found. It had complex papillae, some of which were supported by delicate fibrovascular stroma, lined by simple to slightly stratified columnar neoplastic epithelial cells with intracellular mucin and an abundance of intracystic extracellular mucin, coexisting with a low-grade ordinary IDC. In the left breast a high-grade ordinary IDC was discovered. The patient had undergone simple abdominal total hysterectomy for myoma uteri along with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 10 years previously. Based on pathological studies and a literature review, it is suggested that mammary MCA arises from mucinous metaplasia and macrocystic transformation of ordinary breast carcinoma. A brief discussion of bilateral breast cancers is also given.

  9. A6 in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-27

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Morphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Features of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Preetha

    2016-02-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors. The four most common subtypes are serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous carcinoma. Less common are transitional cell tumors, including transitional cell carcinoma and malignant Brenner tumor. While in the past these subtypes were grouped together and designated as epithelial ovarian tumors, these tumor types are now known to be separate entities with distinct clinical and biologic behaviors. From a therapeutic standpoint, current regimens employ standard chemotherapy based on stage and grade rather than histotype. However, this landscape may change in the era of personalized therapy, given that most subtypes (with the exception of high-grade serous carcinoma) are relatively resistant to chemotherapy. It is now well-accepted that high-grade and low-grade serous carcinomas represent distinct entities rather than a spectrum of the same tumor type. While they are similar in that patients present with advanced-stage disease, their histologic and molecular features are entirely different. High-grade serous carcinoma is associated with TP53 mutations, whereas low-grade serous carcinomas are associated with BRAF and KRAS mutations. Endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas typically present as early-stage disease and are frequently associated with endometriosis. Mucinous carcinomas typically present as large unilateral masses and often show areas of mucinous cystadenoma and mucinous borderline tumor. It must be emphasized that primary mucinous carcinomas are uncommon tumors, and metastasis from other sites such as the appendix, colon, stomach, and pancreaticobiliary tract must always be considered in the differential diagnosis. Lastly, transitional cell tumors of the ovary, specifically malignant Brenner tumors, are quite uncommon. High-grade serous carcinoma often has a transitional cell pattern, and adequate sampling in most cases shows more typical areas of serous carcinoma. Immunohistochemical

  11. Frequency of papillary tubal hyperplasia (PTH), salpingoliths and transition from adenoma to borderline ovarian tumors (BOT): A systematic analysis of 74 BOT with different histologic types.

    PubMed

    Horn, Lars-Christian; Angermann, Karolin; Hentschel, Bettina; Einenkel, Jens; Höhn, Anne Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOT) arise from cystadenomas and represent a transition step within the development of low-grade ovarian carcinomas (Type I tumors). That pathway mirrors the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence known for colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that papillary tubal hyperplasia (PTH) and salpingoliths may be associated with the development of BOT. To evaluate the frequency of the presence of benign cystadenoma and its transition to BOT in a given patient as well as the presence of PTH and salpingoliths we re-valuated in 74 consecutive cases of BOT with different histologic types. The majority of cases represented serous-BOT (60.8%), followed by mucinous BOT (25.7%), other histologic types were rare. 86.5% showed an adenoma-BOT sequence, which was seen in all mucinous BOT but was missed in 15.6% of serous BOT. Two cases had salpingoliths without associated PTH. PTH was seen in four out of the 74 (5.4%) BOT and occurred only in cases with serous histology. The vast majority of BOT represent a transition from benign cystadenoma to BOT in cases with mucinous and serous histology. Salpingoliths are rarely seen in association with BOT and occurred exclusively in BOT with serous histology. PTH may represent a distinct lesion but is rarely seen in association with BOT, especially in those with non-serous histology. Further studies are needed to evaluate the frequency and pathogenetic association of PTH with BOT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride or Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  13. Large Omental Cystic Lymphangioma Masquerading as Mucinous Ovarian Neoplasia in an 8-Year-Old Premenarchal Girl: The Findings from Diagnostic Imaging and Laparoscopic-Assisted Excision.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Akihiro; Ito, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Hiromi

    2017-12-01

    Omental cystic lymphangioma is an extremely rare abdominal mass caused by congenital malformation. An 8-year-old premenarchal girl reported abdominal pain. Diagnostic imaging revealed a large multicystic mass measuring 22 cm in diameter, which occupied the entire abdominal cavity with ascites. Emergency laparoscopy revealed a ruptured large cystic mass originating from the greater omentum; this was followed by successful laparoscopic-assisted excision. The pathological diagnosis was omental cystic lymphangioma. The present findings show that omental cystic lymphangioma masquerading as mucinous ovarian neoplasia was a rare cause of acute abdominal events in a young girl. The present case shows that minimally invasive surgery can be a feasible option, which might achieve a favorable outcome in a young patient with an omental cystic lymphangioma. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Giant serous cystadenoma arising from an accessory ovary in a morbidly obese 11-year-old girl: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sharatz, Steven M; Treviño, Taína A; Rodriguez, Luís; West, Jared H

    2008-01-18

    Ectopic ovarian tissue is an unusual entity, especially if it is an isolated finding thought to be of embryological origin. An 11-year-old, morbidly obese female presented with left flank pain, nausea, and irregular menses. Various diagnostic procedures suggested a large ovarian cyst, and surgical resection was performed. Histologically, the resected mass was not of tubal origin as suspected, but a serous cystadenoma arising from ovarian tissue. The patient's two normal, eutopic ovaries were completely uninvolved and unaffected. A tumor arising from ectopic ovarian tissue of embryological origin seems the most likely explanation. We suggest refining the descriptive nomenclature so as to more precisely characterize the various presentations of ovarian ectopia.

  15. The sebaceous gland antigen defined by the OM-1 monoclonal antibody is expressed at high density on the surface of ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    de Kretser, T A; Thorne, H J; Jacobs, D J; Jose, D G

    1985-09-01

    A monoclonal antibody, designated OM-1, was raised against ovarian serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma (stage IV) cells. This antibody was found to react strongly with primary and metastatic ovarian serous cystadenocarcinomas and endometrioid carcinomas but the antigen detected was either absent or at very low levels in ovarian mucinous adenocarcinomas, clear cell carcinomas, benign serous and mucinous cystadenomas and Brenner tumours. The OM-1 antibody gave no detectable reaction with 93 other human tumours, including examples of breast and colon adenocarcinomas. In normal tissues the OM-1 antibody reacted with normal sebaceous gland cells, lung type II pneumocytes and placental syncytial trophoblasts. In the normal ovary OM-1 reactivity was confined to extremely weak staining of the surface epithelium. No reaction with any other ovarian cell type could be detected. No evidence of reaction with other normal cell populations present in 24 adult and seven foetal tissues was found. The antigen detected is compared with other ovarian tumour-associated antigens. The OM-1 antibody is likely to prove of value in the detection and diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma.

  16. Giant ovarian cyst masquerading as a massive ascites: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yeika, Eugene Vernyuy; Efie, Derrick Tembi; Tolefac, Paul Nkemtendong; Fomengia, Joseph Nkeangu

    2017-12-19

    Giant ovarian cysts are tumours of the ovary presenting with diameters greater than 10 cm. Giant ovarian cysts have become rare in recent days as they are diagnosed and managed early due to the availability of good imaging modalities. The aim of this case report is to show how a huge cystic ovarian mass can mislead the diagnosis of ascites in a postmenopausal woman. Factors associated with late presentation of giant ovarian cysts in sub-Saharan Africa have also been discussed. We present the case of a 65-year-old grand multiparous woman who was referred to our centre with a grossly distended abdomen misdiagnosed as a massive ascites. Abdominopelvic ultrasound scan revealed a right giant multiloculated ovarian cyst. She benefited from a cystectomy with an uneventful postoperative stay. Histopathology revealed mucinous cystadenoma. Large cystic ovarian tumours can present masquerading as massive ascites and misleading diagnosis as in this case report. We report this case to increase the suspicion index of a large ovarian cyst in all women presenting with massive ascites.

  17. Isolation and characterization of ovarian cancer antigen CA 125 using a new monoclonal antibody (VK-8): identification as a mucin-type molecule.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, K O; Yin, B W; Kudryashov, V

    1997-05-29

    A new murine monoclonal antibody (MAb VK-8), detecting the CA 125 ovarian cancer antigen, was used to purify this antigen from OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells by affinity chromatography. The biochemical properties of the purified antigen are characteristic of a mucin-type glycoprotein: (1) the molecule is highly glycosylated (77% w/w), mainly with galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, and N-acetylgalactosamine, (2) the protein moiety is rich in serine, threonine and proline, (3) many of the serine and threonine residues are glycosylated, (4) the glycan chains are almost entirely O-linked, with core 2 [Galbeta1 --> 3(GlcNAcbeta1 --> 6)GalNAc] structures predominating and (5) these chains carry fucosylated Type 2 (Le(y) and Le(x) and H type 2) blood group structures. The antigen exhibited a very high m.w. (> 10(3) kDa) in aqueous buffer as well as in urea, but was degraded by proteolytic enzymes to smaller fragments that no longer reacted with the antibody. Although this result, and other immunochemical data, indicate that OC125, the original MAb to CA125, and VK-8 antibodies detect epitopes on the protein portion of the molecule, the involvement of carbohydrate cannot be ruled out. Further insight into the structure and function of the CA125 antigen will come from cloning the gene coding for the peptide backbone, and from more detailed carbohydrate structural analysis.

  18. Mucinous tumours of appendix and ovary: an overview and evaluation of current practice.

    PubMed

    Rouzbahman, Marjan; Chetty, Runjan

    2014-03-01

    Mucinous lesions of the appendix and ovary are commonly encountered in routine practice. There are several published classification schemes for appendiceal mucinous neoplasms with resultant inconsistent use of terms and clinical doubt. While nomenclature is more settled with regards to ovarian mucinous neoplasms, the difficulty here lies with distinguishing primary from secondary mucinous tumours. This review highlights the terminology and nomenclature for appendiceal mucinous tumours, the relationship with ovarian mucinous neoplasms and pseudomyxoma peritonei, and the features that assist in separating primary from secondary ovarian mucinous tumours.

  19. Presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its messenger ribonucleic acid in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ohno, T; Imai, A; Furui, T; Takahashi, K; Tamaya, T

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid and the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in human ovarian carcinoma known to have gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites and to be affected by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog. Human ovarian carcinomas surgically removed and human ovarian carcinoma cell lines were examined. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was determined by a radioimmunoassay and a bioassay. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using oligonucleotide primers synthesized according to the published human gonadotropin-releasing hormone sequence. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone was shown to be present in extracts of ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma sample (0.8 +/- 0.12 pg/mg of protein) and ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line SK-OV3 (0.92 +/- 0.17 pg/mg of protein) but not in the normal ovary and placenta. Two of two extract samples from individual cases evoked dose-dependent phosphoinositide breakdown in rat granulosa cells similar to that caused by authentic gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid was detected in two of two mucinous cystadenocarcinoma specimens, one of one serous cystadenocarcinoma, and SK-OV3 cells but not in the dysgerminoma, mucinous cystadenoma, and normal ovary and placenta. The demonstration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its messenger ribonucleic acid raises the possibility that gonadotropin-releasing hormone may play an autocrine regulatory role in the growth of ovarian carcinoma.

  20. B7-H4 overexpression in ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Tringler, Barbara; Liu, Wenhui; Corral, Laura; Torkko, Kathleen C; Enomoto, Takayuki; Davidson, Susan; Lucia, M Scott; Heinz, David E; Papkoff, Jackie; Shroyer, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    Despite great advances in therapeutic management, the mortality rate for ovarian cancer has remained relatively stable over the past 50 years. This study was designed to evaluate the expression of B7-H4 protein, recently identified as a potential molecular marker of breast and ovarian cancer by quantitative PCR analysis, in benign tumors, tumors of low malignant potential and malignant tumors of the ovary. Archival formalin-fixed tissue blocks from serous, mucinous, endometrioid and clear cell ovarian tumors were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for the distribution of B7-H4 expression, and staining intensity was measured by automated image analysis. Univariate analyses were used to test for statistically significant relationships. B7-H4 cytoplasmic and membranous expression was detected in all primary serous (n = 32), endometrioid (n = 12), and clear cell carcinomas (n = 15), and in all metastatic serous (n = 23) and endometrioid (n = 7) ovarian carcinomas. By contrast, focal B7-H4 expression was detected in only 1/11 mucinous carcinomas. The proportion of positive cells and median staining intensity was greater in serous carcinomas than in serous cystadenomas or serous tumors of low malignant potential, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.034, respectively). The median staining intensity was also significantly greater in endometrioid carcinomas than in endometriosis (P = 0.005). The consistent overexpression of B7-H4 in serous, endometrioid and clear cell ovarian carcinomas and the relative absence of expression in most normal somatic tissues indicates that B7-H4 should be further investigated as a potential diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

  1. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Hydrochloride in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Fatigue; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Pain; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  2. Belinostat and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Carboplatin or Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  3. Phosphorylated 4E binding protein 1: a hallmark of cell signaling that correlates with survival in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Castellvi, Josep; Garcia, Angel; Rojo, Federico; Ruiz-Marcellan, Carmen; Gil, Antonio; Baselga, Jose; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago

    2006-10-15

    Growth factor receptors and cell signaling factors play a crucial role in human carcinomas and have been studied in ovarian tumors with varying results. Cell signaling involves multiple pathways and a myriad of factors that can be mutated or amplified. Cell signaling is driven through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathways and by some downstream molecules, such as 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K). The objectives of this study were to analyze the real role that these pathways play in ovarian cancer, to correlate them with clinicopathologic characteristics, and to identify the factors that transmit individual proliferation signals and are associated with pathologic grade and prognosis, regardless specific oncogenic alterations upstream. One hundred twenty-nine ovarian epithelial tumors were studied, including 20 serous cystadenomas, 7 mucinous cystadenomas, 11 serous borderline tumors, 16 mucinous borderline tumors, 29 serous carcinomas, 16 endometrioid carcinomas, 15 clear cell carcinomas, and 15 mucinous carcinomas. Tissue microarrays were constructed, and immunohistochemistry for the receptors epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-erb-B2 was performed and with phosphorylated antibodies for protein kinase B (AKT), 4EBP1, p70S6K, S6, and ERK. Among 129 ovarian neoplasms, 17.8% were positive for c-erb-B2, 9.3% were positive for EGFR, 47.3% were positive for phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), 58.9% were positive for p-ERK, 41.1% were positive for p-4EBP1, 26.4% were positive for p70S6K, and 15.5% were positive for p-S6. Although EGFR, p-AKT, and p-ERK expression did not differ between benign, borderline, or malignant tumors, c-erb-B2, p-4EBP1, p-p70S6K, and p-S6 were expressed significantly more often in malignant tumors. Only p-4EBP1 expression demonstrated prognostic significance (P = .005), and only surgical stage and p-4EBP1 expression

  4. Primary Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma of the Breast: Cytologic Finding and Expression of MUC5 Are Different from Mucinous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Ji Hye; Hong, SoonWon; Koo, Ja Seung; Jeong, Joon

    2012-01-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA) in the breast is a rare neoplasm. There have been 13 cases of primary breast MCA reported. The MCA presents as a large, partially cystic mass in postmenopausal woman with a good prognosis. The microscopic findings resemble those of ovarian, pancreatic, or appendiceal MCA. The aspiration findings showed mucin-containing cell clusters in the background of mucin and necrotic material. The cell clusters had intracytoplasmic mucin displacing atypical nuclei to the periphery. Histologically, the tumor revealed an abundant mucin pool with small floating clusters of mucin-containing tumor cells. There were also small cysts lined by a single layer of tall columnar mucinous cells, resembling those of the uterine endocervix. The cancer cells were positive for mucin (MUC) 5 and negative for MUC2 and MUC6. This mucin profile is different from ordinary mucinous carcinoma and may be a unique characteristic of breast MCA. PMID:23323116

  5. Primary Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma of the Breast: Cytologic Finding and Expression of MUC5 Are Different from Mucinous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Ji Hye; Hong, Soonwon; Koo, Ja Seung; Jeong, Joon; Jung, Woo-Hee

    2012-12-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA) in the breast is a rare neoplasm. There have been 13 cases of primary breast MCA reported. The MCA presents as a large, partially cystic mass in postmenopausal woman with a good prognosis. The microscopic findings resemble those of ovarian, pancreatic, or appendiceal MCA. The aspiration findings showed mucin-containing cell clusters in the background of mucin and necrotic material. The cell clusters had intracytoplasmic mucin displacing atypical nuclei to the periphery. Histologically, the tumor revealed an abundant mucin pool with small floating clusters of mucin-containing tumor cells. There were also small cysts lined by a single layer of tall columnar mucinous cells, resembling those of the uterine endocervix. The cancer cells were positive for mucin (MUC) 5 and negative for MUC2 and MUC6. This mucin profile is different from ordinary mucinous carcinoma and may be a unique characteristic of breast MCA.

  6. Immunohistochemistry in the Diagnosis of Mucinous Neoplasms Involving the Ovary: The Added Value of SATB2 and Biomarker Discovery Through Protein Expression Database Mining.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Sarah; Wasserman, Jason K; Giassi, Ana; Djordjevic, Bojana; Parra-Herran, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Immunohistochemistry is frequently used to identify ovarian mucinous neoplasms as primary or metastatic; however, there is significant overlap in expression patterns. We compared traditional markers (CK7, CK20, CDX2, PAX8, estrogen receptor, β-catenin, MUC1, MUC2, and MUC5AC) to 2 novel proteins identified through mining of the Human Protein Atlas expression database: SATB2 and POF1B. The study cohort included 49 primary gastrointestinal (GI) mucinous adenocarcinomas (19 colorectal, 15 gastric, 15 pancreatobiliary), 60 primary ovarian mucinous neoplasms (19 cystadenomas, 21 borderline tumors, 20 adenocarcinomas), and 19 metastatic carcinomas to the ovary (14 lower and 5 upper GI primaries). Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarrays, scored and interpreted as negative (absent or focal/weak) or positive. Metastatic tumors were frequently unilateral (42.8% of tumors from lower and 40% of tumors from upper tract) and ≥10 cm (85.7% of tumors from lower and 80% of tumors from upper tract). CK7 was positive in 88.5% upper GI and 88.3% primary ovarian compared with 24.3% lower GI neoplasms. CK20 and CDX2 were positive in 84.8% and 100% of lower GI tumors, respectively; however, expression was also common in upper GI (CK20 42.8%, CDX2 50%) and primary ovarian neoplasms (CK20 65.7%, CDX2 38.3%). Conversely, SATB2 was more specific for lower GI origin, being positive in 78.8% lower GI but only 11.5% upper GI and 1.7% primary ovarian neoplasms. PAX8 expression was common in primary ovarian neoplasms (75% of all neoplasms, 65% of carcinomas); only 1 (1.5%) GI tumor was positive. MUC2 and β-catenin were frequently positive in lower GI tumors (96.9% and 51.5%, respectively). Estrogen receptor expression was only seen in primary ovarian neoplasms (13.3%). Nuclear premature ovarian failure 1B (POF1B) expression was seen in malignant tumors regardless of their origin. A panel including CK7, SATB2, and PAX8 separated primary from secondary GI neoplasms with up to

  7. A universal genetic testing initiative for patients with high-grade, non-mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer and the implications for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Bednar, Erica M; Oakley, Holly D; Sun, Charlotte C; Burke, Catherine C; Munsell, Mark F; Westin, Shannon N; Lu, Karen H

    2017-08-01

    Genetic counseling (GC) and germline genetic testing (GT) for BRCA1 and BRCA2 are considered standard of care for patients with high-grade, non-mucinous epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers (HGOC). We describe a universal genetic testing initiative to increase the rates of recommendation and acceptance of GC and GT to >80% for patients with HGOC at our institution. Data from a consecutive cohort of patients seen in our gynecologic oncology clinics between 9/1/2012 and 8/31/2015 for evaluation of HGOC were retrospectively analyzed. Data were abstracted from the tumor registry, medical records, and research databases. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate patient characteristics and GC, GT, and PARP inhibitor use. Various clinic interventions were developed, influenced by the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle method, which included physician-coordinated GT, integrated GC, and assisted GC referrals. A cohort of 1636 patients presented to the gynecologic oncology clinics for evaluation of HGOC during our study period, and 1423 (87.0%) were recommended to have GC and GT. Of these, 1214 (85.3%) completed GT and 217 (17.9%) were found to have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Among BRCA-positive patients, 167 had recurrent or progressive disease, and 56 of those received PARP inhibitor therapy. The rates of GC and GT recommendation and completion among patients with HGOC at our institution exceeded 80% following the implementation of a universal genetic testing initiative. Universal genetic testing of patients with HGOC is one strategy to identify those who may benefit from PARP inhibitor therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Pembrolizumab, Bevacizumab, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-03

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. Primary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the breast with endocervical-like mucinous epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong-Liang; Hu, Ji-Lin; Shao, Shi-Hong; Sun, Dong-Mei; Wang, Ji-Gang

    2013-12-01

    Primary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the breast is an extremely rare entity. To the best of our knowledge, only 17 patients have been described in the PubMed database. Here, we report a primary breast mucinous cystadenocarcinoma with endocervical-like mucinous epithelium in a 62-year-old woman. The patient was followed for 5 months without any adjuvant treatment and she continues to be disease free. Primary breast mucinous cystadenocarcinoma usually displays unique pathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics simulating its ovarian counterparts; it seems to have a good prognosis after complete resection.

  10. Primary Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma of the Breast with Endocervical-Like Mucinous Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dong-Liang; Hu, Ji-Lin; Shao, Shi-Hong; Sun, Dong-Mei; Wang, Ji-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Primary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the breast is an extremely rare entity. To the best of our knowledge, only 17 patients have been described in the PubMed database. Case Report Here, we report a primary breast mucinous cystadenocarcinoma with endocervical-like mucinous epithelium in a 62-year-old woman. The patient was followed for 5 months without any adjuvant treatment and she continues to be disease free. Conclusions Primary breast mucinous cystadenocarcinoma usually displays unique pathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics simulating its ovarian counterparts; it seems to have a good prognosis after complete resection. PMID:24550753

  11. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without Bevacizumab After Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-06

    Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  12. Determination of BRAF V600E (VE1) protein expression and BRAF gene mutation status in codon 600 in borderline and low-grade ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Sadlecki, Pawel; Walentowicz, Pawel; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszalek, Andrzej; Grabiec, Marek; Walentowicz-Sadlecka, Malgorzata

    2017-05-01

    Epithelial ovarian tumors are a group of morphologically and genetically heterogeneous neoplasms. Based on differences in clinical phenotype and genetic background, ovarian neoplasms are classified as low-grade and high-grade tumor. Borderline ovarian tumors represent approximately 10%-20% of all epithelial ovarian masses. Various histological subtypes of ovarian malignancies differ in terms of their risk factor profiles, precursor lesions, clinical course, patterns of spread, molecular genetics, response to conventional chemotherapy, and prognosis. The most frequent genetic aberrations found in low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and serous borderline tumors, as well as in mucinous cancers, are mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes. The most commonly observed BRAF mutation is substitution of glutamic acid for valine in codon 600 (V600E) in exon 15. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether fully integrated, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based Idylla™ system may be useful in determination of BRAF gene mutation status in codon 600 in patients with borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade ovarian carcinomas. The study included tissue specimens from 42 patients with histopathologically verified ovarian masses, who were operated on at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz (Poland). Based on histopathological examination of surgical specimens, 35 lesions were classified as low-grade ovarian carcinomas, and 7 as borderline ovarian tumors. Specimens with expression of BRAF V600E (VE1) protein were tested for mutations in codon 600 of the BRAF gene, using an automated molecular diagnostics platform Idylla™. Cytoplasmic immunoexpression of BRAF V600E (VE1) protein was found in three specimens: serous superficial papilloma, serous papillary cystadenoma of borderline malignancy, and partially proliferative serous cystadenoma. All specimens with the expression of BRAF V600E (VE1) protein were

  13. Mucosal Proliferations in Completely Examined Fallopian Tubes Accompanying Ovarian Low-grade Serous Tumors: Neoplastic Precursor Lesions or Normal Variants of Benign Mucosa?

    PubMed

    Wolsky, Rebecca J; Price, Matt A; Zaloudek, Charles J; Rabban, Joseph T

    2018-05-01

    Malignant transformation of the fallopian tube mucosa, followed by exfoliation of malignant cells onto ovarian and/or peritoneal surfaces, has been implicated as the origin of most pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma. Whether a parallel pathway exists for pelvic low-grade serous tumors [ovarian serous borderline tumor (SBT) and low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC)] remains to be fully elucidated. The literature is challenging to interpret due to variation in the diagnostic criteria and terminology for cytologically low-grade proliferations of the fallopian tube mucosa, as well as variation in fallopian tube specimen sampling. Recently, a candidate fallopian tube precursor to ovarian SBT, so-called papillary tubal hyperplasia, was described in advanced stage patients. The current study was designed to identify fallopian tube mucosal proliferations unique to patients with low-grade serous ovarian tumors (serous cystadenoma, SBT, LGSC) and to determine if they may represent precursors to the ovarian tumors. Fallopian tubes were thinly sliced and entirely examined microscopically, including all of the fimbriated and nonfimbriated portions of the tubes, from patients with ovarian serous cystadenoma (35), SBT (61), and LGSC (11) and from a control population of patients with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma (28), mature cystic teratoma (18) or uterine leiomyoma (14). The slides of the fallopian tubes were examined in randomized order, without knowledge of the clinical history or findings in the ovaries or other organs. Alterations of the mucosa of the fallopian tube were classified as type 1: nonpapillary proliferation of cytologically bland tubal epithelium exhibiting crowding, stratification, and/or tufting without papillary fibrovascular cores or as type 2: papillary alterations consisting of a fibrovascular core lined by a cytologically bland layer of tubal epithelium. A third abnormality, type 3, consisted of detached intraluminal papillae, buds, or nests of epithelium that

  14. [Pancreatic serous cystadenoma associated with pancreatic heterotopia].

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hedfi; Dorra, Belghachem; Hela, Bouhafa; Cherif, Abdelhedi; Azza, Sridi; Karim, Sassi; Khadija, Bellil; Adnen, Chouchene

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic heterotopias (HP) are rare. They can occur at any age with a slight male predominance. These lesions are usually asymptomatic and they are often found incidentally during upper or lower GI endoscopy or during the anatomo-pathological examination of an organ which was resected for other reasons; they can be isolated or associated with a digestive pathology. We report, through observation, the association of HP with serous cystadenoma of the pancreas discovered during examinations to identify the etiology of isolated abdominal pain. The aim of this study is to analyse clinical and histological features of this rare pathology.

  15. A Qualitative Study Comparing the Assay Performance Characteristics Between the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists HER2 Scoring Methods in Mucinous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Kuan; Lee, Ming-Yung; Lin, Wea-Lung; Wang, Yu-Ting; Han, Chih-Ping; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chao, Wan-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The remarkable success of trastuzumab and other newly developed anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) therapies in breast, gastric, or gastroesophageal junction cancer patients has supported us to investigate the HER2 status and its possible therapeutic implication in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is currently no standardization of HER2 scoring criteria in mucinous EOC. In this study, we aimed to compare both the assay performance characteristics of the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists scoring methods. Forty-nine tissue microarray samples of mucinous EOC from Asian women were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests using the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively. The overall concordance between IHC and FISH by the 2007 criteria was 97.92 % (kappa = 0.921), and that by the 2013 criteria was 100% (kappa = 1.000). The percentage of Her2 FISH-amplified cases showed an increasing trend significantly through their corresponding HER2 IHC ordinals by the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). After excluding equivocal cases, the specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (100%) were unchanged under either the 2007 or the 2013 criteria. The sensitivity (100%), negative predictive value (NPV) (100%), and accuracy (100%) of HER2 IHC were higher under the 2013 criteria than those (sensitivity 87.5%, NPV 97.6%, and accuracy 97.9%) under the 2007 criteria. Of the total 49 cases, the number (n = 4) of HER2 IHC equivocal results under the 2013 criteria was 4-fold higher than that (n = 1) under the 2007 criteria (8.16% vs 2.04%). Conclusively, if first tested by IHC, the 2013 criteria caused more equivocal HER2 IHC cases to be referred to Her2 FISH testing than the 2007 criteria. That decreased the false-negative rate of HER2 status and increased the detection

  16. Elesclomol Sodium and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-02

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. Cystic mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mucinous cystic tumors of the lung are uncommon, the preoperative pathologic diagnosis is difficult and their biological behavior is still controversial. We report the case of a patient with a clinically benign cystic lesion that post-operatively showed to be consistent with an invasive adenocarcinoma arising in a mucinous cystadenoma of the lung, We underline the difficulty of the clinical pre-operative diagnosis of this cystic neoplasia radiologically mimicking a hydatid cyst, and we report the negative TTF1 immunostaining potentially misleading in the differential diagnosis with metastatic mucinous carcinomas. Finallly, we evidence the presence of a pre-existing mucinous benign lesion suggesting early and complete resection of benign appearing lung cysts because they can undergo malignant transformation if left untreated or they can already harbor foci of invasive carcinoma at the time of the presentation. Even if a good prognosis, better than in other lung carcinomas, with no recurrrence or metastasis after complete surgical exicision, has been reported for cystic mucinous cystoadenocarcinomas, the follow-up showed an aggressive biological behaviour, with the early onset of metastasis, in keeping with P53 positive immunostaining and high Ki-67 proliferation index. PMID:21970610

  18. Allelic imbalance on chromosome 17p13 in borderline (low malignant potential) epithelial ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, K M; Hart, W R; Kennedy, A W; Belinson, J L; Casey, G

    1999-07-01

    Borderline epithelial ovarian tumors (BEOTs) possess clinical and pathologic features intermediate between cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas. Although the clinical and pathologic characteristics of BEOTs are well described, the molecular aspects are poorly understood. Three regions of loss of heterozygosity (often referred to as allelic imbalance [AI] when identified by polymerase chain reaction) on chromosome 17p13, one of which includes the p53 gene, have been implicated in the development of ovarian and breast cancers. To provide evidence that genes in these regions also may be involved in the development of BEOTs, we undertook a detailed analysis of AI at all three loci in BEOTs from 21 patients. Seventeen of the BEOTs were serous and four were mucinous. Five of 21 tumors (24%) had AI at one or more loci. Four tumors had AI using the D17S695 marker, two of which showed AI only at this locus. In addition, three tumors exhibited AI at the D17S654 locus, one of which showed AI only at this locus. These data suggest that there may be two tumor suppressor genes distal to p53 involved in the development of at least a subset of BEOTs. Peritoneal implants from a subset of serous BEOTs also were evaluated for AI and were found to be concordant with the primary tumor in all cases. Their genetic similarity is consistent with the implantation theory of peritoneal spread of serous BEOTs in these cases.

  19. Sargramostim and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Previous Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-24

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  20. Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab And Adjuvant Intraperitoneal Carboplatin in Treating Patients Who Had Initial Debulking Surgery for Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  1. Hepatobiliary cystadenoma can protrude and grow into the bile ducts.

    PubMed

    Gadzijev, E M; Pleskovic, A; Stanisavljevic, D; Ferlan-Marolt, V; Trotovsek, B

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the phenomenon and the potential reasons for protrusion and growth of hepatobiliary cystadenoma into the extrahepatic bile ducts in our patients, accomplished by a review of the data regarding hepatobiliary cystadenomas published elsewhere. In a retrospective open study conducted over the last eight years, five patients with hepatobiliary cystadenoma and one patient with hepatobiliary cystadenocarcinoma were operated on. All the patients were females aged between 25 to 61 years. Diagnostic procedures, laboratory, operative and histopathological findings and treatment were evaluated. Most of our patients were found to have hepatobiliary cystadenoma located in the left surgical liver. In three out of five patients with HBC mesenchymal stroma was histologically detected. In two of the three, protrusion and growth into the extrahepatic bile ducts was found. Considering the pathogenesis, location and the morphology of HBC, the mesenchymal stroma may present the competent potential for intraductal progression of the tumor. Radical excision should be performed for successful treatment of hepatobiliary cystadenomas, because of the potential for reoccurrence.

  2. [Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis. 2 case reports].

    PubMed

    Raimoldi, A; Berti, G L; Canclini, L; Giola, V; Leidi, G L; Maccaroni, A; Sironi, M; Veneroni, L; Bacchioni, A M; Assi, A

    1997-12-01

    Tumors of the epididymis are very rare. They are benign tumors in 75 per cent of the cases. Papillary cystadenoma represents 4-9 per cent of epididymal benign tumors. Often associated with the syndrome of von Hippel Lindau and infertility, histologically it can be confused with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We report two cases of papillary cystadenoma located in the head of the right epididymis, with no concomitance with the syndrome of von Hippel Lindau, cured by the removal of the neoplastic nodule. There was no recidivation, in confirmation of the neoplastic benignity.

  3. The unique case of foot drop secondary to a large ovarian cyst.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maleeha; Kumar, Aditaya; Thomson, Simon

    2014-08-01

    We describe the unique case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with right leg radiculopathy caused by an ovarian cyst mimicking lumbar pathology. A review of the literature shows that this is a rare case where a histologically confirmed benign ovarian cystadenoma (of indeterminate type) is shown to cause foot drop and radiculopathy.

  4. Paclitaxel, Polyglutamate Paclitaxel, or Observation in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-03

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  5. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel or Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine With or Without Bevacizumab as First-Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV or Recurrent Stage I Epithelial Ovarian or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-21

    Borderline Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  6. A case of Krukenberg carcinoma metastasized from colon cancer resembling mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary

    PubMed Central

    Shiono, Saori; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Arakawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takanori; Yao, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with bilateral ovarian carcinoma that had metastasized from the colon and mimicked primary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Macroscopically, both ovarian tumors were large, multiloculated cystic masses with abundant mucinous content. Histologically, they were lined with mucinous epithelium with mild to moderate nuclear atypia and showed stromal invasion and surface involvement. At first, the tumors were diagnosed as bilateral primary ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinomas. However, three months after surgery, a large villous tumor was discovered in the ascending colon by colonoscopic examination and was surgically resected. Histologically, the colonic tumor was a villous adenomatous tumor with invasive components of mucinous adenocarcinoma composed of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and exhibited abundant extracellular mucin production. As a villous adenomatous component was present in the mucosal area, the colonic tumor was considered a primary tumor. Therefore, the original diagnosis of bilateral ovarian tumors was revised for consistent with metastasis from the colon carcinoma, in line with the findings of immunohistochemistry and loss of heterozygosity analysis. This case highlights the importance of considering the possibility of metastatic tumors from the gastrointestinal tract in the diagnosis of mucinous ovarian tumors. PMID:24427362

  7. Overexpression or ectopic expression of MUC2 is the common property of mucinous carcinomas of the colon, pancreas, breast, and ovary.

    PubMed

    Hanski, C; Hofmeier, M; Schmitt-Gräff, A; Riede, E; Hanski, M L; Borchard, F; Sieber, E; Niedobitek, F; Foss, H D; Stein, H; Riecken, E O

    1997-08-01

    Mucinous carcinomas of the colorectum have been reported to overexpress the intestinal mucin MUC2. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this alteration is shared by mucinous tumours of the ovary, breast, and pancreas. A total of 40 breast carcinomas (22 of mucinous and 18 of ductal invasive type), 39 ovarian adenocarcinomas (16 mucinous, 23 serous), 47 colorectal carcinomas (25 mucinous and 22 non-mucinous), and 41 pancreatic adenocarcinomas (14 mucinous, 27 non-mucinous) were investigated by immunohistochemistry with the anti-MUC2 monoclonal antibody 4F1 and the expression pattern was ranked. MUC2 mucin is expressed in the normal colonic epithelium; in the normal epithelium of the breast, ovary, and pancreas, it was not detectable by immunohistochemistry or by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In agreement with previous reports, the colonic mucinous carcinomas differed significantly from the non-mucinous carcinomas by strong MUC2 expression. In all mucinous carcinomas of the ovary, breast, and pancreas, de novo expression of the MUC2 gene was observed, which differentiated mucinous and non-mucinous carcinomas of these tissues (P < 0.001). The overexpression or ectopic expression of the MUC2 gene exhibited by mucinous carcinomas of four organs indicates a common genetic lesion associated with the mucinous tumour phenotype.

  8. Granisetron, Aprepitant, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-24

    Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIC-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer Following Surgery and Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-12

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Tumor; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-11

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  11. Giant Syncytia and Virus-Like Particles in Ovarian Carcinoma Cells Isolated from Ascites Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Rakowicz-Szulczynska, Eva M.; McIntosh, David G.; Smith, McClure L.

    1999-01-01

    Ovarian cancer cells were isolated from ascites fluid of 30 different patients diagnosed with cystadenocarcinoma of ovaries. Large colonies of malignant ASC cells were observed during the first week of cell growth in vitro. Colony formation was followed by fusion of cells and formation of large multinucleated and highly vacuolated syncytia. In contrast, cells isolated from the ascites fluid produced by patients with benign mucinous cystadenoma of ovaries did not form syncytia. Nonmalignant Brenner tumor cells, isolated from the ascites fluid, also did not form syncytia. Syncytia, but not the nonmalignant tumor cells, were immunofluorescence stained with an anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 monoclonal antibody (MAb) and MAb RAK-BrI. Both MAbs recognized cancer-associated antigens RAK (for Rakowicz markers) p120, p42, and p25. Exposure of ASC cells to either the anti-HIV-1 gp120 MAb or MAb RAK-BrI inhibited syncytium formation. PCR with HIV-1 Env-derived primers revealed DNA sequences with over 90% homology to HIV-1 gp41 in syncytia and in ovarian cancer cells but not in normal ovary cells. Electron microscopic analysis revealed viral particles, hexagonal in shape (90 nm in diameter), with a dense central core surrounded by an inner translucent capsid and dense outer shell with projections. Negative staining detected membrane-covered particles (100 to 110 nm in diameter) in the cell culture medium. Incubation of normal breast cells with viral particles resulted in drastic morphological changes and syncytium formation by the transformed breast cells. The cytopathic effects of the identified virus resembled those of spumaviruses, which, in addition to their epitopic and genetic homology to HIV-1, might suggest a common phylogeny. PMID:9874674

  12. Giant syncytia and virus-like particles in ovarian carcinoma cells isolated from ascites fluid.

    PubMed

    Rakowicz-Szulczynska, E M; McIntosh, D G; Smith, M L

    1999-01-01

    Ovarian cancer cells were isolated from ascites fluid of 30 different patients diagnosed with cystadenocarcinoma of ovaries. Large colonies of malignant ASC cells were observed during the first week of cell growth in vitro. Colony formation was followed by fusion of cells and formation of large multinucleated and highly vacuolated syncytia. In contrast, cells isolated from the ascites fluid produced by patients with benign mucinous cystadenoma of ovaries did not form syncytia. Nonmalignant Brenner tumor cells, isolated from the ascites fluid, also did not form syncytia. Syncytia, but not the nonmalignant tumor cells, were immunofluorescence stained with an anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 monoclonal antibody (MAb) and MAb RAK-BrI. Both MAbs recognized cancer-associated antigens RAK (for Rakowicz markers) p120, p42, and p25. Exposure of ASC cells to either the anti-HIV-1 gp120 MAb or MAb RAK-BrI inhibited syncytium formation. PCR with HIV-1 Env-derived primers revealed DNA sequences with over 90% homology to HIV-1 gp41 in syncytia and in ovarian cancer cells but not in normal ovary cells. Electron microscopic analysis revealed viral particles, hexagonal in shape (90 nm in diameter), with a dense central core surrounded by an inner translucent capsid and dense outer shell with projections. Negative staining detected membrane-covered particles (100 to 110 nm in diameter) in the cell culture medium. Incubation of normal breast cells with viral particles resulted in drastic morphological changes and syncytium formation by the transformed breast cells. The cytopathic effects of the identified virus resembled those of spumaviruses, which, in addition to their epitopic and genetic homology to HIV-1, might suggest a common phylogeny.

  13. Bevacizumab and Intravenous or Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-25

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Recurrent mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ovary presenting as an inguino-labial hernia.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hur, H; Schachter, M; Mashiah, A; Lifschitz-Mercer, B; Pfeffermann, R

    1996-01-01

    We report a case of a 65-year-old woman who nine years previously had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophorectomy for a large ovarian cyst. During surgery the cyst had ruptured and some mucinous material had been spilled intraabdominally. Histopathological studies demonstrated the cyst to be a mucinous adenocarcinoma of low malignant potential. Appendectomy had also been performed due to an enlarged appendix, which proved to be a mucocoele. The patient had been lost to subsequent follow-up. Her current presenting symptom was a giant inguino-labial hernia of 25 cm diameter with two small skin perforations leaking a gelatinous discharge. Subsequent laparotomy and inguinal exploration have disclosed herniated small intestine with an attached metastatic multicystic mucinous adenocarcinoma. This case represents a case of borderline mucinous adeno-carcinoma-pseudomyxoma peritonei recurring in a unique pattern as a huge inguino-labial hernia, and serves to emphasize the possible consequences of spillage of ovarian cyst contents during surgery.

  15. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-28

    Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  16. Human lacrimal gland mucins.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Friedrich; Langer, Gesa; Hoffmann, Werner; Berry, Monica

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the lacrimal gland synthesizes mucins and whether they are changed with age or in cases of dry eye. Expression of mucins in human lacrimal glands was monitored by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, the presence and distribution of MUC1, -2, -4, -5AC, -5B, -6 and -7 in epithelia of the human lacrimal gland and its excretory duct system were assessed with antisera to mucin peptide cores. Thirty normal tissues from cadavers of different ages were tested, plus four with dry eye treated with artificial tears. Expression studies detected mRNAs for mucins MUC1, -4, -5AC, -5B, -6 and -7; whereas the MUC2 message was absent. The message for MUC4 was present in all four cases of dry eye, but only in six out of the 30 normal glands from individuals who did not receive artificial tears. MUC6 mRNA was detected only in about half of the investigated samples. Immunohistochemistry revealed membrane-bound MUC1 at the apical surface of acinar cells, absence of MUC2, MUC5AC associated with goblet cells of excretory ducts, MUC5B and -7 in the cytoplasm of acinar cells, and MUC7 also in epithelial cells of excretory ducts. MUC4 mucin was detected only in those individuals in which message was identified. In dry eyes, MUC5AC and -5B were localized in the same acinar cells; whereas MUC2 and MUC6 were not detectable. Dot-blot analysis clearly revealed increased amounts of MUC4, -5AC, and -5B in the glands of elderly women who received treatment for dry eyes. These results confirm that the human lacrimal gland synthesizes a spectrum of mucins; part of them might be correlated with age. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  17. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF A UNILATERAL RENAL CYSTADENOMA IN AN AFRICAN LION (PANTHERA LEO).

    PubMed

    Eustace, Ronan; Rubin, Jacob; Thompson, Kimberly A; Snowdon, Kyle; Sikarskie, James G; Monahan, Colleen; Smedley, Rebecca C

    2017-09-01

    A renal tubular cystadenoma was diagnosed in a 14-yr-old male African lion (Panthera leo). During a routine health evaluation, a left renal mass was identified via physical examination, radiographs, and abdominal ultrasonography. The mass was 30 × 15 cm in size and had a thin capsule with central hypoechoic fluid, suggestive of a perirenal cyst. An exploratory celiotomy with partial nephrectomy was performed without complications. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a thick fibrous capsule surrounding multiple, variable-sized cysts that markedly compressed the adjacent fibrotic and atrophied renal cortex. Immunohistochemical labeling for Aquaporin-1 and Tamm-Horsfall protein was consistent with a renal tubular cystadenoma of proximal tubule origin. Renal cystadenomas are an uncommon benign epithelial neoplasm. There are only two documented case reports in domestic cats. This report represents the first documentation, to the authors' knowledge, of a renal cystadenoma in a lion.

  18. Fascin and EMMPRIN expression in primary mucinous tumors of ovary: a tissue microarray study.

    PubMed

    Alici, Omer; Kefeli, Mehmet; Yildiz, Levent; Baris, Sancar; Karagoz, Filiz; Kandemir, Bedri

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expressions of fascin and EMMPRIN in primary malignant, borderline and benign mucinous ovarian tumors, and to investigate the relationship of these markers with tumor progression and their applicability to differential diagnosis. An immunohistochemical study was performed for fascin and EMMPRIN using the tissue microarray technique. Eighty-one cases were included in the study; there were 37 benign, 25 borderline and 19 malignant primary mucinous ovarian tumors. For each case, a total staining score was determined, consisting of scores for extent of staining and intensity of staining. The cases were allocated to negative, weakly positive and strongly positive staining categories, according to the total staining score. Both of the markers were significantly negative in benign tumors as compared with borderline and malignant tumors. There was no significant difference between borderline and malignant groups for both markers. Sixty-eight percent of malignant tumors were stained positive by fascin, while this rate was 40% for borderline mucinous tumors. All malignant tumors were strongly stained positive for EMMPRIN, while this rate was 92% for borderline mucinous tumors. The rest of the cases stained weakly positive. No significant difference in staining score was found between fascin and EMMPRIN expression. In ovarian primary mucinous tumors, fascin and EMMPRIN may play an important role in tumor progression from benign tumor to carcinoma. In that context, EMMPRIN and fascin expression may have potential application in the differential diagnosis of some diagnostically problematic mucinous ovarian tumors. However, the differential diagnostic applicability of EMMPRIN appears to be more limited than that of fascin due to its wide spectrum of staining in mucinous ovarian tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas developing during hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinji; Kawamura, Toru; Nakamura, Noriaki; Teramoto, Kenichi; Arii, Shigeki

    2007-05-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) containing estrogens is generally used to relieve climacteric symptoms and to prevent osteoporosis and coronary heart disease [1], however, there has been increasing evidence of the HRT as the risk of hormone-dependent neoplasms including breast cancer [2], uterine endometrial cancer [3], ovarian cancer [4], and even lung cancer [5]. Noteworthy is mucinous cyst neoplasms (MCNs) of the pancreas, characterized by mucin-producing columnar epithelium supported by "ovarian-like" mesenchymal stroma, occur mostly in females expressing estrogen receptors [6, 7]. Although several reports regarding the closed relationship between MCNs and pregnancy [8, 9] might imply potential sex hormone-dependency of the MCNs [10], no correlation has been reported. This is the first case report of malignant MCN developing during continuous HRT after hysterectomy.

  20. YKL-40 in Serum Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-21

    Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Neoplasm; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Transitional Cell Tumor; Ovarian Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  1. DNA Cytometry and Nuclear Morphometry in Ovarian Benign, Borderline and Malignant Tumors.

    PubMed

    El Din, Amina A Gamal; Badawi, Manal A; Aal, Shereen E Abdel; Ibrahim, Nihad A; Morsy, Fatma A; Shaffie, Nermeen M

    2015-12-15

    Ovarian carcinoma is a leading cause of death in gynecological malignancy. Ovarian surface epithelial serous and mucinous tumours are classified as benign, borderline, and malignant. The identification of borderline tumours most likely to act aggressively remains an important clinical issue. This work aimed to study DNA ploidy and nuclear area in ovarian serous and mucinous; benign, borderline and malignant tumours. This study included forty ovarian (23 serous and 17 mucinous) tumours. Paraffin blocks were sectioned; stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic and morphometric studies and with blue feulgen for DNA analysis. All four serous and six out of nine mucinous benign tumours were diploid. All eight serous and five mucinous malignant tumours were aneuploid. Nine of eleven (81.8%) serous and all three mucinous borderline tumours were aneuploid. There were highly significant differences in mean aneuploid cells percentage between serous benign (1.5%), borderline (45.6%) and malignant (74.5%) (p = 0.0001) and between mucinous benign (13.2%) and both borderline (63.7%) and malignant (68.4%) groups (p = 0.0001). There were significant differences in nuclear area between serous benign (26.191%), borderline (45.619%) and malignant (67.634 %) and a significant positive correlation between mean percentage aneuploid value and mean nuclear area in all serous and mucinous groups. We suggest that DNA ploidy and nuclear area combined, may be adjuncts to histopathology; in ovarian serous and mucinous benign, borderline and malignant neoplasms; identifying the aggressive borderline tumours.

  2. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  3. Advanced Stage Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Ovary is both Rare and Highly Lethal: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Zaino, Richard J.; Brady, Mark F.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michael, Helen; Greer, Benjamin; Bookman, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the ovary are uncommon and their biologic behavior uncertain. Retrospective studies suggest that many mucinous carcinomas diagnosed as primary to the ovary were actually metastatic from another site. A prospective randomized trial provided an opportunity to estimate the frequency of mucinous tumors, diagnostic reproducibility, and clinical outcomes. Methods A phase III trial enrolled 4000 women with stage III or IV ovarian carcinoma, treated by surgical staging and debulking, with randomization to one of five chemotherapeutic arms. Slides and pathology reports classified as primary mucinous carcinoma were reviewed independently by three pathologists. Cases were re-classified as primary or metastatic to the ovary according to two methods. Overall survival (OS) of reclassified groups was compared with each other and with that of patients with serous carcinomas. Results Forty-four cases were classified as mucinous adenocarcinoma at review. Using either method, only about one third were interpreted by the three reviewers as primary mucinous carcinomas. Reproducibility of interpretations among the reviewers was high with unanimity of opinion in 30 of the 44 (68%) cases. The median survival (MS) did not differ significantly between the groups interpreted as primary or metastatic, but the OS was significantly less than that for women with serous carcinoma (14 vs 42 months, p<0.001). Conclusion Advanced stage mucinous carcinoma of the ovary is very rare and is associated with poor OS. Many mucinous adenocarcinomas that are diagnosed as primary ovarian neoplasms appear to be metastatic to the ovary. PMID:20862744

  4. Giant multilocular cystadenoma of the prostate: a rare cause of huge cystic pelvic mass.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Deniz Cebi; Onal, Bulent; Mihmanli, Ismail; Kantarci, Fatih; Durak, Haydar; Demir, Hale; Cetinel, Bulent

    2012-03-01

    Giant multilocular prostatic cystadenoma is a rare benign tumor that evolves from the prostate gland. Obstructive voiding symptoms occur in all reported cases. These lesions do not invade adjacent structures. Preoperative radiologic evaluation can define the benign nature of the lesion. Here we report a case of large cystic lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging and sonographic findings that caused an extensive mass effect in the pelvis. When retrovesical, huge cystic lesions fill the pelvis completely in young men, with high levels of serum prostate-specific antigen, giant multilocular prostatic cystadenoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case of prostatic cystadenoma reported in the literature.

  5. Histopathologically proven mucinous cystadenocarcinoma metastatic to the choroid.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Robert H; Cohen, Victoria M; Rath, Pamela P; Luthert, Philip; Hungerford, John L

    2010-01-01

    To report the first case of conventional transcleral choroidal biopsy in the diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma metastatic to the choroid and to summarize the published cases of ovarian carcinoma metastatic to the choroid. Case report and Medline literature review. This is the tenth case reported in the literature and the only case that underwent conventional transcleral choroidal biopsy. Transcleral choroidal biopsy allowed the diagnosis of metastatic mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary. Choroidal metastases are not associated with central nervous system involvement; however, investigations may reveal distal boney or pulmonary metastases. Ovarian carcinoma rarely metastases to the choroid and unlike breast carcinoma, concurrent central nervous system disease has not been reported. When systemic investigations fail to reveal active intraperitoneal disease or distal metastases, the clinician should consider referral to an ocular oncology center for a choroidal biopsy.

  6. Epigenetic alteration of p16 and retinoic acid receptor beta genes in the development of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Rahul; Kumar, Sandeep Sriram; Vaderhobli, Shilpa; Premalata, Chennagiri S; Pallavi, Venkateshaiah Reddihalli; Ramesh, Gawari; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2014-09-01

    Silencing of tumor suppressor and tumor-related genes by promoter hypermethylation is one of the major events in ovarian carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed aberrant promoter methylation of p16 and RAR-β genes in 134 epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs), 23 low malignant potential (LMP) tumors, 26 benign cystadenomas, and 15 normal ovarian tissues. Methylation was investigated by methylation-specific PCR (MSP), and the results were confirmed by bisulfite DNA sequencing. Relative gene expression of p16 and RAR-β was done using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) on 51 EOC cases, 9 LMP tumors, and 7 benign cystadenomas with 5 normal ovarian tissues. Aberrant methylation for p16 and RAR-β was present in 43 % (58/134) and 31 % (41/134) in carcinoma cases, 22 % (05/23) and 52 % (12/23) in LMP tumors, and 42 % (11/26) and 69 % (18/26) in benign cystadenomas. No methylation was observed in any of the normal ovarian tissues. The mRNA expression level of p16 and RAR-β was significantly downregulated in EOC and LMP tumors than the corresponding normal tissues whereas the expression level was normal in benign cystadenomas for p16 and slightly reduced for RAR-β. A significant correlation of p16 promoter methylation was observed with reduced gene expression in EOC. For RAR-β, no significant correlation was observed between promoter methylation and gene expression. Our results suggest that epigenetic alterations of p16 and RAR-β have an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis and that mechanism along with methylation plays a significant role in downregulation of RAR-β gene in ovarian cancer.

  7. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-23

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  8. Synchronous occurrence of appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma, with colon adenocarcinoma and tubulovillous rectal adenoma: Management and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Nakos, Georgios; Katikaridis, Ilias; Zografidis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal mucocele (AM) is a rare clinical entity comprising 8% of all appendiceal tumors, and it is seen in 0.2-0.3% of all appendectomy specimens. Apart from sporadic cases, there are no enough published data about the incidence of synchronous appendiceal tumors in patients with colorectal cancer. We describe a very rare case of synchronous occurrence of AM, colon adenocarcinoma, and tubulovillous adenoma of the rectum and review the relevant literature. We conclude that thorough preoperative and perioperative evaluations are mandatory in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer to exclude a synchronous colon or an appendiceal primary tumor. Larger prospective studies are necessary to accurately determine the incidence of synchronous appendiceal tumors and colorectal cancer.

  9. Synchronous occurrence of appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma, with colon adenocarcinoma and tubulovillous rectal adenoma: Management and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Salemis, Nikolaos S.; Nakos, Georgios; Katikaridis, Ilias; Zografidis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal mucocele (AM) is a rare clinical entity comprising 8% of all appendiceal tumors, and it is seen in 0.2-0.3% of all appendectomy specimens. Apart from sporadic cases, there are no enough published data about the incidence of synchronous appendiceal tumors in patients with colorectal cancer. We describe a very rare case of synchronous occurrence of AM, colon adenocarcinoma, and tubulovillous adenoma of the rectum and review the relevant literature. We conclude that thorough preoperative and perioperative evaluations are mandatory in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer to exclude a synchronous colon or an appendiceal primary tumor. Larger prospective studies are necessary to accurately determine the incidence of synchronous appendiceal tumors and colorectal cancer. PMID:27433069

  10. Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Relation to Benign Ovarian Conditions and Ovarian Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rossing, Mary Anne; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Noel S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Some forms of ovarian neoplasms may be preventable through the removal of precursor lesions. We assessed risk associated with a prior diagnosis of, and ovarian surgery following, ovarian cysts and endometriosis, with a focus on characterizing risk among tumor subgroups. Methods Information was collected during in-person interviews with 812 women with ovarian cancer diagnosed in western Washington State from 2002–2005 and 1,313 population-based controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The risk of a borderline mucinous ovarian tumor associated with a history of an ovarian cyst was increased (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.8) but did not vary notably according to receipt of subsequent ovarian surgery. While risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer was slightly increased among women with a cyst who had no subsequent ovarian surgery, it was reduced when a cyst diagnosis was followed by surgery (OR= 0.6, 95% CI 0.4–0.9). This reduction in risk was most evident for serous invasive tumors. Women with a history of endometriosis had a three-fold increased risk of endometrioid and clear cell invasive tumors, with a lesser risk increase among women who underwent subsequent ovarian surgery. Conclusions Our results suggest differences in the relation of ovarian cysts and endometriosis with risk of specific subtypes of ovarian cancer, as well as the possibility that ovarian surgery in women with these conditions may lower the risk of invasive disease. PMID:18704718

  11. Risk of borderline ovarian tumors among women with benign ovarian tumors: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Sonia; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K

    2018-01-01

    A growing number of studies suggest that some ovarian cancers can arise from benign and borderline ovarian tumors. However, studies on the association between benign and borderline ovarian tumors are lacking. We studied the overall- and histotype-specific risk of borderline ovarian tumors among women with a benign ovarian tumor. This nationwide cohort study included all Danish women diagnosed with a benign ovarian tumor (n=139,466) during 1978-2012. The cohort was linked to the Danish Pathology Data Bank and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Women with benign ovarian tumors had increased risks for subsequent borderline ovarian tumors (SIR 1.62, 95% CI 1.43-1.82), and this applied to both serous (SIR 1.69, 95% CI 1.39-2.03) and mucinous (SIR 1.75, 95% CI 1.45-2.10) histotypes of borderline ovarian tumors. The risk for borderline ovarian tumors was primarily increased for women diagnosed with a benign ovarian tumor before 40years of age. The risk remained increased up to 9years after a benign ovarian tumor diagnosis. Finally, the associations did not change markedly when analyzed for the different histotypes of benign (solid and cystic tumors) and borderline (serous and mucinous tumors) ovarian tumors. Women with benign ovarian tumors have a long-term increased risk for borderline ovarian tumors. However, as all associations in this study were only adjusted for age and calendar period of diagnosis, more studies that are able to adjust for additional potential confounding variables are required to further understand these associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast.

    PubMed

    Fahim, Lisa; Weinreb, Ilan; Alexander, Cherupushpam; Perez Ordoñez, Bayardo

    2008-09-01

    Salivary gland cystadenomas are cystic neoplasms with diverse architecture and cytology. Cystadenomas may have a considerable intracystic epithelial component, but an epithelial proliferation in small ducts and cysts resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast has not been documented. The patient was a 68-year-old man with a slow growing right submandibular mass. He has no recurrence 13 months after resection. The tumor was polycystic and measured 3.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm. The epithelium of the larger cysts was composed of flat, cuboidal, columnar, and apocrine-like cells. Many of the larger cysts showed "Roman bridges", epithelial tufting, and papillae. The smaller cysts and ducts had apocrine-like cells forming secondary glandular lumens. The ductal cells were surrounded by clear myoepithelial cells. Nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia was seen in the apocrine-like cells. Adjacent to the larger cysts, there was an adenomatoid proliferation of small ducts surrounded by myoepithelial cells. No mitotic activity, necrosis, or stromal invasion was identified. The ductal cells were diffusely positive for keratin 7 and androgen receptors with focal expression of keratin 19 and high-molecular weight keratin. S-100, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and BRST-2 were negative in the ductal cells. Recognition of a prominent intraductal epithelial component in cystadenomas is important to avoid a misdiagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma or low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Cystadenomas join the list of salivary gland lesions with microscopic similarities to primary lesions of the breast.

  13. Glycoprotein Mucin Molecular Brush on Cancer Cells and its Correlation with Resistance Against Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Shah, Aalok; Campbell, Robert; Wan, Kai-Tak

    2012-02-01

    Uptake of cytotoxic drugs by typical tumor cells is limited by the dense dendritic network of oligosaccharide mucin chains that forms a mechanical barrier. Atomic force microscopy is used to directly measure the force needed to pierce the mucin layer to reach the cell surface. Measurements are analyzed by deGennes' steric reputation theory. Multi-drug resistant ovarian tumor cells shows significantly larger penetration load compared to the wide type. A pool of pancreatic, lung, colorectal, and breast cells are also characterized. The chemotherapeutic agent, benzyl-α-GalNac, for inhibiting glycosylation is shown to be effective in reducing the mechanical barrier.

  14. A novel serum microRNA panel to discriminate benign from malignant ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Langhe, Ream; Norris, Lucy; Saadeh, Feras Abu; Blackshields, Gordon; Varley, Rachel; Harrison, Ashling; Gleeson, Noreen; Spillane, Cathy; Martin, Cara; O'Donnell, Dearbhaile M; D'Arcy, Tom; O'Leary, John; O'Toole, Sharon

    2015-01-28

    Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women and the most frequent cause of gynaecological malignancy-related mortality in women. Currently, no standardized reliable screening test exists. MicroRNA profiling has allowed the identification of signatures associated with diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment of human tumours. The aim of this study was to determine if a microRNA signature could distinguish between malignant and benign ovarian disease. A training set of 5 serous ovarian carcinomas and 5 benign serous cystadenomas were selected for the initial experiments. The validation set included 20 serous ovarian carcinomas and 20 benign serous cystadenomas. The serum/plasma focus microRNA Exiqon panel was used for the training set. For the validation set a pick and mix Exiqon panel, which focuses on microRNAs of interest was used. A panel of 4 microRNAs (let-7i-5p, miR-122, miR-152-5p and miR-25-3p) was significantly down regulated in cancer patients. These microRNAs target WNT signalling, AKT/mTOR and TLR-4/MyD88, which have previously been found to play a role in ovarian carcinogenesis and chemoresistance. let-7i-5p, miR-122, miR-152-5p and miR-25-3p could act as diagnostic biomarkers in ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunoperoxidase localization of a high-molecular-weight mucin recognized by monoclonal antibody 1D3.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, A; Bhattacharya, M; Chatterjee, S K; Barlow, J J; Tsukada, Y

    1985-04-01

    The distribution of an antigen recognized by murine monoclonal antibody 1D3 (Bhattacharya, M., Chatterjee, S.K., Barlow, J. J., and Fuji, H. Cancer Res., 42: 1650-1654, 1982) was investigated in various types of human malignant and normal adult tissues by indirect immunoperoxidase assay in fixed paraffin-embedded sections. One hundred percent of ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinomas expressed high levels of the antigen with intense staining of 80 to 100% of the tumoral area, thus confirming our previous finding with radioimmunoassay and absorption analyses. About 51% of colonic carcinomas, 33% of gastric carcinomas, and 22% of pancreatic carcinomas were also positive for this high-molecular-weight mucoprotein antigen. All other ovarian and nonovarian carcinomas tested including carcinoma of lung, breast, endometrium, cervix, and prostate were not stained by 1D3. In addition, sarcomas, melanomas, and lymphomas also did not express any detectable level of the antigen. When surveyed against various normal adult tissues, 1D3 had reactivity limited to the colon. Normal colon, however, exhibited reduced staining intensities compared to tumors or to the apparently normal colon adjacent to tumors. The antigen thus appears to be a colorectal tissue-specific antigen showing increased levels in ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinomas and in some gastrointestinal tumors. 1D3 antigen is a potential tumor marker for mucinous ovarian and colonic tumors.

  16. Ovarian tumor antigens.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, M; Barlow, J J

    1978-09-01

    Evidence has been reported for at least two common tumor-associated antigens, or antigenic determinants, in human cystadenocarcinomas of the ovary that are apparently absent in tissues of normal reproductive organs. These antigenic determinants are immunologically distinct from carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-fetoprotein, ferritins and histocompatibility antigens. One of these two ovarian cystadenocarcinoma-associated antigens (OCAA) is not detectable in any ovarian carcinomas except serous or mucinous types, other gynecologic or nongynecologic malignancies thus far tested, while the second antigen is present in about 90% of all gynecologic tumors and occasionally in breast and colon tumors. OCAA has been purified and partially characterized. It is a high molecular weight glycoprotein which carries the unique ovarian tumor-specific antigenic determinant along with some normal cross-reacting determinants. High levels of this glycoprotein antigen have been detected in the sera of ovarian cancer patients with advanced disease by the radioimmunoassay inhibition technique. The serial determination of circulating OCAA appeared to correlate with tumor volume as well as the clinical status of the patients.

  17. Transmembrane mucins as novel therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Pamela E; Danysh, Brian P; Dharmaraj, Neeraja; Carson, Daniel D

    2011-11-01

    Membrane-tethered mucin glycoproteins are abundantly expressed at the apical surfaces of simple epithelia, where they play important roles in lubricating and protecting tissues from pathogens and enzymatic attack. Notable examples of these mucins are MUC1, MUC4 and MUC16 (also known as cancer antigen 125). In adenocarcinomas, apical mucin restriction is lost and overall expression is often highly increased. High-level mucin expression protects tumors from killing by the host immune system, as well as by chemotherapeutic agents, and affords protection from apoptosis. Mucin expression can increase as the result of gene duplication and/or in response to hormones, cytokines and growth factors prevalent in the tumor milieu. Rises in the normally low levels of mucin fragments in serum have been used as markers of disease, such as tumor burden, for many years. Currently, several approaches are being examined that target mucins for immunization or nanomedicine using mucin-specific antibodies.

  18. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis.

  19. [Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Tu, Pin; Wang, Jian-jun; He, Yan; Yu, Bo; Wang, Hai; Shi, Qun-li

    2015-02-01

    To study the clinicopathological characteristics of papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis. Using routine pathology and immunohistochemistry, we observed the surgically obtained samples from 2 cases of papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis, analyzed their pathological features and clinical presentations, and reviewed the related literature. The 2 patients were both adult males. The tumors typically manifested as painless swelling in the epididymis, with occasionally dull pain and tenesmus in 1 of the cases. Pathologically, the lesions exhibited three morphological features, i. e., dilated ducts and small cysts surrounded by fibrous connective tissue, adenoid papillary hyperplasia into the cysts embraced by fibrovascular stroma, and acidophil substance present in the cysts. Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumors were strongly positive for CK8/18, CK7, and EMA, but negative for CK20, CEA, MC, Calretenin, P53, P63, SMA, VHL, and CD10, with the positive rate of Ki-67 <1%. Follow-up visits revealed good prognosis in both cases. Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis is a rare benign tumor in the male urogenital system, which may be accompanied by the VHL syndrome. Surgery is the first choice for its treatment.

  20. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Koenig, C; Tavassoli, F A

    1998-06-01

    Four unusual cases of primary mammary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma composed predominantly of tall columnar cells with abundant intracytoplasmic mucin are reported; they were multicystic and appeared virtually identical to mucinous cystadenocarcinomas of the ovary and pancreas. Three of the women were white and one was black, they ranged in age from 49 to 67 years (average 58), and they had tumors that ranged from 0.8 to 19 cm in diameter. Microscopically, the tumors were characterized by cystic spaces lined by predominantly bland-appearing columnar mucinous cells with stratification, tufting, and papillary formations. Varying degrees of cytologic atypia were focally evident, with gradual loss of the intracytoplasmic mucin and transformation to an eosinophilic squamoid cell population. Multifocal invasion generally emanated from these eosinophilic, squamoid areas in all cases. All four tumors displayed immunoreactivity for MIB-1 (Ki-67) in a relatively high percentage of cells and failed to show immunoreactivity for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. All four stained positively with cytokeratin 7 (CK7) but were negative with cytokeratin 20 (CK20). Mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection were performed in three cases and lumpectomy with lymph node dissection in the remaining case. Lymph node metastases, identified in only one patient, retained the distinctive morphology. Three of the patients are alive without evidence of disease 11, 22, and 24 months after the diagnosis; the fourth is a recent case. These tumors are a rare, clinicopathologically distinct type of primary breast carcinoma that should be distinguished from typical mucinous (colloid) carcinomas of the breast and, more importantly, metastases from other sites.

  1. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  2. DNA Cytometry and Nuclear Morphometry in Ovarian Benign, Borderline and Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    el Din, Amina A. Gamal; Badawi, Manal A.; Aal, Shereen E. Abdel; Ibrahim, Nihad A.; Morsy, Fatma A.; Shaffie, Nermeen M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKDROUND: Ovarian carcinoma is a leading cause of death in gynecological malignancy. Ovarian surface epithelial serous and mucinous tumours are classified as benign, borderline, and malignant. The identification of borderline tumours most likely to act aggressively remains an important clinical issue. AIM: This work aimed to study DNA ploidy and nuclear area in ovarian serous and mucinous; benign, borderline and malignant tumours. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included forty ovarian (23 serous and 17 mucinous) tumours. Paraffin blocks were sectioned; stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic and morphometric studies and with blue feulgen for DNA analysis. RESULTS: All four serous and six out of nine mucinous benign tumours were diploid. All eight serous and five mucinous malignant tumours were aneuploid. Nine of eleven (81.8%) serous and all three mucinous borderline tumours were aneuploid. There were highly significant differences in mean aneuploid cells percentage between serous benign (1.5%), borderline (45.6%) and malignant (74.5%) (p = 0.0001) and between mucinous benign (13.2%) and both borderline (63.7%) and malignant (68.4%) groups (p = 0.0001). There were significant differences in nuclear area between serous benign (26.191%), borderline (45.619%) and malignant (67.634 %) and a significant positive correlation between mean percentage aneuploid value and mean nuclear area in all serous and mucinous groups. CONCLUSION: We suggest that DNA ploidy and nuclear area combined, may be adjuncts to histopathology; in ovarian serous and mucinous benign, borderline and malignant neoplasms; identifying the aggressive borderline tumours. PMID:27275284

  3. [Analysis of familial aggregation of ovarian and breast cancer in patients with ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Y; Nishida, M; Sugita, M; Arisawa, Y; Satoh, T; Oki, A; Kohno, K; Shigemitsu, S; Tsunoda, H; Kubo, T

    1995-09-01

    In 118 patients with common epithelial ovarian tumors (carcinomas and tumors of borderline malignancy) treated at Tsukuba University Hospital and Tsukuba-Gakuen Hospital, family histories of ovarian and breast cancer were obtained from medical records or in interviews, and familial aggregation of these cancers was examined. 1. A positive family history was found in 10 patients (8.5%). The high incidences of familial ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer in patients who were previously affected with breast cancer were statistically significant. 2. Patients with serous adenocarcinoma showed a significantly greater rate of positive family history than those with mucinous adenocarcinoma. 3. No significant correlation was seen between the clinical stage and a positive family history. 4. Every patient except one with a positive family history had onset of ovarian cancer after menopause. The age at onset for familial ovarian cancer cases was younger than that for the patients' relatives who were affected previously. 5. There were 14 healthy women considered to be at high risk for ovarian cancer among 5 familial ovarian and 2 familial ovarian and breast cancer aggregations. These preliminary findings suggest that screening for early ovarian cancer should be conducted in high risk relatives of familial cancer patients and women affected with breast cancer previously. More detailed studies are needed to define the occurrence of familial or hereditary ovarian and breast cancers in Japan.

  4. The tear film and ocular mucins.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Harriet J; Kuonen, Vanessa J

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The trilaminar tear film, composed of the lipid, aqueous and mucin layers, has many functions including defending the ocular surface. The aqueous layer has several soluble antimicrobial factors that protect the ocular surface. Ocular mucins have recently been studied with regard to their role in the defense of the eye as well as in dry eye syndromes. To date, 15 mucin genes have been identified, and six of these mucin genes are localized to or secreted by ocular glands or epithelia. Understanding the production, secretion and function of ocular mucins will aid in the treatment of dry eye syndromes and ocular surface microbial infections.

  5. Structure and interactions of human respiratory mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdy, Kirstin; Sheehan, John; Rubinstein, Michael; Wong, Gerard

    2006-03-01

    Human respiratory mucin plays a crucial role in the pathology of Cystic Fibrosis lung infections. Mucin is a flexible, linear polyelectrolyte, characterized by its many charged oligo-carbohydrate side chains that give it its bottle-brush structure. The macroscopic properties of a mucin suspension are known to change drastically with changes in ion concentration and solution pH, but little is known about the effect of these variables on individual mucin structure. We present preliminary results on the structural response of individual human respiratory mucin molecules to variations in concentration of ions of different valences via small angle x-ray diffraction.

  6. Inovium Ovarian Rejuvenation Trials

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-18

    Perimenopausal Disorder; Menopause; Menopause, Premature; Menopause Related Conditions; Menopause Premature Symptomatic; Menopause Premature Asymptomatic; Premature Ovarian Failure; Premature Ovarian Failure, Familial; Premature Ovarian Failure 2A; Premature Ovarian Failure 3; Premature Ovarian Failure 4; Premature Ovarian Failure 1; Premature Ovarian Failure 5; Premature Ovarian Failure 6; Premature Ovarian Failure 7; Premature Ovarian Failure 9; Premature Ovarian Failure 8; Infertility; Infertility, Female; Infertility Unexplained

  7. Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma Co-Existing with Mature Cystic Teratoma : A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yeshvanth, Sunil Kumar; Shrinivas, Teerthanath; Agrawal, Tanu; Shetty, Jayaprakash K

    2015-01-01

    Co-existence of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma with mature cystic teratoma in the same ovary is very rare. We report a case in a 48-year-old female who presented with left abdominal mass. CT scan revealed a heterogeneous enhancing left ovarian mass lesion. Clinical diagnosis of complex ovarian cyst was made, later underwent laparotomy and histologically diagnosed as mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (grade 2) co-existing with benign cystic teratoma, stage Ia (FIGO) of the left ovary. Six months after surgery, the patient is doing well without any recurrence or metastasis. Hence, histopathological examination plays a significant role in accurate diagnosis and management of the patient. So, we should be aware of these rare co-existent tumours and meticulous dissection should be done to look for any synchronous tumours or malignant areas; since management and prognosis will vary significantly depending upon the microscopic type and stage. PMID:26393136

  8. Cigarette smoking and the risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer in a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Terry, P D; Miller, A B; Jones, J G; Rohan, T E

    2003-05-01

    Few cohort studies have examined the association between cigarette smoking and ovarian cancer risk, either overall, or by histological subtype. In relation to the latter, it has been suggested that mucinous ovarian tumours may be aetiologically unrelated to the other types of epithelial tumours and that their respective associations with cigarette smoking may differ. We examined the association between smoking and ovarian cancer risk using data from participants in a randomised controlled trial of screening for breast cancer involving 89,835 women aged 40-59 years at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During an average of 16.5 years of follow-up, we observed 454 incident cases of ovarian cancer (184 serous, 67 endometrioid, 32 mucinous, 171 other or unknown). We found that women who had smoked for several decades had an approximately two-fold increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Relative to never-smokers, women who had smoked for 40 years or more were at the highest risk (RR=2.50, 95% CI=1.37-4.56). The association with non-mucinous tumours was similar to that observed overall. For mucinous tumours, a two-fold increased risk was observed with smoking of shorter duration, although the number of mucinous tumours in our data-set was small. Long-term cigarette smoking may be associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian tumours.

  9. Krukenberg carcinoma metastasized from stomach resembling mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Doğanay, Melike; Topçu, Hasan Onur; Kokanalı, Mahmut Kuntay; Güzel, Ali I Rfan; Oskovi, Aslı; Akbay, Serap; Cavkaytar, Sabri

    2017-09-01

    The ovaries are common site of metastasis in a variety of primary neoplasms. Multiple tumors such as breast, lung, and pancreas have been reported to metastasize to the ovary, however; the colon and stomach are the most common primary cancer sites that of ovarian metastasis. An ovarian mass mostly originates from its self-tissue, but sometimes it can be a metastasis of a gastrointestinal system tumor. Such cases are often misdiagnosed as primary ovarian cancers. A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with pelvic pain. She had a history of her complaints for two months. Bilateral large ovarian mass was detected in transvaginal ultrasound. Laparotomy was performed, the pathologist suggested inspection of the stomach after the frozen section analysis; therefore, an irregular mass on the stomach was detected. The general surgeon was attended to the operation, and an inoperative stomach tumor was reported by the general surgeon. After that due to the partial obstruction of jejunum, a gastrojejunostomy was performed. It is in fact difficult to distinguish between metastatic mucinous carcinomas and primary mucinous carcinomas of the ovary, due to the similar appearance of as cystic tumors on gross examination. The clinicians should be aware of the likely concomitant gastrointestinal system tumor when a large and bilaterally mass was detected on physical examination. This case also reminds that a systemic examination is necessary even if the large ovarian tumors suspicious of primary malignancy were noticed.

  10. Krukenberg carcinoma metastasized from stomach resembling mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Doğanay, Melike; Topçu, Hasan Onur; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay; Güzel, Ali Irfan; Oskovi, Asli; Akbay, Serap; Cavkaytar, Sabri

    2015-01-01

    The ovaries are common site of metastasis in a variety of primary neoplasms. Multiple tumors such as breast, lung, and pancreas have been reported to metastasize to the ovary, however; the colon and stomach are the most common primary cancer sites that of ovarian metastasis. An ovarian mass mostly originates from its self-tissue, but sometimes it can be a metastasis of a gastrointestinal system tumor. Such cases are often misdiagnosed as primary ovarian cancers. A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with pelvic pain. She had a history of her complaints for two months. Bilateral large ovarian mass was detected in transvaginal ultrasound. Laparotomy was performed, the pathologist suggested inspection of the stomach after the frozen section analysis; therefore, an irregular mass on the stomach was detected. The general surgeon was attended to the operation, and an inoperative stomach tumor was reported by the general surgeon. After that due to the partial obstruction of jejunum, a gastrojejunostomy was performed. It is in fact difficult to distinguish between metastatic mucinous carcinomas and primary mucinous carcinomas of the ovary, due to the similar appearance of as cystic tumors on gross examination. The clinicians should be aware of the likely concomitant gastrointestinal system tumor when a large and bilaterally mass was detected on physical examination. This case also reminds that a systemic examination is necessary even if the large ovarian tumors suspicious of primary malignancy were noticed.

  11. Testing for NRAS Mutations in Serous Borderline Ovarian Tumors and Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Grzanka, Dariusz; Grabiec, Marek

    2018-01-01

    The Idylla NRAS Mutation Test, performed on the Biocartis Idylla system, is an in vitro diagnostic tool for the qualitative assessment of 18 NRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, 59, 61, 117, and 146. Low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSC) represents less than 10% of all serous ovarian carcinomas. LGSCs are believed to arise from preexisting cystadenomas or serous borderline tumors (SBOTs) that eventually progress to an invasive carcinoma. The molecular analysis of cancer-causing mutations and the development of targeted biological therapies constitute a milestone in the diagnosis and therapy of ovarian malignancies. According to some authors, NRAS may be an important oncogene for the progression of SBOT to a frankly invasive disease. The primary aim of this study was to verify if a fully integrated, real-time PCR-based Idylla system can be used for the rapid determination of the NRAS mutation status in patients with serous borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. The study included tissue specimens from 12 patients with histopathologically verified ovarian masses, operated on at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz (Poland), between January 2009 and June 2012. The mean age of the study patients was 52.5 years (range 27–80 years). NRAS mutation in codon 13 (G13D, p.Gly13Asp; nucleotide: c.38G>A) was found in one patient, a woman with low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, our experiment was the first published study using the novel Idylla NRAS Mutation Test for the evaluation of ovarian tumors in a clinical setting. The Idylla platform is an interesting ancillary first-line rapid and fully automated instrument to detect NRAS mutations in SBOTs and LGSCs. However, the clinical usefulness of this method still needs to be verified in larger groups of cancer patients. PMID:29682098

  12. A Postmenopausal Woman with Giant Ovarian Serous Cyst Adenoma: A Case Report with Brief Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mubarak Al Badi, Muna

    2018-01-01

    Giant (>10 cm) ovarian cyst is a rare finding. In the literature, a few cases of giant ovarian cysts have been mentioned sporadically, especially in elderly patients. We report a 57-year-old postmenopausal woman with a giant left ovarian cyst measuring 43 × 15 × 9 cm. She was referred to us from the local health center in view of palpable pelvic mass for six-month period. Considering the age and menopausal state, we performed a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with excision of the giant left ovarian cyst intact and successfully without any significant complication. On histopathological examination, the cyst was confirmed as benign serous cystadenoma of the ovary. During the management of these high-risk cases of multidisciplinary approach, intraoperative and postoperative strict vigilance is necessary to avoid unwanted complications. PMID:29850314

  13. Mesonephric (Wolffian) Pseudoendometrioid Carcinoma of the Broad Ligament, Arising From a Papillary Cystadenoma.

    PubMed

    Moerman, Philippe; Amant, Frederic; Vergote, Ignace

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the case of a 70-year-old woman with an adnexal cystadenocarcinoma located in the right broad ligament and displaying a striking resemblance to a well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The uniqueness of this pseudoendometrioid carcinoma lies in the fact that its mesonephric nature is revealed by the origin from a papillary cystadenoma of the broad ligament, where remnants of the mesonephric duct are seated, and the immunohistochemical profile, particularly a uniform negativity for estrogen and progesterone receptors, apical-luminal positivity for CD10, and strong nuclear positivity for GATA3. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Significance of mucin on the ocular surface.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hitoshi

    2002-03-01

    To review the significance of mucin in the tear film and the ocular surface epithelium. Summary of the information on how mucin derived from the corneal and conjunctival epithelia and from goblet cells plays a role in the stability of the tear film over the ocular surface. The change in mucin expression derived from the ocular surface epithelium is also discussed with reference to ocular surface disease. The corneal and conjunctival epithelia produce transmembrane mucins such as MUC1, MUC2, and MUC4. In contrast, goblet cells produce the gel-forming secretory mucin, MUC5AC. The lacrimal gland produces MUC7. On the ocular surface, cooperation between transmembrane mucin and secretory mucin is necessary for the stability of the tear film. The expression of mucin from the ocular surface epithelium is coordinated from the time of eyelid opening and is altered in conditions such as squamous metaplasia and dry eye. This alteration may result in instability of the tear film. CONCLU SION: The induction of mucin from the ocular surface may facilitate the stability of the tear film, and increased knowledge may lead to the development of a new modality for the treatment of dry eye.

  15. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and Veliparib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-22

    Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Tumor; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer AJCC V6 and v7; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  16. Mucin Binding Reduces Colistin Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Johnny X; Blaskovich, Mark A T; Pelingon, Ruby; Ramu, Soumya; Kavanagh, Angela; Elliott, Alysha G; Butler, Mark S; Montgomery, A Bruce; Cooper, Matthew A

    2015-10-01

    Colistin has found increasing use in treating drug-resistant bacterial lung infections, but potential interactions with pulmonary biomolecules have not been investigated. We postulated that colistin, like aminoglycoside antibiotics, may bind to secretory mucin in sputum or epithelial mucin that lines airways, reducing free drug levels. To test this hypothesis, we measured binding of colistin and other antibiotics to porcine mucin, a family of densely glycosylated proteins used as a surrogate for human sputum and airway mucin. Antibiotics were incubated in dialysis tubing with or without mucin, and concentrations of unbound antibiotics able to penetrate the dialysis tubing were measured over time using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The percentage of antibiotic measured in the dialysate after 4 h in the presence of mucin, relative to the amount without mucin, was 15% for colistin, 16% for polymyxin B, 19% for tobramycin, 52% for ciprofloxacin, and 78% for daptomycin. Antibiotics with the strongest mucin binding had an overall polybasic positive charge, whereas those with comparatively little binding were less basic. When comparing MICs measured with or without added mucin, colistin and polymyxin B showed >100-fold increases in MICs for multiple Gram-negative bacteria. Preclinical evaluation of mucin binding should become a standard procedure when considering the potential pulmonary use of new or existing antibiotics, particularly those with a polybasic overall charge. In the airways, mucin binding may reduce the antibacterial efficacy of inhaled or intravenously administered colistin, and the presence of sub-MIC effective antibiotic concentrations could result in the development of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Somatostatin receptors in differentiated ovarian tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reubi, J.C.; Horisberger, U.; Klijn, J.G.

    1991-05-01

    The presence of somatostatin receptors was investigated in 57 primary human ovarian tumors using in vitro receptor autoradiography with three different somatostatin radioligands, {sup 125}I-(Tyr11)-somatostatin-14, {sup 125}I-(Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25)-somatostatin-28, or {sup 125}I-(Tyr3)-SMS 201-995. Three cases, all belonging to epithelial tumors, were receptor positive; specifically 1 of 42 adenocarcinomas, 1 of 3 borderline malignancies, and 1 of 2 cystadenomas. Four other epithelial tumors (3 fibroadenomas, 1 Brenner tumor), 4 sex cord-stromal tumors (2 fibrothecomas, 2 granulosa cell tumors), and 2 germ cell tumors (1 dysgerminoma, 1 teratoma) were receptor negative. In the positive cases, the somatostatin receptors were localized on epithelialmore » cells exclusively, were of high affinity (KD = 4.6 nmol/l (nanomolar)), and specific for somatostatin analogs. These receptors bound somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 radioligands with a higher affinity than the octapeptide (Tyr3)-SMS 201-995. Healthy ovarian tissue had no somatostatin receptors. A subpopulation of relatively well-differentiated ovarian tumors, therefore, was identified pathobiochemically on the basis of its somatostatin receptor content. This small group of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors may be a target for in vivo diagnostic imaging with somatostatin ligands.« less

  18. Ovarian Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pregnancy can occur. Ovaries also make the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. When a woman goes through menopause, her ovaries stop making those hormones and releasing eggs. Problems with the ovaries include Ovarian cancer Ovarian ...

  19. Laparoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Lida P.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Schmidt, Kathy; Winkler, Amy M.; Korde, Vrushali; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Davis, John R.; Brewer, Molly A.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the US largely due to late detection secondary to unreliable symptomology and screening tools without adequate resolution. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a recently emerging imaging modality with promise in ovarian cancer diagnostics, providing non-destructive subsurface imaging at imaging depths up to 2 mm with near-histological grade resolution (10–20 μm). In this study, we developed the first ever laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) device, evaluated the safety and feasibility of LOCT, and characterized the microstructural features of human ovaries in vivo. Methods A custom LOCT device was fabricated specifically for laparoscopic imaging of the ovaries in patients undergoing oophorectomy. OCT images were compared with histopathology to identify preliminary architectural imaging features of normal and pathologic ovarian tissue. Results Thirty ovaries in 17 primarily peri or post-menopausal women were successfully imaged with LOCT: 16 normal, 5 endometriosis, 3 serous cystadenoma, and 4 adenocarcinoma. Preliminary imaging features developed for each category reveal qualitative differences in the homogeneous character of normal post-menopausal ovary, the ability to image small subsurface inclusion cysts, and distinguishable features for endometriosis, cystadenoma, and adenocarcinoma. Conclusions We present the development and successful implementation of the first laparoscopic OCT probe. Comparison of OCT images and corresponding histopathology allowed for the description of preliminary microstructural features for normal ovary, endometriosis, and benign and malignant surface epithelial neoplasms. These results support the potential of OCT both as a diagnostic tool and imaging modality for further evaluation of ovarian cancer pathogenesis. PMID:19481241

  20. Giant mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of ovary: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Katke, Rajshree Dayanand

    2016-01-01

    Giant cystadenocarcinomas of the ovary are rarely described. Huge ovarian masses are mostly benign, but malignancy should be ruled out by investigations and clinical assessment. Giant cysts require resection because of compressive symptoms or risk of malignancy and their management invariably requires laparotomy to prevent perforation and spillage of the cyst fluid into peritoneal cavity. Here, we present a case of a 42-year-old female with severe and rapidly growing abdominal distension operated for exploratory laparotomy for cystic mass excision. On histology, mass was found to be metastatic mucinous cystadenocarcinoma with omental metastasis. The diagnostic and management challenges posed by this unexpected and unusual presentation of an ovarian cystadenocarcinoma are discussed. The main aim of this report is to draw attention to huge ovarian epithelial cysts with unsuspected presentation contributing to a decrease in any underdiagnosis, misdiagnosis, and mismanagement that might occur. PMID:27134482

  1. Clinicopathologic features of ovarian neoplasms with emphasis on borderline ovarian tumors: an institutional perspective.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Atif Ali; Hussain, Zubaida Fida; Bhagwani, Aneel Roy; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Faridi, Naveen; Hussain, Syed Danish; Khan, Mehmood

    2016-04-06

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and it represents third most common malignancy in Karachi (after breast and oral cancer). Due to lack of well established cancer registry in our country, changing trends of ovarian tumors has not been determined. Therefore we aimed to establish the current trends and classification of ovarian tumors in our setup according to latest WHO guidelines. We retrospectively analyzed 162 cases of ovarian tumors that underwent surgical resection from January 2009 till December 2014. Specimens were received in histopathology department, Liaquat National hospital and cases were examined by senior histopathologists and classified according to latest WHO guidelines. Various histopathologic parameters including capsular invasion, omental and lymph node meatstasis along with uterine and fallopian tube involvement were determined apart from tumor type and grade. Mean age at diagnosis was 35.8 years (± 15.5). surface epithelial tumors were most common, 109 cases (67.2%) followed by germ cell tumors, 44 cases (27.1%) and sex cord stromal tumors, 8 cases (4.9%). Serous tumors were most common surface epithelial tumors with 90% benign morphology. On the other hand, mucinous tumors showed a higher percentage of borderline and malignant features (16.7 and 14.6% respectively). Higher incidence of capsular invasion and omental metastasis was noted in endometroid and serous carcinoma compared to mucinous tumors. We noted a higher frequency of young age ovarian cancers in our set up. Serous and endometroid carcinomas were found to be associated with adverse prognostic factors like capsular invasion and omental metastasis. Moreover a significantly higher proportion of ovarian tumors constitute mucinous histology including borderline tumors. Whether this represents a changing trend towards biology of these tumors in this part of the world needs to be uncovered by further studies.

  2. Detection of Hot-Spot Mutations in Circulating Cell-Free DNA From Patients With Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Berger, Andreas W; Schwerdel, Daniel; Costa, Ivan G; Hackert, Thilo; Strobel, Oliver; Lam, Sandra; Barth, Thomas F; Schröppel, Bernd; Meining, Alexander; Büchler, Markus W; Zenke, Martin; Hermann, Patrick C; Seufferlein, Thomas; Kleger, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are the most frequent cystic pancreatic tumors. Little is known about their molecular alterations, but mutations in GNAS have been reported to promote IPMN formation. A tumor-derived fraction of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA), isolated from blood samples, contains many of the same mutations as the primary tumor, and could be a tool for noninvasive disease monitoring. We found that the total amount of cfDNA can discriminate between individuals without pancreatic lesions (controls) and patients with Fukuoka-negative branch-duct IPMN or pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, we detected GNAS mutations in cfDNA from patients with IPMN, but not in patients with serous cystadenoma or controls. Analyses of cfDNA might therefore be used in the diagnosis of patients with IPMN or in monitoring disease progression. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mucin-based targeted pancreatic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Torres, Maria P; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Souchek, Joshua; Batra, Surinder K

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) patients is very poor with a five-year survival of less than 5%. One of the major challenges in developing new therapies for PC is the lack of expression of specific markers by pancreatic tumor cells. Mucins are heavily Oglycosylated proteins characterized by the presence of short stretches of amino acid sequences repeated several times in tandem. The expression of several mucins including MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC16 is strongly upregulated in PC. Recent studies have also demonstrated a link between the aberrant expression and differential overexpression of mucin glycoproteins to the initiation, progression, and poor prognosis of the disease. These studies have led to increasing recognition of mucins as potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets in PC. In this focused review we present an overview of the therapies targeting mucins in PC, including immunotherapy (i.e. vaccines, antibodies, and radioimmunoconjugates), gene therapy, and other novel therapeutic strategies.

  4. Three-photon imaging of ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Rice, Photini; Hatch, Kenneth; Kieu, Khanh

    2016-02-01

    Optical imaging methods have the potential to detect ovarian cancer at an early, curable stage. Optical imaging has the disadvantage that high resolution techniques require access to the tissue of interest, but miniature endoscopes that traverse the natural orifice of the reproductive tract, or access the ovaries and fallopian tubes through a small incision in the vagina wall, can provide a minimally-invasive solution. We have imaged both rodent and human ovaries and fallopian tubes with a variety of endoscope-compatible modalities. The recent development of fiber-coupled femtosecond lasers will enable endoscopic multiphoton microscopy (MPM). We demonstrated two- and three-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF, 3PEF), and second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy (SHG, THG) in human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue. A study was undertaken to understand the mechanisms of contrast in these images. Six patients (normal, cystadenoma, and ovarian adenocarcinoma) provided ovarian and fallopian tube biopsies. The tissue was imaged with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, multiphoton microscopy, and frozen for histological sectioning. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sudan black. Approximately 1 μm resolution images were obtained with an excitation source at 1550 nm. 2PEF signal was absent. SHG signal was mainly from collagen. 3PEF and THG signal came from a variety of sources, including a strong signal from fatty connective tissue and red blood cells. Adenocarcinoma was characterized by loss of SHG signal, whereas cystic abnormalities showed strong SHG. There was limited overlap of two- and three- photon signals, suggesting that three-photon imaging can provide additional information for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  5. Lubiprostone stimulates small intestinal mucin release

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid derivative of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) used for chronic constipation. The best known action of lubiprostone is simulation of Cl- dependent fluid secretion. In a mouse model of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, we previously showed that in vivo administration of lubiprostone resulted in greater mucus accumulation in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to directly test whether lubiprostone stimulates intestinal mucin release. Methods Mucin release was measured by mounting segments (4-5 cm) of mouse proximal-mid small intestine in an organ bath, allowing access to the perfusate (luminal) and the bath (serosal) solutions. Nifedipine (10-6 M) and indomethacin (10-5 M) were included in all solutions to inhibit smooth muscle activity and endogenous prostaglandin production, respectively. The tissue was equilibrated under flow for 30 min, using the perfusate collected during the final 10 min of the equilibration period to measure unstimulated release rate. Stimulus was then added to either the perfusate or the bath and the perfusate was collected for another 30 min to measure the stimulated mucin release rate. Mucin in perfusates was quantified by periodic acid-Schiff's base dot-blot assay, using purified pig gastric mucin as a standard. Results When applied luminally at 1 μM lubiprostone was ineffective at stimulating mucin release. When added to the serosal solution, 1 μM lubiprostone stimulated mucin release to ~300% of the unstimulated rate. As a positive control, serosal 1 μM prostaglandin E2 increased mucin release to ~400% of the unstimulated rate. Conclusions These results support the idea that lubiprostone has prostaglandin-like actions on the intestine, which includes stimulation of mucin release. Stimulation of mucin release by lubiprostone may be protective in gastrointestinal conditions where loss of mucus is believed to contribute to pathogenesis. Thus, in addition to chronic

  6. Lubiprostone stimulates small intestinal mucin release.

    PubMed

    De Lisle, Robert C

    2012-11-06

    Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid derivative of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) used for chronic constipation. The best known action of lubiprostone is simulation of Cl- dependent fluid secretion. In a mouse model of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, we previously showed that in vivo administration of lubiprostone resulted in greater mucus accumulation in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to directly test whether lubiprostone stimulates intestinal mucin release. Mucin release was measured by mounting segments (4-5 cm) of mouse proximal-mid small intestine in an organ bath, allowing access to the perfusate (luminal) and the bath (serosal) solutions. Nifedipine (10-6 M) and indomethacin (10-5 M) were included in all solutions to inhibit smooth muscle activity and endogenous prostaglandin production, respectively. The tissue was equilibrated under flow for 30 min, using the perfusate collected during the final 10 min of the equilibration period to measure unstimulated release rate. Stimulus was then added to either the perfusate or the bath and the perfusate was collected for another 30 min to measure the stimulated mucin release rate. Mucin in perfusates was quantified by periodic acid-Schiff's base dot-blot assay, using purified pig gastric mucin as a standard. When applied luminally at 1 μM lubiprostone was ineffective at stimulating mucin release. When added to the serosal solution, 1 μM lubiprostone stimulated mucin release to ~300% of the unstimulated rate. As a positive control, serosal 1 μM prostaglandin E2 increased mucin release to ~400% of the unstimulated rate. These results support the idea that lubiprostone has prostaglandin-like actions on the intestine, which includes stimulation of mucin release. Stimulation of mucin release by lubiprostone may be protective in gastrointestinal conditions where loss of mucus is believed to contribute to pathogenesis. Thus, in addition to chronic constipation, there is greater potential for the

  7. [Morphology of secondary ovarian tumors and metastases].

    PubMed

    Horn, L-C; Einenkel, J; Handzel, R; Höhn, A K

    2014-07-01

    The distinction between primary and secondary (metastatic) ovarian tumors is essential for the selection of appropriate surgical interventions, chemotherapeutic treatment and prognostic evaluation for the patient. Metastatic tumors of the ovary range between 5 % and 30 %. The majority of ovarian metastases in Europe and North America derive from colorectal (25-50 %) and breast cancers (8-25 %). A major issue is the differential diagnosis of mucinous tumors. Major features favoring metastasis include bilaterality, size < 10 cm, ovarian surface involvement, extensive intra-abdominal spread, and infiltrative growth within the ovary involving the corpus albicans and corpora lutea. An algorithm using bilaterality and tumor size (cut-off 10 cm) allows correct categorization in approximately  85 % of the cases. Although immunohistochemistry (especially CK7 and CK20 in mucinous tumors) using a panel of antibodies plays a valuable role and is paramount in the diagnosis, the results must be interpreted with caution and within the relevant clinical and histopathological context. It is necessary to note that the correct diagnosis of ovarian metastases always needs interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches.

  8. Mature Cystic Teratoma with Co-existent Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma in the same Ovary-A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sanjeet; Gupta, Mayank; Chandramohan, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Mature cystic teratoma co-existing with a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is an infrequently encountered entity with only a handful of cases reported till date. The possibilities in such a case are either a malignant transformation of a benign teratoma into adenocarcinoma or a collision tumor between a mature cystic teratoma and a mucinous tumour of either a primary ovarian surface epithelial-stromal origin or a secondary from a primary gastrointestinal tract tumour. The importance of distinguishing between the two entities has significant bearing on subsequent therapeutic management. We report a rare case of a mature cystic teratoma co-existing with a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in the same ovary in a 44-year-old lady. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) imaging of the left ovarian mass was suggestive of a teratoma but an intra-operative frozen section examination was reported as an adenocarcinoma with a cystic teratoma. Gross examination of the surgical specimen revealed a dermoid cyst with another multi-septated cystic lesion containing mucoid material. Histopathological examination showed a mature cystic teratoma and an associated well differentiated mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. The latter displayed a CK7-ve/CK20+ve immunoprofile. In absence of clinical, biochemical or radiological findings of a primary lower gastrointestinal tract tumour, the immunoprofile suggested the possibility of adenocarcinomatous transformation in a benign teratoma. PMID:28208869

  9. Mucinous breast carcinoma with tall columnar cells.

    PubMed

    Tsoukalas, N; Kiakou, M; Tolia, M; Kostakis, I D; Galanopoulos, M; Nakos, G; Tryfonopoulos, D; Kyrgias, G; Koumakis, G

    2018-05-01

    Mucinous carcinoma of the breast represents 1%-4% of all breast cancers. The World Health Organization classification divides this type of tumour into three different subtypes: mucinous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma with tall columnar cells (mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and columnar cell mucinous carcinoma) and signet ring cell carcinoma. A 74-year-old woman presented a tumour with inflammatory features in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast, 7 cm in diameter. The core biopsy showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma of no specific type. The tumour-node-metastasis clinical staging was T4cN3M0 (Stage IIIC). She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, underwent left mastectomy with radical axillary resection and subsequently received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed two solid tumors in the tail of Spence, which corresponded to adenocarcinoma with high columnar cells. The patient died 16 months after the diagnosis, suffering from pulmonary metastases and anterior chest wall infiltration. A review of the literature revealed only 21 reports of mucinous carcinoma of the breast with tall columnar cells, including our case. This is only the third time that the specific histological type of columnar cell mucinous carcinoma has been reported in the literature.

  10. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Arising in Multifocal Pharyngolaryngeal Oncocytic Papillary Cystadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Stenner, Markus; Müller, Klaus-Michael; Koopmann, Mario; Rudack, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We report on a rare case of a laryngeal carcinoma arising in a multifocal pharyngolaryngeal oncocytic papillary cystadenoma (OPC). The disease of a 63-year-old man is well documented by computed and positron emission tomography, histology, and electron microscopy. We could show that an OPC can even develop in the pharynx. The coexistence of both tumors makes this a challenging diagnosis for pathologists. Treated by surgery and radiotherapy, both lesions dissolved. Based on the literature available, we discuss the theory that the laryngeal carcinoma might be the result of a true metaplasia facilitated by chronic irritation and recommend a regular follow-up for OPC too. As in benign oncocytic lesions, we could show that the detection of numerous mitochondria is a diagnostic indicator for malignant variants as well. PMID:25211046

  11. Assay of mucins in human tear fluid.

    PubMed

    Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Argüeso, Pablo; Gipson, Ilene

    2007-05-01

    Mucin genes, both secreted (MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC7) and membrane associated (MUC1, MUC4, MUC16), have been reported to be expressed by ocular surface epithelia. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively assay the mucin content of human tear fluid using multiple antibodies for each mucin and to develop a sensitive, semi-quantitative method for the assay of mucins in tears. Tear washes were obtained by instillation of saline onto the ocular surface, followed by collection from the inferior fornix. Tear proteins were separated in 1% agarose gels, transferred to nitrocellulose membrane by vacuum blotting and probed with multiple antibodies recognizing MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC7 and MUC16. Binding was detected using chemiluminescence, and quantity was determined by densitometry. Serial dilutions of pooled tears from normal individuals were assayed to determine the linear range of detectability. MUC1, MUC4, MUC16, MUC5AC and low levels of MUC2 were consistently detected in human tear fluid, while MUC5B and MUC7 were not. Use of several antibodies recognizing different epitopes on the same mucin confirmed these findings. The antibodies to mucins bound to serial dilutions of tears in a linear fashion (r2 > 0.9), indicating the feasibility of semi-quantitation. MUC5AC in tear fluid had an increased electrophoretic mobility compared to MUC5AC isolated from conjunctival tissue. This study provides clear evidence that the mucin component of tears is a mixture of secreted and shed membrane-associated mucins, and for the first time demonstrates MUC16 in tear fluid. Immunoblots of tears using agarose gel electrophoresis and chemiluminescence detection provide a semi-quantitative assay for mucin protein that will be useful for comparisons with tears from diseased eyes or after pharmacological intervention.

  12. Assay of Mucins in Human Tear Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Argüeso, Pablo; Gipson, Ilene

    2007-01-01

    Mucin genes, both secreted (MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC7) and membrane associated (MUC1, MUC4, MUC16), have been reported to be expressed by ocular surface epithelia. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively assay the mucin content of human tear fluid using multiple antibodies for each mucin and to develop a sensitive, semi-quantitative method for the assay of mucins in tears. Tear washes were obtained by instillation of saline onto the ocular surface, followed by collection from the inferior fornix. Tear proteins were separated in 1% agarose gels, transferred to nitrocellulose membrane by vacuum blotting and probed with multiple antibodies recognizing MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC7 and MUC16. Binding was detected using chemiluminescence, and quantity was determined by densitometry. Serial dilutions of pooled tears from normal individuals were assayed to determine the linear range of detectability. MUC1, MUC4, MUC16, MUC5AC and low levels of MUC2 were consistently detected in human tear fluid, while MUC5B and MUC7 were not. Use of several antibodies recognizing different epitopes on the same mucin confirmed these findings. The antibodies to mucins bound to serial dilutions of tears in a linear fashion (r2 >0.9), indicating the feasibility of semi-quantitation. MUC5AC in tear fluid had an increased electrophoretic mobility compared to MUC5AC isolated from conjunctival tissue. This study provides clear evidence that the mucin component of tears is a mixture of secreted and shed membrane-associated mucins, and for the first time demonstrates MUC16 in tear fluid. Immunoblots of tears using agarose gel electrophoresis and chemiluminescence detection provide a semi-quantitative assay for mucin protein that will be useful for comparisons with tears from diseased eyes or after pharmacological intervention. PMID:17399701

  13. Biomimetic oral mucin from polymer micelle networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Authimoolam, Sundar Prasanth

    Mucin networks are formed by the complexation of bottlebrush-like mucin glycoprotein with other small molecule glycoproteins. These glycoproteins create nanoscale strands that then arrange into a nanoporous mesh. These networks play an important role in ensuring surface hydration, lubricity and barrier protection. In order to understand the functional behavior in mucin networks, it is important to decouple their chemical and physical effects responsible for generating the fundamental property-function relationship. To achieve this goal, we propose to develop a synthetic biomimetic mucin using a layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition approach. In this work, a hierarchical 3-dimensional structures resembling natural mucin networks was generated using affinity-based interactions on synthetic and biological surfaces. Unlike conventional polyelectrolyte-based LBL methods, pre-assembled biotin-functionalized filamentous (worm-like) micelles was utilized as the network building block, which from complementary additions of streptavidin generated synthetic networks of desired thickness. The biomimetic nature in those synthetic networks are studied by evaluating its structural and bio-functional properties. Structurally, synthetic networks formed a nanoporous mesh. The networks demonstrated excellent surface hydration property and were able capable of microbial capture. Those functional properties are akin to that of natural mucin networks. Further, the role of synthetic mucin as a drug delivery vehicle, capable of providing localized and tunable release was demonstrated. By incorporating antibacterial curcumin drug loading within synthetic networks, bacterial growth inhibition was also demonstrated. Thus, such bioactive interfaces can serve as a model for independently characterizing mucin network properties and through its role as a drug carrier vehicle it presents exciting future opportunities for localized drug delivery, in regenerative applications and as bio

  14. Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm Involving the Endometrium and Presenting with Mucinous Vaginal Discharge.

    PubMed

    Vavinskaya, Vera; Baumgartner, Joel M; Ko, Albert; Saenz, Cheryl C; Valasek, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Primary appendiceal mucinous lesions are uncommon and represent a spectrum from nonneoplastic mucous retention cysts to invasive adenocarcinoma. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) represent an intermediate category on this spectrum and can be classified according to whether or not they are confined to the appendix. Although LAMNs are frequently confined to the appendix, they can also spread to the peritoneum and clinically progress as pseudomyxoma peritonei (i.e., mucinous ascites). Thus, the appropriate classification of appendiceal primary neoplasia is essential for prognosis and influences clinical management. In addition, the precise classification, management, and clinical outcome of patients with disseminated peritoneal disease remain controversial. Here, we report an unusual case of LAMN with pseudomyxoma peritonei that initially presented with mucinous and bloody vaginal discharge. Pathological evaluation revealed low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm with secondary involvement of the peritoneum, ovaries, and endometrial surface. Therefore, LAMN should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mucinous vaginal discharge.

  15. Mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas: update on the surgical pathology and molecular genetics.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Zamboni, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) of the pancreas are primary pancreatic cyst-forming neoplasms that can be a precursor to invasive adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. MCNs occur almost exclusively in the distal pancreas of middle-aged women. MCNs typically show a "cyst-in-cyst" pattern of growth and are well encapsulated by a thick fibrous wall. MCNs are composed of mucin-producing neoplastic epithelial cells and "ovarian-type" subepithelial stroma. The epithelium is dysplastic and the grade can range from low to high grade; some MCNs have an associated invasive carcinoma. It is this associated invasive carcinoma that determines prognosis. MCNs harbor several characteristic genetic and epigenetic alterations, some of which are shared with conventional invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, several studies reveal characteristic patterns of gene expression in the ovarian-type stroma that suggest steroidogenesis in the ovarian-type stroma. Better knowledge of the molecular alterations could help in the management of patients with this type of precursor of invasive carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors by Histologic Subtype: An Analysis From the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Poole, Elizabeth M; Trabert, Britton; White, Emily; Arslan, Alan A; Patel, Alpa V; Setiawan, V Wendy; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans-Olov; Black, Amanda; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A; Buring, Julie; Butler, Lesley M; Chamosa, Saioa; Clendenen, Tess V; Dossus, Laure; Fortner, Renee; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Gram, Inger T; Hartge, Patricia; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Idahl, Annika; Jones, Michael; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kirsh, Victoria; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lacey, James V; Lee, I-Min; Lundin, Eva; Merritt, Melissa A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peters, Ulrike; Poynter, Jenny N; Rinaldi, Sabina; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas; Sandler, Dale P; Schairer, Catherine; Schouten, Leo J; Sjöholm, Louise K; Sieri, Sabina; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tjonneland, Anna; Travis, Ruth; Trichopoulou, Antonia; van den Brandt, Piet A; Wilkens, Lynne; Wolk, Alicja; Yang, Hannah P; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2016-08-20

    An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer is important for improving prevention, early detection, and therapeutic approaches. We evaluated 14 hormonal, reproductive, and lifestyle factors by histologic subtype in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3). Among 1.3 million women from 21 studies, 5,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified (3,378 serous, 606 endometrioid, 331 mucinous, 269 clear cell, 1,000 other). By using competing-risks Cox proportional hazards regression stratified by study and birth year and adjusted for age, parity, and oral contraceptive use, we assessed associations for all invasive cancers by histology. Heterogeneity was evaluated by likelihood ratio test. Most risk factors exhibited significant heterogeneity by histology. Higher parity was most strongly associated with endometrioid (relative risk [RR] per birth, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.83) and clear cell (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.76) carcinomas (P value for heterogeneity [P-het] < .001). Similarly, age at menopause, endometriosis, and tubal ligation were only associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumors (P-het ≤ .01). Family history of breast cancer (P-het = .008) had modest heterogeneity. Smoking was associated with an increased risk of mucinous (RR per 20 pack-years, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.46) but a decreased risk of clear cell (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.94) tumors (P-het = .004). Unsupervised clustering by risk factors separated endometrioid, clear cell, and low-grade serous carcinomas from high-grade serous and mucinous carcinomas. The heterogeneous associations of risk factors with ovarian cancer subtypes emphasize the importance of conducting etiologic studies by ovarian cancer subtypes. Most established risk factors were more strongly associated with nonserous carcinomas, which demonstrate challenges for risk prediction of serous cancers, the most fatal subtype. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors by Histologic Subtype: An Analysis From the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Elizabeth M.; Trabert, Britton; White, Emily; Arslan, Alan A.; Patel, Alpa V.; Setiawan, V. Wendy; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans-Olov; Black, Amanda; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A.; Buring, Julie; Butler, Lesley M.; Chamosa, Saioa; Clendenen, Tess V.; Dossus, Laure; Fortner, Renee; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gram, Inger T.; Hartge, Patricia; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Idahl, Annika; Jones, Michael; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kirsh, Victoria; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lacey, James V.; Lee, I-Min; Lundin, Eva; Merritt, Melissa A.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Peters, Ulrike; Poynter, Jenny N.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas; Sandler, Dale P.; Schairer, Catherine; Schouten, Leo J.; Sjöholm, Louise K.; Sieri, Sabina; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tjonneland, Anna; Travis, Ruth; Trichopoulou, Antonia; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Wilkens, Lynne; Wolk, Alicja; Yang, Hannah P.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer is important for improving prevention, early detection, and therapeutic approaches. We evaluated 14 hormonal, reproductive, and lifestyle factors by histologic subtype in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3). Patients and Methods Among 1.3 million women from 21 studies, 5,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified (3,378 serous, 606 endometrioid, 331 mucinous, 269 clear cell, 1,000 other). By using competing-risks Cox proportional hazards regression stratified by study and birth year and adjusted for age, parity, and oral contraceptive use, we assessed associations for all invasive cancers by histology. Heterogeneity was evaluated by likelihood ratio test. Results Most risk factors exhibited significant heterogeneity by histology. Higher parity was most strongly associated with endometrioid (relative risk [RR] per birth, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.83) and clear cell (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.76) carcinomas (P value for heterogeneity [P-het] < .001). Similarly, age at menopause, endometriosis, and tubal ligation were only associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumors (P-het ≤ .01). Family history of breast cancer (P-het = .008) had modest heterogeneity. Smoking was associated with an increased risk of mucinous (RR per 20 pack-years, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.46) but a decreased risk of clear cell (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.94) tumors (P-het = .004). Unsupervised clustering by risk factors separated endometrioid, clear cell, and low-grade serous carcinomas from high-grade serous and mucinous carcinomas. Conclusion The heterogeneous associations of risk factors with ovarian cancer subtypes emphasize the importance of conducting etiologic studies by ovarian cancer subtypes. Most established risk factors were more strongly associated with nonserous carcinomas, which demonstrate challenges for risk prediction of serous cancers, the most fatal subtype. PMID:27325851

  18. Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm of the Liver or Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Bile Duct? A Case Report and a Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Kunovsky, Lumir; Kala, Zdenek; Svaton, Roman; Moravcik, Petr; Mazanec, Jan; Husty, Jakub; Prochazka, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver (MCN-L) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct (IPMN-B) are diagnoses that were classified by the World Health Organization in 2010 as mucin-producing bile duct tumors of the hepatobiliary system. The preoperative differential diagnosis between these two entities is difficult; the presence of a communication with the bile duct is usually considered as a typical sign of IPMN-B. However, the presence of an ovarian-like stroma (OLS) has been established to define the diagnosis of MCN-L. We present the case of a 33-year-old woman with a rapid progression of a cystic tumor of the liver. In 2 years, the lesion increased from 27 to 64 mm and a dilation of the left hepatic duct appeared. Percutaneous transhepatic drainage with a biopsy was performed. No malignant cells were found on biopsy. Because of the rapid progression of the cystic tumor and unclear malignant potential, left hemihepatectomy was performed. Even though tumor masses were present in the biliary duct, on the basis of the presence of OLS, histology finally confirmed MCN-L with intermediate-grade intraepithelial dysplasia to high-grade intraepithelial dysplasia. The patient is currently under oncologic follow-up with no signs of recurrence of the disease. We present a rare case where MCN-L caused a dilation of the left hepatic duct, a sign that is usually a characteristic of IPMN-B.

  19. Diagnosis of neonatal ovarian torsion: Emphasis on prenatal and postnatal sonographic findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Su; Yoo, So-Young; Cha, Min Jae; Kim, Ji Hye; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Wee Kyoung

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to retrospectively review the imaging findings of patients with neonatal ovarian torsion, emphasizing prenatal and postnatal sonographic findings. Eleven patients who had had neonatal ovarian torsion diagnosed surgically (n = 9) or clinicoradiologically (n = 2) were enrolled. Prenatal and postnatal sonographic features, including sequential postnatal change, were reviewed. Clinical and pathologic features were also investigated. All patients except one had a fetal ovarian cyst (mean, 5.3 cm) detected on third-trimester sonography, either simple (n = 6) or complex (n = 4). In all 11 patients, initial postnatal sonography had revealed a complex cyst (mean, 4.7 cm) with intracystic clot or debris, the double-wall sign, a fluid-fluid level, and multiple septation. None of the patients had had symptoms or signs related to the ovarian torsion. Follow-up sonography in seven patients had revealed increased echogenicity of the cyst wall with frequent calcification and a decrease in size of the cyst. In two patients, the interval of the change in cyst position was noted, and autoamputation of the torsed ovary had been surgically confirmed. Serous cystadenoma had been identified in one patient. Neonatal ovarian torsion most commonly manifests as an asymptomatic complex cyst on sonography due to torsion of a fetal ovarian cyst. Serial monitoring of a fetal ovarian cyst for its resolution or changes in its appearance is mandatory for making an early diagnosis of torsion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:290-297, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Patterns of gene expression in different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer correlate with those in normal fallopian tube, endometrium, and colon.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Rebecca T; Baggerly, Keith A; Patterson, Andrea P; Liu, Jinsong; Broaddus, Russell; Frumovitz, Michael; Atkinson, Edward N; Smith, David I; Hartmann, Lynn; Fishman, David; Berchuck, Andrew; Whitaker, Regina; Gershenson, David M; Mills, Gordon B; Bast, Robert C; Lu, Karen H

    2005-09-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancers are thought to arise from flattened epithelial cells that cover the ovarian surface or that line inclusion cysts. During malignant transformation, different histotypes arise that resemble epithelial cells from normal fallopian tube, endometrium, and intestine. This study compares gene expression in serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous ovarian cancers with that in the normal tissues that they resemble. Expression of 63,000 probe sets was measured in 50 ovarian cancers, in 5 pools of normal ovarian epithelial brushings, and in mucosal scrapings from 4 normal fallopian tube, 5 endometrium, and 4 colon specimens. Using rank-sum analysis, genes whose expressions best differentiated the ovarian cancer histotypes and normal ovarian epithelium were used to determine whether a correlation based on gene expression existed between ovarian cancer histotypes and the normal tissues they resemble. When compared with normal ovarian epithelial brushings, alterations in serous tumors correlated with those in normal fallopian tube (P = 0.0042) but not in other normal tissues. Similarly, mucinous cancers correlated with those in normal colonic mucosa (P = 0.0003), and both endometrioid and clear cell histotypes correlated with changes in normal endometrium (P = 0.0172 and 0.0002, respectively). Mucinous cancers displayed the greatest number of alterations in gene expression when compared with normal ovarian epithelial cells. Studies at a molecular level show distinct expression profiles of different histologies of ovarian cancer and support the long-held belief that histotypes of ovarian cancers come to resemble normal fallopian tube, endometrial, and colonic epithelium. Several potential molecular markers for mucinous ovarian cancers have been identified.

  1. Cellular and Molecular Biology of Airway Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Lillehoj, Erik P.; Kato, Kosuke; Lu, Wenju; Kim, Kwang C.

    2017-01-01

    Airway mucus constitutes a thin layer of airway surface liquid with component macromolecules that covers the luminal surface of the respiratory tract. The major function of mucus is to protect the lungs through mucociliary clearance of inhaled foreign particles and noxious chemicals. Mucus is comprised of water, ions, mucin glycoproteins, and a variety of other macromolecules, some of which possess anti-microbial, anti-protease, and anti-oxidant activities. Mucins comprise the major protein component of mucus and exist as secreted and cell-associated glycoproteins. Secreted, gel-forming mucins are mainly responsible for the viscoelastic property of mucus, which is crucial for effective mucociliary clearance. Cell-associated mucins shield the epithelial surface from pathogens through their extracellular domains and regulate intracellular signaling through their cytoplasmic regions. However, neither the exact structures of mucin glycoproteins, nor the manner through which their expression is regulated, are completely understood. This chapter reviews what is currently known about the cellular and molecular properties of airway mucins. PMID:23445810

  2. Functions of ocular surface mucins in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Mantelli, Flavio; Argüeso, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of the present review is to describe new concepts on the role of mucins in the protection of corneal and conjunctival epithelia and to identify alterations of mucins in ocular surface diseases. Recent findings New evidence indicates that gel-forming and cell surface-associated mucins contribute differently to the protection of the ocular surface against allergens, pathogens, extracellular molecules, abrasive stress, and drying. Summary Mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins characterized by their extensive O-glycosylation. Major mucins expressed by the ocular surface epithelia include cell surface-associated mucins MUC1, -4 and -16, and the gel-forming mucin MUC5AC. Recent advances using functional assays have allowed the examination of their roles in the protection of corneal and conjunctival epithelia. Alterations in mucin and mucin O-glycan biosynthesis in ocular surface disorders, including allergy, non-autoimmune dry eye, autoimmune dry eye, and infection, are presented. PMID:18769205

  3. Ovarian Autoantibodies Predict Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    2000. 48(10): 541- 549. 10 7. Barua, A., et al., Anti-ovarian and anti-tumor antibodies in women with ovarian cancer. Am J Reprod Immunol, 2007 . 57...Med 2007 . 26: 909-919. 9. Barua, A., et al., Prevalence of anti-tumor antibodies in the laying hen model of human ovarian cancer. International... 2007 ; 25:4159– 4161. 6. Bosse K, Rhiem K, Wappenschmidt B, et al. Screening for ovarian cancer by transvaginal ultrasound and serum CA125 measurement in

  4. Ovarian cancer and smoking: individual participant meta-analysis including 28 114 women with ovarian cancer from 51 epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence. Methods Eligible epidemiological studies were identified by electronic searches, review articles, and discussions with colleagues. Individual participant data for 28 114 women with and 94 942 without ovarian cancer from 51 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally, yielding adjusted relative risks (RRs) of ovarian cancer in smokers compared with never smokers. Findings After exclusion of studies with hospital controls, in which smoking could have affected recruitment, overall ovarian cancer incidence was only slightly increased in current smokers compared with women who had never smoked (RR 1·06, 95% CI 1·01–1·11, p=0·01). Of 17 641 epithelial cancers with specified histology, 2314 (13%) were mucinous, 2360 (13%) endometrioid, 969 (5%) clear-cell, and 9086 (52%) serous. Smoking-related risks varied substantially across these subtypes (pheterogeneity<0·0001). For mucinous cancers, incidence was increased in current versus never smokers (1·79, 95% CI 1·60–2·00, p<0·0001), but the increase was mainly in borderline malignant rather than in fully malignant tumours (2·25, 95% CI 1·91–2·65 vs 1·49, 1·28–1·73; pheterogeneity=0·01; almost half the mucinous tumours were only borderline malignant). Both endometrioid (0·81, 95% CI 0·72–0·92, p=0·001) and clear-cell ovarian cancer risks (0·80, 95% CI 0·65–0·97, p=0·03) were reduced in current smokers, and there was no significant association for serous ovarian cancers (0·99, 95% CI 0·93–1·06, p=0·8). These associations did not vary significantly by 13 sociodemographic and personal characteristics of women including their body-mass index, parity, and use of

  5. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Knowledge is an initiative that supports the Gynecologic Cancer Education and Awareness Act of 2005, or Johanna’s Law, which was unanimously passed by the U.S. House and Senate in December of 2006, and ... and symptoms of ovarian cancer? Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of ...

  6. Diet and Physical Activity Change or Usual Care in Improving Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Previously Treated Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-14

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer AJCC V6 and v7; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. Mucin gene expression in human male urogenital tract epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cindy Leigh; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Tisdale, Ann; Pudney, Jeffrey; Anderson, Deborah; Gipson, Ilene K.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mucins are large, hydrophilic glycoproteins that protect wet-surfaced epithelia from pathogen invasion as well as provide lubrication. At least 17 mucin genes have been cloned to date. This study sought to determine the mucin gene expression profile of the human male urogenital tract epithelia, to determine if mucins are present in seminal fluid, and to assess the effect of androgens on mucin expression. METHODS AND RESULTS Testis, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate, bladder, urethra and foreskin were assessed for mucin expression by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Epithelia of the vas deferens, prostate and urethra expressed the greatest number of mucins, each expressing 5–8 mucins. Messenger RNA of MUC1 and MUC20, both membrane-associated mucins, were detected in most tissues analyzed. Conversely, MUC6 was predominantly detected in seminal vesicle. MUC1, MUC5B and MUC6 were detected in seminal fluid samples by immunoblot analysis. Androgens had no effect on mucin expression by cultured human prostatic epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS Each region of urogenital tract epithelium expressed a unique mucin gene repertoire. Secretory mucins are present in seminal fluid, and androgens do not appear to regulate mucin gene expression. PMID:16997931

  8. Accuracy of frozen section in the diagnosis of ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Toneva, F; Wright, H; Razvi, K

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of our retrospective study was to assess the accuracy of intraoperative frozen section diagnosis compared to final paraffin diagnosis in ovarian tumours at a gynaecological oncology centre in the UK. We analysed 66 cases and observed that frozen section consultation agreed with final paraffin diagnosis in 59 cases, which provided an accuracy of 89.4%. The overall sensitivity and specificity for all tumours were 85.4% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 100% and 89.4%, respectively. Of the seven cases with discordant results, the majority were large, mucinous tumours, which is in line with previous studies. Our study demonstrated that despite its limitations, intraoperative frozen section has a high accuracy and sensitivity for assessing ovarian tumours; however, care needs to be taken with large, mucinous tumours.

  9. Characterization of Particle Translocation through Mucin Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Lieleg, Oliver; Vladescu, Ioana; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Biological functional entities surround themselves with selective barriers that control the passage of certain classes of macromolecules while rejecting others. A prominent example of such a selective permeability barrier is given by mucus. Mucus is a biopolymer-based hydrogel that lines all wet epithelial surfaces of the human body. It regulates the uptake of nutrients from our gastrointestinal system, adjusts itself with the menstrual cycle to control the passage of sperm, and shields the underlying cells from pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. In the case of drug delivery, the mucus barrier needs to be overcome for successful medical treatment. Despite its importance for both physiology and medical applications, the underlying principles which regulate the permeability of mucus remain enigmatic. Here, we analyze the mobility of microscopic particles in reconstituted mucin hydrogels. We show that electrostatic interactions between diffusing particles and mucin polymers regulate the permeability properties of reconstituted mucin hydrogels. As a consequence, various parameters such as particle surface charge and mucin density, and buffer conditions such as pH and ionic strength, can modulate the microscopic barrier function of the mucin hydrogel. Our findings suggest that the permeability of a biopolymer-based hydrogel such as native mucus can be tuned to a wide range of settings in different compartments of our bodies. PMID:20441741

  10. The expression of MUC mucin in cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mall, Anwar S; Tyler, Marilyn G; Ho, Sam B; Krige, Jake E J; Kahn, Delawir; Spearman, Wendy; Myer, Landon; Govender, Dhirendra

    2010-12-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a highly malignant epithelial cancer of the biliary tract, the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of which remains unclear. Malignant transformation of glandular epithelial cells is associated with the altered expression of mucin. We investigated the type of mucins expressed in CC. Twenty-six patients with histologically confirmed CC were included in this study. The expression of mucin was studied by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to MUC1, MUC1 core, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC6. There was extensive (>50%) expression of mucin, mainly MUC1 in 11/25 and MUC5AC in 12/26 cases. In the case of MUC3, 6/26 cases expressed mucin extensively, whilst only 1/26 had MUC2, MUC4, and MUC6 expression. Well-differentiated tumors significantly expressed MUC3 extensively compared to poor or moderately differentiated tumors (p=0.003). Fifteen of 25 cases had metastatic disease. MUC1 was extensively expressed in 9/15 cases with metastatic disease. In contrast, MUC1 expression was present in 2/10 cases where metastases were absent. Hilar lesions were less likely to express MUC1, but this was not statistically significant. Fifteen of 25 cases had metastatic disease. Extensive MUC3 expression was significantly associated with well-differentiated tumors, whilst there was an approaching significance between the extensive expression of MUC1 and metastasis in cholangiocarcinoma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Biliary cystadenoma associated with Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic cat (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Srivorakul, Saralee; Khochakul, Varangpicha; Pringproa, Kidsadagon

    2018-05-05

    A 12-year-old, female, domestic cat (Felis catus) presented with dehydration, emaciation, anorexia, and lethargy. The cat was unresponsive to medical treatment and euthanized; the carcass was submitted for pathological diagnosis. Necropsy revealed icteric mucous membranes. The liver was enlarged, with multinodular, cystic, white masses, 0.5-4.0 cm in diameter, scattered throughout. Microscopically, the biliary epithelium presented with a proliferation of multifocal cystic masses, occasionally with periodic acid-Schiff-positive fluid within the cysts. Simple cuboidal epithelial cells showed small, round to oval, vesicular nuclei and rare mitotic figures. There were also multifocal trematode-like parasites situated within the biliary tracts. Immunohistochemistry of the cystic masses was positive for pan-cytokeratin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, while negative for vimentin. Molecular analysis and gene sequencing of the parasite indicated that it was Opisthorchis viverrini. Based on the pathological findings and molecular analysis, the cat was diagnosed with biliary cystadenoma related to O. viverrini infection. This report described an unusual case of O. viverrini infection associated with biliary tumor in a cat, and raises the possibility of domestic cats as a reservoir host of the human liver fluke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Endometrial carcinomas with significant mucinous differentiation associated with higher frequency of k-ras mutations: a morphologic and molecular correlation study.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinjun; He, Mai; Jackson, Cynthia; Ou, Joyce J; Sung, C James; Breese, Virgina; Steinhoff, Margaret M; Quddus, M Ruhul; Tejada-Berges, Trevor; Lawrence, W Dwayne

    2013-09-01

    K-ras gene product in the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway is critical in the development of certain types of malignancies. K-ras mutation-associated pancreatic and ovarian carcinomas often display mucinous differentiation. Previous studies have shown that k-ras mutation is found in 10% to 30% of endometrial carcinomas. We investigated k-ras mutations in several morphologic subtypes of endometrial carcinomas with particular emphasis on various degrees of mucinous differentiation. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. Polymerase chain reaction amplification for k-ras codons 12 and 13 were performed, followed by sequencing using capillary electrophoresis. The Fisher exact test is used to compare the prevalent difference of k-ras mutation among the groups. P < 0.05 was considered significant. K-ras mutations were detected in 8 (80%) of 10 mucinous carcinomas, 12 (67%) of 18 endometrioid carcinomas (ECs) with significant mucinous differentiation (ECMD), 4 (25%) of 16 ECs, and 1 (9%) of 11 serous carcinomas. The differences were statistically significant between mucinous carcinomas versus EC (P < 0.01) and ECMD versus EC (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that mucinous carcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma with significant mucinous component are more likely to be associated with k-ras mutation. Potential clinical implications of k-ras mutation lies in the management of recurrent or higher-stage endometrial mucinous tumors, which would not be responsive to treatment protocols containing epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

  13. Wilms tumor gene product: sensitive and contextually specific marker of serous carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Harry; Quenneville, Louise; Yaziji, Hadi; Gown, Allen M

    2004-06-01

    Carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin can arise from, and often present at, extraovarian sites. There are few available markers for the positive identification of carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin, which might aid in distinguishing them from metastatic carcinomas, such as of breast, colon, or lung origin. Recently, the Wilms tumor gene product (WT-1) has been shown to be expressed in ovarian surface and mesothelial epithelium. We tested the hypothesis that WT-1 would be a sensitive and specific marker of ovarian surface epithelium carcinomas. An archived series of 116 ovarian carcinomas (57 serous [43 ovarian, 14 extraovarian], 31 mucinous, 15 clear cell, 13 endometrioid), 118 breast carcinomas, 46 colonic carcinomas, and 45 nonsmall cell lung cancers were selected. A polyclonal antibody to the WT-1 gene product was applied to deparaffinized, formalin-fixed tissue sections after epitope retrieval. Fifty-two of 57 (93%) serous carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin were WT-1-positive, in a nuclear pattern, with virtually all the tumor cell population positive in the majority of cases. None of the mucinous, clear cell, or endometrioid ovarian cancers were positive, and only 8 of 118 breast, 0 of 46 colonic, and 0 of 45 lung nonsmall cell carcinomas were WT-1-positive. These findings demonstrate that WT-1 is a highly sensitive and specific marker of serous carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin (both ovarian and extraovarian). These results also contradict recent reports demonstrating WT-1 expression in both breast and lung carcinomas.

  14. Generation of monoclonal antibodies reacting with human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tagliabue, E; Mènard, S; Della Torre, G; Barbanti, P; Mariani-Costantini, R; Porro, G; Colnaghi, M I

    1985-01-01

    Fusion of the murine myeloma line P3-X63-Ag8-U1 with spleen cells from a mouse immunized with a membrane preparations (CM) of a mucinous ovarian cystoadenocarcinoma yielded two monoclonal antibodies, MOv1 and MOv2, which reacted by solid-phase radioimmunoassay with immunizing tumor CM but were unreactive with normal kidney CM as well as with plasma proteins and peripheral blood cells from the immunizing carcinoma patient. MOv1 and MOv2 were further tested by solid-phase radioimunoassay on a panel of different CM from fresh surgical specimens of ovarian and nonovarian carcinomas, benign ovarian tumors, normal ovary and kidney tissues, and on various tumor cell lines. In addition, the antibodies were characterized by immunofluorescence on live cells from cell lines and surgical specimens, and on frozen sections of benign and malignant ovarian tumors, of nonovarian tumors, and of normal tissues. The results obtained indicate that MOv1 and MOv2 recognize two different epitopes on molecules present on malignant and benign ovarian mucinous tumors and colonic glands. In addition, the antigen recognized by MOv2 was also detected in carcinmas of lung, colon, stomach, and breast; in gastrointestinal glands; and in the glandular lumina of normal lactating breast.

  15. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... mature in the ovaries, are released in monthly cycles during the childbearing years. Many women have ovarian ... cysts develop as a result of your menstrual cycle (functional cysts). Other types of cysts are much ...

  16. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to get pregnant and you often get functional cysts, you can prevent them by taking hormone drugs (such as birth control pills). These medicines prevent follicles from growing. Alternative Names Physiologic ovarian ...

  17. Origins based clinical and molecular complexities of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Muinao, Thingreila; Pal, Mintu; Boruah, Hari Prasanna Deka

    2018-06-08

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of all common gynaecological malignancies in women worldwide. Ovarian cancer comprises of >15 distinct tumor types and subtypes characterized by histopathological features, environmental and genetic risk factors, precursor lesions and molecular events during oncogenesis. Recent studies on gene signatures profiling of different subtypes of ovarian cancer have revealed significant genetic heterogeneity between and within each ovarian cancer histological subtype. Thus, an immense interest have shown towards a more personalized medicine for understanding the clinical and molecular complexities of four major types of epithelial ovarian cancer (serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous). As such, further in depth studies are needed for identification of molecular signalling network complexities associated with effective prognostication and targeted therapies to prevent or treat metastasis. Therefore, understanding the metastatic potential of primary ovarian cancer and therapeutic interventions against lethal ovarian cancer for the development of personalized therapies is very much indispensable. Consequently, in this review we have updated the key dysregulated genes of four major subtypes of epithelial carcinomas. We have also highlighted the recent advances and current challenges in unravelling the complexities of the origin of tumor as well as genetic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Improvement of hyperandrogenism, oligo-ovulation, and ovarian morphology in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome: possible role of ovarian wedge resection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, YuanYuan; Luo, SuiYu; Gong, ZhiQuan; Feng, XiaoYa; Wang, ZiYi; Zhu, HaoHui; Wang, Yu

    2018-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinological abnormality which typically presents as hormones disorder and/or infertility. It has received more and more attention in recent years though its pathogenesis is still unclear. Ovarian mucinous adenoma is a rarely pathological type which generates from epithelial cell of ovary. Here we present a patient with PCOS and ovarian mucinous tumor (occasionally discovered by cesarean section) receiving a complete relief after benign ovarian tumor excision. In this case, tumor excision played as a partial resection of ovary which might result in the normalized concentration level of hormones and morphology of ovary. This report suggests that therapeutic strategies for PCOS should be considered more carefully and individually.

  19. Atomic force microscopy of gastric mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasan, Bernard; Hong, Zhenning; Bansil, Rama; Turner, Bradley; Ramakrishnan Bhaskar, K.; Afdhal, Nezam

    2001-03-01

    We report on the first results from an AFM study of porcine gastric mucin employing the tapping mode technique in aqueous solution. This glycoprotein is responsible for protecting the stomach epithelium from acid damage. Mucin was imaged on a mica substrate at pH7, and at pH2. At the higher pH we detected individual molecules in disordered configuration, with characteristic lengths of 20-40 nm. At the lower pH the mucin forms extended rod-like clusters that, at high concentrations, are aligned into planar arrays. Individual clusters are of order 50 nm long and 20 nm wide while the entire array is of order several hundred nm both in length and width. The clustering behavior at low pH is consistent with that previously detected in dynamic light scattering experiments by Cao et. al. (Biophysical J. 76:120-1258 1999).

  20. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 21 case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Mette T.; Kjær, Susanne K.; Dehlendorff, Christian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Andersen, Klaus K.; Høgdall, Estrid; Webb, Penelope M.; Jordan, Susan J.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J.; Carney, Michael E.; Goodman, Marc T.; Ness, Roberta B.; Modugnos, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P.; Bunker, Clareann H.; Goode, Ellen L.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Larson, Melissa C.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Olson, Sara H.; King, Melony; Chandran, Urmila; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Brinton, Louise; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lissowska, Jolanta; Yang, Hannah P.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Odunsi, Kunle; Kasza, Karin; Odunsi-Akanji, Oluwatosin; Song, Honglin; Pharaoh, Paul; Shah, Mitul; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Sutphen, Rebecca; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Risch, Harvey A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology. Methods We used data from 21 case–control studies of ovarian cancer (19,066 controls, 11,972 invasive and 2,752 borderline cases). Study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models and combined into a pooled odds ratio using a random effects model. Results Current cigarette smoking increased the risk of invasive mucinous (OR = 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.03–1.65) and borderline mucinous ovarian tumors (OR = 1.83; 95 % CI: 1.39–2.41), while former smoking increased the risk of borderline serous ovarian tumors (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI: 1.12–1.50). For these histological types, consistent dose– response associations were observed. No convincing associations between smoking and risk of invasive serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer were observed, while our results provided some evidence of a decreased risk of invasive clear cell ovarian cancer. Conclusions Our results revealed marked differences in the risk profiles of histological types of ovarian cancer with regard to cigarette smoking, although the magnitude of the observed associations was modest. Our findings, which may reflect different etiologies of the histological types, add to the fact that ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease. PMID:23456270

  1. Elevated microRNA miR-21 Levels in Pancreatic Cyst Fluid Are Predictive of Mucinous Precursor Lesions of Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ji Kon; Matthaei, Hanno; dal Molin, Marco; Hong, Seung-Mo; Canto, Marcia I.; Schulick, Richard D.; Wolfgang, Christopher; Goggins, Michael G.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Cope, Leslie; Maitra, Anirban

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomarkers for the diagnostic classification of pancreatic cysts are urgently needed. Deregulated microRNA (miRNAs) expression is widespread in pancreatic cancer. We assessed whether aberrant miRNAs in pancreatic cyst fluid could be used as potential biomarkers for cystic precursor lesions of pancreatic cancer. Methods Cyst fluid specimens were prospectively collected from 40 surgically resected pancreatic cysts, and small RNAs were extracted. The ‘mucinous’ cohort included 14 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (including 3 with an associated adenocarcinoma) and 10 mucinous cystic neoplasms; the ‘nonmucinous’ cohort included 11 serous cystadenomas and 5 other benign cysts. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was performed for five miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-221, miR-17-3p, miR-191), which were previously reported as overexpressed in pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Results Significantly higher expression of miR-21, miR-221, and miR-17-3p was observed in the mucinous versus nonmucinous cysts (p < 0.01), with the mean relative fold differences being 7.0-, 7.9-, and 5.4-fold, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated the highest median area under the curve for miR-21, with a median specificity of 76%, at a sensitivity of 80%. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrates that profiling miRNAs in pancreatic cyst fluid samples is feasible and can yield potential biomarkers for the classification of cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:21757972

  2. Sequence of a second gene encoding bovine submaxillary mucin: implication for mucin heterogeneity and cloning.

    PubMed

    Jiang, W; Woitach, J T; Gupta, D; Bhavanandan, V P

    1998-10-20

    Secreted epithelial mucins are extremely large and heterogeneous glycoproteins. We report the 5 kilobase DNA sequence of a second gene, BSM2, which encodes bovine submaxillary mucin. The determined nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of BSM2 are 95.2% and 92. 2% identical, respectively, to those of the previously described BSM1 gene isolated from the same cow. Further, the five predicted protein domains of the two genes are 100%, 94%, 93%, 77%, and 88% identical. Based on the above results, we propose that expression of multiple homologous core proteins from a single animal is a factor in generating diversity of saccharides in mucins and in providing resistance of the molecules to proteolysis. In addition, this work raises several important issues in mucin cloning such as assembling sequences from seemingly overlapping clones and deducing consensus sequences for nearly identical tandem repeats. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  3. [Surgical therapy of giant tubulovillous adenoma of the duodenum and incidental serous cystadenoma of the head of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Knoop, M; Vorwerk, T; Lüders, P; Hendrich, F

    2001-01-01

    A villous giant adenoma of the duodenum was diagnosed in a 56-year-old female patient with uncharacteristic upper abdominal discomfort after multiple previous laparotomies for various indications. A partial pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed as radical oncological procedure since the dignity of the neoplasm was uncertain. Histopathologic examination revealed medium-grade cell dysplasia of the villous adenoma but an incidental serous cystadenoma of the pancreatic head as well. The postoperative course was uneventful. The coincidence of these both rare neoplastic entities has yet not been described in the literature. The surgical options for treatment of both neoplasms are discussed.

  4. Studying Mucin Secretion from Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Primary Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Lubna H.; Wolber, Cédric; Kesimer, Mehmet; Sheehan, John K.; Davis, C. William

    2016-01-01

    Mucin secretion is regulated by extracellular signaling molecules emanating from local, neuronal, or endocrine sources. Quantifying the rate of this secretion is important to understanding how the exocytic process is regulated, and also how goblet/mucous cells synthesize and release mucins under control and pathological conditions. Consequently, measuring mucins in a quantitatively accurate manner is the key to many experiments addressing these issues. This paper describes procedures used to determine agonist-induced mucin secretion from goblet cells in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell cultures. It begins with primary epithelial cell culture, offers methods for purifying MUC5AC and MUC5B mucins for standards, and describes five different microtiter plate binding assays which use various probes for mucins. A polymeric mucin-specific antibody is used in standard and sandwich ELISA formats for two assays while the others target the extensive glycosylated domains of mucins with lectin, periodate oxidation, and antibody-based probes. Comparing the data derived from the different assays applied to the same set of samples of HBE cell cultures indicates a qualitative agreement between baseline and agonist stimulated mucin release; however, the polymeric mucin-specific assays yield substantially lower values than the assays using nonspecific molecular reporters. These results indicate that the more non-specific assays are suitable to assess overall secretory responses by goblet cells, but are likely unsuited for specific measurements of polymeric mucins, per se. PMID:22259142

  5. Preserved foods associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andy H; Su, Dada; Pasalich, Maria; Binns, Colin W

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the association between consumption of preserved foods and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in southern Chinese women. A hospital-based case-control study was undertaken in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, from 2006 to 2008. Participants were 500 incident epithelial ovarian cancer patients and 500 controls, with a mean age 59 years. Information on habitual food consumption was obtained by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between preserved foods intake and the ovarian cancer risk. The ovarian cancer patients consumed more preserved foods (median 15.5, interquartile range (IQR) 18.2g/day) than controls (median 13.8, IQR 20.5 g/day), p<0.001. The adjusted odds ratios of ovarian cancer was 1.78 (95% confidence interval 1.35 to 2.34) for women consuming more than 13.5 g of preserved vegetables and preserved meats per day relative to those below. Similar two-fold increases in risk at high level of intake were also evident for serous and mucinous subtypes of epithelial ovarian tumours. Intake of preserved foods was positively associated with the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer in southern Chinese women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of mucin-producing bile duct tumor and mucinous cystic tumor of the liver: a multi-institutional study by the Japan Biliary Association.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Keiichi; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Kondo, Fukuo; Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Masaru; Nagino, Masato; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Tabata, Masami; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Kamisawa, Terumi; Inui, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinicopathological features and surgical outcomes of mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver (MCN) and mucin-producing intraductal papillary neoplasm of the intrahepatic bile duct (M-IPNB). We performed a multi-institutional, retrospective study of patients with MCN or M-IPNB pathologically defined by the presence or absence of an ovarian-like stroma. The M-IPNB and MCN were diagnosed in 119 and nine patients, respectively. MCN was observed in female patients, while M-IPNB produced symptoms of cholangitis. M-IPNBs were classed as low or intermediate grade in 53 cases, high grade in 23 and invasive carcinoma in 43. Fifty-one of the M-IPNBs were the pancreatobiliary type (PT), 33 were the intestinal type (IT), 23 were the oncocytic type (OT), and 12 were the gastric type (GT). The 1-, 5- and 10-year survival rates for the 105 patients with M-IPNB were 96%, 84% and 81%, respectively, while the 5-year survival rate for patients with MCN was 100%. OT and GT M-IPNB had better 10-year survival rates than PT and IT M-IPNB. Although MCN has different features from M-IPNB, both diseases have a good prognosis after resection. The cellular type of M-IPNB appears to predict outcome. © 2013 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  7. Human preocular mucins reflect changes in surface physiology.

    PubMed

    Berry, M; Ellingham, R B; Corfield, A P

    2004-03-01

    Mucin function is associated with both peptide core and glycosylation characteristics. The authors assessed whether structural alterations occurring during mucin residence in the tear film reflect changes in ocular surface physiology. Ocular surface mucus was collected from normal volunteers as N-acetyl cysteine (NAcCys) washes or directly from the speculum after cataract surgery. To assess the influence of surface health on mucins, NAcCys washings were also obtained from patients with symptoms, but no clinical signs of dry eye (symptomatics). Mucins were extracted in guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) with protease inhibitors. Buoyant density of mucin species, a correlate of glycosylation density, was followed by reactivity with anti-peptide core antibodies. Mucin hydrodynamic volume was assessed by gel filtration on Sepharose CL2B. Surface fluid and mucus contained soluble forms of MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC and also the same species requiring DTT solubilisation. Reactivity with antibodies to MUC2 and MUC5AC peaked at 1.3-1.5 g/ml in normals, while dominated by underglycosylated forms in symptomatics. Surface mucins were predominantly smaller than intracellular species. MUC2 size distributions were different in symptomatics and normals, while those of MUC5AC were similar in these two groups. A reduction in surface mucin size indicates post-secretory cleavage. Dissimilarities in surface mucin glycosylation and individual MUC size distributions in symptomatics suggest changes in preocular mucin that might precede dry eye signs.

  8. Membrane-associated mucins in normal human conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Berry, M; Ellingham, R B; Corfield, A P

    2000-02-01

    To examine the presence of specific membrane-associated mucins in normal human conjunctiva. Glycoconjugates were extracted from membranes with two detergents: octylglucoside and Triton X114. Mucins were separated by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation. Size was assessed by gel filtration on Sepharose CL2B and charge by ion-exchange chromatography on MonoQ. Cross reaction with antibodies against mucin gene products was assessed in blots of electrophoresis gels. Extraction of total tissue membranes yielded material with a buoyant density typical of mucins. Gel filtration showed material reacting with antimucin antibodies in a range of molecular sizes. Agarose electrophoresis confirmed the presence of MUC1 and MUC4 and the absence of MUC2 or MUC5AC. Isolation of membrane mucins by sequential, exhaustive extraction with octylglucoside followed by Triton X114 suggested the existence of mucins in different membrane environments. Reagents to carbohydrate epitopes revealed high mobility material, comigrating with MUC1 and MUC4. Low mobility membrane-bound mucins did not cross-react with any antibodies to mucin genes known to be expressed in human conjunctiva. Membrane-associated mucins are distinct from secreted mucins in normal human conjunctiva. MUC1 and MUC4 mature products decorate the membranes of conjunctival epithelial cells. Their segregation between octyl glucoside and the detergent and aqueous phases of Triton X114 suggests a variety of membrane anchoring modes.

  9. Monoclonal antibody against human ovarian tumor-associated antigens.

    PubMed

    Poels, L G; Peters, D; van Megen, Y; Vooijs, G P; Verheyen, R N; Willemen, A; van Niekerk, C C; Jap, P H; Mungyer, G; Kenemans, P

    1986-05-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies (OV-TL 3) were raised against human ovarian tumor-associated antigens for diagnostic purposes. A cloned hybridoma cell line was obtained by fusion of murine myeloma cells with spleen lymphocytes from BALB/c mice immunized with a tumor cell suspension prepared from an ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. The antibodies were initially screened for their ability to bind on frozen sections of human ovarian carcinoma tissue and a negative reaction on gastric carcinoma tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. The reactivity of the selected OV-TL 3 clone (IgG1 subclass) was studied on normal and neoplastic tissues as well as on a cell line derived from the original tumor cell suspension used for immunization. OV-TL 3 antibodies stained frozen sections of human ovarian carcinomas of the following histological types: serous, mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell. No reaction was found with breast cancers or other nongynecological tumors. No differences in staining pattern were observed between primary and metastatic ovarian carcinomas. OV-TL 3 antibodies brightly stained ovarian carcinoma cell clusters in ascitic fluids and left unstained mesothelial cells and peripheral blood cells. The OV-TL 3-defined antigen also remained strongly expressed on a cell line derived from the endometrioid ovarian carcinoma originally used for generation of OV-TL 3 clone. Reactivity was weak and irregular in a few ovarian cysts, while traces of fluorescence were sometimes detected in epithelial cells lining the female genital tract. In only 3 specimens of 15 endometrium carcinomas was weak focal reactivity with OV-TL 3 antibodies observed. The results of the immunofluorescence study were confirmed by the more sensitive avidin-biotin method and by 125I-labeled OV-TL 3 antibodies. Thus OV-TL 3 recognizes a common antigen for most ovarian carcinomas and may be a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of ovarian carcinomas.

  10. Lycopene Protects Against Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer Formation in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Kazim; Yenice, Engin; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Mizrak, Cengizhan; Ozercan, Ibrahim H.; Sahin, Nurhan; Yilmaz, Bahiddin; Bilir, Birdal; Ozpolat, Bulent

    2018-01-01

    Background Dietary intake of lycopene has been associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against ovarian carcinogenesis. Lycopene’s molecular mechanisms of action in ovarian cancer have not been fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of lycopene on the ovarian cancer formation using the laying hen model, a biologically relevant animal model of spontaneous ovarian carcinogenesis due to high incidence rates similar to humans. Methods In this study, a total of 150 laying hens at age of 102 weeks were randomized into groups of 50: a control group (0 mg of lycopene per kg of diet) and two treatment groups (200 mg or 400 mg of lycopene per kg of diet, or ~26 and 52 mg/d/hen, respectively). At the end of 12 months, blood, ovarian tissues and tumors were collected. Results We observed that lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the overall ovarian tumor incidence (P < 0.01) as well as the number and the size of the tumors (P < 0.004 and P < 0.005, respectively). Lycopene also significantly decreased the rate of adenocarcinoma, including serous and mucinous subtypes (P < 0.006). Moreover, we also found that the serum level of oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde was significantly lower in lycopene-fed hens compared to control birds (P < 0.001). Molecular analysis of the ovarian tumors revealed that lycopene reduced the expression of NF-κB while increasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 and its major target protein, heme oxygenase 1. In addition, lycopene supplementation decreased the expression of STAT3 by inducing the protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 expression in the ovarian tissues. Conclusions Taken together, our findings strongly support the potential of lycopene in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:29629346

  11. Lycopene Protects Against Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer Formation in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Yenice, Engin; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Mizrak, Cengizhan; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Sahin, Nurhan; Yilmaz, Bahiddin; Bilir, Birdal; Ozpolat, Bulent; Kucuk, Omer

    2018-03-01

    Dietary intake of lycopene has been associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against ovarian carcinogenesis. Lycopene's molecular mechanisms of action in ovarian cancer have not been fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of lycopene on the ovarian cancer formation using the laying hen model, a biologically relevant animal model of spontaneous ovarian carcinogenesis due to high incidence rates similar to humans. In this study, a total of 150 laying hens at age of 102 weeks were randomized into groups of 50: a control group (0 mg of lycopene per kg of diet) and two treatment groups (200 mg or 400 mg of lycopene per kg of diet, or ~26 and 52 mg/d/hen, respectively). At the end of 12 months, blood, ovarian tissues and tumors were collected. We observed that lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the overall ovarian tumor incidence ( P < 0.01) as well as the number and the size of the tumors ( P < 0.004 and P < 0.005, respectively). Lycopene also significantly decreased the rate of adenocarcinoma, including serous and mucinous subtypes ( P < 0.006). Moreover, we also found that the serum level of oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde was significantly lower in lycopene-fed hens compared to control birds ( P < 0.001). Molecular analysis of the ovarian tumors revealed that lycopene reduced the expression of NF-κB while increasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 and its major target protein, heme oxygenase 1. In addition, lycopene supplementation decreased the expression of STAT3 by inducing the protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 expression in the ovarian tissues. Taken together, our findings strongly support the potential of lycopene in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  12. Ovarian cancer risk, ALDH2 polymorphism and alcohol drinking: Asian data from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Ugai, Tomotaka; Kelemen, Linda E; Mizuno, Mika; Ong, Jue-Sheng; Webb, Penelope M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Wicklund, Kristine G; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Rossing, Mary Anne; Thompson, Pamela J; Wilkens, Lynne R; Carney, Michael E; Goodman, Marc T; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Cai, Hui; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Van Den Berg, David; Pike, Malcom C; Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2018-02-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphism rs671 (Glu504Lys) causes ALDH2 inactivation and adverse acetaldehyde exposure among Asians, but little is known of the association between alcohol consumption and rs671 and ovarian cancer (OvCa) in Asians. We conducted a pooled analysis of Asian ancestry participants in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We included seven case-control studies and one cohort study comprising 460 invasive OvCa cases, 37 borderline mucinous OvCa and 1274 controls of Asian descent with information on recent alcohol consumption. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for OvCa risk associated with alcohol consumption, rs671 and their interaction were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. No significant association was observed for daily alcohol intake with invasive OvCa (OR comparing any consumption to none = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.58-1.18) or with individual histotypes. A significant decreased risk was seen for carriers of one or both Lys alleles of rs671 for invasive mucinous OvCa (OR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.20-0.97) and for invasive and borderline mucinous tumors combined (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.26-0.89). No significant interaction was observed between alcohol consumption and rs671 genotypes. In conclusion, self-reported alcohol consumption at the quantities estimated was not associated with OvCa risk among Asians. Because the rs671 Lys allele causes ALDH2 inactivation leading to increased acetaldehyde exposure, the observed inverse genetic association with mucinous ovarian cancer is inferred to mean that alcohol intake may be a risk factor for this histotype. This association will require replication in a larger sample. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. Mapping the protein domain structures of the respiratory mucins: a mucin proteome coverage study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rui; Wang, T Tiffany; DeMaria, Genevieve; Sheehan, John K; Kesimer, Mehmet

    2012-08-03

    Mucin genes encode a family of the largest expressed proteins in the human genome. The proteins are highly substituted with O-linked oligosaccharides that greatly restrict access to the peptide backbones. The genomic organization of the N-terminal, O-glycosylated, and C-terminal regions of most of the mucins has been established and is available in the sequence databases. However, much less is known about the fate of their exposed protein regions after translation and secretion, and to date, detailed proteomic studies complementary to the genomic studies are rather limited. Using mucins isolated from cultured human airway epithelial cell secretions, trypsin digestion, and mass spectrometry, we investigated the proteome coverage of the mucins responsible for the maintenance and protection of the airway epithelia. Excluding the heavily glycosylated mucin domains, up to 85% coverage of the N-terminal region of the gel-forming mucins MUC5B and MUC5AC was achieved, and up to 60% of the C-terminal regions were covered, suggesting that more N- and sparsely O-glycosylated regions as well as possible other modifications are available at the C-terminus. All possible peptides from the cysteine-rich regions that interrupt the heavily glycosylated mucin domains were identified. Interestingly, 43 cleavage sites from 10 different domains of MUC5B and MUC5AC were identified, which possessed a non-tryptic cleavage site on the N-terminal end of the peptide, indicating potential exposure to proteolytic and/or "spontaneous cleavages". Some of these non-tryptic cleavages may be important for proper maturation of the molecule, before and/or after secretion. Most of the peptides identified from MUC16 were from the SEA region. Surprisingly, three peptides were clearly identified from its heavily glycosylated regions. Up to 25% coverage of MUC4 was achieved covering seven different domains of the molecule. All peptides from the MUC1 cytoplasmic domain were detected along with the three non

  14. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (IPMN) with Extra-Pancreatic Mucin: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Louis H.; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K.; Kennedy, Eugene P.; Yeo, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is an increasingly recognized pancreatic neoplasm characterized by excessive mucin secretion by ductal epithelial cells resulting in a cystic dilation of the pancreatic duct. Aim The objective of this study was to review Thomas Jefferson University’s experience and the literature to determine the significance of extra-pancreatic mucin when associated with an IPMN. Results A retrospective analysis at our institution revealed only two cases of IPMN associated with extra-pancreatic mucin, which were classic IPMNs with rupture of the pancreatic duct and peritoneal mucin spillage. This specific finding is not previously described, although is assumed as five cases were reported in the literature with IPMN and mucin extension demonstrated by pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). We propose IPMN of the pancreas may be grossly compared to a mucocele of the appendix, as both are characterized by excessive secretion of mucin by ductal epithelial cells. A morbid complication of a mucocele is PMP. The presence of extra-pancreatic mucin with an IPMN could present a rare but important marker of the eventual seeding of tumor outside the primary IPMN. This has been documented with cases of iatrogenic spilling of pancreatic mucin, as well as multiple cases of IPMN associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei. Conclusions At this time, there is scant reporting and consensus for the treatment of IPMN with extra-pancreatic mucin. PMID:22258877

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition reduces mucin 2 production and mucinous tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Dilly, Ashok K; Song, Xinxin; Zeh, Herbert J; Guo, Zong S; Lee, Yong J; Bartlett, David L; Choudry, Haroon A

    2015-10-01

    Excessive accumulation of mucin 2 (MUC2) protein (a gel-forming secreted mucin) within the peritoneal cavity is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), a unique mucinous malignancy of the appendix. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is upregulated in PMP and has been shown to modulate MUC2 promoter activity. We hypothesized that targeted inhibition of the MAPK pathway would be a novel, effective, and safe therapeutic strategy to reduce MUC2 production and mucinous tumor growth. We tested RDEA119, a specific MEK1/2 (MAPK extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] kinase) inhibitor, in MUC2-secreting LS174T cells, human PMP explant tissue, and in a unique intraperitoneal murine xenograft model of PMP. RDEA119 reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and inhibited MUC2 messenger RNA and protein expression in vitro. In the xenograft model, chronic oral therapy with RDEA119 inhibited mucinous tumor growth in an MAPK pathway-dependent manner and this translated into a significant improvement in survival. RDEA119 downregulated phosphorylated ERK1/2 and nuclear factor κB p65 protein signaling and reduced activating protein 1 (AP1) transcription factor binding to the MUC2 promoter in LS174T cells. This study provides a preclinical rationale for the use of MEK inhibitors to treat patients with PMP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural Diversity of Human Gastric Mucin Glycans*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunsheng; Kenny, Diarmuid T.; Skoog, Emma C.; Padra, Médea; Adamczyk, Barbara; Vitizeva, Varvara; Thorell, Anders; Venkatakrishnan, Vignesh; Lindén, Sara K.; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2017-01-01

    The mucin O-glycosylation of 10 individuals with and without gastric disease was examined in depth in order to generate a structural map of human gastric glycosylation. In the stomach, these mucins and their O-glycosylation protect the epithelial surface from the acidic gastric juice and provide the first point of interaction for pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori, reported to cause gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. The rational of the present study was to map the O-glycosylation that the pathogen may come in contact with. An enormous diversity in glycosylation was found, which varied both between individuals and within mucins from a single individual: mucin glycan chain length ranged from 2–13 residues, each individual carried 34–103 O-glycan structures and in total over 258 structures were identified. The majority of gastric O-glycans were neutral and fucosylated. Blood group I antigens, as well as terminal α1,4-GlcNAc-like and GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc-like (LacdiNAc-like), were common modifications of human gastric O-glycans. Furthemore, each individual carried 1–14 glycan structures that were unique for that individual. The diversity and alterations in gastric O-glycosylation broaden our understanding of the human gastric O-glycome and its implications for gastric cancer research and emphasize that the high individual variation makes it difficult to identify gastric cancer specific structures. However, despite the low number of individuals, we could verify a higher level of sialylation and sulfation on gastric O-glycans from cancerous tissue than from healthy stomachs. PMID:28461410

  17. Immune cells in the normal ovary and spontaneous ovarian tumors in the laying hen (Gallus domesticus) model of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradaric, Michael J; Penumatsa, Krishna; Barua, Animesh; Edassery, Seby L; Yu, Yi; Abramowicz, Jacques S; Bahr, Janice M; Luborsky, Judith L

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian cancer in chickens resembles human tumors both histologically and biochemically. The goal was to determine if there are differences in lymphocyte content between normal ovaries and ovarian tumors in chickens as a basis for further studies to understand the role of immunity in human ovarian cancer progression. Hens were selected using grey scale and color Doppler ultrasound to determine if they had normal or tumor morphology. Cells were isolated from ovaries (n = 6 hens) and lymphocyte numbers were determined by flow cytometry using antibodies to avian CD4 and CD8 T and B (Bu1a) cells. Ovarian sections from another set of hens (n = 26) were assessed to verify tumor type and stage and to count CD4, CD8 and Bu1a immunostained cells by morphometric analysis. T and B cells were more numerous in ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. There were less CD4+ cells than CD8+ and Bu1a+ cells in normal ovaries or ovarian tumors. CD8+ cells were the dominant T cell sub-type in both ovarian stroma and in ovarian follicles compared to CD4+ cells. Bu1a+ cells were consistently found in the stroma of normal ovaries and ovarian tumors but were not associated with follicles. The number of immune cells was highest in late stage serous tumors compared to endometrioid and mucinous tumors. The results suggest that similar to human ovarian cancer there are comparatively more immune cells in chicken ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries, and the highest immune cell content occurs in serous tumors. Thus, this study establishes a foundation for further study of tumor immune responses in a spontaneous model of ovarian cancer which will facilitate studies of the role of immunity in early ovarian cancer progression and use of the hen in pre-clinical vaccine trials.

  18. Immune Cells in the Normal Ovary and Spontaneous Ovarian Tumors in the Laying Hen (Gallus domesticus) Model of Human Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradaric, Michael J.; Penumatsa, Krishna; Barua, Animesh; Edassery, Seby L.; Yu, Yi; Abramowicz, Jacques S.; Bahr, Janice M.; Luborsky, Judith L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Spontaneous ovarian cancer in chickens resembles human tumors both histologically and biochemically. The goal was to determine if there are differences in lymphocyte content between normal ovaries and ovarian tumors in chickens as a basis for further studies to understand the role of immunity in human ovarian cancer progression. Methods Hens were selected using grey scale and color Doppler ultrasound to determine if they had normal or tumor morphology. Cells were isolated from ovaries (n = 6 hens) and lymphocyte numbers were determined by flow cytometry using antibodies to avian CD4 and CD8 T and B (Bu1a) cells. Ovarian sections from another set of hens (n = 26) were assessed to verify tumor type and stage and to count CD4, CD8 and Bu1a immunostained cells by morphometric analysis. Results T and B cells were more numerous in ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. There were less CD4+ cells than CD8+ and Bu1a+ cells in normal ovaries or ovarian tumors. CD8+ cells were the dominant T cell sub-type in both ovarian stroma and in ovarian follicles compared to CD4+ cells. Bu1a+ cells were consistently found in the stroma of normal ovaries and ovarian tumors but were not associated with follicles. The number of immune cells was highest in late stage serous tumors compared to endometrioid and mucinous tumors. Conclusions The results suggest that similar to human ovarian cancer there are comparatively more immune cells in chicken ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries, and the highest immune cell content occurs in serous tumors. Thus, this study establishes a foundation for further study of tumor immune responses in a spontaneous model of ovarian cancer which will facilitate studies of the role of immunity in early ovarian cancer progression and use of the hen in pre-clinical vaccine trials. PMID:24040191

  19. Folding and Aggregation of Mucin Domains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanc, Brigita; Bansil, Rama; Turner, Bradley

    2007-03-01

    Mucin glycoproteins consist of tandem repeating glycosylated regions flanked by non-repetitive protein domains with little glycosylation. These non-repetitive domains are involved in polymerization of mucin via disulfide bonds and play an important role in the pH dependent gelation of gastric mucin, which is essential to protecting the stomach from autodigestion. We have examined the folding and aggregation of the non-repetitive sequence of von Willebrand factor vWF-C1 domain (67 amino acids) and PGM 2X (242 amino acids) using Discrete Molecular Dynamics (four-bead protein model with hydrogen bonding and amino acid-specific hydrophobic/hydrophilic and electrostatic interactions of side chains). Simulations of vWF C1 show 4-6 β-strands separated by turns/loops with more loops at lower pH. A simulation of several vWF C1 proteins at low pH shows aggregates still with a high content of β-strands and enhanced turn/loop regions. For the PGM 2X simulation the contact map shows several salt bridges enclosing hairpin turns. The implications of these simulations for describing the aggregation/gelation of PGM will be discussed.

  20. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  1. Altered Mucin and Glycoprotein Expression in Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Denise N; McNamara, Nancy A

    2015-09-01

    Mucins are among the many important constituents of a healthy tear film. Mucins secreted and/or associated with conjunctival goblet cells, ocular mucosal epithelial cells, and the lacrimal gland must work together to create a stable tear film. Although many studies have explored the mechanism(s) whereby mucins maintain and protect the ocular surface, the effects of dry eye on the structure and function of ocular mucins are unclear. Here, we summarize current findings regarding ocular mucins and how they are altered in dry eye. We performed a literature review of studies exploring the expression of mucins produced and/or associated with tissues that comprise the lacrimal functional unit and how they are altered in dry eye. We also summarize new insights on the immune-mediated effects of aqueous tear deficiency on ocular surface mucins that we discovered using a mouse model of dry eye. Although consistent decreases in MUC5AC and altered expression of membrane-bound mucins have been noted in both Sjögren and non-Sjögren dry eye, many reports of altered mucins in dry eye are contradictory. Mechanistic studies, including our own, suggest that changes in the glycosylation of mucins rather than the proteins themselves may occur as the direct result of local inflammation induced by proinflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-1. Altered expression of ocular mucins in dry eye varies considerably from study to study, likely attributed to inherent difficulties in analyzing small-volume tear samples, as well as differences in tear collection methods and disease severity in dry eye cohorts. To better define the functional role of ocular mucin glycosylation in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease, we propose genomic and proteomic studies along with biological pathway analysis to reveal novel avenues for exploration.

  2. Mucins in contact lens wear and dry eye conditions.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, Padmapriya; Nichols, Jason J

    2008-08-01

    Ocular mucins are thought to play integral roles in ocular surface lubrication, anchoring of the aqueous, stabilizing the lipid components of the tear film, eliminating foreign bodies and pathogens, and with potential involvement in cell cycle mediation and apoptotic activity of ocular surface epithelia. Ocular mucins are of secreted and membrane-associated types. Secreted mucins may be of large gel-forming type or small soluble mucins (e.g., MUC5AC and MUC7). Membrane-associated mucins such as MUCs 1 and 4 are a major component of the glycocalyx. They are thought to render structural support to the microplicae and mediate epithelial cell cycle and apoptotic activity. The alterations in ocular mucins with contact lens wear are unclear. Recent work shows mucin expression may be up-regulated during the early years of contact lens wear, and with long-term lens wear, mucin expression may return to normal levels or sub-normal levels, although this is not well understood. Further, the polar nature of mucins may be associated with their affinity for contact lens surfaces making them a component of contact lens deposition. This has potential implications in the wettability and tolerability of contact lenses, and may be impacted by surface coatings, polymer characteristics, or care solutions. Conjunctival mucin gene expression and secretion may be deficient in several ocular surface disorders associated with dry eye. Deficiency and alterations in glycosylation characteristics of MUC5AC and MUC2 have been reported in both Sjögren and non-Sjögren dry eye types. Decreased binding of the membrane-associated mucin MUC16 to the conjunctival epithelium has been reported in Sjögren dry eye while MUC1 alterations have been reported in Sjögren and non-Sjögren dry eye states. In view of the mucin involvement in dry eye conditions, stimulation of mucus secretion pathways may hold promise in the pharmaceutical treatment of dry eye.

  3. Epithelial borderline ovarian tumor: Diagnosis and treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Kimio; Kawano, Kouichiro; Tsuda, Naotake; Nishio, Shin; Terada, Atsumu; Kato, Hiroyuki; Tasaki, Kazuto; Matsukuma, Ken

    2015-05-01

    Epithelial borderline ovarian tumors (BOT) are distinctive from benign tumors and carcinoma. They occur in younger women more often than carcinoma, and there is some difficulty making correct diagnosis of BOT. Two subtypes of BOT, serous and mucinous borderline tumor have different characteristics and very different clinical behavior. Serous borderline tumor (SBT) with micropapillary pattern shows more incidence of extra ovarian disease and often coexists with invasive implant. SBT with micropapillary pattern in advanced stage has showed a worse prognosis than typical SBT. Huge mucinous borderline tumors have histologic heterogeneity, and the accuracy of frozen section diagnosis is relatively low. Extensive sampling is required to reach a correct pathological diagnosis. Mucinous adenoma (intestinal type) also runs the risk of recurrence after cystectomy, or intraoperative rupture of cyst. Laparoscopic procedure for BOT has not increased the risk of recurrence. Fertility preserving procedures are generally accepted, except in advanced stage SBT with invasive implants. Only cystectomy shows a significant risk of recurrence. Re-staging surgery and full staging surgery is not necessary for all BOT. We should not attempt to treat them uniformly, by the single diagnosis of "borderline tumor". It depends on histologic type. Close communication with the pathologist is necessary to gain more detail and ask more pathological samples in order to make the optimal treatment strategy for each individual patients.

  4. [A case of mucinous noncystic carcinoma of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Jung, Jun Young; Song, Moon Hee; Park, Young Sook; Jo, Yun Ju; Kim, Seong Hwan; Jun, Dae-Won; Kim, Dong Hee; Lee, Won Mi

    2008-03-01

    Mucinous (colloid) carcinoma is defined as pools of stromal extracellular mucin containing scanty, floating carcinoma cells. It is a well-defined entity in breast or large bowel. However, mucinous noncystic carcinoma of the pancreas (MNCC) is uncommon, comprising between 1% and 3% of all carcinomas of the pancreas. In the past, MNCC generally had been categorized together with ordinary ductal adenocarcinoma or misdiagnosed as mucinous cystadenocarcinoma or signet-ring cell carcinoma. The new WHO classification lists MNCC as a variant of ductal adenocarcinoma. Herein, we report a 32-year-old woman with incidentally found pancreatic body mass who underwent subtotal pancreatectomy. She was diagnosed as MNCC histologically.

  5. Molecular Pathways: Mucins and Drug Delivery in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chinthalapally V; Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf

    2017-03-15

    Over the past few decades, clinical and preclinical studies have clearly demonstrated the role of mucins in tumor development. It is well established that mucins form a barrier impeding drug access to target sites, leading to cancer chemoresistance. Recently gained knowledge regarding core enzyme synthesis has opened avenues to explore the possibility of disrupting mucin synthesis to improve drug efficacy. Cancer cells exploit aberrant mucin synthesis to efficiently mask the epithelial cells and ensure survival under hostile tumor microenvironment conditions. However, O-glycan synthesis enzyme core 2 beta 1,6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GCNT3/C2GnT-2) is overexpressed in Kras-driven mouse and human cancer, and inhibition of GCNT3 has been shown to disrupt mucin synthesis. This previously unrecognized developmental pathway might be responsible for aberrant mucin biosynthesis and chemoresistance. In this Molecular Pathways article, we briefly discuss the potential role of mucin synthesis in cancers, ways to improve drug delivery and disrupt mucin mesh to overcome chemoresistance by targeting mucin synthesis, and the unique opportunity to target the GCNT3 pathway for the prevention and treatment of cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 23(6); 1373-8. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Simultaneous liver mucinous cystic and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct: a case report.

    PubMed

    Budzynska, Agnieszka; Hartleb, Marek; Nowakowska-Dulawa, Ewa; Krol, Robert; Remiszewski, Piotr; Mazurkiewicz, Michal

    2014-04-14

    Cystic hepatic neoplasms are rare tumors, and are classified into two separate entities: mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct (IPMN-B). We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain and jaundice due to the presence of a large hepatic multilocular cystic tumor associated with an intraductal tumor. Partial hepatectomy with resection of extrahepatic bile ducts demonstrated an intrahepatic MCN and an intraductal IPMN-B. This is the first report of the simultaneous occurrence of these two histologically distinct entities in the liver.

  7. Ovarian Cancers: Genetic Abnormalities, Tumor Heterogeneity and Progression, Clonal Evolution and Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Testa, Ugo; Petrucci, Eleonora; Pasquini, Luca; Castelli, Germana; Pelosi, Elvira

    2018-02-01

    Four main histological subtypes of ovarian cancer exist: serous (the most frequent), endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell; in each subtype, low and high grade. The large majority of ovarian cancers are diagnosed as high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGS-OvCas). TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in HGS-OvCas; about 50% of these tumors displayed defective homologous recombination due to germline and somatic BRCA mutations, epigenetic inactivation of BRCA and abnormalities of DNA repair genes; somatic copy number alterations are frequent in these tumors and some of them are associated with prognosis; defective NOTCH, RAS/MEK, PI3K and FOXM1 pathway signaling is frequent. Other histological subtypes were characterized by a different mutational spectrum: LGS-OvCas have increased frequency of BRAF and RAS mutations; mucinous cancers have mutation in ARID1A , PIK3CA , PTEN , CTNNB1 and RAS . Intensive research was focused to characterize ovarian cancer stem cells, based on positivity for some markers, including CD133, CD44, CD117, CD24, EpCAM, LY6A, ALDH1. Ovarian cancer cells have an intrinsic plasticity, thus explaining that in a single tumor more than one cell subpopulation, may exhibit tumor-initiating capacity. The improvements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of ovarian cancers should lead to more efficacious treatments.

  8. Ovarian Cancers: Genetic Abnormalities, Tumor Heterogeneity and Progression, Clonal Evolution and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Germana; Pelosi, Elvira

    2018-01-01

    Four main histological subtypes of ovarian cancer exist: serous (the most frequent), endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell; in each subtype, low and high grade. The large majority of ovarian cancers are diagnosed as high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGS-OvCas). TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in HGS-OvCas; about 50% of these tumors displayed defective homologous recombination due to germline and somatic BRCA mutations, epigenetic inactivation of BRCA and abnormalities of DNA repair genes; somatic copy number alterations are frequent in these tumors and some of them are associated with prognosis; defective NOTCH, RAS/MEK, PI3K and FOXM1 pathway signaling is frequent. Other histological subtypes were characterized by a different mutational spectrum: LGS-OvCas have increased frequency of BRAF and RAS mutations; mucinous cancers have mutation in ARID1A, PIK3CA, PTEN, CTNNB1 and RAS. Intensive research was focused to characterize ovarian cancer stem cells, based on positivity for some markers, including CD133, CD44, CD117, CD24, EpCAM, LY6A, ALDH1. Ovarian cancer cells have an intrinsic plasticity, thus explaining that in a single tumor more than one cell subpopulation, may exhibit tumor-initiating capacity. The improvements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of ovarian cancers should lead to more efficacious treatments. PMID:29389895

  9. Associations between residual disease and survival in epithelial ovarian cancer by histologic type.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Alexander; Manning-Geist, Beryl; Bregar, Amy J; Diver, Elisabeth J; Goodman, Annekathryn; Del Carmen, Marcela G; Schorge, John O; Rauh-Hain, J Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    Surgical cytoreduction has been postulated to affect survival by increasing the efficacy of chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. We hypothesized that women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, which usually responds to chemotherapy, would derive greater benefit from complete cytoreduction than those with histologic subtypes that are less responsive to chemotherapy, such as mucinous and clear cell carcinoma. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent primary cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIIC or IV epithelial ovarian cancer from 2011 to 2013 using data from the National Cancer Database. We constructed multivariable models to quantify the magnitude of associations between residual disease status (no residual disease, ≤1cm, or >1cm) and all-cause mortality by histologic type among women with clear cell, mucinous, and high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Because 26% of the sample had unknown residual disease status, we used multiple imputations in the primary analysis. We identified 6,013 women with stage IIIC and IV high-grade serous, 307 with clear cell, and 140 with mucinous histology. The association between residual disease status and mortality hazard did not differ significantly among histologic subtypes of ovarian cancer (p for interaction=0.32). In covariate adjusted models, compared to suboptimal cytoreduction, cytoreduction to no gross disease was associated with a hazard reduction of 42% in high-grade serous carcinoma (hazard ratio [HR]=0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.49-0.68), 61% in clear cell carcinoma (HR=0.39, 95% CI=0.22-0.69), and 54% in mucinous carcinoma (HR=0.46, 95% CI=0.22-0.99). We found no evidence that surgical cytoreduction was of greater prognostic importance in high-grade serous carcinomas than in histologies that are less responsive to chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Study on anti-tumor effect of cyanidin-3-glucoside on ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Linchai; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Rui

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the effect and the mechanism of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) in the growth inhibition of ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. After human ovarian cancer cell line HO-8910PM was treated with C3G, cell growth was determined by the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis stained with Annexin V-FITC/PI. The protein expression in HO-8910PM cells was analyzed by Western blot assay. HO-8910PM cells were injected subcutaneously into nude mice to establish xenograft model. After 3 weeks of implantation, mice were randomized into 2 groups (n = 8): control group, feed with 0.2 mL double distilled water; C3G group, feed with C3G at a dose of 5 mg x kg(-1). All treatment lasted for two weeks, thrice per week. Eight weeks after implantation, tumor weight and inhibition rate were evaluated respectively after the mice were sacrificed. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the positive expression of Ki-67 and Mucin-4 in the tumors. The proliferation of ovarian cancer cells was inhibited significantly by C3G with IC50 being 13.82 mg x L(-1). Apoptosis rate induced by C3G was markedly highter than that of control. The expression of Mucin4 was down-regulated in HO-8910PM cells after treatment of C3G. C3G inhibited the growth of ovarian xenograft tumors in nude mice. Furthermore, the positive expression of Ki-67 and Mucin-4 were both decreased in tumors after administration of C3G. C3G exerts anti-tumor activity in ovarian cancer both in vitro and in vivo, which may be related to down-regulation of Mucin-4 protein.

  11. Production of monoclonal antibodies recognising the peptide core of MUC2 intestinal mucin.

    PubMed

    Durrant, L G; Jacobs, E; Price, M R

    1994-01-01

    A peptide based on the tandem repeat sequence of MUC2 mucin was used to produce a series of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). The fine specificity of these antibodies and their implications for MUC2 expression are presented. Three of the MAbs, 996/1, 996/7 and 995/25, were specific to the MUC2p and failed to bind to peptides based on the MUC1,3,4 tandem repeat sequences whereas three others, 994/152, 994/91 and 996/36, cross reacted with the MUC2p and the MUC3 tandem repeat peptide but not the MUC1 and MUC4 peptides. An antigen, affinity purified from a colorectal tumour on one of the MUC2p-specific MAbs, 996/1, was shown to be a high molecular weight polydisperse, mucin-like antigen. Two of the MAbs, 996/1 and 994/152, recognised MUC2 in tissue sections, although the fine specificity varied between the two MAbs, with 994/152 strongly staining gastric, ileum and kidney epithelia, and MAb 996/1 intensely staining colon, liver and prostate tissues. These antibodies also stained a colorectal cell line, and MAb 994/152 also stained a gastric and an ovarian cell line. Six of the MAbs were used to stain colorectal tumour and adjacent 'normal' colonic mucosa sections. All six stained normal mucosa, but only two of the MAbs, 996/1 and 994/91, stained tumour tissue. The staining probably reflects exposure of cryptic epitopes due to varying levels of glycosylation in different tissues. These anti-MUC2p MAbs may help in determining the normal role of MUC2 mucin and how it is subverted in malignancy.

  12. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Oligomenorrhea, and Risk of Ovarian Cancer Histotypes: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Harris, Holly R; Babic, Ana; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; Jordan, Susan J; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Goodman, Marc T; Modugno, Francesmary; Ness, Roberta B; Moysich, Kirsten B; Kjær, Susanne K; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W; Bandera, Elisa V; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Narod, Steven A; Phelan, Catherine M; McLaughlin, John R; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Pearce, Celeste L; Wu, Anna H; Terry, Kathryn L

    2018-02-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and one of its distinguishing characteristics, oligomenorrhea, have both been associated with ovarian cancer risk in some but not all studies. However, these associations have been rarely examined by ovarian cancer histotypes, which may explain the lack of clear associations reported in previous studies. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 case-control studies including 16,594 women with invasive ovarian cancer ( n = 13,719) or borderline ovarian disease ( n = 2,875) and 17,718 controls. Adjusted study-specific ORs were calculated using logistic regression and combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled histotype-specific ORs were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. Results: Women reporting menstrual cycle length >35 days had decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer compared with women reporting cycle length ≤35 days [OR = 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.84]. Decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer was also observed among women who reported irregular menstrual cycles compared with women with regular cycles (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.76-0.89). No significant association was observed between self-reported PCOS and invasive ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.65-1.15). There was a decreased risk of all individual invasive histotypes for women with menstrual cycle length >35 days, but no association with serous borderline tumors ( P heterogeneity = 0.006). Similarly, we observed decreased risks of most invasive histotypes among women with irregular cycles, but an increased risk of borderline serous and mucinous tumors ( P heterogeneity < 0.0001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that menstrual cycle characteristics influence ovarian cancer risk differentially based on histotype. Impact: These results highlight the importance of examining ovarian cancer risk factors associations by histologic subtype. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(2); 174-82. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American

  13. Germline Mutations of Inhibins in Early-Onset Ovarian Epithelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tournier, Isabelle; Marlin, Régine; Walton, Kelly; Charbonnier, Françoise; Coutant, Sophie; Théry, Jean-Christophe; Charbonnier, Camille; Spurrell, Cailyn; Vezain, Myriam; Ippolito, Lorena; Bougeard, Gaëlle; Roman, Horace; Tinat, Julie; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caron, Olivier; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Vaur, Dominique; King, Mary-Claire; Harrison, Craig; Frebourg, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    To identify novel genetic bases of early-onset epithelial ovarian tumors, we used the trio exome sequencing strategy in a patient without familial history of cancer who presented metastatic serous ovarian adenocarcinomas at 21 years of age. We identified a single de novo mutation (c.1157A>G/p.Asn386Ser) within the INHBA gene encoding the βA-subunit of inhibins/activins, which play a key role in ovarian development. In vitro, this mutation alters the ratio of secreted activins and inhibins. In a second patient with early-onset serous borderline papillary cystadenoma, we identified an unreported germline mutation (c.179G>T/p.Arg60Leu) of the INHA gene encoding the α-subunit, the partner of the βA-subunit. This mutation also alters the secreted activin/inhibin ratio, by disrupting both inhibin A and inhibin B biosynthesis. In a cohort of 62 cases, we detected an additional unreported germline mutation of the INHBA gene (c.839G>A/p.Gly280Glu). Our results strongly suggest that inhibin mutations contribute to the genetic determinism of epithelial ovarian tumors. PMID:24302632

  14. Genetic zygosity of mature ovarian teratomas, struma ovarii, and ovarian carcinoids.

    PubMed

    Kato, Noriko; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Koutaro; Iwasaki, Yuri; Kamataki, Akihisa; Kurose, Akira

    2018-02-17

    Although ovarian monodermal teratomas, including struma ovarii and carcinoids, are closely associated with mature teratomas, their genetic basis is poorly understood. A series of mature and monodermal ovarian teratomas were analyzed by short tandem repeat genotyping to evaluate their genetic zygosity and its associations. Informative DNA genotyping data were obtained for ten mature teratomas, six struma ovarii, and three carcinoids (one insular, one trabecular, and one mucinous). A homozygous genotype was present in five of the ten (50%) mature teratomas, three of the six (50%) struma ovarii, and one of the three (33%) ovarian carcinoids. There was no significant difference in genetic zygosity between mature and monodermal teratomas. Patients' age was not correlated with the genetic zygosity: the youngest age in the homozygous tumor group of patients was 4 years. It is suggested that an oocyte after meiosis I, which has escaped from meiotic arrest, is a significant cause of these tumors. Although one mature teratoma was a rare case with lactating adenoma-like breast tissue, its genetic zygosity was concordant with that of the surrounding teratomatous tissue. In one ovarian carcinoid, the carcinoid and accompanying teratomatous components showed matching zygosity at all but one locus: the carcinoid was heterozygous but teratoma was homozygous at one pericentromeric locus. This suggests that not all carcinoids are secondary neoplasms arising from a fully developed mature teratoma: some are neoplasms deviating from a developing mature teratoma.

  15. Rural-metropolitan disparities in ovarian cancer survival: a statewide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihye; Blackburn, Brenna E; Rowe, Kerry; Snyder, John; Wan, Yuan; Deshmukh, Vikrant; Newman, Michael; Fraser, Alison; Smith, Ken; Herget, Kim; Burt, Lindsay; Werner, Theresa; Gaffney, David K; Lopez, Ana Maria; Mooney, Kathi; Hashibe, Mia

    2018-06-01

    To investigate rural-metropolitan disparities in ovarian cancer survival, we assessed ovarian cancer mortality and differences in prognostic factors by rural-metropolitan residence. The Utah Population Database was used to identify ovarian cancer cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2012. Residential location information at the time of cancer diagnosis was used to stratify rural-metropolitan residence. All-cause death and ovarian cancer death risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Among 1661 patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer, 11.8% were living in rural counties of Utah. Although ovarian cancer patients residing in rural counties had different characteristics compared with metropolitan residents, we did not observe an association between rural residence and risk of all-cause nor ovarian cancer-specific death after adjusting for confounders. However, among rural residents, ovarian cancer mortality risk was very high in older age at diagnosis and for mucinous carcinoma, and low in overweight at baseline. Rural residence was not significantly associated with the risk of ovarian cancer death. Nevertheless, patients residing in rural-metropolitan areas had different factors affecting the risk of all-cause mortality and cancer-specific death. Further research is needed to quantify how mortality risk can differ by residential location accounting for degree of health care access and lifestyle-related factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Clinical validation of multiple biomarkers suspension array technology for ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhao, B B; Yang, Z J; Wang, Q; Pan, Z M; Zhang, W; Li, L

    2017-01-25

    Objective: To investigates the diagnostic value of combined detection serum CCL18, CXCL1 antigen, C1D, TM4SF1, FXR1, TIZ IgG autoantibody by suspension array for ovarian cancer. Methods: Suspension array was used to detect CCL18, CXCL1 antigen, C1D, TM4SF1, FXR1, TIZ IgG autoantibody in 120 cases of healthy women, 204 cases of patients with benign pelvic tumors, 119 cases of pelvic malignant tumor patients, and 40 cases with breast cancer, lung cancer oroliver cancer, respectively. Constructed diagnosis model of combined detection six biomarkers for diagnosis of ovarian malignant tumor. Constructed diagnosis model of combined detection autoantibodies to diagnose epithelial ovarian cancer. Analysed the value of detecting six biomarkers for diagnosis of ovarian malignant tumor and detecting autoantibodies for diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Analysed diagnostic value of detecting six biomarkers to diagnose stage Ⅰ and Ⅱepithelial ovarian cancer. Compared diagnostic value of detecting six biomarkers in diagnosis of tissue types and pathologic grading with that of CA(125). Results: Model of combined detecting six biomarkers to diagnose ovarian malignant tumor was logit ( P ) =-11.151+0.008×C1D+0.011×TM4SF1+0.011×TIZ-0.008×FXR1+0.021×CCL18+0.200×CXCL1. Model of combined detection autoantibodies to diagnose epithelial ovarian cancer was logit ( P ) =-5.137+0.013×C1D+0.014×TM4SF1+0.060×TIZ-0.060×FXR1. Sensitivity and specificity of detecting six biomarker to diagnose ovarian malignant tumor was 90.6% and 98.7%. Sensitivity and specificity of detecting autoantibodies to diagnose epithelial ovarian cancer was 75.8% and 96.7%. Combined detection for six biomarkers to diagnose serous and mucinous ovarian cancer was statistically no better than those of CA(125) ( P =0.196 and P =0.602, respectively); there was significantly difference in diagnosis of ovarian cancer ( P =0.023), and there was no significantly difference in diagnosis of different

  17. Long-term survival in women with borderline ovarian tumors: a population-based survey of borderline ovarian tumors in Sweden 1960-2007.

    PubMed

    Kalapotharakos, Grigorios; Högberg, Thomas; Bergfeldt, Kjell; Borgfeldt, Christer

    2016-04-01

    We conducted an evaluation of incidence and survival of women with borderline ovarian tumors in Sweden. All women diagnosed with borderline ovarian tumor in the Swedish Cancer Register 1960-2007 (n = 6252) combined with follow up in the Swedish Death Registry to 1 July 2009 were included. Estimation of age-standardized relative survival rate according to time periods for diagnosis. The incidence of borderline ovarian tumors increased during the study period, with a steep increase during the 1980s. The age standardized 5-year relative survival including all borderline tumors diagnosed 2000-07 was 97% (95% CI 92-99%). In women aged ≤64 years, the 10-year relative survival related to age at diagnosis of borderline tumors ranged from 95 to 98% and was 89% in women aged 65-74 years. In a multivariable analysis including age and decade of diagnosis relative survival for every decade increased. The 10-year relative survival in women with mucinous and serous borderline tumors did not differ significantly (p = 0.121). Results of the present study are reassuring about long-term survival in women with borderline ovarian tumors. The age-standardized relative survival rate increased across time periods for diagnosis. There was no difference in long-term survival between mucinous and serous borderline ovarian tumors. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms Lined by Abundant Mucinous Epithelium Frequently Involve KRAS Mutations and Malignant Progression.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hideki; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Norose, Tomoko; Isobe, Tomohide; Suzuki, Reika; Imai, Hideyuki; Shiokawa, Akira; Aoki, Takeshi; Murakami, Masahiko; Mizukami, Hiroki; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi; Takimoto, Masafumi

    2017-12-01

    Pancreatic and hepatic mucinous cyst neoplasms (MCNs) have a malignant potential, but indolent MCNs are not uncommon. The pathological and genetic characteristics of resected MCNs (n=15) categorized by the amount of mucin of the lining epithelium were investigated. MCNs were divided into two groups: (i) a rich (r)-MCN group (n=6), in which more than half of the epithelium was lined by abundant mucinous epithelium; and (ii) a poor (p)-MCN group (n=9), which consisted of the remaining cases. Three patients in the r-MCN group showed invasive carcinoma or high-grade dysplasia, whereas all patients in the p-MCN group showed low-grade dysplasia. Mutations of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) were more frequent in the r-MCN group (83%) (p-MCN; 11%, p<0.05). Mucinous MCNs more frequently have KRAS mutations and higher risk of malignant progression. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Eugenia Maria Chaves De Moraes

    Data from the Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study, a multicenter, population-based, case-control study were used to identify risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer according to tumor behavior, histologic types, as well as p53 expression. Cases were women between 20 to 54 years old diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer from 1980 to 1982. Controls were women selected by random digit dialing. Tumor samples were analyzed for p53 overexpression using immunohistochemistry. Case-case and case-control conditional logistic regression models matched on age and diagnosing centers were used to calculate odds ratios (OR's) and 95% confidence intervals (CI's) for borderline, malignant, mucinous, and nonmucinous tumors, and p53 positive and p53 negative cases. The OR's for high number of lifetime ovulatory cycles (376-533 compared with less than 234) were 3.1 (95% CI 1.6-6.1) for malignant and 1.4 (95% CI 0.5-3.7) for borderline cases. The high number of ovulatory cycles was also a strong risk factor among nonmucinous cases. OR's for current and recent ex-smokers compared with never smokers were 2.8 (95% CI 1.7-4.8) for mucinous and 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) for nonmucinous types. Infertility showed a positive association with borderline ovarian cancer. Family history of ovarian or breast cancer was positively associated with malignant and nonmucinous cases. Parity had an inverse association with malignant ovarian cancer cases. When cases were subdivided by p53 results, the OR for tobacco smoking and p53 positive ovarian cancer was elevated for mucinous (OR = 3.9; 95% CI 0.8-18) at localized stage. Alcohol use showed a positive association with p53 positive malignant cases at advanced stage (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.2) and with p53 positive nonmucinous cases at advanced stage (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.4). A positive association between high number of ovulatory cycles and p53 positive malignant cases was observed in cases with localized stage (OR = 6.6; 95% CI 1.0-45) and advanced

  20. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C; Ness, Roberta; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pike, Malcolm C; Rossing, Mary Anne; Terry, Kathryn L; Wu, Anna H; Risch, Harvey A; Yu, Herbert; Doherty, Jennifer A; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stefan; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T; Carney, Michael E; Matsuno, Rayna K; Lurie, Galina; Moysich, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan; Hogdall, Estrid; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Vierkant, Robert A; Larson, Melissa C; Schildkraut, Joellen; Hoyo, Cathrine; Moorman, Patricia; Weber, Rachel P; Cramer, Daniel W; Vitonis, Allison F; Bandera, Elisa V; Olson, Sara H; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; King, Melony; Brinton, Louise A; Yang, Hannah; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Lissowska, Jolanta; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Webb, Penelope M

    2013-04-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated the association between BMI (recent, maximum and in young adulthood) and ovarian cancer risk using original data from 15 case-control studies (13 548 cases and 17 913 controls). We combined study-specific adjusted odds ratios (ORs) using a random-effects model. We further examined the associations by histological subtype, menopausal status and post-menopausal hormone use. High BMI (all time-points) was associated with increased risk. This was most pronounced for borderline serous (recent BMI: pooled OR=1.24 per 5 kg/m(2); 95% CI 1.18-1.30), invasive endometrioid (1.17; 1.11-1.23) and invasive mucinous (1.19; 1.06-1.32) tumours. There was no association with serous invasive cancer overall (0.98; 0.94-1.02), but increased risks for low-grade serous invasive tumours (1.13, 1.03-1.25) and in pre-menopausal women (1.11; 1.04-1.18). Among post-menopausal women, the associations did not differ between hormone replacement therapy users and non-users. Whilst obesity appears to increase risk of the less common histological subtypes of ovarian cancer, it does not increase risk of high-grade invasive serous cancers, and reducing BMI is therefore unlikely to prevent the majority of ovarian cancer deaths. Other modifiable factors must be identified to control this disease.

  1. A Potential Role for Drosophila Mucins in Development and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Zulfeqhar A.; Härd, Torleif; Uv, Anne; van Dijk-Härd, Iris F.

    2008-01-01

    Vital vertebrate organs are protected from the external environment by a barrier that to a large extent consists of mucins. These proteins are characterized by poorly conserved repeated sequences that are rich in prolines and potentially glycosylated threonines and serines (PTS). We have now used the characteristics of the PTS repeat domain to identify Drosophila mucins in a simple bioinformatics approach. Searching the predicted protein database for proteins with at least 4 repeats and a high ST content, more than 30 mucin-like proteins were identified, ranging from 300–23000 amino acids in length. We find that Drosophila mucins are present at all stages of the fly life cycle, and that their transcripts localize to selective organs analogous to sites of vertebrate mucin expression. The results could allow for addressing basic questions about human mucin-related diseases in this model system. Additionally, many of the mucins are expressed in selective tissues during embryogenesis, thus revealing new potential functions for mucins as apical matrix components during organ morphogenesis. PMID:18725942

  2. Mucin gene expression in intraductal papillary-mucinous pancreatic tumours and related lesions.

    PubMed

    Terris, Benoît; Dubois, Sylvie; Buisine, Marie-Pierre; Sauvanet, Alain; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Porchet, Nicole; Couvelard, Anne; Degott, Claude; Fléjou, Jean-Francois

    2002-08-01

    Intraductal papillary-mucinous tumours (IPMTs) of the pancreas are heterogeneous proliferations characterized by a malignant potential. The molecular mechanisms underlying the tumourigenesis process are not well understood. Recently, it has been shown that IPMTs secreting the mucin antigen MUC2 have a better prognosis, but the complete pattern of MUC gene expression has not yet been established. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mucin gene expression in 57 IPMTs and eight related lesions surgically resected and to relate MUC gene expression to the histological diagnosis. In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed in 28 cases with probes specific for the MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, and MUC7 genes. An immunohistochemical analysis was carried in all 65 cases and in 90 conventional ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas using MUC1, MUC2, and MUC5AC antibodies. IPMTs of adenoma (dysplasia) type exhibited high expression of MUC2 (93%), MUC5AC (97%), and, to a lesser extent, of MUC4 (71%), all of which were also observed in colloid carcinomas associated with IPMTs. In contrast, IPMTs with simple hyperplasia, intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms, and pyloric glandular adenomas exhibited little or no expression of MUC2. The mucin expression profile supports the existence of two types of invasive tumour associated with IPMTs: a colloid and an ordinary form. The latter shows a pattern similar to the conventional ductal adenocarcinomas with a loss of MUC2 and a gain of MUC1 and has a greater tendency to metastasize. In conclusion, the altered expression of mucin, characteristic of IPMT of adenoma type and of colloid carcinomas, may contribute to the better clinical outcome of these neoplasms, compared to conventional pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Primary Pulmonary Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Efstathiou, Andreas; Asteriou, Christos; Barbetakis, Nikolaos; Miliaras, Dimosthenis; Kleontas, Athanassios; Karvelas, Christos; Lalountas, Miltiadis

    2011-01-01

    Primary pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (PMCAC) is an extremely rare cystic neoplasm. A case of a 56-year-old male with a cystic lesion of the right lower lobe is described. Preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology and bronchoscopy were inconclusive. The patient underwent a formal right lower lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection. Diagnosis was established intraoperatively. The biological behavior of primary PMCAC is unknown. Therefore, careful long-term follow-up is considered necessary because of lack of experience globally. PMID:21541179

  4. Purification and characterization of a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma mucin.

    PubMed

    Khorrami, Ali M; Choudhury, Amit; Andrianifahanana, Mahefatiana; Varshney, Grish C; Bhattacharyya, Sambhu N; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Kaufman, Bernard; Batra, Surinder K

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic mucins consist of core proteins that are decorated with carbohydrate structures. Previous studies have identified at least two physically distinct populations of mucins produced by a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line (HPAF); one is the MUC1 core protein, which includes an oligosaccharide structure identified by a monoclonal antibody (MAb) recognizing the DU-PAN-2 epitope. In this study, we purified and characterized a second mucin fraction, which also shows reactivity with the DU-PAN-2 antibody, but which has an amino acid composition that is not consistent with the MUC1 core protein. This new mucin was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, molecular sieve chromatography, and density gradient centrifugation. It eluted in the void volume of a Sepharose 4B column together with an associated low molecular weight protein, which could be further resolved. The mucin is highly polyanionic due to numerous sulfated and sialylated saccharide chains. Carbohydrate analyses of the purified mucin showed the presence of galactose, glucosamine, galactosamine, and sialic acid, but no mannose, glucose, or uronic acid. The purified and deglycosylated mucin shows no reactivity with anti-MUC1 apomucin antibody, but reacts with antiserum against deglycosylated tracheal mucins and antiserum against the MUC4 tandem repeat peptide. Analysis of mucin expression in HPAF cells revealed high levels of MUC1 and MUC4 mRNA, and moderate levels of MUC5AC and MUC5B mRNA. The amino acid composition of the purified mucin shows a high degree of similarity to the MUC4 core protein.

  5. Human preocular mucins reflect changes in surface physiology

    PubMed Central

    Berry, M; Ellingham, R B; Corfield, A P

    2004-01-01

    Background/aims: Mucin function is associated with both peptide core and glycosylation characteristics. The authors assessed whether structural alterations occurring during mucin residence in the tear film reflect changes in ocular surface physiology. Methods: Ocular surface mucus was collected from normal volunteers as N-acetyl cysteine (NAcCys) washes or directly from the speculum after cataract surgery. To assess the influence of surface health on mucins, NAcCys washings were also obtained from patients with symptoms, but no clinical signs of dry eye (symptomatics). Mucins were extracted in guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) with protease inhibitors. Buoyant density of mucin species, a correlate of glycosylation density, was followed by reactivity with anti-peptide core antibodies. Mucin hydrodynamic volume was assessed by gel filtration on Sepharose CL2B. Results: Surface fluid and mucus contained soluble forms of MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC and also the same species requiring DTT solubilisation. Reactivity with antibodies to MUC2 and MUC5AC peaked at 1.3–1.5 g/ml in normals, while dominated by underglycosylated forms in symptomatics. Surface mucins were predominantly smaller than intracellular species. MUC2 size distributions were different in symptomatics and normals, while those of MUC5AC were similar in these two groups. Conclusions: A reduction in surface mucin size indicates post-secretory cleavage. Dissimilarities in surface mucin glycosylation and individual MUC size distributions in symptomatics suggest changes in preocular mucin that might precede dry eye signs. PMID:14977773

  6. Ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome; a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Helder-Woolderink, J M; Blok, E A; Vasen, H F A; Hollema, H; Mourits, M J; De Bock, G H

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to systematically review the characteristics of ovarian cancer in women with Lynch syndrome (LS) and evaluate the role of surveillance in detection of ovarian cancer in LS. All studies between 1979 and 2015 of women with ovarian cancer and LS or at 50% risk of LS were evaluated. Two reviewers independently evaluated eligible studies and extracted data on age at diagnosis, histological type, FIGO stage, and way of detection according to pre-specified criteria. The studies were assessed for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scales. The quality score of the 49 identified studies was at least 6 out of 8 and provide clinical information on 747 LS women with ovarian cancer. The mean age at diagnosis was 45.3 (range 19-82) years. Most frequent mutations were MSH2 (47%) and MLH1 (38%). Histopathological data were available for 445 women. The most frequently reported histological type was mixed type (mucinous/endometrioid/clear cell carcinomas) (n = 136; 31%). Most tumours (281, 65%) were diagnosed at an early stage (FIGO I/II). Six studies evaluating the effect of surveillance of ovarian cancer, reported that seven of 22 (32%) ovarian cancers were found during surveillance, 6/7 (86%) were detected at an early stage. This systematic review describes that ovarian cancer in women with LS has a wide age-range of onset, is often diagnosed at an early stage with frequently endometrioid/clear cell histology. Data about the role of surveillance in detection of ovarian cancer in women with LS are scarce however detection at an early stage seems possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trends in incidence of borderline ovarian tumors in Denmark 1978-2006.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Huusom, Lene Drasbek; Kjaerbye-Thygesen, Anette; Tabor, Ann; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2011-04-01

    To examine period-, age- and histology-specific trends in the incidence rate of borderline ovarian tumors in Denmark in 1978-2006. Register-based cohort study. Denmark 1978-2006. 5079 women diagnosed with a borderline ovarian tumor in at least one of two nationwide registries (4312 epithelial tumors and 767 non-epithelial/unspecified tumors). Estimation of overall incidence rates and period-, age- and histology-specific incidence rates. Age-adjustment was done using the World Standard POPULATION. To evaluate incidence trends over time, we estimated average annual percentage change and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using log-linear Poisson models. Age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates and average annual percentage change. The incidence of epithelial borderline ovarian tumors increased from 2.6 to 5.5 per 100,000 women-years between 1978 and 2006, with an average annual percentage change of 2.6% (95% CI: 2.2-3.0). The median age at diagnosis was 52 years. Women 40 years or older had a higher average annual percentage change than women younger than 40 years. Most tumors were mucinous (49.9%) and serous tumors (44.4%). Women with mucinous tumors were younger at diagnosis (50 years) compared with women with serous tumors (53 years). Women with serous tumors had a higher average annual percentage incidence change than women with mucinous tumors. The incidence rate of borderline ovarian tumors increased significantly in Denmark in 1978-2006. In line with results for ovarian cancer, Denmark had a higher incidence rate of borderline ovarian tumors compared with the other Nordic countries in 1978-2006. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. High Grade Serous Cystadenocarcinoma of Testis-Case Report of a Rare Ovarian Epithelial Type Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Nayanar, Sangeetha K; Varadharajaperumal, R; Satheeshbabu, TV; Balasubramanian, Satheesan

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian epithelial type tumour of testis are extremely rare tumours that resemble ovarian surface epithelial tumours. They usually present as testicular or paratesticular tumours and can be serous, mucinous, endometrioid or Brenner tumour. Serous and mucinous types account for the majority of tumours. The tumours are benign, borderline or malignant, commonly borderline. Here, we report a case of high grade serous cyst adenocarcinoma of testis which manifested as extensive metastasis in supraclavicular, mediastinal and abdominopelvic groups of lymph nodes, lung and adrenal gland without clinical evidence of an overt primary tumour. We report this case so as to make clinicians and pathologists aware of this rare entity and to stress on the fact that this rare entity should be kept in mind when evaluating cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma in male patients. PMID:28764180

  9. Hyperestrogenemia and presence of estrogen receptors associated with an epithelial ovarian tumor of low malignant potential.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hur, H; Dgani, R; Insler, V; Lifschitz-Mercer, B; Blickstein, I; Mor, G; Kohen, F; Shani, A; Biran, H

    1996-01-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented with breast congestion, tenderness and pain. Mammography was normal. Circulating estradiol was markedly elevated, while LH and FSH were low. Pelvic examination and imaging revealed an ovarian mass which was extirpated during total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Histopathology revealed an ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of low malignant potential, stage 1. The tumor was positively stained for estrogen receptors. Estradiol levels returned to normal post-operatively, with a corresponding adjustment of LH/FSH. Possible autocrine steroid production is discussed.

  10. Mining the Immune Cell Proteome to Identify Ovarian Cancer-Specific Biomarkers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    data and are in the process of identifying gene signatures that can be used as biomarkers for the identification of ovarian cancer-specific biomarkers...groups. The groups showed significant difference in age as well as gestational age, which is expected when considering the disease process . Isolation of...MUC4 in intracellular signaling.32 Oligosaccharides attached to the extracellular domains of mucins have also been shown to interact with different

  11. Prevention of Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma by Elucidating Its Early Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    burden of ovarian cancer through prevention. Finally, it is important to note that clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous carcinomas are clinically...were cut onto PEN membrane slides (Leica), and immediately stored on dry ice. An entire cross-section of fallopian tubes for each case underwent LCM...containing BRCA1, BRCA2 and non-BRCA cases, utilizing the following exclusion criteria: o Systemic steroid treatment for other conditions (ie SLE/ankylosing

  12. Study on Mucin in Normal-Appearing Leg Skin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel

    2017-03-01

    Dermal deposits of mucin in the legs have been described associated with venous insufficiency. However, some degree of stasis dermatitis is generally common in aged individuals. Therefore, some amount of mucin is expected a priori in the reticular dermis of aged patients, even in the absence of clinical lesions. To test this hypothesis, the authors investigated the mucin in the legs of aged individuals without any dermatologic disease. Cutaneous samples were taken from the legs of 15 autopsy cases. A sample of the skin of the legs (either from the left or the right leg without any distinction being made) was randomly taken (without selecting any specific area or attending to macroscopical features). The skin samples were fixed in formaldehyde, and sections obtained from all samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, iron, and Alcian blue. Iron deposits were graded as 0/4 in 7 cases, as 1/4 in 4 cases, as 2/4 in 2 cases, and as 4/4 in 2 cases. Cases with greater deposits of iron also had other signs of stasis, such as neovascularization. All the samples scored 0 for dermal mucin deposits in the reticular dermis. The authors conclude that mucin deposits in the legs are not inherent to aging. Therefore, any mucin deposit in the reticular dermis, as well as expansion of the periadnexal dermis by mucin deposits, should be considered abnormal.

  13. Mucin profiles in signet-ring cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh D; Plasil, Brian; Wen, Ping; Frankel, Wendy L

    2006-06-01

    Signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a poorly differentiated mucin-producing adenocarcinoma that may arise from many different organs, but all SRCCs share identical morphology. It is not possible to differentiate sites of origin for metastatic SRCC based on morphology alone. Mucins are high-molecular-weight glycoproteins differentially expressed in glandular epithelia and in adenocarcinomas. To identify mucin profiles of primary and metastatic SRCCs using immunohistochemistry to determine whether mucin staining could help distinguish sites of origin. Forty-seven SRCCs, including 38 primary (21 stomach, 11 colorectum, and 6 breast) and 9 metastases from these primary sites were retrieved from archival files. Consecutive tissue sections were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies against MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC (MUC5), and MUC6 on separate slides. Cytoplasmic staining was scored based on proportion of positive tumor cells as follows: 0+ (<5%), 1+ (5%-25%), 2+ (26%-50%), and 3+ (>50%). Mucin profiles were recorded as MUC+, MUCv, and MUC- for consistent, variable, and negative expression, respectively. The mucin profiles for gastric, colorectum, and breast SRCCs are MUC1.2.4.5.6v, MUC2.4+/MUC5v/ MUC1.6-, and MUC1+/MUC2.5.6v/MUC4-, respectively. Mucin profiles of metastatic cases shared profiles with their respective primaries. Signet-ring cell carcinomas of the stomach, colorectum, and breast have distinct mucin expression patterns that are maintained in metastases. Mucin profiling may be useful to identify the origin of a metastatic SRCC of unknown primary.

  14. Mucin glycan foraging in the human gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Tailford, Louise E.; Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Kavanaugh, Devon; Juge, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The availability of host and dietary carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a key role in shaping the structure-function of the microbiota. In particular, some gut bacteria have the ability to forage on glycans provided by the mucus layer covering the GI tract. The O-glycan structures present in mucin are diverse and complex, consisting predominantly of core 1-4 mucin-type O-glycans containing α- and β- linked N-acetyl-galactosamine, galactose and N-acetyl-glucosamine. These core structures are further elongated and frequently modified by fucose and sialic acid sugar residues via α1,2/3/4 and α2,3/6 linkages, respectively. The ability to metabolize these mucin O-linked oligosaccharides is likely to be a key factor in determining which bacterial species colonize the mucosal surface. Due to their proximity to the immune system, mucin-degrading bacteria are in a prime location to influence the host response. However, despite the growing number of bacterial genome sequences available from mucin degraders, our knowledge on the structural requirements for mucin degradation by gut bacteria remains fragmented. This is largely due to the limited number of functionally characterized enzymes and the lack of studies correlating the specificity of these enzymes with the ability of the strain to degrade and utilize mucin and mucin glycans. This review focuses on recent findings unraveling the molecular strategies used by mucin-degrading bacteria to utilize host glycans, adapt to the mucosal environment, and influence human health. PMID:25852737

  15. Acinar cell cystadenoma of the pancreas: a benign neoplasm or non-neoplastic ballooning of acinar and ductal epithelium?

    PubMed

    Singhi, Aatur D; Norwood, Stephanie; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Sharma, Rajni; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Schulick, Richard D; Zeh, Herbert J; Hruban, Ralph H

    2013-09-01

    Acinar cell cystadenoma (ACA) of the pancreas was initially described as a non-neoplastic cyst of the pancreas and, at that time, referred to as "acinar cystic transformation." In subsequent studies, these lesions were given the designation of "-oma," despite the relative lack of evidence supporting a neoplastic process. To characterize these lesions further, we examined the clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical features of 8 ACAs. The majority of patients were female (7 of 8, 88%) and ranged in age from 18 to 57 years (mean, 43 y). Grossly, the cysts involved the head (n=5), body (n=1), or the entire pancreas (n=2). ACAs were either multilocular (n=4) or unilocular (n=4) and ranged in size from 1.8 to 15 cm (mean, 6.8 cm). Histologically, multilocular ACAs were lined by patches of acinar and ductal epithelium. Immunolabeling, including double-labeling for cytokeratin 19 and chymotrypsin, highlighted the patchy pattern of the ductal and acinar cells lining the cysts. In some areas, the cysts with patches of acinar and ductal differentiation formed larger locules with incomplete septa as they appeared to fuse with other cysts. In contrast, the unilocular cases were lined by 1 to 2 cell layers of acinar cells with little intervening ductal epithelium. Nuclear atypia, mitotic figures, necrosis, infiltrative growth, and associated invasive carcinoma were absent in all cases. In addition, we assessed the clonal versus polyclonal nature of ACAs, occurring in women, using X-chromosome inactivation analysis of the human androgen receptor (AR) gene. Five of 7 cases were informative and demonstrated a random X-chromosome inactivation pattern. Clinical follow-up information was available for all patients, and follow-up ranged from 10 months to 7.8 years (mean, 3.6 y), with no evidence of recurrence or malignant transformation. We hypothesize that early lesions are marked by acinar dilatation that expands into and incorporates smaller ductules and later larger ducts

  16. Influence of microemulsion-mucin interaction on the fate of microemulsions diffusing through pig gastric mucin solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbin; Lv, Yan; Wang, Bing; Zhao, Shan; Tan, Mingqian; Lv, Guojun; Ma, Xiaojun

    2015-03-02

    Mucus layer, a selective diffusion barrier, has an important effect on the fate of drug delivery systems in the gastrointestinal tract. To study the fate of microemulsions in the mucus layer, four microemulsion formulations with different particle sizes and lipid compositions were prepared. The microemulsion-mucin interaction was demonstrated by the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method. Moreover, the microemulsions were observed aggregated into micron-sized emulsions by laser confocal microscopy. We concluded the microemulsion-mucin interaction not only led to microemulsions closely adhered to mucins but also destroyed the structure of microemulsions. At last, the diffusion of blank microemulsions and microemulsion-carried drugs (resveratrol and hymecromone) through mucin solutions was determined by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) method and the Franz diffusion cell method. The results demonstrated the diffusion of microemulsions was significantly hindered by mucin solutions. The particle size of microemulsions had a negligible effect on the diffusion coefficients. However, the type of lipid played an important role, which could form hydrophobic interactions with mucins. Interestingly, microemulsion-carried drugs with different core/shell locations seemed to suffer different fates in the mucin solutions. The drug incorporated in the oil core of microemulsions, resveratrol, was transported through the mucus layer by the carriers, while the drug incorporated in the surfactant shell of microemulsions, hymecromone, was separated from the carriers and diffused toward the epithelium in the form of free molecules.

  17. Management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Stefano; Fernández-del Castillo, Carlos

    2008-04-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are being diagnosed with increasing frequency, probably due to the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging. The natural history of these tumors is still largely unknown. Several studies have shown topographical as well as biological differences between main duct and branch duct IPMNs. In the past few years, diagnostic work-up and, in particular, management of these tumors have evolved significantly. Data support the need for resection of main duct IPMNs and the possibility of nonoperative management in selected cases of branch duct tumors. In this systematic review, we analyze the most recent publications related to IPMNs, with particular emphasis on problems related to managing this challenging disease.

  18. Comprehensive mutation profiling of mucinous gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rokutan, Hirofumi; Hosoda, Fumie; Hama, Natsuko; Nakamura, Hiromi; Totoki, Yasushi; Furukawa, Eisaku; Arakawa, Erika; Ohashi, Shoko; Urushidate, Tomoko; Satoh, Hironori; Shimizu, Hiroko; Igarashi, Keiko; Yachida, Shinichi; Katai, Hitoshi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Fukayama, Masashi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro

    2016-10-01

    Mucinous gastric carcinoma (MGC) is a unique subtype of gastric cancer with a poor survival outcome. Comprehensive molecular profiles and putative therapeutic targets of MGC remain undetermined. We subjected 16 tumour-normal tissue pairs to whole-exome sequencing (WES) and an expanded set of 52 tumour-normal tissue pairs to subsequent targeted sequencing. The latter focused on 114 genes identified by WES. Twenty-two histologically differentiated MGCs (D-MGCs) and 46 undifferentiated MGCs (U-MGCs) were analysed. Chromatin modifier genes, including ARID1A (21%), MLL2 (19%), MLL3 (15%), and KDM6A (7%), were frequently mutated (47%) in MGC. We also identified mutations in potential therapeutic target genes, including MTOR (9%), BRCA2 (9%), BRCA1 (7%), and ERBB3 (6%). RHOA mutation was detected only in 4% of U-MGCs and in no D-MGCs. MYH9 was recurrently (13%) mutated in MGC, with all these being of the U-MGC subtype (p = 0.023). Three U-MGCs harboured MYH9 nonsense mutations. MYH9 knockdown enhanced cell migration and induced intracytoplasmic mucin and cellular elongation. BCOR mutation was associated with improved survival. In U-MGCs, the MLH1 expression status and combined mutation status (TP53/BCL11B or TP53/MLL2) were prognostic factors. A comparative analysis of driver genes revealed that the mutation profile of D-MGC was similar to that of intestinal-type gastric cancer, whereas U-MGC was a distinct entity, harbouring a different mutational profile to intestinal- and diffuse-type gastric cancers. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Be Brave (:60) Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  20. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... BRCA2 genes Never having had children Infertility Endometriosis Lynch Syndrome What screening tests are available for ovarian cancer? ... It also may be recommended for women with Lynch syndrome. This operation reduces the risk of ovarian cancer. ...

  1. Apocrine cystadenoma and apocrine hidrocystoma: examination of 21 cases with emphasis on nomenclature according to proliferative features.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akiko; Sugiura, Mitsuhiro; Piris, Adriano; Tomita, Yasushi; Mihm, Martin C

    2007-12-01

    Apocrine cystadenoma (AC) and apocrine hidrocystoma (AH) have been used interchangeably in the literature to designate cystic lesions of apocrine glands. We reviewed 21 cases with biopsies of apocrine cystic lesions diagnosed as AH or AC stained by hematoxylin and eosin. The following histological characteristics were recorded: (a) number of cysts, (b) predominant architectural growth pattern of cyst wall, (c) tumor circumscription, (d) nuclear atypia, (e) mitotic activity, counted per 1 mm2 and (f) Ki-67 staining pattern. Our findings clearly show that there is a non-proliferative group and a proliferative group among the lesions. In the non-proliferative group, one may see some structures that resemble papillary projections but lack a fibrous core. In the proliferative group, we found true papillae, and this change was associated with atypia, mitotic activity and increased Ki-67 staining. Apocrine cystic lesions with true papillary projections should be referred to as AC rather than AH, to emphasize the proliferative adenomatous growth and depicted by their frequency of cytological atypia and high mitotic activity. Furthermore, we suggest complete excision of AC that are proliferative tumors.

  2. Contact lens materials, mucin fragmentation and relation to symptoms.

    PubMed

    Berry, Monica; Purslow, Chris; Murphy, Paul J; Pult, Heiko

    2012-07-01

    Mucins adhere to contact lenses (CLs), reflecting the renewal of the preocular fluid and enzymatic activity at the ocular surface. In this study, we aimed to analyze mucin fragmentation on materials new to the ocular surface and investigate whether this correlates with wearing comfort. Lenses were obtained from new CL wearers after 2 weeks each of wearing vifilcon A, followed by senofilcon A, and then by vifilcon A lenses. Symptoms were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). CLs were extracted in a mixture of guanidinium hydrochloride and radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer. Mucin mobility was analyzed after electrophoresis, Western blotting, and visualization with antibodies against mucin peptide core. Mobilities, normalized to total reactivity in the lane, were compared between visits for each subject and were expressed as shifts. Mucin (MUC)5AC polymers exceeding 260 kDa were observed in agarose gels; NuPAGE resolved polymers from 260 to 3.5 kDa: when large mucins were detected, the smallest fragments were missing. Fragmentation patterns were significantly different between lens types for MUC1 (analysis of variance, P = 0.006) and MUC4 (P < 0.001) but not for MUC5AC or MUC16 (P > 0.293). Mobility shifts of MUC1 and MUC4 were significantly negatively correlated (Pearson, r = -0.908; P = 0.002). For OSDI scores >15, mucin fragmentation was unchanged, whereas for OSDI scores <15, MUC4 and MUC5AC fragments were longer on vifilcon A than on senofilcon lenses (unpaired t test, P = 0.046), irrespective of the direction of change (analysis of variance, P > 0.366). Changes in MUC1 breakdown were significantly negatively correlated to the overall OSDI score (r = -0.891, P = 0.001). In asymptomatic CL wearers, only changes in mucin fragmentation in response to a new material were consistent and fast, irrespective of CL order. Lack of change seems, therefore, to be connected with discomfort during CL wear.

  3. Breast Mucin Tumor-Specific Epitopes for Cancer Immunotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    reactivity with tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies show that antigenicity is maximized with the 40 amino acid MUC1-mtr2. By contrast, the MUC1-mtr3...associated mucins (7). The presence of tumor-specific epitopes is evidenced by the development of many monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that recognize...P1-P5 in the tandem repeat sequence (7). This epitope was identified by competition of antibody binding to tumor- specific mucin by synthetic

  4. Chemically tunable mucin chimeras assembled on living cells

    DOE PAGES

    Kramer, Jessica R.; Onoa, Bibiana; Bustamante, Carlos; ...

    2015-09-29

    Mucins are a family of secreted and transmembrane glycoproteins characterized by a massive domain of dense O-glycosylation on serine and threonine residues. Mucins are intimately involved in immunity and cancer, yet elucidation of the biological roles of their glycodomains has been complicated by their massive size, domain polymorphisms, and variable glycosylation patterns. Here we developed a synthetic route to a library of compositionally defined, high-molecular weight, dual end-functionalized mucin glycodomain constructs via N-carboxyanhydride polymerization. These glycopolypeptides are the first synthetic analogs to our knowledge to feature the native α-GalNAc linkage to serine with molecular weights similar to native mucins, solvingmore » a nearly 50-year synthetic challenge. Physical characterization of the mimics revealed insights into the structure and properties of mucins. The synthetic glycodomains were end-functionalized with an optical probe and a tetrazine moiety, which allowed site-specific bioorthogonal conjugation to an engineered membrane protein on live mammalian cells. Lastly, this strategy in protein engineering will open avenues to explore the biological roles of cell surface mucins.« less

  5. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the breast coexisting with infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Ching-Shyang; Chen, Hsin-Chi; Hung, Yi-Ju; Chu, Jan-Show

    2004-10-01

    A recently described and rare variant of breast carcinoma, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA), is reported in a 65-year-old post-menopausal woman. She presented with a gradually enlarged breast tumor. A well-circumscribed tumor measuring about 3 cm in diameter was noted in the mammographic and ultrasonographic examinations. The mammographic and ultrasonographic findings were indistinguishable from more common mucinous carcinoma (colloid carcinoma) of the breast. The gross appearance of the tumor was well-defined and cystic, consisting of abundant transparent to bloody mucin, as well as whitish solid parts. Microscopically, the tumor was characterized by abundant extracellular and intracellular mucin. It looked like a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the ovary and pancreas. Particularly, few microscopic foci of ordinary intermediate-grade infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were observed around the main lesion in this case. A transition from ordinary DCIS to MCA in situ was found. It might indicate MCA derives from a metaplasia process of ordinary DCIS. MCA can be easily differentiated from mucinous carcinoma by quite different histologic and immunohistochemical findings. According to the previously reported and present cases, MCA of the breast more commonly affects elderly women and has a relatively favorable prognosis.

  6. Chemically tunable mucin chimeras assembled on living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Jessica R.; Onoa, Bibiana; Bustamante, Carlos

    Mucins are a family of secreted and transmembrane glycoproteins characterized by a massive domain of dense O-glycosylation on serine and threonine residues. Mucins are intimately involved in immunity and cancer, yet elucidation of the biological roles of their glycodomains has been complicated by their massive size, domain polymorphisms, and variable glycosylation patterns. Here we developed a synthetic route to a library of compositionally defined, high-molecular weight, dual end-functionalized mucin glycodomain constructs via N-carboxyanhydride polymerization. These glycopolypeptides are the first synthetic analogs to our knowledge to feature the native α-GalNAc linkage to serine with molecular weights similar to native mucins, solvingmore » a nearly 50-year synthetic challenge. Physical characterization of the mimics revealed insights into the structure and properties of mucins. The synthetic glycodomains were end-functionalized with an optical probe and a tetrazine moiety, which allowed site-specific bioorthogonal conjugation to an engineered membrane protein on live mammalian cells. Lastly, this strategy in protein engineering will open avenues to explore the biological roles of cell surface mucins.« less

  7. [Microcytomorphometric video-image detection of nuclear chromatin in ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Grzonka, Dariusz; Kamiński, Kazimierz; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech

    2003-09-01

    Technology of detection of tissue preparates precisious evaluates contents of nuclear chromatine, largeness and shape of cellular nucleus, indicators of mitosis, DNA index, ploidy, phase-S fraction and other parameters. Methods of detection of picture are: microcytomorphometry video-image (MCMM-VI), flow, double flow and activated by fluorescence. Diagnostic methods of malignant neoplasm of ovary are still nonspecific and not precise, that is a reason of unsatisfied results of treatment. Evaluation of microcytomorphometric measurements of nuclear chromatine histopathologic tissue preparates (HP) of ovarian cancer and comparison to normal ovarian tissue. Estimated 10 paraffin embedded tissue preparates of serous ovarian cancer, 4 preparates mucinous cancer and 2 cases of tumor Kruckenberg patients operated in Clinic of Perinatology and Gynaecology Silesian Medical Academy in Zabrze in period 2001-2002, MCMM-VI estimation based on computer aided analysis system: microscope Axioscop 20, camera tv JVCTK-C 1380, CarlZeiss KS Vision 400 rel.3.0 software. Following MCMM-VI parameters assessed: count of pathologic nucleus, diameter of nucleus, area, min/max diameter ratio, equivalent circle diameter (Dcircle), mean of brightness (mean D), integrated optical density (IOD = area x mean D), DNA index and 2.5 c exceeding rate percentage (2.5 c ER%). MCMM-VI performed on the 160 areas of 16 preparates of cancer and 100 areas of normal ovarian tissue. Statistical analysis was performed by used t-Student test. We obtained stastistically significant higher values parameters of nuclear chromatine, DI, 2.5 c ER of mucinous cancer and tumor Kruckenberg comparison to serous cancer. MCMM-VI parameters of chromatine malignant ovarian neoplasm were statistically significantly higher than normal ovarian tissue. Cytometric and karyometric parametres of nuclear chromatine estimated MCMM-VI are useful in the diagnostics and prognosis of ovarian cancer.

  8. KRAS mutation testing in borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade ovarian carcinomas with a rapid, fully integrated molecular diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Sadlecki, Pawel; Antosik, Paulina; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grabiec, Marek; Walentowicz-Sadlecka, Malgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of tumors, including various malignancies with distinct clinicopathologic and molecular features. Mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes are the most frequent genetic aberrations found in low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and serous and mucinous borderline tumors. Implementation of targeted therapeutic strategies requires access to highly specific and highly sensitive diagnostic tests for rapid determination of mutation status. One candidate for such test is fully integrated, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based Idylla™ system for quick and simple detection of KRAS mutations in formaldehyde fixed-paraffin embedded tumor samples. The primary aim of this study was to verify whether fully integrated real-time polymerase chain reaction-based Idylla system may be useful in determination of KRAS mutation status in patients with borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade ovarian carcinomas. The study included tissue specimens from 37 patients with histopathologically verified ovarian masses, operated on at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz (Poland) between January 2009 and June 2012. Based on histopathological examination of surgical specimens, 30 lesions were classified as low-grade ovarian carcinomas and 7 as borderline ovarian tumors. Seven patients examined with Idylla KRAS Mutation Test tested positive for KRAS mutation. No statistically significant association was found between the incidence of KRAS mutations and histopathological type of ovarian tumors. Mean survival of the study subjects was 48.51 months (range 3-60 months). Presence of KRAS mutation did not exert a significant effect on the duration of survival in our series. Our findings suggest that Idylla KRAS Mutation Test may be a useful tool for rapid detection of KRAS mutations in ovarian tumor tissue.

  9. Gallbladder mucin production and calcium carbonate gallstones in children.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Craig; Wyatt, Judy; Soloway, Roger D; Taylor, Donald R; Stringer, Mark D

    2007-03-01

    In contrast to adults, calcium carbonate gallstones are relatively common in children. Their pathogenesis is poorly understood. Cystic duct obstruction promotes calcium carbonate formation in bile and increases gallbladder mucin production. We tested the hypothesis that mucin producing epithelial cells would be increased in gallbladders of children with calcium carbonate gallstones. Archival gallbladder specimens from 20 consecutive children who had undergone elective cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis were examined. In each case, gallstone composition was determined by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. Gallbladder specimens from six children who had undergone cholecystectomy for conditions other than cholelithiasis during the same period were used as controls. Multiple sections were examined in a blinded fashion and scored semiquantitatively for mucin production using two stains (alcian blue and periodic acid-Schiff). Increased mucin staining was observed in 50% or more epithelial cells in five gallbladder specimens from seven children with calcium carbonate stones, compared to 5 of 13 with other stone types (P = 0.17) and none of the control gallbladders (P = 0.02). Gallbladders containing calcium carbonate stones were significantly more likely than those containing other stone types or controls to contain epithelial cells with the greatest mucin content (P = 0.03). Gallbladders containing calcium carbonate stones were also more likely to show the ulcer-associated cell lineage. These results demonstrate an increase in mucin producing epithelial cells in gallbladders from children containing calcium carbonate stones. This supports the hypothesis that cystic duct obstruction leading to increased gallbladder mucin production may play a role in the development of calcium carbonate gallstones in children.

  10. Mucins in Gastric Cancer – An Update

    PubMed Central

    Boltin, Doron; Niv, Yaron

    2013-01-01

    Mucins are high-molecular-weight glycoproteins expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, with a key role in mucosal protection and function. In gastric cancer expression of MUC5AC and MUC1 is reduced and denovo expression of MUC2 occurs. With progressive loss of tumor differentiation and increased tumor stage, expression of MUC5AC and MUC1 is further reduced, and MUC2 decreases. Isolated MUC2 expression (the intestinal phenotype) correlates with metastatic spread and poor survival. There is emerging evidence that MUC1 acts as an oncoprotein when overexpressed. The cytoplasmic tail of MUC1 interacts with the H. pylori virulence factor cagA and is a major effector of the wnt-β catenin intracellular signalling cascade. Polymorphism in the MUC1 gene has been identified in gastric cancer patients and may have a prospective role in the stratification of high-risk subjects. The MUC1 gene also mediates resistance to the recombinant HER2/neu antibody trastuzumab. Future research efforts will examine targeting MUC1 for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24077811

  11. [Clinicopathological characteristics of hereditary ovarian cancer syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yan; Sheng, Xiu-gui; Ma, Zhi-fang; Ma, Yue-bing; Liu, Nai-fu; Chen, Yue-ting; Gao, Rong; Wang, Ying-ying; Sun, Li

    2009-09-01

    To explore the clinicopathological characteristics of hereditary ovarian cancer syndrome (HOCS). From Jan. 2000 to Jan. 2007, among 580 cases of primary ovarian cancer, 42 cases (hereditary group), who had a positive family history of ovarian cancer and met the diagnostic criteria of HOCS, were analyzed retrospectively. One hundred cases without a family history of ovarian cancer were enrolled randomizely as control group (sporadic group). The incidence of HOCS was 7.2% (42/580). Forty-two cases associated tumors affected at least 2 successive generations in 31 families and affected 1 generation in 8 families. Eighty-seven percent (27/31) was from maternal lineage, while 13% (4/31) from paternal lineage. Earlier age of onset was significantly difference between two groups [(49 +/- 10) years vs. (55 +/- 10) years, P < 0.05]. There were 90% belong to serous adenocarcinoma in the hereditary group, while 84% in the sporadic group. There was statistical difference in the proportion of mucinous adenocarcinoma (0 vs. 11%, P < 0.05). The most common clinical manifestations were abdominal distention and anorexia (64% vs. 70%, P > 0.05), International Federational of Gynecology Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III (62% vs. 63%, P > 0.05) between two groups. Fourteen cases (33%,14/42) were previously untreated in the hereditary group, while 40 cases (40%, 40/100) in the sporadic group. There were 15 cases (36%, 15/42) underwent secondary surgery and 15 cases (36%, 15/42) underwent third surgery or more in hereditary group, while 50 cases (50%,50/100) and 27 cases (27%, 27/100) in the sporadic group. The mean number of chemotherapy cycles received in two groups was 13.3 and 11.8 (P > 0.05). The 3-year and 5-year survival rate in hereditary group were 73.6% and 54.9% respectively, compared with 47.4% and 21.2% (P < 0.05) in sporadic group. Hereditary ovarian cancer mostly from maternal lineage are featuring in early age of onset, serous adenocarcinoma, advanced stage (stage III), and

  12. Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma showing Paget's disease and mucinous metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Carter E; Todd, Douglas H; Binder, Scott W; Cassarino, David S

    2009-05-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with a solitary, erythematous, rapidly growing 1-cm nodule on his scalp that had arisen over the previous 3 months. He had no history of skin cancer. An excisional biopsy of the lesion showed a fairly well-circumscribed but focally invasive tumor consisting of areas of typical-appearing clear cell hidradenoma as well as areas with mucinous goblet-type cells and cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and decapitation-type secretion. There was marked cellular atypia, numerous atypical mitotic figures and focal necrosis. The tumor cells focally involved the overlying epidermis (Paget's disease). Large areas of mucin were identified throughout the lesion. The tumor cells stained with markers for cytokeratin 7 and focally for EMA and CEA, confirming ductal differentiation. The goblet cells and mucinous areas stained with mucicarmine and PASD. The patient was diagnosed with hidradenocarcinoma with mucinous differentiation. Associated Paget's disease has only rarely been reported, and mucinous metaplasia is a previously unreported feature in hidradenocarcinoma.

  13. Mucinous breast carcinoma with myoepithelial-like spindle cells.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yasuyuki; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Norimatsu, Yoshiaki; Kanahara, Takuo; Monobe, Yasumasa; Ohno, Setsuyo; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Yakushiji, Hiromasa; Sakaguchi, Takuya; Aratake, Yatsuki; Ohno, Eiji

    2009-06-01

    Appearance of spindle cells has been believed as a benign index of breast cytology. But, we have frequently observed the spindle cells in smears from mucinous carcinoma of the breast. Here, we characterized the biochemical nature of the spindle cells, so as to clarify their identity in cytology. Nineteen cases of breast mucinous carcinoma were used for cytological examination. The spindle cells were located at edges of tumor cell nests and in the backgrounds of cytological specimens. Immunohistological examination revealed that the spindle cells exhibited both immunoreactivity against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Immunoreactivity against vimentin, cytokeratin, or alpha-smooth muscle actin was, however, not observed. The mode of distribution of biochemical markers suggests that the positive cells for anti-CEA antibody and anti-EMA antibody are tumor cells compressed by mucin, while the vimentin-positive cells are fibroblasts. We assert that the presence of spindle cells can be a characteristic feature of mucinous carcinoma of the breast. Discrimination of the spindle cells in mucinous carcinoma from myoepithelial cells and naked bipolar nuclei in benign lesions was established here. It should facilitate precise diagnosis of breast cancer. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Sarcoma-like mural nodules in mucinous cystic tumors of the ovary revisited: a clinicopathologic analysis of 10 additional cases.

    PubMed

    Bagué, Sílvia; Rodríguez, Ingrid M; Prat, Jaime

    2002-11-01

    Ten mucinous cystic ovarian tumors that contained sarcoma-like mural nodules are described. The nodules were studied by conventional and immunohistochemical methods. The sarcoma-like mural nodules occurred predominantly in middle-aged women, were multiple and sharply demarcated from the adjacent mucinous tumor, had small size, and exhibited a heterogeneous cell population. Distinction of these lesions from true sarcomatous nodules and foci of anaplastic carcinoma is important because of the worse prognosis of the two latter tumors compared with the favorable behavior of the sarcoma-like mural nodules. Six of the eight patients with follow-up information were alive and clinically free of recurrence at a mean follow-up interval of 12 years. Two patients died of other causes (thyroid and breast carcinomas). The nature of the nodules is not clear. Sarcoma-like mural nodules probably represent a reactive and self-limited phenomenon within a neoplasia. Their coexpression of vimentin and cytokeratins is consistent with an origin from submesothelial mesenchymal cells, which undergo partial transformation into epithelial cells.

  15. Cigarette smoking is associated with adverse survival among women with ovarian cancer: Results from a pooled analysis of 19 studies.

    PubMed

    Praestegaard, Camilla; Jensen, Allan; Jensen, Signe M; Nielsen, Thor S S; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; DeFazio, Anna; Høgdall, Estrid; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Wicklund, Kristine G; Goodman, Marc T; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten; Ness, Roberta B; Edwards, Robert; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Fridley, Brooke L; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Bandera, Elisa V; Paddock, Lisa E; Massuger, Leon F; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Pharoah, Paul; Song, Honglin; Whittemore, Alice; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste L; Pike, Malcolm; Lee, Alice W; Sutphen, Rebecca; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Risch, Harvey A; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing mucinous ovarian tumors but whether it is associated with ovarian cancer survival overall or for the different histotypes is unestablished. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the association between cigarette smoking and survival differs according to strata of ovarian cancer stage at diagnosis. In a large pooled analysis, we evaluated the association between various measures of cigarette smoking and survival among women with epithelial ovarian cancer. We obtained data from 19 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC), including 9,114 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted study-specific hazard ratios (HRs), which were combined into pooled hazard ratios (pHR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) under random effects models. Overall, 5,149 (57%) women died during a median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Among women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, both current (pHR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.08-1.28) and former smokers (pHR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.18) had worse survival compared with never smoking women. In histotype-stratified analyses, associations were observed for mucinous (current smoking: pHR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.01-3.65) and serous histotypes (current smoking: pHR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00-1.23; former smoking: pHR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.20). Further, our results suggested that current smoking has a greater impact on survival among women with localized than disseminated disease. The identification of cigarette smoking as a modifiable factor associated with survival has potential clinical importance as a focus area to improve ovarian cancer prognosis. © 2017 UICC.

  16. Cigarette smoking is associated with adverse survival among women with ovarian cancer: Results from a pooled analysis of 19 studies

    PubMed Central

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Jensen, Allan; Jensen, Signe M.; Nielsen, Thor S. S.; Webb, Penelope M.; Nagle, Christina M.; DeFazio, Anna; Høgdall, Estrid; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Goodman, Marc T.; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten; Ness, Roberta B.; Edwards, Robert; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Goode, Ellen L.; Winham, Stacey J; Fridley, Brooke L.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Bandera, Elisa V.; Paddock, Lisa E.; Massuger, Leon F.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Pharoah, Paul; Song, Honglin; Whittemore, Alice; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Wu, Anna H.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pike, Malcolm; Lee, Alice W.; Sutphen, Rebecca; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Risch, Harvey A.; Kjaer, Susanne K.

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing mucinous ovarian tumors but whether it is associated with ovarian cancer survival overall or for the different histotypes is unestablished. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the association between cigarette smoking and survival differs according to strata of ovarian cancer stage at diagnosis. In a large pooled analysis, we evaluated the association between various measures of cigarette smoking and survival among women with epithelial ovarian cancer. We obtained data from 19 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC), including 9,114 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted study-specific hazard ratios (HRs), which were combined into pooled hazard ratios (pHR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) under random effects models. Overall, 5,149 (57%) women died during a median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Among women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, both current (pHR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.08–1.28) and former smokers (pHR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02–1.18) had worse survival compared with never smoking women. In histotype-stratified analyses, associations were observed for mucinous (current smoking: pHR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.01–3.65) and serous histotypes (current smoking: pHR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00–1.23; former smoking: pHR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04–1.20). Further, our results suggested that current smoking has a greater impact on survival among women with localized than disseminated disease. The identification of cigarette smoking as a modifiable factor associated with survival has potential clinical importance as a focus area to improve ovarian cancer prognosis. PMID:28063166

  17. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and ovarian cancer risk: findings from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Megan A; Trabert, Britton; Yang, Hannah P; Park, Yikyung; Brinton, Louise A; Hartge, Patricia; Sherman, Mark E; Hollenbeck, Albert; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    Chronic inflammation has been proposed as a risk factor for ovarian cancer. Some data suggest that anti-inflammatory medications may be protective against ovarian cancer; however, results have been inconsistent. We evaluated the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer with regular use of NSAIDs prospectively in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, using Cox proportional hazard models. We also examined the risk of common subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and other epithelial) with regular use of NSAIDs. In addition, we performed meta-analyses summarizing the risk of ovarian cancer with "regular use" of NSAIDs in previously published studies. We did not observe a significant association between regular use of NSAIDs with ovarian cancer risk in the AARP cohort (aspirin: RR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.87-1.29; non-aspirin NSAIDs: RR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.74-1.15); however, summary estimates from prospective cohort studies demonstrated that use of non-aspirin NSAIDs may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer (RR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.77-1.01). Although not significant, we found that mucinous tumors were inversely associated with non-aspirin NSAID use (RR 0.69, 95 % CI 0.23-2.10) in the AARP cohort, which was supported by the meta-analysis (RR 0.69, CI 0.50-0.94.) Although results from the NIH-AARP cohort study were not statistically significant, our meta-analysis suggests that non-aspirin NSAIDs may be protective against ovarian cancer. Additional analyses, focusing on dose, duration, and frequency of NSAID use and accounting for ovarian cancer heterogeneity are necessary to further elucidate the association between NSAID use and ovarian cancer risk.

  18. Epidemiology of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Sellers, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the world, and causes more deaths per year than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. Despite the high incidence and mortality rates, the etiology of this disease is poorly understood. Established risk factors for ovarian cancer include age and having a family history of the disease, while protective factors include increasing parity, oral contraceptive use, and oophorectomy. Lactation, incomplete pregnancies, and surgeries such as hysterectomy and tubal ligation may confer a weak protective effect against ovarian cancer. Infertility may contribute to ovarian cancer risk among nulliparous women. Other possible risk factors for ovarian cancer include postmenopausal hormone-replacement therapy and lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Many of the causes of ovarian cancer are yet to be identified. Additional research is needed to better understand the etiology of this deadly disease.

  19. Physical and chemical characteristics of mucin secreted by pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP)

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Krishna; Akhter, Javed; Mekkawy, Ahmed; Chua, Terence C; Morris, David L

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare disease with excess intraperitoneal mucin secretion. Treatment involves laparotomy, cytoreduction and chemotherapy that is very invasive with patients often acquiring numerous compromises. Hence a mucolytic comprising of bromelain and N-acetyl cystein has been developed to solubilise mucin in situ for removal by catherization. Owing to differences in mucin appearance and hardness, dissolution varies. Therefore the current study investigates the inter-mucin physical and chemical characteristics, in order to reformulate an effective mucolytic for all mucin. Method: PMP mucin, from the three categories (soft, semi hard and hard mucin) was solubilised and then various physical characteristics such as turbidity, density, kinematic viscosity were measured. The water content and the density of solid mucin were also determined. This was followed by the determination of sialic acid, glucose, lipid, Thiol (S-S and S-H) content of the samples. Lastly, the distribution of MUC2, MUC5B and MUC5AC was determined using western blot technique. Results: Both turbidity and kinematic viscosity and sialic acid content increased linearly as the hardness of mucin increased. However, density, hydration, protein, glucose, lipid and sulfhydryl and disulphide content decreased linearly as hardness of mucin increased. The distribution ratio of mucins (MUC2:MUC5B:MUC5AC) in soft mucin is 2.25:1.5:1.0, semi hard mucin is 1:1:1 and hard mucin is 3:2:1. Conclusion: The difference in texture and hardness of mucin may be due to cellular content, hydration, glucose, protein, lipids, thiol and MUC distribution. Soft mucin is solely made of glycoprotein whilst the others contained cellular materials. PMID:28138305

  20. Human Gastric Mucins Differently Regulate Helicobacter pylori Proliferation, Gene Expression and Interactions with Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Skoog, Emma C.; Sjöling, Åsa; Navabi, Nazanin; Holgersson, Jan; Lundin, Samuel B.; Lindén, Sara K.

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the mucus niche of the gastric mucosa and is a risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and cancer. The main components of the mucus layer are heavily glycosylated mucins, to which H. pylori can adhere. Mucin glycosylation differs between individuals and changes during disease. Here we have examined the H. pylori response to purified mucins from a range of tumor and normal human gastric tissue samples. Our results demonstrate that mucins from different individuals differ in how they modulate both proliferation and gene expression of H. pylori. The mucin effect on proliferation varied significantly between samples, and ranged from stimulatory to inhibitory, depending on the type of mucins and the ability of the mucins to bind to H. pylori. Tumor-derived mucins and mucins from the surface mucosa had potential to stimulate proliferation, while gland-derived mucins tended to inhibit proliferation and mucins from healthy uninfected individuals showed little effect. Artificial glycoconjugates containing H. pylori ligands also modulated H. pylori proliferation, albeit to a lesser degree than human mucins. Expression of genes important for the pathogenicity of H. pylori (babA, sabA, cagA, flaA and ureA) appeared co-regulated in response to mucins. The addition of mucins to co-cultures of H. pylori and gastric epithelial cells protected the viability of the cells and modulated the cytokine production in a manner that differed between individuals, was partially dependent of adhesion of H. pylori to the gastric cells, but also revealed that other mucin factors in addition to adhesion are important for H. pylori-induced host signaling. The combined data reveal host-specific effects on proliferation, gene expression and virulence of H. pylori due to the gastric mucin environment, demonstrating a dynamic interplay between the bacterium and its host. PMID:22563496

  1. Mucinous metaplasia of the vulva in a case of lichen sclerosus. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Rakha, E; Mayne, C; Brown, L

    2005-01-01

    Mucinous metaplasia of the genital area is a rare condition characterised by the emergence of mucin containing cells in stratified squamous epithelium. This report describes a unique case of benign mucinous metaplasia of the vulva associated with lichen sclerosus in a 60 year old woman. Histopathology revealed cervical type metaplasia with otherwise typical lichen sclerosus. This report discusses the pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of mucinous epithelium. PMID:16254116

  2. Rat gastric mucins recognized by monoclonal antibodies RGM21 and HIK1083: isolation of mucin species characteristic of the surface and glandular mucosa.

    PubMed

    Goso, Y; Ishihara, K; Kurihara, M; Sugaya, T; Hotta, K

    1999-08-01

    Whole mucins and reduced subunits were extracted from the corpus of the rat stomach. After purification by Sepharose CL-4B chromatography followed by cesium trifluoroacetate equilibrium centrifugation, they were analyzed by Sepharose CL-2B chromatography, rate-zonal sedimentation centrifugation, and Q-Sepharose chromatography. Monoclonal antibodies RGM21 and HIK1083, which histochemically stained mucins in the surface and glandular mucosa of the rat stomach, respectively, were used to detect the site-specific mucins. Although RGM21- and HIK1083-reactive mucins both had a multimerized structure, the density and size of both the whole mucins and reduced subunits differed, thus indicating the presence of distinct mucin species in the surface and glandular mucosa. The mucin subunits were separated into four fractions, UB, B1, B2a, and B2b, by Q-Sepharose chromatography. HIK1083 reacted mainly with UB, while RGM21 reacted with B1, B2a, and B2b. These results, combined with dot-blot, amino acid, and carbohydrate composition analyses, showed that the surface mucins may consist of three kinds of subunits. In contrast, the glandular mucins may consist of one kind of subunit which differs from that of surface mucins.

  3. Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion.

    PubMed

    Cagnini, Didier Q; Salgado, Breno S; Linardi, Juliana L; Grandi, Fabrizio; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S; Teixeira, Carlos R; Del Piero, Fabio; Sequeira, Julio L

    2012-09-25

    Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo). The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver. This is the first description of these tumor in African lions.

  4. Mucin Production and Mucous Cell Metaplasia in Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jizhen; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Tono, Tetsuya; Zhang, Quan-An; Nakamura, Yoshihisa; Feng, Ling; Huang, Jianmin; Ye, Shengnan; Hu, Xiaohua; Kerschner, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) with mucoid effusion, characterized by mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia in the middle ear cleft and thick fluid accumulation in the middle ear cavity, is a subtype of OM which frequently leads to chronic OM in young children. Multiple factors are involved in the developmental process of OM with mucoid effusion, especially disorders of mucin production resulting from middle ear bacterial infection and Eustachian tube dysfunction. In this review, we will focus on several aspects of this disorder by analyzing the cellular and molecular events such as mucin production and mucous cell differentiation in the middle ear mucosa with OM. In addition, infectious agents, mucin production triggers, and relevant signaling pathways will be discussed. PMID:22685463

  5. Gelation of mucin: Protecting the stomach from autodigestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, Rama

    2011-03-01

    In this talk I will describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the remarkable ability of the mucus lining of the stomach for protecting the stomach from being digested by the acidic gastric juices that it secretes. These physical properties can be attributed to the presence of a high molecular weight glycoprotein found in mucus, called mucin. Rheology and other measurements show that gastric mucin forms a gel under acidic pH. A model of gelation based on the interplay of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions will be discussed. Molecular Dynamics simulation studies of folding and aggregation of mucin domains provide further support for this model. The relevance of gelation to the motion of the ulcer causing bacterium H. pylori will be discussed.

  6. WT1 immunoreactivity in breast carcinoma: selective expression in pure and mixed mucinous subtypes.

    PubMed

    Domfeh, Akosua B; Carley, AnnaMarie L; Striebel, Joan M; Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G; Florea, Anca V; McManus, Kim; Beriwal, Sushil; Bhargava, Rohit

    2008-10-01

    Current literature suggests that strong WT1 expression in a carcinoma of unknown origin virtually excludes a breast primary. Our previous pilot study on WT1 expression in breast carcinomas has shown WT1 expression in approximately 10% of carcinomas that show mixed micropapillary and mucinous morphology (Mod Pathol 2007;20(Suppl 2):38A). To definitively assess as to what subtype of breast carcinoma might express WT1 protein, we examined 153 cases of invasive breast carcinomas. These consisted of 63 consecutive carcinomas (contained 1 mucinous tumor), 20 cases with micropapillary morphology (12 pure and 8 mixed), 6 micropapillary 'mimics' (ductal no special type carcinomas with retraction artifacts), 33 pure mucinous carcinomas and 31 mixed mucinous carcinomas (mucinous mixed with other morphologic types). Overall, WT1 expression was identified in 33 carcinomas, that is, 22 of 34 (65%) pure mucinous carcinomas and in 11 of 33 (33%) mixed mucinous carcinomas. The non-mucinous component in these 11 mixed mucinous carcinomas was either a ductal no special type carcinoma (8 cases) or a micropapillary component (3 cases). WT1 expression level was similar in both the mucinous and the non-mucinous components. The degree of WT1 expression was generally weak to moderate (>90% cases) and rarely strong (<10% cases). None of the breast carcinoma subtype unassociated with mucinous component showed WT1 expression.

  7. Aspergillosis and the role of mucins in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Abigail C; Thornton, David J; Denning, David W; Horsley, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of aspergillosis in CF patients has until recently been underestimated, but increasing evidence suggests that it may play an important role in the progression of CF lung disease. In healthy airways, Aspergillus fumigatus can be efficiently removed from the lung by mechanisms such as mucociliary clearance and cough. However, these mechanisms are defective in CF, allowing pathogens such as A. fumigatus to germinate and establish chronic infections within the airways. The precise means by which A. fumigatus contributes to CF lung disease remain largely unclear. As the first point of contact within the lung, and an important component of the innate immune system, it is likely that the mucus barrier plays an important role in this process. Study of the functional interplay between this vital protective barrier, and in particular its principal structural components, the polymeric gel-forming mucins, and CF pathogens such as A. fumigatus, is at an early stage. A. fumigatus protease activity has been shown to upregulate mucus production by inducing mucin mRNA and protein expression, and A. fumigatus proteases and glycosidases are able to degrade mucins. This may allow A. fumigatus to alter mucus barrier properties to promote fungal colonization of the airways and/or utilize mucins as a nutrient source. Moreover, conidial surface lectin binding to mucin glycans is a key aspect of clearance of Aspergillus from the lung in health but may be an important aspect of colonization, where mucociliary clearance is compromised, as in the CF lung. Here we discuss the nature of the mucus barrier and its mucin components in CF, and how they may be implicated in A. fumigatus infection. Pediatr Pulmonol 2017;52:548-555. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Pulmonology. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Pulmonology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Aspergillosis and the role of mucins in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Abigail C.; Thornton, David J.; Denning, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of aspergillosis in CF patients has until recently been underestimated, but increasing evidence suggests that it may play an important role in the progression of CF lung disease. In healthy airways, Aspergillus fumigatus can be efficiently removed from the lung by mechanisms such as mucociliary clearance and cough. However, these mechanisms are defective in CF, allowing pathogens such as A. fumigatus to germinate and establish chronic infections within the airways. The precise means by which A. fumigatus contributes to CF lung disease remain largely unclear. As the first point of contact within the lung, and an important component of the innate immune system, it is likely that the mucus barrier plays an important role in this process. Study of the functional interplay between this vital protective barrier, and in particular its principal structural components, the polymeric gel‐forming mucins, and CF pathogens such as A. fumigatus, is at an early stage. A. fumigatus protease activity has been shown to upregulate mucus production by inducing mucin mRNA and protein expression, and A. fumigatus proteases and glycosidases are able to degrade mucins. This may allow A. fumigatus to alter mucus barrier properties to promote fungal colonization of the airways and/or utilize mucins as a nutrient source. Moreover, conidial surface lectin binding to mucin glycans is a key aspect of clearance of Aspergillus from the lung in health but may be an important aspect of colonization, where mucociliary clearance is compromised, as in the CF lung. Here we discuss the nature of the mucus barrier and its mucin components in CF, and how they may be implicated in A. fumigatus infection. Pediatr Pulmonol 2017;52:548–555. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Pulmonology. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27870227

  9. Mucin levels in saliva of adolescents with dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Gabryel-Porowska, Halina; Gornowicz, Agnieszka; Bielawska, Anna; Wójcicka, Anna; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Grabowska, Stanisława Zyta; Bielawski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Background Human saliva, a complex secretion that contains a mixture of inorganic and organic molecules, plays an essential role in the maintenance of oral health. Mucins are the major macromolecular component of the secretion and are considered the first line of defense for epithelial tissues. The aim of this study was to compare levels of mucins (MUC5B, MUC7, and MUC1) in saliva of young subjects with dental caries. Material/Methods All patients had DMF (decay/missing/filled) higher than value 0. Eight subjects with DMF=3 (control group) and 27 adolescents with DMF >11 (research group) were recruited for this study. Clinical evaluation procedures were oral examination, including tooth, periodontal, oral mucosal status, and collection of saliva samples. Saliva was collected for mucin assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantitate MUC5B, MUC7, and MUC1. Results Our results indicate that adolescents with very high intensity of dental caries disease had increased levels of MUC1 and MUC5B. The membrane mucin MUC1 protein levels in the group with DMF>11 (research group) were higher compared to the group with DMF=3 (control group), and the increase was statistically significant (p=0.011). Similarly, secreted mucin MUC5B protein levels were higher (p=0.06) in the group with DMF>11 (research group). Although MUC7 protein levels were slightly reduced in symptomatic subjects, the decrease was statistically insignificant (p=0.918). Conclusions Our data suggest links between the production of mucins, especially MUC1 and MUC5B in saliva, and dental caries disease. PMID:24441930

  10. Malignant tumors associated with ovarian mature teratoma: A single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Trabzonlu, Levent; Durmaz, Guray; Vural, Cigdem; Muezzinoglu, Bahar; Corakci, Aydin

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study are to present demographical features of cases diagnosed with malignant tumor associated with ovarian mature teratoma and to analyze histopathological features and clinical follow up of these tumors. Single-institution retrospective charts were reviewed to identify all cases of ovarian mature teratoma diagnosed from 1998 to 2015. Clinicopathological parameters that were analyzed include age, tumor size, tumor stage, histological type, laterality, IOC diagnosis and whether or not patient has received adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 218 ovarian mature teratoma cases were identified during the study period. Of the 218 ovarian mature teratoma specimens, eight (3.7%) exhibited malignant tumors. The average age for cases of malignancy associated with ovarian mature teratoma was 44.6 years. The average size of tumors was 10.36cm. On final pathology, histological types of tumors were as follows: two cases each of squamous cell carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma; one case each of mucinous adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma and oligodendroglioma. Only one patient with Stage IIB tumor died of disease. One patient was alive with metastatic disease two months after initial diagnosis. Mean and median follow-up times were 64.1 and 49 months, respectively. An ovarian mass that has characteristics of a teratoma in a postmenopausal patient should alert for malignancy -regardless of tumor size. IOC is a valuable tool for the detection of malignancy and should be requested to determine the modality of surgical approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Mucin expression in reactive gastropathy: an immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Tomita, Shigeki; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2007-01-01

    Reactive gastropathy is the second most common diagnosis made on gastric biopsies. Increased epithelial proliferation and modifications of epithelial cytokeratin profile, distinct from those of Helicobacter pylori gastritis, have been previously reported. However, the evaluation of mucins, important components of the protective mucosal mucous layer, has not been reported. To investigate alterations of membrane and secreted mucins in reactive gastropathy of various etiologies using antibodies against mucin glycoproteins. Thirty-eight gastric biopsies diagnosed as reactive gastropathy, related to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n = 18) or bile reflux (n = 6) or of indeterminate etiology (n = 14), were evaluated using antibodies to MUC1, MUC5AC, MUC6, and MUC2. All cases were confirmed to be negative for H. pylori. The biopsies were classified in 3 groups based on the severity of cytoarchitectural changes (mild, moderate, and severe). Mucin expression and its distribution were recorded and the results correlated with the cytoarchitectural alterations and etiologies. Loss of MUC1, either patchy or complete, was noted in 67% of the cases. Aberrant expression of MUC5AC in pyloric glands was observed in 81% of the cases, and aberrant expression of MUC6 in the upper foveolar epithelium was diffusely seen in 14% of the cases. Aberrant expression of MUC2 in non-goblet cells was observed in a single case. Aberrant expression of MUC6 was less extensive in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs group than in other 2 groups (P = .03). Concurrently, the diffuse distribution of aberrant MUC6 expression was seen only in the cases of severe gastropathy (P = .09). There was no correlation between modifications in expression of other mucins and either the etiologies or the severity of cytoarchitectural changes. Expressions of membrane (MUC1) and secreted (MUC5AC, MUC6) mucins are frequently modified in reactive gastropathy. The alteration of MUC1, which is involved in cell

  12. Proteolytic fragmentation and peptide mapping of human carboxyamidomethylated tracheobronchial mucin.

    PubMed

    Rose, M C; Kaufman, B; Martin, B M

    1989-05-15

    Human tracheobronchial mucin was isolated from lung mucosal gel by chromatography on Sepharose 4B in the presence of dissociating and reducing agents, and its thiol residues were carboxyamidomethylated with iodo[1(-14)C]acetamide. The 14C-carboxyamido-methylated mucin was purified by chromatography on Sepharose 2B. No low molecular weight components were detected by molecular sieve chromatography or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of dissociating and reducing agents or by analytical density centrifugation in CsCl/guanidinium chloride. After digestion of the purified 14C-mucin with trypsin-L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone, three fractions (TR-1, TR-2, and TR-3) were observed by chromatography on Sepharose 4B. TR-1, a 260-kDa mucin glycopeptide fragment, contained all of the neutral hexose and blood group activity and 20% of the radioactivity in the undigested mucin. TR-1 was refractory to a second incubation with trypsin but could be digested by papain or Pronase to a smaller mucin glycopeptide fraction, as judged by the slight decrease in apparent molecular weight on Sepharose CL-4B. These mucin glycopeptides contained approximately 50% of the radioactivity in the TR-1 fraction, indicating that the glycosylated domains of carboxyamidomethylated tracheobronchial mucin contained thiol residues. The remainder of the radioactivity from papain or Pronase digests of TR-1 eluted, like the TR-3 fractions, in the salt fraction on Sepharose CL-4B. Peptide mapping of the nonglycosylated TR-3 fraction by TLC and high voltage electrophoresis yielded six principal and several less intensely stained ninhydrin reactive components, with the radiolabel concentrated in one of the latter peptides. Peptide purification of the TR-3 fraction by high pressure liquid chromatography on a C18 reverse phase column demonstrated the presence of four major peptides, with TR-3A being the dominant component. The TR-3D peptide contained S

  13. Glycobiology of the ocular surface: Mucins and lectins

    PubMed Central

    Argüeso, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation is an important and common form of posttranscriptional modification of proteins in cells. A vast array of biological functions has been ascribed to glycans during the last decade thanks to a rapid evolution in glycomic technologies. Glycogenes highly expressed at the human ocular surface include families of glycosyltransferases, proteoglycans, glycan degradation proteins, as well as mucins and carbohydrate-binding proteins such as the galectins. On the apical glycocalyx, mucin O-glycans promote boundary lubrication, prevent bacterial adhesion and endocytic activity, and maintain epithelial barrier function through interactions with galectins. The emerging roles attributed to glycans are contributing to the appreciation of their biological capabilities at the ocular surface. PMID:23325272

  14. Loss of DNA Mismatch Repair Protein hMSH6 in Ovarian Cancer is Histotype-Specific

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qihui “Jim”; Rosen, Daniel Gustavo; Lu, Karen; Liu, Jinsong

    2008-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) due to defects in DNA mismatch repair genes may be involved in the development of a subset of human ovarian carcinomas. The role of one such gene, hMSH6, in ovarian cancer is not well documented. We investigated the expression of hMSH6 protein in different histotypes of ovarian carcinoma and the associations between loss of hMSH6 protein and tumor grade, disease stage, familial history of cancer and patient survival. We stained an ovarian carcinoma tissue microarray consisting of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 322 patients with an anti-hMSH6 antibody and scored the results semiquantitatively as negative or positive. Twelve cases were excluded owing to loss of cores during staining. Absence of hMSH6 protein was noted in 20 of 230 serous carcinomas (8.7%), in 7 of 16 clear cell carcinomas (43.7%), in 4 of 34 endometrioid carcinomas (11.7%), in 1 of 14 malignant mixed Müllerian tumors, 2 of 6 mucinous carcinomas, 0 of 2 transitional cell carcinomas and in 0 of 8 undifferentiated carcinomas. Loss of hMSH6 protein was not associated with survival, patient age, tumor grade, or disease stage but was associated with clear cell, mucinous and endometrioid carcinoma histology (P<0.007). These findings indicate that loss of hMSH6 expression in ovarian carcinoma is more common in certain histologic subtypes, particularly in clear cell, endometrioid, and mucinous carcinoma, suggesting that loss of hMSH6 function may participate in the pathogenesis of these subtypes of cancer. Loss of hMSH6 expression did not predict survival and was not associated with disease stage, tumor grade, patient age or family history of cancer. PMID:18787632

  15. Mucins and Cytokeratins as Serum Tumor Markers in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Andrea; Ferrari, Paola; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional characteristics of mucins and cytokeratins are shortly described. Thereafter, those commonly used in breast cancer as serum tumor markers are considered. First CA15.3, MCA, CA549, CA27.29 mucins and CYFRA21.1, TPA, TPS cytokeratins alone or in association have been examined in different stages and conditions. Then their usefulness in monitoring disease-free breast cancer patients is evaluated. The central role of the established cut-off and critical change, the "early" treatment of recurrent disease and the potential benefit in survival are other issues that have been highlighted and discussed. The successive sections and subsections deal with the monitoring of advanced disease. In them, the current recommendations and the principal findings on using the above mentioned mucins and cytokeratins have been reported. A computer program for interpreting consecutive measurements of serum tumor markers also has been illustrated. The final part of the chapter is devoted to mucins and cytokeratins as markers of circulating and disseminated tumor cells and their usefulness for prognosis.

  16. Pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma presenting as a pleural mesothelioma☆

    PubMed Central

    Kassir, Radwan; Forest, Fabien; Kaczmarek, David

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Primary Pulmonary Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma PPMC is an extremely rare subtype of pulmonary adenocarcinoma, with only a few dozen cases reported in the literature to date. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a extremely rare case of pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma presenting as a pleural mesothelioma. 53-year-old man exposed to asbestos, he is admitted in hospital with a 5 cm mass in right pleura. He was treated by wedge resection. Sparse groups of malignant cells were microscopically observed in pools of mucin. The postoperative histopathological findings were in accordance with the diagnosis of pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma on cystic adenoid malformation of lung. 5 years later, the patient has no recurrence. DISCUSSION PPMC is usually asymptomatic; hemoptysis is seen occasionally. Preoperative diagnosis is very difficult to establish. Both FNA cytology and transbronchial lung biopsy seem inadequate. Our patient went on to undergo open lung biopsy and histopathological testing that confirmed the diagnosis of PMC. CONCLUSION It is important to differentiate this rare pathological feature of the lung from other lung tumors as the treatment is surgical rather than medical. Thoracic surgeons should bear in mind this rare tumor for the differential diagnosis of a pleural mesothelioma because this tumor has a favorable prognosis. PMID:24055913

  17. Mupirocin-mucin agar for selective enumeration of Bifidobacterium bifidum.

    PubMed

    Pechar, Radko; Rada, Vojtech; Parafati, Lucia; Musilova, Sarka; Bunesova, Vera; Vlkova, Eva; Killer, Jiri; Mrazek, Jakub; Kmet, Vladimir; Svejstil, Roman

    2014-11-17

    Bifidobacterium bifidum is a bacterial species exclusively found in the human intestinal tract. This species is becoming increasingly popular as a probiotic organism added to lyophilized products. In this study, porcine mucin was used as the sole carbon source for the selective enumeration of B. bifidum in probiotic food additives. Thirty-six bifidobacterial strains were cultivated in broth with mucin. Only 13 strains of B. bifidum utilized the mucin to produce acids. B. bifidum was selectively enumerated in eight probiotic food supplements using agar (MM agar) containing mupirocin (100 mg/L) and mucin (20 g/L) as the sole carbon source. MM agar was fully selective if the B. bifidum species was presented together with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum species and with lactic acid bacteria (lactobacilli, streptococci). Isolated strains of B. bifidum were identified using biochemical, PCR, MALDI-TOF procedures and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The novel selective medium was also suitable for the isolation of B. bifidum strains from human fecal samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary Papillary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Ureter Mimicking Genitourinary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gulwani, Hanni; Jain, Aruna

    2010-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter are rare and account for less than 1% of all malignancies at this site. We report a case of primary papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ureter that clinically mimicked genitourinary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis is important for the better outcome. PMID:21151719

  19. Physical Properties of Human Whole Salivary Mucin:A Dynamic Light Scattering Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Manish; Kumar, Vijay; Saraswat, Mayank; Yadav, Savita; Shukla, N. K.; Singh, T. P.

    2008-04-01

    Human salivary mucin, a primary mucous membrane coating glycoprotein forms the first line of defense against adverse environments, attributed to the complex formation between mucin subunits and non mucin species. Aim of the study was to emphasize the effect of pH, denaturants (guanidinum hydrochloride, urea) and detergents (CHAPS, TRITON X -100, SDS on human whole salivary mucin. Hydrodynamic size distribution was measured using DLS. It was observed that aggregation was due to increase in hydrophobic interactions, believed to be accomplished by unfolding of the protein core. Whereas, the detergents which solubilize the proteins by decreasing hydrophobicity lead to disaggregation of mucin into smaller fragments. Mucin subjected to tobacco extract and upon subsequent addition of nicotine was found to have a disaggregating effect on it, suggesting nicotine may be one of the factors responsible for the disaggregating effect of tobacco on mucin, an important carcinogenetic mechanism.

  20. Low Grade Peritoneal Mucinous Carcinomatosis Associated with Human Papilloma Virus Infection: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gatalica, Zoran; Foster, Jason M.; Loggie, Brian W.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a clinical syndrome characterized by peritoneal dissemination of a mucinous tumor with mucinous ascites. The vast majority of the pseudomyxoma peritoneis are associated with mucinous neoplasms of the appendix. We describe a case of pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cervix in a 60-year-old woman. The patient developed low grade mucinous peritoneal carcinomatosis 8 years after hysterectomy for cervical adenocarcinoma. No other primary mucinous tumor was identified and peritoneal carcinomatosis tested positive for high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV), showing both integrated and episomal pattern. HPV has been previously associated with development of cervical carcinomas (both squamous and mucinous) but neither has cervical adenocarcinoma nor HPV been implicated in development of pseudomyxoma peritonei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of HPV-associated malignancy presenting as pseudomyxoma peritonei. PMID:18925701

  1. Androgens are differentially associated with ovarian cancer subtypes in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Jennifer; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Schock, Helena; Lehtinen, Matti; Arslan, Alan A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Visvanathan, Kala; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Buring, Julie E.; Lee, I-Min; Tjønneland, Anne; Dossus, Laure; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Masala, Giovanna; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Duell, Eric J.; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Merritt, Melissa A.; Trabert, Britton; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renée T.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. The etiology of EOC remains elusive; however, experimental and epidemiologic data suggest a role for hormone-related exposures in ovarian carcinogenesis and risk factor differences by histologic phenotypes and developmental pathways. Research on pre-diagnosis androgen concentrations and EOC risk has yielded inconclusive results, and analyses incorporating EOC subtypes are sparse. We conducted a pooled analysis of 7 nested case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnosis circulating androgens (testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS)), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and EOC risk by tumor characteristics (i.e. histology, grade, and stage). The final study population included 1,331 EOC cases and 3,017 matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to assess risk associations in pooled individual data. Testosterone was positively associated with EOC risk (all subtypes combined, Odds Ratio (OR)log2=1.12 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.02–1.24]); other endogenous androgens and SHBG were not associated with overall risk. Higher concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione associated with an increased risk in endometrioid and mucinous tumors (e.g., testosterone, endometrioid tumors, ORlog2=1.40 [1.03–1.91]), but not serous or clear cell. An inverse association was observed between androstenedione and high grade serous tumors (ORlog2=0.76 [0.60–0.96]). Our analyses provide further evidence for a role of hormone-related pathways in EOC risk, with differences in associations between androgens and histologic subtypes of EOC. PMID:28381542

  2. Surface topography and ultrastructural changes of mucinous carcinoma breast cells.

    PubMed

    Voloudakis, G E; Baltatzis, G E; Agnantis, N J; Arnogianaki, N; Misitzis, J; Voloudakis-Baltatzis, I

    2007-01-01

    Mucinous carcinoma of the breast (MCB) is histologically classified into 2 groups: (1) pure MCB and (2) mixed MCB. Pure MCB carries a better diagnosis than mixed MCB. This research relates to the cell surface topography and ultrastructure of the cells in the above cases and aims to find the differences between them, by means of two methods: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For the SEM examination, it was necessary to initially culture the MCB tissues and then proceed with the usual SEM method. In contrast, for the TEM technique, MCB tissues were initially fixed followed by the classic TEM method. The authors found the topography of pure MCB cases to be without nodes. The cell membrane was smooth, with numerous pores and small ruffles that covered the entire cell. The ultrastructural appearance of the same cases was with a normal cell membrane containing abundant collagen fibers. They also had many small vesicles containing mucin as well as secretory droplets. In contrast the mixed MCB had a number of lymph nodes and their cell surface topography showed stronger changes such as microvilli, numerous blebs, ruffles and many long projections. Their ultrastructure showed very long microvilli with large cytoplasmic inclusions and extracellular mucin collections, electron-dense material vacuoles, and many important cytoplasmic organelles. An important fact is that mixed MCB also contains areas of infiltrating ductal carcinoma. These cells of the cytoplasmic organelles are clearly responsible for the synthesis, storage, and secretion of the characteristic mucin of this tumor type. Evidently, this abnormal mucin production and the abundance of secretory granules along with the long projections observed in the topographical structure might be responsible for transferring tumor cells to neighboring organs, thus being responsible for metastatic disease.

  3. Peritoneal Carcinomatosis of Rare Ovarian Origin Treated by Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy: A Multi-Institutional Cohort from PSOGI and BIG-RENAPE.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Frédéric; Bakrin, Naoual; Bartlett, David L; Goere, Diane; Quenet, François; Dumont, Frédéric; Heyd, Bruno; Abboud, Karine; Marolho, Christelle; Villeneuve, Laurent; Glehen, Olivier

    2018-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common deadly cancer of gynecologic origin. Patients often are diagnosed at advanced stage with peritoneal metastasis. There are many rare histologies of ovarian cancer; some have outcomes worse than serous ovarian cancer. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) can be considered for patients with recurrence. This study was designed to assess the impact of CRS and HIPEC on survival of patient with peritoneal metastasis from rare ovarian malignancy. A prospective, multicentric, international database was retrospectively searched to identify all patients with rare ovarian tumor (mucinous, clear cells, endometrioid, small cell hypercalcemic, and other) and peritoneal metastasis who underwent CRS and HIPEC through the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) and BIG-RENAPE working group. The postoperative complications, long-term results, and principal prognostic factors were analyzed. The analysis included 210 patients with a median follow-up of 43.5 months. Median overall survival (OS) was 69.3 months, and the 5-year OS was 57.7%. For mucinous tumors, median OS and DFS were not reached at 5 years. For granulosa tumors, median overall survival was not reached at 5 years, and median DFS was 34.6 months. Teratoma or germinal tumor showed median overall survival and DFS that were not reached at 5 years. Differences in OS were not statistically significant between histologies (p = 0.383), whereas differences in DFS were (p < 0.001). CRS and HIPEC may increases long-term survival in selected patients with peritoneal metastasis from rare ovarian tumors especially in mucinous, granulosa, or teratoma histological subtypes.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx arising in multifocal pharyngolaryngeal oncocytic papillary cystadenoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Markus; Müller, Klaus-Michael; Koopmann, Mario; Rudack, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    We report on a rare case of a laryngeal carcinoma arising in a multifocal pharyngolaryngeal oncocytic papillary cystadenoma (OPC). The disease of a 63-year-old man is well documented by computed and positron emission tomography, histology, and electron microscopy. We could show that an OPC can even develop in the pharynx. The coexistence of both tumors makes this a challenging diagnosis for pathologists. Treated by surgery and radiotherapy, both lesions dissolved. Based on the literature available, we discuss the theory that the laryngeal carcinoma might be the result of a true metaplasia facilitated by chronic irritation and recommend a regular follow-up for OPC too. As in benign oncocytic lesions, we could show that the detection of numerous mitochondria is a diagnostic indicator for malignant variants as well.

  5. Structural investigation of porcine stomach mucin by X-ray fiber diffraction and homology modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Veluraja, K., E-mail: veluraja@msuniv.ac.in; Vennila, K.N.; Umamakeshvari, K.

    Research highlights: {yields} Techniques to get oriented mucin fibre. {yields} X-ray fibre diffraction pattern for mucin. {yields} Molecular modeling of mucin based on X-ray fibre diffraction pattern. -- Abstract: The basic understanding of the three dimensional structure of mucin is essential to understand its physiological function. Technology has been developed to achieve orientated porcine stomach mucin molecules. X-ray fiber diffraction of partially orientated porcine stomach mucin molecules show d-spacing signals at 2.99, 4.06, 4.22, 4.7, 5.37 and 6.5 A. The high intense d-spacing signal at 4.22 A is attributed to the antiparallel {beta}-sheet structure identified in the fraction of themore » homology modeled mucin molecule (amino acid residues 800-980) using Nidogen-Laminin complex structure as a template. The X-ray fiber diffraction signal at 6.5 A reveals partial organization of oligosaccharides in porcine stomach mucin. This partial structure of mucin will be helpful in establishing a three dimensional structure for the whole mucin molecule.« less

  6. A procedure for Alcian blue staining of mucins on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weijie; Matsuno, Yu-ki; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2012-10-16

    The isolation and characterization of mucins are critically important for obtaining insight into the molecular pathology of various diseases, including cancers and cystic fibrosis. Recently, we developed a novel membrane electrophoretic method, supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME), which separates mucins on a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane impregnated with a hydrophilic polymer. Alcian blue staining is widely used to visualize mucopolysaccharides and acidic mucins on both blotted membranes and SMME membranes; however, this method cannot be used to stain mucins with a low acidic glycan content. Meanwhile, periodic acid-Schiff staining can selectively visualize glycoproteins, including mucins, but is incompatible with glycan analysis, which is indispensable for mucin characterizations. Here we describe a novel staining method, designated succinylation-Alcian blue staining, for visualizing mucins on a PVDF membrane. This method can visualize mucins regardless of the acidic residue content and shows a sensitivity 2-fold higher than that of Pro-Q Emerald 488, a fluorescent periodate Schiff-base stain. Furthermore, we demonstrate the compatibility of this novel staining procedure with glycan analysis using porcine gastric mucin as a model mucin.

  7. The structure of tracheobronchial mucins from cystic fibrosis and control patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Jentoft, N

    1992-02-15

    Tracheobronchial mucin samples from control and cystic fibrosis patients were purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-1000 and by density gradient centrifugation. Normal secretions contained high molecular weight (approximately 10(7] mucins, whereas the cystic fibrosis secretions contained relatively small amounts of high molecular weight mucin together with larger quantities of lower molecular weight mucin fragments. These probably represent products of protease digestion. Reducing the disulfide bonds in either the control or cystic fibrosis high molecular weight mucin fractions released subunits of approximately 2000 kDa. Treating these subunits with trypsin released glycopeptides of 300 kDa. Trypsin treatment of unreduced mucin also released fragments of 2000 kDa that could be converted into 300-kDa glycopeptides upon disulfide bond reduction. Thus, protease-susceptible linkages within these mucins must be cross-linked by disulfide bonds so that the full effects of proteolytic degradation of mucins remain cryptic until disulfide bonds are reduced. Since various combinations of protease treatment and disulfide bond reduction release either 2000- or 300-kDa fragments, these fragments must represent important elements of mucin structure. The high molecular weight fractions of cystic fibrosis mucins appear to be indistinguishable from control mucins. Their amino acid compositions are the same, and various combinations of disulfide bond reduction and protease treatment release products of identical size and amino acid composition. Sulfate and carbohydrate compositions did vary considerably from sample to sample, but the limited number of samples tested did not demonstrate a cystic fibrosis-specific pattern. Thus, tracheobronchial mucins from cystic fibrosis and control patients are very similar, and both share the same generalized structure previously determined for salivary, cervical, and intestinal mucins.

  8. Revisiting the role of radiation treatment for non-serous subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G

    2013-01-01

    Except for its palliative use, radiation has been largely abandoned in the management of ovarian cancers because of the recognized efficacy of chemotherapy agents. Whole abdominal irradiation (WAR), however, has been shown to be of adjuvant and curative value in ovarian cancer with microscopic or minimal residual disease in the pelvis, the so-called "intermediate risk group." Recent hypothesis generating data from the use of adjuvant radiation following adjuvant chemotherapy in ovarian cancer has shown an incremental survival benefit for the rarer non-serous ovarian subtypes including clear cell, endometrioid, and mucinous. No incremental benefit was observed for the more common serous subtype. A retrospective examination of early trials using WAR as the sole postoperative treatment in ovarian cancer has determined that the majority of patients in these studies and cured by radiation actually had the non-serous subtypes. The recognition that the non-serous subtypes differ from the serous cancers in their stage of presentation, their molecular characteristics, their response to classic chemotherapy, and their outcomes suggest the non-serous subtypes should be treated as rare and different cancers. In addition to specific targeting therapies that may be developed, radiation should be reconsidered as part of the treatment armamentarium for these diseases.

  9. Impedance Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Cells upon Challenge with C-terminal Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Geoffrey; Lo, Chun-Min

    2007-03-01

    Both in vitro and animal studies in breast, prostate, and ovarian cancers have shown that clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), which binds to CLDN4, may have an important therapeutic benefit, as it is rapidly cytotoxic in tissues overexpressing CLDN4. This study sought to evaluate the ability of C-terminal clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE), a CLDN4-targetting molecule, to disrupt tight junction barrier function. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was used to measure both junctional resistance and average cell-substrate separation of ovarian cancer cell lines after exposure to C-CPE. A total of 14 ovarian cancer cell lines were used, and included cell lines derived from serous, mucinous, and clear cells. Our results showed that junctional resistance increases as CLDN4 expression increases. In addition, C-CPE is non-cytotoxic in ovarian cancer cells expressing CLDN4. However, exposure to C-CPE results in a significant (p<0.05) dose- and CLDN4-dependent decrease in junctional resistance and an increase in cell-substrate separation. Treatment of ovarian cancer cell lines with C-CPE disrupts tight junction barrier function.

  10. Dual-colour HER2/chromosome 17 chromogenic in situ hybridisation enables accurate assessment of HER2 genomic status in ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Yan, Benedict; Choo, Shoa Nian; Mulyadi, Patricia; Srivastava, Supriya; Ong, Chee Wee; Yong, Kol Jia; Putti, Thomas; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Lim, Gkeok Stzuan Diana

    2011-12-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of gynaecological cancer-related morbidity and mortality. There has been increasing interest in the potential utility of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (anti-HER2) agents in the treatment of this disease, with the attendant need to identify suitable predictive biomarkers of response to treatment. The authors studied the prevalence of HER2 genomic amplification and overexpression in 85 ovarian tumours in the local patient cohort of this study, as well as the concordance rate between immunohistochemistry, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and a dual-colour HER2/chromosome 17 centromere chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) assay. The authors identified HER2 genomic amplification and protein overexpression in 35.3% (6/17) and 29.4% (5/17), respectively, of primary ovarian mucinous carcinomas. No other cancer subtypes displayed HER2 amplification or protein overexpression. The authors also found a perfect concordance between FISH and dual-colour CISH analysis (κ coefficient 1.0, p<0.001). The results of this study support existing reports that HER2 genomic amplification and protein overexpression are predominantly found in primary ovarian mucinous carcinomas. Given the perfect concordance between the FISH and dual-colour CISH assays and the advantages of CISH over FISH analysis, future clinical trials investigating the use of anti-HER2 therapeutics in ovarian carcinomas should incorporate dual-colour CISH as part of the HER2 status assessment algorithm.

  11. A proteomic signature of ovarian cancer tumor fluid identified by highthroughput and verified by targeted proteomics.

    PubMed

    Poersch, Aline; Grassi, Mariana Lopes; Carvalho, Vinícius Pereira de; Lanfredi, Guilherme Pauperio; Palma, Camila de Souza; Greene, Lewis Joel; de Sousa, Christiani Bisinoto; Carrara, Hélio Humberto Angotti; Candido Dos Reis, Francisco José; Faça, Vitor Marcel

    2016-08-11

    Tumor fluid samples have emerged as a rich source for the identification of ovarian cancer in the context of proteomics studies. To uncover differences among benign and malignant ovarian samples, we performed a quantitative proteomic study consisting of albumin immunodepletion, isotope labeling with acrylamide and in-depth proteomic profiling by LC-MS/MS in a pool of 10 samples of each histological type. 1135 proteins were identified, corresponding to 505 gene products. 223 proteins presented associated quantification and the comparative analysis of histological types revealed 75 differentially abundant proteins. Based on this, we developed a panel for targeted proteomic analysis using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method for validation of 51 proteins in individual samples of high-grade serous ovarian tumor fluids (malignant) and benign serous cystadenoma tumor fluids. This analysis showed concordant results in terms of average amounts of proteins, and APOE, SERPINF2, SERPING1, ADAM17, CD44 and OVGP1 were statistically significant between benign and malignant group. The results observed in the MRM for APOE were confirmed by western blotting, where APOE was more abundant in malignant samples. This molecular signature can contribute to improve tumor stratification and shall be investigated in combination with current biomarkers in larger cohorts to improve ovarian cancer diagnosis. Despite advances in cancer research, ovarian cancer has a high mortality and remains a major challenge due to a number of particularities of the disease, especially late diagnosis caused by vague clinical symptoms, the cellular and molecular heterogeneity of tumors, and the lack of effective treatment. Thus, efforts are directed to better understand this neoplasia, its origin, development and, particularly the identification and validation of biomarkers for early detection of the disease in asymptomatic stage. In the present work, we confirmed by MRM method in individual ovarian

  12. Application of X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis to Determine the Elemental Composition of Tissues from Different Ovarian Neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevich, I. G.; Strekal, N. D.; Papko, N. M.; Glebovich, M. I.; Shulha, A. V.; Maskevich, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of x-ray fluorescence analysis of tissues from healthy ovaries and from ovaries with different pathologies: benign and borderline tumors, mucinous and endometrioid cancers, serous carcinomas. We determine the average copper, zinc, calcium, selenium, cadmium, lead, and mercury levels. We observed that in the benign ovarian tumors, we see a significant decrease in the cadmium, mercury, and lead levels compared with healthy tissues. In the borderline neoplasms, the copper level is reduced relative to zinc (Cu/Zn), cadmium, mercury, and lead, and also the zinc concentration is increased. In the ovarian carcinomas, we observed changes in the ratio of the chemical elements in the tumor tissues, depending on the histologic type. The results obtained can be used for differentiation, diagnosis, and adjustment of treatment for different ovarian neoplasms.

  13. Laparoscopic Extracorporeal Oophorectomy and Ovarian Cystectomy in Second Trimester Pregnant Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Maurice K.; Chung, Rosemary P.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether a modified technique for laparoscopic extracorporal oophorectomy is less complicated and safer than traditional laparoscopic oophorectomy. Methods: Four obese patients in their second trimester underwent open laparoscopy for treatment of large ovarian cysts. A Cook Ob/Gyn special cyst aspirator with a 14-gauge aspirating needle was inserted into the abdomen to drain the ovary through a separate 10-mm port; the site of insertion depends on the location of the ovary. After the cyst was decompressed, the 10-mm incision was enlarged to 3 cm, and either extracorporal oophorectomy or cystectomy was performed. Results: No complications occurred. Average blood loss was less than 15 cc; average carbon dioxide insufflation time was less than 20 minutes. Average operating time was 40 minutes, which was significantly less than traditional laparoscopic oophorectomy. The patients were discharged in less than 23 hours. Patient A had a 500-cc dermoid cyst, and subsequently had a normal vaginal delivery at term. Patient B had a 1600-cc cyst removed. She had a cesarian delivery due to cephalopelvic dispro-portion. Pathological analysis of the specimen identified the mass as a dermoid cyst and serous cystadenoma. Patient C had a 3200-cc ovarian cyst. Currently, she is in her 24th week of gestation. Patient D had a 700-cc simple ovarian cyst removed at her 16th week of gestation. Conclusions: Laparoscopic extracorporal oophorectomy requires significantly less CO2 insufflation time and a shorter operation time, hence, decreasing the adverse effects on the fetus. The enlarged second trimester uterus made traditional laparoscopy more complicated. Performing the procedure extracorporally decreased the possibility of operative complications. PMID:11548835

  14. Assessment of variation in immunosuppressive pathway genes reveals TGFBR2 to be associated with risk of clear cell ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hampras, Shalaka S.; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E.; Cannioto, Rikki; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Modugno, Francesmary; Dörk, Thilo; Hillemanns, Peter; Preus, Leah; Knutson, Keith L.; Wallace, Paul K.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Friel, Grace; Davis, Warren; Nesline, Mary; Pearce, Celeste L.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Goodman, Marc T.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Schoof, Nils; Eng, Kevin H.; Clay, Alyssa; Singh, Prashant K.; Joseph, Janine M.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Baker, Helen; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Doug; Eccles, Diana; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hogdall, Claus; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Klapdor, Rüdiger; Kolomeyevskaya, Nonna; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kruszka, Bridget; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashikant; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liu, Song; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valeria; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stefan; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Perkins, Barbara; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Pike, Malcolm C.; Plisiecka-Halasa, Joanna; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schernhammer, Eva; Schmitt, Kristina; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Thompson, Pamela J.; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Tyrer, Jonathan; van Altena, Anna M.; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Walsh, Christine; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Cunningham, Julie M.; Pharoah, Paul P.; Ness, Roberta B.; Odunsi, Kunle; Goode, Ellen L.; Moysich, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Regulatory T (Treg) cells, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and, thus, variants in genes encoding Treg cell immune molecules could be associated with ovarian cancer. Methods In a population of 15,596 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cases and 23,236 controls, we measured genetic associations of 1,351 SNPs in Treg cell pathway genes with odds of ovarian cancer and tested pathway and gene-level associations, overall and by histotype, for the 25 genes, using the admixture likelihood (AML) method. The most significant single SNP associations were tested for correlation with expression levels in 44 ovarian cancer patients. Results The most significant global associations for all genes in the pathway were seen in endometrioid (p = 0.082) and clear cell (p = 0.083), with the most significant gene level association seen with (p = 0.001) and clear cell EOC. Gene associations with histotypes at< 0.05 included:(p = 0.005 and = 0.008, serous and high-grade serous, respectively), (p = 0.035, endometrioid and mucinous), (p = 0.03, mucinous), (p = 0.022, clear cell), (p = 0.021 endometrioid) and (p = 0.017 and = 0.025, endometrioid and mucinous, respectively). Conclusions Common inherited gene variation in Treg cell pathways shows some evidence of germline genetic contribution to odds of EOC that varies by histologic subtype and may be associated with mRNA expression of immune-complex receptor in EOC patients. PMID:27533245

  15. Assessment of variation in immunosuppressive pathway genes reveals TGFBR2 to be associated with risk of clear cell ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hampras, Shalaka S; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Cannioto, Rikki; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Modugno, Francesmary; Dörk, Thilo; Hillemanns, Peter; Preus, Leah; Knutson, Keith L; Wallace, Paul K; Hong, Chi-Chen; Friel, Grace; Davis, Warren; Nesline, Mary; Pearce, Celeste L; Kelemen, Linda E; Goodman, Marc T; Bandera, Elisa V; Terry, Kathryn L; Schoof, Nils; Eng, Kevin H; Clay, Alyssa; Singh, Prashant K; Joseph, Janine M; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Baker, Helen; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Doug; Eccles, Diana; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hogdall, Claus; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Klapdor, Rüdiger; Kolomeyevskaya, Nonna; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kruszka, Bridget; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashikant; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liu, Song; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valeria; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Narod, Steven A; Nedergaard, Lotte; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stefan; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Perkins, Barbara; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Pike, Malcolm C; Plisiecka-Halasa, Joanna; Poole, Elizabeth M; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schernhammer, Eva; Schmitt, Kristina; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Tangen, Ingvild L; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Tworoger, Shelley S; Tyrer, Jonathan; van Altena, Anna M; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A; Walsh, Christine; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Sellers, Thomas A; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Phelan, Catherine M; Berchuck, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Cunningham, Julie M; Pharoah, Paul P; Ness, Roberta B; Odunsi, Kunle; Goode, Ellen L; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2016-10-25

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and, thus, variants in genes encoding Treg cell immune molecules could be associated with ovarian cancer. In a population of 15,596 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cases and 23,236 controls, we measured genetic associations of 1,351 SNPs in Treg cell pathway genes with odds of ovarian cancer and tested pathway and gene-level associations, overall and by histotype, for the 25 genes, using the admixture likelihood (AML) method. The most significant single SNP associations were tested for correlation with expression levels in 44 ovarian cancer patients. The most significant global associations for all genes in the pathway were seen in endometrioid ( p = 0.082) and clear cell ( p = 0.083), with the most significant gene level association seen with TGFBR2 ( p = 0.001) and clear cell EOC. Gene associations with histotypes at p < 0.05 included: IL12 ( p = 0.005 and p = 0.008, serous and high-grade serous, respectively), IL8RA ( p = 0.035, endometrioid and mucinous), LGALS1 ( p = 0.03, mucinous), STAT5B ( p = 0.022, clear cell), TGFBR1 ( p = 0.021 endometrioid) and TGFBR2 ( p = 0.017 and p = 0.025, endometrioid and mucinous, respectively). Common inherited gene variation in Treg cell pathways shows some evidence of germline genetic contribution to odds of EOC that varies by histologic subtype and may be associated with mRNA expression of immune-complex receptor in EOC patients.

  16. Laparoscopic optical coherence tomographic imaging of human ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Schmidt, Kathy; Korde, Vrushali; Winkler, Amy M.; Hatch, Kenneth; Brewer, Molly; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women. If diagnosed at early stages, 5-year survival rate is 94%, but drops to 68% for regional disease and 29% for distant metastasis; only 19% of cases are diagnosed at early, localized stages. Optical coherence tomography is a recently emerging non-destructive imaging technology, achieving high axial resolutions (10-20 µm) at imaging depths up to 2 mm. Previously, we studied OCT in normal and diseased human ovary ex vivo. Changes in collagen were suggested with several images that correlated with changes in collagen seen in malignancy. Areas of necrosis and blood vessels were also visualized using OCT, indicative of an underlying tissue abnormality. We recently developed a custom side-firing laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) probe fabricated for in vivo imaging. The LOCT probe, consisting of a 38 mm diameter handpiece terminated in a 280 mm long, 4.6 mm diameter tip for insertion into the laparoscopic trocar, is capable of obtaining up to 9.5 mm image lengths at 10 µm axial resolution. In this pilot study, we utilize the LOCT probe to image one or both ovaries of 17 patients undergoing laparotomy or transabdominal endoscopy and oophorectomy to determine if OCT is capable of differentiating normal and neoplastic ovary. We have laparoscopically imaged the ovaries of seventeen patients with no known complications. Initial data evaluation reveals qualitative distinguishability between the features of undiseased post-menopausal ovary and the cystic, non-homogenous appearance of neoplastic ovary such as serous cystadenoma and endometroid adenocarcinoma.

  17. Enzymatically active biomimetic micropropellers for the penetration of mucin gels

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Debora; Käsdorf, Benjamin T.; Jeong, Hyeon-Ho; Lieleg, Oliver; Fischer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    In the body, mucus provides an important defense mechanism by limiting the penetration of pathogens. It is therefore also a major obstacle for the efficient delivery of particle-based drug carriers. The acidic stomach lining in particular is difficult to overcome because mucin glycoproteins form viscoelastic gels under acidic conditions. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori has developed a strategy to overcome the mucus barrier by producing the enzyme urease, which locally raises the pH and consequently liquefies the mucus. This allows the bacteria to swim through mucus and to reach the epithelial surface. We present an artificial system of reactive magnetic micropropellers that mimic this strategy to move through gastric mucin gels by making use of surface-immobilized urease. The results demonstrate the validity of this biomimetic approach to penetrate biological gels, and show that externally propelled microstructures can actively and reversibly manipulate the physical state of their surroundings, suggesting that such particles could potentially penetrate native mucus. PMID:26824056

  18. Immunohistochemical study of mucins in human intestinal spirochetosis.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Tominaga, Susumu; Nakanishi, Kuniaki

    2017-04-01

    Most patients with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS; a colorectal bacterial infection caused by Brachyspira species) seem asymptomatic, and its pathogenicity remains unclear. Recently, alterations in mucin expression were reported in animal Brachyspira infection. The present question was "Is mucin expression altered in HIS?" Using antibodies for MUCs 1, 2, 4, 5AC, and 6, we immunohistochemically compared 215 specimens from 83 histology-confirmed HIS cases with 106 specimens from 26 non-HIS cases. Positive staining (which included even focal positive staining) was rated "high (+)" or "low (+)." Results were analyzed for 4 categories of lesions, and associations between MUC expression and spirochetal presence were also analyzed. In the "specimens without polyps or adenocarcinoma" category, high (+) MUC2 positivity was more frequent in HIS than in control. In the hyperplasia/serrated polyp category, in HIS (versus control), the MUC5AC positivity rate was lower, whereas high (+) MUC4 positivity was more frequent. In the conventional adenoma category, in HIS (versus control), the MUC1 positivity rate was lower, whereas both high (+) MUC2 positivity and high (+) MUC5AC positivity were less frequent. In the adenocarcinoma category, high (+) MUC2 positivity was more frequent in HIS than in control. Among the above mucins, only MUC1 positivity was significantly associated with an absence of the so-called fringe formation, an absence of spiral organisms within mucus, and an absence of strong immunopositive materials within the epithelial layer and within the subepithelial layer. The results suggest that Brachyspira infection or a related change in the microbiome may alter the large intestine mucin expression profile in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aggressive Management of Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Mucinous Appendiceal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Frances; Mavanur, Arun; Sathaiah, Magesh; Steel, Jennifer; Lenzner, Diana; Ramalingam, Lekshmi; Holtzman, Matthew; Ahrendt, Steven; Pingpank, James; Zeh, Herbert J.; Bartlett, David L.; Choudry, Haroon A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) in the setting of mucinous appendiceal neoplasms is characterized by the intraperitoneal accumulation of mucinous ascites and mucin-secreting epithelial cells that leads to progressive compression of intra-abdominal organs, morbidity, and eventual death. We assessed postoperative and oncologic outcomes after aggressive surgical management by experienced surgeons. Methods We analyzed clinicopathologic, perioperative, and oncologic outcome data in 282 patients with PC from appendiceal adenocarcinomas between 2001 and 2010 from a prospective database. Kaplan–Meier survival curves and multivariate Cox-regression models were used to identify prognostic factors affecting oncologic outcomes. Results Adequate cytoreduction was achieved in 82% of patients (completeness of cytoreduction score (CC)-0: 49%; CC-1: 33%). Median simplified peritoneal cancer index (SPCI), operative time, and estimated blood loss were 14 (range, 0–21), 483.5 min (range, 46–1,402), and 800 ml (range, 0–14,000), respectively. Pathology assessment demonstrated high-grade tumors in 36% of patients and lymph node involvement in 23% of patients. Major postoperative morbidity occurred in 70 (25%) patients. Median overall survival was 6.72 years (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.17 years not reached), with 5 year overall survival probability of 52.7% (95% CI, 42.4, 62%). In a multivariate Cox-regression model, tumor grade, age, preoperative SPCI and chemo-naïve status at surgery were joint significant predictors of overall survival. Tumor grade, postoperative CC-score, prior chemotherapy, and preoperative SPCI were joint significant predictors of time to progression. Conclusions Aggressive management of PC from mucinous appendiceal neoplasms, by experienced surgeons, to achieve complete cytoreduction provides long-term survival with low major morbidity. PMID:22302270

  20. CFTR, Mucins, and Mucus Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kreda, Silvia M.; Davis, C. William; Rose, Mary Callaghan

    2012-01-01

    Mucus pathology in cystic fibrosis (CF) has been known for as long as the disease has been recognized and is sometimes called mucoviscidosis. The disease is marked by mucus hyperproduction and plugging in many organs, which are usually most fatal in the airways of CF patients, once the problem of meconium ileus at birth is resolved. After the CF gene, CFTR, was cloned and its protein product identified as a cAMP-regulated Cl− channel, causal mechanisms underlying the strong mucus phenotype of the disease became obscure. Here we focus on mucin genes and polymeric mucin glycoproteins, examining their regulation and potential relationships to a dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Detailed examination of CFTR expression in organs and different cell types indicates that changes in CFTR expression do not always correlate with the severity of CF disease or mucus accumulation. Thus, the mucus hyperproduction that typifies CF does not appear to be a direct cause of a defective CFTR but, rather, to be a downstream consequence. In organs like the lung, up-regulation of mucin gene expression by inflammation results from chronic infection; however, in other instances and organs, the inflammation may have a non-infectious origin. The mucus plugging phenotype of the β-subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel (βENaC)-overexpressing mouse is proving to be an archetypal example of this kind of inflammation, with a dehydrated airway surface/concentrated mucus gel apparently providing the inflammatory stimulus. Data indicate that the luminal HCO3 − deficiency recently described for CF epithelia may also provide such a stimulus, perhaps by causing a mal-maturation of mucins as they are released onto luminal surfaces. In any event, the path between CFTR dysfunction and mucus hyperproduction has proven tortuous, and its unraveling continues to offer its own twists and turns, along with fascinating glimpses into biology. PMID:22951447

  1. Diffusion through Pig Gastric Mucin: Effect of Relative Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Runnsjö, Anna; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Sparr, Emma; Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Arnebrant, Thomas; Engblom, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Mucus covers the epithelium found in all intestinal tracts, where it serves as an important protecting barrier, and pharmaceutical drugs administrated by the oral, rectal, vaginal, ocular, or nasal route need to penetrate the mucus in order to reach their targets. Furthermore, the diffusion in mucus as well as the viscosity of mucus in the eyes, nose and throat can change depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding air. In this study we have investigated how diffusion through gels of mucin, the main protein in mucus, is affected by changes in ambient relative humidity (i.e. water activity). Already a small decrease in water activity was found to give rise to a significant decrease in penetration rate through the mucin gel of the antibacterial drug metronidazole. We also show that a decrease in water activity leads to decreased diffusion rate in the mucin gel for the fluorophore fluorescein. This study shows that it is possible to alter transport rates of molecules through mucus by changing the water activity in the gel. It furthermore illustrates the importance of considering effects of the water activity in the mucosa during development of potential pharmaceuticals. PMID:27336158

  2. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm mimicking an adnexal mass.

    PubMed

    Cristian, Daniel Alin; Grama, Florin Andrei; Becheanu, Gabriel; Pop, Anamaria; Popa, Ileana; Şurlin, Valeriu; Stănilescu, Sorin; Bratu, Ana Magdalena; Burcoş, Traean

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of malignant epithelial neoplasm of the appendix, an uncommon disorder encountered in clinical practice, which poses a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We report a particular case in which the appendix was abnormally located in the pelvis, mimicking an adnexal mass. Therefore, it was difficult to make the preoperative diagnosis on clinical examination, imaging studies and laboratory tests and we discovered the lesion during the diagnostic laparoscopy. No lymphadenopathy or mucinous ascites were found. The case was completely handled via the laparoscopic approach keeping the appendix intact during the operation. The frozen section, the detailed histopathology overview as well as multiple immunostaining with a complex panel of markers report diagnosed a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) with no invasion of the wall. No adjuvant therapy was considered needed. At a one-year follow-up oncological assessment, the patient was free of disease. In women with cystic mass in the right iliac fossa an appendiceal mucocele should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Laparoscopic appendectomy can represent an adequate operation for the appendiceal mucinous neoplasm if the histological report is clear and surgical precautionary measures are taken.

  3. Tea Derived Galloylated Polyphenols Cross-Link Purified Gastrointestinal Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Georgiades, Pantelis; Pudney, Paul D. A.; Rogers, Sarah; Thornton, David J.; Waigh, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols derived from tea are thought to be important for human health. We show using a combination of particle tracking microrheology and small-angle neutron scattering that polyphenols acts as cross-linkers for purified gastrointestinal mucin, derived from the stomach and the duodenum. Both naturally derived purified polyphenols, and green and black tea extracts are shown to act as cross-linkers. The main active cross-linking component is found to be the galloylated forms of catechins. The viscosity, elasticity and relaxation time of the mucin solutions experience an order of magnitude change in value upon addition of the polyphenol cross-linkers. Similarly small-angle neutron scattering experiments demonstrate a sol-gel transition with the addition of polyphenols, with a large increase in the scattering at low angles, which is attributed to the formation of large scale (>10 nm) heterogeneities during gelation. Cross-linking of mucins by polyphenols is thus expected to have an impact on the physicochemical environment of both the stomach and duodenum; polyphenols are expected to modulate the barrier properties of mucus, nutrient absorption through mucus and the viscoelastic microenvironments of intestinal bacteria. PMID:25162539

  4. Mucin Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Western Blotting for High-molecular-weight Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Kathryn A; Rushton, Zachary L; Ehre, Camille

    2016-06-14

    Mucins, the heavily-glycosylated proteins lining mucosal surfaces, have evolved as a key component of innate defense by protecting the epithelium against invading pathogens. The main role of these macromolecules is to facilitate particle trapping and clearance while promoting lubrication of the mucosa. During protein synthesis, mucins undergo intense O-glycosylation and multimerization, which dramatically increase the mass and size of these molecules. These post-translational modifications are critical for the viscoelastic properties of mucus. As a result of the complex biochemical and biophysical nature of these molecules, working with mucins provides many challenges that cannot be overcome by conventional protein analysis methods. For instance, their high-molecular-weight prevents electrophoretic migration via regular polyacrylamide gels and their sticky nature causes adhesion to experimental tubing. However, investigating the role of mucins in health (e.g., maintaining mucosal integrity) and disease (e.g., hyperconcentration, mucostasis, cancer) has recently gained interest and mucins are being investigated as a therapeutic target. A better understanding of the production and function of mucin macromolecules may lead to novel pharmaceutical approaches, e.g., inhibitors of mucin granule exocytosis and/or mucolytic agents. Therefore, consistent and reliable protocols to investigate mucin biology are critical for scientific advancement. Here, we describe conventional methods to separate mucin macromolecules by electrophoresis using an agarose gel, transfer protein into nitrocellulose membrane, and detect signal with mucin-specific antibodies as well as infrared fluorescent gel reader. These techniques are widely applicable to determine mucin quantitation, multimerization and to test the effects of pharmacological compounds on mucins.

  5. Clinicopathological Characteristics and KRAS Mutation Status of Endometrial Mucinous Metaplasia and Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji-Youn; Jung, Yoon Yang; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2018-05-01

    Mucinous metaplasia of the endometrium occurs as a spectrum of epithelial alterations ranging from the formation of simple, tubular glands to architecturally complex glandular proliferation with intraglandular papillary projection and cellular tufts. Endometrial mucinous metaplasia often presents a diagnostic challenge in endometrial curettage. We analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and the mutation status for V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) of 11 cases of endometrial mucinous metaplasia. Electronic medical record review and histopathological examination were performed. KRAS mutation status was analyzed using a pyrosequencing technique. Cases were classified histopathologically into simple (5/11) or papillary (6/11) mucinous metaplasias. All (6/6) papillary mucinous metaplasias were associated with atypical hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (AH/EIN; 1/6) or carcinoma (5/6), whereas in a single patient with simple mucinous metaplasia, grade 1 endometrioid carcinoma was incidentally detected. The difference in frequency of association of the metaplasia with AH/EIN or carcinoma was significant (p=0.015). KRAS mutations were identified in five out of six cases of papillary mucinous metaplasias, comprising three cases with G12D and two with G12V mutations; the frequency of KRAS mutation was significantly higher (p=0.015) than in cases of simple mucinous metaplasia (0/5). Papillary mucinous metaplasia is frequently associated with endometrial neoplastic lesions. The high incidence of KRAS mutations in papillary mucinous metaplasia suggests that papillary mucinous metaplasia may be a precancerous lesion of a certain subset of mucinous carcinomas of the endometrium. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Stages of Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Symptoms, Tests, Prognosis, & Stages Treatment of Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Prevention of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, & Primary Peritoneal ...

  7. The Association between Endometriomas and Ovarian Cancer: Preventive Effect of Inhibiting Ovulation and Menstruation during Reproductive Life

    PubMed Central

    Grandi, Giovanni; Toss, Angela; Cortesi, Laura; Botticelli, Laura; Volpe, Annibale; Cagnacci, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Although endometriosis frequently involves multiple sites in the pelvis, malignancies associated with this disease are mostly confined to the ovaries, evolving from an endometrioma. Endometriomas present a 2-3-fold increased risk of transformation in clear-cell, endometrioid, and possibly low-grade serous ovarian cancers, but not in mucinous ovarian cancers. These last cancers are, in some aspects, different from the other epithelial ovarian cancers, as they do not appear to be decreased by the inhibition of ovulation and menstruation. The step by step process of transformation from typical endometrioma, through atypical endometrioma, finally to ovarian cancer seems mainly related to oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperestrogenism, and specific molecular alterations. Particularly, activation of oncogenic KRAS and PI3K pathways and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes PTEN and ARID1A are suggested as major pathogenic mechanisms for endometriosis associated clear-cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer. Both the risk for endometriomas and their associated ovarian cancers seems to be highly and similarly decreased by the inhibition of ovulation and retrograde menstruation, suggesting a common pathogenetic mechanism and common possible preventive strategies during reproductive life. PMID:26413541

  8. The Association between Endometriomas and Ovarian Cancer: Preventive Effect of Inhibiting Ovulation and Menstruation during Reproductive Life.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Giovanni; Toss, Angela; Cortesi, Laura; Botticelli, Laura; Volpe, Annibale; Cagnacci, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Although endometriosis frequently involves multiple sites in the pelvis, malignancies associated with this disease are mostly confined to the ovaries, evolving from an endometrioma. Endometriomas present a 2-3-fold increased risk of transformation in clear-cell, endometrioid, and possibly low-grade serous ovarian cancers, but not in mucinous ovarian cancers. These last cancers are, in some aspects, different from the other epithelial ovarian cancers, as they do not appear to be decreased by the inhibition of ovulation and menstruation. The step by step process of transformation from typical endometrioma, through atypical endometrioma, finally to ovarian cancer seems mainly related to oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperestrogenism, and specific molecular alterations. Particularly, activation of oncogenic KRAS and PI3K pathways and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes PTEN and ARID1A are suggested as major pathogenic mechanisms for endometriosis associated clear-cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer. Both the risk for endometriomas and their associated ovarian cancers seems to be highly and similarly decreased by the inhibition of ovulation and retrograde menstruation, suggesting a common pathogenetic mechanism and common possible preventive strategies during reproductive life.

  9. Enhanced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G Y; Ahmed, N; Riley, C; Oliva, K; Barker, G; Quinn, M A; Rice, G E

    2005-01-17

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to a subclass of nuclear hormone receptor that executes important cellular transcriptional functions. Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of PPARgamma in several tumours including colon, breast, bladder, prostate, lung and stomach. This study demonstrates the relative expression of PPARgamma in normal ovaries and different pathological grades of ovarian tumours of serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell and mixed subtypes. A total of 56 ovarian specimens including 10 normal, eight benign, 10 borderline, seven grade 1, nine grade 2 and 12 grade 3 were analysed using immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactive PPARgamma was not expressed in normal ovaries. Out of eight benign and 10 borderline tumours, only one tumour in each group showed weak cytoplasmic PPARgamma expression. In contrast, 26 out of 28 carcinomas studied were positive for PPARgamma expression with staining confined to cytoplasmic and nuclear regions. An altered staining pattern of PPARgamma was observed in high-grade ovarian tumours with PPARgamma being mostly localized in the nuclei with little cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. On the other hand, predominant cytoplasmic staining was observed in lower-grade tumours. Significantly increased PPARgamma immunoreactivity was observed in malignant ovarian tumours (grade 1, 2 and 3) compared to benign and borderline tumours (chi2 = 48.80, P < 0.001). Western blot analyses showed significant elevation in the expression of immunoreactive PPARgamma in grade 3 ovarian tumours compared with that of normal ovaries and benign ovarian tumours (P < 0.01). These findings suggest an involvement of PPARgamma in the onset and development of ovarian carcinoma and provide an insight into the regulation of this molecule in the progression of the disease.

  10. Accuracy of Intraoperative Frozen Section Diagnosis of Borderline Ovarian Tumors by Hospital Type.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jaimin S; Mackelvie, Michael; Gershenson, David M; Ramalingam, Preetha; Kott, Marylee M; Brown, Jubilee; Gauthier, Polly; Nugent, Elizabeth; Ramondetta, Lois M; Frumovitz, Michael

    2018-04-19

    To compare the accuracy of frozen section diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumors among 3 distinct types of hospital-academic hospital with gynecologic pathologists, academic hospital with nongynecologic pathologists, and community hospital with nongynecologic pathologists-and to determine if surgical staging alters patient care or outcomes for women with a frozen section diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumor. Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-1). Tertiary care, academic, and community hospitals. Women with an intraoperative frozen section diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumor at 1 of 3 types of hospital from April 1998 through June 2016. Comparison of final pathology with intraoperative frozen section diagnosis. Two hundred twelve women met the inclusion criteria. The frozen section diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumor correlated with the final pathologic diagnosis in 192 of 212 cases (90.6%), and the rate of correlation did not differ among the 3 hospital types (p = .82). Seven tumors (3.3%) were downgraded to benign on final pathologic analysis and 13 (6.1%) upgraded to invasive carcinoma. The 3 hospital types did not differ with respect to the proportion of tumors upgraded to invasive carcinoma (p = .62). Mucinous (odds ratio, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-23.7; p = .002) and endometrioid borderline ovarian tumors (odds ratio, 32.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-595.5; p = .02) were more likely than serous ovarian tumors to be upgraded to carcinoma. Only 88 patients (41.5%) underwent lymphadenectomy, and only 1 (1.1%) had invasive carcinoma in a lymph node. A frozen section diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumor correlates with the final pathologic diagnosis in a variety of hospital types. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tube, & Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Research Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment Option Overview ... types of treatment for patients with ovarian germ cell tumors. Different types of treatment are available for ...

  12. Immunotherapy in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Odunsi, K

    2017-11-01

    Immunological destruction of tumors is a multistep, coordinated process that can be modulated or targeted at several critical points to elicit tumor rejection. These steps in the cancer immunity cycle include: (i) generation of sufficient numbers of effector T cells with high avidity recognition of tumor antigens in vivo; (ii) trafficking and infiltration into the tumor; (iii) overcoming inhibitory networks in the tumor microenvironment; (iv) direct recognition of tumor antigens and generation of an effector anti-tumor response; and (v) persistence of the anti-tumor T cells. In an effort to understand whether the immune system plays a role in controlling ovarian cancer, our group and others demonstrated that the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is associated with improved clinical outcome in ovarian cancer patients. Recently, we hypothesized that the quality of infiltrating T cells could also be a critical determinant of outcome in ovarian cancer patients. In the past decade, several immune-based interventions have gained regulatory approval in many solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. These interventions include immune checkpoint blockade, cancer vaccines, and adoptive cell therapy. There are currently no approved immune therapies for ovarian cancer. Immunotherapy in ovarian cancer will have to consider the immune suppressive networks within the ovarian tumor microenvironment; therefore, a major direction is to develop biomarkers that would predict responsiveness to different types of immunotherapies, and allow for treatment selection based on the results. Moreover, such biomarkers would allow rational combination of immunotherapies, while minimizing toxicities. In this review, the current understanding of the host immune response in ovarian cancer patients will be briefly reviewed, progress in immune therapies, and future directions for exploiting immune based strategies for long lasting durable cure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford

  13. Methods to Assess the Direct Interaction of C. jejuni with Mucins.

    PubMed

    Clyne, Marguerite; Duggan, Gina; Naughton, Julie; Bourke, Billy

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the interaction of bacteria with mucus-secreting cells can be complemented at a more mechanistic level by exploring the interaction of bacteria with purified mucins. Here we describe a far Western blotting approach to show how C. jejuni proteins separated by SDS PAGE and transferred to a membrane or slot blotted directly onto a membrane can be probed using biotinylated mucin. In addition we describe the use of novel mucin microarrays to assess bacterial interactions with mucins in a high-throughput manner.

  14. HRCT features of surgically resected invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Fujii, Takeshi; Kishi, Kazuma; Homma, Sakae

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is prevalent among patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP). HRCT findings mucinous adenocarcinoma in patients with IP have not been described. In 112 consecutive patients with 120 surgically resected IP-associated lung cancers, 42 patients had pathologically proven invasive adenocarcinoma (IA). A total of 14 out of 42 patients (10 men, 4 women, mean age, 68.4 years) had invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. We reviewed the patients' medical records and HRCT scans. Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma were most commonly associated with idiopathic IP (n = 13) affecting the lower lobe adjacent to a fibrocystic changes. In 11 patients with invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma or other types of IA, the tumour was adjacent to a fibrocystic lesion. In invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma, malignant signs included lobulation (n = 11), spiculation (n = 9), vascular convergence (n = 10) and pleural indentation (n = 2). Characteristic findings of mucinous adenocarcinoma (i.e. vague margins (n = 10), lobular-bounded margins (n = 11), air bronchogram (n = 11) and bubble-like low attenuation (n = 8)) were more common in invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma than in other IA types. All invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma tumours (n = 11) were closely associated with fibrosis. Mixed ground-glass opacity and consolidation adjacent to a fibrocystic lesion with malignant signs and characteristic features of mucinous adenocarcinoma indicate malignancy. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  15. Molecular basis of the polydispersity of mucins: implications for the generation of saccharide diversity.

    PubMed

    Bhavanandan, V P; Gupta, D; Woitach, J; Guo, X; Jiang, W

    1999-06-01

    Secreted epithelial mucins are large macromolecules which exhibit extreme polydispersity, the molecular basis of which is not fully understood. We have obtained partial sequences of two genes (BSM1 and BSM2) coding for two distinct molecules. This is the first time that such closely-related genes have been identified for any mucin from an animal. We propose that a combination of multiple homologous genes, alternative splicing, differential glycosylation, and additional post-translational processing all contribute to the extreme polydispersity of mucins. The multiple domain structure and non-identical tandem repeats are also very important for the generation of the saccharide diversities of mucins.

  16. Emerging potential of natural products for targeting mucins for therapy against inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Macha, Muzafar A; Krishn, Shiv Ram; Jahan, Rahat; Banerjee, Kasturi; Batra, Surinder K; Jain, Maneesh

    2015-03-01

    Deregulated mucin expression is a hallmark of several inflammatory and malignant pathologies. Emerging evidence suggests that, apart from biomarkers, these deregulated mucins are functional contributors to the pathogenesis in inflammation and cancer. Both overexpression and downregulation of mucins in various organ systems is associated with pathobiology of inflammation and cancer. Restoration of mucin homeostasis has become an important goal for therapy and management of such disorders has fueled the quest for selective mucomodulators. With improved understanding of mucin regulation and mechanistic insights into their pathobiological roles, there is optimism to find selective non-toxic agents capable of modulating mucin expression and function. Recently, natural compounds derived from dietary sources have drawn attention due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties and low toxicity. Considerable efforts have been directed towards evaluating dietary natural products as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents; identification, characterization and synthesis of their active compounds; and improving their delivery and bioavailability. We describe the current understanding of mucin regulation, rationale for targeting mucins with natural products and discuss some natural products that modulate mucin expression and functions. We further discuss the approaches and parameters that should guide future research to identify and evaluate selective natural mucomodulators for therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emerging Potential of Natural Products for Targeting Mucins for Therapy Against Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Macha, Muzafar A.; Krishn, Shiv Ram; Jahan, Rahat; Banerjee, Kasturi; Batra, Surinder K.; Jain, Maneesh

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated mucin expression is a hallmark of several inflammatory and malignant pathologies. Emerging evidence suggests that, apart from biomarkers, these deregulated mucins are functional contributors to pathogenesis in inflammation and cancer. Both overexpression and downregulation of mucins in various organ systems is associated with pathobiology of inflammation and cancer. Restoration of mucin homeostasis has become an important goal for therapy and management of such disorders and has fueled the quest for selective mucomodulators. With improved understanding of mucin regulation and mechanistic insights into their pathobiological roles, there is optimism to find selective non-toxic agents capable of modulating mucin expression and function. Recently, natural compounds derived from dietary sources have drawn attention due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties and low toxicity. Considerable efforts have been directed towards evaluating dietary natural products as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents; identification, characterization and synthesis of their active compounds; and improving their delivery and bioavailability. We describe the current understanding of mucin regulation, rationale for targeting mucins with natural products and discuss some natural products that modulate mucin expression and functions. We further discuss the approaches and parameters that should guide future research to identify and evaluate selective natural mucomodulators for therapy. PMID:25624117

  18. Primary pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma presenting as a complex bronchocele: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Primary pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a rare variety of lung cancer. It is characterized pathologically by copious mucin production predominantly in the extracellular space. This tumour has a remarkably favorable prognosis. Case presentation We present imaging and histopathological findings of primary pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma presenting as a complex bronchocele in a 67-year-old Caucasian woman. Conclusion Diagnosis of pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma should be considered in patients presenting with bronchocele that has suspicious imaging features, because the results of fine needle aspiration cytology and bronchoscopy are frequently inconclusive in these tumours. Positive emission tomography has an important role in helping to identify these tumours. PMID:19830231

  19. Expression of membrane-associated mucins MUC1 and MUC4 in major human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Lague, Jessica R; Nunes, David P; Toselli, Paul; Oppenheim, Frank G; Soares, Rodrigo V; Troxler, Robert F; Offner, Gwynneth D

    2002-06-01

    Mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins secreted by salivary glands and epithelial cells lining the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. These glycoproteins, encoded in at least 13 distinct human genes, can be subdivided into gel-forming and membrane-associated forms. The gel-forming mucin MUC5B is secreted by mucous acinar cells in major and minor salivary glands, but little is known about the expression pattern of membrane-associated mucins. In this study, RT-PCR and Northern blotting demonstrated the presence of transcripts for MUC1 and MUC4 in both parotid and submandibular glands, and in situ hybridization localized these transcripts to epithelial cells lining striated and excretory ducts and in some serous acinar cells. The same cellular distribution was observed by immunohistochemistry. Soluble forms of both mucins were detected in parotid secretion after immunoprecipitation with mucin-specific antibodies. These studies have shown that membrane-associated mucins are produced in both parotid and submandibular glands and that they are expressed in different cell types than gel-forming mucins. Although the function of these mucins in the oral cavity remains to be elucidated, it is possible that they both contribute to the epithelial protective mucin layer and act as receptors initiating one or more intracellular signal transduction pathways.

  20. Cystic fibrosis airway secretions exhibit mucin hyperconcentration and increased osmotic pressure

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Ashley G.; Ehre, Camille; Button, Brian; Abdullah, Lubna H.; Cai, Li-Heng; Leigh, Margaret W.; DeMaria, Genevieve C.; Matsui, Hiro; Donaldson, Scott H.; Davis, C. William; Sheehan, John K.; Boucher, Richard C.; Kesimer, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of mucoinfective lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients likely involves poor mucus clearance. A recent model of mucus clearance predicts that mucus flow depends on the relative mucin concentration of the mucus layer compared with that of the periciliary layer; however, mucin concentrations have been difficult to measure in CF secretions. Here, we have shown that the concentration of mucin in CF sputum is low when measured by immunologically based techniques, and mass spectrometric analyses of CF mucins revealed mucin cleavage at antibody recognition sites. Using physical size exclusion chromatography/differential refractometry (SEC/dRI) techniques, we determined that mucin concentrations in CF secretions were higher than those in normal secretions. Measurements of partial osmotic pressures revealed that the partial osmotic pressure of CF sputum and the retained mucus in excised CF lungs were substantially greater than the partial osmotic pressure of normal secretions. Our data reveal that mucin concentration cannot be accurately measured immunologically in proteolytically active CF secretions; mucins are hyperconcentrated in CF secretions; and CF secretion osmotic pressures predict mucus layer–dependent osmotic compression of the periciliary liquid layer in CF lungs. Consequently, mucin hypersecretion likely produces mucus stasis, which contributes to key infectious and inflammatory components of CF lung disease. PMID:24892808

  1. Smoking may modify the association between neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival from ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Linda E; Warren, Graham W; Koziak, Jennifer M; Köbel, Martin; Steed, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking by cancer patients is associated with increased mortality. Less is known of the impact of smoking on recurrence risk and interaction with chemotherapy treatment. We examined these associations in ovarian cancer. Patients were identified from the Alberta Cancer Registry between 1978 and 2010 and were oversampled for less-common histologic ovarian tumor types. Medical records were abstracted for 678 eligible patients on lifestyle, medical and cancer treatment, and review of pathology slides was performed for 605 patients. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age at diagnosis, race, stage and residual disease. Among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (N=432), current smoking was significantly associated with shorter duration of overall (OS; HR, 8.56; 95% CI, 1.50-48.7) and progression-free (PFS; HR, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.05-31.4) survival from mucinous ovarian cancer only. There was no significant association between neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival. However, among patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (N=44), current smokers had shorter PFS (HR, 4.32; 95% CI, 1.36-13.8; N=32 progressed/9 censored events) compared to never smokers, but the HRs were not statistically different across smoking categories (P interaction=0.87). Adverse associations were observed between smoking status and OS or PFS among patients with mucinous ovarian cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. No significant effect was found from neoadjuvant chemotherapy on PFS overall; however, smoking may modify this association. Although needing replication, these findings suggest that patients may benefit from smoking cessation interventions prior to treatment with chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of a novel mucolytic agent on pseudomyxoma peritonei mucin, with potential for treatment through peritoneal catheters

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Javed; Pillai, Krishna; Chua, Terence C; Alzarin, Naeef; Morris, David Lawson

    2014-01-01

    Compared to current treatment for pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), the extraction of solubilised mucin through peritoneal catheter can be minimally invasive. However, mucin has variable appearance that may influence mucolysis. Hence, we investigated the mucolysis of 36 mucin samples with a novel agent. Using visual inspection and hardness index, PMP mucin was classified into three grades. The mucin pathological category was identified from patient record. Subsequently, the dissolution of the samples was tested. For in vitro, 1 g of mucin was treated to the mucolytic agent in 10 ml TRIS buffer at 37 deg. Celsius for 3 hours, with weighing of residual mucin. Control treatment was similar but received TRIS buffer. For in vivo, 2 g of implanted intra-peritoneal mucin in nude rats was treated to mucolytic (2 X 500 ul/24 hr, over 48 hours, plus another treatment before sacrifice at 56 hours, with weighing of residual mucin. Controls were treated but only with TRIS buffer. Six animals were used for each mucin grade (3 mucolytic treated & and 3 controls). Grades of mucin were soft mucin (62%), semi hard (20%) and hard mucin (18%). Diffuse peritoneal adenomucinosis had 50% of soft mucin and peritoneal mucinous carcinoma had 11% (P = 0.0382). In vitro and in vivo absolute disintegration was 100% for soft, 57.38% and 48.67% for semi hard, 50% and 28.67% for hard mucin. Majority of mucin were soft with complete disintegration, the rest showed variable disintegration, suggesting that the mucolytic has potential for treating PMP. PMID:25232491

  3. Spectrum of mucin-producing neoplastic conditions of the abdomen and pelvis: Cross-sectional imaging evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Kim, Hyun Sung; Jeon, Tae Yong; Kim, Gwang Ha; Kim, Dong Uk; Park, Do Youn; Kim, Tae Un; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Various mucin-producing neoplasms originate in different abdominal and pelvic organs. Mucinous neoplasms differ from non-mucinous neoplasms because of the differences in clinical outcome and imaging appearance. Mucinous carcinoma, in which at least 50% of the tumor is composed of large pools of extracellular mucin and columns of malignant cells, is associated with a worse prognosis. Signet ring cell carcinoma is characterized by large intracytoplasmic mucin vacuoles that expand in the malignant cells with the nucleus displaced to the periphery. Its prognosis is also generally poor. In contrast, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct and pancreas, which is characterized by proliferation of ductal epithelium and variable mucin production, has a better prognosis than other malignancies in the pancreaticobiliary tree. Imaging modalities play a critical role in differentiating mucinous from non-mucinous neoplasms. Due to high water content, mucin has a similar appearance to water on ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging, except when thick and proteinaceous, and then it tends to be hypoechoic with fine internal echoes or have complex echogenicity on US, hyperdense on CT, and hyperintense on T1- and hypointense on T2-weighted images, compared to water. Therefore, knowledge of characteristic mucin imaging features is helpful to diagnose various mucin-producing neoplastic conditions and to facilitate appropriate treatment. PMID:22147976

  4. Baseline Goblet Cell Mucin Secretion in the Airways Exceeds Stimulated Secretion over Extended Time Periods, and Is Sensitive to Shear Stress and Intracellular Mucin Stores

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Sean P.; Nguyen, Kristine; Ribeiro, Carla M. P.; Vasquez, Paula A.; Forest, M. Gregory; Lethem, Michael I.; Dickey, Burton F.; Davis, C. William

    2015-01-01

    Airway mucin secretion studies have focused on goblet cell responses to exogenous agonists almost to the exclusion of baseline mucin secretion (BLMS). In human bronchial epithelial cell cultures (HBECCs), maximal agonist-stimulated secretion exceeds baseline by ~3-fold as measured over hour-long periods, but mucin stores are discharged completely and require 24 h for full restoration. Hence, over 24 h, total baseline exceeds agonist-induced secretion by several-fold. Studies with HBECCs and mouse tracheas showed that BLMS is highly sensitive to mechanical stresses. Harvesting three consecutive 1 h baseline luminal incubations with HBECCs yielded equal rates of BLMS; however, lengthening the middle period to 72 h decreased the respective rate significantly, suggesting a stimulation of BLMS by the gentle washes of HBECC luminal surfaces. BLMS declined exponentially after washing HBECCs (t1/2 = 2.75 h), to rates approaching zero. HBECCs exposed to low perfusion rates exhibited spike-like increases in BLMS when flow was jumped 5-fold: BLMS increased >4 fold, then decreased within 5 min to a stable plateau at 1.5–2-fold over control. Higher flow jumps induced proportionally higher BLMS increases. Inducing mucous hyperplasia in HBECCs increased mucin production, BLMS and agonist-induced secretion. Mouse tracheal BLMS was ~6-fold higher during perfusion, than when flow was stopped. Munc13-2 null mouse tracheas, with their defect of accumulated cellular mucins, exhibited similar BLMS as WT, contrary to predictions of lower values. Graded mucous metaplasia induced in WT and Munc13-2 null tracheas with IL-13, caused proportional increases in BLMS, suggesting that naïve Munc13-2 mouse BLMS is elevated by increased mucin stores. We conclude that BLMS is, [i] a major component of mucin secretion in the lung, [ii] sustained by the mechanical activity of a dynamic lung, [iii] proportional to levels of mucin stores, and [iv] regulated differentially from agonist-induced mucin

  5. Depletion of mucin in mucin-producing human gastrointestinal carcinoma: Results from in vitro and in vivo studies with bromelain and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David L

    2015-10-20

    Aberrant expression of membrane-associated and secreted mucins, as evident in epithelial tumors, is known to facilitate tumor growth, progression and metastasis, and to provide protection against adverse growth conditions, chemotherapy and immune surveillance. Emerging evidence provides support for the oncogenic role of MUC1 in gastrointestinal carcinomas and relates its expression to an invasive phenotype. Similarly, mucinous differentiation of gastrointestinal tumors, in particular increased or de novo expression of MUC2 and/or MUC5AC, is widely believed to imply an adverse clinicopathological feature. Through formation of viscous gels, too, MUC2 and MUC5AC significantly contribute to the biology and pathogenesis of mucin-secreting gastrointestinal tumors. Here, we investigated the mucin-depleting effects of bromelain (BR) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), in nine different regimens as single or combination therapy, in in vitro (MKN45, KATOIII and LS174T cell lines) and in vivo (female nude mice bearing intraperitoneal MKN45 and LS174T) settings. The inhibitory effects of the treatment on cancer cell growth and proliferation were also evaluated in vivo. Our results suggest that a combination of BR and NAC with dual effects on growth and mucin products of mucin-expressing tumor cells is a promising candidate towards the development of novel approaches to gastrointestinal malignancies with the involvement of mucin pathology. This capability supports the use of this combination formulation in locoregional approaches for reducing the adverse effects of the aberrantly secreted gel-forming mucins, as in pseudomyxoma peritonei and similar pathologies with ectopic production of mucin.

  6. Depletion of mucin in mucin-producing human gastrointestinal carcinoma: Results from in vitro and in vivo studies with bromelain and N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of membrane-associated and secreted mucins, as evident in epithelial tumors, is known to facilitate tumor growth, progression and metastasis, and to provide protection against adverse growth conditions, chemotherapy and immune surveillance. Emerging evidence provides support for the oncogenic role of MUC1 in gastrointestinal carcinomas and relates its expression to an invasive phenotype. Similarly, mucinous differentiation of gastrointestinal tumors, in particular increased or de novo expression of MUC2 and/or MUC5AC, is widely believed to imply an adverse clinicopathological feature. Through formation of viscous gels, too, MUC2 and MUC5AC significantly contribute to the biology and pathogenesis of mucin-secreting gastrointestinal tumors. Here, we investigated the mucin-depleting effects of bromelain (BR) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), in nine different regimens as single or combination therapy, in in vitro (MKN45, KATOIII and LS174T cell lines) and in vivo (female nude mice bearing intraperitoneal MKN45 and LS174T) settings. The inhibitory effects of the treatment on cancer cell growth and proliferation were also evaluated in vivo. Our results suggest that a combination of BR and NAC with dual effects on growth and mucin products of mucin-expressing tumor cells is a promising candidate towards the development of novel approaches to gastrointestinal malignancies with the involvement of mucin pathology. This capability supports the use of this combination formulation in locoregional approaches for reducing the adverse effects of the aberrantly secreted gel-forming mucins, as in pseudomyxoma peritonei and similar pathologies with ectopic production of mucin. PMID:26436698

  7. Characterization of inhibin forms and their measurement by an inhibin alpha-subunit ELISA in serum from postmenopausal women with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D M; Stephenson, T; Pruysers, E; McCloud, P; Tsigos, A; Groome, N; Mamers, P; Burger, H G

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular wt forms of inhibins A and B and its free alpha-subunit present in serum from women with ovarian cancer as a basis for developing improved monoclonal antibody-based inhibin assays for monitoring ovarian cancer. Three new inhibin alpha-subunit (alphaC) ELISAs were developed using monoclonal antibodies directed to three nonoverlapping peptide regions of the alphaC region of the inhibin alpha-subunit. To characterize serum inhibin molecular wt forms present in women with ovarian cancer, existing inhibin immunoassays (inhibin A, inhibin B, and pro-alphaC) and the new alphaC ELISAs were applied to sera from women with granulosa cell tumors and mucinous carcinomas previously fractionated using a combined immunoaffinity chromatography, preparative SDS-PAGE, and electroelution procedure. The distribution and molecular size of dimeric inhibins and alpha-subunit detected were consistent with known mol wt forms of inhibins A and B and inhibin alpha-subunit and their precursor forms present in serum and follicular fluid from healthy women. The alphaC ELISAs recognized all known forms of inhibin and the free inhibin alpha-subunit, although differences between alphaC ELISAs were observed in their ability to detect high mol wt forms. To assess which of the alphaC ELISAs was preferred in application to ovarian cancer, the alphaC ELISAs were applied to serum from a range of normal postmenopausal women (n = 61) and postmenopausal women (n = 152) with ovarian (serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell carcinomas, and granulosa cell tumors) and nonovarian (breast and colon) cancers. Despite differences in their ability to detect high mol wt forms of inhibin, the alphaC ELISAs showed similar sensitivity (i.e. proportion of cancer patients correctly detected) and specificity (proportion of controls correctly detected) indexes in the detection of mucinous carcinomas (84% and 95%) and granulosa cell tumors (100% and 95%) compared

  8. Ovarian Stem Cell Nests in Reproduction and Ovarian Aging.

    PubMed

    Ye, Haifeng; Zheng, Tuochen; Li, Wei; Li, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xinxin; Huang, Yaoqi; Hu, Chuan; Li, Jia; Huang, Jian; Liu, Zhengyv; Zheng, Liping; Zheng, Yuehui

    2017-01-01

    The fixed primordial follicles pool theory, which monopolized reproductive medicine for more than one hundred years, has been broken by the discovery, successful isolation and establishment of ovarian stem cells. It has brought more hope than ever of increasing the size of primordial follicle pool, improving ovarian function and delaying ovarian consenescence. Traditional view holds that stem cell aging contributes to the senility of body and organs. However, in the process of ovarian aging, the main factor leading to the decline of the reproductive function is the aging and degradation of ovarian stem cell nests, rather than the senescence of ovarian germ cells themselves. Recent studies have found that the immune system and circulatory system are involved in the formation of ovarian germline stem cell niches, as well as regulating the proliferation and differentiation of ovarian germline stem cells through cellular and hormonal signals. Therefore, we can improve ovarian function and delay ovarian aging by improving the immune system and circulatory system, which will provide an updated program for the treatment of premature ovarian failure (POF) and infertility. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Influences of animal mucins on lysozyme activity in solution and on hydroxyapatite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Kyu; Chung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young-Ku; Chung, Sung-Chang; Kho, Hong-Seop

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of animal mucins on lysozyme activity in solution and on the surface of hydroxyapatite (HA) beads. The effects of animal mucins on lysozyme activity in solution were examined by incubating porcine gastric mucin (PGM) or bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) with hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) or salivary samples. HA-immobilised animal mucins or lysozyme were used to determine the influence of animal mucins on lysozyme activity on HA surfaces. Lysozyme activity was determined by turbidity measurement of a Micrococcus lysodeikticus substrate suspension. Protein concentration was determined by ninhydrin assay. PGM inhibited the activity of HEWL and salivary lysozyme in solution. The amount of inhibition was dependent on mucin concentration, incubation time and temperature, and the structural integrity of the mucin. The inhibition of salivary lysozyme activity by PGM was greater in submandibular/sublingual saliva than in parotid saliva. The inhibition of lysozyme activity by PGM was markedly dependent on pH. However, BSM did not inhibit the in-solution lysozyme activities of HEWL and clarified saliva. Both PGM and BSM bound to HA surfaces, and HA-adsorbed animal mucins increased the subsequent adsorption of lysozyme. When HA beads were exposed to a mixture of HEWL and PGM or BSM, lysozyme activity on the HA surfaces was significantly increased. The results suggest that animal mucins affect lysozyme activity, and the effects are different on HA surfaces compared with in solution. Further research is needed to determine the effect of animal mucins on lysozyme activity in vivo.

  10. Advanced Mucinous Colorectal Cancer: Epidemiology, Prognosis and Efficacy of Chemotherapeutic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ott, Claudia; Gerken, Michael; Hirsch, Daniela; Fest, Petra; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Munker, Stefan; Schnoy, Elisabeth; Stroszczynski, Christian; Vogelhuber, Martin; Herr, Wolfgang; Evert, Matthias; Reng, Michael; Schlitt, Hans Jürgen; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika; Teufel, Andreas

    2018-06-05

    The clinicopathological significance of the mucinous subtype of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. As of today, none of the current guidelines differentiate treatment with respect to mucinous or nonmucinous cancer. Due to the lack of substantiated data, best treatment remains unclear and the mucinous subtype of CRC is usually treated along the lines of recommendations for adenocarcinoma of the colon. We investigated an East-Bavarian cohort of 8,758 patients with CRC. These included 613 (7.0%) patients with a mucinous subtype, who were analyzed for assessing their characteristics in clinical course and for evaluating the efficacy of common chemotherapy protocols. Mucinous CRC was predominantly located in the right hemicolon; it was diagnosed at more advanced stages and occurred with preponderance in women. A higher rate of G3/4 grading was observed at diagnosis (all p < 0.001). An association of mucinous CRC with younger age at initial diagnosis, previously reported by other groups, could not be confirmed. Patients with mucinous stage IV colon cancer demonstrated poorer survival (p = 0.006). In contrast, no differences in survival were observed for specific stages I-III colon cancer. Stage-dependent analysis of rectal cancer stages I-IV also showed no differences in survival. However, univariable overall analysis resulted in significant poorer survival of mucinous compared to nonmucinous rectal cancer (p = 0.029). Also, combined analysis of all patients with mucinous CRC revealed poorer overall survival (OS) of these patients compared to nonmucinous CRC patients (median 48.4 vs. 60.2 months, p = 0.049) but not in multivariable analysis (p = 0.089). Chemotherapeutic treatment showed comparable efficacy regarding OS for mucinous and nonmucinous cancers in both an adjuvant and palliative setting for colon cancer patients (p values comparing mucinous and nonmucinous cancers < 0.001-0.005). © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Molecular Structure and Equilibrium Forces of Bovine Submaxillary Mucin Adsorbed at a Solid-Liquid Interface.

    PubMed

    Zappone, Bruno; Patil, Navinkumar J; Madsen, Jan B; Pakkanen, Kirsi I; Lee, Seunghwan

    2015-04-21

    By combining dynamic light scattering, circular dichroism spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface force apparatus, the conformation of bovine submaxillary mucin in dilute solution and nanomechanical properties of mucin layers adsorbed on mica have been investigated. The samples were prepared by additional chromatographic purification of commercially available products. The mucin molecule was found to have a z-average hydrodynamic diameter of ca. 35 nm in phosphate buffered solution, without any particular secondary or tertiary structure. The contour length of the mucin is larger than, yet of the same order of magnitude as the diameter, indicating that the molecule can be modeled as a relatively rigid polymeric chain due to the large persistence length of the central glycosylated domain. Mucin molecules adsorbed abundantly onto mica from saline buffer, generating polymer-like, long-ranged, repulsive, and nonhysteretic forces upon compression of the adsorbed layers. Detailed analysis of such forces suggests that adsorbed mucins had an elongated conformation favored by the stiffness of the central domain. Acidification of aqueous media was chosen as means to reduce mucin-mucin and mucin-substrate electrostatic interactions. The hydrodynamic diameter in solution did not significantly change when the pH was lowered, showing that the large persistence length of the mucin molecule is due to steric hindrance between sugar chains, rather than electrostatic interactions. Remarkably, the force generated by an adsorbed layer with a fixed surface coverage also remained unaltered upon acidification. This observation can be linked to the surface-protective, pH-resistant role of bovine submaxillary mucin in the variable environmental conditions of the oral cavity.

  12. Pre-immunotherapy serum CA27.29 (MUC-1) mucin level and CD69+ lymphocytes correlate with effects of Theratope sialyl-Tn-KLH cancer vaccine in active specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Reddish, M A; MacLean, G D; Poppema, S; Berg, A; Longenecker, B M

    1996-06-01

    Patients with metastatic breast, colorectal or ovarian cancers received active specific immunotherapy (ASI) with Theratope sialyl-Tn-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) cancer vaccine emulsified in Detox adjuvant. The median log2 anti-STn IgG titer generated by ASI, estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with solid-phase ovine submaxillary mucin, was 5.322 (range = 0 - 9.322). Following ASI, 51 patients who generated titers higher than the median value for anti-STn+ mucin IgG survived longer than 46 patients who generated lower titers below the median. 38 of the patients were phenotyped for CD69 prior to ASI. The patients with lower numbers of CD69+ peripheral blood lymphocytes prior to immunotherapy (pre-ASI) also had low serum CA27.29 cancer antigen (MUC-1) levels, and had longer times to disease progression and improved survival following ASI. Elevated pre-ASI serum CA27.29 tumor antigen levels were associated with higher numbers of CD69+ PBL, with decreased anti-STn antibody production and decreased survival following ASI. The data are compatible with the hypothesis that elevated serum MUC-1 mucin is specifically immunosuppressive.

  13. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma--bad endometriosis or bad endometrium?

    PubMed

    Gounaris, Ioannis; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Brenton, James D

    2011-10-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the four main histological subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), high-grade serous, endometrioid, clear cell and mucinous, are entities with different epidemiologies, clinical presentations, responses to treatment, and ultimate outcomes. In fact, for all intents and purposes, they can be considered different diseases, their only common denominator being that they frequently involve the ovary and pelvic organs. However, clinical practice has not caught up with these insights and the treatment of EOC is that of a single disease entity. In part, this is because we lack detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms driving the pathogenesis of each disease, which is vital in order to develop therapeutic approaches against common driver events. In the last few years, mutations in ARID1A and PIK3CA have been described in a substantial fraction of cases of ovarian clear cell carcinoma, yet the paper by Yamamoto et al in this issue of The Journal of Pathology reveals that PIK3CA mutations can be detected in precursor endometriosis tissues. These and other recent observations underscore the importance of investigating whether mutations in the eutopic endometrium actually predispose to endometriosis and eventually to malignancy. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Hidradenocarcinoma showing prominent mucinous and squamous differentiation and associated pagetoid cells.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yumi; Tanigawa, Hiroki; Harada, Miho; Fukushima, Satoshi; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Ishihara, Tsuyoshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Iyama, Ken-ichi

    2013-05-01

    Herein, we report a 63-year-old man presenting with hidradenocarcinoma showing prominent mucinous and squamous differentiation on his back. The tumor was dermal-based, solid and cystic. Tumor cells with squamous differentiation and with keratin pearl formation were identified predominantly in the superficial dermis, and mucinous cells were identified principally in the cystic lesion in the deep dermis. Interestingly, the additional feature of pagetoid cells was identified in the overlying epidermis. Both the mucinous cells in hidradenocarcinoma and pagetoid cells had intracytoplasmic mucin; however, they had different histopathologic findings and immunophenotypes. Mucinous cells in hidradenocarcinoma had small nuclei and abundant intracytoplasmic mucin presenting goblet cells with low rate of positive immunostaining for p53 and Ki67. In contrast, pagetoid cells had larger nuclei with less intracytoplasmic mucin. Both p53- and Ki67-positive cells were increased in pagetoid cells. Additionally, mucinous cells in hidradenocarcinoma were MUC1(+)/MUC2(-)/MUC5AC(+)/MUC6(+), but pagetoid cells were MUC1(+; focal)/MUC2(-)/MUC5AC(-)/MUC6(+; focal). The derivation of pagetoid cells is unclear; however, the localized small region of pagetoid cells over the hidradenocarcinoma in the present case may suggest a common histogenesis of these two malignant neoplasms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Mechanophysical Stimulations of Mucin Secretion in Cultures of Nasal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Even-Tzur Davidovich, Nurit; Kloog, Yoel; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2011-01-01

    Nasal epithelial cells secret mucins and are exposed in vivo to airflow-induced mechanophysical stresses, including wall shear stress (WSS), temperature, and humidity. In this work, human nasal epithelial cells cultured under air-liquid interface conditions were subjected to fields of airflow-induced oscillatory WSS at different temperature and humidity conditions. Changes in mucin secretion due to WSS were measured and the role of the cytoskeleton in mucin secretion was explored. Mucin secretion significantly increased in response to WSS in a magnitude-dependent manner with respect to static cultures and independently of the airflow temperature and humidity. In static cultures, mucin secretion decreased at high humidity with or without elevation of the temperature with respect to cultures at a comfortable climate. In cultures exposed to WSS, mucin secretion increased at high temperature with respect to cultures at comfortable climate conditions. The polymerization of actin microfilaments was shown to increase mucin secretion under WSS, whereas the dynamics of microtubule polymerization did not affect secretion. In conclusion, the data in this study show that mucin secretion is sensitive to oscillatory WSS as well as high temperature and humidity conditions. PMID:21689518

  16. Transmembrane Mucins: Signaling Receptors at the Intersection of Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    van Putten, Jos P.M.; Strijbis, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces line our body cavities and provide the interaction surface between commensal and pathogenic microbiota and the host. The barrier function of the mucosal layer is largely maintained by gel-forming mucin proteins that are secreted by goblet cells. In addition, mucosal epithelial cells express cell-bound mucins that have both barrier and signaling functions. The family of transmembrane mucins consists of diverse members that share a few characteristics. The highly glycosylated extracellular mucin domains inhibit invasion by pathogenic bacteria and can form a tight mesh structure that protects cells in harmful conditions. The intracellular tails of transmembrane mucins can be phosphorylated and connect to signaling pathways that regulate inflammation, cell-cell interactions, differentiation, and apoptosis. Transmembrane mucins play important roles in preventing infection at mucosal surfaces, but are also renowned for their contributions to the development, progression, and metastasis of adenocarcinomas. In general, transmembrane mucins seem to have evolved to monitor and repair damaged epithelia, but these functions can be highjacked by cancer cells to yield a survival advantage. This review presents an overview of the current knowledge of the functions of transmembrane mucins in inflammatory processes and carcinogenesis in order to better understand the diverse functions of these multifunctional proteins. PMID:28052300

  17. Prognostic Comparison Between Mucinous and Nonmucinous Adenocarcinoma in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Seob; Huh, Jung Wook; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) is a histological subtype of colorectal cancer. The oncologic behavior of MAC differs from nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (non-MAC). Our aim in this study was to characterize patients with colorectal MAC through evaluation of a large, institutional-based cohort with long-term follow-up. A total of 6475 patients with stages I to III colorectal cancer who underwent radical surgery were enrolled from January 2000 to December 2010. Prognostic comparison between MAC (n = 274, 4.2%) and non-MAC was performed. The median follow-up period was 48.0 months. Patients with MAC were younger than those without MAC (P = 0.012) and had larger tumor size (P < 0.001), higher preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (P < 0.001), higher pathologic T stage (P < 0.001), more right-sided colon cancer (49.3%, P < 0.001), and more frequent high-frequency microsatellite instability (10.2%, P < 0.001). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 76.5% in the MAC group and 83.2% in the non-MAC group (P = 0.008), and 5-year overall survival was 81.4% versus 87.4%, respectively (P = 0.005). Mucinous histology (MAC vs non-MAC) in the entire cohort was not an independent prognostic factor of DFS but had a statistical tendency (P = 0.071). In subgroup analysis of colon cancer without rectal cancer, mucinous histology was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.026). MAC was found at more advanced stage, located mainly at the right side and was an independent factor of survival in colon cancer. Because of the unique biological behavior of MAC, patients with MAC require special consideration during follow-up. PMID:25881840

  18. Salivary mucins protect surfaces from colonization by cariogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Erica Shapiro; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the body's natural defenses function to protect the oral cavity from the myriad of bacteria that colonize its surfaces is an ongoing topic of research that can lead to breakthroughs in treatment and prevention. One key defense mechanism on all moist epithelial linings, such as the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs, is a layer of thick, well-hydrated mucus. The main gel-forming components of mucus are mucins, large glycoproteins that play a key role in host defense. This study focuses on elucidating the connection between MUC5B salivary mucins and dental caries, one of the most common oral diseases. Dental caries is predominantly caused by Streptococcus mutans attachment and biofilm formation on the tooth surface. Once S. mutans attaches to the tooth, it produces organic acids as metabolic by-products that dissolve tooth enamel, leading to cavity formation. We utilize CFU counts and fluorescence microscopy to quantitatively show that S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation are most robust in the presence of sucrose and that aqueous solutions of purified human MUC5B protect surfaces by acting as an antibiofouling agent in the presence of sucrose. In addition, we find that MUC5B does not alter S. mutans growth and decreases surface attachment and biofilm formation by maintaining S. mutans in the planktonic form. These insights point to the importance of salivary mucins in oral health and lead to a better understanding of how MUC5B could play a role in cavity prevention or diagnosis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Primary mammary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma: cytological and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Sentani, Kazuhiro; Tashiro, Takashi; Uraoka, Naohiro; Aosaki, Yoriyuki; Yano, Satomi; Takaeko, Fumio; Yasui, Wataru

    2012-07-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA), commonly encountered in the ovary or pancreas, is rare in the breast and was only recently described as a distinct variant of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Only 11 cases of primary mammary MCA have been reported. In this article, we report a case of primary mammary MCA with focus on cytological and histological findings. A 65-year-old female noticed right palpable breast mass. Sonography showed an irregularly shaped 2.8 × 2.4 cm lesion in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed on the right breast nodule, and cytopathologic examination suggested an adenocarcinoma composed of tall columnar cells with mucin. A partial mastectomy of the right breast and the axillary lymph nodes dissection was performed. The gross examination revealed a well-demarcated and mucus-filled tumor. Histologically, it had complex papillae, some of which were supported by delicate fibrovascular stroma lined by simple to slightly stratified columnar neoplastic epithelial cells with intracellular mucin, coexisting with MCA in situ and ordinary intraductal carcinoma component (ICC). Immunohistochemically, ICC was HER2-negative and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-positive, while MCA was triple negative. MCA might be derived from a metaplasia of ordinary ICC, but its pathogenesis and biologic behavior remains unclear. Despite the invasive nature of mammary MCA, these carcinomas appear to be associated with a good prognosis. The patient has remained well and disease-free for 6 months after the operation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Regulation of human corneal epithelial mucins by rebamipide.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Shinsaku; Itoh, Kuni; Shinohara, Hisashi

    2014-02-01

    Membrane-associated mucins (MAMs) play important roles in barrier function and tear stability, and their expression on the ocular surface is altered in dry eye disease. Rebamipide is a mucin secretagogue that promotes the production of mucin-like glycoproteins in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. However, the expression of MAMs on the corneal epithelia (MUC1, MUC4, MUC16), which is induced by rebamipide, is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of rebamipide on the regulation of MAM expression in HCE cells. MUC16, Ki67 and PCNA expression levels in HCE cells isolated at confluence and at 24 hours after confluence were examined by Western blotting to assess cell proliferation. HCE cells isolated at 24 hours after confluence were cultured in medium supplemented with 1-10 µM rebamipide or 0.3-30 nM of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis of MAMs were performed to evaluate the effect of rebamipide. Western blot analysis of cells treated with an EGF receptor inhibitor (AG1478) or MEK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) was performed to reveal the relationship between EGF receptor activation and rebamipide-induced MAM expression. HCE cells isolated at 24 hours after confluence had lower cell proliferation activity and increased MUC16 expression compared with cells isolated at confluence. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that rebamipide increased MAM gene expression for 2 hours and protein expression for 24 hours in HCE cells. EGF inhibitor treatment led to reduced levels of all three MAMs that are normally induced by rebamipide, whereas EGF induced the expression of all three MAMs. We suggested that rebamipide increased MUC1, MUC4 and MUC16 expression levels through signals involved in EGF receptor activation in the human corneal epithelia. These data suggest that rebamipide may improve subjective symptoms of dry eye disease by upregulating MAM expression.

  1. Risk of ovarian cancer and the NF-κB pathway: genetic association with IL1A and TNFSF10.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Bridget; Block, Matthew S; Bamlet, William R; Vierkant, Robert A; Kalli, Kimberly R; Fogarty, Zachary; Rider, David N; Sellers, Thomas A; Tworoger, Shelley S; Poole, Elizabeth; Risch, Harvey A; Salvesen, Helga B; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Baglietto, Laura; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Trabert, Britton; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Whittemore, Alice S; Sieh, Weiva; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Bandera, Elisa V; Orlow, Irene; Terry, Kathryn; Goodman, Marc T; Thompson, Pamela J; Cook, Linda S; Rossing, Mary Anne; Ness, Roberta B; Narod, Steven A; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Butzow, Ralf; Dörk, Thilo; Pejovic, Tanja; Campbell, Ian; Le, Nhu D; Bunker, Clareann H; Bogdanova, Natalia; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Eccles, Diana; Paul, James; Wu, Anna H; Gayther, Simon A; Hogdall, Estrid; Heitz, Florian; Kaye, Stanley B; Karlan, Beth Y; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gronwald, Jacek; Hogdall, Claus K; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter A; Menon, Usha; Schildkraut, Joellen; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Levine, Douglas A; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Cramer, Daniel; Flanagan, James M; Phelan, Catherine M; Brown, Robert; Massuger, Leon F A G; Song, Honglin; Doherty, Jennifer A; Krakstad, Camilla; Liang, Dong; Odunsi, Kunle; Berchuck, Andrew; Jensen, Allan; Lubinski, Jan; Nevanlinna, Heli; Bean, Yukie T; Lurie, Galina; Ziogas, Argyrios; Walsh, Christine; Despierre, Evelyn; Brinton, Louise; Hein, Alexander; Rudolph, Anja; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Olson, Sara H; Harter, Philipp; Tyrer, Jonathan; Vitonis, Allison F; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aben, Katja K; Pike, Malcolm C; Ramus, Susan J; Wik, Elisabeth; Cybulski, Cezary; Lin, Jie; Sucheston, Lara; Edwards, Robert; McGuire, Valerie; Lester, Jenny; du Bois, Andreas; Lundvall, Lene; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Szafron, Lukasz M; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Yang, Hannah; Beckmann, Matthias W; Pelttari, Liisa M; Van Altena, Anne M; van den Berg, David; Halle, Mari K; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Schwaab, Ira; Chandran, Urmila; Menkiszak, Janusz; Ekici, Arif B; Wilkens, Lynne R; Leminen, Arto; Modugno, Francesmary; Friel, Grace; Rothstein, Joseph H; Vergote, Ignace; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Sobiczewski, Piotr; Kelemen, Linda E; Pharoah, Paul D P; Moysich, Kirsten; Knutson, Keith L; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L

    2014-02-01

    A missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the immune modulatory gene IL1A has been associated with ovarian cancer risk (rs17561). Although the exact mechanism through which this SNP alters risk of ovarian cancer is not clearly understood, rs17561 has also been associated with risk of endometriosis, an epidemiologic risk factor for ovarian cancer. Interleukin-1α (IL1A) is both regulated by and able to activate NF-κB, a transcription factor family that induces transcription of many proinflammatory genes and may be an important mediator in carcinogenesis. We therefore tagged SNPs in more than 200 genes in the NF-κB pathway for a total of 2,282 SNPs (including rs17561) for genotype analysis of 15,604 cases of ovarian cancer in patients of European descent, including 6,179 of high-grade serous (HGS), 2,100 endometrioid, 1,591 mucinous, 1,034 clear cell, and 1,016 low-grade serous, including 23,235 control cases spanning 40 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. In this large population, we confirmed the association between rs17561 and clear cell ovarian cancer [OR, 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-0.93; P = 0.00075], which remained intact even after excluding participants in the prior study (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95; P = 0.006). Considering a multiple-testing-corrected significance threshold of P < 2.5 × 10(-5), only one other variant, the TNFSF10 SNP rs6785617, was associated significantly with a risk of ovarian cancer (low malignant potential tumors OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.91; P = 0.00002). Our results extend the evidence that borderline tumors may have a distinct genetic etiology. Further investigation of how these SNPs might modify ovarian cancer associations with other inflammation-related risk factors is warranted.

  2. Mucin (MUC1) Expression and Function in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    Biophysical Research Communications 293 (2002) 1183-1190 1189 site, and is a feature of MUC4 metabolism [36]. [12] S. Zotter, P.C. Hageman, A. Lossnitzer...W.J. Mooi, J. Hilgers, Although the cleavage site sequence in MUC4 differs Tissue and tumor distribution of human polymorphic epithelial from that of...family of putative secreted (2001) 715-720. and membrane-associated MUC4 mucins, Eur. J. Biochem. 267 [261 M. Boshell, E-N. Lalani, L. Pemberton, J

  3. Eosinophilic Mucin Otomastoiditis and Otopolyposis: A Progressive Form of Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Azadarmaki, Roya; Westra, William; Prasad, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce and define a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media: eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis and otopolyposis. A case of a 66-year-old woman with complicated chronic otitis media is reported. A literature review of the National Library of Medicine's online database, with a focus on eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis, was performed. The authors report the case of a 66-year-old woman with a history of asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, and chronic otitis media who presented with allergic middle ear mucin and otic polyps. Treatment involved a tympanomastoidectomy with removal of otic polyps and steroid therapy. Eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis with otopolyposis is a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media. This disease process shares similarities with eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis. Otic polypectomy and steroids are suggested therapeutic measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the breast: the challenge of diagnosing a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Koufopoulos, Nektarios; Goudeli, Christina; Syrios, John; Filopoulos, Evangelos; Khaldi, Lubna

    2017-01-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is an extremely rare variant of primary breast tumor which is histologically similar to mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary and pancreas. Herein we report a case of a 63 years old woman diagnosed with diverse histological types of non-synchronous rare primary breast tumors, a medullary carcinoma of the right breast and a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the left breast. Macroscopically the neoplasm appeared multilocular filled with mucoid material. Under light microscopy the cystic areas were lined by columnar cells with abundant intracellular and extracellular mucin. Solid areas were composed of tall columnar cells with intracellular mucin. Moderate to marked atypia was noticed and tumor cells stained positive for cytokeratin 7 and negative for cytokeratin 20. Moreover tumor cells displayed a basal like immunophenotype expressed as followed: ER negative, PR negative, HER-2 negative, cytokeratin (CK5/6) positive and EGFR positive. PMID:29081926

  5. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the breast: the challenge of diagnosing a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Koufopoulos, Nektarios; Goudeli, Christina; Syrios, John; Filopoulos, Evangelos; Khaldi, Lubna

    2017-10-03

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is an extremely rare variant of primary breast tumor which is histologically similar to mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary and pancreas. Herein we report a case of a 63 years old woman diagnosed with diverse histological types of non-synchronous rare primary breast tumors, a medullary carcinoma of the right breast and a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the left breast. Macroscopically the neoplasm appeared multilocular filled with mucoid material. Under light microscopy the cystic areas were lined by columnar cells with abundant intracellular and extracellular mucin. Solid areas were composed of tall columnar cells with intracellular mucin. Moderate to marked atypia was noticed and tumor cells stained positive for cytokeratin 7 and negative for cytokeratin 20. Moreover tumor cells displayed a basal like immunophenotype expressed as followed: ER negative, PR negative, HER-2 negative, cytokeratin (CK5/6) positive and EGFR positive.

  6. Pulmonary Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma: Report a Case and Review of CT Findings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youn Ah; Han, Joungho; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Jhingook; Kwon, O Jung; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2013-01-01

    A pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is an extremely rare tumor that is considered to be a cystic variant of mucin-producing lung adenocarcinoma. We present a case of pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a 54-year-old woman. Chest CT scans showed a 4.3-cm-sized, lobulated, well-defined, and homogeneous mass in the right middle lobe with peripheral stippled calcifications that demonstrated low-attenuation with no enhancement after contrast administration; 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT demonstrated mild heterogeneous FDG uptake. The mass was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma with mucin production by transbronchial lung biopsy. Right middle lobectomy was performed, and the pathologic examination disclosed a pulmonary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. PMID:23483761

  7. Mucin can enhance growth, biofilm formation, and survival of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Mothey, Deepa; Buttaro, Bettina A; Piggot, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a member of the dental plaque and is the primary causative agent of dental caries. It can survive extended periods of starvation, which may occur in different niches within the oral cavity. We have found that mucin compensated for the absence of amino acids to promote exponential growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans in minimal medium supplemented with glucose and sucrose, respectively. Mucin extended survival in conditions where there was no net growth provided the operon encoding the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was intact. Mucin extended survival in conditions of amino acid sufficiency provided the tagatose pathway for galactose utilization was intact, suggesting that S. mutans can scavenge sufficient galactose from mucin to enhance survival, although not to serve as a primary carbon and energy source. The results suggest that mucin has a metabolic role in promoting survival of S. mutans. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Assisted Reproductive Technology Read more Ovarian Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is ...

  9. Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    cycle," Endocrinology 123, 2896-905 (1988). 31 31. A. G. Hendrickx , W. R. Dukelow, "Reproductive Biology," Chap. 9 in Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical...100 units/ml penicillin , 2 mM L-glutamine, and 100 to explore the effect of 4-HPR on normal ovarian epithelial [ig/ml streptomycin. Six different NOE

  10. Ovarian cancer statistics, 2018.

    PubMed

    Torre, Lindsey A; Trabert, Britton; DeSantis, Carol E; Miller, Kimberly D; Samimi, Goli; Runowicz, Carolyn D; Gaudet, Mia M; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L

    2018-05-29

    In 2018, there will be approximately 22,240 new cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed and 14,070 ovarian cancer deaths in the United States. Herein, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of ovarian cancer occurrence based on incidence data from nationwide population-based cancer registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. The status of early detection strategies is also reviewed. In the United States, the overall ovarian cancer incidence rate declined from 1985 (16.6 per 100,000) to 2014 (11.8 per 100,000) by 29% and the mortality rate declined between 1976 (10.0 per 100,000) and 2015 (6.7 per 100,000) by 33%. Ovarian cancer encompasses a heterogenous group of malignancies that vary in etiology, molecular biology, and numerous other characteristics. Ninety percent of ovarian cancers are epithelial, the most common being serous carcinoma, for which incidence is highest in non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) (5.2 per 100,000) and lowest in non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (APIs) (3.4 per 100,000). Notably, however, APIs have the highest incidence of endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas, which occur at younger ages and help explain comparable epithelial cancer incidence for APIs and NHWs younger than 55 years. Most serous carcinomas are diagnosed at stage III (51%) or IV (29%), for which the 5-year cause-specific survival for patients diagnosed during 2007 through 2013 was 42% and 26%, respectively. For all stages of epithelial cancer combined, 5-year survival is highest in APIs (57%) and lowest in NHBs (35%), who have the lowest survival for almost every stage of diagnosis across cancer subtypes. Moreover, survival has plateaued in NHBs for decades despite increasing in NHWs, from 40% for cases diagnosed during 1992 through 1994 to 47% during 2007 through 2013. Progress in reducing ovarian cancer incidence and mortality can be accelerated by reducing racial disparities and furthering knowledge of etiology and

  11. Human Milk Mucin 1 and Mucin 4 Inhibit Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Invasion of Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells In Vitro123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhuoteng; Chen, Ceng; Kling, David E.; Newburg, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Many human milk glycans inhibit pathogen binding to host receptors and their consumption by infants is associated with reduced risk of disease. Salmonella infection is more frequent among infants than among the general population, but the incidence is lower in breast-fed babies, suggesting that human milk could contain components that inhibit Salmonella. This study aimed to test whether human milk per se inhibits Salmonella invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and, if so, to identify the milk components responsible for inhibition. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 (SL1344) invasion of FHs 74 Int and Caco-2 cells were the models of human intestinal epithelium infection. Internalization of fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate–labeled SL1344 into intestinal cells was measured by flow cytometry to quantify infection. Human milk and its fractions inhibited infection; the inhibitory activity localized to the high molecular weight glycans. Mucin 1 and mucin 4 were isolated to homogeneity. At 150 μg/L, a typical concentration in milk, human milk mucin 1 and mucin 4 inhibited SL1344 invasion of both target cell types. These mucins inhibited SL1344 invasion of epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, mucins may prove useful as a basis for developing novel oral prophylactic and therapeutic agents that inhibit infant diseases caused by Salmonella and related pathogens. PMID:22718031

  12. Rectal Cancer: Mucinous Carcinoma on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indicates Poor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Oberholzer, Katja, E-mail: oberholz@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de; Menig, Matthias; Kreft, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To assess response of locally advanced rectal carcinoma to chemoradiation with regard to mucinous status and local tumor invasion found at pretherapeutic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: A total of 88 patients were included in this prospective study of patients with advanced mrT3 and mrT4 carcinomas. Carcinomas were categorized by MRI as mucinous (mucin proportion >50% within the tumor volume), and as nonmucinous. Patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiation consisting of 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) and 5-fluorouracil on Days 1 to 5 and Days 29 to 33. Therapy response was assessed by comparing pretherapeutic MRI with histopathology of surgicalmore » specimens (minimum distance between outer tumor edge and circumferential resection margin = CRM, T, and N category). Results: A mucinous carcinoma was found in 21 of 88 patients. Pretherapeutic mrCRM was 0 mm (median) in the mucinous and nonmucinous group. Of the 88 patients, 83 underwent surgery with tumor resection. The ypCRM (mm) at histopathology was significantly lower in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous carcinomas (p {<=} 0.001). Positive resection margins (ypCRM {<=} 1 mm) were found more frequently in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous ones (p {<=} 0.001). Treatment had less effect on local tumor stage in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous carcinomas (for T downsizing, p = 0.012; for N downstaging, p = 0.007). Disease progression was observed only in patients with mucinous carcinomas (n = 5). Conclusion: Mucinous status at pretherapeutic MRI was associated with a noticeably worse response to chemoradiation and should be assessed by MRI in addition to local tumor staging to estimate response to treatment before it is initiated.« less

  13. Expanding the histologic spectrum of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Fine, Samson W; Argani, Pedram; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Delahunt, Brett; Sebo, Thomas J; Reuter, Victor E; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2006-12-01

    Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinomas (MTSCs) are polymorphic neoplasms characterized by small, elongated tubules lined by cuboidal cells and/or cords of spindled cells separated by pale mucinous stroma. Nonclassic morphologic variants and features of MTSC have not been well studied. We identified 17 previously unreported MTSCs from Surgical Pathology and consultative files of the authors and their respective institutions and studied their morphologic features. A total of 10/17 cases were considered "classic," as described above, with 5/10 showing at least focal (20% to 50%) tubular predominance without apparent mucinous matrix. Alcian blue staining revealed abundant (>50%) mucin in all classic cases. Seven of 17 MTSCs were classified as "mucin-poor," with little to no extracellular mucin appreciable by hematoxylin and eosin. Four of these cases showed equal tubular and spindled morphology, 2 cases showed spindle cell predominance (70%; 95%), and 1 case showed tubular predominance (90%). In 5/7 mucin-poor cases, staining for Alcian blue revealed scant (<10%) mucin in cellular areas with the other 2 cases having 30% mucin. Unusual histologic features identified in the 17 cases were: foamy macrophages (n=8), papillations/well formed papillae (n=6/n=1), focal clear cells in tubules (n=3), necrosis (n=3), oncocytic tubules (n=2; 40%, 5%), numerous small vacuoles (n=2), heterotopic bone (n=1), psammomatous calcification (n=1), and nodular growth with lymphocytic cuffing (n=1). An exceptional case contained a well-circumscribed, HMB45-positive angiomyolipoma within the MTSC. MTSCs may be "mucin-poor" and show a marked predominance of either of its principal morphologic components, which coupled with the presence of other unusual features such as clear cells, papillations, foamy macrophages, and necrosis, may mimic other forms of renal cell carcinoma. Pathologists must be aware of the spectrum of histologic findings within MTSCs to ensure their accurate diagnosis.

  14. Characterization of human ocular mucin secretion mediated by 15(S)-HETE.

    PubMed

    Jumblatt, James E; Cunningham, Lauren T; Li, Yang; Jumblatt, Marcia M

    2002-11-01

    The eicosanoid 15-(S)-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid [15(S)-HETE] is reported to stimulate mucin production in both airway and ocular surface epithelia. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of 15(S)-HETE on secretion of specific ocular mucins by human conjunctiva. Segments of human bulbar conjunctival tissue were incubated with 15(S)-HETE (1-1000 nM) for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C. Secretion of human ocular mucins MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC into the incubation media was measured by dot-blot immunoassay using antibodies directed to unique mucin polypeptide epitopes. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting were used to verify the specificity of anti-mucin antibody binding and to investigate the presence of MUC1 mucin in human tears. 15(S)-HETE (10(-8)-10(-6) M) stimulated secretion of conjunctival mucins in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant increases in total mucin secretion were observed at 10(-7) M 15(S)-HETE with a maximum response (>50% increase above controls) at 10(-6) M. Results of immunoassays showed that 15(S)-HETE differentially stimulates secretion of MUC1 mucin with no detectable effects on MUC2, MUC4, or MUC5AC release. Western analysis of tear samples from human volunteers indicated that MUC1 is a component of the preocular tear film. The results demonstrate that 15(S)-HETE is a selective secretogogue for MUC1 in isolated human conjunctival tissue. Although the biochemical mechanism(s) and cellular origins of MUC1 secretion remain to be established, the ubiquitous expression of MUC1 in corneal and conjunctival epithelia and its presence in human tears suggest that secreted MUC1 may contribute to the mucin layer that coats and protects the ocular surface.

  15. Accuracy of intraoperative frozen section in the diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms: Experience at a tertiary oncology center

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Amita; Gupta, Sudeep; Kane, Shubhada; Kulkarni, Yogesh; Goyal, Lt Col Bhupesh Kumar; Tongaonkar, Hemant B

    2006-01-01

    Background Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in women. The surgical management of ovarian neoplasms depends on their correct categorization as benign, borderline or malignant. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of intra-operative frozen section in the diagnosis of various categories of ovarian neoplasms. Methods Intraoperative frozen section diagnosis was retrospectively evaluated in 217 patients with suspected ovarian neoplasms who underwent surgery as primary line of therapy at our institution. This was compared with the final histopathologic diagnosis on paraffin sections. Results In 7 patients (3.2%) no opinion on frozen section was possible. In the remaining 210 patients frozen section report had a sensitivity of 100%, 93.5% and 45.5% for benign, malignant and borderline tumors. The corresponding specificities were 93.2%, 98.3% and 98.5% respectively. The overall accuracy of frozen section diagnosis was 91.2%. The majority of cases of disagreement were in the mucinous and borderline tumors. Conclusion Intraoperative frozen section has high accuracy in the diagnosis of suspected ovarian neoplasms. It is a valuable tool to guide the surgical management of these patients and should be routinely used in all major oncology centers. PMID:16504109

  16. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs in order to recognize potential markers for the discrimination of more aggressive IPMNs requiring surgical resection from benign IPMNs that could be observed. We briefly summarize recent research findings on the genetics and epigenetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, identifying some genes, molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways correlated to the pathogenesis of IPMNs and their progression to malignancy. The knowledge of molecular biology of IPMNs has impressively developed over the last few years. A great amount of genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes have been identified, in pancreatic juice or in blood or in the samples from the pancreatic resections, but further researches are required to use these informations for clinical intent, in order to better define the natural history of these diseases and to improve their management. PMID:25110429

  17. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-08-07

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs in order to recognize potential markers for the discrimination of more aggressive IPMNs requiring surgical resection from benign IPMNs that could be observed. We briefly summarize recent research findings on the genetics and epigenetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, identifying some genes, molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways correlated to the pathogenesis of IPMNs and their progression to malignancy. The knowledge of molecular biology of IPMNs has impressively developed over the last few years. A great amount of genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes have been identified, in pancreatic juice or in blood or in the samples from the pancreatic resections, but further researches are required to use these informations for clinical intent, in order to better define the natural history of these diseases and to improve their management.

  18. Vocal fold ion transport and mucin expression following acrolein exposure

    PubMed Central

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The vocal fold epithelium is exposed to inhaled particulates including pollutants during breathing in everyday environments. Yet, our understanding of the effects of pollutants on vocal fold epithelial function is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin synthesis. These mechanisms were chosen as each plays a critical role in vocal defense and in maintaining surface hydration which is necessary for optimal voice production. Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N=85) were excised and exposed to an acrolein or sham challenge. A 60 minute acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent increases in ion transport. Decreases in ion transport were associated with reduced sodium absorption. Within the same timeline, no significant acrolein-induced changes in mucin gene or protein expression were observed. These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health. PMID:24648011

  19. MUC4 mucin- a therapeutic target for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Shailendra K; Kumar, Sushil; Cannon, Andrew; Hall, Bradley; Bhatia, Rakesh; Nasser, Mohd Wasim; Mahapatra, Sidharth; Batra, Surinder K; Jain, Maneesh

    2017-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is characterized by mucin overexpression. MUC4 is the most differentially overexpressed membrane-bound mucin that plays a functional role in disease progression and therapy resistance. Area covered: We describe the clinicopathological significance of MUC4, summarize mechanisms contributing to its deregulated expression, review preclinical studies aimed at inhibiting MUC4, and discuss how MUC4 overexpression provides opportunities for developing targeted therapies. Finally, we discuss the challenges for developing MUC4-based therapeutics, and identify areas where efforts should be directed to effectively exploit MUC4 as a therapeutic target for PC. Expert opinion: Studies demonstrating that abrogation of MUC4 expression reduces proliferation and metastasis of PC cells and enhances sensitivity to therapeutic agents affirm its utility as a therapeutic target. Emerging evidence also supports the suitability of MUC4 as a potential immunotherapy target. However, these studies have been limited to in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo approaches using xenograft tumors in immunodeficient murine models. For translational relevance, MUC4-targeted therapies should be evaluated in murine models with intact immune system and accurate tumor microenvironment. Additionally, future studies evaluating MUC4 as a target for immunotherapy must entail characterization of immune response in PC patients and investigate its association with immunosuppression and survival.

  20. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of gastric mucin solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Z.; Bansil, R.; Waigh, T.; Turner, B.; Bhaskar, K. R.; Afdhal, N.; Lal, J.

    2002-03-01

    We report the first results from a SANS study of purified porcine gastric mucin solutions in D2O. The ability of this glycoprotein to protect the stomach epithelium from acid damage, may be due to a pH dependent conformational transition which leads to gelation at low pH Cao et. al. (Biophysical. J. 76, 1250, 1999). SANS measurements were made over the concentration range of 1 -15 mg/ml at pH 7, 4 and 2. The data indicate that at pH 7 the excluded volume exponent is 1.7, characteristic of swollen chains whereas at pH 2 this exponent increases to 2, indicating theta or poor solvent conditions, consistent with the hydrophobic interactions increasing at lower pH. From a Guinier analysis of the 1mg/ml data at low q's (0.003- 0.007 Å-1) we estimate the cross section radius of the effective cylinder to be 23nm and its length as 96nm in an unbuffered sample, i.e. close to pH 7. In the intermediate q-range (0.01 -0.1Å-1) at pH 7 a fit to the Debye chain gives radius of gyration Rg of 16nm. Mucin is best modelled as an elongated micelle with a cylindrical or worm-like chain to represent the protein core and the sugar chains forming the corona. Results of such calculations will be presented.

  1. Intermittent Ovarian Torsion in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Young, Randall; Cork, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian torsion during pregnancy is a fairly uncommon complication with a high patient morbidity and fetal mortality if not immediately treated. Ovarian torsion should be considered a clinical diagnosis, and a high level of clinical suspicion is needed by the practitioner to ensure that this diagnosis is not missed. We present an unusual case of intermittent ovarian torsion discussing both the presentation and the operative and post-operative management. PMID:29849404

  2. Towards prevention of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2018-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death of all gynaecological cancers. To date, there is no reliable, specific screening procedure for detecting ovarian cancer. The risk factors of ovarian cancer include modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The main goal of the ovarian cancer prevention program is to significantly reduce the risk of development of ovarian cancer and other cancers such as breast and/or peritoneal cancer. The application of non-surgical preventive approaches such as oral contraceptives, parity and breastfeeding has been shown to be highly protective against ovarian cancer development. Targeting inflammation has been also reported to be associated with a protective trend against ovarian cancer and can be achieved through either non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or lifestyle modifications or both. Lifestyle modification that includes regular exercise, healthy diet supplemented with anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory elements reduces the risk of the disease even further. Surgical protective approaches include; tubal ligation, hysterectomy and prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and the former is the most effective approach to protect against ovarian cancer. A better understanding of the risk factors of ovarian cancer and the current approaches to prevent it may increase the awareness and help to decrease the incidence of ovarian cancer, increase the five-year survival rate and decrease the mortality rate significantly in the general population especially among those at high risk for ovarian cancer. This review is an attempt to outline a potential program of ovarian cancer prevention and the potential challenges. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinomas secrete distinct O-acylated forms of sialomucins: a histochemical study of gastric, colorectal and breast adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sáez, C; Japón, M A; Poveda, M A; Segura, D I

    2001-12-01

    Mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinomas represent a distinct group of tumours defined by the presence of large amounts of extracellular mucins. By using histochemical methods, we analysed mucins secreted by mucinous versus non-mucinous adenocarcinomas and looked for differential secretion profiles. Sixty-four adenocarcinomas were studied (23 colorectal, 17 gastric, and 24 breast tumours). Thirty-two tumours were of the colloid type. The following methods were applied to paraffin tissue sections: (i) Alcian blue (pH 2.5) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS); (ii) high iron diamine and Alcian blue (pH 2.5); (iii) periodic acid borohydride, potassium hydroxide, and PAS; (iv) periodic acid-thionine Schiff, potassium hydroxide, and PAS; and (v) periodic acid-borohydride and PAS. Most adenocarcinomas secreted acidic mucins, with sialomucins predominating over sulfomucins, except for non-mucinous adenocarcinomas of the breast which showed predominant neutral mucins. All mucinous adenocarcinomas contained C9-O-acyl sialic acid as mono, di(C8,C9)-, or tri(C7,C8,C9)-O-acyl forms. Acidic mucins secreted by the majority of non-colloid adenocarcinomas consisted of non-O-acylated sialomucins. C9-O-acylation of sialic acid is a characteristic feature of mucinous adenocarcinomas and can be readily detected by histochemical methods.

  4. Innate immune defense in the inner ear - mucines are expressed by the human endolymphatic sac.

    PubMed

    Møller, Martin N; Kirkeby, Svend; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2017-02-01

    The human endolymphatic sac has been shown recently to have immunological capacities and has thus been proposed as the main entity protecting the inner ear from pathogen invasion, equivalent to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Although the sac expresses molecules of the innate immune system, the potential expression of members of the important mucin family has not been detailed. Thus, this paper explores endolymphatic sac expression of a number of mucins and mucin precursors. Twelve fresh tissue samples from the human endolymphatic sac were obtained during translabyrinthine surgery. The expression of Mucin 1, 2, 5B/AC and 16, as well as the core structure elements (mucin precursors) T-antigen, Tn-antigen and Sialyl-Tn-antigen was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The endolymphatic sac epithelium expressed MUC1 (both apically towards the endolymphatic sac (ES) lumen and basally towards the capillary network), MUC 16 and Tn-antigen. There was no labeling after incubation with antibodies against T-antigen, sialyl-Tn-antigen, MUC2 and MUC5B/AC. We conclude that the human endolymphatic sac epithelium expresses a number of mucin molecules, which supports the hypothesis of the sac as the primary immunological tissue structure of the inner ear, equivalent to MALT in other organs. The mucins may also play a role in the formation and continuous homeostasis of the inner ear fluids, as well as the pathogenesis of Meniere's disease. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  5. Rebamipide increases the mucin-like glycoprotein production in corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Takeji, Yasuhiro; Urashima, Hiroki; Aoki, Akihiro; Shinohara, Hisashi

    2012-06-01

    Dry eye is a multifactorial disease of tears and the ocular surface due to tear deficiency or excessive tear evaporation. Tear film instability is due to a disturbance in ocular surface mucin leading to a dysfunction of mucin, resulting in dry eye. In this study, we examined the effect of rebamipide, an anti-ulcer agent, on glycoconjugate production, as an indicator of mucin-like glycoprotein in cultured corneal epithelial cells. Further, we investigated the effect of rebamipide on the gene expression of membrane-associated mucins. Confluent cultured human corneal epithelial cells were incubated with rebamipide for 24 h. The glycoconjugate content in the supernatant and the cell extracts was measured by wheat germ agglutinin-enzyme-linked lectin assay combined gel-filtration method. In the experiment on mucin gene expression, cultured human corneal epithelial cells were collected at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h after administration of rebamipide. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the quantity of MUC1, MUC 4, and MUC16 gene expression. Rebamipide significantly increased the glycoconjugate contents in the supernatant and cell extract. In the mucin gene expression in the cells, rebamipide increased MUC1 and MUC4 gene expression, but did not increase MUC16 gene expression. Rebamipide promoted glycoconjugate, which has a property as a mucin-like glycoprotein, in human corneal epithelial cells. The increased production was mediated by MUC1 and MUC4 gene expression.

  6. Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 in mucinous and nonmucinous colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira K; Abdel-Aziz, Azza

    2013-08-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a major health problem all over the world. Mucinous CRCs are known to have a peculiar behavior and genetic derangements. This study aimed to investigate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 expression in mucinous and nonmucinous CRCs. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with mucinous and nonmucinous CRC who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using a modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and paraffin sections were submitted for immunohistochemistry using MMP-13. Statistical analysis was performed for clinical and pathological data of all studied cases together with MMP-13 expression in mucinous and nonmucinous groups. Mucinous carcinoma was significantly associated with young age, more depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and less peritumoral and intratumoral neutrophils. Nonmucinous carcinomas showed higher MMP-13 expression compared with mucinous carcinomas. Despite the negative or low expression of MMP-13, mucinous carcinomas had more depth of invasion and more frequency of lymph node metastasis than did nonmucinous carcinomas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Penile warty mucoepidermoid carcinoma with features of stratified mucin-producing intra-epithelial lesion and invasive stratified mucin-producing carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yorita, Kenji; Kuroda, Naoto; Naroda, Takushi; Tamura, Masato; Ohe, Chisato; Divatia, Mukul; Amin, Mahul B; Cubilla, Antonio L; Kazakov, Dimitry V; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michael; Michal, Michal

    2018-04-01

    Stratified mucin-producing intra-epithelial lesion (SMILE) and invasive stratified mucin-producing carcinoma (ISMC) are recently described cervical and penile lesions. We report an unusual case of mixed variant of penile squamous cell carcinomas with warty, usual and mucoepidermoid SMILE/ISMC features. A 62-year-old Japanese man had a glans penis lesion of one-and-a-half years' duration, suggesting malignancy. Partial penectomy and left inguinal lymphadenectomy were performed. Pathological evaluation revealed a mixed squamous cell carcinoma with warty, mucinous and usual features. The mucinous component resembled mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) and SMILE/ISMC. Glandular differentiation was absent. All the diverse tumour components were negative for p16, which was confirmed by negative human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping. The mucinous component was diffusely positive for cytokeratin 7 and largely negative for cytokeratin 5 and p63. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation did not detect rearrangement in the MAML2 or EWSR1 genes. The tumour was pathological stage pT2, pN1 (AJCC prognostic stage group IIIA) and was disease-free 26 months after surgery. The lack of glands in the mucinous areas suggested that MEC should be separated from adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC). Penile SMILE/ISMC may occur without dependence upon HPV status. Further studies will be necessary to determine the pathogenesis and definition of penile SMILE/ISMC, the presence of true MEC arising from the glans penis and the clinicopathological differences of penile ASC, MEC and SMILE/ISMC. Herein, we refer to the SMILE-like penile lesion as 'mucinous penile intra-epithelial neoplasia'. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A Novel Mechanism for Desulfation of Mucin: Identification and Cloning of a Mucin-Desulfating Glycosidase (Sulfoglycosidase) from Prevotella Strain RS2

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Jung-hyun; Wright, Damian P.; Christie, David L.; Clinch, Keith; Furneaux, Richard H.; Roberton, Anthony M.

    2005-01-01

    A novel enzyme which may be important in mucin degradation has been discovered in the mucin-utilizing anaerobe Prevotella strain RS2. This enzyme cleaves terminal 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranoside 6-sulfate (6-SO3-GlcNAc) residues from sulfomucin and from the model substrate 4-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranoside 6-sodium sulfate. The existence of this mucin-desulfating glycosidase (sulfoglycosidase) suggests an alternative mechanism by which this bacterium may desulfate sulfomucins, by glycosidic removal of a sulfated sugar from mucin oligosaccharide chains. Previously, mucin desulfation was thought to take place by the action of a specific desulfating enzyme, which then allowed glycosidases to remove desulfated sugar. Sulfate removal from sulfomucins is thought to be a rate-limiting step in mucin degradation by bacteria in the regions of the digestive tract with a significant bacterial flora. The sulfoglycosidase was induced by growth of the Prevotella strain on mucin and was purified 284-fold from periplasmic extracts. Tryptic digestion and sequencing of peptides from the 100-kDa protein enabled the sulfoglycosidase gene to be cloned and sequenced. Active recombinant enzyme was made in an Escherichia coli expression system. The sulfoglycosidase shows sequence similarity to hexosaminidases. The only other enzyme that has been shown to remove 6-SO3-GlcNAc from glycoside substrates is the human lysosomal enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase A, point mutations in which cause the inheritable, lysosomal storage disorder Tay-Sachs disease. The human enzyme removes GlcNAc from glycoside substrates also, in contrast to the Prevotella enzyme, which acts on a nonsulfated substrate at a rate that is only 1% of the rate observed with a sulfated substrate. PMID:15716424

  9. "Pseudomyxoma Endometrii": Endometrial Deposition of Acellular Mucin from a Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm as a Rare Mimic of Myxoid Uterine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kristin C; Kokh, Dina; Ioffe, Olga B; Staats, Paul N

    2015-07-01

    Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) are commonly associated with deposition of mucin, with or without admixed low-grade epithelium, on peritoneal surfaces (pseudomyxoma peritonei). We describe a very rare presentation of LAMN as extensive mucin deposition in the endometrium of a 43-yr-old woman initially mistaken for a primary uterine myxoid neoplasm. The patient underwent endometrial curettage that demonstrated abundant myxoid/mucoid material interspersed with small vessels, bland eosinophilic spindled cells, scattered foci of typical endometrial stroma, and occasional endometrioid glands. The endometrial stroma was positive for CD10, and the eosinophilic spindled cells were positive for actin. The lesion was interpreted as "myxoid/mucinous neoplasm, most likely of smooth muscle/endometrial stromal origin." Subsequent laparotomy revealed peritoneal mucin in the anterior cul-de-sac and a dilated appendix. Pathologic review confirmed appendiceal LAMN and multifocal peritoneal mucinosis. The uterus contained scant residual mucoid material. On review of all pathologic material at our institution, the endometrial lesion was consistent with organizing mucin derived from the LAMN with entrapped benign endometrium. "Pseudomyxoma endometrii" is readily mistaken for a primary uterine myxoid neoplasm, particularly myxoid endometrial stromal tumor. A key to diagnosis is recognition that the material is mucin rather than myxoid stroma. This is evidenced by the absence of embedded stromal cells and presence of myofibroblastic, vascular, and macrophage infiltration associated with organization. Epithelium containing goblet cells is an important clue if present. The presence of rare endometrial glands within the endometrial stroma suggests that the latter is entrapped rather than neoplastic.

  10. Ovarian hormones and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N.; Asarian, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. SEARCH METHODS Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. OUTCOMES We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates

  11. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    PubMed

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  12. Allergen-induced IL-9 directly stimulates mucin transcription in respiratory epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Longphre, M.; Li, D.; Gallup, M.; Drori, E.; Ordoñez, C.L.; Redman, T.; Wenzel, S.; Bice, D. E.; Fahy, J.V.; Basbaum, C.

    1999-01-01

    A hallmark of asthma is mucin overproduction, a condition that contributes to airway obstruction. The events responsible for mucin overproduction are not known but are thought to be associated with mediators of chronic inflammation. Others have shown that T-helper 2 (Th2) lymphocytes are required for mucous cell metaplasia, which then leads to mucin overproduction in animal models of allergy. We hypothesized that Th2 cell mediators are present in asthmatic airway fluid and directly stimulate mucin synthesis in airway epithelial cells. Results in cultured airway epithelial cells showed that samples of asthmatic fluid stimulated mucin (MUC5AC) synthesis severalfold more potently than non-asthmatic fluid. Consistent with this, lavage fluid from the airways of allergen-challenged dogs stimulated mucin synthesis severalfold more potently than that from non–allergen-challenged dogs. Fractionation of dog samples revealed 2 active fractions at <10 kDa and 30–100 kDa. Th2 cytokines in these molecular weight ranges are IL-9 (36 kDa), IL-5 (56 kDa), and IL-13 (10 kDa). Antibody blockade of ligand-receptor interaction for IL-9 (but not IL-5 or IL-13) inhibited mucin stimulation by dog airway fluid. Furthermore, recombinant IL-9, but not IL-5 or IL-13, stimulated mucin synthesis. These results indicate that IL-9 may account for as much as 50–60% of the mucin-stimulating activity of lung fluids in allergic airway disease. J. Clin. Invest. 104:1375–1382 (1999). PMID:10562299

  13. A Gastric Glycoform of MUC5AC Is a Biomarker of Mucinous Cysts of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Jessica; Cao, Zheng; Dai, Jianliang; Tang, Huiyuan; Partyka, Katie; Hostetter, Galen; Simeone, Diane M.; Feng, Ziding; Allen, Peter J.; Brand, Randall E.; Haab, Brian B.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular indicators to specify the risk posed by a pancreatic cyst would benefit patients. Previously we showed that most cancer-precursor cysts, termed mucinous cysts, produce abnormal glycoforms of the proteins MUC5AC and endorepellin. Here we sought to validate the glycoforms as a biomarker of mucinous cysts and to specify the oligosaccharide linkages that characterize MUC5AC. We hypothesized that mucinous cysts secrete MUC5AC displaying terminal N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in either alpha or beta linkage. We used antibody-lectin sandwich assays to detect glycoforms of MUC5AC and endorepellin in cyst fluid samples from three independent cohorts of 49, 32, and 66 patients, and we used monoclonal antibodies to test for terminal, alpha-linked GlcNAc and the enzyme that produces it. A biomarker panel comprising the previously-identified glycoforms of MUC5AC and endorepellin gave 96%, 96%, and 87% accuracy for identifying mucinous cysts in the three cohorts with an average sensitivity of 92% and an average specificity of 94%. Glycan analysis showed that MUC5AC produced by a subset of mucinous cysts displays terminal alpha-GlcNAc, a motif expressed in stomach glands. The alpha-linked glycoform of MUC5AC was unique to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), whereas terminal beta-linked GlcNAc was increased in both IPMNs and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN). The enzyme that synthesizes alpha-GlcNAc, A4GNT, was expressed in the epithelia of mucinous cysts that expressed alpha-GlcNAc, especially in regions with high-grade dysplasia. Thus IPMNs secrete a gastric glycoform of MUC5AC that displays terminal alpha-GlcNAc, and the combined alpha-GlcNAc and beta-GlcNAc glycoforms form an accurate biomarker of mucinous cysts. PMID:27992432

  14. DA-6034-induced mucin secretion via Ca2+-dependent pathways through P2Y receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hun; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Ji Yeon; Yang, Yu-Mi; Shin, Dong Min; Kang, Kyung Koo; Kim, Tae-im

    2014-09-11

    We evaluated whether DA-6034 is involved in mucin secretion via P2Y receptor activation and/or intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) change. Also, we investigated the effect of P2Y receptor inhibitors or Ca2+ chelators on the DA-6034-induced mucin secretion and [Ca2+]i increases. Effects of DA-6034 on mucin expression in primary, cultured, conjunctival epithelial cells was studied using RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and periodic acid-schiff (PAS) staining. To evaluate thin film layer thickness generated by mucin and fluid secretion, cells were incubated in DA-6034 with/without P2Y antagonists or extracellular/intracellular Ca2+ chelators, and were imaged with confocal microscope using Texas Red-dextran dye. In addition, DA-6034-induced Ca2+-dependent Cl- channels opening was evaluated using perforated patch clamp. Fluo-4/AM was used to measure changes in [Ca2+]i induced by DA-6034 in Ca2+-free or Ca2+-containing buffered condition, as well as P2Y antagonists. DA-6034 induced the expression of mucin genes, production of mucin protein, and increase of number of mucin-secreting cells. P2Y antagonists inhibited DA-6034-induced mucin and fluid secretion, which was also affected by extracellular/intracellular Ca2+ chelators. DA-6034 stimulated Cl- channel opening and [Ca2+]i elevation. Further, [Ca2+]i increases induced by DA-6034 were lacking in either P2Y antagonists or Ca2+-free buffered condition, and diminished when endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ was depleted by cyclopiazonic acid in Ca2+-free buffered condition. This study demonstrated that DA-6034 has a potential to induce mucin secretion via Ca2+-dependent pathways through P2Y receptors in multilayer, cultured, human conjunctival epithelial cells. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  15. Evidence and Role for Bacterial Mucin Degradation in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jeffrey M.; Niccum, David; Dunitz, Jordan M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are composed of complex microbial communities that incite persistent inflammation and airway damage. Despite the high density of bacteria that colonize the lower airways, nutrient sources that sustain bacterial growth in vivo, and how those nutrients are derived, are not well characterized. In this study, we examined the possibility that mucins serve as an important carbon reservoir for the CF lung microbiota. While Pseudomonas aeruginosa was unable to efficiently utilize mucins in isolation, we found that anaerobic, mucin-fermenting bacteria could stimulate the robust growth of CF pathogens when provided intact mucins as a sole carbon source. 16S rRNA sequencing and enrichment culturing of sputum also identified that mucin-degrading anaerobes are ubiquitous in the airways of CF patients. The collective fermentative metabolism of these mucin-degrading communities in vitro generated amino acids and short chain fatty acids (propionate and acetate) during growth on mucin, and the same metabolites were also found in abundance within expectorated sputum. The significance of these findings was supported by in vivo P. aeruginosa gene expression, which revealed a heightened expression of genes required for the catabolism of propionate. Given that propionate is exclusively derived from bacterial fermentation, these data provide evidence for an important role of mucin fermenting bacteria in the carbon flux of the lower airways. More specifically, microorganisms typically defined as commensals may contribute to airway disease by degrading mucins, in turn providing nutrients for pathogens otherwise unable to efficiently obtain carbon in the lung. PMID:27548479

  16. Ovarian and oocyte cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Lornage, Jacqueline; Salle, Bruno

    2007-08-01

    The present article is an update on progress in the two available techniques of oocyte and ovarian cryopreservation: slow cooling/rapid thawing and vitrification. A new line of research has opened in recent years: freezing the whole ovary with its vascular pedicle, so as to enable vascular grafts limiting ischemia-related follicle reserve loss. The technique of mature oocyte vitrification has advanced significantly, with improved oocyte physiology, increased safety, and higher clinical pregnancy rates. The number of studies on whole ovary freezing has grown, and there has been a large-mammal (sheep) live birth by orthotopic graft with vascular anastomosis of a cryopreserved ovary. Ovarian and oocyte cryopreservation is essential to conserving the fertility of young women. Results of mature oocyte freezing techniques have improved significantly over the past few years, but remain poorer than those with embryo freezing. Mature oocyte vitrification is progressing well, but requires safety validation in view of the high cryoprotectant concentrations used. Ovarian cortex fragment freezing is widely used in patients, with two live births after orthotopic graft, worldwide. The problem of rapid graft exhaustion has led to a focus on whole ovary cryopreservation which has resulted in one live birth in a ewe.

  17. Intravital Microscopy in Evaluating Patients With Primary Peritoneal, Fallopian Tube, or Stage IA-IV Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-20

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  18. The oncocytic subtype is genetically distinct from other pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Basturk, Olca; Tan, Marcus; Bhanot, Umesh; Allen, Peter; Adsay, Volkan; Scott, Sasinya N; Shah, Ronak; Berger, Michael F; Askan, Gokce; Dikoglu, Esra; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Wrzeszczynski, Kazimierz O; Sigel, Carlie; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Klimstra, David S

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization reclassified the entity originally described as intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm as the ‘oncocytic subtype’ of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Although several key molecular alterations of other intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes have been discovered, including common mutations in KRAS, GNAS, and RNF3, those of oncocytic subtype have not been well characterized. We analyzed 11 pancreatic ‘oncocytic subtype’ of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Nine pancreatic ‘oncocytic subtype’ of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms uniformly exhibited typical entity-defining morphology of arborizing papillae lined by layers of cells with oncocytic cytoplasm, prominent, nucleoli, and intraepithelial lumina. The remaining two were atypical. One lacked the arborizing papilla and had flat oncocytic epithelium only; the other one had focal oncocytic epithelium in a background of predominantly intestinal subtype intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Different components of this case were analyzed separately. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of all cases were microdissected and subjected to high-depth-targeted next-generation sequencing for a panel of 300 key cancer-associated genes in a platform that enabled the identification of sequence mutations, copy number alterations, and select structural rearrangements involving all targeted genes. Fresh frozen specimens of two cases were also subjected to whole-genome sequencing. For the nine typical pancreatic ‘oncocytic subtype’ of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, the number of mutations per case, identified by next-generation sequencing, ranged from 1 to 10 (median = 4). None of these cases had KRAS or GNAS mutations and only one had both RNF43 and PIK3R1 mutations. ARHGAP26, ASXL1, EPHA8, and ERBB4 genes were somatically altered in more than one of these typical ‘oncocytic subtype’ of intraductal papillary mucinous

  19. Expression of mucins on the mucosal surface of lungs of 4-week-old pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung Hyun; Lee, Kichan; Han, Kiwon; Oh, Yeonsu; Kim, Duyeol; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Ha, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Kyung-Dong; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Chae, Chanhee

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the immunoreactivity of normal small bronchial, bronchiolar, respiratory bronchiolar, and interalveolar epithelium using antibodies to six mucins: MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6. The large, gel-forming secreted mucins MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC5B were widely expressed in the lower respiratory tract. The results of this study demonstrate that these secreted mucins form a gel to cover and protect the mucosal surface in the lower respiratory tract of pigs. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  20. Ovulation and extra-ovarian origin of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang-Hartwich, Yang; Gurrea-Soteras, Marta; Sumi, Natalia; Joo, Won Duk; Holmberg, Jennie C.; Craveiro, Vinicius; Alvero, Ayesha B.; Mor, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The mortality rate of ovarian cancer remains high due to late diagnosis and recurrence. A fundamental step toward improving detection and treatment of this lethal disease is to understand its origin. A growing number of studies have revealed that ovarian cancer can develop from multiple extra-ovarian origins, including fallopian tube, gastrointestinal tract, cervix and endometriosis. However, the mechanism leading to their ovarian localization is not understood. We utilized in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models to recapitulate the process of extra-ovarian malignant cells migrating to the ovaries and forming tumors. We provided experimental evidence to support that ovulation, by disrupting the ovarian surface epithelium and releasing chemokines/cytokines, promotes the migration and adhesion of malignant cells to the ovary. We identified the granulosa cell-secreted SDF-1 as a main chemoattractant that recruits malignant cells towards the ovary. Our findings revealed a potential molecular mechanism of how the extra-ovarian cells can be attracted by the ovary, migrate to and form tumors in the ovary. Our data also supports the association between increased ovulation and the risk of ovarian cancer. Understanding this association will lead us to the development of more specific markers for early detection and better prevention strategies. PMID:25135607

  1. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    PubMed

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The construction of cDNA library and the screening of related antigen of ascitic tumor cells of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hou, Q; Chen, K; Shan, Z

    2015-01-01

    To construct the cDNA library of the ascites tumor cells of ovarian cancer, which can be used to screen the related antigen for the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer and therapeutic targets of immune treatment. Four cases of ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma, two cases of ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, and two cases of ovarian endometrial carcinoma in patients with ascitic tumor cells which were used to construct the cDNA library. To screen the ovarian cancer antigen gene, evaluate the enzyme, and analyze nucleotide sequence, serological analysis of recombinant tumor cDNA expression libraries (SEREX) and suppression subtractive hybridization technique (SSH) techniques were utilized. The detection method of recombinant expression-based serological mini-arrays (SMARTA) was used to detect the ovarian cancer antigen and the positive reaction of 105 cases of ovarian cancer patients and 105 normal women's autoantibodies correspondingly in serum. After two rounds of serologic screening and glycosides sequencing analysis, 59 candidates of ovarian cancer antigen gene fragments were finally identified, which corresponded to 50 genes. They were then divided into six categories: (1) the homologous genes which related to the known ovarian cancer genes, such as BARD 1 gene, etc; (2) the homologous genes which were associated with other tumors, such as TM4SFI gene, etc; (3) the genes which were expressed in a special organization, such as ILF3, FXR1 gene, etc; (4) the genes which were the same with some protein genes of special function, such as TIZ, ClD gene; (5) the homologous genes which possessed the same source with embryonic genes, such as PKHD1 gene, etc; (6) the remaining genes were the unknown genes without the homologous sequence in the gene pool, such as OV-189 genes. SEREX technology combined with SSH method is an effective research strategy which can filter tumor antigen with high specific character; the corresponding autoantibodies of TM4SFl, ClD, TIZ, BARDI

  3. Peritoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of probable urachal origin: a challenging diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gore, D M; Bloch, S; Waller, W; Cohen, P

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the case of a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of probable urachal origin that presented with mass effect, precipitating deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The patient presented with acute symptoms of leg swelling, pain and dyspnoea, and a vague awareness of lower abdominal distension. Computer tomography showed a cystic mass closely related to the anterior abdominal wall and the superior aspect of the bladder. A 1500 cm3 cyst adherent to the dome of the urinary bladder was resected on laparotomy. Partial cystectomy was not carried out in the belief that the cyst represented a benign lesion. Subsequent imaging has shown cystic changes in the anterior bladder wall, and the patient has been referred for partial cystectomy. PMID:17021133

  4. Mucin Production Dynamics at the Surface of Corneal Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hormel, Tristan; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Pitenis, Angela; Urueã+/-A, Juan; Sawyer, Gregory; Angelini, Thomas

    Mucous layers form at the apical surface of many epithelia, protecting tissues from pathogens and environmental wear and damage. Although these layers contain many materials they are primarily composed of mucin glycoproteins, the concentration of which may be physiologically controlled to maintain specific rheological properties and to provide proper lubrication. Nowhere is this truer than at the surface of the eye's corneal epithelium, where the mucous layer must additionally achieve structural integrity to withstand the stresses created by blinking, and remain transparent in order to enable vision. I will present results on the growth dynamics, concentration, and rheology of a model corneal epithelial mucous layer, all of which can be viewed as important parameters at this interface. I will also discuss modulation of the mucous layer's dynamics with variation in environmental conditions. Alcon.

  5. Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vulva, intestinal type

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Hong, Sung Ran

    2017-01-01

    Primary vulva malignancy is a rare gynecologic malignancy. Most of them are squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas are much less common. Intestinal type is a rare variant of primary adenocarcinoma of the vulva. It histologically resembles mucinous colonic carcinomas. Origin from cloacal remnants has been suggested but remains speculative. A 64-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a 1-month history of an itching vulva mass. An incisional biopsy was performed at other hospital and disclosed adenocarcinoma of intestinal type. Extensive workups were performed to detect other underlying carcinomas but revealed nothing abnormal. She underwent wide local excision without lymph node dissection for a primary vulva carcinoma. She received no adjuvant therapy and has been free from recurrent disease for 12 months after surgery. The authors report a rare case and review the relevant literature. PMID:28791269

  6. Mucin gel assembly is controlled by a collective action of non-mucin proteins, disulfide bridges, Ca2+-mediated links, and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Oliver W; Yakubov, Gleb E; Bonilla, Mauricio R; Deshmukh, Omkar; McGuckin, Michael A; Gidley, Michael J

    2018-04-11

    Mucus is characterized by multiple levels of assembly at different length scales which result in a unique set of rheological (flow) and mechanical properties. These physical properties determine its biological function as a highly selective barrier for transport of water and nutrients, while blocking penetration of pathogens and foreign particles. Altered integrity of the mucus layer in the small intestine has been associated with a number of gastrointestinal tract pathologies such as Crohn's disease and cystic fibrosis. In this work, we uncover an intricate hierarchy of intestinal mucin (Muc2) assembly and show how complex rheological properties emerge from synergistic interactions between mucin glycoproteins, non-mucin proteins, and Ca 2+ . Using a novel method of mucus purification, we demonstrate the mechanism of assembly of Muc2 oligomers into viscoelastic microscale domains formed via hydrogen bonding and Ca 2+ -mediated links, which require the joint presence of Ca 2+ ions and non-mucin proteins. These microscale domains aggregate to form a heterogeneous yield stress gel-like fluid, the macroscopic rheological properties of which are virtually identical to that of native intestinal mucus. Through proteomic analysis, we short-list potential protein candidates implicated in mucin assembly, thus paving the way for identifying the molecules responsible for the physiologically critical biophysical properties of mucus.

  7. Histological subtypes of ovarian cancer associated with parity and breastfeeding in the prospective Million Women Study.

    PubMed

    Gaitskell, Kezia; Green, Jane; Pirie, Kirstin; Barnes, Isobel; Hermon, Carol; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie

    2018-01-15

    Ovarian cancer risk is known to be reduced amongst women who have had children, but reported associations with breastfeeding are varied. Few studies have had sufficient power to explore reliably these associations by tumour histotype. In a prospective study of 1.1 million UK women, 8719 developed ovarian cancer during follow-up. Cox regression yielded adjusted relative risks (RRs) overall and by tumour histotype amongst women with different childbearing patterns. Nulliparous women had a 24% greater ovarian cancer risk than women with one child, with significant heterogeneity by histotype (p = 0.01). There was no significant increase in serous tumours, a modest increase in mucinous tumours, but a substantial increase in endometrioid (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.18-1.89) and clear-cell tumours (RR = 1.68, 1.29-2.20). Among parous women, each additional birth was associated with an overall 6% reduction in ovarian cancer risk; this association also varied by histotype (p = 0.0006), with the largest reduction in risk for clear-cell tumours (RR per birth = 0.75, 0.65-0.85, p < 0.001) and weak, if any, effect for endometrioid, high-grade serous, or mucinous tumours. We found little association with age at first or last birth. There was about a 10% risk reduction per 12-months breastfeeding (RR = 0.89, 0.84-0.94, p < 0.001), with no significant heterogeneity by histotype, but statistical power was limited. In this large prospective study, ovarian cancer risk associated with parity varied substantially by tumour histotype. Nulliparity was associated with a substantially greater overall risk than expected from the effect of a single birth, especially for clear cell and endometrioid tumours, perhaps suggesting that infertility is associated with these histotypes. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  8. Epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Webb, Penelope M; Jordan, Susan J

    2017-05-01

    Globally, ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women and the eighth most common cause of cancer death, with five-year survival rates below 45%. Although age-standardised rates are stable or falling in most high-income countries, they are rising in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, with increasing life-expectancy, the number of cases diagnosed each year is increasing. To control ovarian cancer we need to understand the causes. This will allow better prediction of those at greatest risk for whom screening might be appropriate, while identification of potentially modifable causes provides an opportunity for intervention to reduce rates. In this paper we will summarise the current state of knowledge regarding the known and possible causes of epithelial ovarian cancer and discuss some of the main theories of ovarian carcinogenesis. We will also briefly review the relationship between lifestyle and survival after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shoudong; Tong, Jessica; Rahman, Masmudur M; Shepherd, Trevor G; McFadden, Grant

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, more than 20 viruses with selective tropism for tumor cells have been developed as oncolytic viruses (OVs) for treatments of a variety of malignancies. Of these viruses, eleven have been tested in human ovarian cancer models in preclinical studies. So far, nine phase I or II clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using four different types of OVs in patients with recurrent ovarian cancers. In this article, we summarize the different OVs that are being assessed as therapeutics for ovarian cancer. We also present an overview of recent advances in identification of key genetic or immune-response pathways involved in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, which provides a better understanding of the tumor specificities and oncolytic properties of OVs. In addition, we discuss how next-generation OVs could be genetically modified or integrated into multimodality regimens to improve clinical outcomes based on recent advances in ovarian cancer biology. PMID:25977900

  10. A rare pleural mucinous cystadenocarcinoma mimicking loculated empyema initially: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Min; Seon, Hyun Ju; Choi, Yoo-Duk; Song, Sang-Yun

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of pleural mucinous cystadenocarcinoma which was mistaken to be a loculated empyema on chest CT. To the best of our knowledge, this entity has never been previously reported in literature. PMID:24604931

  11. Fermentation of mucin and plant polysaccharides by strains of Bacteroides from the human colon.

    PubMed Central

    Salyers, A A; Vercellotti, J R; West, S E; Wilkins, T D

    1977-01-01

    Ten Bacteroides species found in the human colon were surveyed for their ability to ferment mucins and plant polysaccharides ("dietary fiber"). A number of strains fermented mucopolysaccharides (heparin, hyaluronate, and chondroitin sulfate) and ovomucoid. Only 3 of the 188 strains tested fermented beef submaxillary mucin, and none fermented porcine gastric mucin. Many of the Bacteroides strains tested were also able to ferment a variety of plant polysaccharides, including amylose, dextran, pectin, gum tragacanth, gum guar, larch arabinogalactan, alginate, and laminarin. Some plant polysaccharides such as gum arabic, gum karaya, gum ghatti and fucoidan, were not utilized by any of the strains tested. The ability to utilize mucins and plant polysaccharides varied considerably among the Bacteroides species tested. PMID:848954

  12. Helicobacter pylori and gastric mucin expression: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Niv, Yaron

    2015-08-21

    To investigate the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and mucin expression in gastric mucosa. English Medical literature searches were conducted for gastric mucin expression in H. pylori infected people vs uninfected people. Searches were performed up to December 31(th) 2014, using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and CENTRAL. Studies comparing mucin expression in the gastric mucosa in patients positive and negative for H. pylori infection, were included. Meta-analysis was performed by using Comprehensive meta-analysis software (Version 3, Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, United States). Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated compared mucin expression in individual studies by using the random effects model. Heterogeneity between studies was evaluated using the Cochran Q-test, and it was considered to be present if the Q-test P value was less than 0.10. I(2) statistic was used to measure the proportion of inconsistency in individual studies, with I(2) > 50% representing substantial heterogeneity. We also calculated a potential publication bias. Eleven studies, which represent 53 sub-studies of 15 different kinds of mucin expression, were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Every kind of mucin has been considered as one study. When a specific mucin has been studied in more than one paper, we combined the results in a nested meta-analysis of this particular mucin: MUC2, MUC6, STn, Paradoxical con A, Tn, T, Type 1 chain mucin, LeA, SLeA, LeB, AB-PAS, MUC1, and MUC5AC. The odds ratio of mucin expression in random analysis was 2.33, 95%CI: 1.230-4.411, P = 0.009, higher expression in H. pylori infected patients. Odds ratio for mucin expression in H. pylori positive patients was higher for MUC6 (9.244, 95%CI: 1.567-54.515, P = 0.014), and significantly lower for MUC5AC (0.447, 95%CI: 0.211-0.949, P = 0.036). Thus, H. pylori infection may increase MUC6 expression and decrease MUC5AC expression by 924% and 52

  13. Helicobacter pylori and gastric mucin expression: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Niv, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and mucin expression in gastric mucosa. METHODS: English Medical literature searches were conducted for gastric mucin expression in H. pylori infected people vs uninfected people. Searches were performed up to December 31th 2014, using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and CENTRAL. Studies comparing mucin expression in the gastric mucosa in patients positive and negative for H. pylori infection, were included. Meta-analysis was performed by using Comprehensive meta-analysis software (Version 3, Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, United States). Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated compared mucin expression in individual studies by using the random effects model. Heterogeneity between studies was evaluated using the Cochran Q-test, and it was considered to be present if the Q-test P value was less than 0.10. I2 statistic was used to measure the proportion of inconsistency in individual studies, with I2 > 50% representing substantial heterogeneity. We also calculated a potential publication bias. RESULTS: Eleven studies, which represent 53 sub-studies of 15 different kinds of mucin expression, were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Every kind of mucin has been considered as one study. When a specific mucin has been studied in more than one paper, we combined the results in a nested meta-analysis of this particular mucin: MUC2, MUC6, STn, Paradoxical con A, Tn, T, Type 1 chain mucin, LeA, SLeA, LeB, AB-PAS, MUC1, and MUC5AC. The odds ratio of mucin expression in random analysis was 2.33, 95%CI: 1.230-4.411, P = 0.009, higher expression in H. pylori infected patients. Odds ratio for mucin expression in H. pylori positive patients was higher for MUC6 (9.244, 95%CI: 1.567-54.515, P = 0.014), and significantly lower for MUC5AC (0.447, 95%CI: 0.211-0.949, P = 0.036). Thus, H. pylori infection may increase MUC6 expression and decrease MUC5AC expression by

  14. Membrane-bound mucins and mucin terminal glycans expression in idiopathic or Helicobacter pylori, NSAID associated peptic ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Niv, Yaron; Boltin, Doron; Halpern, Marisa; Cohen, Miriam; Levi, Zohar; Vilkin, Alex; Morgenstern, Sara; Manugian, Vahig; St Lawrence, Erica; Gagneux, Pascal; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Sharma, Poonam; Batra, Surinder K; Ho, Samuel B

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the expression of membrane-bound mucins and glycan side chain sialic acids in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated, non-steroidal inflammatory drug (NSAID)-associated and idiopathic-gastric ulcers. METHODS: We studied a cohort of randomly selected patients with H. pylori (group 1, n = 30), NSAID (group 2, n = 18), combined H. pylori and NSAID associated gastric ulcers (group 3, n = 24), and patients with idiopathic gastric ulcers (group 4, n = 20). Immunohistochemistry for MUC1, MUC4, MUC17, and staining for Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) lectins was performed on sections from the ulcer margins. RESULTS: Staining intensity of MUC17 was higher in H. pylori ulcers (group 1) than in idiopathic ulcers (group 4), 11.05 ± 3.67 vs 6.93 ± 4.00 for foveola cells, and 10.29 ± 4.67 vs 8.00 ± 3.48 for gland cells, respectively (P < 0.0001). In contrast, MUC1 expression was higher in group 4 compared group 1, 9.89 ± 4.17 vs 2.93 ± 5.13 in foveola cells and 7.63 ± 4.60 vs 2.57± 4.50 for glands, respectively (P < 0.0001). SNA lectin staining was increased in group 4, in parallel to elevated MUC1 expression, indicating more abundant α2-6 sialylation in that group. CONCLUSION: Cytoplasmic MUC17 staining was significantly decreased in the cases with idiopathic ulcer. The opposite was observed for both MUC1 and SNA lectin. This observation may reflect important pathogenic mechanisms, since different mucins with altered sialylation patterns may differ in their protection efficiency against acid and pepsin. PMID:25356051

  15. Invasive mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinoma of ectopic breast tissue in the vulva: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yin, C; Chapman, J; Tawfik, O

    2003-01-01

    We present the first case of primary vulvar mucinous adenocarcinoma of ectopic breast origin. The patient is an 84-year-old woman with a mass on the left side of her vulva. A left partial vulvectomy with bilateral inguinal lymph node dissections revealed a mucinous adenocarcinoma that involved the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The tumor cells were positive for estrogen receptors (ERs), progesterone receptors (PRs), and BRST-1 markers. The clinical and pathologic features, differential diagnosis, and treatment are discussed.

  16. Anaplastic carcinoma occurring in association with a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Lane, R B; Sangüeza, O P

    1997-05-01

    Anaplastic carcinomas of the pancreas are considered variants of ductal adenocarcinoma. They typically occur in elderly men. They have rarely been reported to occur in association with mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. We report a case of anaplastic carcinoma occurring in association with a pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm, borderline-type, in a 25-year-old woman who presented with lymph node and hepatic metastases.

  17. Bile salts stimulate mucin secretion by cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells independent of their detergent effect.

    PubMed

    Klinkspoor, J H; Yoshida, T; Lee, S P

    1998-05-15

    1. Bile salts stimulate mucin secretion by the gallbladder epithelium. We have investigated whether this stimulatory effect is due to a detergent effect of bile salts. 2. The bile salts taurocholic acid (TC) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDC) and the detergents Triton X-100 (12.5-400 microM) and Tween-20 (0.1-3.2 mM) were applied to monolayers of cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Mucin secretion was studied by measuring the secretion of [3H]N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins. We also attempted to alter the fluidity of the apical membrane of the cells through extraction of cholesterol with beta-cyclodextrin (2.5-15 mM). The effect on TUDC-induced mucin secretion was studied. Cell viability was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage or 51Cr release. 3. In contrast with the bile salts, the detergents were not able to cause an increase in mucin secretion without causing concomitant cell lysis. Concentrations of detergent that increased mucin release (>100 microM Triton X-100, >0.8 mM Tween-20), caused increased LDH release. Incubation with beta-cyclodextrin resulted in effective extraction of cholesterol without causing an increase in 51Cr release. However, no effect of the presumed altered membrane fluidity on TUDC (10 mM)-induced mucin secretion was observed. 4. The stimulatory effect of bile salts on mucin secretion by gallbladder epithelial cells is not affected by the fluidity of the apical membrane of the cells and also cannot be mimicked by other detergents. We conclude that the ability of bile salts to cause mucin secretion by the gallbladder epithelium is not determined by their detergent properties.

  18. The mucin expression profile of endometrial carcinoma and correlation with clinical-pathologic parameters.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Carl; Merati, Kambiz; Marsh, William L; De Lott, Lindsey; Cohn, David E; Young, Gregory; Frankel, Wendy L

    2007-12-01

    Mucin expression patterns have been studied in tumors from various sites. Previous studies have shown an association of MUC1 with poor prognosis and MUC2 and MUC5AC with a mucinous phenotype. The pattern of mucin expression in endometrial carcinomas has not been documented in a large series. We determined the mucin expression profile in endometrial carcinomas and evaluated the relationship between mucin expression and clinical-pathologic parameters. A tissue microarray of 310 cases of endometrial carcinoma with known clinical outcome was constructed from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded donor blocks using two 0.6 mm cores from each tumor. Sections were stained with monoclonal antibodies against MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC6. Staining was considered positive if greater than or equal to 5% of cells stained positively in either core. Mucin expression was correlated with tumor type, histologic grade, International Federation Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, lymph node involvement, depth of myometrial invasion, patient age, ethnicity, and clinical outcome. MUC1 was expressed in 267/310 (86.1%) of endometrial carcinomas, MUC2 in 2/310 (0.6%), MUC4 in 73/310 (23.5%), MUC5AC in 1/310 (0.3%), and MUC6 in 4/310 (1.2%). Endometrioid endometrial carcinoma showed a higher rate of MUC1 expression than nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma (227/258, 88.0% vs. 39/52, 75.0%, P=0.01). No significant differences in any of the mucins were noted among the other end points evaluated. Mucin expression did not correlate with tumor grade, stage, or patient outcome.

  19. Primary mucinous carcinoma with rhabdoid cells of the thyroid gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Mioko; Tuneyoshi, Masazumi; Mine, Mari

    2016-06-10

    Primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare disease; only 6 cases of primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid have been previously reported. Primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland with incomplete tumor resection tends to be associated with a poor prognosis, resulting in death within a few months. An early and appropriate diagnosis may contribute to improvement in patient prognosis; however, it is extremely difficult to diagnose primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid. We present the seventh reported case of primary mucinous carcinoma in the thyroid gland; moreover, rhabdoid cells were detected, which, to our knowledge, is a novel finding. An 81-year-old Japanese woman was initially diagnosed with a poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and she underwent a hemithyroidectomy. Pathological examination revealed the presence of abundant mucus and agglomeration of large atypical cells. Rhabdoid cells were also seen scattered among the tumor cells. Immunostaining was performed for various markers, and on the basis of these results, we diagnosed the lesion as primary mucinous carcinoma with rhabdoid cells in the thyroid gland. Ten months after surgery, recurrence was noted in the paratracheal lymph nodes; therefore, total resection of the residual thyroid gland and paratracheal lymphadenectomy with thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression were performed. The patient is currently alive and disease-free. The current case is of interest not only because of the rare histological findings, but also because the patient achieved long-term survival following diagnosis of a mucinous carcinoma. We believe this report will be helpful for diagnosing future cases of mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid.

  20. Expression of Tissue Factor in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Is Involved in the Development of Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Manabu; Matsumoto, Koji; Gosho, Masahiko; Sakata, Akiko; Hosokawa, Yoshihiko; Tenjimbayashi, Yuri; Katoh, Takashi; Shikama, Ayumi; Komiya, Haruna; Michikami, Hiroo; Tasaka, Nobutaka; Akiyama-Abe, Azusa; Nakao, Sari; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Mamiko; Minaguchi, Takeo; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Toyomi

    2017-01-01

    Our 2007 study of 32 patients with ovarian cancer reported the possible involvement of tissue factor (TF) in the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) before treatment, especially in clear cell carcinoma (CCC). This follow-up study further investigated this possibility in a larger cohort. We investigated the intensity of TF expression (ITFE) and other variables for associations with VTE using univariate and multivariate analyses in 128 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer initially treated between November 2004 and December 2010, none of whom had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Before starting treatment, all patients were ultrasonographically screened for VTE. The ITFE was graded based on immunostaining of surgical specimens. Histological types were serous carcinoma (n = 42), CCC (n = 12), endometrioid carcinoma (n = 15), mucinous carcinoma (n = 53), and undifferentiated carcinoma (n = 6). The prevalence of VTE was significantly higher in CCC (34%) than in non-CCC (17%, P = 0.03). As ITFE increased, the frequencies of CCC and VTE increased significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified TF expression and pretreatment dimerized plasmin fragment D level as significant independent risk factors for VTE development. These factors showed particularly strong impacts on advanced-stage disease (P = 0.021). The 2007 cohort was small, preventing multivariate analysis. This study of a larger cohort yielded stronger evidence that the development of VTE in epithelial ovarian cancer may involve TF expression in cancer tissues.

  1. pS2 and PAI-1 in ovarian cancer: correlation to pathohistological parameters.

    PubMed

    Speiser, P; Mayerhofer, K; Kucera, E; Roch, G; Mittelböck, M; Gitsch, G; Zeillinger, R

    1997-01-01

    The estrogen regulated pS2 protein and the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) have been reported as important tumor parameters both in breast and in ovarian cancer. We analysed the cytosolic concentrations of pS2 in 111 ovarian carcinoma and the cytosolic concentrations of PAI-1 in 104 ovarian cancers by RIA and ELISA. Using a cut-off level of 2 ng/mg protein we found 27% pS2+ tumors. We observed 42% PAI-1+ tumors using a out-off level of 1 ng/mg. We found a statistically significant decline in the pS2 status corresponding with an increase in the PAI-1 status from well to poor differentiation grade. The highest levels of pS2 and the lowest levels of PAI-1 were measured in borderline carcinoma. Significantly higher concentrations of pS2 were measured in mucinous over serous carcinoma. We found no significant correlation between PAI-1 and histologic subtypes, or between pS2 or PAI-1 and estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, age and tumor stage. To conclude, we found pS2 and PAI-1 concentrations to be correlated with the grade of differentiation. A correlation between protein status and histologic subtypes could be observed for pS2 but not for PAI-1.

  2. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the breast with a basal-like immunophenotype.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yunte; Xue, Debin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Sanpeng; Ao, Qilin; Hu, Zhiyong; Wang, Guoping

    2012-06-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA) of the breast is extremely rare and was only recently described as a distinct variant of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. A case of MCA is reported in a 41-year-old woman. Mammographic and ultrasonographic examinations showed an irregularly shaped 10.0 × 8.0 × 5.5 cm lesion with patching calcification in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. The gross examination revealed that the tumor has a well-circumscribed edge with a gelatinous cut surface and hemorrhage and necrosis were also noticed in the mass. Microscopically, the mass resembled mucinous cystic neoplasm of the ovary and pancreas closely, with cystic areas lined by columnar mucinous cells and associated with abundant extracellular and intracellular mucin, which is distinctively different from mucinous carcinoma with typically nests of low grade neoplastic cells floating in the mucin pool. The tumor cells were positive for CK7, CK20 and CDX2 were negative and displayed a typical immunophenotype of basal-like breast cancer (ER, PR, HER2 were negative, CK5/6 and EGFR were positive). Metastatic carcinoma was identified in three of 14 axillary lymph nodes. We describe here a very unusual case of breast MCA with basal-like immunophenotype. © 2012 The Authors. Pathology International © 2012 Japanese Society of Pathology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Structure and Biological Roles of Mucin-type O-glycans at the Ocular Surface

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Aranguez, Ana; Argüeso, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Mucins are major components in mucus secretions and apical cell membranes on wet-surfaced epithelia. Structurally, they are characterized by the presence of tandem repeat domains containing heavily O-glycosylated serine and threonine residues. O-glycans contribute to maintaining the highly extended and rigid structure of mucins, conferring to them specific physical and biological properties essential for their protective functions. At the ocular surface epithelia, mucin-type O-glycan chains are short and predominantly sialylated, perhaps reflecting specific requirements of the ocular surface. Traditionally, secreted mucins and their O-glycans in the tear film have been involved in the clearance of debris and pathogens from the surface of the eye. New evidence, however, shows that O-glycans on the cell-surface glycocalyx have additional biological roles in the protection of corneal and conjunctival epithelia, such as preventing bacterial adhesion, promoting boundary lubrication, and maintaining the epithelial barrier function through their interaction with galectin-3. Abnormalities in mucin-type O-glycosylation have been identified in many disorders where the stability of the ocular surface is compromised. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the structure, biosynthesis, and function of mucin-type O-glycans at the ocular surface and their alteration in ocular surface disease. PMID:20105403

  4. Interfacial Interaction between Transmembrane Ocular Mucins and Adhesive Polymers and Dendrimers Analyzed by Surface Plasmon Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Noiray, M.; Briand, E.; Woodward, A. M.; Argüeso, P.; Molina Martínez, I. T.; Herrero-Vanrell, R.; Ponchel, G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Development of the first in vitro method based on biosensor chip technology designed for probing the interfacial interaction phenomena between transmembrane ocular mucins and adhesive polymers and dendrimers intended for ophthalmic administration. Methods The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique was used. A transmembrane ocular mucin surface was prepared on the chip surface and characterized by QCM-D (Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The mucoadhesive molecules tested were: hyaluronic acid (HA), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), chitosan (Ch) and polyamidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM). Results While Ch originated interfacial interaction with ocular transmembrane mucins, for HA, CMC and HPMC, chain interdiffusion seemed to be mandatory for bioadherence at the concentrations used in ophthalmic clinical practise. Interestingly, PAMAM dendrimers developed permanent interfacial interactions with transmembrane ocular mucins whatever their surface chemical groups, showing a relevant importance of co-operative effect of these multivalent systems. Polymers developed interfacial interactions with ocular membrane-associated mucins in the following order: Ch(1 %) > G4PAMAM-NH2(2 %) = G4PAMAM-OH(2 %) > G3.5PAMAM-COOH(2 %)≫ CMC(0.5 %) = HA(0.2 %) = HPMC(0.3 %). Conclusions The method proposed is useful to discern between the mucin-polymer chemical interactions at molecular scale. Results reinforce the usefulness of chitosan and den-drimers as polymers able to increase the retention time of drugs on the ocular surface and hence their bioavailability. PMID:22565639

  5. Hyaluronic Acid Molecular Weight-Dependent Modulation of Mucin Nanostructure for Potential Mucosal Therapeutic Applications.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Irene M; Ebbesen, Morten F; Kaspersen, Liselotte; Thomsen, Troels; Bienk, Konrad; Cai, Yunpeng; Malle, Birgitte Mølholm; Howard, Kenneth A

    2017-07-03

    This study investigates the effects of different molecular weight hyaluronic acids (HAs) on the mucosal nanostructure using a pig stomach mucin hydrogel as a mucosal barrier model. Microparticles (1.0 μm) and nanoparticles (200 nm) were used as probes, and their movement in mucin was studied by a three-dimensional confocal microscopy-based particle tracking technique and by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) after addition of high-molecular weight (900 kDa) and low-molecular weight (33 kDa) HA. This demonstrated a molecular weight-dependent HA modulation of the mucin nanostructure with a 2.5-fold decrease in the mobility of 200 nm nanoparticles. To further investigate these mechanisms and to verify that the natural viscoelastic properties of mucus are not undesirably altered, rheological measurements were performed on mucin hydrogels with or without HA. This suggested the observed particle mobility restriction was not attributed to alterations of the natural mucin cohesive and viscoelastic properties but, instead, indicates that the added high-molecular weight HA primarily modulates the mucin nanostructure and mesh size. This study, hereby, demonstrates how mucus nanostructure can be modulated by the addition of high-molecular weight HA that offers an opportunity to control mucosal pathogenesis and drug delivery.

  6. The isolated MUC5AC gene product from human ocular mucin displays intramolecular conformational heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Round, Andrew N; McMaster, Terence J; Miles, Mervyn J; Corfield, Anthony P; Berry, Monica

    2007-06-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to show that human ocular mucins contain at least three distinct polymer conformations, separable by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. In this work we have used affinity purification against the anti(mucin peptide core) monoclonal antibody 45M1 to isolate MUC5AC gene products, a major component of human ocular mucins. AFM images confirm that the affinity-purified polymers adopt distinct conformations that coidentify with two of those observed in the parent population, and further reveal that these two different conformations can be present within the same polymer. AFM images of the complexes formed after incubation of 45M1 with the parent sample reveal different rates of binding to the two MUC5AC polymer types. The variability of gene products within a mucin population was revealed by analyzing the height distributions along the polymer contour and periodicities in distances between occupied antibody binding sites. AFM analysis of mucin polymers at the single molecule level provides new information about the genetic origins of individual polymers and the contributions of glycosylation to the physicochemical properties of mucins, which can be correlated with information obtained from biochemistry, antibody binding assays, and molecular biology techniques.

  7. Ultrasonography of ovarian hyperandrogenemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, Svetlana A.; Zharkin, Nikolay A.

    2001-05-01

    The method of ultrasonography is high informative and widely used in diagnostics of ovarian hyperandrogenaemia. The majority of authors consider that a hyperplasia of a stroma is the main pathognomonic marker of polycystic ovaries (PCO). Still recently swell of a stroma was valued visually, that had subjective nature. We offer for the first time a way of diagnostics of stromal hyperplasia grounded on measurement of a volume of a stroma and ovary with ultrasound method, calculation of the ratio of a volume of the ovary to a volume of a stroma for every patient.

  8. Ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, A G; Reimer, D; Sopper, S; Boesch, M; Martowicz, A; Roessler, J; Wiedemair, A M; Rumpold, H; Untergasser, G; Concin, N; Hofstetter, G; Muller-Holzner, E; Fiegl, H; Marth, C; Wolf, D; Pesta, M; Hatina, J

    2012-01-01

    Because of its semi-solid character in dissemination and growth, advanced ovarian cancer with its hundreds of peritoneal tumor nodules and plaques appears to be an excellent in vivo model for studying the cancer stem cell hypothesis. The most important obstacle, however, is to adequately define and isolate these tumor-initiating cells endowed with the properties of anoikis-resistance and unlimited self-renewal. Until now, no universal single marker or marker constellation has been found to faithfully isolate (ovarian) cancer stem cells. As these multipotent cells are known to possess highly elaborated efflux systems for cytotoxic agents, these pump systems have been exploited to outline putative stem cells as a side-population (SP) via dye exclusion analysis. Furthermore, the cells in question have been isolated via flow cytometry on the basis of cell surface markers thought to be characteristic for stem cells.In the Vienna variant of the ovarian cancer cell line A2780 a proof-of-principle model with both a stable SP and a stable ALDH1A1+ cell population was established. Double staining clearly revealed that both cell fractions were not identical. Of note, A2780V cells were negative for expression of surface markers CD44 and CD117 (c-kit). When cultured on monolayers of healthy human mesothelial cells, green-fluorescence-protein (GFP)-transfected SP of A2780V exhibited spheroid-formation, whereas non-side-population (NSP) developed a spare monolayer growing over the healthy mesothelium. Furthermore, A2780V SP was found to be partially resistant to platinum. However, this resistance could not be explained by over-expression of the "excision repair cross-complementation group 1" (ERCC1) gene, which is essentially involved in the repair of platinated DNA damage. ERCC1 was, nonetheless, over-expressed in A2780V cells grown as spheres under stem cell-selective conditions as compared to adherent monolayers cultured under differentiating conditions. The same was true for

  9. Ovarian cancer and hormone replacement therapy in the Million Women Study.

    PubMed

    Beral, Valerie; Bull, Diana; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian

    2007-05-19

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women in the UK, with about 6700 developing the malignancy and 4600 dying from it every year. However, there is limited information about the risk of ovarian cancer associated with the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). 948,576 postmenopausal women from the UK Million Women Study who did not have previous cancer or bilateral oophorectomy were followed-up for an average of 5.3 years for incident ovarian cancer and 6.9 years for death. Information on HRT use was obtained at recruitment and updated where possible. Relative risks for ovarian cancer were calculated, stratified by age and hysterectomy status, and adjusted by area of residence, socioeconomic group, time since menopause, parity, body-mass index, alcohol consumption, and use of oral contraceptives. When they last reported HRT use, 287,143 women (30%) were current users and 186 751 (20%) were past users. During follow-up, 2273 incident ovarian cancers and 1591 deaths from the malignancy were recorded. Current users were significantly more likely to develop and die from ovarian cancer than never users (relative risk 1.20 [95% CI 1.09-1.32; p=0.0002] for incident disease and 1.23 [1.09-1.38; p=0.0006] for death). For current users of HRT, incidence of ovarian cancer increased with increasing duration of use, but did not differ significantly by type of preparation used, its constituents, or mode of administration. Risks associated with HRT varied significantly according to tumour histology (p<0.0001), and in women with epithelial tumours the relative risk for current versus never use of HRT was greater for serous than for mucinous, endometroid, or clear cell tumours (1.53 [1.31-1.79], 0.72 [0.52-1.00], 1.05 [0.77-1.43], or 0.77 [0.48-1.23], respectively). Past users of HRT were not at an increased risk of ovarian cancer (0.98 [0.88-1.11] and 0.97 [0.84-1.11], respectively, for incident and fatal disease). Over 5 years, the standardised incidence rates

  10. Increased risk of borderline ovarian tumors in women with a history of pelvic inflammatory disease: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Jensen, Allan; Albieri, Vanna; Andersen, Klaus K; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2016-11-01

    Some studies suggest that pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a potential risk factor for ovarian cancer. However, only few studies have investigated the association between PID and risk of borderline ovarian tumors. We conducted a population-based cohort study to investigate the association between PID and risk of borderline ovarian tumors. Using various nationwide Danish registries we identified all women in Denmark during 1978-2012, who were born during 1940-1970 (n=1,318,925). Of these, 81,263 women were diagnosed with PID in the study period, and 2736 women had a borderline ovarian tumor (1290 serous and 1344 mucinous). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between PID and risk of borderline tumors were estimated using Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders. A history of PID was associated with an increased risk of borderline ovarian tumors (HR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.19-1.61). However, histotype-specific analyses revealed significant variation in risk as PID was only associated with an increased risk of serous borderline tumors (HR=1.85; 95% CI: 1.52-2.24), but not with mucinous borderline tumors (HR=1.06; 95% CI: 0.83-1.35). PID is associated with an increased risk of serous borderline tumors. Further research on the potential underlying biological mechanisms and on the identification of the subset of women with PID who are at increased risk of serous borderline tumors is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between endometriosis and risk of histological subtypes of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Templeman, Claire; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice; Near, Aimee M; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; Doherty, Jennifer A; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Wicklund, Kristine G; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R; Carney, Michael E; Goodman, Marc T; Moysich, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hogdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Larson, Melissa C; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Palmieri, Rachel T; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Vitonis, Allison F; Titus, Linda J; Ziogas, Argyrios; Brewster, Wendy; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Ramus, Susan J; Anderson, A Rebecca; Brueggmann, Doerthe; Fasching, Peter A; Gayther, Simon A; Huntsman, David G; Menon, Usha; Ness, Roberta B; Pike, Malcolm C; Risch, Harvey; Wu, Anna H; Berchuck, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Endometriosis is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer; however, whether this risk extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumours is not clear. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess the association between endometriosis and histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. Methods Data from 13 ovarian cancer case–control studies, which were part of the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, were pooled and logistic regression analyses were undertaken to assess the association between self-reported endometriosis and risk of ovarian cancer. Analyses of invasive cases were done with respect to histological subtypes, grade, and stage, and analyses of borderline tumours by histological subtype. Age, ethnic origin, study site, parity, and duration of oral contraceptive use were included in all analytical models. Findings 13 226 controls and 7911 women with invasive ovarian cancer were included in this analysis. 818 and 738, respectively, reported a history of endometriosis. 1907 women with borderline ovarian cancer were also included in the analysis, and 168 of these reported a history of endometriosis. Self-reported endometriosis was associated with a significantly increased risk of clear-cell (136 [20·2%] of 674 cases vs 818 [6·2%] of 13 226 controls, odds ratio 3·05, 95% CI 2·43–3·84, p<0·0001), low-grade serous (31 [9·2%] of 336 cases, 2·11, 1·39–3·20, p<0·0001), and endometrioid invasive ovarian cancers (169 [13·9%] of 1220 cases, 2·04, 1·67–2·48, p<0·0001). No association was noted between endometriosis and risk of mucinous (31 [6·0%] of 516 cases, 1·02, 0·69–1·50, p=0·93) or high-grade serous invasive ovarian cancer (261 [7·1%] of 3659 cases, 1·13, 0·97–1·32, p=0·13), or borderline tumours of either subtype (serous 103 [9·0%] of 1140 cases, 1·20, 0·95–1·52, p=0·12, and mucinous 65 [8·5%] of 767 cases, 1·12, 0·84–1·48, p=0·45). Interpretation

  12. Fertility drugs and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2017-06-20

    The aetiology of ovarian cancer is multifactorial with both endogenous and exogenous risk factors playing an important role. The exact pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is still not well understood, despite the number of hypotheses published. Due to an increase in the number of women using fertility drugs, much attention has been focused on the long-term health effects of such drugs. Although fertility drugs facilitate the ovulation process, it is however associated with a significant increase in hormone concentrations, placing exposed women at increased risk of gynaecological cancer. Many clinical and epidemiological studies have examined the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer risk. Results from these studies have been contradictory, as some studies have reported an increased risk of ovarian cancer while others reported no increased risk. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that women who used fertility drugs and did not conceive had a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer, compared to women who used fertility drugs and conceived and delivered successfully. This review discusses the effect of fertility drugs on the risk of developing ovarian cancer, providing details on four possible scenarios associated with fertility treatment. In addition, the limitations of previous studies and their impact on our understanding of the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer also have been highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Raffaella; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Bracone, Graziella; Orrico, Catia; Di Tommaso, Barbara; Venturoli, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    New and often aggressive treatment schemes allow the successful healing of many young patients with cancer, but the price the young women have to pay is high: many of them lose ovarian function and fertility. Due to the improved long-term survival of adolescents and young women with malignancies undergoing gonadotoxic chemotherapy, preservation of future fertility has been the focus of recent ubiquitarian interest. A feasible solution is the cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Ovarian tissue, after thawing, can be used in three different ways: 1. grafted into its normal site (orthotopic); 2. grafted into a site other than its normal position (heterotopic), necessitating recourse to in vitro fertilization (IVF); 3. grown and in vitro matured in order to obtain metaphase II oocytes for an IVF program. It is believed that protein supplementation, in cryopreservation solution, is essential for improving ovarian tissue cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrastructural appearance of human ovarian tissue cryopreserved in 1.5 M 1,2 propanediol (PROH), 0.2 M sucrose using different protein sources: fetal calf serum (FCS), plasmanate or syntetic serum substitute (SSS). Fresh and frozen/thawed ovarian tissues were compared by transmission electron microscope (TEM), to evaluate the appearance of stromal and follicle cells as affected by different protein sources. Our data indicate that FCS is a better protein support for ovarian tissue cryopreservation when compared to SSS or Plasmanate. In addition the follicles are more resistant to the cryopreservation with respect to stroma.

  14. Oncocytic Type Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas with Unusually Low Mucin Production Mimicking Intraductal Tubulopapillary Neoplasm: A Report of a Case Diagnosed by a Preoperative Endoscopic Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yukinari; Endo, Takao; Tanaka, Eiichi; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Akino, Kimishige; Mita, Hiroaki; Adachi, Yasuyo; Nakamura, Masahiro; Adachi, Yasushi; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Matsumoto, Joe; Hirano, Satoshi; Nitta, Takeo; Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Kato, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 78-year-old woman with an intraductal tumor with scant mucin production in a moderately dilated main pancreatic duct that resembled an intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) on imaging. An endoscopic transpapillary forceps biopsy enabled an accurate preoperative diagnosis of the tumor as an oncocytic type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas microscopically showing papillary growth consisting of oncocytic cells with a typical mucin expression profile, although with few intraepithelial lumina containing mucin. This is the first case of an oncocytic type IPMN mimicking an ITPN that was able to be diagnosed preoperatively. PMID:29021473

  15. Secreted mucins in pseudomyxoma peritonei: pathophysiological significance and potential therapeutic prospects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP, ORPHA26790) is a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive dissemination of mucinous tumors and mucinous ascites in the abdomen and pelvis. PMP is a rare disease with an estimated incidence of 1–2 out of a million. Clinically, PMP usually presents with a variety of unspecific signs and symptoms, including abdominal pain and distention, ascites or even bowel obstruction. It is also diagnosed incidentally at surgical or non-surgical investigations of the abdominopelvic viscera. PMP is a neoplastic disease originating from a primary mucinous tumor of the appendix with a distinctive pattern of the peritoneal spread. Computed tomography and histopathology are the most reliable diagnostic modalities. The differential diagnosis of the disease includes secondary peritoneal carcinomatoses and some rare peritoneal conditions. Optimal elimination of mucin and the mucin-secreting tumor comprises the current standard of care for PMP offered in specialized centers as visceral resections and peritonectomy combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This multidisciplinary approach has reportedly provided a median survival rate of 16.3 years, a median progression-free survival rate of 8.2 years and 10- and 15-year survival rates of 63% and 59%, respectively. Despite its indolent, bland nature as a neoplasm, PMP is a debilitating condition that severely impacts quality of life. It tends to be diagnosed at advanced stages and frequently recurs after treatment. Being ignored in research, however, PMP remains a challenging, enigmatic entity. Clinicopathological features of the PMP syndrome and its morbid complications closely correspond with the multifocal distribution of the secreted mucin collections and mucin-secreting implants. Novel strategies are thus required to facilitate macroscopic, as well as microscopic, elimination of mucin and its source as the key components of the disease. In this regard, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B have been found as

  16. Studies on the mucin derived from human colloid breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J. B.

    1965-01-01

    1. A non-diffusible mucoid, showing a single peak in the ultracentrifuge, was isolated from human colloid breast carcinoma by treatment with trypsin and pepsin. The material contained threonine, leucine (isoleucine), valine, proline, glycine and glutamic acid in the approximate molar proportions 5:1:1:2:1:1. Smaller amounts of aspartic acid and serine were also found. For each 5 threonine residues, 6 N-acetylgalactosamine and 3–4 galactose residues were present. 2. The mucoid possessed reducing properties by the Park & Johnson (1949) procedure; these were attributable to the action of mild alkali, as employed in this procedure. Mild alkaline treatment by the Aminoff, Morgan & Watkins (1952) procedure gave rise to a diffusible N-acetylgalactosamine chromophore that gave an enhanced colour with Ehrlich's reagent. That galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetylgalactosamine residues were liberated was supported by periodate studies. 3. Alkaline liberation of hexosamine residues was accompanied by a specific destruction of threonine. After 40 min. at 100° in 0·18 n-lithium hydroxide, both moieties had almost completely disappeared from the ninhydrin-positive components formed on subsequent acid hydrolysis. Glycine and α-oxobutyric acid were present in the acid hydrolysate, showing that both possible pathways of a β-elimination reaction were involved. Formation of diffusible peptide on very mild alkaline treatment was attributable to the rupture of the original peptide core, necessitated by the second of these two pathways. 4. Hydroxamate formation on treatment with hydroxylamine showed the presence of carbohydrate linkage to glutamic acid or aspartic acid residues or both. This could account for the single N-acetylgalactosamine residue not linked to threonine. 5. The native mucin contained sialic acid, which was cleaved by the acid environment used in the treatment with pepsin. A statistical model of the mucin would require each prosthetic group to be linked, via N

  17. Tubal ligation and ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Chrissy; Abbott, Sarah E; Bandera, Elisa V; Qin, Bo; Peres, Lauren C; Camacho, Fabian; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Terry, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Tubal ligation has been associated with reduced risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in studies of primarily white women, but less is known about the association in African American (AA) women. We sought to evaluate the associations among 597 invasive ovarian cancer cases and 742 controls of AA descent recruited from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study, a population-based case-control study in 11 geographical areas in the US. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for potentially confounding factors. An inverse association between tubal ligation and EOC was observed that was not statistically significant (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.68-1.14). However, an inverse association with EOC risk was observed among women who had a tubal ligation at age 35 years or older (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.41-0.98), but not among those who had a tubal ligation before age 35 (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.74-1.29) (p for interaction = 0.08). The association also varied considerably by tumor subtype. A strong inverse association was observed for endometrioid tumors (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.70), whereas associations with mucinous (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.36-2.12) and serous (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.71-1.24) tumors were weaker and not statistically significant. A statistically non-significant positive association for clear cell tumors (OR 1.84, 95% CI 0.58-5.82) was based on a low number of cases. Our findings show that tubal ligation may confer a reduced risk for EOC among AA women that is comparable to the associations that have been previously observed in primarily white populations.

  18. Assessing the genetic architecture of epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Lu, Yi; Dixon, Suzanne C; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Burghaus, Stefanie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Antonenkova, Natalia; Butzow, Ralf; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M; Edwards, Robert P; Kelley, Joseph L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Cannioto, Rikki; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus; Jensen, Allan; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Liang, Dong; Lu, Karen H; Wu, Xifeng; Bisogna, Maria; Dao, Fanny; Levine, Douglas A; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Tworoger, Shelley S; Stampfer, Meir; Missmer, Stacey; Bjorge, Line; Salvesen, Helga B; Kopperud, Reidun K; Bischof, Katharina; Aben, Katja K H; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Olson, Sara H; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H; Sieh, Weiva; Whittemore, Alice S; Cook, Linda S; Le, Nhu D; Blake Gilks, C; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Kluz, Tomasz; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise; Trabert, Britton; Lissowska, Jolanta; McLaughlin, John R; Narod, Steven A; Phelan, Catherine; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Eccles, Diana; Campbell, Ian; Gayther, Simon A; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J; Wu, Anna H; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Timorek, Agnieszka; Szafron, Lukasz; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Winham, Stacey J; Bandera, Elisa V; Poole, Elizabeth M; Morgan, Terry K; Goode, Ellen L; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Pearce, Celeste L; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D P; Webb, Penelope M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Risch, Harvey A; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-07-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadliest common cancers. The five most common types of disease are high-grade and low-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell carcinoma. Each of these subtypes present distinct molecular pathogeneses and sensitivities to treatments. Recent studies show that certain genetic variants confer susceptibility to all subtypes while other variants are subtype-specific. Here, we perform an extensive analysis of the genetic architecture of EOC subtypes. To this end, we used data of 10,014 invasive EOC patients and 21,233 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium genotyped in the iCOGS array (211,155 SNPs). We estimate the array heritability (attributable to variants tagged on arrays) of each subtype and their genetic correlations. We also look for genetic overlaps with factors such as obesity, smoking behaviors, diabetes, age at menarche and height. We estimated the array heritabilities of high-grade serous disease ([Formula: see text] = 8.8 ± 1.1 %), endometrioid ([Formula: see text] = 3.2 ± 1.6 %), clear cell ([Formula: see text] = 6.7 ± 3.3 %) and all EOC ([Formula: see text] = 5.6 ± 0.6 %). Known associated loci contributed approximately 40 % of the total array heritability for each subtype. The contribution of each chromosome to the total heritability was not proportional to chromosome size. Through bivariate and cross-trait LD score regression, we found evidence of shared genetic backgrounds between the three high-grade subtypes: serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated. Finally, we found significant genetic correlations of all EOC with diabetes and obesity using a polygenic prediction approach.

  19. Prognostic significance of preimmunotherapy serum CA27.29 (MUC-1) mucin level after active specific immunotherapy of metastatic adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    MacLean, G D; Reddish, M A; Longenecker, B M

    1997-01-01

    The TRUQUANT BR radioimmunoassay, which uses monoclonal antibody B27.29 to quantitate CA27.29 mucin antigen (MUC-1 gene product) in serum, has recently received Food and Drug Administration approval for predicting recurrent breast cancer in patients with stage II and III disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the new radioimmunoassay for serum MUC-1 has prognostic significance for patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma receiving active specific immunotherapy (ASI). Using 40 U/ml as the upper limit of "normal," patients with metastatic breast and ovarian cancer with a preimmunotherapy serum CA27.29 mucin > 40 U/ml (CA27.29 Hi patients) had a poorer survival than CA27.29 Lo patients (< or = 40 U/ml) after ASI. There was no significant correlation between preimmunotherapy CA27.29 serum levels and measurable tumor burden. The preimmunotherapy CA27.29 serum level was a predictor of poor survival of metastatic colorectal and pancreatic cancer patients independent of other prognostic factors. There seemed to be two populations of pancreatic cancer patients, separated at 60 U/ml serum CA27.29 (CA27.29 Hi versus Lo patients). A CA27.29 serum level of 22 U/ml separated patients with CA27.29 Hi vs. Lo colorectal cancer. Patients with CA27.29 Lo colorectal and pancreatic cancer survived longer after ASI compared with patients with CA27.29 Hi colorectal and pancreatic cancer, respectively. We suggest that various CA27.29 serum levels define poor prognosis patients (CA27.29 Hi secretors) versus good prognosis patients (CA27.29 Lo secretors) for different cancer types.

  20. Salivary mucin MG1 is comprised almost entirely of different glycosylated forms of the MUC5B gene product.

    PubMed

    Thornton, D J; Khan, N; Mehrotra, R; Howard, M; Veerman, E; Packer, N H; Sheehan, J K

    1999-03-01

    The MG1 population of mucins was isolated from human whole salivas by gel chromatography followed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The reduced and alkylated MG1 mucins, separated by anion exchange chromatography, were of similar size (radius of gyration 55-64 nm) and molecular weight (2.5-2.9 x 10(6) Da). Two differently-charged populations of MG1 subunits were observed which showed different reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to glycan epitopes. Monosaccharide and amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the MG1 subunits had similar glycan structures on the same polypeptide. An antiserum recognizing the MUC5B mucin was reactive across the entire distribution, whereas antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins showed no reactivity. Western blots of agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions across the anion exchange distribution indicated that the polypeptide underlying the mucins was the product of the MUC5B gene. Amino acid analysis and peptide mapping performed on the fragments produced by trypsin digestion of the two MG1 populations yielded data similar to that obtained for MUC5B mucin subunits prepared from respiratory mucus (Thornton et al., 1997) and confirmed that the MUC5B gene product was the predominant mucin polypeptide present. Isolation of the MG1 mucins from the secretions of the individual salivary glands (palatal, sublingual, and submandibular) indicate that the palatal gland is the source of the highly charged population of the MUC5B mucin.

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Testing of hypotheses relating to androgen exposure ( polycystic ovary syndrome, hirsutism, acne etc): (a) Analysis by histologic subtype (b) Analysis by...having primary epithelial cancer of the ovary , peritoneum or fallopian tube, of whom 1092 returned a questionnaire, 1022 gave a blood sample and we...increasing recognition that invasive mucinous tumours of the ovary are usually secondary neoplasms (Lee et al). Table 4: Total number of AOCS frozen tissue

  2. Ovarian size and response to laparoscopic ovarian electro-cauterization in polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Alborzi, S; Khodaee, R; Parsanejad, M E

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate endocrine and ovulatory changes in polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) in relation to patients' ovarian size. Three hundred and seventy-one women with clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOD underwent laparoscopic ovarian cauterization [type I or typical with ovarian volume >8 cm(3) or cross-sectional area >10 cm(2) (n=211), type II with normal size ovary (n=160)]. Serum levels of LH, FSH, DHEAS, PRL, and T before and 10 days after ovarian cautery, spontaneous and induced ovulation and pregnancy rates were compared. Both groups responded to therapy in a similar manner, with a marked decrease in LH, FSH, DHEAS and T levels, with ovulation rates in type I 90.99%, type II 88.75% and pregnancy rates, 73.45% and 71.25%, respectively, with no statistical differences. Hormonal changes, ovulation and pregnancy rates were similar in the two types of PCOD, therefore it can be concluded that ovarian size is not a prognostic factor for response of PCOD patients to laparoscopic ovarian electro-cauterization.

  3. Histopathologic features of ovarian borderline tumors are not predictive of clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Avril, Stefanie; Hahn, Ellen; Specht, Katja; Hauptmann, Steffen; Höss, Cornelia; Kiechle, Marion; Höfler, Heinz; Schmalfeldt, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    Ovarian borderline tumors (BOTs) generally have an excellent prognosis, although recurrences and malignant transformation can occur. Our aim was to compare clinicopathologic features of BOT with clinical outcome. In seventy consecutive BOTs clinicopathologic parameters, tumor cell proliferation (Ki67) and in selected cases KRAS, BRAF and p53 mutational status were analyzed with recurrence-free and overall survival as the endpoints. Sixty-one (87%) patients presented with FIGO stage I, 3 stage II, and 6 stage III. Thirty-four patients had serous and 36 mucinous BOT (30 intestinal and 6 endocervical subtypes). Non-invasive peritoneal implants occurred in 9 patients, and no invasive implants were observed. Recurrence-free and overall survival rates were 91% and 99%, respectively, at a mean follow-up of 63 months. Disease recurrence occurred in 6 cases (all FIGO stage I) including 3 serous, 1 mucinous-intestinal, and 2 mucinous-endocervical subtypes. Mean time to recurrence was 27 months (range 8-68). The recurrence rate following fertility-conserving surgery was 31% (5/16) compared to 2% (1/54) after bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Neither peritoneal implants (9/70), micropapillary pattern (2/34), microinvasion (4/70), nor increased tumor cell proliferation was associated with a higher recurrence rate. The frequency of KRAS or BRAF mutations was 50% (3/6 recurrences and 3/6 controls; 4 KRAS, 2 BRAF mutations). No p53 mutations (0/12) were detected in primary or recurrent BOTs. Histopathologic parameters were not predictive of BOT recurrence including previously suggested risk factors such as micropapillary pattern and microinvasion. However, fertility-conserving surgery and incomplete surgical staging were associated with a higher risk for recurrence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Excess Secretion of Gel-Forming Mucins and Associated Innate Defense Proteins with Defective Mucin Un-Packaging Underpin Gallbladder Mucocele Formation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Cullen, John; Cao, Rui; Radicioni, Giorgia; Mathews, Kyle G.; Seiler, Gabriela; Gookin, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal protection of the gallbladder is vital yet we know very little about the mechanisms involved. In domestic dogs, an emergent syndrome referred to as gallbladder mucocele formation is characterized by excessive secretion of abnormal mucus that results in obstruction and rupture of the gallbladder. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation is unknown. In these first mechanistic studies of this disease, we investigated normal and mucocele-forming dog gallbladders to determine the source, identity, biophysical properties, and protein associates of the culprit mucins with aim to identify causes for abnormal mucus behavior. We established that mucocele formation involves an adoptive excess secretion of gel forming mucins with abnormal properties by the gallbladder epithelium. The mucus is characterized by a disproportionally significant increase in Muc5ac relative to Muc5b, defective mucin un-packaging, and mucin-interacting innate defense proteins that are capable of dramatically altering the physical and functional properties of mucus. These findings provide an explanation for abnormal mucus behavior and based on similarity to mucus observed in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis, suggest that abnormal mechanisms for maintenance of gallbladder epithelial hydration may be an instigating factor for mucocele formation in dogs. PMID:26414376

  5. Association of Cell Surface Mucins with Galectin-3 Contributes to the Ocular Surface Epithelial Barrier*

    PubMed Central

    Argüeso, Pablo; Guzman-Aranguez, Ana; Mantelli, Flavio; Cao, Zhiyi; Ricciuto, Jessica; Panjwani, Noorjahan

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance of an intact mucosal barrier is critical to preventing damage to and infection of wet-surfaced epithelia. The mechanism of defense has been the subject of much investigation, and there is evidence now implicating O-glycosylated mucins on the epithelial cell surface. Here we investigate a new role for the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 in stabilizing mucosal barriers through its interaction with mucins on the apical glycocalyx. Using the surface of the eye as a model system, we found that galectin-3 colocalized with two distinct membrane-associated mucins, MUC1 and MUC16, on the apical surface of epithelial cells and that both mucins bound to galectin-3 affinity columns in a galactose-dependent manner. Abrogation of the mucin-galectin interaction in four different mucosal epithelial cell types using competitive carbohydrate inhibitors of galectin binding, β-lactose and modified citrus pectin, resulted in decreased levels of galectin-3 on the cell surface with concomitant loss of barrier function, as indicated by increased permeability to rose bengal diagnostic dye. Similarly, down-regulation of mucin O-glycosylation using a stable tetracycline-inducible RNA interfering system to knockdown c1galt1 (T-synthase), a critical galactosyltransferase required for the synthesis of core 1 O-glycans, resulted in decreased cell surface O-glycosylation, reduced cell surface galectin-3, and increased epithelial permeability. Taken together, these results suggest that galectin-3 plays a key role in maintaining mucosal barrier function through carbohydrate-dependent interactions with cell surface mucins. PMID:19556244

  6. Antiadhesive Character of Mucin O-glycans at the Apical Surface of Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sumiyoshi, Mika; Ricciuto, Jessica; Tisdale, Ann; Gipson, Ilene K.; Mantelli, Flavio; Argüeso, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged contact of opposite mucosal surfaces, which occurs on the ocular surface, oral cavity, reproductive tract, and gut, requires a specialized apical cell surface that prevents adhesion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of mucin O-glycans to the antiadhesive character of human corneal–limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells. Methods Mucin O-glycan biosynthesis in HCLE cells was disrupted by metabolic interference with benzyl-α-GalNAc. The cell surface mucin MUC16 and its carbohydrate epitope H185 were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot. HCLE cell surface features were assessed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Cell–cell adhesion assays were performed under static conditions and in a parallel plate laminar flow chamber. Results Benzyl-α-GalNAc disrupted the biosynthesis of O-glycans without affecting apomucin biosynthesis or cell surface morphology. Static adhesion assays showed that the apical surface of differentiated HCLE cells expressing MUC16 and H185 was more antiadhesive than undifferentiated HCLE cells, which lacked MUC16. Abrogation of mucin O-glycosylation in differentiated cultures with benzyl-α-GalNAc resulted in increased adhesion of applied corneal epithelial cells and corneal fibroblasts. The antiadhesive effect of mucin O-glycans was further demonstrated by fluorescence video microscopy in dynamic flow adhesion assays. Cationized ferritin labeling of the cell surface indicated that anionic repulsion did not contribute to the antiadhesive character of the apical surface. Conclusions These results indicate that epithelial O-glycans contribute to the antiadhesive properties of cell surface–associated mucins in corneal epithelial cells and suggest that alterations in mucin O-glycosylation are involved in the pathology of drying mucosal diseases (e.g., dry eye). PMID:18172093

  7. Evaluation of endothelial mucin layer thickness after phacoemulsification with next generation ophthalmic irrigating solution.

    PubMed

    Ghate, Deepta A; Holley, Glenn; Dollinger, Harli; Bullock, Joseph P; Markwardt, Kerry; Edelhauser, Henry F

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate human corneal endothelial mucin layer thickness and ultrastructure after phacoemulsification and irrigation-aspiration with either next generation ophthalmic irrigating solution (NGOIS) or BSS PLUS. Paired human corneas were mounted in an artificial anterior chamber, exposed to 3 minutes of continuous ultrasound (US) at 80% power using the Alcon SERIES 20000 LEGACY surgical system (n = 9) or to 2 minutes of pulsed US at 50% power, 50% of the time at 20 pps using the Alcon INFINITI Vision System (n = 5), and irrigated with 250 mL of either NGOIS or BSS PLUS. A control group of paired corneas did not undergo phacoemulsification or irrigation-aspiration (n = 5). Corneas were divided and fixed for mucin staining or transmission electron microscopy. Mucin layer thickness was measured on the transmission electron microscopy prints. The mucin layer thickness in the continuous phaco group was 0.77 +/- 0.02 microm (mean +/- SE) with NGOIS and 0.51 +/- 0.01 microm with BSS PLUS (t test, P < 0.001). The mucin layer thickness in the pulsed phaco group was 0.79 +/- 0.02 microm with NGOIS and 0.54 +/- 0.01 microm with BSS PLUS (P < 0.001). The mucin layer thickness in the untreated control group was 0.72 +/- 0.02 microm. The endothelial ultrastructure was normal in all corneas. In this in vitro corneal model, NGOIS, due to its lower surface tension and higher viscosity, preserved endothelial mucin layer thickness better than BSS PLUS with both the INFINITI Vision System (pulsed US) and the LEGACY surgical system (continuous US).

  8. CT differentiation of mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver from solitary bile duct cysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Jung; Yu, Eun Sil; Byun, Jae Ho; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, So Yeon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the CT features required for differentiating mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver (mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct) from solitary bile duct cysts. CT images of pathologically confirmed mucinous cystic neoplasms (n = 15), cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct (n = 16), and solitary bile duct cysts (n = 31) were reviewed. Analysis of the CT findings included shape, presence of septa, location of septa (peripheral vs central), thickness of septa (thin vs thick), mosaic pattern, mural nodules, intracystic debris, calcification, upstream bile duct dilatation, downstream bile duct dilatation, and communication between a cystic lesion and the bile duct. The maximum size of a cystic lesion and the maximum size of the largest mural nodule were measured. The presence of septa, central septa, mural nodules, upstream bile duct dilatation, and downstream bile duct dilatation were found to be significant CT findings for differentiating mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct from solitary bile duct cysts (p < 0.05 for each finding). When two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing mucin-producing cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct were 87% (27 of 31) and 87% (27 of 31), respectively. When two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct were 87% (27 of 31) and 87% (27 of 31), respectively [corrected]. With the use of specific CT criteria, mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver can be differentiated from solitary bile duct cysts with a high degree of accuracy.

  9. Cell culture of the mucinous variant of human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, L M; Chu, M Y; Vezeridis, M P; Miller, P G; Tibbetts, L L; Poisson, M H; Camara, P D; Calabresi, P

    1988-07-01

    Two cell lines, RW-2982 and RW-7213, have been established for the first time from the mucinous variant of human colorectal carcinoma, which is a distinctive and important subtype that has a worse prognosis than the more common nonmucogenic large bowel carcinoma. Methods of establishment and observations made during 7 and 3 years, respectively, of continuous culture are described. These cell lines required 4-9 months of adaptation to tissue culture conditions before noticeable growth occurred. Both cell lines have the following unique properties: (a) growth in vitro as delicate branching three-dimensional tumor particles within a wide gel of insoluble, often translucent mucus (proteoglycan); (b) production of large quantities of carcinoembryonic antigen; (c) ability to survive or adapt to growth in media free of serum, hormones, growth factors, and all protein; and (d) tumorigenicity in multiple sites in nude mice, including liver, with especially rapid growth in the peritoneal cavity as gelatinous material that is nonadherent and noninvasive and thus resembles pseudomyxoma peritonei. Unlike other reported colorectal cell lines, these mucus-coated particulate cell lines will not readily grow as monolayers and grow much more slowly with a doubling time of 2 weeks or more. A serially transplantable tumor from the RW-7213 surgical specimen has also been maintained in nude mice since August 8, 1984. This tumor retains properties of the original specimen. Observations made on the tumor biology of mucogenic colorectal carcinoma using these cell lines are discussed.

  10. Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation in Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Staudacher, Erika

    2015-06-09

    O-Glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications of proteins. It takes part in protein conformation, protein sorting, developmental processes and the modulation of enzymatic activities. In vertebrates, the basics of the biosynthetic pathway of O-glycans are already well understood. However, the regulation of the processes and the molecular aspects of defects, especially in correlation with cancer or developmental abnormalities, are still under investigation. The knowledge of the correlating invertebrate systems and evolutionary aspects of these highly conserved biosynthetic events may help improve the understanding of the regulatory factors of this pathway. Invertebrates display a broad spectrum of glycosylation varieties, providing an enormous potential for glycan modifications which may be used for the design of new pharmaceutically active substances. Here, overviews of the present knowledge of invertebrate mucin-type O-glycan structures and the currently identified enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of these oligosaccharides are presented, and the few data dealing with functional aspects of O-glycans are summarised.

  11. TGFbeta regulation of membrane mucin Muc4 via proteosome degradation.

    PubMed

    Lomako, Wieslawa M; Lomako, Joseph; Soto, Pedro; Carraway, Coralie A Carothers; Carraway, Kermit L

    2009-07-01

    Muc4 is a heterodimeric membrane mucin implicated in epithelial differentiation and tumor progression. It is expressed from a single gene as a 300 kDa precursor protein which is cleaved in the endoplasmic reticulum to its two subunits. Our previous work has shown that Muc4 is regulated by TGFbeta, which represses the precursor cleavage. Working with Muc4-transfected A375 tumor cells, we now show that Muc4 undergoes proteosomal degradation. Proteosome inhibitors prolong the life of the precursor, shunt the Muc4 into cytoplasmic aggresomes, increase the level of Muc4 associated with the endoplasmic reticulum chaperones calnexin and calreticulin and increase the levels of ubiquitinated Muc4. Most importantly, proteosome inhibitors repress the TGFbeta inhibition of Muc4 expression. These results suggest a model in which TGFbeta inhibits precursor cleavage, shunting the precursor into the proteosomal degradation pathway. Thus, the cells have evolved a mechanism to use the quality control pathway for glycoproteins to control the quantity of the protein produced. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Short mucin 6 alleles are associated with H pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thai V; Janssen, Marcel JR; Gritters, Paulien; te Morsche, René HM; Drenth, Joost PH; van Asten, Henri; Laheij, Robert JF; Jansen, Jan BMJ

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between mucin 6 (MUC6) VNTR length and H pylori infection. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from patients visiting the Can Tho General Hospital for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. DNA was isolated from whole blood, the repeated section was cut out using a restriction enzyme (PvuII) and the length of the allele fragments was determined by Southern blotting. H pylori infection was diagnosed by 14C urea breath test. For analysis, MUC6 allele fragment length was dichotomized as being either long (> 13.5 kbp) or short (≤ 13.5 kbp) and patients were classified according to genotype [long-long (LL), long-short (LS), short-short (SS)]. RESULTS: 160 patients were studied (mean age 43 years, 36% were males, 58% H pylori positive). MUC6 PvuII-restricted allele fragment lengths ranged from 7 to 19 kbp. Of the patients with the LL, LS, SS MUC6 genotype, 43% (24/56), 57% (25/58) and 76% (11/46) were infected with H pylori, respectively (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Short MUC6 alleles are associated with H pylori infection. PMID:17009402

  13. Short mucin 6 alleles are associated with H pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thai V; Janssen, Marcel; Gritters, Paulien; te Morsche, René H M; Drenth, Joost P H; van Asten, Henri; Laheij, Robert J F; Jansen, Jan B M J

    2006-10-07

    To investigate the relationship between mucin 6 (MUC6) VNTR length and H pylori infection. Blood samples were collected from patients visiting the Can Tho General Hospital for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. DNA was isolated from whole blood, the repeated section was cut out using a restriction enzyme (Pvu II) and the length of the allele fragments was determined by Southern blotting. H pylori infection was diagnosed by (14)C urea breath test. For analysis, MUC6 allele fragment length was dichotomized as being either long (> 13.5 kbp) or short (< or = 13.5 kbp) and patients were classified according to genotype [long-long (LL), long-short (LS), short-short (SS)]. 160 patients were studied (mean age 43 years, 36% were males, 58% H pylori positive). MUC6 Pvu II-restricted allele fragment lengths ranged from 7 to 19 kbp. Of the patients with the LL, LS, SS MUC6 genotype, 43% (24/56), 57% (25/58) and 76% (11/46) were infected with H pylori, respectively (P = 0.003). Short MUC6 alleles are associated with H pylori infection.

  14. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Veliparib, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-24

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    samples from many countries. To account for population stratification, the genotyping data in combination with HapMap data (CEU, Yoruban, Han Chinese...Cambridge, we evaluated associations with both breast and ovarian cancer using a retrospective likelihood model. This accounts for the age extremes of...carriers we used a competing risk analysis that accounted for the effects on breast and ovarian cancer in parallel. In this competing risk analysis

  16. Polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khurshid A; Stas, Sameer; Kurukulasuriya, L Romayne

    2006-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common reproductive endocrinopathy of women during their childbearing years. A significant degree of controversy exists regarding the etiology of this syndrome, but there is a growing consensus that the key features include insulin resistance, androgen excess, and abnormal gonadotropin dynamics. Familial and genetic factors cause predisposition to PCOS. Insulin resistance and adiposity put women with PCOS at a higher risk for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Even though the adverse health consequences associated with PCOS are substantial, most women are not aware of these risks. Early recognition and treatment of metabolic sequelae should be the main focus of clinicians. Lifestyle modifications, mainly a balanced diet, weight loss, and regular exercise, are of utmost importance. On the pharmacologic front, various therapies including metformin, thiazolidinediones, and others appear to be very promising in the management of cardiometabolic aspects of PCOS.

  17. Polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem; Chauhan, Phulrenu; Parmar, Girish

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a "multispeciality" disorder suspected in patients with irregular menses and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, and alopecia. Recently, PCOS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Patients may develop obesity, insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, non-alcoholic liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Good clinical examination with hematological and radiological investigations is required for clinical evaluation. Management is a combined effort involving a dermatologist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, and nutritionist. Morbidity in addition includes a low "self image" and poor quality of life. Long term medications and lifestyle changes are essential for a successful outcome. This article focuses on understanding the normal and abnormal endocrine functions involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Proper diagnosis and management of the patient is discussed.

  18. Misstaging of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    McGowan, L; Lesher, L P; Norris, H J; Barnett, M

    1985-04-01

    The thoroughness of intraoperative evaluation of the extent of disease in 291 women with primary ovarian cancer was investigated. Notable differences among physician specialties but not types of hospitals where initial surgery was performed were observed. A review of medical record documentation revealed that 97% of the cases operated on by gynecologic oncologists had complete staging evaluations performed intraoperatively, but only 52 and 35% of cases operated on by obstetricians/gynecologists and general surgeons, respectfully, were adequately evaluated. Roughly one-half of the cases diagnosed in community hospitals and in hospitals with teaching affiliations were found to be completely studied, and 66% of those operated on in university hospitals received complete intraoperative evaluations.

  19. [Association between obesity and ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Valladares, Macarena; Corsini, Gino; Romero, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. Epidemiological evidences associate ovarian cancer with obesity. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for a high rate of mortality. The association between ovarian cancer and obesity could be explained by molecular factors secreted by adipose tissue such as leptin. In EOC, leptin increases cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. Additionally, adipose tissue synthesizes endogenous estrogens, which increase cell proliferation of epithelial ovarian cells. Also, obesity associated hyperinsulinism could increase ovarian estrogen secretion.

  20. Mucinous Histology Signifies Poor Oncologic Outcome in Young Patients With Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Basem G; Karagkounis, Georgios; Church, James M; Plesec, Thomas; Kalady, Matthew F

    2018-05-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer in the young (under age 40) is increasing, and this population has worse oncologic outcomes. Mucinous histology is a potential prognostic factor in colorectal cancer, but has not been evaluated specifically in young patients. The objective of the study was to determine factors associated with poor outcome in young patients with colorectal cancer (≤40 years) and to determine relationships between mucinous histology and oncologic outcomes in this population. This is a retrospective study. Patients from a single-institution tertiary care center were studied. A total of 224 patients with colorectal cancer under 40 years of age diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were included (mean age, 34.7 years; 51.3% female). 34 patients (15.2%) had mucinous histology. There were no interventions. Oncologic outcomes were analyzed according to the presence of mucinous histology. The mucinous and nonmucin colorectal cancer study populations were statistically similar in age, sex, tumor location, pathological stage, differentiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy use. Five-year disease-free survival was 29.1% versus 71.3% (p < 0.0001) and 5-year overall survival was 54.7% versus 80.3% (p < 0.0001) for mucinous and nonmucinous patients, respectively. Mucinous colorectal cancers recurred earlier at a median time of 36.4 months versus 94.2 months for nonmucin colorectal cancers (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, pathological stage (stage II HR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.37-9.50; stage III HR, 5.27; 95% CI, 2.12-12.33), positive margins (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.12-3.23), angiolymphatic invasion (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.26-3.97), and mucinous histology (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.44-3.96) were independently associated with worse disease-free and overall survival. This is a retrospective study without genetic information. Mucinous histology is a negative prognostic factor in young patients with colorectal cancer. This is associated with early and high recurrence rates, despite use of

  1. The mucin-degradation strategy of Ruminococcus gnavus: The importance of intramolecular trans-sialidases.

    PubMed

    Crost, Emmanuelle H; Tailford, Louise E; Monestier, Marie; Swarbreck, David; Henrissat, Bernard; Crossman, Lisa C; Juge, Nathalie

    2016-07-03

    We previously identified and characterized an intramolecular trans-sialidase (IT-sialidase) in the gut symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus ATCC 29149, which is associated to the ability of the strain to grow on mucins. In this work we have obtained and analyzed the draft genome sequence of another R. gnavus mucin-degrader, ATCC 35913, isolated from a healthy individual. Transcriptomics analyses of both ATCC 29149 and ATCC 35913 strains confirmed that the strategy utilized by R. gnavus for mucin-degradation is focused on the utilization of terminal mucin glycans. R. gnavus ATCC 35913 also encodes a predicted IT-sialidase and harbors a Nan cluster dedicated to sialic acid utilization. We showed that the Nan cluster was upregulated when the strains were grown in presence of mucin. In addition we demonstrated that both R. gnavus strains were able to grow on 2,7-anyhydro-Neu5Ac, the IT-sialidase transglycosylation product, as a sole carbon source. Taken together these data further support the hypothesis that IT-sialidase expressing gut microbes, provide commensal bacteria such as R. gnavus with a nutritional competitive advantage, by accessing and transforming a source of nutrient to their own benefit.

  2. Enhanced bioavailability of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the form of mucin complexes.

    PubMed

    Drug, Eyal; Landesman-Milo, Dalit; Belgorodsky, Bogdan; Ermakov, Natalia; Frenkel-Pinter, Moran; Fadeev, Ludmila; Peer, Dan; Gozin, Michael

    2011-03-21

    Increasing exposure of biological systems to large amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is of great public concern. Organisms have an array of biological defense mechanisms, and it is believed that mucosal gel (which covers the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract, etc.) provides an effective chemical shield against a range of toxic materials. However, in this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, that, upon complexation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons with mucins, enhanced bioavailability and, therefore, toxicity are obtained. This work was aimed to demonstrate how complexation of various highly hydrophobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with representative mucin glycoprotein could lead to the formation of previously undescribed materials, which exhibit increased toxicity versus pristine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the present work, we show that a representative mucin glycoprotein, bovine submaxillary mucin, has impressive and unprecedented capabilities of binding and solubilizing water-insoluble materials in physiological solution. The complexes formed between the mucin and a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were comprehensively characterized, and their toxicity was evaluated by both in vivo and in vitro assays. In addition, the bioavailability and membrane-penetration capabilities were tested using an internalization assay. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence of an unknown route by which hydrophobic materials may achieve higher bioavailability, penetrating some of the biological defense systems, in the form of water-soluble complexes with mucosal proteins.

  3. Barrier role of actin filaments in regulated mucin secretion from airway goblet cells.

    PubMed

    Ehre, Camille; Rossi, Andrea H; Abdullah, Lubna H; De Pestel, Kathleen; Hill, Sandra; Olsen, John C; Davis, C William

    2005-01-01

    Airway goblet cells secrete mucin onto mucosal surfaces under the regulation of an apical, phospholipase C/G(q)-coupled P2Y(2) receptor. We tested whether cortical actin filaments negatively regulate exocytosis in goblet cells by forming a barrier between secretory granules and plasma membrane docking sites as postulated for other secretory cells. Immunostaining of human lung tissues and SPOC1 cells (an epithelial, mucin-secreting cell line) revealed an apical distribution of beta- and gamma-actin in ciliated and goblet cells. In goblet cells, actin appeared as a prominent subplasmalemmal sheet lying between granules and the apical membrane, and it disappeared from SPOC1 cells activated by purinergic agonist. Disruption of actin filaments with latrunculin A stimulated SPOC1 cell mucin secretion under basal and agonist-activated conditions, whereas stabilization with jasplakinolide or overexpression of beta- or gamma-actin conjugated to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) inhibited secretion. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, a PKC-activated actin-plasma membrane tethering protein, was phosphorylated after agonist stimulation, suggesting a translocation to the cytosol. Scinderin (or adseverin), a Ca(2+)-activated actin filament severing and capping protein was cloned from human airway and SPOC1 cells, and synthetic peptides corresponding to its actin-binding domains inhibited mucin secretion. We conclude that actin filaments negatively regulate mucin secretion basally in airway goblet cells and are dynamically remodeled in agonist-stimulated cells to promote exocytosis.

  4. Effect of guaifenesin on mucin production, rheology, and mucociliary transport in differentiated human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, JeanClare; Albrecht, Helmut; Park, Yong Sung; Rubin, Bruce; Solomon, Gail; Kim, K Chul

    2011-12-01

    Guaifenesin is widely used to alleviate symptoms of excessive mucus accumulation in the respiratory tract. However, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that guaifenesin improves mucociliary clearance in humans by reducing mucin release, by decreasing mucus viscoelasticity, and by increasing mucociliary transport. To test these hypotheses, human differentiated airway epithelial cells, cultured at an air-liquid interface, were treated with clinically relevant concentrations of guaifenesin by addition to the basolateral medium. To evaluate the effect on mucin secretion, the authors used an anzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the amounts of MUC5AC protein in apical surface fluid and cell lysates. To measure mucociliary transportability, additional cultures were treated for 1 or 6 hours with guaifenesin, and the movement of cell debris was measured from video data. Further, the authors measured mucus dynamic viscoelasticity using a micro cone and plate rheometer with nondestructive creep transformation. Guaifenesin suppressed mucin production in a dose-dependent manner at clinically relevant concentrations. The reduced mucin production was assoc