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Sample records for over-the-counter whitening agents

  1. In Vitro Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Over-the-Counter Products on Tooth Whitening.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Muhammet; Duymus, Zeynep Yesil

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the whitening effect of four different over-the-counter products compared with a 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching gel. Specimens obtained from bovine incisors were stained in a tea solution and randomly divided into six groups according to the product used (n=10): CT: conventional toothpaste (negative control); CWT: Crest 3D White toothpaste; CWR: Crest 3D White mouth rinse; CWS: Crest 3D White strips; DW: Dazzling White (paint-on gel); and OP: Opalescence PF 10% CP (at-home bleaching gel, positive control). Over-the-counter products and 10% CP were used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Color measurements were performed according to the CIELab system using spectrophotometer after staining, and after 4 and 8 weeks of the treatment procedure. The ∆E, ∆L, ∆a, and ∆b values were calculated. The data obtained were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. Tukey's test for multiple comparisons was applied (p<0.05). All groups, except CWT, were effective in tooth whitening in comparison with conventional toothpaste. There was no significant difference in tooth whitening between CWT and CT (p=0.93). CWS, DW and OP groups presented significantly higher color changes than the CWR group. DW and CWS showed similar tooth whitening to OP.

  2. In Vitro Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Over-the-Counter Products on Tooth Whitening.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Muhammet; Duymus, Zeynep Yesil

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the whitening effect of four different over-the-counter products compared with a 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching gel. Specimens obtained from bovine incisors were stained in a tea solution and randomly divided into six groups according to the product used (n=10): CT: conventional toothpaste (negative control); CWT: Crest 3D White toothpaste; CWR: Crest 3D White mouth rinse; CWS: Crest 3D White strips; DW: Dazzling White (paint-on gel); and OP: Opalescence PF 10% CP (at-home bleaching gel, positive control). Over-the-counter products and 10% CP were used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Color measurements were performed according to the CIELab system using spectrophotometer after staining, and after 4 and 8 weeks of the treatment procedure. The ∆E, ∆L, ∆a, and ∆b values were calculated. The data obtained were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. Tukey's test for multiple comparisons was applied (p<0.05). All groups, except CWT, were effective in tooth whitening in comparison with conventional toothpaste. There was no significant difference in tooth whitening between CWT and CT (p=0.93). CWS, DW and OP groups presented significantly higher color changes than the CWR group. DW and CWS showed similar tooth whitening to OP. PMID:26312975

  3. Use and abuse of over-the-counter analgesic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, F V; Fraser, M I

    1998-01-01

    Pain and discomfort in everyday life are often treated with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic medications. These drugs are remarkably safe, but serious side effects can occur. Up to 70% of the population in Western countries uses analgesics regularly, primarily for headaches, other specific pains and febrile illness. It is not known whether the patterns of use are consistent with good pain management practices. OTC analgesics are also widely used to treat dysphoric mood states and sleep disturbances, and high levels of OTC analgesic medication use are associated with psychiatric illness, particularly depressive symptoms, and the use of alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. More than 4 g per day of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or acetaminophen over long periods is considered abuse. People using excessive amounts of OTC analgesics may need more effective treatments for chronic pain, depression or dysthymia. The possibility that these drugs have subtle reinforcing properties needs to be investigated. Certainly phenacetin, which was taken off the market in the 1970s, had intoxicating effects. A better understanding of patterns of use is needed to determine the extent of problem use of OTC analgesics, and whether health could be improved by educating people about the appropriate use of these drugs. PMID:9505057

  4. Oral Adverse Reactions Caused by Over-the-Counter Oral Agents

    PubMed Central

    Andabak Rogulj, Ana; Vidovic Juras, Danica; Gabric, Dragana; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-01-01

    Over-the-counter products rarely cause unwanted reactions in the oral cavity. Oral reactions to these agents are not specific and might present with various clinical oral findings. Detailed medical history is a key to the proper diagnosis of these lesions and fortunately other diagnostic procedures are rarely needed. Lesions are usually managed with elimination of the offending agent and with topical steroids. In more severe cases systemic steroids should be applied. PMID:25883811

  5. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico; Vicanova, Jana; Pavel, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes. PMID:20054473

  6. Over-the-Counter Agents for the Treatment of Occasional Disturbed Sleep or Transient Insomnia: A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Culpepper, Larry; Wingertzahn, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the level of evidence supporting the use of common over-the-counter (OTC) agents (diphenhydramine, doxylamine, melatonin, and valerian) for occasional disturbed sleep or insomnia. Data sources: A systematic review of the literature was conducted on July 31, 2014, using MEDLINE (PubMed) and the search terms (insomnia OR sleep) AND (over*the*counter OR OTC OR non*prescription OR antihistamine OR doxylamine OR diphenhydramine OR melatonin OR valerian) with the filters English, human, and clinical trials. Study selection: Identified publications (from 2003 to July 31, 2014, following previous published literature reviews) that met the inclusion criteria were selected. The criteria included randomized placebo-controlled clinical studies that utilized overnight objective (polysomnography) or next-day participant-reported sleep-related endpoints and that were conducted in healthy participants with or without occasional disturbed sleep or diagnosed insomnia. Results: Measures of efficacy and tolerability were summarized for each study individually and grouped according to OTC agent: H1 antagonists or antihistamines (3 studies, diphenhydramine), melatonin (8), and valerian or valerian/hops (7). Of the 3 sleep agents, studies conducted with melatonin, especially prolonged-release formulations in older individuals with diagnosed insomnia, demonstrated the most consistent beneficial effects (vs placebo) on sleep measures, specifically sleep onset and sleep quality, with favorable tolerability. In contrast, the clinical trial data for diphenhydramine, immediate-release melatonin, and valerian suggested limited beneficial effects. Conclusions: A review of randomized controlled studies over the past 12 years suggests commonly used OTC sleep-aid agents, especially diphenhydamine and valerian, lack robust clinical evidence supporting efficacy and safety. PMID:27057416

  7. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. Some prevent or cure ... the Food and Drug Administration decides whether a medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. ...

  8. [Laboratory evaluation of tooth whitening agents in hydroxyapatite samples].

    PubMed

    Poiurovskaia, I Ia; D'iakonenko, E E; Pozharkova, M E

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents laboratory model for evaluation of the effectiveness of tooth whitening agents on pure and technical hydroxyapatite (HAP) samples. HAP samples were exposed in distilled water, and colour measurements were taken after coloration in tea extract and using of "Blend-a-med delicate bleaching" ("Procter & Gamble", Germany) toothpaste. The proposed laboratory model allows imitating discoloration by food dye (tea) and measure the whitening toothpaste effect by significant change in colour characteristics in the CIE L*a*b* system. PMID:23994846

  9. Over-the-counter Acne Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Emmy M.

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common dermatological disorder that most frequently affects adolescents; however, individuals may be affected at all ages. Many people who suffer from acne seek treatment from both prescription and over-the-counter acne medications. Due to convenience, lower cost, and difficulty getting an appointment with a dermatologist, the use of over-the-counter acne treatments is on the rise. As the plethora of over-the-counter acne treatment options can be overwhelming, it is important that dermatologists are well-versed on this subject to provide appropriate information about treatment regimens and potential drug interactions and that their patients see them as well-informed. This article reviews the efficacy of various over-the-counter acne treatments based on the current literature. A thorough literature review revealed there are many types of over-the-counter acne treatments and each are designed to target at least one of the pathogenic pathways that are reported to be involved in the development of acne lesions. Many of the key over-the-counter ingredients are incorporated in different formulations to broaden the spectrum and consumer appeal of available products. Unfortunately, many over-the-counter products are not well-supported by clinical studies, with a conspicuous absence of double-blind or investigator-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies. Most studies that do exist on over-the-counter acne products are often funded by the manufacturer. Use of over-the-counter acne treatments is a mainstay in our society and it is important that dermatologists are knowledgeable about the different options, including potential benefits and limitations. Overall, over-the-counter acne therapies can be classified into the following five major groups: cleansers, leave-on products, mechanical treatments, essential oils, and vitamins. PMID:22808307

  10. Using over-the-counter medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000882.htm Using over-the-counter medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... need to know about OTC drugs. About OTC Medicines You can buy OTC medicines without a prescription ...

  11. Over-the-counter pain relievers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Analgesics; Acetaminophen; NSAID; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; Pain medicine - over-the-counter; Pain medicine - OTC ... Pain medicines are also called analgesics. Each kind of pain medicine has benefits and risks. Some types of pain ...

  12. Artocarpus plants as a potential source of skin whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-09-01

    Artocarpus plants have been a focus of constant attention due to the potential for skin whitening agents. In the in vitro experiment, compounds from the Artocarpus plants, such as artocarpanone, norartocarpetin, artocarpesin, artogomezianol, andalasin, artocarbene, and chlorophorin showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Structure-activity investigations revealed that the 4-substituted resorcinol moiety in these compounds was responsible for their potent inhibitory activities on tyrosinase. In the in vitro assay, using B16 melanoma cells, the prenylated polyphenols isolated from Artocarpus plants, such as artocarpin, cudraflavone C, 6-prenylapigenin, kuwanon C, norartocarpin, albanin A, cudraflavone B, and brosimone I showed potent inhibitory activity on melanin formation. Structure-activity investigations revealed that the introduction of an isoprenoid moiety to a non-isoprenoid-substituted polyphenol enhanced the inhibitory activity of melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. In the in vivo investigation, the extract of the wood of Artocarpus incisus and a representative isolated compound from it, artocarpin had a lightening effect on the skin of guinea pigs' backs. Other in vivo experiments using human volunteers have shown that water extract of Artocarpus lakoocha reduced the melanin formation in the skin of volunteers. These results indicate that the extracts of Artocarpus plants are potential sources for skin whitening agents.

  13. Clinical study of the safety and effectiveness of a novel over-the-counter bleaching tray system.

    PubMed

    Ghalili, K Michael; Khawaled, Kamal; Rozen, Doran; Afsahi, Veda

    2014-01-01

    We investigated color change, gingival irritation, and tooth sensitivity in patients undergoing at-home vital tooth bleaching with a novel over-the-counter bleaching tray system. Tooth color shade in anterior teeth, supragingival plaque and gingivitis in Ramfjord teeth, as well as visual assessment of teeth gingival tissues and mucosa were evaluated in-office prior to treatment, after two consecutive applications of the 9% hydrogen peroxide bleaching product, after eight applications (10 minutes/day for 3 days at home), and after ten applications (50 minutes exposure over 5 days). Color stability was evaluated at 3 months after completing the treatment regimen. Over-the-counter bleaching products can be used by the patient at home without dentist supervision, but are frequently associated with gingival irritation and tooth sensitivity despite low concentrations of peroxide agents. Our investigations showed that the treatment is tolerable and safe with a low incidence of adverse effects. Any adverse effects associated with use of the whitening gel and tray are temporary, easily controlled, and often disappear within minutes of treatment. Statistical analysis revealed significant improvement in teeth whitening following treatment (mean color change of seven shades) and at three months after treatment. PMID:24591847

  14. Over-the-counter medications in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Black, Ronald A; Hill, D Ashley

    2003-06-15

    Pregnant women commonly use over-the-counter medications. Although most over-the-counter drugs have an excellent safety profile, some have unproven safety or are known to adversely affect the fetus. The safety profile of some medications may change according to the gestational age of the fetus. Because an estimated 10 percent or more of birth defects result from maternal drug exposure, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has assigned a risk category to each drug. Many drugs have not been evaluated in controlled trials and probably will not be because of ethical considerations. Of the commonly used over-the-counter medications, acetaminophen, chlorpheniramine, kaolin and pectin preparations, and most antacids have a good safety record. Other drugs, such as histamine H2-receptor blockers, pseudoephedrine, and atropine/diphenoxylate should be used with caution. If use of smoking cessation products is desired, the intermediate-release preparations minimize the amount of nicotine while maintaining efficacy. With all over-the-counter medications used during pregnancy, the benefit of the drug should outweigh the risk to the fetus.

  15. Overview of skin whitening agents with an insight into the illegal cosmetic market in Europe.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; Grosber, M; Deconinck, E; De Paepe, K

    2016-06-01

    Lightening skin tone is an ancient and well-documented practice, and remains common practice among many cultures. Whitening agents such as corticosteroids, tretinoin and hydroquinone are medically applied to effectively lighten the skin tone of hyperpigmented lesions. However, when these agents are used cosmetically, they are associated with a variety of side-effect. Alternative agents, such as arbutin and its derivatives kojic acid and nicotinamide have been subsequently developed for cosmetic purposes. Unfortunately, some cosmetics contain whitening agents that are banned for use in cosmetic products. This article provides an overview of the mode of action and potential side-effects of cosmetic legal and illegal whitening agents, and the pattern of use of these types of products. Finally, an EU analysis of the health problems due to the presence of illegal products on the market is summarized.

  16. Overview of skin whitening agents with an insight into the illegal cosmetic market in Europe.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; Grosber, M; Deconinck, E; De Paepe, K

    2016-06-01

    Lightening skin tone is an ancient and well-documented practice, and remains common practice among many cultures. Whitening agents such as corticosteroids, tretinoin and hydroquinone are medically applied to effectively lighten the skin tone of hyperpigmented lesions. However, when these agents are used cosmetically, they are associated with a variety of side-effect. Alternative agents, such as arbutin and its derivatives kojic acid and nicotinamide have been subsequently developed for cosmetic purposes. Unfortunately, some cosmetics contain whitening agents that are banned for use in cosmetic products. This article provides an overview of the mode of action and potential side-effects of cosmetic legal and illegal whitening agents, and the pattern of use of these types of products. Finally, an EU analysis of the health problems due to the presence of illegal products on the market is summarized. PMID:26953335

  17. An over-the-counter omission.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Danielle Bowen

    2006-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications, their utilization is rarely ascertained at hospital admission. Presented here is an interesting case of acute renal failure and hemolytic anemia attributable to a commonly utilized OTC medication. The chronic use of phenazopyridine accounted for all of these findings. Upon discontinuation, everything normalized within one month. Although the differential diagnosis for renal failure and hemolytic anemia is extensive, scleral icterus, normal bilirubin, and orange-colored urine raised the suspicion of phenazopyridine use. This case report highlights overuse of common OTC medications, as well as a lack of knowledge of potential adverse reactions. With history-taking vigilance and patient education, adverse events from OTC medications can be minimized.

  18. Over-the-Counter Medications in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Servey, Jessica; Chang, Jennifer

    2014-10-15

    Many pregnant women take over-the-counter (OTC) medications despite the absence of randomized controlled trials to guide their use during pregnancy. Most data come from case-control and cohort studies. In 1979, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began reviewing all prescription and OTC medications to develop risk categories for use in pregnancy. Most OTC medications taken during pregnancy are for allergy, respiratory, gastrointestinal, or skin conditions, as well as for general analgesia. Acetaminophen, which is used by about 65% of pregnant women, is generally considered safe during any trimester. Cold medications are also commonly used and are considered safe for short-term use outside of the first trimester. Many gastrointestinal medications are now available OTC. Histamine H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors have not demonstrated significant fetal effects. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are generally not recommended in pregnancy, especially during organogenesis and in the third trimester. There are even fewer data regarding use of individual herbal supplements. Ginger is considered safe and effective for treating nausea in pregnancy. Topical creams are considered safe based on small studies and previous practice. All OTC medication use should be discussed with patients, and the effects of the symptoms should be balanced with the risks and benefits of each medication. Because of the expanding OTC market, formalized studies are warranted for patients to make a safe and informed decision about OTC medication use during pregnancy.

  19. Color measurements on prints containing fluorescent whitening agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Mattias; Norberg, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Papers with a slightly blue shade are, at least among a majority of observers being perceived as whiter than papers having a more neutral color1. Therefore, practically all commercially available printing papers contain bluish dyes and fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) to give the paper a whiter appearance. Furthermore, in the paper industry, the most frequently used measure for paper whiteness is the CIE-whiteness. The CIE Whiteness formula, does in turn, also favor slightly bluish papers. Excessive examples of high CIE-whiteness values can be observed in the office-paper segment where a high CIE-whiteness value is an important sales argument. As an effect of the FWA, spectrophotometer measurements of optical properties such as paper whiteness are sensitive to the ultraviolet (UV) content of the light source used in the instrument. To address this, the standard spectrophotometers used in the paper industry are equipped with an adjustable filter for calibrating the UV-content of the illumination. In the paper industry, spectrophotometers with d/0 measurement geometry and a light source of type C are used. The graphical arts industry on the other hand, typically measures with spectrophotometers having 45/0 geometry and a light source of type A. Moreover, these instruments have only limited possibilities to adjust the UV-content by the use of different weighting filters. The standard for color measurements in the paper industry governs that measurements should be carried out using D65 standard illumination and the 10 ° standard observer. The corresponding standard for the graphic arts industry specify D50 standard illumination and the 2 ° standard observer. In both cases, the standard illuminants are simulated from the original light source by spectral weighting functions. However, the activation of FWA, which will impact the measured spectral reflectance, depends on the actual UV-content of the illumination used. Therefore, comparisons between measurements on

  20. [Development of low-concentration hydrogen peroxide whitening agent using visible light-responsive titania photocatalyst].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    Although highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (HP) has been used to bleach vital discolored teeth during office whitening, low-concentration HP was recognized to have insufficient whitening ability. We demonstrated that using a visible light-responsive titania photocatalyst (VLRTP) and a vis-Nd : YAG laser, 3 wt% HP-bleached oxytetracycline (OTC)-stained teeth models were more efficient than 30 wt% HP. The stained samples were prepared by soaking synthetic hydroxyapatite ceramic disks in OTC aqueous solutions. Color images of the OTC-stained models before and after whitening were taken with a conventional flatbed scanner and calibrated using a photocell colorimeter. By VLRTP treatment with vis-Nd : YAG laser irradiation, the lightness value (L*) significantly increased and the yellowness index (b*) significantly approached zero. This suggests that a diluted HP agent with VLRTP can more efficiently decolorize stained teeth by visible light irradiation.

  1. Over-the-counter cough medicines: New approaches.

    PubMed

    Morice, Alyn H

    2015-12-01

    The global market for over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in the category cough/cold is enormous amounting to 5.77 billion euro in 2014 (source IMS). Despite this enormous healthcare investment, mainly by direct consumer purchase, evidence for efficacy is poor by modern standards. Because of a lack of new drug development existing OTC medicines are supported by trials of inadequate design. This has led to the claim that cough medicines are inefficacious. Recent developments in measuring cough support some existing agents but investment in modern studies to provide comprehensive proof of efficacy has not happened. The switch from prescription medicine to OTC which has occurred in other markets will not occur in antitussives since novel therapies have yet to be developed. One area, that of herbal derived medicines, has seen innovation because it is less hampered by regulatory constraints.

  2. Dental whitening--revisiting the myths.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of dental bleaching has increased with the introduction of at-home whitening. Currently available whitening methods include those prescribed by a dental professional for use at home, those applied by the professional in the dental office, a combination of the two, or systems available over the counter. This article reviews the effect, efficacy, and safety of bleaching techniques and materials. Most whitening techniques are considered effective and safe when carried out under the supervision of a dental professional. This article also compares the efficacy and safety of some of the most popular bleaching techniques, including at-home whitening with carbamide peroxide, over-the-counter (OTC) systems, and in-office whitening. Some of these whitening techniques are illustrated in this article.

  3. Tooth whitening: current status.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kimberly; Berry, Thomas G; Woolum, James

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the history of tooth whitening and its rapid evolution and briefly discusses tooth whitening agents and protocols. The active ingredients and mode of action during the whitening process are explained. The factors affecting the speed of whitening and its final results are discussed, as well as adverse effects and safety precautions. Protocols are explained in detail, and the predicted outcomes, including those for tetracycline-stained teeth, are covered.

  4. Toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents: efficacy in reducing extrinsic dental staining.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cristina Neves Girao Salgado; Amaral, Flavia Lucisano Botelho do; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Franca, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents in reducing the extrinsic discoloration of dental enamel. Sixty slabs of dentin from human teeth were sealed so that only the enamel surface was exposed. The enamel surfaces were photographed for initial color assessment. Staining was performed by immersing the dental slabs in 0.2% chlorhexidine solution for 2 minutes and then in black tea for 60 minutes. This process was repeated 15 times. Photographs were taken at the end of the staining process, and the slabs were divided into 5 groups (n = 12), 3 to be brushed with toothpastes containing chemical whitening agents (2 containing phosphate salts and 1 containing phosphate salts plus hydrogen peroxide) and 2 to represent control groups (ordinary/nonwhitening toothpaste and distilled water). The dental slabs were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing with toothpaste slurry or distilled water, according to each group's specifications. After brushing, more photographs were taken for color analysis. The results showed a significant reduction in luminosity after the staining process in addition to an increase in the colors red and yellow (P < 0.001). After brushing, there was a significant increase in luminosity and a reduction in both red and yellow (P < 0.001). However, there was no observed difference between the changes in color values in dental enamel slabs brushed with whitening toothpastes and the changes found in slabs brushed with ordinary toothpaste. The whitening toothpastes did not outperform an ordinary toothpaste in the removal of extrinsic staining. PMID:26545284

  5. Over-the-counter treatments for acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Rosamilia, Lorraine Larsen

    2016-06-01

    Acne and rosacea are common inflammatory processes historically classified in the same disease category, but evolving understanding of their disparate pathophysiology and exacerbating factors have generated an enormous armamentarium of therapeutic possibilities. Patients seek over-the-counter therapies first when managing cutaneous disease; therefore, this review defines ingredients considered to be effective over-the-counter acne and rosacea products, their mechanisms, and safe formulations, including botanical components, oral supplements, and other anecdotal options in this vast skin care domain. PMID:27416314

  6. Investigating the Stability of Benzoyl Peroxide in Over-the-Counter Acne Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittredge, Marina Canepa; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Sokol, Melissa S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Sennet, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most commonly used ingredients in over-the-counter acne treatments in cream, gel, and wash form is benzoyl peroxide. It is an anti-bacterial agent that kills the bacterium ("Propionibacterium acne") involved in the formation of acne. The formulation of these products is extremely difficult owing to the instability of benzoyl peroxide.…

  7. Over-the-counter drugs block heart accumulation of MIBG

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, P.S.; Fisher, S.J.; Wieland, D.M.; Sisson, J.C.

    1985-05-01

    Previous work in the authors' laboratory using chemically sympathectomized animals showed that > 50% of meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine (MIBG) in the heart is localized in adrenergic nerves. In the present study, commonly used drugs known to alter the uptake and/or release of norepinephrine by adrenergic neurons have been evaluated for their effect on the biodistribution of MIBG. Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), phenylpropanolamine (Dexatrim) and phenylephrine (Neosynephrine) were administered (5 mg/kg, i.p.) to rats; amphetamine was also evaluated (0.8mg/kg, i.p.). Thirty minutes later I-125-MIBG (0.2-0.4 Ci/mm) was injected i.v.; animals (N=3) were sacrificed 2 h following radiotracer. Compared to controls (N = 3), drug pretreatments resulted in large decreases in radiotracer concentration in adrenergic-rich tissues such as left atrium, left ventricle, spleen and parotid glands. Pseudoephedrine caused decreases (%) of 78, 57, 48 and 35 in the four tissues, respectively. Each of the four drugs caused a greater decrease in I-125-MIBG concentration in the left atrium than in the left ventricle. Comparative studies using H-3-norepinephrine are in progress. Entex, a nasal decongestant containing both phenylephrine and phenylpropanolamine, markedly diminished the heart and salivary gland accumulation of I-123-MIBG in a normal male volunteer. These preliminary studies suggest that commonly used sympathomimetic agents, including some over-the-counter preparations, decrease the accumulation of MIBG in adrenergic neurons. These results also suggest that patients should be carefully screened for drug usage prior to MIBG scintigraphy of the heart.

  8. Detection of whitening agents in illegal cosmetics using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-09-01

    Cosmetic products containing illegal whitening agents are still found on the European market. They represent a considerable risk to public health, since they are often characterised by severe side effects when used chronically. The detection of such products at customs is not always simple, due to misleading packaging and the existence of products containing only legal components. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, was evaluated for that purpose. It was found that the combination of ATR-IR with the simple chemometric technique k-nearest neighbours gave good results. A model was obtained in which a minimum of illegal samples was categorised as legal. The correctly classified illegal samples could be attributed to the illegal components present.

  9. Detection of whitening agents in illegal cosmetics using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-09-01

    Cosmetic products containing illegal whitening agents are still found on the European market. They represent a considerable risk to public health, since they are often characterised by severe side effects when used chronically. The detection of such products at customs is not always simple, due to misleading packaging and the existence of products containing only legal components. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, was evaluated for that purpose. It was found that the combination of ATR-IR with the simple chemometric technique k-nearest neighbours gave good results. A model was obtained in which a minimum of illegal samples was categorised as legal. The correctly classified illegal samples could be attributed to the illegal components present. PMID:24927403

  10. [In vitro tests of internal tooth whitening agents on colored solutions do not replace tests on teeth].

    PubMed

    Bäumler, Marc A; Schug, Jens; Schmidlin, PatrickR; Imfeld, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Two in vitro tests for the assessment of whitening agents were evaluated. A simple, reproducible and cost-effective model using coloured solutions was compared to a tooth model. The following bleaching agents were investigated: 1) Sodium perborate tetrahydrate/30% H2O2, 2) sodium perborate tetrahydrate/3% H2O2, 3) thermocatalytic procedure with 30% H2O2 and 4) Opal-escence Endo. In the model using coloured solutions, the light absorption of the solutions was assessed one and 24 hours after application of the whitening agents. In discoloured teeth, whitening agents were placed in a simulated access cavity. In groups 1, 2, and 4, the agents were left in the cavity for three days, whereas in group 3 the substance was applied three times for 30 seconds. Bleaching processes were repeated three times. All bleaching agents proved effective in the model with coloured solutions, as well as in the tooth model. The effect was most pronounced after the first bleaching step. The results showed, however, that the simplified experiment with coloured solutions cannot replace the tooth model.

  11. Over-the-counter suboptimal dispensing of antibiotics in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mukonzo, Jackson K; Namuwenge, Proscovia M; Okure, Gildo; Mwesige, Benjamin; Namusisi, Olivia K; Mukanga, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Overuse and misuse of antibiotics is a serious global problem. While resistance to older antibiotics is increasing, development of newer molecules has stalled. Resistance to the existing antibiotics that is largely driven by their high-volume use is a global public health problem. Uganda is one of the countries where prescription-only drugs, including antibiotics, can be obtained over the counter. We determined the rate of antibiotic dispensing and use in Uganda. Methods The study utilized a descriptive cross-sectional study design to determine the number of antibiotic “prescribed” daily doses per 1,000 clients. Data were collected from one health center II, eight general/district hospitals, one national referral hospital, and 62 registered community pharmacies. From each study site, data were collected for five consecutive days over the months of November 2011 to January 2012. Results The overall antibiotic issue rate was 43.2%. Amoxicillin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole–trimethoprim, cloxacillin, and ampicillin, belonging to the WHO anatomical therapeutic chemical classifications of penicillin with extended spectra, imidazole derivatives, fluoroquinolones, and sulfonamide–trimethoprim combinations, constituted 70% of the issued antibiotics. About 41% of antibiotics were issued over the counter. At community pharmacies, where 30% of antibiotic dispensing occurred, the number of prescribed daily doses/1,000 antibiotic clients was 4,169 compared to 6,220, 7,350 and 7,500 at general/district hospitals, the national referral hospital, and the health center, respectively. Conclusion In Uganda, at least four in every ten individuals that visit a health-care facility are treated with an antibiotic. Antibiotics are largely given as over-the-counter drugs at community pharmacies. The number of antibiotic prescribed daily doses/1,000 antibiotic clients does not significantly differ between categories of health-care facilities except at

  12. A new source of whitening agent from a Thai Mulberry plant and its betulinic acid quantitation.

    PubMed

    Nattapong, Snitmatjaro; Omboon, Luanratana

    2008-06-15

    Protection of human body against the harmful ultraviolet exposure is nowadays more important and interesting. Melanin, a group of bio-pigments, acts as a natural solar filter absorbing and reflecting most of the UV radiation passing through the layer of skin. Over production of the pigments can create a health problem, hyperpigmentation. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme, which catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-dihydroxyalanine (L-Dopa), therefore tyrosinase inhibitors are used in various skin preparations due to its pronounced effect on anti-hyperpigment. In this study, an in vitro anti-tyrosinase activity study of the extracts from a hybrid Mulberry plant obtained from Morus alba L. and Morus rotundiloba Koidz, is shown to prove as new source of Thai whitening agent. The presence of betulinic acid, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase activity agent, is also reported. The study develops the technique of HPLC quantitation of betulinic acid and its relation to anti-tyrosinase activity of the whole parts of Thai Mulberry.

  13. Photodegradation-based detection of fluorescent whitening agents in a mountain river.

    PubMed

    Assaad, Aziz; Pontvianne, Steve; Pons, Marie-Noëlle

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are highly soluble and poorly biodegradable ingredients used in laundry detergents and in industries (paper, textile, plastic manufacturing). They are likely to pass through biological wastewater treatment systems. The presence of FWAs in a mountain river was detected by monitoring the decay of synchronous fluorescence intensity at λ(ex)=360 nm after exposing samples to ultraviolet (UV) light (365 nm), for mimicking sunlight, for 15 min. The method was first validated on four commercial FWAs (DAS-1, FB28, DMA-X and CBS-X) in different water matrices (deionized water and pristine river water in the presence of humic acid and dyes). A 40% decay was observed after 15 min for the least photosensitive FWA (CBS-X). A field application was then performed on samples collected along a mountain river in which impacts of FWAs from domestic sources (laundry greywater) and industrial sources (paper and textile mills) were suspected. Variations of fluorescence decay at λ(ex)=360 nm could be explained by these potential sources of pollution. It is suggested that the fluorescence decay at λ(ex)=280 nm also be considered as an indicator, as some FWAs can exhibit fluorescence at that excitation wavelength.

  14. Evaluation of an over-the-counter medication program.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul Evan

    2004-07-01

    Nonprescription medication (i.e., "over-the-counter") programs have historically been popular at many military treatment facilities. These programs were developed to provide a mechanism through which active duty members could obtain certain nonprescription medications without seeing a health care provider. The goal of such programs was to reduce demand on health care provider appointments and operational costs associated with such visits. Coast Guard military treatment facilities are encouraged to provide the service. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate whether the nonprescription medication program offered at the Coast Guard Alameda pharmacy reduced demand on health care provider appointments for self-limiting conditions and reduced costs associated with such visits.

  15. Abuse of over-the-counter dextromethorphan by teenagers.

    PubMed

    Murray, S; Brewerton, T

    1993-10-01

    Dextromethorphan, the d-isomer of the opiate agonist levorphanol, has none of the analgesic or sedative effects associated with the opiates and is approved for over-the-counter use as an antitussive. It is available, in various combinations with other medications, in nonprescription cough suppressant and common cold formulations, and its availability in the United States is not controlled. In this paper we have reported two cases of recreational use of dextromethorphan-containing cough syrup by two unrelated teenage boys. Despite the safety of this medication when used at the recommended dosage, there have been cases of "recreational" use of dextromethorphan as well as death by overdose. Although usually thought to be nonaddictive, dextromethorphan produces a substance dependence syndrome, and physicians should be aware of its abuse potential, particularly by youths. PMID:8211334

  16. 31 CFR 351.46 - May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-counter through any issuing agent qualified under 31 CFR part 317. To purchase over-the-counter, you must... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series EE... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Definitive Series EE Savings Bonds § 351.46 May...

  17. 31 CFR 351.46 - May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-counter through any issuing agent qualified under 31 CFR part 317. 2 To purchase over-the-counter, you... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series EE... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Definitive Series EE Savings Bonds § 351.46 May...

  18. Best Way to Take Your Over-the-Counter Pain Reliever? Seriously.

    MedlinePlus

    ... best way to take your over-the-counter pain reliever? Seriously. Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Print (PDF version - 6MB) Over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers/fever reducers (the kind you can buy without ...

  19. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC... or Devices § 310.519 Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives. (a... ingredients in over-the-counter (OTC) drug products for use as daytime sedatives. The following claims...

  20. [Rapid detection of eight fluorescent whitening agents in textile by ultra performance convergence chromatography].

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Ding, Youchao; Cao, Xizhong; Qi, Yan; Qian, Kai

    2014-11-01

    An accurate quantitative and confirmative method has been developed for the deter- mination of eight fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in textile by ultra performance conver- gence chromatography (UPC2) coupled with photo diode array (PDA) detection, including 1,2-bis (5-methyl-2-benzoxazole) ethylene (PF), 7-diethylamino-4-methylcoumarin (SWN), 2, 2'-(2,5-thiophenediyl) bis(5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzoxazol (OB), 2-[4-[2-[4-(2-benzox- azolyl) phenyl] ethenyl] phenyl] -5-methyl-benzoxazol (KSN), 1,4-bis (2-cyanostyryl) benzene (ER-I), 1-(2-cyanostyryl)-4-(4-cyanostyryl) benzene (ER-II), 2,2'-(1,4-naphthalenediyl) bis-benzoxazol (KCB), 4,4'-bis[2-(2-methoxyphenyl) ethenyl]-1,1'-biphenyl (FP). The sample was extracted with xylene and concentrated by a rotary evaporator, and then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by UPC2. The separation of target compounds was achieved on an ACQUITY UPC2 HSS C18 SB column (100 mm x 3.0 mm, 1.8 μm) by a gradient elution with supercritical carbon dioxide and methanol as mobile phases. External standard method was used for the quantitative determination and the calibration curves showed good linearity in the concentration range of 1.0-20.0 mg/L for the eight target compounds with correlation coefficients not less than 0.999 1. The limits of quantification of the eight compounds (LOQs, S/N = 10) were 0.70-0.95 mg/L. The average recoveries of the eight compounds ranged from 90.9% to 96.5% at the spiked levels of 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.8%-4.2%. The method is simple, accurate and time-saving with high sensitivity, and can be used for the rapid determination of the eight FWAs in textile. PMID:25764658

  1. [Removal of fluorescent whitening agent by hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Long; Zhang, Zhong-Min; Zhao, Xia; Jiao, Ru-Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Degradation of fluorescent whitening agent VBL in the processes of activated carbon (AC) and activated carbon modified (ACM) adsorptions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by activated carbon were studied. Mechanism of the above catalytic oxidation was also investigated by adding tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA), the free radical scavenger, and detecting the released gases. The results showed that: the activated carbon modified by Fe (NO3)3 (ACM)exhibited better adsorption removal than AC. Catalytic oxidation showed efficient removal of VBL, and the catalytic removal of AC (up to 95%) was significantly higher than that of ACM (58% only). Catalytic oxidation was inhibited by TBA, which indicates that the above reaction involved *OH radicals and atom oxygen generated by hydrogen peroxide with the presence of AC. The results of H2O2 decomposition and released gases detection involved in the process showed that activated carbon enhanced the decomposition of H2O2 which released oxygen and heat. More O2 was produced and higher temperature of the reactor was achieved, which indicated that H2O2 decomposition catalyzed by ACM was significantly faster than that of AC. Combining the results of VBL removal, it could be concluded that the rate of active intermediates (*OH radicals and atom oxygen) production by ACM catalytic reaction was faster than that of AC. These intermediates consumed themselves and produced O2 instead of degrading VBL. It seemed that the improper mutual matching of the forming rate of activating intermediates and the supply rate of reactants was an important reason for the lower efficiency of ACM catalytic reaction comparing with AC.

  2. A review of over-the-counter drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Esmay, J B; Wertheimer, A I

    1979-01-01

    The authors review the extent of the use of nonprescription drugs as well as possible variables influencing such consumption. Various studies indicate that age, sex, personality characteristics, perceptions of health status, socioeconomic factors, parental example, and pharmacists all play parts in determining over-the-counter (OTC) drug utilization. Several sources express concern about the inaccessibility of accurate OTC drug information to the consumer. Indeed, even the FDA has occasional difficulty obtaining reliable facts on both the numbers and formulae of such products. Several studies indicate that consumers acquire information about their home remedies through advertising, friends and relatives, physicians, pharmacists, and product labels. By far the most influential of these is advertising, and much concern has been voiced over consumers' unquestioning faith in drug ads. Examples are cited of deceptive, inaccurate, and unfair advertising practices used by some OTC drug manufacturers. The pros and cons of the "drug-oriented society" theory are discussed, including an analysis of its underlying origins. Testing of the safety and efficacy of nonrescription remedies has proved to be controversial, especially when considering the ramifications of the placebo effect. Different surveys report widespread misuse of OTC's by consumers through overuse, taking several drugs concurrently, and using home remedies to treat potentially serious diseases. PMID:500849

  3. Enhanced eyelashes: prescription and over-the-counter options.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek

    2011-02-01

    Women have long strived to possess long, thick, and dark eyelashes. Prominent eyes and eyelashes are often considered a sign of beauty and can be associated with increased levels of attractiveness, confidence, and well-being. Numerous options may improve the appearance of eyelashes. Mascara aims to temporarily darken, lengthen, and thicken eyelashes using a combination of waxes, pigments, and resins. Artificial eyelashes can be adhered either to the dermal margin or to individual eyelashes. Individuals may even use eyelash transplantations to improve the appearance of their eyelashes. The unique properties of eyelashes (e.g., relatively long telogen and short anagen phases compared with scalp hairs, slow rate of growth, and a lack of influence by androgens) may allow for specific aesthetic interventions to improve the appearance of natural eyelashes. Some over-the-counter (OTC) products may contain prostaglandin analogs that can affect eyelash growth, but neither the safety nor efficacy of these OTC cosmetics has been fully studied. Originally indicated for the reduction of intraocular pressure, the synthetic prostaglandin analog bimatoprost was recently approved for the treatment of hypotrichosis of the eyelashes. In a double-blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled trial, bimatoprost safely and effectively grew natural eyelashes, making them longer, thicker, and darker. Bimatoprost was generally safe and well tolerated and appears to provide an additional option for individuals looking to improve the appearance of their eyelashes.

  4. Over-the-counter drugs and prescribing in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Baines, D L; Whynes, D K

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both the government and the pharmaceutical industry are interested in increasing the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. The reaction on the part of general practitioners is more circumspect. AIM: To investigate whether fundholding or dispensing status and patient exemption from, or prepayment of prescription charges influence the behaviour of general practitioners with respect to prescribing preparations otherwise available OTC. METHOD: Regression analysis of data for all 105 Lincolnshire practices for the fiscal year 1993-94, using the number of items prescribed by the practice that were also available OTC as the outcome variable. Comparison of Audit Commission Thematic Analysis of Prescribing (ACTAP) data for fundholders' and non-fundholders' OTC prescribing in the same year. RESULTS: The prescription of medicines otherwise available OTC is less likely when the practice is fundholding and more likely when the practice has dispensing status. Prescription of such medicines also increases as the proportion of patients exempt from, or having prepaid prescription charges increases. PMID:9196964

  5. Enhanced eyelashes: prescription and over-the-counter options.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek

    2011-02-01

    Women have long strived to possess long, thick, and dark eyelashes. Prominent eyes and eyelashes are often considered a sign of beauty and can be associated with increased levels of attractiveness, confidence, and well-being. Numerous options may improve the appearance of eyelashes. Mascara aims to temporarily darken, lengthen, and thicken eyelashes using a combination of waxes, pigments, and resins. Artificial eyelashes can be adhered either to the dermal margin or to individual eyelashes. Individuals may even use eyelash transplantations to improve the appearance of their eyelashes. The unique properties of eyelashes (e.g., relatively long telogen and short anagen phases compared with scalp hairs, slow rate of growth, and a lack of influence by androgens) may allow for specific aesthetic interventions to improve the appearance of natural eyelashes. Some over-the-counter (OTC) products may contain prostaglandin analogs that can affect eyelash growth, but neither the safety nor efficacy of these OTC cosmetics has been fully studied. Originally indicated for the reduction of intraocular pressure, the synthetic prostaglandin analog bimatoprost was recently approved for the treatment of hypotrichosis of the eyelashes. In a double-blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled trial, bimatoprost safely and effectively grew natural eyelashes, making them longer, thicker, and darker. Bimatoprost was generally safe and well tolerated and appears to provide an additional option for individuals looking to improve the appearance of their eyelashes. PMID:20730536

  6. [Factors related to purchasing over-the-counter medications online].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Yoshida, Takeshi; Fukushima, Noriko

    2009-09-01

    We conducted a Web-based survey of approximately 40,000 Internet users on the purchase of over-the-counter (OTC) medications online in March 2009. The valid response rate was 97.8% and the number of responses was 39,208. The number of people who had purchased OTC medications online was 4,653 (11.9%), prescription medicines 792 (2.0%), and medical contact lenses 1,993 (5.1%). As a result of the multiple logistic regression analysis, independent variables with odds ratios (ORs) >1.5 were experience of purchasing prescription-only medicine online (OR=4.997, 95%CI=4.288-5.824), regular supplement use (OR=2.384, 95%CI=2.233-2.548), experience of purchasing colored contact lenses online (OR=2.206, 95%CI=1.632-2.983), no time to visit drugstores (OR=2.092, 95%CI=1.928-2.270), usage of Web sites of uncertain reliability (OR=1.992, 95%CI=1.857-2.137), and experience of purchasing therapeutic contact lenses online (OR=1.796, 95%CI=1.597-2.020). As some people have purchased prescription-only medicine or medical devices and had problems with drug information sources, the development of awareness of medical and pharmaceutical supplies and health and medical information literacy are key priorities to ensure safe OTC medication sales systems.

  7. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food and... suitable articles of this type “For the temporary relief of minor sore throats”, provided this...

  8. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food and... suitable articles of this type “For the temporary relief of minor sore throats”, provided this...

  9. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food and... suitable articles of this type “For the temporary relief of minor sore throats”, provided this...

  10. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  11. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  12. Prediction of gastrointestinal disease with over-the-counter diarrheal remedy sales records in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Water utilities continue to be interested in implementing syndromic surveillance for the enhanced detection of waterborne disease outbreaks. The authors evaluated the ability of sales of over-the-counter diarrheal remedies available from the National Retail Data Monitor to predict endemic and epidemic gastrointestinal disease in the San Francisco Bay Area. Methods Time series models were fit to weekly diarrheal remedy sales and diarrheal illness case counts. Cross-correlations between the pre-whitened residual series were calculated. Diarrheal remedy sales model residuals were regressed on the number of weekly outbreaks and outbreak-associated cases. Diarrheal remedy sales models were used to auto-forecast one week-ahead sales. The sensitivity and specificity of signals, generated by observed diarrheal remedy sales exceeding the upper 95% forecast confidence interval, in predicting weekly outbreaks were calculated. Results No significant correlations were identified between weekly diarrheal remedy sales and diarrhea illness case counts, outbreak counts, or the number of outbreak-associated cases. Signals generated by forecasting with the diarrheal remedy sales model did not coincide with outbreak weeks more reliably than signals chosen randomly. Conclusions This work does not support the implementation of syndromic surveillance for gastrointestinal disease with data available though the National Retail Data Monitor. PMID:20646311

  13. [Determination of four fluorescent whitening agents in laundry detergents by solid phase extraction combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Xian, Yanping; Guo, Xindong; Luo, Haiying; Wu, Yuluan; Chen, Yiguang; Luo, Donghui; Wu, Wenhai

    2013-02-01

    A new method was established to determine three stilbene-type disulfonate and one distyrylbiphenyl-type fluorescent whitening agents (FWA351, FWA85, FWA28 and FWA71) in laundry detergents by solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (UPLC-DAD). The fluorescent whitening agents were extracted from laundry detergents with 2% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol, and purified by WAX SPE column, and analyzed by UPLC-DAD on a Phenomenex Synergi Max-RP column (150 mm x 2.0 mm), employing acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate as the mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. The fluorescent whitening agents were qualitatively determined by retention time, and confirmed by the ultraviolet spectrum. The results indicated that the target analytes were in the range of 0.05-180 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0. 999 3, and the method limits of quantification (MLOQ) of target analytes were ranged from 1.5 mg/kg to 15 mg/kg (S/N = 10). The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by the determination of FWAs in samples with spiked recoveries. The recoveries were in the range between 84.9% and 105%, and the precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) ranged from 3.2% to 6.1% (n = 6). Among the 15 samples analyzed, the rate of positive samples was 53.3%, over 1 000 mg/kg of FWA351 and FWA71 were detected. The method is simple, precise and has high recoveries for the determination of fluorescent whitening agents in laundry detergent samples.

  14. Optical properties and surface structure comparison of tooth whitening using four laser systems and chemical action agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Pavel; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Housova, Devana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kokta, Milan R.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of various laser techniques for bleaching teeth in office vital whitening. Hydrogen peroxide (30% concentration) and carbamide peroxide (10% solution) were used for chemical activation of bleaching process. Extracted non-carcious upper central incisors were exposed to laser radiation. Four different laser systems (Nd:YAG laser SHG, wavelength 0.53 μm, CTE:YAG laser, wavelength 2.7 μm, Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1.06 μm, and alexandrite laser, wavelength 0.75 μm) were applied to accelerate the speed of the process. The end of chemical exposition was verified by the change of bleaching agent color. The color change was determined by stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan), the quality of surface structure was checked by scanning electron microscope Joel, Japan). The speed of bleaching rnaged from 630 s (chemical methods only) to 250-340 s (chemicals + alexandrite laser radiation). The Alexandrite laser application was considered an elective process to decrease the time of bleaching without modifying the surface.

  15. Complex inhibition of tyrosinase by thiol-composed Cu2+ chelators: a clue for designing whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Doo; Lyou, You-Jeong; Hahn, Hwa-Sun; Hahn, Myong-Joon; Yang, Jun-Mo

    2006-10-01

    The inhibition of tyrosinase has attracted considerable attention for potential medicinal and cosmetic applications, as well as in agriculture. This study investigated the inhibition effects of thiol-associated Cu(2+) chelators and deduced a strategy for designing and/or selecting tyrosinase inhibitors. Among the several compounds tested, dithioglycerine (DTGC) was selected for further experiments on the inhibition kinetics on tyrosinase. Different types of tyrosinases derived from mushroom and from the transient overexpression in HEK293 cells were tested individually. The results showed that DTGC significantly inhibited human tyrosinase in a complex manner (slope-parabolic mixed-type inhibition), which was comparable to mushroom tyrosinase. The affinity of DTGC affinity to human tyrosinase was evaluated by setting up a K(i slope) equation. The results suggest that a Cu(2+) chelator modified with thiol groups has potential as a whitening agent. In addition, a strategy for designing and/or selecting tyrosinase inhibitors that target the active enzyme site was also suggested. PMID:16928136

  16. [Adsorption of the TiO2 @ yeast composite microspheres for adsorbing Fluorescent Whitening Agent-VBL in fixed bed].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Zhang, Kai-Qiang; Bai, Bo; Wang, Hong-Lun; Suo, You-Rui

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the adsorption potential of TiO2@ yeast composite microspheres to remove Fluorescent Whitening Agent-VBL (FWA-VBL) from aqueous solution was investigated using fixed-bed adsorption column. The effects of pH(2.0-8.0), bed height (1-3 cm), inlet concentration (20-80 mg x L(-1)) and feed flow rate (5-11 mL x min(-1)) on the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system were determined. The results showed that the highest bed capacity of 223.80 mg x g(-1) was obtained under the condition of pH 2.0, 80 mg x L(-1) inlet dye concentration, 1.0 cm bed height and 5 mL x min(-1) flow rate. The adsorption data were fitted to three well-established fixed-bed adsorption models, namely, BDST model, Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model. The results fitted well to the three models with coefficients of correlation R2 > 0.980 in different conditions. The TiO2 @ yeast composite microspheres have desired regeneration ability and could be reused for four times. PMID:26031081

  17. Performance and membrane fouling characteristics of a combined biofilm and membrane bioreactor for treatment of fluorescent whitening agent wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhiwei; Du, Ping; Yang, Shangyuan; Li, Xin; Qian, Yichao

    2014-01-01

    A full-scale system, composed of one anoxic fixed biofilm reactor, four oxic fixed biofilm reactors and an activated sludge membrane bioreactor, was used to treat heavily organic loaded, high toxic and saline fluorescent whitening agent wastewater. This system was running steady during the experimental period of three months. Treatment performance and membrane fouling characteristics were investigated. The concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4+, NO3- and total nitrogen (TN) in effluent were 447, 27, 14 and 114 mg L(-1), corresponding to the removal rates of 89%, 76%, 68% and 64%, respectively. A series of analyses, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and protein and polysaccharide concentration measurements, represented that the sludge layer formed on the membrane surface contained both organic and inorganic foulants. Polysaccharides in bound extracellullar polymeric substances in mixed liquor were the main contributor to membrane fouling. Off-line tap water rinsing was proved to be a cost-effective method of fouling control. PMID:24701941

  18. Development and validation of a fast chromatographic method for screening and quantification of legal and illegal skin whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2013-09-01

    During the last years, the EU market is flooded by illegal cosmetics via the Internet and a so-called "black market". Among these, skin-bleaching products represent an important group. They contain, according to the current European cosmetic legislation (Directive 76/768/EEC), a number of illegal active substances including hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. These may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. To control this market there is a need for a fast screening method capable of detecting illegal ingredients in the wide variety of existing bleaching cosmetic formulations. In this paper the development and validation of an ultra high pressure liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method is described. The proposed method makes use of a Waters Acquity BEH shield RP18 column with a gradient using 25 mM ammonium borate buffer (pH 10) and acetonitrile. This method is not only able to detect the major illegal (hydroquinone, tretinoin and six dermatologic active corticosteroids) and legal whitening agents, the latter having restrictions with respect to concentration and application (kojic acid, arbutin, nicotinamide and salicylic acid), but can also quantify these in a run time of 12 min. The method was successfully validated using the "total error" approach in accordance with the validation requirements of ISO-17025. During the validation a variety of cosmetic matrices including creams, lotions and soaps were taken into consideration. PMID:23708434

  19. "Just Advil": Harm reduction and identity construction in the consumption of over-the-counter medication for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Emery R

    2015-12-01

    Direct-to-consumer marketing has sparked ongoing debate concerning whether ads empower consumers to be agents of their own care or shift greater control to the pharmaceutical industry. Ads for over-the-counter (OTC) medications in particular portend to offer simple, harmless solutions for meeting the demands of social life. Rather than join the longstanding debate between consumer agency and social control in pharmaceutical advertising, I approach self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics using Harm Reduction as a framework. From this perspective, consumption of OTC analgesics by chronic pain sufferers is a means of seeking some level of relief while also avoiding the stigma associated with prescription pain medication. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data from two sources: (1) semi-structured qualitative interviews with 95 participants in a trial examining the effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) from 2006 to 2011 in Tucson, AZ and Portland, OR; and (2) print, online, and television advertisements for three major brands of OTC pain medication. Participants described their use of OTC medications as minimal, responsible, and justified by the severity of their pain. OTC medication advertising, while ostensibly ambiguous and targeting all forms of pain, effectively lends support to the consumption of these medications as part of the self-projects of chronic pain sufferers, allowing them to reconcile conflicting demands for pain relief while being stoic and maintaining a positive moral identity. Describing OTC medication as "just over-the-counter" or "not real pain medication," sufferers engage in ideological harm reduction, distinguishing themselves from "those people who like taking pain medication" while still seeking relief. Justifying one's use of OTC medication as minimal and "normal," regardless of intake, avoids association with the addictive potential of prescription pain medications and

  20. "Just Advil": Harm reduction and identity construction in the consumption of over-the-counter medication for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Emery R

    2015-12-01

    Direct-to-consumer marketing has sparked ongoing debate concerning whether ads empower consumers to be agents of their own care or shift greater control to the pharmaceutical industry. Ads for over-the-counter (OTC) medications in particular portend to offer simple, harmless solutions for meeting the demands of social life. Rather than join the longstanding debate between consumer agency and social control in pharmaceutical advertising, I approach self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics using Harm Reduction as a framework. From this perspective, consumption of OTC analgesics by chronic pain sufferers is a means of seeking some level of relief while also avoiding the stigma associated with prescription pain medication. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data from two sources: (1) semi-structured qualitative interviews with 95 participants in a trial examining the effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) from 2006 to 2011 in Tucson, AZ and Portland, OR; and (2) print, online, and television advertisements for three major brands of OTC pain medication. Participants described their use of OTC medications as minimal, responsible, and justified by the severity of their pain. OTC medication advertising, while ostensibly ambiguous and targeting all forms of pain, effectively lends support to the consumption of these medications as part of the self-projects of chronic pain sufferers, allowing them to reconcile conflicting demands for pain relief while being stoic and maintaining a positive moral identity. Describing OTC medication as "just over-the-counter" or "not real pain medication," sufferers engage in ideological harm reduction, distinguishing themselves from "those people who like taking pain medication" while still seeking relief. Justifying one's use of OTC medication as minimal and "normal," regardless of intake, avoids association with the addictive potential of prescription pain medications and

  1. Availability of over-the-counter emergency contraception in 2 disparate New York City neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Legare, Katherine; Bakshi, Salina; Keyhani, Salomeh; Howell, Elizabeth A

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a telephone survey of pharmacies in 2 New York City neighborhoods on same-day availability, type, and cost of over-the-counter emergency contraception. There was no difference in availability of over-the-counter emergency contraception between Upper East Side and East Harlem pharmacies (93% vs 94%; P = .71). Average cost of medication was less in East Harlem than in the Upper East Side ($45.16 vs $51.64; P < .001). Efforts should accentuate overcoming cost and knowledge barriers associated with the use of emergency contraception.

  2. Availability of Over-the-Counter Emergency Contraception in 2 Disparate New York City Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Salina; Keyhani, Salomeh; Howell, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a telephone survey of pharmacies in 2 New York City neighborhoods on same-day availability, type, and cost of over-the-counter emergency contraception. There was no difference in availability of over-the-counter emergency contraception between Upper East Side and East Harlem pharmacies (93% vs 94%; P = .71). Average cost of medication was less in East Harlem than in the Upper East Side ($45.16 vs $51.64; P < .001). Efforts should accentuate overcoming cost and knowledge barriers associated with the use of emergency contraception. PMID:22994248

  3. Effect of fluorescent whitening agent on the transcription of cell damage-related genes in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Han, Ju-Hee; Abdelkader, Tamer Said; Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Chang, Seo-Na; Ko, Ae-Sun; Choi, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Cho-Rong; Seo, Ji-Eun; Byun, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jung-A; Park, Jae-Hak

    2012-09-01

    7-Diethylamino-4-methylcoumarin (DEMC) is a fluorescent whitening agent (FWAs). There have been some studies on DEMC's protective effects against biological activity but there are few papers about the in vivo toxicity of DEMC. In this study, we used wild-type zebrafish embryos 3 days post fertilization (dpf). Test solutions with DEMC concentrations were negative control (without vehicle), 0 (with vehicle, 0.01% v/v ethanol), 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5 and 2 ppm. Embryos and larvae were counted for survival rate and hatching rate. Heart rates were also counted at 2.5 and 3.0 dpf. At 3.0 dpf, quantitative RT-PCR was performed with some samples (0, 0.25, 0.75 and 1.25 ppm) to determine the toxic effect to DEMC by detecting the expression levels of toxic-responsive genes. We used 11 genes, which included oxidative stress-related genes [sod(Mn), sod(Cu,Zn) and hsp70], mitochondrial metabolism-related genes (coxI, pyc, cyt and cyclinG1) and apoptosis-related genes (c-jun, bcl2, bax and p53). High-concentration DEMC-treated groups showed significant different survival rate, hatching rate and heart rate compared with low-concentration DEMC-treated groups. The LC50 of this chemical, 0.959 ppm, was calculated. We also confirmed that some genes in the DEMC exposure groups showed significantly up-regulations in expression levels compared with control groups. We concluded that the fluorescence agent, DEMC, has possible developmental toxicities and alteration effect of gene expression, which are related to oxidative stress, mitochondrial metabolism and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos.

  4. Implementing an Over-the-Counter Medication Administration Policy in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Lori S.; Keele, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    A major focus of school nursing interventions is to improve school attendance. In many schools, parents are required to leave work and/or to arrange transportation to bring their children over-the-counter medicines. Many times these children went home, missing class and making it difficult to keep up with class work. The purpose of this study was…

  5. Exploring Ovulation & Pregnancy Using Over-the-Counter Products: A Novel Guided Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venditti, Jennifer J.; Surmacz, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    In this guided inquiry, students explore the complex hormonal regulation of the female reproductive cycle using inexpensive ovulation and pregnancy detection kits that are readily available over the counter. This hands-on activity engages students in the practice of doing science as highlighted by the "National Science Education Standards." The…

  6. Remedy or cure? Lay beliefs about over-the-counter medicines for coughs and colds.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Gina; Helman, Cecil

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over 500 million is spent in the United Kingdom every year on over-the-counter medicines for coughs and colds. Evidence for their pharmacological efficacy is lacking. AIM: To examine lay beliefs about over-the-counter medicines for coughs and colds. To explore whether the distinction between symptom relief and cure has the same relevance to lay people as it does to medical professionals. DESIGN OF STUDY: Small pilot study using qualitative techniques. SETTING: Variety sample of 11 patients attending the National Health Service walk-in centre, Birmingham, England. METHOD: In-depth semi-structured interviews, including pile-sorting and fictional case histories, were used to explore participants' beliefs about the effects of over-the-counter medicines on coughs and colds. RESULTS: Eight of the 11 participants believed that at least one over the-counter cough medicine (most frequently Benylin for Chesty Coughs) could shorten, or "cure", an illness. Five participants thought that the majority of the medicines that they recognised would speed recovery rather than just relieve symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: There is a common confusion in the lay person's mind between the ability of a medicine to relieve symptoms, and its ability to cure a disease or to hasten recovery. This misunderstanding may affect the demand for primary care consultations. PMID:14965387

  7. 77 FR 66182 - TRICARE Over-the-Counter Drug Demonstration Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... a notice in the Federal Register (72 FR 33208-33210) implementing the demonstration project until... beneficiary satisfaction with the project, the Department published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR... demonstration project under 10 U.S.C. 1092 to allow certain over-the- counter (OTC) medications to be...

  8. 78 FR 57623 - TRICARE Over-the-Counter Drug Demonstration Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    .... On June 15, 2007, the Department of Defense published a notice in the Federal Register (FR) (72 FR..., the Department published a notice in the FR (74 FR 66626- 66627) on December 16, 2009 that extended... of the Secretary TRICARE Over-the-Counter Drug Demonstration Project AGENCY: Office of the...

  9. Parent, Teacher, and School Factors Associated with Over-the-Counter Drug Use among Multiracial Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Over-the-counter (OTC) drug use is an increasing health issue among adolescents. Purpose: This study investigated OTC drug use among 7th through 12th grade multiracial students in one metropolitan area. Methods: A total of 2134 students completed the PRIDE Questionnaire, which examines alcohol and other drug use. Results: A total of…

  10. Developing a Nursing Protocol for Over-the-Counter Medications in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awbrey, Lucinda Mejdell; Juarez, Sandra M.

    2003-01-01

    Management of medications in school is one of the critical roles that school nurses carry out in the school setting. In recent years, parents have come to question the medication procedures that school districts follow. Parents question why a physician's order is required for school personnel to provide over-the-counter (OTC) medications to their…

  11. Over-the-Counter Data's Impact on Educators' Data Analysis Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive research on the benefits of making data-informed decisions, but research also contains evidence many educators incorrectly interpret student data. Meanwhile, the types of detailed labeling on over-the-counter medication have been shown to improve use of non-medication products, as well. However, data systems most educators use…

  12. Over-the-Counter Data's Impact on Educators' Data Analysis Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive research on the benefits of making data-informed decisions, but research also contains evidence many educators incorrectly interpret student data. Meanwhile, the types of detailed labeling on over-the-counter medication have been shown to improve use of "non"-medication products, as well. However, data systems most…

  13. Fluorescent whitening agents in Tokyo Bay and adjacent rivers: their application as anthropogenic molecular markers in coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuko; Managaki, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige

    2002-08-15

    Two kinds of stilbene-type fluorescent whitening agents (i.e., DSBP and DAS1), minor components of laundry detergents, were analyzed in surface waters of Tokyo Bay and adjacent rivers and in sewage effluents to examine their usefulness as molecular markers in the marine environment. Sensitive determination using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) with fluorescence detection with postcolumn UV radiator was employed. DSBP and DAS1 were found in Tokyo rivers at concentrations of a few microg/L and approximately 1 microg/L, respectively. DSBP and DAS1 were widely distributed in Tokyo Bay waters at concentrations in the range of 0.019-0.264 microg/L and 0.021-0.127 microg/L, respectively. Comparison of these concentrations with those in sewage effluents (DSBP: 8 microg/L and DAS1: 2.5 microg/L on average) yielded sewage dilutions in Tokyo Bay on the order of 10(2). FWAs-salinity diagram in the Tamagawa Estuary showed fairly conservative behaviors of the FWAs with approximately 20% and approximately 10% removal of DSBP and DAS1, respectively. This is thought to be caused by photodegradation. The persistent nature of FWAs and their widespread distribution in coastal environments demonstrates the utility of FWAs in tracing the behavior of water from rivers and sewage outfalls. The DSBP/DAS1 ratio showed a decreasing trend from sewage effluents, to rivers, to Tokyo Bay, indicating selective photodegradation of DSBP. The DSBP/DAS1 ratio is proposed as an index of the degree of photodegradation and residence time and freshness of water mass in coastal environments.

  14. Glutathione as a skin whitening agent: Facts, myths, evidence and controversies.

    PubMed

    Sonthalia, Sidharth; Daulatabad, Deepashree; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione is a low molecular weight thiol-tripeptide that plays a prominent role in maintaining intracellular redox balance. In addition to its remarkable antioxidant properties, the discovery of its antimelanogenic properties has led to its promotion as a skin-lightening agent. It is widely used for this indication in some ethnic populations. However, there is a dichotomy between evidence to support its efficacy and safety. The hype around its depigmentary properties may be a marketing gimmick of pharma-cosmeceutical companies. This review focuses on the various aspects of glutathione: its metabolism, mechanism of action and the scientific evidence to evaluate its efficacy as a systemic skin-lightening agent. Glutathione is present intracellularly in its reduced form and plays an important role in various physiological functions. Its skin-lightening effects result from direct as well as indirect inhibition of the tyrosinase enzyme and switching from eumelanin to phaeomelanin production. It is available in oral, parenteral and topical forms. Although the use of intravenous glutathione injections is popular, there is no evidence to prove its efficacy. In fact, the adverse effects caused by intravenous glutathione have led the Food and Drug Administration of Philippines to issue a public warning condemning its use for off-label indications such as skin lightening. Currently, there are three randomized controlled trials that support the skin-lightening effect and good safety profile of topical and oral glutathione. However, key questions such as the duration of treatment, longevity of skin-lightening effect and maintenance protocols remain unanswered. More randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size, long-term follow-up and well-defined efficacy outcomes are warranted to establish the relevance of this molecule in disorders of hyperpigmentation and skin lightening. PMID:27088927

  15. Facile synthesis of α-Fe2O3@ porous hollow yeast-based carbonaceous microspheres for fluorescent whitening agent-VBL wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pei; Tong, Zhiqing; Bai, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Porous hollow carbonaceous microspheres (PHCMs) fabricated from yeast cells by hydrothermal treatment have stimulated interest because of their outstanding chemical and physical properties. Herein, the functionalizations of PHCMs by further coating of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles onto the surface were carried out. The structure of resulted α-Fe2O3@PHCMs products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and BET specific surface area measurements (BET), respectively. Its promising application was evaluated by the Fenton-like degradation of fluorescent whitening agent-VBL from aqueous solutions.

  16. Asthma medications should be available for over-the-counter use: pro.

    PubMed

    Gerald, Joe K; Wechsler, Michael E; Martinez, Fernando D

    2014-07-01

    Medications that provide quick relief of symptoms and that control airway inflammation are the mainstays of asthma treatment. However, adherence to these medications is suboptimal. The inconvenience and costs associated with obtaining these prescription-only medications are factors that contribute to poor adherence. The Food and Drug Administration recently requested public comment on a new paradigm whereby specific prescription-only medications could be made available over the counter, provided that conditions for their safe use could be established. Many organizations expressed opposition, including the American Thoracic Society and other societies representing patients with respiratory diseases. These organizations cited unsubstantiated benefits and unnecessary risks as reasons to oppose greater over-the-counter availability of current prescription-only medications. This article examines the rationale for, and potential ramifications of, making asthma medications available for nonprescription use.

  17. Overdose in infant caused by over-the-counter cough medicine.

    PubMed

    Pugach, Sofya; Pugach, Isaac Z

    2009-04-01

    Each year consumers purchase about 95 million units of over-the-counter medications for pediatric use, an unsafe application that can cause life-threatening effects. Despite a warning from the Food and Drug Administration, many parents or caregivers continue to administer these remedies to children. This report describes the case of a 4-month-old infant presenting to the emergency department with acute life-threatening intoxication including altered mental status, impaired coordination of movements, as well as a positive urine drug test for phencyclidine and an elevated serum ethanol level. Further evaluation uncovered that the actual reason for all clinical symptoms and laboratory test results was over-the-counter cough syrup. PMID:19279531

  18. The Use of Over-The-Counter Medications to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, A J; Stillwell, M E

    2010-01-01

    Over-the-counter drugs are medications that are available without the requirement of a prescription. They are considered relatively safe and well-tolerated when taken in accordance with the dosing instructions on the package label. However, when taken alone or in combination with other drugs, they possess pharmacological properties that have the potential to facilitate sexual assault. This chapter reviews the chemistry and pharmacology of these drugs. Additionally, a brief overview of analytical methodology is presented. PMID:26242457

  19. Over-the-counter enzyme supplements: what a clinician needs to know.

    PubMed

    Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Bauer, Brent A; Hurt, Ryan T

    2014-09-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) enzyme use is increasing in frequency in the United States. The numerous health benefit claims by manufacturers are leading to a surge in enzyme use for various conditions and symptoms. Clinicians need to help patients navigate this complex realm and make informed decisions about the use of OTC enzymes. This review focuses on key concepts for health care providers to understand the current evidence, risks, and benefits of OTC enzymes. PMID:25103998

  20. Over-the-Counter and Prescription Sleep Medication and Incident Stroke: The REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Megan E. Ruiter; Howard, Virginia J.; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Grandner, Michael A.; Molano, Jennifer R.; Howard, George

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Preliminary evidence suggests sleep medications are associated with risk of vascular events; however, the long-term vascular consequences are understudied. This study investigated the relation between sleep medication use and incident stroke. Methods Within the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study, 21,678 black and white participants (≥45yrs) with no history of stroke were studied. Participants were recruited from 2003−2007. From 2008−2010, participants self-reported their prescription and over-the-counter sleep medication use over the past month. Suspected stroke events were identified by telephone contact at 6-month intervals, and associated medical records were retrieved and physician-adjudicated. Proportional hazards analysis was used to the estimate hazard ratios for incident stroke associated with sleeping medication use (0, 1−14, and 15+ days per month) controlling for sociodemographics, stroke risk factors, mental health symptoms, and sleep apnea risk. Results At the sleep assessment, 9.6% of the sample used prescription sleep medication and 11.1% used over-the-counter sleep aids. Over an average follow-up of 3.3±1.0 years, 297 stroke events occurred. Over-the-counter sleep medication use was associated with increased risk for incident stroke in a frequency-response relationship (p-trend = 0.014), with a 46% increased risk for 1–14 days of use per month (HR=1.46; 95%CI: 0.99–2.15) and a 65% increased risk for 15+ days (HR=1.65; 95%CI: 0.96–2.85). There was no significant association with prescription sleep medications (p = 0.80). Conclusions Over-the-counter sleep medication use may independently increase the risk of stroke beyond other risk factors in middle-aged to older individuals with no history of stroke. PMID:25113086

  1. Periconceptional Over-the-Counter Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Exposure and Risk for Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Aldridge, Tiara; Baird, Donna D.; Funk, Michele Jonsson; Savitz, David A.; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure during the early first-trimester and risk for spontaneous abortion (gestation prior to 20 weeks) in a prospective cohort. Methods Women were enrolled in the Right from the Start study (2004–2010). Exposure data regarding over-the-counter NSAID use from the last menstrual period through the 6th week of pregnancy were obtained from intake and first-trimester interviews. Pregnancy outcomes were self-reported and verified by medical records. Gestational age was determined from last menstrual period. Stage of development prior to loss was determined from study ultrasound. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between NSAID exposure and pregnancy outcome, taking into account candidate confounders. Results Among 2,780 pregnancies, 367 women (13%) experienced an spontaneous abortion. NSAID exposure was reported by 1,185 (43%) women. NSAID exposure was not associated with spontaneous abortion risk in unadjusted models (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82, 1.24) or models adjusted for maternal age (adjusted [aHR] = 1.00, 95% CI 0.81, 1.23). Conclusions Our findings suggest that use of non-prescription over-the-counter NSAIDs in early pregnancy does not put women at increased risk of spontaneous abortion. PMID:22914399

  2. Ion mobility spectrometry for the rapid analysis of over-the-counter drugs and beverages

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Maestre, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, there are increasing requirements for analytical methods in quality assessment for the production of drugs. In this investigation, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was used for the rapid qualitative separation and identification of active ingredients in generic over-the-counter drugs and food additives in beverages. The active ingredients determined in drugs were acetaminophen, aspartame, bisacodyl, caffeine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, famotidine, glucosamine, guaifenesin, loratadine, niacin, phenylephrine, pyridoxine, thiamin, and tetrahydrozoline. Aspartame and caffeine were determined in beverages. Fourteen over-the-counter drugs and beverages were analyzed. Analysis times below 10 s were obtained for IMS, and reduced mobilities were reported for the first time for 12 compounds. A quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to a mobility spectrometer was used to assure a correct peak assignation. The combination of fast analysis, low cost, and inexpensive maintenance of IMS instruments makes IMS an attractive technique for the qualitative determination of the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs and food additives in manufacture quality control and cleaning verification for the drug and food industries. PMID:20835390

  3. Optic neuropathy associated with the use of over-the-counter sexual enhancement supplements.

    PubMed

    Karli, Sapir Z; Liao, Sophie D; Carey, Andrew R; Lam, Byron L; Wester, Sara T

    2014-01-01

    This case report details an association of the use of over-the-counter sexual enhancement supplements with atypical optic neuropathy. A 42-year-old man presented with right-sided headache and vision loss of the right eye, which deteriorated to a single quadrant of hand motion over 11 days. Serial orbital magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated progressive orbital optic nerve enhancement extending into the optic canal despite high-dose steroid treatment. The patient eventually admitted to using several over-the-counter sexual enhancement supplements prior to the onset of symptoms and throughout the course of his steroid treatment, which he subsequently discontinued. His vision improved to 20/200 with an expanded visual field. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy has been reported in association with phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor use, but visual loss in association with unregulated sexual enhancement supplements has not been studied. While one case cannot establish association, our case is suggestive of potential dangers of over-the-counter sexual enhancement supplements, which may contain PDE-5 inhibitors, "male hormones," and "substances that enhance blood production." The case also underscores the importance of obtaining a careful history of supplements in patients with optic neuropathies. PMID:25378904

  4. Emergency contraception over-the-counter: the medical and legal imperatives.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D A; Raymond, E G; Scott Jones, B

    2001-07-01

    Requiring a physician's prescription for hormonal emergency contraceptive pills makes no sense. Unintended pregnancies remain endemic in the United States, and wider use of emergency contraceptive pills could substantially help. However, the prescription requirement poses an unnecessary barrier to prompt, effective use of this preventive therapy. According to the Durham-Humphrey Amendment of 1951, the default option for all new drugs is, in principle, over-the-counter, unless a drug is addictive or dangerous when self-administered. Clearly, hormonal emergency contraception is neither of these. Emergency contraceptive pills meet all the customary criteria for over-the-counter use: low toxicity, no potential for overdose or addiction, no teratogenicity, no need for medical screening, self-identification of the need, uniform dosage, and no important drug interactions. The Food and Drug Administration is authorized, and, by its own regulations, should be required to switch hormonal emergency contraception to over-the-counter status without delay. The current prescription requirement is not only gratuitous but also harmful to women's health because it impedes access to this important therapy. PMID:11430974

  5. Ion mobility spectrometry for the rapid analysis of over-the-counter drugs and beverages.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Maestre, Roberto; Hill, Herbert H

    2009-08-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, there are increasing requirements for analytical methods in quality assessment for the production of drugs. In this investigation, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was used for the rapid qualitative separation and identification of active ingredients in generic over-the-counter drugs and food additives in beverages. The active ingredients determined in drugs were acetaminophen, aspartame, bisacodyl, caffeine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, famotidine, glucosamine, guaifenesin, loratadine, niacin, phenylephrine, pyridoxine, thiamin, and tetrahydrozoline. Aspartame and caffeine were determined in beverages. Fourteen over-the-counter drugs and beverages were analyzed. Analysis times below 10 s were obtained for IMS, and reduced mobilities were reported for the first time for 12 compounds. A quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to a mobility spectrometer was used to assure a correct peak assignation. The combination of fast analysis, low cost, and inexpensive maintenance of IMS instruments makes IMS an attractive technique for the qualitative determination of the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs and food additives in manufacture quality control and cleaning verification for the drug and food industries.

  6. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  7. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  8. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  9. 21 CFR 310.542 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing... HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.542 Over-the-counter (OTC) drug... safe and effective. (b) Any drug product that is labeled, represented, or promoted for OTC use in...

  10. 21 CFR 310.541 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing... USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.541 Over-the-counter (OTC) drug... and effective. (b) Any drug product that is labeled, represented, or promoted for OTC use in...

  11. Antiperspirant drug products for over-the-counter human use; final monograph. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule in the form of a final monograph establishing conditions under which over-the-counter (OTC) antiperspirant drug products are generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded as part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products. FDA is issuing this final rule after considering public comments on its proposed regulation, issued as a tentative final monograph (TFM), and all new data and information on antiperspirant drug products that have come to the agency's attention.

  12. Antiperspirant drug products for over-the-counter human use; final monograph. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule in the form of a final monograph establishing conditions under which over-the-counter (OTC) antiperspirant drug products are generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded as part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products. FDA is issuing this final rule after considering public comments on its proposed regulation, issued as a tentative final monograph (TFM), and all new data and information on antiperspirant drug products that have come to the agency's attention. PMID:12795305

  13. Analysis of Marketing Strategy for Food Supplements and Over-The-Counter Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Dzeparoski, Marjan; Trajkovic-Jolevska, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Marketing strategy is correlated with the regulations for the corresponding product category. Accordingly, there is a big difference in the marketing strategy of food supplements and over-the-counter medicines. In this paper are presented 2 different marketing strategies of a new small pharmaceutical company in two studies. The findings of studies analysis can be used for developing marketing strategies in the wider sense and other products, for other small to medium sized companies in other countries of interest with similar regulations and help them understand how to position and promote themselves and their products. PMID:27703582

  14. Atrial Fibrillation Due to Over The Counter Stimulant Drugs in A Young Adult.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar; Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2015-08-01

    The usage of over the counter stimulant drugs and energy drinks is increasing on a day to day basis for various purposes including work, sports and leisure among individuals in all age groups. Multiple formulations are available in the market including pills, liquid capsules and drinks in various flavours. Many of them contain excessively high doses of caffeine along with a variety of stimulant compounds that have multiple effects in different parts of the human body. The consumption of such high amounts of caffeine itself has shown to have caused cardiac arrhythmias in healthy individuals and when it is mixed with a number of stimulant compounds can be associated with a number of adverse effects in the human body. However, the awareness of such life threatening complications associated with these energy drinks does not exist among people who consume it on a day to day basis. We report a case of 25-year-old Caucasian male with no significant past medical history for cardiac diseases, no risk factors for atrial fibrillation, non smoker, occasional alcohol drinker who presents with new onset atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response due to the consumption of over the counter stimulant energy capsule which had high doses of caffeine. PMID:26435989

  15. Atrial Fibrillation Due to Over The Counter Stimulant Drugs in A Young Adult

    PubMed Central

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    The usage of over the counter stimulant drugs and energy drinks is increasing on a day to day basis for various purposes including work, sports and leisure among individuals in all age groups. Multiple formulations are available in the market including pills, liquid capsules and drinks in various flavours. Many of them contain excessively high doses of caffeine along with a variety of stimulant compounds that have multiple effects in different parts of the human body. The consumption of such high amounts of caffeine itself has shown to have caused cardiac arrhythmias in healthy individuals and when it is mixed with a number of stimulant compounds can be associated with a number of adverse effects in the human body. However, the awareness of such life threatening complications associated with these energy drinks does not exist among people who consume it on a day to day basis. We report a case of 25-year-old Caucasian male with no significant past medical history for cardiac diseases, no risk factors for atrial fibrillation, non smoker, occasional alcohol drinker who presents with new onset atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response due to the consumption of over the counter stimulant energy capsule which had high doses of caffeine. PMID:26435989

  16. Over-the-counter sleeping pills: a survey of use in Hong Kong and a review of their constituents.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ka Fai; Lee, Claire K Y

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the composition of over-the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills in Hong Kong and reviewed the current knowledge about the hypnotic efficacy and safety of their major herbal and dietary supplement constituents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of OTC sleep aids at drug stores in a residential district of 0.3 million population and literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, China Journal Net, China Biomedical Database and relevant English and Chinese literature. We identified 17 brands of OTC sleeping pill: eleven of them were composed of mixtures of Chinese and Western herbal agents and six brands contained 3 mg of melatonin. The Chinese herbal mixture suanzaorentang, comprising zizyphi spinosi semen, poria cocos, ligusticum wallichii, anemarrhenae rhizoma and glycyrrhizae radix in ratio of 7:5:2:1:1, was the most common OTC sleeping pill available in the survey. Our literature review showed that kava, valerian and melatonin were the better-researched herbs and dietary supplements, however, the data on hypnotic efficacy and safety was inadequate to support their clinical use. More rigorous investigations of the risk-benefit relationship of herbal agents and dietary supplements used for insomnia are needed. PMID:12490346

  17. Over-the-counter sleeping pills: a survey of use in Hong Kong and a review of their constituents.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ka Fai; Lee, Claire K Y

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the composition of over-the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills in Hong Kong and reviewed the current knowledge about the hypnotic efficacy and safety of their major herbal and dietary supplement constituents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of OTC sleep aids at drug stores in a residential district of 0.3 million population and literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, China Journal Net, China Biomedical Database and relevant English and Chinese literature. We identified 17 brands of OTC sleeping pill: eleven of them were composed of mixtures of Chinese and Western herbal agents and six brands contained 3 mg of melatonin. The Chinese herbal mixture suanzaorentang, comprising zizyphi spinosi semen, poria cocos, ligusticum wallichii, anemarrhenae rhizoma and glycyrrhizae radix in ratio of 7:5:2:1:1, was the most common OTC sleeping pill available in the survey. Our literature review showed that kava, valerian and melatonin were the better-researched herbs and dietary supplements, however, the data on hypnotic efficacy and safety was inadequate to support their clinical use. More rigorous investigations of the risk-benefit relationship of herbal agents and dietary supplements used for insomnia are needed.

  18. Child-resistant packaging for certain over-the-counter drug products. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2001-08-01

    Pursuant to its 3-0 vote to do so, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission) is issuing a rule to require child-resistant (CR) packaging on drugs (OTC switched drugs) approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for over-the-counter (OTC) sale that contain active ingredients previously available only in prescription drugs. Current Commission regulations require CR packaging for most oral drug products containing prescription-only active ingredients.However, prior to issuance of this rule there was no general requirement to maintain CR packaging of such drug products in forms subsequently approved by the FDA for OTC sale. The Commission is also revoking the current prohibition on granting a petition for an exemption from a CR packaging requirement prior to FDA approval of the drug product in question. The Commission takes these actions under authority of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970, as amended.

  19. Over-the-counter medicine and dietary supplement consumption among academic youth in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bochenek, Tomasz; Godman, Brian; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mikrut, Karolina; Zuziak, Sandra; Pedzisz, Magdalena; Nowak, Aneta; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines and dietary supplements are increasingly popular in Poland, potentially improving but also potentially posing a threat to public health. The study goal is to characterize and assess behaviors related to use of OTC medicines and dietary supplements among Polish university students. A questionnaire-based survey was performed with students divided into groups (gender, subjects studied, period of studies). The majority of students declared using the products, significantly more females and younger students in their early years. Females tended to be more attentive to product information. Students with a background in biological or medical sciences were also more attentive and less influenced by advertising. The authors present that the differences between the defined groups of students should be utilized in tailored educational activities, aiming to rationalize high consumption of OTC medicines and dietary supplements. Targeting other, especially low-socioeconomic and less-educated, groups should follow.

  20. Prescription to over-the-counter switches in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jongwha; Lizer, Allison; Patel, Isha; Bhatia, Deepak; Tan, Xi; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    As the role of the pharmacist becomes more patient and counseling-centered, the healthcare market is changing to keep pace with more modern needs, such as self-treatment. Self-treatment provides patients the ability to diagnose their own condition and pick an appropriate medication from the pharmacy to treat their symptoms. This process allows a certain freedom for consumers to actively engage in their own health. In order for patients to self-treat, access to over-the-counter (OTC) medication is of prime importance. Many medications that are available as OTC today were previously labeled as prescription medications. As more safety studies and trials are conducted for different drugs, they can be deemed appropriate for use without a prescription. This review study discusses the process of switching of prescription medications to OTC medications in the United States and the implications of switching on patients, practitioners, drug makers, and insurers. PMID:27512703

  1. Sulbutiamine, an 'innocent' over the counter drug, interferes with therapeutic outcome of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Douzenis, Athanasios; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient with bipolar disorder with a history of hospitalizations and addiction to sulbutiamine is presented. Sulbutiamine is a precursor of thiamine that crosses the blood-brain barrier and is widely available without prescription in most countries or over the internet. Because of this patient's need to consume ever increasing quantities of sulbutiamine, his psychiatric care was severely compromised through him defaulting appointments and frequent changes of psychiatrists. This paper reviews the current scientific knowledge about sulbutiamine, and some of the information and claims available on the web about its use and potential. It is argued that doctors need to be aware of the potential misuse of medication available over the counter or on the internet and its potential harmful influence. PMID:16861144

  2. Prescription to over-the-counter switches in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jongwha; Lizer, Allison; Patel, Isha; Bhatia, Deepak; Tan, Xi; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    As the role of the pharmacist becomes more patient and counseling-centered, the healthcare market is changing to keep pace with more modern needs, such as self-treatment. Self-treatment provides patients the ability to diagnose their own condition and pick an appropriate medication from the pharmacy to treat their symptoms. This process allows a certain freedom for consumers to actively engage in their own health. In order for patients to self-treat, access to over-the-counter (OTC) medication is of prime importance. Many medications that are available as OTC today were previously labeled as prescription medications. As more safety studies and trials are conducted for different drugs, they can be deemed appropriate for use without a prescription. This review study discusses the process of switching of prescription medications to OTC medications in the United States and the implications of switching on patients, practitioners, drug makers, and insurers. PMID:27512703

  3. An overview of over the counter drugs in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Das, B P; Joshi, M; Pant, C R

    2006-01-01

    Over the counter (OTC) drugs are commonly used by pregnant women. Most OTC drugs are safe in pregnancy but some have unproven safety and may adversely affect the growing foetus. The safety profile of some of the medication may change according to the gestational age of the foetus. Because an estimated 10% or more of the birth defects results from maternal drug exposure, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has assigned a risk category to each drugs. Among the commonly used OTC drugs Acetaminophen, Chlorpheniramine, Kaolin and Pectin preparations and most antacids have a good safety record. The drugs like H2 blockers; Pseudoephedrine and Atropine/Diphenoxylate should be used with caution. The risk and benefit while using OTC drugs in pregnancy has to be assessed.

  4. A Model of Consumer Response to Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final behavioral outcome. Several noteworthy patterns also emerged: (a) Product involvement was directly linked to ad attention, rather than exerting an indirect influence through ad involvement; (b) ad attention was significantly related to both cognitive and affective/evaluative responses to different degrees, with stronger links to cognitive responses; and

  5. Analysis of licensed over-the-counter (OTC) antibiotics in the European Union and Norway, 2012.

    PubMed

    Both, Leonard; Botgros, Radu; Cavaleri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognised as a growing problem that seriously threatens public health and requires prompt action. Concerns have therefore been raised about the potential harmful effects of making antibiotics available without prescription. Because of the very serious concerns regarding further spread of resistance, the over-the-counter (OTC) availability of antibiotics was analysed here. Topical and systemic OTC antibiotics and their indications were determined across 26 European Union (EU) countries and Norway by means of a European survey. We identified a total of 48 OTC products containing 20 different single antibiotics and three antibiotic combinations as active substances, used mainly as topical preparations in short treatment courses. Given the relevance of these medicines and the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance, it is important to limit the availability of OTC antibiotics and to monitor their use. PMID:26530125

  6. A Model of Consumer Response to Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final behavioral outcome. Several noteworthy patterns also emerged: (a) Product involvement was directly linked to ad attention, rather than exerting an indirect influence through ad involvement; (b) ad attention was significantly related to both cognitive and affective/evaluative responses to different degrees, with stronger links to cognitive responses; and PMID:26312772

  7. Consumer involvement: effects on information processing from over-the-counter medication labels.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S; Sansgiry, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumer involvement on information processing from over-the-counter (OTC) medication labels. A sample of 256 students evaluated simulated OTC product labels for two product categories (headache and cold) in random order. Each participant evaluated labels after reading a scenario to simulate high and low involvement respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect data on variables such as label comprehension, attitude-towards-product label, product evaluation, and purchase intention. The results indicate that when consumers are involved in their purchase of OTC medications they are significantly more likely to understand information from the label and evaluate it accordingly. However, involvement does not affect attitude-towards-product label nor does it enhance purchase intention. PMID:11727293

  8. Designer steroids - over-the-counter supplements and their androgenic component: review of an increasing problem.

    PubMed

    Rahnema, C D; Crosnoe, L E; Kim, E D

    2015-03-01

    Colloquially referred to by various misleading monikers ('pro-hormones', 'natural steroids', 'testosterone boosters', etc.) designer anabolic steroids have been popular now for over a decade as a way to achieve classic anabolic steroid-like results from products sold in the legal marketplace. Recent evidence suggests that anabolic steroid use may be the most common cause of hypogonadism in men of reproductive age. Despite recent regulatory efforts that have banned specific compounds, many anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) remain available in over-the-counter dietary supplements that are legally sold in the United States. Severe side effects including hepatotoxicity, cholestasis, renal failure, hypogonadism, gynecomastia, and infertility have been reported secondary to the use of these products. While some of these side effects may be reversible, more aggressive use may result in more permanent end-organ damage as has been previously described for the case of aggressive AAS users (Rahnema et al., Fertil Steril, 2014). Designer AAS remain easily available for purchase in over-the-counter bodybuilding supplements and these products appear to be increasingly popular, despite the known health risks associated with their use. We conducted a systematic search to identify the designer steroids that are most commonly sold in dietary supplements as of April 2014 and review what is known regarding their potency and toxicity. We propose that the impact of AAS use on the reproductive and hormonal health of men is underestimated in the literature owing to previous studies' failure to account for designer steroid use. Lastly, we make clinical recommendations to help physicians steer patients away from potentially harmful supplements, and summarize key regulatory obstacles that have allowed potent androgens to remain unregulated in the legal marketplace.

  9. Perspectives on switching oral acyclovir from prescription to over-the-counter status: report of a consensus panel.

    PubMed

    Sande, M A; Armstrong, D; Corey, L; Drew, W L; Gilbert, D; Moellering, R C; Smith, L G

    1998-03-01

    The proposed switching of oral acyclovir from prescription to over-the-counter (OTC) status for the 5-day episodic treatment of genital herpes was considered by a consensus panel. It was concluded that self-diagnosis/misdiagnosis, misuse, and adverse drug effects were potential problems with the OTC use of acyclovir. While acyclovir reduces asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2, the reduction in transmission of virus potentially resulting from increased acyclovir use was felt to be of unknown extent but likely to be of benefit overall. The availability of acyclovir would likely be improved. There were differences in opinion as to whether widespread availability of acyclovir (prescription or OTC) may speed the development of viral resistance. However, all panel members felt that granting OTC status may set an undesirable precedent for the switch from prescription to OTC use of other systemically administered antiinfective agents. The effect of this precedent, in terms of accelerating development of multidrug-resistant bacteria, was a major concern of all panel members. The consensus was that the switch of acyclovir to OTC status could not be supported. PMID:9524840

  10. Accuracy of information on printed over-the-counter drug advertisements.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, S; Sharp, W T; Sansgiry, S S

    1999-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer drug advertising is a useful medium for educating people and disseminating product information. Consumers make product purchase decisions based on the information gained from advertisements. If advertisements are misleading, consumers may not have adequate drug knowledge to detect this misinformation. The objective of this study was to evaluate print advertisements for over-the-counter (OTC) products. Five clinical pharmacists evaluated print advertisements appearing in three consumer periodicals. Advertisements were selected over a nine month period beginning January 1994. Accuracy of information on OTC advertisements was determined based on federal guidelines. Additionally, reviewers identified deficiencies in advertisements that may mislead consumers. According to reviewers, around 50% of advertisements lacked accurate statements. Side effects were indicated on only one advertisement. All advertisements were indicated by reviewers to be more promotional than educational. Reviewers indicated that more than 50% of advertisements lacked information essential for consumers to make an informed choice during self-medication decisions. This study indicates that OTC drug advertisements lack information necessary for consumers to make informed purchase decisions. Inaccurate information and lack of information on side effects could mislead consumers causing harmful adverse events.

  11. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    PubMed

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales. PMID:26861972

  12. Rosacea Patient Perspectives on Homeopathic and Over-the-counter Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Lucy; Kuo, Sandy; Huang, Karen E.; Taylor, Sarah L.; Feldman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rosacea patients commonly employ nonprescription therapies. The authors’ aim was to understand rosacea patients’ perceptions of over-the-counter products, complementary and alternative medicine, and homeopathic therapies. Method: A public, online discussion forum comprising 3,350 members and 27,051 posts provided a source of 346 posts on patient perceptions on alternative rosacea treatments. Results: Three major themes of nonprescription treatment were identified—motivation for use, patient-provider discussions, and experience with these treatments. Perceived medication failure, barriers to treatment, and distrust of physicians drive patients to seek nonprescription therapies. Still, patients prefer to consult a physician on incorporating nonprescription therapies into treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine natural products (19.4% of posts), complementary and alternative medicine practices (16.5%), and homeopathic medicine (3.8%) were commonly discussed. Conclusion: Physicians have an opportunity to be a trusted source of information on the strengths and weaknesses of skin care products and other complementary treatments for rosacea. PMID:26557217

  13. Accuracy of information on printed over-the-counter drug advertisements.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, S; Sharp, W T; Sansgiry, S S

    1999-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer drug advertising is a useful medium for educating people and disseminating product information. Consumers make product purchase decisions based on the information gained from advertisements. If advertisements are misleading, consumers may not have adequate drug knowledge to detect this misinformation. The objective of this study was to evaluate print advertisements for over-the-counter (OTC) products. Five clinical pharmacists evaluated print advertisements appearing in three consumer periodicals. Advertisements were selected over a nine month period beginning January 1994. Accuracy of information on OTC advertisements was determined based on federal guidelines. Additionally, reviewers identified deficiencies in advertisements that may mislead consumers. According to reviewers, around 50% of advertisements lacked accurate statements. Side effects were indicated on only one advertisement. All advertisements were indicated by reviewers to be more promotional than educational. Reviewers indicated that more than 50% of advertisements lacked information essential for consumers to make an informed choice during self-medication decisions. This study indicates that OTC drug advertisements lack information necessary for consumers to make informed purchase decisions. Inaccurate information and lack of information on side effects could mislead consumers causing harmful adverse events. PMID:11010213

  14. Hand-Held Instrument Fights Acne, Tops Over-the-Counter Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tyrell Inc., a Houston-based medical technologies company, was able to access engineering support in redesigning a heating element for a hand-held acne-fighting device through SATOP, NASA's Space Alliance Technology Outreach Program. SATOP put Tyrell in contact with The Boeing Company, which assessed the design and made several major contributions. The product, named Zeno, is now the highest selling over-the-counter medical device for the treatment of acne, and in 2006, Zeno was named the "SATOP Texas, Success Story of the Year." Zeno employs proprietary ClearPoint technology to provide relief of mild to moderate inflammatory acne by delivering a precisely controlled low-level dosage of heat to the blemish, causing the bacteria at the root of more than 90 percent of acne to self-destruct. Within its first year on the market, Zeno was cited by various publications for several awards, including Allure's 2005 "Best of Beauty," Marie Claire's "10 Best Gadgets for Girls," and Popular Science's 2005 "Best of What's New." A variation of the Zeno for use in treating herpetic lesions such as cold sores, by killing the virus that causes them, is currently undergoing FDA trials.

  15. Perioperative Use of Herbal, Complementary, and Over the Counter Medicines in Plastic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Declan; Oakey, Steve; Ramakrishnan, Venkat

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Over the last 50 years, there has been a surge of interest by both the public and medical practitioners in therapies and disciplines that are not considered part of mainstream medical care. The title given to these is complementary and alternative medicine. Of all these branches, our interest is the increasing use of herbal medicines, traditional medicines (such as Chinese or Indian), homeopathy and “dietary supplements,” and the influence they may have on our practice. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and reasons for use of complementary and alternative medicines, the current regulations, and proposed policy changes affecting the licensing of these products. In addition, we highlight some of the problems that have been experienced with herbal and traditional medicines. Methods: A prospective analysis of herbal and over the counter medicines used by elective plastic surgery patients. Results: Of 100 elective plastic surgery patients undergoing procedures at St Andrew's Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery, 44% of patients were taking a dietary supplement, herbal, or homeopathic remedy. In none of the patients was this documented in the notes by either the surgeon or anesthetist. Conclusions: We recommend that clear documentation of the use of nonprescribed medicines becomes part of standard practice and, furthermore, that patients stop all such medications 2 weeks prior to surgery until the efficacy, interactions, and safety profiles are clearly established. PMID:21625528

  16. Management of common cold symptoms with over-the-counter medications: clearing the confusion.

    PubMed

    Jackson Allen, Patricia; Simenson, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The common cold, an acute upper respiratory tract infection of viral origin, is among the most widespread ailments in the world. Although the general public usually relies on over-the-counter (OTC) medication(s) to treat cough/cold symptoms, reliable guidance is needed to help select the appropriate OTC medication for each individual. Consumers may be confused by the wide variety of products available, containing ≥ 1 active pharmaceutical ingredient. Health care professionals are in a position to help people identify the most bothersome symptom(s), evaluate underlying medical conditions and medications, and recommend the most appropriate OTC active ingredient(s) for treatment. Patients should be educated about available OTC medications to manage cough/cold symptoms and the importance of learning to read the package labeling for appropriate dosing and administration. In addition, potentially serious causes of cough/cold symptoms (eg, influenza, asthma, bronchitis) or underlying medical conditions that put the individual at increased risk for complications should be ruled out when symptoms do not resolve within a typical cold timeline. This review article discusses the active ingredients found in OTC medications and the clinical evidence supporting their use. The need to educate health care professionals and patients on the safe and effective use of OTC medications is addressed, and we offer a guide for the management of symptoms that appear during the timeline of a typical common cold.

  17. Adverse drug reactions and drug–drug interactions with over-the-counter NSAIDs

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Nicholas; Pollack, Charles; Butkerait, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen have a long history of safe and effective use as both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics/antipyretics. The mechanism of action of all NSAIDs is through reversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) including gastrointestinal bleeding as well as cardiovascular and renal effects have been reported with NSAID use. In many cases, ADRs may occur because of drug–drug interactions (DDIs) between the NSAID and a concomitant medication. For example, DDIs have been reported when NSAIDs are coadministered with aspirin, alcohol, some antihypertensives, antidepressants, and other commonly used medications. Because of the pharmacologic nature of these interactions, there is a continuum of risk in that the potential for an ADR is dependent on total drug exposure. Therefore, consideration of dose and duration of NSAID use, as well as the type or class of comedication administered, is important when assessing potential risk for ADRs. Safety findings from clinical studies evaluating prescription-strength NSAIDs may not be directly applicable to OTC dosing. Health care providers can be instrumental in educating patients that using OTC NSAIDs at the lowest effective dose for the shortest required duration is vital to balancing efficacy and safety. This review discusses some of the most clinically relevant DDIs reported with NSAIDs based on major sites of ADRs and classes of medication, with a focus on OTC ibuprofen, for which the most data are available. PMID:26203254

  18. Adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions with over-the-counter NSAIDs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicholas; Pollack, Charles; Butkerait, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen have a long history of safe and effective use as both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics/antipyretics. The mechanism of action of all NSAIDs is through reversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) including gastrointestinal bleeding as well as cardiovascular and renal effects have been reported with NSAID use. In many cases, ADRs may occur because of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between the NSAID and a concomitant medication. For example, DDIs have been reported when NSAIDs are coadministered with aspirin, alcohol, some antihypertensives, antidepressants, and other commonly used medications. Because of the pharmacologic nature of these interactions, there is a continuum of risk in that the potential for an ADR is dependent on total drug exposure. Therefore, consideration of dose and duration of NSAID use, as well as the type or class of comedication administered, is important when assessing potential risk for ADRs. Safety findings from clinical studies evaluating prescription-strength NSAIDs may not be directly applicable to OTC dosing. Health care providers can be instrumental in educating patients that using OTC NSAIDs at the lowest effective dose for the shortest required duration is vital to balancing efficacy and safety. This review discusses some of the most clinically relevant DDIs reported with NSAIDs based on major sites of ADRs and classes of medication, with a focus on OTC ibuprofen, for which the most data are available. PMID:26203254

  19. Over-the-Counter Hearing Aids: A Lost Decade for Change

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Zoe Yee Ting; McPherson, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hearing aids sold directly to consumers in retail stores or through the internet, without individual prescription by audiological professionals, are termed over-the-counter (OTC) devices. This study aimed to determine whether there was any change in the electroacoustic characteristics of OTC devices compared to research carried out a decade earlier. The previous results indicated that most OTC devices were low-frequency-emphasis devices and were unsuitable for elderly people with presbycusis, who were likely to be the major consumers of these products. Methods. Ten OTC devices were selected and their electroacoustic performance was measured. Appropriate clients for the OTC devices were derived, using four linear prescription formulae, and OTC suitability for elderly persons with presbycusis was investigated. Results. OTC electroacoustic characteristics were similar to those in the earlier study. Most OTC devices were not acoustically appropriate for potential consumers with presbycusis. Although several of the devices could match prescriptive targets for individuals with presbycusis, their poor electroacoustic performance—including ineffective volume control function, high equivalent input noise, and irregular frequency response—may override their potential benefit. Conclusion. The low-cost OTC devices were generally not suitable for the main consumers of these products, and there has been little improvement in the appropriateness of these devices over the past decade. PMID:26557701

  20. Over-The-Counter Nicotine Replacement Therapy: Can its impact on smoking cessation be enhanced?

    PubMed Central

    Amodei, Nancy; Lamb, Rick. J.

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are efficacious smoking cessation aids. However, only minimal increases in smoking cessation followed NRT being made available over-the-counter (OTC) which presumably made these treatments more readily available. To better understand why the U.S. did not experience improvements in smoking cessation following the OTC availability of NRT, it is useful to review factors that determine NRT’s impact on smoking cessation and how these factors played out with the introduction of OTC NRT. We contend that for NRT to have a greater impact on public health, we need to increase the number of individuals making a quit attempt, the proportion using NRT in a quit attempt, and the effectiveness of each quit attempt. Even small increases in the impact of OTC NRT could yield significant benefits in terms of morbidity and mortality. The remainder of this paper provides examples of interventions designed to target each of the above mentioned factors individually as well as examples of interventions that link increased cessation attempts, increased NRT reach, and increased NRT efficacy in order to synergistically increase the impact of OTC NRT. PMID:19071972

  1. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of over the counter cough medicines for acute cough in adults

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Knut; Fahey, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether over the counter cough medicines are effective for acute cough in adults. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Search of the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group specialised register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Embase, and the UK Department of Health National Research Register in all languages. Included studies All randomised controlled trials that compared oral over the counter cough preparations with placebo in adults with acute cough due to upper respiratory tract infection in ambulatory settings and that had cough symptoms as an outcome. Results 15 trials involving 2166 participants met all the inclusion criteria. Antihistamines seemed to be no better than placebo. There was conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of antitussives, expectorants, antihistamine-decongestant combinations, and other drug combinations compared with placebo. Conclusion Over the counter cough medicines for acute cough cannot be recommended because there is no good evidence for their effectiveness. Even when trials had significant results, the effect sizes were small and of doubtful clinical relevance. Because of the small number of trials in each category, the results have to be interpreted cautiously. What is already know on this topicThe NHS encourages self treatment of acute self limiting illnessesOver the counter cough medicines are commonly used as first line treatment for acute coughWhat this study addsThere is little evidence for or against the effectiveness of over the counter cough medicinesAlthough cough medicines are generally well tolerated, they may be an unnecessary expenseRecommendation of over the counter cough medicines to patients is not justified by current evidence PMID:11834560

  2. Severe Symptomatic Hypermagnesemia Associated with Over-the-Counter Laxatives in a Patient with Renal Failure and Sigmoid Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Khairi, Talal; Amer, Syed; Spitalewitz, Samuel; Alasadi, Lutfi

    2014-01-01

    Hypermagnesemia is an uncommon but a potentially serious clinical condition. Over-the-counter magnesium containing products are widely used as antacids or laxatives. Although generally well tolerated in patients with normal renal function, their unsupervised use in the elderly can result in severe symptomatic hypermagnesemia, especially in those patients with concomitant renal failure and bowel disorders. We report a case of severe symptomatic hypermagnesemia associated with over-the-counter laxatives in a 70-year-old male patient with renal failure and sigmoid volvulus, who was successfully treated with hemodialysis. PMID:24563801

  3. Using the theory of planned behavior to predict self-medication with over-the-counter analgesics.

    PubMed

    Pineles, Lisa L; Parente, Rick

    2013-12-01

    Millions of people worldwide use over-the-counter analgesics on a regular basis; yet little is known about how decisions to self-medicate are made. This study used the theory of planned behavior to explore the influence of beliefs about medicines (Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire) and individual pain experience as predictors of intent to self-medicate. Both emerged as significant predictors of intent to self-medicate. Furthermore, intent to self-medicate significantly predicted reported use of analgesics. These findings indicate that use of over-the-counter pain medication is more likely when the value of the pain relief is greater than concerns about harm.

  4. Switching of prescription drugs to over-the-counter status: is it a good thing for the elderly?

    PubMed

    Francis, Sally-Anne; Barnett, Nina; Denham, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Prescription medicines are increasingly being switched to over-the-counter (OTC, nonprescription) status in the developed world, with the support of government policy. These changes may provide greater choice for individuals and offer potential savings in government spending on health while expanding the market for pharmaceutical companies. However, there is concern regarding the safety of these reclassifications. Elderly people are the largest consumers of prescription and OTC medicines and are more vulnerable to drug adverse effects and the risks of multiple or inappropriate medications. Commonly purchased agents such as NSAIDs have recognised adverse effects which have been shown to be more common in the elderly. Furthermore, all sedatives, including antihistamines, have a propensity to cause falls in older people. As many doctors do not ask patients about OTC medicine use, problems related to use of these drugs may go undetected. Furthermore, the increased availability of OTCs may result in a delay in patients consulting medical practitioners for potentially serious conditions, although this has not so far been investigated. In the UK, the recent switch of a low-dose HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) to OTC status has caused concern. Although there might theoretically be some benefits from improved access to medications used in primary and secondary prevention of heart disease, the actual outcomes of use of this reduced dose of the statin will be difficult or impossible for patients or practitioners to monitor. OTC drug use implies a mutual responsibility for communication between patients and health professionals that in practice is not always achieved. Epidemiological research is needed to investigate patterns of OTC use and evaluate the potential risks of OTC medicines in elderly people. Governments, regulatory bodies, professionals and the drug industry have a responsibility to ensure that robust systems are in place if the increased use of OTC medicines

  5. Preclinical, Clinical, and Over-the-Counter Postmarketing Experience with a New Vaginal Cup: Menstrual Collection

    PubMed Central

    North, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Menstrual cups have been available for decades, but their use is limited by bulky design and the need for multiple sizes. The Softcup® (Instead, Inc., San Diego, CA) is a simple single-size disposable over-the-counter (OTC) menstrual cup that compresses to tampon shape to facilitate insertion and can be worn during coitus. This report describes preclinical evaluation, clinical testing, and postmarketing monitoring of the Softcup. Methods Preclinical testing complied with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and used standard United States Pharmacopoeia methodologies for assessment of potential toxicity. Clinical testing enrolled 406 women in seven U.S. centers. A detailed written questionnaire assessed safety, acceptability, and effectiveness for menstrual collection. Study safety parameters included pelvic examinations, Pap smears, colposcopy, urinalysis, vaginal pH, wet mounts, gram stain, and vaginal microflora cultures. Postmarketing surveillance of over 100 million Softcups has been conducted by the manufacturer and by the FDA Medwatch system. Results No toxicity or mutagenicity was observed in preclinical evaluations. In clinical testing, after three cycles of cup use, 37% of subjects rated the cup as better than, 29% as worse than, and 34% as equal to pads or tampons. The cup was preferred for comfort, dryness, and less odor. Cups received lower ratings for disposal and convenience. Eighty-one percent of enrolled women were able to insert and remove their first cup using only written instructions. Use difficulties resulting in study discontinuations included cramping (1%), leakage (1%), and improper fit (3%). No safety parameters were adversely affected. No significant health risks were reported during postmarketing surveillance. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a single-size vaginal device has no significant health risks and is acceptable to many women without the need for fitting or other medical services. PMID

  6. Over-the-counter medication patterns in households in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Zaghloul, Ashraf Ahmad; Elsergany, Moetaz; El-Enein, Nagwa Abou; Alsuwaidi, Hamda; Ayoub, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-medication and acquisition of over-the-counter (OTC) medications are emerging community health issues. Besides being a cheap alternative for treating common illnesses, the behavior entails serious ramifications, such as medication wastage, increasing pathogen resistance, and adverse drug reactions. The present study was conducted to explore the extent of OTC medications in households in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE), including native UAE and expatriate families. Methods The study employed a population-based, cross-sectional, analytical study design. The study population included native and expatriate households residing in the Emirate of Sharjah, UAE. The snowball sampling technique was used, and the sample included a total of 335 households. Results Expatriate households acquired more OTC medications than did native households (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.7). The demographic determinants for expatriate households were number of family members (aOR=1.6), age of children in the family (aOR=1.8), and annual income (aOR=0.5). Expatriate households purchased more OTC medication practices than did native households (aOR=2.2). In the statistical sense, expatriate household practices were buying medication upon relatives’ advice (aOR=0.3), storage condition of medication (aOR=2.4), and disposal of expired medication (aOR=0.6). The highest percentages of OTC medications in native and expatriate households were those related to gastric and ear, nose, and throat illnesses. Conclusion The presence of OTC medications in expatriate households was two-fold more common than in native households in Sharjah, UAE. There were significant associations for behaviors related to the reasons why OTC medications were purchased and stored within the household for both native and expatriate families. PMID:24403846

  7. Chlorpheniramine, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and over-the-counter (OTC) treatment.

    PubMed

    Hellbom, Einar

    2006-01-01

    Some old antihistamines were selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the SSRI effect was discovered by Nobel Laureate Professor Arvid Carlsson as early as 1969. Chlorpheniramine was the most active of the tested drugs, and it compares favourably with amitriptyline and imipramine with respect to actions on both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons. Chlorpheniramine can be called a SSRI, since the blocking of 5HT is stronger than the effect on noradrenaline neurons; however it might also be called a selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI) and be compared with new drugs, such as venlafaxine. Carlsson suggested the potential value of clinical studies of the antidepressant properties of this and related antihistamine drugs. But, in the event, no such trials were ever performed at the time. However, later clinical observations of the benefits of dex-chlorpheniramine treatment in panic disorder have been published. Clinical experience suggests that patients using chlorpheniramine, and having also a concomitant depression or panic disorder, may experience a return of symptoms when their old drug is changed to a new antihistamine lacking SSRI effects. Yet this phenomenon is not known to many doctors, and even less known to the large number of patients buying chlorpheniramine under various trade names over-the-counter (OTC) at a low price for self-treatment of hay fewer or as a cold remedy. Chlorpheniramine was introduced in USA under the name Chlor-Trimeton as long ago as July 1950, and is still on the market. Therefore, this SSRI is now over 50 years old. If chlorpheniramine had been tested in depression in the nineteen seventies, it is probable that a safe, inexpensive SSRI drug could have been used some 15 years earlier than fluoxetine - which became available in 1987. Chlorpheniramine might have been the first safe, non-cardiotoxic and well-tolerated antidepressant. Billions of dollars in the development and marketing costs would

  8. Over-the-counter treatments and perineal hygiene in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Martin, Deanna K.; Brousseau, E. Christine; Yip, Sallis O.; Fried, Terri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this descriptive study was to quantify the personal hygiene habits/practices and over-the-counter (OTC) products used by postmenopausal women. Specifically, we were interested in any product that would contact the vulva or vagina. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of postmenopausal women seeking routine gynecologic care. We developed questionnaire of personal hygiene habits/practices and OTC products used by women that would contact the vulva or vagina. We recruited postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care from two separate gynecology practices. Descriptive statistics were performed as appropriate to characterize the frequency of reported treatments and practices. Results The questionnaire on OTC treatments and perineal hygiene was completed by 114 postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight women (50.9%) reported using at least one OTC vulvovaginal treatment in the last three months, including barrier treatments, topical anesthetics, powders, and antifungals. Women often used more than one OTC product. Thirty-seven women (32.5%) reported the use of two or more OTC products. Powders were used by 34 women (29.8%). Talcum powder was the most commonly used powder (76.5%, n/N = 26/34). Nine (7.9%) postmenopausal women reported douching in the last three months. Conclusions We found that over half of postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care have used an OTC product for vulvovaginal symptoms in the last three months and 1/3 of women use 2 or more products. Because the use of OTC products is so common, our study highlights the need for detailed history inquiry about OTC product use and perineal hygiene practices. PMID:23880795

  9. Surveillance and uncertainty: community pharmacy responses to over the counter medicine abuse.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from community pharmacies offers important opportunities for members of the public to access medicines and self-treat conditions. They are increasingly recognised, however, as having the potential for abuse and harm despite their perceived relative safety. This study reports on a qualitative study that explored the experiences and views of community pharmacy staff in relation to current practices and concerns, management and support relating to OTC medicine abuse. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of ten pharmacists and seven medicines counter assistants in the United Kingdom. Analysis of interviews indicated that a range of medicines was implicated, including opiates, sedative antihistamines, laxatives and decongestants. A surveillance role was apparent for assistants, who placed emphasis on regulations, procedure and monitoring frequency of purchases to manage abuse, with referral on to pharmacists. Frequency of purchase was central to assistants' definition of those suspected of OTC medicine abuse, which pharmacists also utilised as well as a distinction between intentional abuse and unintentional medicine misuse. A lack of information about customers, easy access to, and poor communication between community pharmacies were emergent barriers to pharmacists providing more support. Many appeared uncertain of referral options or how pharmacists could effectively stop the problem of abuse. The commercial environment was a particular concern, in relation to customer expectations, medicine advertising and easy access to different community pharmacies. A key tension emerged between providing medicine supplies that permitted consumer freedom, with the needs of healthcare professionals to understand more about those consumers qua patients. Policy implications include the need for improved knowledge for community pharmacy staff about signposting to relevant services, increased awareness of who

  10. The Impact of Restricting Over-the-Counter Sales of Antimicrobial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Maria Luísa; Boszczowski, Icaro; Mortari, Naíma; Barrozo, Lígia Vizeu; Neto, Francisco Chiaravalloti; Lobo, Renata Desordi; Pedroso de Lima, Antonio Carlos; Levin, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To describe the nationwide impact of a restrictive law on over-the-counter sales of antimicrobial drugs, implemented in Brazil in November 2010. Approximately 75% of the population receives healthcare from the public health system and receives free-of-charge medication if prescribed. Total sales in private pharmacies as compared with other channels of sales of oral antibiotics were evaluated in this observational study before and after the law (2008–2012). Defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) was used as standard unit. In private pharmacies the effect of the restrictive law was statistically significant (P < 0.001) with an estimated decrease in DDD/TID of 1.87 (s.e. =  0.18). In addition, the trend of DDD/TID before the restrictive law was greater than after the intervention (P < 0.001). Before November 2010, the slope for the trend line was estimated as 0.08 (s.e. = 0.01) whereas after the law, the estimated slope was 0.03 (s.e. = 0.01). As for the nonprivate channels, no difference in sales was observed (P = 0.643). The impact in the South and Southeast (more developed) regions was higher than in the North, Northeast, and Mid-West. The state capitals had a 19% decrease, compared with 0.8% increase in the rest of the states. Before the law, the sales of antimicrobial drugs were steadily increasing. From November 2010, with the restrictive law, there was an abrupt drop in sales followed by an increase albeit at a significantly lower rate. The impact was higher in regions with better socio-economic status. PMID:26402824

  11. Adherence to Label and Device Recommendations for Over-the-Counter Pediatric Liquid Medications

    PubMed Central

    Budnitz, Daniel S.; Lovegrove, Maribeth C.; Rose, Kathleen O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce dosing errors when administering orally-ingested over-the-counter (OTC) liquid medications, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA) released voluntary recommendations for dosing directions and dosing devices. This study assessed recommendation adherence for national brand-name orally-ingested OTC liquid pediatric analgesics/antipyretics and cough, cold, and allergy medications available after the FDA Guidance was finalized in 2011 in order to identify and prioritize specific improvements to dosing directions and dosing devices. Methods Recommendations were categorized as top tier or low tier based on potential to directly address ≥3-fold dosing errors. Labeled dosing directions and accompanying dosing devices were assessed by 2 independent reviewers for adherence to specific recommendations. Results Of 68 products, 91% of dosing directions and 62% of dosing devices adhered to all top tier recommendations; 57% of products adhered to every top tier recommendation and 93% adhered to all or all but one. A dosing was included with all products. No dosing directions used atypical volumetric units (e.g., drams), and no devices used volumetric units that did not appear in dosing directions. Six products used trailing zeros or failed to use leading zeros with decimal doses and 8 did not use small font for fractions. Product adherence to low tier recommendations ranged from 26% to 91%. Conclusion Products adhered to most recommendations in the final FDA Guidance and CHPA Guideline suggesting that these voluntary initiatives promote adherence to recommendations. Improving adherence to recommendations should be prioritized based on potential to reduce harm. PMID:24394683

  12. Determination of fluorescent whitening agents in laundry detergents and surface waters by solid-phase extraction and ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shu, Wei-Chuan; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2005-09-23

    A simple method was developed to detect four stilbene-type disulfonate and one distyrylbiphenyl-type fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in household laundry detergents and surface waters by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. The FWA concentrations in detergents were measured directly. The contents of FWAs in water samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction (C18-SPE) with ion-pairing reagent, and were then determined by an isocratic ion-pair chromatography (IPC) using a C18 column, applying tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate (TBA) as the ion-pairing reagent in mobile phase, and equipped with fluorescence detection. Water samples at various pH conditions for SPE were evaluated. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is precise and sensitive in analyzing FWAs, and enables quantitation of 0.01-0.1 microg/l in 100 ml water samples. The recovery rates of FWAs in spiked water samples were between 73 and 89%, and the precision (RSD) ranged from 2.6 to 8.9%. Over 7200 microg/g of 4,4'-bis(2-sulfostryl)-biphenyl (DSBP) and 2320 microg/g of 4,4'-bis[(4-anilino-6-morpholino-1,3,5-triazine-2-yl)-amino]stilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DAS1) were detected in household laundry detergents. Trace amounts of DSBP were detected in surface water samples ranging from 0.2 to 3.7 microg/l.

  13. Simultaneous determination of 11 fluorescent whitening agents in food-contact paper and board by ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dingguo; Chen, Lisong; Fu, Wusheng; Qiu, Hanquan

    2015-02-01

    4,4'-Diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid based fluorescent whitening agents (DSD-FWAs) are prohibited in food-contact paper and board in many countries. In this work, a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 common DSD-FWAs in paper material. Sample preparation and extraction as well as chromatographic separation of multicomponent DSD-FWAs were successfully optimized. DSD-FWAs in prepared samples were ultrasonically extracted with acetonitrile/water/triethylamine (40:60:1, v/v/v), separated on the C(18) column with the mobile phase containing tetrabutylammonium bromide, and then detected by a fluorescence detector. The limits of detection were 0.12-0.24 mg/kg, and the calibration curves showed the linear correlation (R(2) ≥ 0.9994) within the range of 8.0-100 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the range of 0.80-10 mg/kg in the sample. The average recoveries and the RSDs were 81-106% and 2-9% at two fortification levels (1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) in paper bowls, respectively. The successful determination of 11 DSD-FWAs in food-contact paper and board obtained from local markets indicated that the newly developed method was rapid, accurate, and highly selective.

  14. Over the Counter, under the Radar: Inequitably Distributing New York City's Late-Enrolling High School Students. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Toi Sin; Fruchter, Norm; Mokhtar, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Every year, some 36,000 students who enroll in New York City high schools without participating in the high school choice process are labeled as "over-the-counter" or OTC students and are assigned a school by the New York City Department of Education (DOE). These young people are among the school system's highest-needs students: new…

  15. Over the Counter, under the Radar: Inequitably Distributing New York City's Late-Enrolling High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Toi Sin; Fruchter, Norm; Mokhtar, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Every year, some 36,000 students who enroll in New York City high schools without participating in the high school choice process are labeled as "over-the-counter" or OTC students and are assigned a school by the New York City Department of Education (DOE). These young people are among the school system's highest-needs students: new…

  16. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy. 310.532 Section 310.532 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements...

  17. 31 CFR 359.34 - May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series I... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Definitive Series I Savings Bonds § 359.34 May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter? You may purchase definitive bonds...

  18. 31 CFR 359.34 - May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series I... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Definitive Series I Savings Bonds § 359.34 May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter? You may purchase definitive bonds...

  19. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. 310.546... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... muscle cramps, i.e., a condition of localized pain in the lower extremities usually occurring in...

  20. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. 310.546... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... muscle cramps, i.e., a condition of localized pain in the lower extremities usually occurring in...

  1. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. 310.546... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... muscle cramps, i.e., a condition of localized pain in the lower extremities usually occurring in...

  2. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. 310.546... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... muscle cramps, i.e., a condition of localized pain in the lower extremities usually occurring in...

  3. To the Federal Trade Commission in the Matter of a Trade Regulation Rule on Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Children, Media, and Merchandising, Washington, DC.

    This report supports amending the proposed Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Rule on Over-the Counter (OTC) Drug Advertising to insure better protection for children, illiterate populations, the deaf and the blind, from advertising on the air-waves. Several points are addressed: (1) the difficulties of combining the rule making schedules of the Food…

  4. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy. 310.532 Section 310.532 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements...

  5. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a...

  6. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a...

  7. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a...

  8. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a...

  9. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a...

  10. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310...) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. (a) Colloidal silver ingredients and silver salts have... disease conditions. There are serious and complicating aspects to many of the diseases these...

  11. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310...) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. (a) Colloidal silver ingredients and silver salts have... disease conditions. There are serious and complicating aspects to many of the diseases these...

  12. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310...) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. (a) Colloidal silver ingredients and silver salts have... disease conditions. There are serious and complicating aspects to many of the diseases these...

  13. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310...) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. (a) Colloidal silver ingredients and silver salts have... disease conditions. There are serious and complicating aspects to many of the diseases these...

  14. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310...) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. (a) Colloidal silver ingredients and silver salts have... disease conditions. There are serious and complicating aspects to many of the diseases these...

  15. 21 CFR 310.542 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.542 Over-the-counter (OTC) drug... treatment of hyperphosphatemia is regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the Federal... governing use of investigational new drugs set forth in part 312 of this chapter. (d) After November...

  16. 21 CFR 310.541 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.541 Over-the-counter (OTC) drug... treatment of hypophosphatemia is regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the Federal... governing the use of investigational new drugs set forth in part 312 of his chapter. (d) After November...

  17. 76 FR 38975 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 201 (formerly Docket No. 1978N-0038) RIN 0910-AF43 Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human...

  18. 76 FR 56682 - Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of June 17, 2011 (76 FR 35669) (the June 17... Effectiveness Testing final rule that published in the Federal Register of June 17, 2011 (76 FR 35620). FDA is...-ZA40 Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information...

  19. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data to... hypochlorhydria, and because such conditions are asymptomatic, any OTC drug product containing ingredients...

  20. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC drug review. 330.13 Section 330.13 Food and Drugs FOOD...-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED...) use under the OTC drug review. (a) Before the publication in the Federal Register of an...

  1. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the ingredient sabal have been present in over-the-counter (OTC) drug products to relieve the symptoms... and symptoms of this condition. Therefore, self-medication with OTC drug products might unnecessarily... currently available, any OTC drug product containing ingredients offered for use in relieving the...

  2. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC drug review. 330.13 Section 330.13 Food and Drugs FOOD...-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED...) use under the OTC drug review. (a) Before the publication in the Federal Register of an...

  3. 21 CFR 310.538 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use for ingrown...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use for ingrown toenail relief. 310.538 Section 310.538 Food and Drugs... relief. Based on evidence currently available, any OTC drug product containing ingredients offered for use for ingrown toenail relief cannot be generally recognized as safe and effective. (b) Any OTC...

  4. 77 FR 35986 - Guidance for Industry on Toll-Free Number Labeling and Related Requirements for Over-the-Counter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... certain OTC drugs. FDA is issuing this small entity compliance guide as level 2 guidance consistent with... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Toll-Free Number Labeling and Related Requirements for Over-the-Counter and Prescription Drugs Marketed With Approved...

  5. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for...), Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus have been present in orally administered OTC drug... currently available, any OTC drug product for oral administration containing ingredients offered for use...

  6. 78 FR 68854 - Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products-Emergency Use Eyewash Products; Rescheduling of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products--Emergency Use Eyewash Products; Rescheduling of Public Hearing AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; rescheduling of public hearing. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is rescheduling a December...

  7. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores... the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. (a) l-lysine (lysine, lysine hydrochloride... products to treat fever blisters and cold sores. There is a lack of adequate data to establish...

  8. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores... the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. (a) l-lysine (lysine, lysine hydrochloride... products to treat fever blisters and cold sores. There is a lack of adequate data to establish...

  9. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores... the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. (a) l-lysine (lysine, lysine hydrochloride... products to treat fever blisters and cold sores. There is a lack of adequate data to establish...

  10. Relative impact of clinical evidence and over-the-counter prescribing on topical antibiotic use for acute infective conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Helen; Mant, David; Scott, Caroline; Lasserson, Daniel; Rose, Peter W

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute infective conjunctivitis is a common presentation in general practice. In 2005, three placebo-controlled clinical trials showed that use of topical antibiotics had a small effect on time to clinical resolution. In the same year, chloramphenicol eye drops were made available for sale over the counter. Aim To compare the relative impact of clinical trial evidence and a change to over-the-counter availability on community use of topical chloramphenicol. Design of study Observational study using mainly routinely collected data for England. Setting National prescribing data for England and local data from general practices in Oxfordshire, England. Method Data were collated from three sources: GP prescriptions from the Prescription Pricing Authority, wholesale supply to pharmacists from IMS Health, and an audit of delayed prescribing and non-prescribing from electronic consultation records for acute conjunctivitis, in four general practices. Results The number of general practice prescriptions for topical chloramphenicol fell from 2.3 million in 2004 to 1.9 million in 2007, a reduction of 15.5%. In contrast, over-the-counter sales by pharmacists have increased steadily. The net effect of these changes has been a 47.8% increase in total chloramphenicol use during 2005–2007, with 1.1 million additional packs being used in 2007 compared to 2004. Conclusion Making an antibiotic available over the counter increases its use substantially. This is in conflict with the important public health message that antibiotic use needs to be reduced to combat resistance. These findings support the views of the Chief Medical Officer that no more antibiotics should currently be made available over the counter. PMID:20875257

  11. Buyer beware? Does the information provided with herbal products available over the counter enable safe use?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Herbal products obtained over the counter are commonly used in Europe, North America and Australia. Although there is concern about a lack of information provided to consumers to allow the safe use of these products, there has been no published research to confirm these fears. In this study, we evaluated written information provided with commonly used herbal products in the UK in advance of a European Union Directive issued in April 2011 that tightened regulations for some herbal products, including requirements to provide safety information. Methods Five commonly used herbal products were purchased from pharmacies, health food shops and supermarkets: St John's wort, Asian ginseng, echinacea, garlic and ginkgo. Written information provided with the products (on the package or on a leaflet contained in the package) was evaluated for inclusion of each of the key safety messages included in the monographs of the US National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Specifically, we looked for information on precautions (such as Asian ginseng not being suitable for people with diabetes), interactions with conventional medicines (such as St John's wort with the contraceptive pill and warfarin) and side effects (such as ginkgo and allergic reactions). Results Our analysis showed that, overall, 51 (75%) of 68 products contained none of the key safety messages. This included 4 of 12 St John's wort products, 12 of 12 ginkgo products, 6 of 7 Asian ginseng products, 20 of 21 garlic products and 9 of 13 echinacea products. The two products purchased that are registered under the new European Union regulations (for St John's wort) contained at least 85% of the safety messages. Conclusions Most of the herbal medicine products studied did not provide key safety information which consumers need for their safe use. The new European Union legislation should ensure that St John's wort and echinacea products will include the previously missing information in due

  12. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of over-the-counter nicotine replacement

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J; Shiffman, S; Callas, P; Zhang, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether over-the-counter (OTC) nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is pharmacologically efficacious, whether it produces abstinence rates similar to those in prescription settings, and to estimate the long term (that is, greater than six month) abstinence rate with OTC NRT. Method: Systematic literature review. Data sources: Medline, Psych Abstracts, bibliographies, requests of scientists. Study selection: Studies comparing OTC NRT versus OTC placebo or studies comparing OTC NRT versus prescription NRT that reported abstinence rates and for which a full study report was available. Data extraction: Two of the authors independently reviewed studies and compared results. Data synthesis: Meta-analysis was performed by first testing for homogeneity across studies, then combining odds ratios (ORs) weighting by inverse variance and proportions weighting by study sample size. Results: One OTC NRT versus OTC placebo nicotine gum study was excluded due to small sample size and different setting. The four remaining studies were randomised trials of nicotine versus placebo patch with ORs of 2.1–3.2. These outcomes were homogenous and when combined resulted in an OR favouring NRT of 2.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8 to 3.6). Among the two randomised and two non-randomised trials of OTC NRT versus prescription NRT, one small study had an OR of 0.3, two others had ORs of 1.0 and 1.4, and a fourth study had an OR of 3.6. These results were not homogenous; however, when combined via a random effects model the estimated OR was not less than 1.0—that is, OR 1.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 3.3). The long term (that is, greater than six months) quit rates for OTC NRT was 1% and 6% in two studies and 8–11% in five other studies. These results were not homogenous; however, when combined the estimated OR was 7% (95% CI 4% to 11%). Conclusions: OTC NRT is pharmacologically efficacious and produces modest quit rates similar to that seen in real world prescription

  13. Diethylene glycol in health products sold over-the-counter and imported from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Schier, Joshua G; Barr, Dana B; Li, Zheng; Wolkin, Amy F; Baker, Samuel E; Lewis, Lauren S; McGeehin, Michael A

    2011-03-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG), a chemical that has been implicated in multiple medication-associated mass poisonings, can result in renal and neurological toxicity if ingested. Three previous such mass poisonings implicated Chinese manufacturers as the origin of contaminated ingredients. No literature exists on potential DEG or triethylene glycol (TEG), a related compound, contamination of health products imported from Asian countries to the USA. Our primary objective was to quantitatively assess the amount of DEG present in a convenience sampling of these health products. The study's secondary objectives were to: (1) evaluate for, and quantify TEG levels in these samples; (2) compare DEG and TEG levels in these products directly to levels in medications implicated in previous similar mass poisonings; and (3) to estimate DEG dose (in mg/kg) based on the manufacturer's instructions and compare these values to toxic doses from past mass poisonings and the literature. A quantitative assessment of DEG and TEG was performed in a convenience sampling of over-the-counter health products imported from Asian countries. Results were converted to volume to volume (v/v) % and compared with DEG levels in medications implicated in previous mass poisonings. Estimated doses (based on the manufacturer's instructions) of each product with detectable levels of DEG for a 70 kg adult were compared to toxic doses of DEG reported in the literature. Seventeen of 85 (20%) samples were not able to be analyzed for DEG or TEG due to technical reasons. Fifteen of 68 (22%) samples successfully tested had detectable levels of DEG (mean, 18.8 μg/ml; range, 0.791-110.1 μg/ml; and volume to volume (v/v) range, 0.00007-0.01%). Two of 68 (3%) samples had TEG levels of 12.8 and 20.2 μg/ml or 0.0012% and 0.0018% TEG v/v. The product with the highest DEG% by v/v was 810 times less than the product involved in the Panama DEG mass poisoning (8.1%). The lowest reported toxic dose from a past DEG mass

  14. Rheologic Profile, Specific Gravity, Surface Tension, and pH of Fifteen Over-the-Counter Preparations.

    PubMed

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Baghat, Tushar; Chukwubeze, Onah; Dembla, Ishwin

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical characteristics of commercially available over-the-counter preparations can aid the compounding pharmacist in preparing medication. In this study, 15 over-the-counter products were studied with regard to their specific gravity, surface tension, pH, and rheologic profile. The specific gravities of all the products were greater than 1, with the exceptions of Nivea Lotion and rubbing alcohol, which were less than 1. The majority of the products had an acidic pH. With the exception of two products, Citrucel and Chloraseptic, all products demonstrated a surface tension value less than that of water (72.8 dynes/cm). Chloraseptic had the lowest Newtonian viscosity (1.27 cPs), whereas Vicks DayQuil had the highest (098.86 cPs). Citrucel exhibited dilatant-type flow; Suave Shampoo, herbal shampoo, Tangerine Tickle Herbal Shampoo, and Metamucil pseudoplastic flow; the remaining non-Newtonian formulations, plastic flow profiles.

  15. A Guide to the Ingredients and Potential Benefits of Over-the-Counter Cleansers and Moisturizers for Rosacea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Richard

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult for rosacea patients to discern which products and ingredients will be beneficial to their skin and which products will lead to an exacerbation of the signs and symptoms of rosacea. In this paper, the authors provide a brief overview of rosacea, its pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, and the management of the two major rosacea subtypes—erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. Reviewed in greater detail are the common ingredients used in over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers with discussion of how these ingredients potentially benefit or harm the skin of patients with rosacea. Clinical studies investigating the benefits of using certain over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers in patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea with or without topical prescription therapy are also reviewed. The specific formulas used in the clinical studies include a sensitive skin synthetic detergent bar, a nonalkaline cleanser and moisturizer, polyhydroxy acid containing cleanser and moisturizer, and a ceramide-based cleanser and moisturizer formulated in a multivesicular emulsion. Based on review of available data, the authors conclude that the use of mild over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers is beneficial for patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. The properties of over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers that contribute to their mildness include an acidic-neutral pH to minimize the flux in skin pH; surfactants or emulsifiers that will not strip the skin of its moisture or strip the lipids and proteins of the stratum corneum; moisturizing ingredients such as emollients, humectants, and occlusives; and formulas without potential irritants and allergens. The most consistent clinical benefits demonstrated in the reviewed studies were a subjectively perceived improvement in subjective symptoms of dryness and irritation as well as an objective improvement in

  16. Factors influencing consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer and over-the-counter drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mina; Whitehill King, Karen; Reid, Leonard N

    2015-04-01

    Using a model developed from the research literature, the authors compared consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DCTA) and over-the-counter nonprescription drug advertising (OTCA) of drugs. Adults 18 years of age and older who had taken any prescription drugs in the past 6 months completed online survey questionnaires. Variables measured included demographics (age, gender, race, education, and income), health-related characteristics (health status, prescription and over-the-counter drug use, health consciousness, and involvement with prescription or over-the-counter drugs), perceived amount of attention and exposure to DTCA and OTCA, attitudinal outcomes (skepticism toward DTCA/OTCA and attitude toward DTCA/OTCA), and behavioral outcomes triggered by DTCA and OTCA. The findings indicate that exposure to drug advertising is one of the most significant predictors of attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Some audience factors such as health status, involvement with drugs, health consciousness, drug use, income, and age also were differentially associated with consumer responses to drug advertising.

  17. Factors influencing consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer and over-the-counter drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mina; Whitehill King, Karen; Reid, Leonard N

    2015-04-01

    Using a model developed from the research literature, the authors compared consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DCTA) and over-the-counter nonprescription drug advertising (OTCA) of drugs. Adults 18 years of age and older who had taken any prescription drugs in the past 6 months completed online survey questionnaires. Variables measured included demographics (age, gender, race, education, and income), health-related characteristics (health status, prescription and over-the-counter drug use, health consciousness, and involvement with prescription or over-the-counter drugs), perceived amount of attention and exposure to DTCA and OTCA, attitudinal outcomes (skepticism toward DTCA/OTCA and attitude toward DTCA/OTCA), and behavioral outcomes triggered by DTCA and OTCA. The findings indicate that exposure to drug advertising is one of the most significant predictors of attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Some audience factors such as health status, involvement with drugs, health consciousness, drug use, income, and age also were differentially associated with consumer responses to drug advertising. PMID:25730505

  18. Whitening techniques using the diode laser and halogen lamp in human devitalized primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Isa T; Navarro, Ricardo S; Ciamponi, Ana Lídia; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make an in vivo assessment of 2 whitening techniques in deciduous teeth, with the variable being the source of energy activation. Ten upper central incisors darkened by trauma were selected and whitening agent used was a 35% hydrogen peroxide. The teeth were distributed into 2 groups: group 1-activation with an infrared diode laser (GaAlAs), and group 2-activation with a halogen lamp. Assessment of whitening was done by color analysis with the Vita 3D scale at 3 different times: before whitening, immediately after whitening, and 1 week after whitening. A Kruskal-Wallace test showed that there were no significant difference between the 2 groups when comparing group 1 and 2 and comparing 2 and 3 immediately and after 1 week of treatment. Laser activation of the whitening agent was not more effective than halogen light activation for root canal-treated deciduous teeth.

  19. Microemulsions and nanoemulsions: novel vehicles for whitening cosmeceuticals.

    PubMed

    Boonme, Prapaporn; Junyaprasert, Varaporn B; Suksawad, Nattiya; Songkro, Sarunyoo

    2009-08-01

    For Asian women, white skin is preferable. During the last decade, skin whitening products appear to be the largest and continually growing segment in skin-care market in Asia and have an impaction of economic worth. Skin whitening or lightening agents are as cosmetics which act as a drug-like benefit since melanin producing process of the skin is disturbed and can be classified as cosmeceuticals. To increase efficiency, novel vehicles are necessary for skin penetration enhancement of these agents. Microemulsions and nanoemulsions are one of useful nanocarriers for skin application in view of achieving efficiency of the active substances. Moreover, they can be formulated with ease for active ingredient incorporation, high stability and good appearance. In this review article, applications of well-known whitening or lightening agents were summarized. In addition, the use of microemulsions and nanoemulsions as novel vehicles for whitening products were discussed. PMID:20055083

  20. Intoxication with over-the-counter antitussive medication containing dihydrocodeine and chlorpheniramine causes generalized convulsion and mixed acidosis.

    PubMed

    Murao, Satoshi; Manabe, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Tetsuji; Sekikawa, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    We report a 35-year-old man who was referred to our hospital with generalized convulsion and mixed acidosis presumably caused by abuse of SS-BRON tablets, an over-the-counter (OTC) antitussive medication sold in Japan. These tablets contain dihydrocodeine phosphate, methylephedrine, chlorpheniramine, and caffeine. Although it is difficult to discern which component caused these symptoms, it seems that dihydrocodeine phosphate or methylephedrine was involved in the addiction to SS-BRON and chlorpheniramine may have caused the generalized convulsion. It should be recognized that an OTC antitussive, which is quite easy to obtain, can be abused and subsequently induce serious intoxication.

  1. Effect of various tooth whitening modalities on microhardness, surface roughness and surface morphology of the enamel.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Kurti, Steven R; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Li, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of four whitening modalities on surface enamel as assessed with microhardness tester, profilometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter (OTC), dentist dispensed for home use (HW) and in-office (OW) whitening. Do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for microhardness testing at baseline and post-whitening. Following microhardness testing specimens were prepared for SEM observations. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for surface roughness testing at baseline and post-whitening (n = 20 per group). Rank-based Analysis of Covariance was performed to compare microhardness and surface roughness changes. Tests of hypotheses were two-sided with α = 0.05. There was a significant difference in Knoop hardness changes (ΔKHN) among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Significant hardness reduction was observed in the positive control and DIY group (p < 0.0001). Mean surface roughness changes (ΔRa) were significantly different among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Surface roughness increased in the OTC group (p = 0.03) and in the positive control (p < 0.0001). The four whitening modalities-DIY, OTC, HW and OW induced minimal surface morphology changes when observed with SEM. It can be concluded that none of the four whitening modalities adversely affected enamel surface morphology. However, caution should be advised when using a DIY regimen as it may affect enamel microhardness and an OTC product as it has the potential to increase surface roughness.

  2. Effect of various tooth whitening modalities on microhardness, surface roughness and surface morphology of the enamel.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Kurti, Steven R; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Li, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of four whitening modalities on surface enamel as assessed with microhardness tester, profilometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter (OTC), dentist dispensed for home use (HW) and in-office (OW) whitening. Do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for microhardness testing at baseline and post-whitening. Following microhardness testing specimens were prepared for SEM observations. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for surface roughness testing at baseline and post-whitening (n = 20 per group). Rank-based Analysis of Covariance was performed to compare microhardness and surface roughness changes. Tests of hypotheses were two-sided with α = 0.05. There was a significant difference in Knoop hardness changes (ΔKHN) among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Significant hardness reduction was observed in the positive control and DIY group (p < 0.0001). Mean surface roughness changes (ΔRa) were significantly different among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Surface roughness increased in the OTC group (p = 0.03) and in the positive control (p < 0.0001). The four whitening modalities-DIY, OTC, HW and OW induced minimal surface morphology changes when observed with SEM. It can be concluded that none of the four whitening modalities adversely affected enamel surface morphology. However, caution should be advised when using a DIY regimen as it may affect enamel microhardness and an OTC product as it has the potential to increase surface roughness. PMID:24972882

  3. Tooth whitening in children.

    PubMed

    Donly, Kevin J; Donly, Adriana Segura; Baharloo, Laila; Rojas-Candelas, Edith; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Zhou, Xiaojie; Gerlach, Robert W

    2002-01-01

    Although there are several case reports of vital tooth bleaching in children, there is limited clinical trial evidence of the safety or efficacy of this practice. Accordingly, a new clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of 2 different bleaching systems, a 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip system and a 10% carbamide peroxide tray system, in a population of preteens and teens. A total of 106 volunteers, aged 11 to 18 years, took part in this 8-week study. Patients were randomized by a ratio of 2:1 to the strip or tray groups, with each group treating the maxillary arch first and then the mandibular arch for 4 consecutive weeks each. Individuals assigned to the strip group used the system twice daily for 30 minutes (a total of 56 contact hours over the 8-week study). Those assigned to the tray group used that system overnight (approximately 448 contact hours). Digital images were obtained at baseline and after every 2-week treatment period. Average tooth color was determined in L*, a*, b* color space, where L* indicated lightness, a* indicated red-green, and b* indicated yellow-blue. Both systems significantly whitened teeth (P < 0.0001). While there were no significant differences between groups with respect to the primary whitening response (delta b*) on the maxillary teeth, 4 weeks of overnight treatment with the 10% carbamide peroxide tray (approximately 224 contact hours) yielded statistically significant whitening (P < 0.05) on the mandibular teeth compared with the 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip used for 28 hours. Both tooth-whitening systems had similar sensitivity/irritation reported after instructed use. This research demonstrates that tooth whitening in teens may be safely accomplished using either the short-contact-time hydrogen peroxide bleaching strips or the overnight carbamide peroxide tray systems tested in this study.

  4. Tooth whitening in children.

    PubMed

    Donly, Kevin J; Donly, Adriana Segura; Baharloo, Laila; Rojas-Candelas, Edith; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Zhou, Xiaojie; Gerlach, Robert W

    2002-01-01

    Although there are several case reports of vital tooth bleaching in children, there is limited clinical trial evidence of the safety or efficacy of this practice. Accordingly, a new clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of 2 different bleaching systems, a 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip system and a 10% carbamide peroxide tray system, in a population of preteens and teens. A total of 106 volunteers, aged 11 to 18 years, took part in this 8-week study. Patients were randomized by a ratio of 2:1 to the strip or tray groups, with each group treating the maxillary arch first and then the mandibular arch for 4 consecutive weeks each. Individuals assigned to the strip group used the system twice daily for 30 minutes (a total of 56 contact hours over the 8-week study). Those assigned to the tray group used that system overnight (approximately 448 contact hours). Digital images were obtained at baseline and after every 2-week treatment period. Average tooth color was determined in L*, a*, b* color space, where L* indicated lightness, a* indicated red-green, and b* indicated yellow-blue. Both systems significantly whitened teeth (P < 0.0001). While there were no significant differences between groups with respect to the primary whitening response (delta b*) on the maxillary teeth, 4 weeks of overnight treatment with the 10% carbamide peroxide tray (approximately 224 contact hours) yielded statistically significant whitening (P < 0.05) on the mandibular teeth compared with the 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip used for 28 hours. Both tooth-whitening systems had similar sensitivity/irritation reported after instructed use. This research demonstrates that tooth whitening in teens may be safely accomplished using either the short-contact-time hydrogen peroxide bleaching strips or the overnight carbamide peroxide tray systems tested in this study. PMID:11913290

  5. Anti-calculus and whitening toothpastes.

    PubMed

    van Loveren, Cor; Duckworth, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    In terms of novel formulations, there seems to have been a shift in emphasis from anti-caries/anti-gingivitis to anti-calculus/whitening toothpastes in recent years. The anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes are to some extent based on the same active ingredients: compounds of high affinity for tooth mineral. Due to this affinity, crystal growth may be hindered (anti-calculus) and chromophores be displaced (whitening). Besides these common ingredients, both types of toothpaste may contain agents specifically aimed at each condition. Clinical studies have shown that these active ingredients can be successfully formulated in fluoride toothpastes to give significant reductions in supragingival calculus and stain formation and facilitate their removal. Some of the ingredients are formulated in toothpastes that additionally contain anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis ingredients, making these toothpastes (together with the fluoride) truly multi-functional. The development of these products is not straightforward because of interaction between formulation components and because the active ingredients must maintain their beneficial characteristics during the shelf life of the paste. Neither a therapeutic benefit (in terms of less gingivitis or less caries) nor a societal benefit (in terms of less treatment demand) has been demonstrated as a result of the anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes. PMID:23817060

  6. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Electrosurgical Device for Over-the-Counter Aesthetic Use. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-06-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the electrosurgical device for over-the-counter aesthetic use into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the electrosurgical device for over-the-counter aesthetic use's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  7. Do patients adhere to over-the-counter artemisinin combination therapy for malaria? evidence from an intervention study in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing affordability of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in the African retail sector could be critical to expanding access to effective malaria treatment, but must be balanced by efforts to protect the efficacy of these drugs. Previous research estimates ACT adherence rates among public sector patients, but adherence among retail sector purchasers could differ substantially. This study aimed to estimate adherence rates to subsidized, over-the-counter ACT in rural Uganda. Methods An intervention study was conducted with four licensed drug shops in Eastern Uganda in December 2009. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was made available for sale at a 95% subsidy over-the counter. Customers completed a brief survey at the time of purchase and then were randomly assigned to one of three study arms: no follow-up, follow-up after two days or follow-up after three days. Surveyors recorded the number of pills remaining through blister pack observation or through self-report if the pack was unavailable. The purpose of the three-day follow-up arm was to capture non-adherence in the sense of an incomplete treatment course ("under-dosing"). The purpose of the two-day follow-up arm was to capture whether participants completed the full course too soon ("over-dosing"). Results Of the 106 patients in the two-day follow-up sample, 14 (13.2%) had finished the entire treatment course by the second day. Of the 152 patients in the three-day follow-up sample, 49 (32.2%) were definitely non-adherent, three (2%) were probably non-adherent and 100 (65.8%) were probably adherent. Among the 52 who were non-adherent, 31 (59.6%) had more than a full day of treatment remaining. Conclusions Overall, adherence to subsidized ACT purchased over-the-counter was found to be moderate. Further, a non-trivial fraction of those who complete treatment are taking the full course too quickly. Strategies to increase adherence in the retail sector are needed in the context of increasing

  8. Managing Use of Over-the-Counter Medications in the School Setting: Keeping Kids in School and Ready to Learn.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Anne C

    2016-07-01

    The use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications in our unique school setting has proven to be a cost-effective and valuable tool in keeping students in the classroom and prepared to learn. Disruptions in educational time due to minor complaints become frustrating for students and teachers. Utilizing the assessment skills of the school nurse and treatment options available through the use of OTC medications decreases those disruptions and protects the educational time. The opportunity to increase student understanding and health literacy regarding the correct use of OTC medications is a valuable way to protect the health of students. Lessons learned in the residential setting may have application to other school settings.

  9. Managing Use of Over-the-Counter Medications in the School Setting: Keeping Kids in School and Ready to Learn.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Anne C

    2016-07-01

    The use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications in our unique school setting has proven to be a cost-effective and valuable tool in keeping students in the classroom and prepared to learn. Disruptions in educational time due to minor complaints become frustrating for students and teachers. Utilizing the assessment skills of the school nurse and treatment options available through the use of OTC medications decreases those disruptions and protects the educational time. The opportunity to increase student understanding and health literacy regarding the correct use of OTC medications is a valuable way to protect the health of students. Lessons learned in the residential setting may have application to other school settings. PMID:26980851

  10. Over-the-counter and out-of-control: legal strategies to protect youths from abusing products for weight control.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Taylor, Lisa M; Austin, S Bryn

    2013-02-01

    Abuse of widely available, over-the-counter drugs and supplements such as laxatives and diet pills for weight control by youths is well documented in the epidemiological literature. Many such products are not medically recommended for healthy weight control or are especially susceptible to abuse, and their misuse can result in serious health consequences. We analyzed the government's role in regulating these products to protect public health. We examined federal and state regulatory authority, and referred to international examples to inform our analysis. Several legal interventions are indicated to protect youths, including increased warnings and restrictions on access through behind-the-counter placement or age verification. We suggest future directions for governments internationally to address this pervasive public health problem. PMID:23237149

  11. Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, we, or the Agency) is issuing this final rule establishing that certain active ingredients used in over-the-counter (OTC) consumer antiseptic products intended for use with water (referred to throughout this document as consumer antiseptic washes) are not generally recognized as safe and effective (GRAS/GRAE) and are misbranded. FDA is issuing this final rule after considering the recommendations of the Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee (NDAC); public comments on the Agency's notices of proposed rulemaking; and all data and information on OTC consumer antiseptic wash products that have come to the Agency's attention. This final rule amends the 1994 tentative final monograph (TFM) for OTC antiseptic drug products that published in the Federal Register of June 17, 1994 (the 1994 TFM). The final rule is part of the ongoing review of OTC drug products conducted by FDA.

  12. Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, we, or the Agency) is issuing this final rule establishing that certain active ingredients used in over-the-counter (OTC) consumer antiseptic products intended for use with water (referred to throughout this document as consumer antiseptic washes) are not generally recognized as safe and effective (GRAS/GRAE) and are misbranded. FDA is issuing this final rule after considering the recommendations of the Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee (NDAC); public comments on the Agency's notices of proposed rulemaking; and all data and information on OTC consumer antiseptic wash products that have come to the Agency's attention. This final rule amends the 1994 tentative final monograph (TFM) for OTC antiseptic drug products that published in the Federal Register of June 17, 1994 (the 1994 TFM). The final rule is part of the ongoing review of OTC drug products conducted by FDA. PMID:27632802

  13. A categorical review on electroanalytical determination of non-narcotic over-the-counter abused antitussive drugs.

    PubMed

    Thapliyal, Neeta; Patel, Harun; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar; Goyal, Rajendra N; Patel, Rajkumar

    2015-09-01

    Dextromethorphan (DXM) and diphenhydramine (DPH) are two commonly used over-the-counter non-narcotic antitussive drugs. Recent reports reveal the widespread abuse of DXM and DPH due to their euphoric and alcohol-like effects. Due to their medicinal importance as well as the apparent increase in their use as abused drugs, it has become critical to determine them in samples of biological, clinical and pharmaceutical interest. The electrochemical techniques for drug analysis have gathered considerable attention due to their pronounced selectivity, sensitivity and simplicity. The given review presents a compilation of published voltammetric and potentiometric methods developed for determination of DXM and DPH. It critically highlights the analytical performances, revealing the recent trends and progress in the specified approach for their analysis. The review forms a basis for further progress in this field and development of improved electrochemical sensors to determine the drug.

  14. Usage of Over-the-Counter and Herbal Products in Common Cold in Poland: Findings from Consumer Survey.

    PubMed

    Karlowicz-Bodalska, K; Miśkiewicz, K; Kurpas, D; Han, S; Kowalczyk, A; Marciniak, D; Dryś, A; Glomb, T; Cedzich, S; Broniecka, U; Kuchar, E

    2016-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are usually self-treated with synthetic and herbal over-the-counter products. The aim of the study was to assess the reasons for the purchase of those medications in Poland. We examined 413 adults, aged 18 and over (70.5% of them were women) using a questionnaire. The findings demonstrate that oral synthetic products were used by 76% of respondents, while herbal products by 30%. Synthetic products were used mainly by educated people under 65 years of age, students, and the employed. Herbal products were used mainly by older people. In conclusion, synthetic products against common cold are perceived as more effective. Such medications are used by people who probably would like to recover and return to professional activity as quickly as possible. As they generally use more medications, they are at increased risk of adverse effects resulting from drug interactions, and they should be a target group for health education programs.

  15. Over-the-counter but out of reach: a pharmacy-based survey of OTC syringe sales in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pollini, Robin A; Gallardo, Manuel; Ruiz, Serena; Case, Patricia; Zaller, Nickolas; Lozada, Remedios

    2014-05-01

    Sterile syringe access is critical to HIV prevention efforts targeting injection drug users (IDUs) but some pharmacies do not sell syringes over-the-counter (OTC) even where such sales are legal. We conducted a pharmacy survey in Tijuana, Mexico (where OTC sales are legal) to characterize attitudes toward syringe sales and to explore support for expanding pharmacy-based HIV prevention efforts. Of 203 respondents, 28% supported OTC syringe sales to IDUs and 74% said their pharmacy required a prescription for at least some syringe sales. Support for OTC syringe sales was independently associated with selling OTC syringes, understanding the role of sterile syringes in HIV prevention, and recognizing pharmacies as an important health resource for IDUs. Most respondents supported an expanded role for pharmacies in HIV prevention, exclusive of OTC syringe sales. Our study provides information for developing interventions to promote OTC syringe sales and expanding pharmacy-based distribution of HIV-related information and resources.

  16. Ex vivo effectiveness of French over-the-counter products against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1778).

    PubMed

    Combescot-Lang, Catherine; Vander Stichele, Robert H; Toubate, Berthine; Veirron, Emilie; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is still a public health problem worldwide, with an intracountry and intercountry prevalence variation of 0.7 to 59%. There is a large variety of over-the-counter anti-louse products, but their efficacy is not always well assessed. Our objective was to test the pediculicidal and ovicidal efficacy of 21 over-the-counter head louse products, available in France during the period of 2008 to 2012. We tested children living in Tours City in central France and visiting preschools, primary schools, kindergarten, camps, and child care facilities, as well as children in their family houses, and were examined for the presence of lice. The products were collected from randomly selected pharmacies by covert investigators and then tested in the laboratory on an ex vivo sample of head lice and their eggs, collected from the hair of infested children. Living lice and unharmed eggs were collected from the scalps of 3-12 years old. The laboratory conditions for ex vivo testing mimicked the manufacturers' instructions for exposure time and application method. In 21 runs, 3919 living lice and 4321 undamaged living eggs were collected from the scalp of over 400 children. The 21 products were classified in three groups: 6 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity and potentially 100% ovicidal activity, 8 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity but insufficient ovicidal activity (including 2 products with claims of single application treatment), and 7 products in a group of insufficient pediculicidal activity and ovicidal activity. The pharmaceutical market for head lice products in France is swamped with poorly tested and ineffective products. Rigorous efficacy testing preregistration and periodic screening and testing of effectiveness in the post-registration period should be endorsed by the health authorities. PMID:25716822

  17. Popularity and customer preferences for over-the-counter Chinese medicines perceived by community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou: a questionnaire survey study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study interviewed community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou for their perception of the popular categories of over-the-counter (OTC) Chinese medicines and the factors affecting customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in six main administrative districts in Guangzhou and eight main administrative districts in Shanghai, China. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted in this study. Results OTC Chinese medicines contributed 21–50% among all the pharmaceutical sales by the community pharmacies. The prevalent categories of OTC Chinese medicines were common cold medicines, respiratory system medicines, digestive system agents, gynecological medicines, health tonic medicines, and qing re (heat-clearing) and qu du (detoxifying) medicines. Customers were more concerned about medical factors of OTC Chinese medicines than business factors. Among the medical factors, the most important was drug safety, followed by efficacy, contraindications, indications, and side effects. Among the business factors, the most important were brand and price. Conclusions This study identified the top sales categories of OTC Chinese medicines in Shanghai and Guangzhou and the important factors such as drug safety, efficacy, period of validity, contraindications, and indications that are affecting the customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. PMID:25243017

  18. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin.

  19. Over-the-Counter Relief From Pains and Pleasures Alike: Acetaminophen Blunts Evaluation Sensitivity to Both Negative and Positive Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Durso, Geoffrey R O; Luttrell, Andrew; Way, Baldwin M

    2015-06-01

    Acetaminophen, an effective and popular over-the-counter pain reliever (e.g., the active ingredient in Tylenol), has recently been shown to blunt individuals' reactivity to a range of negative stimuli in addition to physical pain. Because accumulating research has shown that individuals' reactivity to both negative and positive stimuli can be influenced by a single factor (an idea known as differential susceptibility), we conducted two experiments testing whether acetaminophen blunted individuals' evaluations of and emotional reactions to both negative and positive images from the International Affective Picture System. Participants who took acetaminophen evaluated unpleasant stimuli less negatively and pleasant stimuli less positively, compared with participants who took a placebo. Participants in the acetaminophen condition also rated both negative and positive stimuli as less emotionally arousing than did participants in the placebo condition (Studies 1 and 2), whereas nonevaluative ratings (extent of color saturation in each image; Study 2) were not affected by drug condition. These findings suggest that acetaminophen has a general blunting effect on individuals' evaluative and emotional processing, irrespective of negative or positive valence. PMID:25862546

  20. Over-the-Counter Relief From Pains and Pleasures Alike: Acetaminophen Blunts Evaluation Sensitivity to Both Negative and Positive Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Durso, Geoffrey R. O.; Luttrell, Andrew; Way, Baldwin M.

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen, an effective and popular over-the-counter pain reliever (e.g., the active ingredient in Tylenol), has recently been shown to blunt individuals’ reactivity to a range of negative stimuli in addition to physical pain. Because accumulating research has shown that individuals’ reactivity to both negative and positive stimuli can be influenced by a single factor (an idea known as differential susceptibility), we conducted two experiments testing whether acetaminophen blunted individuals’ evaluations of and emotional reactions to both negative and positive images from the International Affective Picture System. Participants who took acetaminophen evaluated unpleasant stimuli less negatively and pleasant stimuli less positively, compared with participants who took a placebo. Participants in the acetaminophen condition also rated both negative and positive stimuli as less emotionally arousing than did participants in the placebo condition (Studies 1 and 2), whereas nonevaluative ratings (extent of color saturation in each image; Study 2) were not affected by drug condition. These findings suggest that acetaminophen has a general blunting effect on individuals’ evaluative and emotional processing, irrespective of negative or positive valence. PMID:25862546

  1. Demographic, risk, and spatial factors associated with over-the-counter syringe purchase among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Stopka, Thomas J; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wenger, Lynn D; Deriemer, Kathryn; Geraghty, Estella M; Kral, Alex H

    2012-07-01

    Since 2005, California law allowed over-the-counter (OTC) syringe sales pending local authorization. Although pharmacy sales of OTC syringes are associated with reduced injection-mediated risks and decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates, little is known about the factors associated with syringe purchase among injection drug users (IDUs). Using a cross-sectional design, the authors applied targeted sampling to collect quantitative survey data from IDUs (n = 563) recruited in San Francisco, California, during 2008. They also compiled a comprehensive list of retail pharmacies, their location, and whether they sell OTC syringes. They used a novel combination of geographic information system and statistical analyses to determine the demographic, behavioral, and spatial factors associated with OTC syringe purchase by IDUs. In multivariate analyses, age, race, injection frequency, the type of drug injected, and the source of syringe supply were independently associated with OTC syringe purchases. Notably, the prevalence of OTC syringe purchase was 53% lower among African-American IDUs (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.33, 0.67) and higher among injectors of methamphetamine (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.70). Two neighborhoods with high densities of IDUs had limited access to OTC syringes. Increased access to OTC syringes would potentially prevent blood-borne infectious diseases among IDUs.

  2. Over the counter drugs (and dietary supplement) exercise: a team-based introduction to biochemistry for health professional students.

    PubMed

    Phadtare, Sangita; Abali, Emine; Brodsky, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    For successful delivery of basic science topics for health-professional students, it is critical to reduce apprehension and illustrate relevance to clinical settings and everyday life. At the beginning of the Biochemistry course for Physician Assistants, a team-based assignment was designed to develop an understanding of the mechanism of action, effectiveness, and toxicity of five common over the counter (OTC) drugs and dietary supplements, and place these familiar medicines in a political and historical context. The objectives of this exercise were to stimulate interest in biochemistry; to provide basic information on enzymes and enzyme inhibitors related to these drugs to be expanded upon later in the course; and to encourage active and interactive learning. Teams of five students were formed, and each student was given an information sheet on aspirin, alpha-galactosidase, orlistat, dextromethorphan, or simvastatin, a low dose statin, which was previously available without prescription at pharmacies in the UK. After each member of the team acquired information on one OTC drug/dietary supplement by reading an assigned information sheet, the team was asked to go through a series of questions, and then submit answers to a quiz as a group. A high rate of success on the quiz, an overwhelmingly positive response on formal course evaluations, and enthusiastic exchanges during class suggested this team-based session accomplished its goals.

  3. The influence of need for cognition and principal display panel factors on over-the-counter drug facts label comprehension.

    PubMed

    Catlin, Jesse R; Pechmann, Cornelia; Brass, Eric P

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all work aimed at optimizing the ability of labeling to communicate over-the-counter (OTC) drug information has focused on back-of-the-package characteristics, such as the Drug Facts label. The effects of front of the package, or principal display panel (PDP) factors, have largely been neglected by researchers. Similarly, heterogeneity in consumers' approach to new information has received scant attention in the context of OTC drugs. This preliminary study tested the hypothesis that display of a drug's brand name on the PDP and individuals' need for cognition influence comprehension of Drug Facts label information. University students (n = 212) that had experienced heartburn but not used the drug class being studied constituted the primary analysis cohort. Students were randomly assigned to review one of two PDPs (brand name or generic), followed by a Drug Facts label and a series of questions related to selection and usage of the drug. Participants with low need for cognition were influenced by the brand name PDP, as those exposed to a PDP featuring a brand (vs. generic) spent less time reading the Drug Facts label and demonstrated lower comprehension of the label information on proper drug selection. These findings suggest that further research is needed to understand the impact of PDP contents and cognitive characteristics of consumers on the communication of OTC drug information. Health care providers should consider communication strategies that account for the challenges patients face in using OTC drugs properly.

  4. The effect of over-the-counter sales of the nicotine patch and nicotine gum on smoking cessation in California.

    PubMed

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Vaughn, Jerry W; Burns, David M

    2005-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration approved over-the-counter (OTC) sale of nicotine gum and nicotine patches in 1996. We used data from the 1996 California Tobacco Survey to compare the rates of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use and smoking abstinence in California for each month during a period immediately preceding and immediately following the OTC availability of nicotine gum and patches. For smokers eligible to report a quit attempt, the proportion making a quit attempt using NRT and the proportion remaining abstinent was calculated for each of the 12 months prior to the survey interview. Multiple regression modeling of quit attempts and abstinence included a term for the number of months between the quit attempt and survey interview and dummy variables for the months before and after the OTC availability of NRT. Results showed a significant increase in the fraction of smokers using the patch (P < 0.01) and gum (P < 0.05) immediately following their availability OTC. There was also a significantly higher proportion of smokers reporting abstinence with gum use (P < 0.01) and a significant increase in reported abstinence with patch use (P < 0.01) during the period of time immediately following the availability of these products without a prescription. The results of this study suggest that removing the prescription status of NRT products resulted in an immediate increase in quit attempts and smoking abstinence with the use of nicotine gum or patches.

  5. Investigation of social, demographic and health variations in the usage of prescribed and over-the-counter medicines within a large cohort (South Yorkshire, UK)

    PubMed Central

    Green, Mark A; Little, Emma; Cooper, Richard; Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Prescribed and over-the-counter (non-prescribed) medicine usage has increased in recent years; however, there has been less investigation of the socioeconomic predictors of use. This has been due to a lack of data, especially for over-the-counter medicines. Our study aims to understand how prescribed and over-the-counter medicine patterns vary by demographic, social and health characteristics within a large population cohort. Design Cross-sectional data analysis. Setting South Yorkshire, UK. Participants 27 806 individuals from wave 1 of the Yorkshire Health Study (2010–2012). Measures Individuals self-reported each medicine they were taking and whether each was prescribed or not. The medicines were grouped into 14 categories (eg, cardiovascular system, infection, contraception). Negative binomial regression models were used to analyse the count of medicine usage. We included demographic (age, gender, ethnicity), social (education), health-related (body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) factors and chronic health conditions (eg, stroke, anxiety and heart disease) in our analyses. Results 49% of men and 62% of women were taking medicine with the majority of this prescribed (88% and 83%, respectively). Health conditions were found to be positively associated with prescribed medicine usage, but mixed in their associated with over-the-counter medicines. Educational attainment was negatively associated with prescribed and positively associated with over-the-counter usage. Conclusions Our study addresses a dearth of evidence to provide new insights into how behaviours in medicine usage vary by demographic, social and health-related factors. Differences in over-the-counter medicine usage by educational attainment may help our understanding of the determinants of health inequalities. PMID:27683515

  6. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Electrosurgical Device for Over-the-Counter Aesthetic Use. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-06-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the electrosurgical device for over-the-counter aesthetic use into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the electrosurgical device for over-the-counter aesthetic use's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:27373015

  7. Relationships between Perceptual Attributes and Rheology in Over-the-Counter Vaginal Products: A Potential Tool for Microbicide Development

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Ellen D.; Zaveri, Toral; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal microbicides are believed to have substantial potential to empower women to protect themselves from HIV, although clinical trials to date have had mixed results at best. Issues with patient adherence in these trials suggest additional emphasis should be placed on optimizing acceptability. Acceptability is driven, in part, by the sensory properties of the microbicide, so better understanding of the relationships between sensory properties and the physical and rheological properties of microbicides should facilitate the simultaneous optimization of sensory properties in parallel with the biophysical properties required for drug deployment. Recently, we have applied standard methods to assess the potential acceptability of microbicide prototypes ex vivo and to quantify the sensory properties of microbicide surrogates. Here, we link quantitative perceptual data to the rheological properties of 6 over-the counter (OTC) vaginal products used as ex vivo microbicide surrogates. Shear-thinning behavior (n) and tan δ (10 rad/s) showed no relationship with any perceptual attributes while shear storage modulus, G’ (10 rad/s) was correlated with some attributes, but did not appear to be a strong predictor of sensory properties. Conversely, the storage loss modulus, G” (10 rad/s) and the consistency coefficient, K, were correlated with several sensory attributes: stickiness, rubberiness, and uniform thickness for G’’ and stickiness, rubberiness, and peaking for K. Although these relationships merit confirmation in later studies, this pilot study suggests rheological principles can be used to understand the sensory properties evoked by microbicide surrogates assessed ex vivo. Additional work is needed to determine if these findings would apply for microbicides in vivo. PMID:25188244

  8. Seasonal Variation in Penicillin Use in Mexico and Brazil: Analysis of the Impact of Over-the-Counter Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.

    2014-01-01

    During 2010, Mexico and Brazil implemented policies to enforce existing laws of restricting over-the-counter sales of antibiotics. We determined if the enforcement led to more appropriate antibiotic use by measuring changes in seasonal variation of penicillin use. We used retail quarterly sales data in defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitant-days (DDD/TID) from IMS Health from the private sector in Mexico and Brazil from the first quarter of 2007 to the first quarter of 2013. This database contains information on volume of antibiotics sold in retail pharmacies using information from wholesalers. We used interrupted time-series models controlling for external factors with the use of antihypertensives with interaction terms to assess changes in trend, level, and variation in use between quarters for total penicillin use and by active substance. The most used penicillin was amoxicillin, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin (minimal use in Brazil). Before the restrictions, the seasonal variation in penicillin use was 1.1 DDD/TID in Mexico and 0.8 DDD/TID in Brazil. In Mexico, we estimated a significant decrease in the seasonal variation of 0.4 DDD/TID after the restriction, mainly due to changes in seasonal variation of amoxicillin and ampicillin. In Brazil, the seasonal variation did not change significantly, overall and in the breakdown by individual active substances. For Mexico, inappropriate penicillin use may have diminished after the restrictions were enforced. For Brazil, increasing use and no change in seasonal variation suggest that further efforts are needed to reduce inappropriate penicillin use. PMID:25313222

  9. The drugs don't sell: DIY heart health and the over-the-counter statin experience.

    PubMed

    Will, Catherine M; Weiner, Kate

    2015-04-01

    This paper draws on a study of over-the-counter statins to provide a critical account of the figure of the 'pharmaceutical consumer' as a key actor in the pharmaceuticalisation literature. A low dose statin, promising to reduce cardiovascular risk, was reclassified to allow sale in pharmacies in the UK in 2004. We analysed professional and policy debates about the new product, promotional and sales information, and interviews with consumers and potential consumers conducted between 2008 and 2011, to consider the different consumer identities invoked by these diverse actors. While policymakers constructed an image of 'the citizen-consumer' who would take responsibility for heart health through exercising the choice to purchase a drug that was effectively rationed on the NHS and medical professionals raised concerns about 'a flawed consumer' who was likely to misuse the product, both these groups assumed that there would be a market for the drug. By contrast, those who bought the product or potentially fell within its target market might appear as 'health consumers', seeking out and paying for different food and lifestyle products and services, including those targeting high cholesterol. However, they were reluctant 'pharmaceutical consumers' who either preferred to take medication on the advice of a doctor, or sought to minimize medicine use. In comparison to previous studies, our analysis builds understanding of individual consumers in a market, rather than collective action for access to drugs (or, less commonly, compensation for adverse effects). Where some theories of pharmaceuticalisation have presented consumers as creating pressure for expanding markets, our data suggests that sociologists should be cautious about assuming there will be demand for new pharmaceutical products, especially those aimed at prevention or asymptomatic conditions, even in burgeoning health markets.

  10. Purchasing Over-the-counter medicines from Australian pharmacy: What do the pharmacy customers value and expect?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over-the-counter medicines (OTC) are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. Objective: This study aimed to examine customers’ key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour. Methods: Customers from two metropolitan pharmacies across two different suburbs in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection was conducted over a six-week period. The questionnaire examined demographics, current level of health and stress, as well as a range of questions (seven-point Likert-scale) examining perceived benefits and risks, what they value, trust and expect when purchasing OTC. Results: A total of 86 customers from a broad range of demographics were captured in this study. When asked about their current health state, 41% and 23% respectively indicated that they were stressed and tense when they arrived at the pharmacy but many were feeling well (38%). Most customers strongly agreed/agreed that trust in the advice from a pharmacy (96%), trust in the products (73%), and the altruistic approach of a pharmacy (95%) were critical to them. Further, 82% and 78% respectively disagreed that time pressures or costs were concerns, despite many feeling tense and stressed when they came in. When asked where they intend to buy their future OTC, 89% indicated pharmacy instead of a supermarket. Conclusions: High levels of trust, confidence and sense of altruism and care were key factors for customers buying OTC from a pharmacy, regardless of time pressures, costs or existing

  11. Is wetter better? An evaluation of over-the-counter personal lubricants for safety and anti-HIV-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Dezzutti, Charlene S; Brown, Elizabeth R; Moncla, Bernard; Russo, Julie; Cost, Marilyn; Wang, Lin; Uranker, Kevin; Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Ratiya P; Pryke, Kara; Pickett, Jim; Leblanc, Marc-André; Rohan, Lisa C

    2012-01-01

    Because lubricants may decrease trauma during coitus, it is hypothesized that they could aid in the prevention of HIV acquisition. Therefore, safety and anti-HIV-1 activity of over-the-counter (OTC) aqueous- (n = 10), lipid- (n = 2), and silicone-based (n = 2) products were tested. The rheological properties of the lipid-based lubricants precluded testing with the exception of explant safety testing. Six aqueous-based gels were hyperosmolar, two were nearly iso-osmolar, and two were hypo-osmolar. Evaluation of the panel of products showed Gynol II (a spermicidal gel containing 2% nonoxynol-9), KY Jelly, and Replens were toxic to Lactobacillus. Two nearly iso-osmolar aqueous- and both silicone-based gels were not toxic toward epithelial cell lines or ectocervical or colorectal explant tissues. Hyperosmolar lubricants demonstrated reduction of tissue viability and epithelial fracture/sloughing while the nearly iso-osmolar and silicon-based lubricants showed no significant changes in tissue viability or epithelial modifications. While most of the lubricants had no measurable anti-HIV-1 activity, three lubricants which retained cell viability did demonstrate modest anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. To determine if this would result in protection of mucosal tissue or conversely determine if the epithelial damage associated with the hyperosmolar lubricants increased HIV-1 infection ex vivo, ectocervical tissue was exposed to selected lubricants and then challenged with HIV-1. None of the lubricants that had a moderate to high therapeutic index protected the mucosal tissue. These results show hyperosmolar lubricant gels were associated with cellular toxicity and epithelial damage while showing no anti-viral activity. The two iso-osmolar lubricants, Good Clean Love and PRÉ, and both silicone-based lubricants, Female Condom 2 lubricant and Wet Platinum, were the safest in our testing algorithm.

  12. Simple heuristics in over-the-counter drug choices: a new hint for medical education and practice

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are widely available and often purchased by consumers without advice from a health care provider. Many people rely on self-management of medications to treat common medical conditions. Although OTC medications are regulated by the National and the International Health and Drug Administration, many people are unaware of proper dosing, side effects, adverse drug reactions, and possible medication interactions. Purpose This study examined how subjects make their decisions to select an OTC drug, evaluating the role of cognitive heuristics which are simple and adaptive rules that help the decision-making process of people in everyday contexts. Subjects and methods By analyzing 70 subjects’ information-search and decision-making behavior when selecting OTC drugs, we examined the heuristics they applied in order to assess whether simple decision-making processes were also accurate and relevant. Subjects were tested with a sequence of two experimental tests based on a computerized Java system devised to analyze participants’ choices in a virtual environment. Results We found that subjects’ information-search behavior reflected the use of fast and frugal heuristics. In addition, although the heuristics which correctly predicted subjects’ decisions implied significantly fewer cues on average than the subjects did in the information-search task, they were accurate in describing order of information search. A simple combination of a fast and frugal tree and a tallying rule predicted more than 78% of subjects’ decisions. Conclusion The current emphasis in health care is to shift some responsibility onto the consumer through expansion of self medication. To know which cognitive mechanisms are behind the choice of OTC drugs is becoming a relevant purpose of current medical education. These findings have implications both for the validity of simple heuristics describing information searches in the field of OTC drug choices and

  13. Is wetter better? An evaluation of over-the-counter personal lubricants for safety and anti-HIV-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Dezzutti, Charlene S; Brown, Elizabeth R; Moncla, Bernard; Russo, Julie; Cost, Marilyn; Wang, Lin; Uranker, Kevin; Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Ratiya P; Pryke, Kara; Pickett, Jim; Leblanc, Marc-André; Rohan, Lisa C

    2012-01-01

    Because lubricants may decrease trauma during coitus, it is hypothesized that they could aid in the prevention of HIV acquisition. Therefore, safety and anti-HIV-1 activity of over-the-counter (OTC) aqueous- (n = 10), lipid- (n = 2), and silicone-based (n = 2) products were tested. The rheological properties of the lipid-based lubricants precluded testing with the exception of explant safety testing. Six aqueous-based gels were hyperosmolar, two were nearly iso-osmolar, and two were hypo-osmolar. Evaluation of the panel of products showed Gynol II (a spermicidal gel containing 2% nonoxynol-9), KY Jelly, and Replens were toxic to Lactobacillus. Two nearly iso-osmolar aqueous- and both silicone-based gels were not toxic toward epithelial cell lines or ectocervical or colorectal explant tissues. Hyperosmolar lubricants demonstrated reduction of tissue viability and epithelial fracture/sloughing while the nearly iso-osmolar and silicon-based lubricants showed no significant changes in tissue viability or epithelial modifications. While most of the lubricants had no measurable anti-HIV-1 activity, three lubricants which retained cell viability did demonstrate modest anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. To determine if this would result in protection of mucosal tissue or conversely determine if the epithelial damage associated with the hyperosmolar lubricants increased HIV-1 infection ex vivo, ectocervical tissue was exposed to selected lubricants and then challenged with HIV-1. None of the lubricants that had a moderate to high therapeutic index protected the mucosal tissue. These results show hyperosmolar lubricant gels were associated with cellular toxicity and epithelial damage while showing no anti-viral activity. The two iso-osmolar lubricants, Good Clean Love and PRÉ, and both silicone-based lubricants, Female Condom 2 lubricant and Wet Platinum, were the safest in our testing algorithm. PMID:23144863

  14. Seasonal variation in penicillin use in Mexico and Brazil: analysis of the impact of over-the-counter restrictions.

    PubMed

    Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2015-01-01

    During 2010, Mexico and Brazil implemented policies to enforce existing laws of restricting over-the-counter sales of antibiotics. We determined if the enforcement led to more appropriate antibiotic use by measuring changes in seasonal variation of penicillin use. We used retail quarterly sales data in defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitant-days (DDD/TID) from IMS Health from the private sector in Mexico and Brazil from the first quarter of 2007 to the first quarter of 2013. This database contains information on volume of antibiotics sold in retail pharmacies using information from wholesalers. We used interrupted time-series models controlling for external factors with the use of antihypertensives with interaction terms to assess changes in trend, level, and variation in use between quarters for total penicillin use and by active substance. The most used penicillin was amoxicillin, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin (minimal use in Brazil). Before the restrictions, the seasonal variation in penicillin use was 1.1 DDD/TID in Mexico and 0.8 DDD/TID in Brazil. In Mexico, we estimated a significant decrease in the seasonal variation of 0.4 DDD/TID after the restriction, mainly due to changes in seasonal variation of amoxicillin and ampicillin. In Brazil, the seasonal variation did not change significantly, overall and in the breakdown by individual active substances. For Mexico, inappropriate penicillin use may have diminished after the restrictions were enforced. For Brazil, increasing use and no change in seasonal variation suggest that further efforts are needed to reduce inappropriate penicillin use.

  15. Medicine reclassification processes and regulations for proper use of over-the-counter self-care medicines in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Kaori; Kitagawa, Yuki; Yuda, Yasukatsu; Takano-Ohmuro, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Japan has actively reclassified substances ranging from prescription drugs to over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in recent years. The sale of most OTC drugs was deregulated several times and pharmacists’ supervision was deemed no longer mandatory. Japan established a new OTC evaluation system in 2015 to hear opinions from various stakeholders regarding medicine types to be reclassified. This study aimed to examine the new framework to identify candidate substances for reclassification. Moreover, we examined how to manage the safe, self-care use of OTC drugs in Japan. Methods The necessary regulatory information on OTC approvals as of January 2015 was collected using an Internet search and relevant databases. To highlight the characteristics of OTC drugs in Japan, the UK was selected as a comparison country because it too was actively promoting the reclassification of medicines from prescription to nonprescription status, and because of economic similarity. Results Japan and the UK have a risk-based classification for nonprescription medicines. Japan has made OTC drugs available with mandatory pharmacists’ supervision, face-to-face with pharmacists, or online instruction, which is similar to the “pharmacy medicine” practiced in the UK. Japan recently reformed the reclassification process to involve physicians and the public in the process; some interactions were back to “prescription-only medicine” in the UK. Conclusion It is expected that the opinion of marketers, medical professionals, and the public will improve the discussion that will greatly contribute to the safe use of drugs. Monitoring the new system will be noteworthy to ensure that OTC drug users are managing their self-care properly and visiting a doctor only when necessary. The supply methods are similar in Japan and the UK; however, the expected growth in the Japanese OTC market by the Cabinet and the industry is still uncertain. PMID:27555801

  16. Daytime intragastric acid control: post hoc analyses of esomeprazole 20 mg and over-the-counter proton-pump inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Philip; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Johnson, David A.; Lind, Tore; Röhss, Kerstin; Traxler, Barry; Hugo, Vincent; Dent, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In mild gastroesophageal reflux disease, which accounts for the great majority of cases, the major burden of reflux occurs during daytime hours, after food intake. The aim of these analyses was to evaluate intragastric pH control during the typical 14-hour daytime awake period by proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) given at over-the-counter (OTC) dosages. Methods: In one double-blind and three open-label, randomized, crossover studies, intragastric pH was monitored for 24 hours on day 5 of treatment. The 24-hour data have been reported previously. Post hoc analyses reassessed these studies for the 14-hour daytime period, comparing esomeprazole 20 mg with currently available OTC PPIs omeprazole, pantoprazole (not available in the US) and lansoprazole. Results: Subjects maintained intragastric pH >4 for a significantly greater mean percentage of the 14-hour daytime period with esomeprazole 20 mg compared with any of the PPI comparators at OTC dosages. Geometric mean ratios (95% confidence intervals) for esomeprazole 20 mg versus the comparators were: 1.45 (1.14–1.85; p = 0.003) versus omeprazole 20 mg; 2.50 (2.01–3.11; p < 0.0001) versus pantoprazole 20 mg; and 1.69 (1.46–1.97; p < 0.0001) and 1.89 (1.05–3.37; p = 0.03) versus lansoprazole 15 mg. A greater proportion of subjects had better pH control with esomeprazole than with the other PPIs (range: 69–97%). Conclusions: Across the 14-hour daytime period, esomeprazole 20 mg once daily given 30 minutes before breakfast for 5 days provided acid control for a significantly greater average proportion of time versus the PPI comparators omeprazole, pantoprazole and lansoprazole at currently available OTC dosages. PMID:26557888

  17. Is Wetter Better? An Evaluation of Over-the-Counter Personal Lubricants for Safety and Anti-HIV-1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Moncla, Bernard; Russo, Julie; Cost, Marilyn; Wang, Lin; Uranker, Kevin; Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Ratiya P.; Pryke, Kara; Pickett, Jim; LeBlanc, Marc-André; Rohan, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    Because lubricants may decrease trauma during coitus, it is hypothesized that they could aid in the prevention of HIV acquisition. Therefore, safety and anti-HIV-1 activity of over-the-counter (OTC) aqueous- (n = 10), lipid- (n = 2), and silicone-based (n = 2) products were tested. The rheological properties of the lipid-based lubricants precluded testing with the exception of explant safety testing. Six aqueous-based gels were hyperosmolar, two were nearly iso-osmolar, and two were hypo-osmolar. Evaluation of the panel of products showed Gynol II (a spermicidal gel containing 2% nonoxynol-9), KY Jelly, and Replens were toxic to Lactobacillus. Two nearly iso-osmolar aqueous- and both silicone-based gels were not toxic toward epithelial cell lines or ectocervical or colorectal explant tissues. Hyperosmolar lubricants demonstrated reduction of tissue viability and epithelial fracture/sloughing while the nearly iso-osmolar and silicon-based lubricants showed no significant changes in tissue viability or epithelial modifications. While most of the lubricants had no measurable anti-HIV-1 activity, three lubricants which retained cell viability did demonstrate modest anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. To determine if this would result in protection of mucosal tissue or conversely determine if the epithelial damage associated with the hyperosmolar lubricants increased HIV-1 infection ex vivo, ectocervical tissue was exposed to selected lubricants and then challenged with HIV-1. None of the lubricants that had a moderate to high therapeutic index protected the mucosal tissue. These results show hyperosmolar lubricant gels were associated with cellular toxicity and epithelial damage while showing no anti-viral activity. The two iso-osmolar lubricants, Good Clean Love and PRÉ, and both silicone-based lubricants, Female Condom 2 lubricant and Wet Platinum, were the safest in our testing algorithm. PMID:23144863

  18. Correlation between the use of 'over-the-counter' medicines and adherence in elderly patients on multiple medications.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Charlotte; Harbig, Philipp; Barat, Ishay; Damsgaard, Else Marie

    2013-10-12

    Background Medication adherence is a multifaceted issue that is influenced by various factors. One factor may be the concurrent use of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. The use of OTC medicine has been reported as common amongst elderly patients. Objective To determine if a correlation exists between the use of OTC medicines and adherence to prescribed medications in elderly patients. Setting Non-institutionalised elderly patients in Denmark. Methods Elderly unassisted patients aged ≥65 prescribed five or more prescription drugs were included in the study. Information on the use of concurrent OTC medications (herbal medicines, dietary supplements, or non-prescribed drugs) was elicited during home visit interviews. Prescription drug adherence was determined by pill counts. A patient was categorised as non-adherent if the mean adherence rate for all drugs consumed was <80 %. Different sensitivity analyses were made where adherence was defined different. Main outcome measure Medication adherence based on pill-count. Results A total of 253 participants included 72 % who used OTC medicines and 11 % who did not adhere to their prescriptions. Users of OTC medicines, however, were significantly more likely to be adherent than were non-users (odds ratio 0.41; 95 % confidence interval 0.18-0.91). Sensitivity analyses where adherence was defined different show no relationship between adherence and use of OTC medicine. Furthermore, separate analyses of herbal medicines, dietary supplements, or non-prescribed drugs did not correlate with adherence to prescriptions. Conclusion Amongst elderly patients on multiple medications a positive relationship was found between the overall use of OTC medicines and adherence to prescription drugs, in contrast to none when adherence were defined different or herbal medicines, dietary supplements, or non-prescribed drugs were analysed separately.

  19. 21 CFR 310.533 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as an anticholinergic in cough-cold drug products. 310.533... in cough-cold drug products. (a) Atropine sulfate, belladonna alkaloids, and belladonna alkaloids as contained in Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium have been present as ingredients in cough-cold...

  20. Emergency Contraceptive Pill (ECP) Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States: Changes since ECP Went Over-the-Counter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers since ECP went over-the-counter (OTC) in 2006. Related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved, contraindications, follow-up procedures, methods of advertising, and staff attitudes, were…

  1. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially...

  2. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially...

  3. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially...

  4. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts... potentially serious and life-threatening risks associated with the use of quinine at doses employed for...

  5. Ibuprofen-Induced Hypokalemia and Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis: A Patient's Perceptions of Over-the-Counter Medications and Their Adverse Effects.

    PubMed

    Salter, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    We highlight a case of distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to ibuprofen and codeine use. Of particular interest in this case are the patient's perception of over-the-counter (OTC) medication use, her own OTC use prior to admission, and her knowledge of adverse reactions or side effects of these medications prior to taking them.

  6. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI). 330.12 Section 330.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Register concerning previously unpublished OTC drugs reviewed by the National Academy of...

  7. Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasio, Michael J.; Curry, Kim; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Glassman, Destinee M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods:…

  8. A Reformulation of the Issue of Over-the-Counter Television Drug Advertising Using a Health-Related Locus of Control Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Dennis J.; And Others

    The issue of whether or not television should continue to air commercial announcements for over-the-counter (O-T-C) drugs has been debated in the United States. On 8 December 1976, the Federal Communications Commission denied a petition to ban such television commercials between 6 A.M. and 9 P.M. in part because it could find little scientific…

  9. Quantitative determination of a-Arbutin, ß-Arbutin, Kojic acid, nicotinamide, hydroquinone, resorcinol, 4-methoxyphenol, 4-ethoxyphenol and ascorbic acid from skin whitening Products by HPLC-UV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multifarious skin whitening agents will provide an efficient tool to analyze skin whitening cosmetics. An HPLC-UV method was developed for quantitative analysis of six commonly used whitening agents, a-arbutin, ß-arbutin, koji...

  10. A Study on the Dispensing Pattern of Over the Counter Drugs in Retail Pharmacies in Sarjapur Area, East Bangalore

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Ananya; Srinivas, B.N

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the counter drugs (OTC) are sold without the prescription of a registered medical practitioner. There are reports that OTC drug market in India is on the rise. This is attributed to the rising cost of health care, difficulty in accessing healthcare, and an alarming tendency to self manage symptoms. The outcome of this is OTC related adverse effects, abuse, and hospitalizations. Literature on OTC is sparse. Hence this study was undertaken to evaluate the dispensing pattern of OTC drugs in retail pharmacies in Sarjapur area, East Bangalore. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in 3 retail pharmacies in Sarjapur area, Bangalore East. The duration of the study was for a period of 10 days from August 1st to August 10th 2014. The common complaints for which the patients frequented the pharmacies were observed and recorded .The investigator personally interviewed the patients between 6pm to 9pm, near the respective pharmacies. During this study period around 216 patients visited pharmacies without prescription. The drugs supplied to 216 patients by private pharmacies without prescription was recorded. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics using Microsoft Excel. Results and Observations Most commonly dispensed OTC drugs were analgesics (26.8%). The other categories of medications dispensed were antihistamines (15.2%), antacids (14.8%), antibiotics (10%), antipyretics (7.8%), Oral contraceptive (OC pills) (5.09%) and others (20%). The commonly dispensed antibiotics were Cefadroxil (250mg) for dental infection and Levofloxacin (500mg) for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common complaint for the use of OTC drugs was pain (25%). It was noted that 55.09% of the dispensed drugs belonged to schedule H. However, 13% patients were aware regarding the harmful effects of drugs. Conclusion The use of OTC drugs is alarmingly high in Bangalore East. Pharmacists have to be trained and educated regarding rationale dispensing of drugs. The need

  11. Acute adverse events from over-the-counter Chinese herbal medicines: a population-based survey of Hong Kong Chinese

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although over-the-counter traditional Chinese herbal medicine (COTC) is commonly used to treat everyday illness in many parts of the world, no population-based study has been done to examine the prevalence and factors associated with COTC-related adverse events. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese adults in 2011 (n = 1100) with informed verbal consent. Stepwise logistic regression of demographic, attitudinal and behavioral variables was used to determine factors associated with past-year adverse events. Results Of study respondents, 71.7% (789/1100) reported past-year COTC use and 2.3% (25/1100) reported at least one COTC-related adverse event in the past year. Of the 27 adverse events cases reported among COTC users, the most common were allergic reactions (n = 11) dizziness (n = 5), and gastro-intestinal problems (n = 4). Pills/capsules were the dosage form that caused the highest proportion of adverse events (n = 10), followed by plasters (n = 7), creams/ointments (n = 5), and ingestible powders (n = 2). Although COTC users reporting adverse events were more likely to report greater practices to avoid adverse events (OR = 6.47; 95% CI: 1.38-30.3); they were also more likely to possess lower education levels (OR = 9.64, 95% CI: 2.20-42.3) and to have received COTC information from non-reliable, mass-media information sources such as magazines (OR = 3.32; 95% CI: 1.01-8.50) or television (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.03-10.7). Package labels were also felt to be unclear by 42.9% of COTC users. A large proportion of COTC users demonstrated low levels of COTC-related knowledge, while the main impediment to greater information-seeking was the belief that reliable COTC information is not obtainable from Western health professionals. Conclusions Despite global movements toward more stringent complementary medicine regulation, the limited accessibility of reliable information

  12. Hot-water and solid-phase extraction of fluorescent whitening agents in paper materials and infant clothes followed by unequivocal determination with ion-pair chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chang; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2006-03-10

    A comprehensive method for the determination of four stilbene-type disulfonate and one distyrylbiphenyl-type fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in paper materials (napkin and paper tissue) and infant clothes was developed. FWAs were extracted from paper material and cloth samples using a hot-water extraction, and the aqueous extracts were then preconcentrated with the newly developed Oasis WAX (mixed-mode of weak anion exchange and reversed-phase sorbent) solid-phase extraction cartridge. The analytes were unequivocal determined by ion pair chromatography coupled with negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS), applying a di-n-hexyl-ammonium acetate (DHAA) as the ion-pairing reagent in mobile phase. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were established between 0.2 and 0.9 ng/g in 2 g of samples. Recovery of five FWAs in spiked commercial samples was between 42 and 95% and RSD (n = 3) ranging from 2 to 11%. The method was finally applied to commercial samples, showing that two stilbene-type disulfonates were predominant FWAs detected in napkin and infant cloth samples.

  13. Severe central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity in a pediatric patient after ingestion of an over-the-counter local anesthetic.

    PubMed

    Nelsen, Jamie; Holland, Michael; Dougherty, Michelle; Bernad, Jason; Stork, Christine; Marraffa, Jeanna

    2009-10-01

    Dibucaine is considered one of the most potent and consequently toxic amide anesthetics available, and despite withdrawal from the US market as a spinal anesthetic, it remains accessible as an over-the-counter preparation in the United States. Dibucaine exposures in children are infrequently encountered, but to date, all reported consequential ingestions have resulted in death. We report the first case of a potentially fatal dibucaine-induced wide-complex arrhythmia in a child who survived her clinical course without sequelae. It is our hope that this report will highlight the toxicity of dibucaine and prompt a review of its over-the-counter status. The rationale and success of a new antidote, 20% lipid emulsion, for the management of local anesthetic toxicity is discussed.

  14. Self-reported use of traditional, complementary and over-the-counter medicines by HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Malangu, N

    2007-02-16

    Current management of HIV involves the use of conventional prescription medicines, called 'antiretroviral drugs' (ARV), over-the-counter (OTC), complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), as well as African traditional medicine (ATM). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of use of traditional, complementary and over-the-counter medicines. A cross-sectional survey of HIV-infected patients who started ART between July 2004 and August 2005 at Dr George Mukhari Hospital (Pretoria), who consented to be interviewed, was conducted. Using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, data were collected by two trained interviewers on sociodemographic characteristics, and on non-prescribed medicines used of three sources: African traditional medicine (ATM), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. The 180 patients who consented to be interviewed had a mean age of 36.7 (+/-8.1) years old; 68.8% were female, 86.7% unemployed, 73.9% with high school level of education, 77.8% single. Some 8.9% of respondents used at least one non-prescribed medicine. In descending order, 4.4% of respondents used ATM, 3.3% CAM, and 1.7% OTC medicines. The ATM products used included unspecified traditional mixtures, and those made of the African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea), and coconut (Cocos nucifera); OTC products used were paracetamol and sennosides (Senokot) tablets as well as a soap containing triclosan 1.5%; CAM products used were "sex booster" capsules of unknown composition, mercury-containing soaps (Mekako), and the Zion Church of Christ special tea, a mixture of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) plus sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus) and prayed for. In conclusion, only 8.9% of HIV-infected patients on ART in this study used a limited range of over-the-counter products as well as those from traditional, complementary and alternative medicine practices.

  15. How adolescents experience and cope with pain in daily life: a qualitative study on ways to cope and the use of over-the-counter analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Lagerløv, Per; Rosvold, Elin Olaug; Holager, Tanja; Helseth, Sølvi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe how different adolescents experience and manage pain in their daily life, with a focus on their use of over-the-counter analgesics. More specifically, the aim was to explore different patterns among the adolescents in pain descriptions, in the management of pain, in relationships with others, and in their daily life. Design Qualitative semistructured interviews on experiences with pain, pain management and involvement of family and friends during pain. Pain and stress management strategies and attachment theory will be in focus for interpretations. Participants and setting 25 participants aged 15–16-years from six different junior high schools, both genders, with and without immigrant background were interviewed at their local schools in Norway. Results We identified 4 groups of adolescents with similarities in attitudes and management strategies to pain: ‘pain is manageable’, ‘pain is communicable’, ‘pain is inevitable’ and ‘pain is all over’. The participants within each group differed in how they engaged their parents in pain; how they perceived, communicated and managed pain; and how they involved emotions and used over-the-counter analgesics. Conclusions The adolescents’ different involvement with the family during pain related to their pain perception and management. Knowledge of the different ways of approaching pain is important when supporting adolescents and may be a subject for further research on the use of over-the-counter analgesics in the family. PMID:26932141

  16. Tooth whitening and temperature rise with two bleaching activation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-02-01

    Objectives: To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and intra-pulpal temperature increase in vitro on extracted upper human incisors after chemical, zoom light and diode laser activated bleaching. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n=10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power zoom activation light, for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. Degree of whitening was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and intrapulpal. Results: The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Conclusions: Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than zoom AP light. Diode lasers used to activate bleaching gels are not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulps using power settings of 2W.

  17. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-09-01

    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoom activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.

  18. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-09-27

    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoom activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.

  19. 78 FR 57397 - Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products-Emergency Use Eyewash Products; Announcement of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... response, FDA published a request for data and information on these products in 1989 (call for data, 54 FR... include a section on EE products (the PR, 68 FR 7951). The PR stated FDA's tentative conclusion that... contain tonicity agents to establish isotonicity with tears and agents for buffering the pH'' (68 FR...

  20. Tooth whitening clinical trials: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Robert W

    2007-09-01

    Tooth whitening has been the subject of extensive clinical trials research since the introduction of the first hydrogen-peroxide whitening strips in 2000. Availability of digital image analysis, an unambiguous and reproducible method for assessing color change, has contributed to global clinical research and product development on whitening strips. The research has included a series of global randomized controlled trials in distinct sites and cultures, involving 6-6.5% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips used for 7-21 days. These studies, conducted at research hospitals, dental schools, and private dental practice, demonstrated significant color improvement with whitening strips relative to baseline and/or various controls without serious adverse events. This integrated clinical trials research provides important evidence of long-term safety and effectiveness of tooth whitening with 6-6.5% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips.

  1. What information for the patient? Large scale pilot study on experimental package inserts giving information on prescribed and over the counter drugs.

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the acceptability and the degree of understandability of two drug information leaflets on three over the counter and two prescribed drugs. DESIGN--Prospective observational study. SETTING--Random sample of municipal pharmacies throughout Italy. SUBJECTS--A total of 6992 clients of the pharmacies who requested the study drugs over a period of four months. INTERVENTION--Exposure of patients to two information leaflets, one approved by the Ministry of Health, and the other an experimental sheet prepared by the research working group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The degree of acceptability of the information was assessed by using a pretested questionnaire. Comments concerning information needs were also encouraged and collected. RESULTS--6992 Clients responded to the questionnaire. Non-metropolitan (urban and rural) areas had the highest rate of participation. The participants strongly preferred the experimental leaflets to the approved leaflets, both with respect to accessibility of the contents (overall preference 78.1% v 17.8%) and ease of understanding the contraindications of drug use (90.2% v 73.7%). Basic attitudes related to the use of written information were similar among clients of different age groups, educational levels (though emerging people with primary school or lower educational levels showed slightly lesser understanding), and geographic areas. Up to 50% of those who took over the counter drugs indicated a disposition to change their drug seeking behaviour on the basis of the information in the experimental leaflet. The comments provided a useful complementary set of data on the information needs expressed by participants. CONCLUSIONS--The results of this pilot study indicate that patients will enter active programmes to investigate the provision of problem oriented drug information. Their information needs seem to concern both prescribed and over the counter drugs. More extensive and systematic work is required to develop an

  2. Dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products containing coal tar and menthol for over-the-counter human use; amendment to the monograph. Final rule

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph (FM) for over-the-counter (OTC) dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products to include the combination of 1.8 percent coal tar solution and 1.5 percent menthol in a shampoo drug product to control dandruff. FDA did not receive any comments or data in response to its previously proposed rule to include this combination. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  3. Astringent drug products that produce aluminum acetate; skin protectant drug products for over-the-counter human use; technical amendment. Final rule; technical amendment.

    PubMed

    2009-03-01

    We (Food and Drug Administration (FDA)) are amending the final monograph (FM) for over-the-counter (OTC) skin protectant astringent drug products. This amendment clarifies that aluminum acetate solutions, produced by dissolving aluminum sulfate tetradecahydrate and calcium acetate monohydrate in powder or tablet form in water, are generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE) and not misbranded as astringent drug products. The amendment also describes how manufacturers should relabel these products to comply with the FM. We are issuing this amendment in response to a citizen petition (CP) that we received from a manufacturer of OTC astringent drug products. This final rule is part of our ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  4. Dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products containing coal tar and menthol for over-the-counter human use; amendment to the monograph. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-03-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph (FM) for over-the-counter (OTC) dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products to include the combination of 1.8 percent coal tar solution and 1.5 percent menthol in a shampoo drug product to control dandruff. FDA did not receive any comments or data in response to its previously proposed rule to include this combination. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products. PMID:17447341

  5. Skin Barrier Health: Regulation and Repair of the Stratum Corneum and the Role of Over-the-Counter Skin Care.

    PubMed

    Lee, Thomas; Friedman, Adam

    2016-09-01

    The epidermis functions as a physical barrier that separates the inner body from the outside environment. The outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, plays a key role in maintaining this barrier. There are numerous biochemical changes that take place to and in the keratinocyte as it migrates from the bottom, or startum basale, to the top layer of the epidermis in order for this barrier to function appropriately. In addition, external and internal factors, such as irritants and underlying medical diseases, can also affect the stratum corneum, both of which can potentially lead to disruption of barrier function and ultimately skin pathology. In this article, we will review keratinocyte biology as it relates to the formation and function of the stratum corneum. We will also review stratum corneum structure, physiology, and the impact of chemical agents and defective stratum corneum components that can lead to skin disease. Finally, we will briefly discuss how moisturizers repair defects in the stratum corneum and restore barrier function.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1047-1051. PMID:27602965

  6. The effects of a customized over-the-counter mouth guard on neuromuscular force and power production in trained men and women.

    PubMed

    Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Luk, Hui-Ying; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Kupchak, Brian R; Watts, Ashley M; Putney, Brendan J; Hydren, Jay R; Volek, Jeff S; Denegar, Craig R; Kraemer, William J

    2012-04-01

    Although mouth guards were originally designed for injury prevention, even elite athletes are now using performance mouth guards to improve athletic success. Both expensive custom models and over-the-counter models are available, but the efficacy is not well known. Some athletes remain wary of the perceived potential for detriments using a mouth guard to their performance. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine various physical performance tests when using a mouth guard including a customized over-the-counter mouth guard. Twenty-six trained men (25 ± 4 years; 1.78 ± 0.07 m; 83.3 ± 11.4 kg) and 24 trained women (23 ± 3 years; 1.65 ± 0.08 m; 62.6 ± 7.8 kg) volunteered for the investigation. The subjects completed a familiarization period and then balanced and randomized treatment conditions that included: (a) a customized Power Balance performance mouth guard (PB MG); (b) a regular over the counter boil-and-bite mouth guard (Reg MG); and (c) a no mouth guard (No MG) treatment condition. At each visit, the subjects completed a testing protocol that was sequenced in the following order: sit-and-reach flexibility, medial-lateral balance, visual reaction time, vertical jump, 10-m sprint, bench throw, and plyo press power quotient (3PQ). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded around the 3PQ. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Expected significant sex differences existed for all power, strength, and speed variables. Bench throw power (watts) and force (newtons) were significantly higher under PB MG than either Reg MG or No MG or in both men and women. The 3PQ power and force production were higher than that for the other 2 treatments for the PB MG for men only. There were no significant differences for treatment conditions in the heart rate or RPE after the 3PQ test. Men were better able to maintain significantly higher 3PQ power production under PB MG treatment condition compared with the other 2 treatment conditions. Rate of power

  7. Whitening non vital teeth - a case report.

    PubMed

    Moraru, Iren; Tuculină, Mihaela; Bătăiosu, Marilena; Gheorghiţă, Lelia; Diaconu, Oana

    2012-07-01

    Commonly used in cosmetic dentistry teeth whitening can be used combined with other restorative techniques during dental treatment. Non-vital teeth whitening is necessary whenever we need an improvement of their aspect, as it's a known fact that these teeth can have a grey or pink-grey coloration when they are not correctly endodontical treated.

  8. Over-the-counter medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help reduce fever in children and adults. Take acetaminophen every 4 to 6 ... these medicines. Aspirin works very well for treating fever in ... aspirin to a child unless your child's provider tells you it is ...

  9. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Ruchir; Salvo, Marissa C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by patients as part of their medical care plan. Often clinicians may not be aware of their use, because patients do not always consider these to be medications. All clinicians need to continually ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when collecting a medication history. Dietary supplements and prescription medications often share similar enzymatic pathways for their metabolism. These interactions may lead to severe adverse reactions. This article reviews available evidence for a variety of dietary supplements in select disease categories.

  10. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Ruchir; Salvo, Marissa C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by patients as part of their medical care plan. Often clinicians may not be aware of their use, because patients do not always consider these to be medications. All clinicians need to continually ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when collecting a medication history. Dietary supplements and prescription medications often share similar enzymatic pathways for their metabolism. These interactions may lead to severe adverse reactions. This article reviews available evidence for a variety of dietary supplements in select disease categories. PMID:27542428

  11. The relevance of the urinary concentration of ephedrines in anti-doping analysis: determination of pseudoephedrine, cathine, and ephedrine after administration of over-the-counter medicaments.

    PubMed

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Leone, Daniele; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2009-08-01

    This article describes a method for the detection and quantitation of cathine, pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, and methylephedrine in urine, using their deuterated analogues as internal standards and derivatization to form the corresponding trimethylsilyl derivatives after a simple liquid-liquid extraction. The study was designed to evaluate whether the urinary cutoff values set by the World Anti-Doping Agency for the banned ephedrines (cathine >5 microg/mL, ephedrine and methylephedrine >10 microg/mL) can be exceeded after the normal self-administration of common over-the-counter medicaments containing nonbanned ephedrines. The present method, after validation, has been applied on real urine samples obtained from 9 healthy volunteers taking different doses of over-the-counter preparations containing ephedrines. Results obtained from excretion studies show high interindividual differences in the urinary concentrations of both pseudoephedrine and cathine, not dependent on body weight or sex nor, in some instances, on the administered dose. The same typical therapeutic dose of pseudoephedrine (60 mg) produced a urinary concentration of more than 5 microg/mL for cathine and of more than 100 microg/mL for pseudoephedrine in 2 of 9 subjects only. When a dose of 120 mg was administered, cathine concentration exceeded 5 microg/mL in 4 of 7 subject, and also concentrations of pseudoephedrine above 100 microg/mL. After administration of 5 x 120 mg of pseudoephedrine (120 mg administered every 7 days for 5 weeks) to one of the subjects exceeding the urinary threshold values, the urinary concentration of cathine and pseudoephedrine exceeded 5 microg/mL (peak concentration 14.8 microg/mL) and 100 microg/mL (peak concentration 275 microg/mL), respectively. When the same subject took 180 mg of pseudoephedrine, the urinary concentration values were below 5 microg/mL for ephedrine and 100 microg/mL for pseudoephedrine. In the case of ephedrine administration in a sustained

  12. Effect of Whitening Dentifrice on Micro Hardness, Colour Stability and Surface Roughness of Aesthetic Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Basappa, N.; Prabhakar, AR; Raju, OS; Lamba, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Whitening agents present in the novel whitening dentifrices may have deleterious effects over the aesthetic restorations. Aim The present study evaluated the invitro effect of whitening dentifrice on micro hardness, colour stability and surface roughness on aesthetic restorative materials. Materials and Methods Forty specimens each of compomer and of composite were prepared using brass mould. Specimens were equally divided into 4 groups. Group I (20 disks of compomer are subjected to brushing with conventional tooth paste) Group II (20 disks of composite subjected to brushing with conventional tooth paste), Group III (20 disks of compomer subjected to brushing with whitening tooth paste). Group IV (20 disks of composite subjected to brushing with whitening toothpaste). Each group was further divided into two subgroups, where 10 sample were subjected for two weeks of brushing with respective tooth paste and other 10 were subjected for four weeks of brushing. For the evaluation of micro hardness, colour stability and surface roughness, micro hardness testing machine, spectrophotometer and surface testing machine were used respectively. Initial and final readings were taken for each specimen and difference obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. One-way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparison followed by post-hoc Tukey’s-test. The paried t-test was used for intra group comparison and unpaired t-test for comparing independent sample groups. Results The compomer and composite showed no significant difference in micro hardness either with conventional or whitening tooth paste both at two and four weeks. Although there was a highly significant colour change observed after using whitening tooth paste for both compomer and composite. Regarding surface roughness, there was a significant change in roughness in both conventional and whitening tooth paste with compomer and composite. However, whitening tooth paste had a significant change in surface

  13. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell: Parental Nondisclosure of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Over-the-Counter Medication Use in Children’s Asthma Management

    PubMed Central

    Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly; Yoos, H. Lorrie; Kitzman, Harriet; McMullen, Ann; Anson, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background Parent-healthcare provider (HCP) communication is an important component of pediatric asthma management. Given the high prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and over-the-counter (OTC) medication use among this population, it is important to examine parental nondisclosure of these asthma management strategies. Method One-time interview and one-year retrospective medical record review with 228 parents of 5–12 year old children with asthma enrolled from 6 pediatric primary care practices examining parental nondisclosure of CAM and OTC medication use, reasons for nondisclosure, medical record documentation of CAM usage, and association between parent-HCP relationship and nondisclosure. Results Seventy-one percent of parents reported using CAM and/or OTC medication for children’s asthma management and 54% of those parents did not disclose usage. Seventy-five percent “did not think” to discuss it. Better parent-HCP relationship led to decreased nondisclosure. Discussion HCPs can play an important role in creating an environment where parents feel comfortable sharing information about their children’s asthma management strategies in order to arrive at a shared asthma management plan for the child leading to improved asthma health outcomes. PMID:18590866

  14. Will Gay and Bisexually Active Men at High Risk of Infection Use Over-the-Counter Rapid HIV Tests to Screen Sexual Partners?

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Frasca, Timothy; Dolezal, Curtis; Balan, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration may license OraQuick™, a rapid HIV test, for over-the-counter (OTC) sale. We investigated whether HIV-uninfected, non-monogamous gay and bisexual men who never or rarely use condoms would use the test with partners as a harm-reduction approach. Sixty participants responded to two computer-assisted self-interviews, underwent an in-depth interview, and chose whether to test themselves with OraQuick™. Over 80% of the men said they would use the kit to test sexual partners or themselves if it became available OTC. Most participants understood that antibody tests have a window period in which the virus is undetectable yet saw advantages to using the test to screen partners; 74% tested themselves in our offices. Participants offered several possible strategies to introduce the home-test idea to partners, frequently endorsed mutual testing, and highlighted that home testing could stimulate greater honesty in serostatus disclosure. Participants drew distinctions between testing regular versus occasional partners. Non-monogamous MSM who never or rarely use condoms may nevertheless seek to avoid HIV. Technologies that do not interfere with sexual pleasure are likely to be used when available. Studies are needed to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using OTC rapid HIV tests as one additional harm-reduction tool. PMID:22293029

  15. Atmospheric identification of active ingredients in over-the-counter pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse by atmospheric pressure glow discharge mass spectrometry (APGD-MS).

    PubMed

    Brewer, Tim M; Verkouteren, Jennifer R

    2011-09-15

    Atmospheric pressure glow discharge mass spectrometry was used to characterize the active ingredients in pharmaceutical over-the-counter (OTC) drug formulations (Tylenol Allergy, Alka-Seltzer Plus Nighttime, Sudafed, Aleve and Mucinex DM) and drugs of abuse (crack cocaine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy) and hydrocodone). Material was desorbed and directly ionized under atmospheric conditions by allowing the substance to come in direct contact with the plasma followed by mass spectrometric detection. With this technique, controlled substances and OTC medications were readily distinguished from one another. Characteristic mass spectra were identified for the active ingredients in the OTC and drugs of abuse. Importantly, all drug compounds studied here, both OTC and illicit, demonstrated signals for either molecular ions or protonated molecules as well as fragmentation patterns that are readily identified in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) electron ionization (EI) mass spectral library. It is believed that this technique holds promise for forensic and law enforcement communities for real-time atmospheric analysis of drugs with database-searchable spectra of controlled substances. PMID:21818799

  16. Study of the influence of over-the-counter vitamin supplement intake on urine fluorescence to optimize cancer detection by fluorescence cystoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellweger, Matthieu; Martoccia, Carla; Mengin, Matthieu; Iselin, Christophe; Bergh, Hubert van den; Wagnières, Georges

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescence cystoscopy (FC) efficiently enhances the detection and improves the therapeutic management of early bladder cancer. During an FC, about 150 ml of water is needed to inflate the bladder. The water is quickly diluted by urine which can be fluorescent. If this bladder washout fluid (BWF) becomes fluorescent, the FC images are frequently degraded. Unfortunately, it is unclear which elements of the diet may contribute to this background fluorescence. We propose to start this exploration with over-the-counter (OTC) vitamin supplements. To this end, we measured excitation-emission matrices of urine samples and the kinetics of modifications of urine fluorescence obtained from nine healthy volunteers before, during, and after intake of a commercially available OTC vitamin supplement. The pharmacokinetics shows that the BWF fluorescence values reach a maximum 8 to 10 h after vitamin intake. They decrease in the half-day that follows and reach values close to baseline ˜1 day afterward. Based on these results, we conclude that, in order to avoid degradations of fluorescence images, it is likely best that the intake of OTC vitamin supplements be avoided during the week preceding an FC.

  17. Damage of office supply, personal use items, and over-the-counter medical devices after sterilization by ethylene oxide gas, electron beam, and gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Anne D; Merritt, Katharine; Hitchins, Victoria M

    2004-01-01

    After letters containing Bacillus anthracis spores entered the U.S. mail in 2001, a problem emerged regarding how to decontaminate the letters, packages, and personal items in offices that received these letters. The effects of three sterilization methods (i.e. ethylene oxide gas [EO], electron beam [e-beam] radiation, and gamma radiation) were evaluated for a variety of office supply and equipment, personal use items, and over-the-counter medical devices. No single sterilization method was suitable for all items that could be mailed or found in an office. Damage or discoloration was evident for some items by each sterilization method. There were changes in the color of certain items, such as some of the packaging material, some pacifiers, some of the fabrics, and the nylon stockings after e-beam and gamma radiation. Both e-beam and gamma radiation damaged all film samples. Following EO sterilization and normal aeration, there were a number of samples with high (above 250 microg/g) levels of EO and samples with detectable ethylene chlorohydrin levels. The data would suggest that certain items exposed to EO sterilization must be further aerated prior to use, or discarded. Generic descriptions of products (such as plastics) or grouping of items (such as condoms) were not sufficient to predict what is safe in terms of EO residual levels remaining on an item. Successful decontamination of a wide variety of items will require careful selection of different sterilization methods. PMID:15635999

  18. The availability and validity of safety information of over the counter herbal products for use in diabetes in Sri Lanka: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Medagama, Arjuna Bandara; Widanapahirana, Heshan; Prasanga, Tharindu

    2015-01-01

    Aims: There is an increase of over-the-counter (OTC) herbal products for use in diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety information provided with OTC herbal remedies intended for diabetic patients in Sri Lanka and to assess the completeness of the information provided. Methods: Inclusion criteria consisted of OTC herbal remedies meant for use in diabetes. They were bought from local Sri Lankan supermarkets and non-ayurvedic pharmacies and product information regarding the risk of hypoglycemia, precautions for use, adverse events, dose, and interactions were assessed using a scoring system. The accuracy of the information was then compared against published data. Results: 11 products fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Five products contained a single constituent and five contained more than one. None had complete and accurate safety information according to our criteria. None specifically warned against the risk of hypoglycemia. 9 out of 11 products (81.8%) carried ≤3 items of the five essential factual information we expected. Hypoglycemic coma, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenesis, and interactions causing elevated drug levels of Carbamazepine were some of the safety information that was missing. Conclusions: Key safety information was absent in most products. Regulation of sale, provision of key safety information and adverse event reporting should be a priority. PMID:26649230

  19. Adverse reactions to H2-receptor antagonists in Denmark before and after transfer of cimetidine and ranitidine to over-the-counter status.

    PubMed

    Andersen, M; Schou, J S

    1991-10-01

    The H2-receptor antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine were transferred from prescription only to over-the-counter (OTC) status in Denmark on March 27, 1989. Reports to the Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions, a voluntary reporting system, have been evaluated to detect possible changes in frequency and pattern of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) caused by the altered delivery status. From the introduction of cimetidine in 1977 and until March 31, 1990, the Committee received 494 reports of 612 suspected adverse reactions to anti-ulcer drugs. The H2-receptor antagonists (mainly cimetidine and ranitidine) were responsible for 548 (90%) of the ADRs. The study, which presents experience with these drugs from more than a decade and a total consumption corresponding to 65 million treatment days, confirms their excellent safety record. Serious reactions were rare, and when they occurred, reversible. During the first year with cimetidine and ranitidine available OTC no changes were seen in reporting frequency or ADR pattern which could be ascribed to OTC transfer. Only one ADR report concerning OTC cimetidine was received. This may be caused by several factors: the safety of these drugs, the fact that only very little was actually sold OTC, and a relatively low sensitivity of the voluntary reporting system. PMID:1683484

  20. The skin whitening industry in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2014-05-01

    Skin whitening is a big and booming industry in many developing countries. Its popularity owes mainly to post-colonial, internalized racism. This study examines whether government intervention is necessary and more efficient than market-driven approaches in addressing the health risks and harms associated with skin whitening. We gathered empirical data on the quality and quantity of health-related information about skin whiteners with a multi-stage probability sample of consumers in two cities in the Philippines (n=110; α=0.05). Regardless of their socio-demographic characteristics, we find that cognitive biases and information asymmetries build and sustain consumers' trust in manufacturers and distributors of skin whiteners while, paradoxically, breeding uncertainties over the integrity of these products. The results are product adulteration and misbranding, leading to pricing advantages for toxic whiteners over safer products. This has impeded regulatory efficacy. We recommend anchoring government intervention in transaction cost-reduction, containing the externalities of skin bleaching, and institutionalizing third party partnerships. Failure to do so would leave consumers extremely vulnerable to the forces of supply and demand that favor toxic whiteners, particularly in a market where voluntary collective action is difficult to organize.

  1. [Surveillance study in collaboration with a university-daycare center for elderly people and nursery school for children on the use of over-the-counter drugs and health food in Fukuyama].

    PubMed

    Anraku, Makoto; Inoue, Hirofumi; Sato, Eiji; Hata, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Daiju; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yoshitomi, Hironori; Kondo, Yuko; Tanaka, Masataka; Tomida, Hisao

    2010-08-01

    To estimate the extent of use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and health food, we administered a questionnaire to the parents of children in a nursery school and to elderly people in a daycare center in Fukuyama city. The aim of the questionnaire was to determine the percentage of children and elderly people who use OTC drugs and health food, the purpose of using them, and the types of OTC drugs and health food used. Other questions concerned the person advising them on the use of OTC and health food, the side effects of OTC drugs and health food, and the awareness of children and elderly people regarding possible interactions between prescription drugs and OTC drugs. In children, the most frequently consumed OTC drugs were cold medicines (32.1%), followed by topical creams (22.6%) and eye lotion (14.3%). In elderly people, the most frequently consumed OTC products were eye lotion (18.0%), followed by laxatives (14.8%) and fomentation agents (13.1%). The purchase ratio of health food for children and elderly people were 4.8% and 11.5%, respectively. These results suggest that the need for OTC drugs and health food in children are very different from those in elderly people. In addition, in promoting self-medication, the demand for the opinion of a specialist occupied about 80% or 70% of the total specialist time among children and elderly people, respectively. Therefore, when providing information on health food and OTC drugs, the needs of each generation should be taken into account. The information obtained from the responses received will allow us to provide better pharmaceutical care for both children and elderly people in Fukuyama city.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Algorithm Evaluation for Detecting Over-The-Counter Thermometer Sale Increases during 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Que, Jialan; Tsui, Fu-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Spatial outbreak detection algorithms using routinely collected healthcare data have been developed since the late 90s to identify and locate disease outbreaks. However, current well-received spatial algorithms assume only one outbreak cluster present at the same point of time which may not be valid during a pandemic when several clusters of geographic areas concurrently occur. Based on a retrospective evaluation on time-series and spatial algorithms, this paper suggests that time series analysis in detection of pandemics is still a desirable process, which may achieve more sensitive performance with better timeliness. Methods In this paper, we first prove in theory that two existing spatial models, the likelihood ratio and the Bayesian spatial scan statistics, are not useful if multiple clusters occur at the same point of time in different geographic regions. Then we conduct a comparison between a spatial algorithm, the Bayesian Spatial Scan Statistic (BSS), and a time series algorithm, the wavelet anomaly detector (WAD), on the performance of detecting the increase of the over-the-counter (OTC) medicine sales during 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Results The experiments demonstrated that the Bayesian spatial algorithm responded to the increase of thermometer sales about 3 days later than the time series algorithm. Conclusion Time-series algorithms demonstrated an advantage for early outbreak detection, especially when multiple clusters occur at the same time in different geographic regions. Given spatial-temporal algorithms for outbreak detection are widely used, this paper suggests that epidemiologists or public health officials would benefit by applying time series algorithms as a complement to spatial algorithms for public health surveillance. PMID:23569624

  3. A Review of the Ingredients Contained in Over the Counter (OTC) Cough Syrup Formulations in Kenya. Are They Harmful to Infants?

    PubMed Central

    Kigen, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Background Cough syrups are widely used in the developing world, but safety of their use in infants and children less than two years has not been well documented. Some syrups contain multiple combinations of such drugs as promethazine, diphenhydramine and ephedrine; which are individually now contraindicated in children less than two years. Despite this, the syrups are available as over the counter drugs and may be dispensed to mothers who are unaware of the potentially hazardous effects to their infants. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to investigate suitability of cough syrups sold within Eldoret municipality for use in children less than two years of age based on their formulations and available literature. Methods Two semi-structured questionnaires were administered to pharmacy attendants and mothers attending sick child clinic at a referral hospital to establish whether cough syrups containing more than one active ingredient of compounds, now contraindicated in children are administered to infants, and awareness of potential serious adverse effects. Data from labeled contents of cough syrups from retail pharmacies was recorded and corroborated with information from literature to determine those deemed to contain the ingredients. The second questionnaire was administered to mothers with children less than two years to ascertain whether they had used the identified syrups. A total of 260 mothers and 55 pharmacy attendants were interviewed. Results There was widespread use of the syrups in children, including infants, with 192 (74%) of the respondents having used identified syrups and over 90% of these on children less than 2 years including those less than three months.146 (76%) mothers had administered the syrup at double the recommended dose. Conclusion The regulatory authorities should make concerted efforts to discourage use of cough syrups containing ingredients that pose adverse events to infants, including campaigns to educate pharmacy

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Over-the-Counter Drug Use by the Elderly. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains the prepared statements and panel testimony from the Congressional hearing on over-the-counter (OTC) drug use by the elderly. Opening statements are given by Representatives Claude Pepper (chairman), Ralph Regula, Mary Rose Oakar, Michael Bilirakis, Tom Lantos, and Hal Daub. Topics which are covered include the incidence and…

  5. Treatment responses to tooth whitening in twins.

    PubMed

    Corby, Patricia M A; Biesbrock, Aaron; Gerlach, Robert; Corby, Andrea L; Moreira, Alexandre; Schork, Nicholas J; Bretz, Walter A

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine heritability estimates of treatment responses to a 10% hydrogen peroxide strip-based whitening system in twins. Eighty-five twin pairs were randomly assigned to 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips or placebo strips without peroxide. Both twins (monozygotic or dizygotic) received the same treatment. Maxillary teeth were treated for 30 minutes twice daily for 7 days. Efficacy was measured objectively as L* (light-dark), a* (red-green), and b* (yellow-blue) color change from digital images at baseline (∆) and day 8. Heritability estimates for tooth whitening treatment responses for changes from day 8 to baseline were obtained using variance-component methodologies. Whitening treatment responses were highly heritable (h(2) = 71.0) for ∆b* and ∆a*(p < .0001), but not for ∆L* (h(2) = 27.0), which was essentially modulated by environmental factors. This study has demonstrated that both genetic and environmental factors significantly contributed to seven-day whitening treatment responses achieved with 10% hydrogen peroxide strips.

  6. a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttram, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.

  7. Safety issues of tooth whitening using peroxide-based materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Greenwall, L

    2013-07-01

    In-office tooth whitening using hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) has been practised in dentistry without significant safety concerns for more than a century. While few disputes exist regarding the efficacy of peroxide-based at-home whitening since its first introduction in 1989, its safety has been the cause of controversy and concern. This article reviews and discusses safety issues of tooth whitening using peroxide-based materials, including biological properties and toxicology of H₂O₂, use of chlorine dioxide, safety studies on tooth whitening, and clinical considerations of its use. Data accumulated during the last two decades demonstrate that, when used properly, peroxide-based tooth whitening is safe and effective. The most commonly seen side effects are tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation, which are usually mild to moderate and transient. So far there is no evidence of significant health risks associated with tooth whitening; however, potential adverse effects can occur with inappropriate application, abuse, or the use of inappropriate whitening products. With the knowledge on peroxide-based whitening materials and the recognition of potential adverse effects associated with the procedure, dental professionals are able to formulate an effective and safe tooth whitening regimen for individual patients to achieve maximal benefits while minimising potential risks.

  8. The art and science of tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Kugel, Gerard; Ferreira, Susana

    2005-01-01

    Although tooth whitening is one of the most popular dental procedures, it is also one of the least understood. We are still unclear as to its mechanism of action. There is little data as to the effects of both concentration and dose on outcome. The techniques for measuring color change have been brought into question. The cause(s) of sensitivity and the effects of long-term exposure to hydrogen peroxide are not clear. The issue of rebound in color has not been well examined, and issues related to maintenance of the whitening effect are also poorly understood. The immediate placement of composite resin on bleached teeth has been controversial. According to a study evaluating the shear bond strength of composite restorations placed on bleached and nonbleached teeth, there was no statistically significant difference when the composites were placed at 24 hours, 48 hours, four days, or six days. A different study, which evaluated the effects of take-home bleaching systems on enamel surfaces, suggests that a period of four days must elapse before bonding to a tooth bleached with a peroxide material, while no delay is necessary for a non-peroxide-based bleaching system. Most recently, there has been a push to find ways to accelerate and improve the delivery of the whitening process. These include the application of a number of different light sources believed to accelerate the breakdown of peroxide and thus speed up the whitening process. However, the research in this area has been controversial, with publications having quite different conclusions as to the efficacy of light-activated bleaching. Finally, the issues of adverse events and possible side effects were reviewed. The toxicological side effects of tooth bleaching systems seem to be minimal. However, tooth sensitivity can be quite significant. Although its causes are poorly understood, tooth sensitivity is most often seen as the result of tooth dehydration. So while patient demand for tooth whitening is at an all

  9. Novel screening method for potential skin-whitening compounds by a luciferase reporter assay.

    PubMed

    Shirasugi, Ichiro; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Yamasaki, Masao; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Matsui, Takashi; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Suiko, Masahito

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the melanin content by using B16 melanoma cells is generally applied to find novel skin-whitening agents. However, this measurement method using B16 melanoma cells has such disadvantages, as the time taken, its sensitivity, and troublesomeness. We therefore attempted in the present study to establish a reporter assay system by measuring the tyrosinase promoter activity to use for convenient, high-throughput screening of new melanogenesis inhibitors. We first confirmed the validity of this reporter assay system by using such known skin-whitening agents, as arbutin, sulforaphane, and theaflavin 3,3'-digallate. We then compared the effect of 56 compounds on the tyrosinase promoter activity to test this reporter assay system. Carnosol, and rottlerin strongly inhibited the tyrosinase promoter activity. Moreover, carnosol and rottlerin decreased melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression in a dose-dependent manner when using B16 melanoma cells. These results indicate this new luciferase reported assay system to be an effective and convenient method for screening potential skin-whitening compounds. PMID:21071833

  10. Comparative investigation of the tooth whitening processes using Ar+ and CuBr lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, S.; Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Gisbrecht, Alexander; Todorovska, Roumiana; Avramov, Lachezar A.; Todorov, Georgy C.

    2001-04-01

    In the present work some results of the comparative measurements of the tooth whitening effect using a bleaching agent activated by Ar+ (emitting at 488 nm) and CuBr (emitting at 510 nm) lasers are reported. It is shown that the whitening effect is observed in both cases. Some of the peculiarities in application of CuBr laser in the field of aesthetic dentistry are discussed, as well as the possibility to replace the more expensive Ar+ laser. In order to ensure reliable results from a light-chemical treatment of the teeth, as spectroscopy method has been developed and applied. The method is based on the analysis of laser-induced fluorescence spectra of the teeth with different coloring.

  11. A randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded comparative clinical study of five over-the-counter non-pharmacological topical analgesics for myofascial pain: single session findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of topical agents for the treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) and Myofascial Trigger Point (MTRP). Methods Subjects with an identifiable trigger point in the trapezius muscle, age 18-80 were recruited for a single-session randomized, placebo-blinded clinical study. Baseline measurements of trapezius muscle pressure pain threshold (PPT: by pressure algometer) along with right and left cervical lateral flexion (rangiometer) were obtained by a blinded examiner. An assessor blinded to the outcomes assessments applied one of 6 topical formulations which had been placed in identical plastic containers. Five of these topicals were proposed active formulations; the control group was given a non-active formulation (PLA). Five minutes after the application of the formula the outcome measures were re-tested. Data were analyzed with a 5-way ANOVA and Holms-adjusted t-tests with an alpha level of 0.05. Results 120 subjects were entered into the study (63 females; ages 16-82); 20 subjects randomly allocated into each group. The pre- and post-treatment results for pressure threshold did show significant intra-group increases for the Ben-Gay Ultra Strength Muscle Pain Ointment (BG), the Professional Therapy MuscleCare Roll-on (PTMC roll-on) and Motion Medicine Cream (MM) with an increased threshold of 0.5 kg/cm2 (+/-0.15), 0.72 kg/cm2 (+/-0.17) and 0.47 Kg/cm2 (+/-0.19) respectively. With respect to the inter-group comparisons, PTMC roll-on showed significant increases in pressure threshold compared with Placebo (PLA) (p = 0.002) and Icy Hot Extra Strength Cream (IH) (p = 0.006). In addition, BG demonstrated significant increases in pressure threshold compared with PLA (p = 0.0003). Conclusions With regards to pressure threshold, PTMC roll-on, BG and MM showed significant increases in pain threshold tolerance after a short-term application on a trigger points located in the trapezius muscle. PTMC roll-on and BG were both shown to be

  12. The Whitening of Brown Fat and Its Implications for Weight Management in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ippei; Walsh, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Systemic inflammation resulting from dysfunction of white adipose tissue (WAT) accelerates the pathologies of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In contrast to WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is abundant in mitochondria that produce heat by uncoupling respiratory chain process of ATP synthesis. Besides BAT's role in thermogenesis, accumulating evidence has shown that it is involved in regulating systemic metabolism. Studies have analyzed the "browning" processes of WAT as a means to combat obesity, whereas few studies have focused on the impact and molecular mechanisms that contribute to obesity-linked BAT dysfunction--a process that is associated with the "whitening" of this tissue. Compared to WAT, a dense vascular network is required to support the high energy consumption of BAT. Recently, vascular rarefaction was shown to be a significant causal factor in the whitening of BAT in mouse models. Vascular insufficiency leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and loss in BAT and contributes to systemic insulin resistance. These data suggest that BAT "whitening," resulting from vascular dysfunction, can impact obesity and obesity-linked diseases. Conversely, agents that promote BAT function could have utility in the treatment of these conditions.

  13. The Whitening of Brown Fat and Its Implications for Weight Management in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ippei; Walsh, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Systemic inflammation resulting from dysfunction of white adipose tissue (WAT) accelerates the pathologies of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In contrast to WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is abundant in mitochondria that produce heat by uncoupling respiratory chain process of ATP synthesis. Besides BAT's role in thermogenesis, accumulating evidence has shown that it is involved in regulating systemic metabolism. Studies have analyzed the "browning" processes of WAT as a means to combat obesity, whereas few studies have focused on the impact and molecular mechanisms that contribute to obesity-linked BAT dysfunction--a process that is associated with the "whitening" of this tissue. Compared to WAT, a dense vascular network is required to support the high energy consumption of BAT. Recently, vascular rarefaction was shown to be a significant causal factor in the whitening of BAT in mouse models. Vascular insufficiency leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and loss in BAT and contributes to systemic insulin resistance. These data suggest that BAT "whitening," resulting from vascular dysfunction, can impact obesity and obesity-linked diseases. Conversely, agents that promote BAT function could have utility in the treatment of these conditions. PMID:26627217

  14. Insights into an adipocyte whitening program

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Bradford G

    2015-01-01

    White adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating systemic metabolism and can remodel rapidly in response to changes in nutrient availability. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the metabolic changes occurring in adipocytes during obesity. Our laboratory recently addressed this issue in a commonly used, high-fat-diet mouse model of obesity. We found remarkable changes in adipocyte metabolism that occur prior to infiltration of macrophages in expanding adipose tissue. Results of metabolomic analyses, adipose tissue respirometry, electron microscopy, and expression analyses of key genes and proteins revealed dysregulation of several metabolic pathways, loss of mitochondrial biogenetic capacity, and apparent activation of mitochondrial autophagy which were followed in time by downregulation of numerous mitochondrial proteins important for maintaining oxidative capacity. These findings demonstrate the presence of an adipocyte whitening program that may be critical for regulating adipose tissue remodeling under conditions of chronic nutrient excess. PMID:26167407

  15. Role of fluoridated carbamide peroxide whitening gel in the remineralization of demineralized enamel: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bollineni, Swetha; Janga, Ravi Kumar; Venugopal, L.; Reddy, Indukuri Ravikishore; Babu, P. Ravisekhar; Kumar, Sunil S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of self-administered carbamide peroxide bleaching gels has become increasingly popular for whitening of discolored vital teeth. Studies have reported that its use may induce increased levels of sensitivity and surface roughness of the tooth due to demineralization. This study evaluates the effect of fluoride addition to the bleaching agent – its remineralizing capacity and alterations in the whitening properties. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four extracted lower third molar teeth, with the pretreatment shade determined, were taken up in the study. Each tooth was sectioned into four and labeled as groups A, B, C, and D. The tooth quadrants in group A-C were demineralized; groups A and B were treated with 10% carbamide peroxide gel (group-A without fluoride and group-B with 0.463% fluoride addition) (no further treatment was carried out for group c) group-D remained as the control. The post-treatment shade was determined. The tooth samples were sectioned (approximately 200 μm) for evaluation under a light microscope. The depth of demineralization was analyzed at five different equidistant points. Statistical analysis was carried out with t-tests, accepting ≤0.05 as significant. Results and Conclusion: Addition of fluoride caused remineralization of demineralized enamel. The tooth whitening system showed that the remineralization properties did not affect the whitening properties. PMID:25254197

  16. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... by acting on the same neurotransmitter systems as cocaine. Opioid pain relievers such as OxyContin ® attach to ...

  17. Adaptive whitening of the electromyogram to improve amplitude estimation.

    PubMed

    Clancy, E A; Farry, K A

    2000-06-01

    Previous research showed that whitening the surface electromyogram (EMG) can improve EMG amplitude estimation (where EMG amplitude is defined as the time-varying standard deviation of the EMG). However, conventional whitening via a linear filter seems to fail at low EMG amplitude levels, perhaps due to additive background noise in the measured EMG. This paper describes an adaptive whitening technique that overcomes this problem by cascading a nonadaptive whitening filter, an adaptive Wiener filter, and an adaptive gain correction. These stages can be calibrated from two, five second duration, constant-angle, constant-force contractions, one at a reference level [e.g., 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)] and one at 0% MVC. In experimental studies, subjects used real-time EMG amplitude estimates to track a uniform-density, band-limited random target. With a 0.25-Hz bandwidth target, either adaptive whitening or multiple-channel processing reduced the tracking error roughly half-way to the error achieved using the dynamometer signal as the feedback. At the 1.00-Hz bandwidth, all of the EMG processors had errors equivalent to that of the dynamometer signal, reflecting that errors in this task were dominated by subjects' inability to track targets at this bandwidth. Increases in the additive noise level, smoothing window length, and tracking bandwidth diminish the advantages of whitening. PMID:10833845

  18. Adaptive whitening of ambient ocean noise with narrowband signal preservation.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, Luke J; Stevenson, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    Passive underwater listening devices are often deployed to listen for narrowband signals of interest in time-varying background ocean noise. Such tonals are generated mechanically by ships, submarines, and machines, or acoustically by aquatic wildlife. Quantization of the sensor data for storage or low bit-rate transmission adds white noise which can overwhelm weak narrowband signals if the background noise is sufficiently colored. Whitening the background noise prior to quantization can reduce the detrimental effects, but the whitening process must preserve any tonals in the signal for maximum effectiveness. Existing adaptive whitening techniques make no effort to avoid suppressing tonals in the whitening process, while existing spectral separation methods fail to whiten background noise. The proposed methods perform adaptive whitening of background ambient noise while preserving narrowband tones at their original signal-to-noise ratios. The proposed methods are shown to outperform combinations of existing partial solutions both subjectively and by evaluating the objective criteria introduced. The stability and convergence properties of the proposed algorithms match or surpass those of existing well-known adaptive algorithms. PMID:27369136

  19. Saliency computation via whitened frequency band selection.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Liming

    2016-06-01

    Many saliency computational models have been proposed to simulate bottom-up visual attention mechanism of human visual system. However, most of them only deal with certain kinds of images or aim at specific applications. In fact, human beings have the ability to correctly select attentive focuses of objects with arbitrary sizes within any scenes. This paper proposes a new bottom-up computational model from the perspective of frequency domain based on the biological discovery of non-Classical Receptive Field (nCRF) in the retina. A saliency map can be obtained according to the idea of Extended Classical Receptive Field. The model is composed of three major steps: firstly decompose the input image into several feature maps representing different frequency bands that cover the whole frequency domain by utilizing Gabor wavelet. Secondly, whiten the feature maps to highlight the embedded saliency information. Thirdly, select some optimal maps, simulating the response of receptive field especially nCRF, to generate the saliency map. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is able to work with stable effect and outstanding performance in a variety of situations as human beings do and is adaptive to both psychological patterns and natural images. Beyond that, biological plausibility of nCRF and Gabor wavelet transform make this approach reliable.

  20. Saliency computation via whitened frequency band selection.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Liming

    2016-06-01

    Many saliency computational models have been proposed to simulate bottom-up visual attention mechanism of human visual system. However, most of them only deal with certain kinds of images or aim at specific applications. In fact, human beings have the ability to correctly select attentive focuses of objects with arbitrary sizes within any scenes. This paper proposes a new bottom-up computational model from the perspective of frequency domain based on the biological discovery of non-Classical Receptive Field (nCRF) in the retina. A saliency map can be obtained according to the idea of Extended Classical Receptive Field. The model is composed of three major steps: firstly decompose the input image into several feature maps representing different frequency bands that cover the whole frequency domain by utilizing Gabor wavelet. Secondly, whiten the feature maps to highlight the embedded saliency information. Thirdly, select some optimal maps, simulating the response of receptive field especially nCRF, to generate the saliency map. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is able to work with stable effect and outstanding performance in a variety of situations as human beings do and is adaptive to both psychological patterns and natural images. Beyond that, biological plausibility of nCRF and Gabor wavelet transform make this approach reliable. PMID:27275381

  1. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice of community pharmacists toward administration of over-the-counter drugs for the treatment of diarrhea in children: A pretest–posttest survey

    PubMed Central

    Foroughinia, Farzaneh; Zarei, Pedram

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of community pharmacists toward administration of over-the-counter (OTC) antidiarrheal drugs in our city pharmacies, Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 90 pharmacies among 128 pharmacies in our city were randomly chosen. The study was designed into two phases: A standard questionnaire to determine the level of knowledge and attitude of pharmacists and a simulated client method to evaluate practice among them. An educational pamphlet was then given to the pharmacists. One month later, knowledge, attitude, and performance of studied pharmacists were evaluated again using the same method. Findings: Our results showed that an average consultation time by female pharmacists was considerably more than male pharmacists (P < 0.001). Before intervention, only 37.8% of pharmacists performed appropriately by prescribing the proper medicine while this increased to 58.44% after intervention. The average score of pharmacists’ knowledge was statistically increased (P < 0.001) and the pharmacists’ performance was significantly improved (P < 0.001) after the educational intervention. In related to the attitude, pharmacists’ tendency toward prescribing oral rehydration salt solutions (ORS) (P < 0.001) and their belief about the great effect of ORS on the treatment of diarrhea increased significantly after the intervention. Conclusion: It is concluded that training programs such as educational pamphlets and continuing educational seminars may play important roles in increasing pharmacists’ knowledge and therefore improving their performance in prescribing OTC medicines. PMID:27512712

  2. Decision support system for predicting color change after tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Thanathornwong, Bhornsawan; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Ouivirach, Kan

    2016-03-01

    Tooth whitening is becoming increasingly popular among patients and dentists since it is a relatively noninvasive approach. However, the degree of color change after tooth whitening is known to vary substantially between studies. The present study aims to develop a clinical decision support system for predicting color change after in-office tooth whitening. We used the information from patients' data sets, and applied the multiple regression equation of CIELAB color coordinates including L*, a*, and b* of the original tooth color and the color difference (ΔE) that expresses the color change after tooth whitening. To evaluate the system performance, the patient's post-treatment color was used as "gold standard" to compare with the post-treatment color predicted by the system. There was a high degree of agreement between the patient's post-treatment color and the post-treatment color predicted by the system (kappa value=0.894). The results obtained have demonstrated that the decision support system is possible to predict the color change obtained using an in-office whitening system using colorimetric values. PMID:26657921

  3. Decision support system for predicting color change after tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Thanathornwong, Bhornsawan; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Ouivirach, Kan

    2016-03-01

    Tooth whitening is becoming increasingly popular among patients and dentists since it is a relatively noninvasive approach. However, the degree of color change after tooth whitening is known to vary substantially between studies. The present study aims to develop a clinical decision support system for predicting color change after in-office tooth whitening. We used the information from patients' data sets, and applied the multiple regression equation of CIELAB color coordinates including L*, a*, and b* of the original tooth color and the color difference (ΔE) that expresses the color change after tooth whitening. To evaluate the system performance, the patient's post-treatment color was used as "gold standard" to compare with the post-treatment color predicted by the system. There was a high degree of agreement between the patient's post-treatment color and the post-treatment color predicted by the system (kappa value=0.894). The results obtained have demonstrated that the decision support system is possible to predict the color change obtained using an in-office whitening system using colorimetric values.

  4. The Glutathione Derivative, GSH Monoethyl Ester, May Effectively Whiten Skin but GSH Does Not

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bo Young; Choi, So Ra; Moon, Ik Jun; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Young-Hoon; Chang, Sung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione in its reduced form (GSH) is an antioxidant and also is involved in pheomelanin formation. Thus, it has been long believed that GSH has a skin whitening effect. However, its actual or direct effect is unproven. We evaluated the anti-melanogenic effects of GSH and its derivatives in vitro. We examined change of melanogenesis and its related proteins by GSH itself and its derivatives, including GSH monoethyl ester (GSH-MEE), GSH diethyl ester (GSH-DEE) and GSH monoisopropyl ester (GSH-MIPE) in Melan-A cells, Mel-Ab cells, and B16F10 cells. GSH and GSH-MEE did not display cytotoxic activity, but GSH-MIPE and GSH-DEE did. Intriguingly, GSH itself had no inhibitory effect on melanin production or intracellular tyrosinase activity. Rather, it was GSH-MEE and GSH-MIPE that profoundly reduced the amount of melanin and intracellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, GSH-MEE was selected as a suitable candidate skin-whitening agent and it did not alter melanogenesis-associated proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2, but it did increase the amount of suggested pheomelanin and suggested pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio. GSH-MEE was effective for anti-melanogenesis, whereas GSH itself was not. GSH-MEE could be developed as a safe and efficient agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation skin disorders. PMID:27128906

  5. Clinical effectiveness of flash teeth whitening, a novel method for teeth bleaching.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Amanda; McLaren, Edward A; Ulman, Gwen

    2014-06-01

    Flash teeth whitening is a two-step, once-daily method for whitening teeth that combines the use of a fine aerosol mist of a stabilized, concentrated hydrogen-peroxide solution and a saliva-activated, effervescent oral powder that is poured directly onto the tongue. An in-vivo study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the flash teeth whitening method at three timed intervals in a 3-week period. Objective and subjective tooth-shade rating methods were used at baseline, after initial treatment, and after 1 and 3 weeks of once-daily use. A significant whitening effect was observed. Data also indicated a progressively improved whitening effect, suggesting that sequential use may optimize the whitening results, with maximum whitening occurring between 1 and 3 weeks of once-daily use. The study demonstrated that flash teeth whitening effectively whitens teeth. This novel method is suitable for safe use as an out-of-office treatment as a primary whitener, or as a maintenance method for keeping whitened teeth white, offering dentists a potential alternative tooth whitening recommendation that is easy to use, safe, and effective and improves the condition of soft tissue when used as directed.

  6. White diet: is it necessary during tooth whitening?

    PubMed

    Matis, B A; Wang, G; Matis, J I; Cook, N B; Eckert, G J

    2015-01-01

    Patients are sometimes blamed for a reduced effect of bleaching when they do not adhere to a dentist's prescribed white diet. This study aimed to determine whether a white diet is necessary by evaluating the effects of coffee, tea, wine, and dark fruits on the potential tooth whitening during the bleaching process. Each of the effects of discoloration was categorized as "yes" or "no" based on a patient questionnaire. Data from five published studies were included in the analyses. Outcomes were based on the color change between baseline and the end of bleaching. The relationships between color changes were measured subjectively and objectively. A nonwhite diet was not significantly associated with less tooth whitening, and there was only a weak positive association between tooth whitening and diet for subjects who drank large amounts of coffee/tea.

  7. White diet: is it necessary during tooth whitening?

    PubMed

    Matis, B A; Wang, G; Matis, J I; Cook, N B; Eckert, G J

    2015-01-01

    Patients are sometimes blamed for a reduced effect of bleaching when they do not adhere to a dentist's prescribed white diet. This study aimed to determine whether a white diet is necessary by evaluating the effects of coffee, tea, wine, and dark fruits on the potential tooth whitening during the bleaching process. Each of the effects of discoloration was categorized as "yes" or "no" based on a patient questionnaire. Data from five published studies were included in the analyses. Outcomes were based on the color change between baseline and the end of bleaching. The relationships between color changes were measured subjectively and objectively. A nonwhite diet was not significantly associated with less tooth whitening, and there was only a weak positive association between tooth whitening and diet for subjects who drank large amounts of coffee/tea. PMID:25748208

  8. Automated detection of retinal whitening in malarial retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, V.; Agurto, C.; Barriga, S.; Nemeth, S.; Soliz, P.; MacCormick, I.; Taylor, T.; Lewallen, S.; Harding, S.

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe neurological complication associated with malarial infection. Malaria affects approximately 200 million people worldwide, and claims 600,000 lives annually, 75% of whom are African children under five years of age. Because most of these mortalities are caused by the high incidence of CM misdiagnosis, there is a need for an accurate diagnostic to confirm the presence of CM. The retinal lesions associated with malarial retinopathy (MR) such as retinal whitening, vessel discoloration, and hemorrhages, are highly specific to CM, and their detection can improve the accuracy of CM diagnosis. This paper will focus on development of an automated method for the detection of retinal whitening which is a unique sign of MR that manifests due to retinal ischemia resulting from CM. We propose to detect the whitening region in retinal color images based on multiple color and textural features. First, we preprocess the image using color and textural features of the CMYK and CIE-XYZ color spaces to minimize camera reflex. Next, we utilize color features of the HSL, CMYK, and CIE-XYZ channels, along with the structural features of difference of Gaussians. A watershed segmentation algorithm is used to assign each image region a probability of being inside the whitening, based on extracted features. The algorithm was applied to a dataset of 54 images (40 with whitening and 14 controls) that resulted in an image-based (binary) classification with an AUC of 0.80. This provides 88% sensitivity at a specificity of 65%. For a clinical application that requires a high specificity setting, the algorithm can be tuned to a specificity of 89% at a sensitivity of 82%. This is the first published method for retinal whitening detection and combining it with the detection methods for vessel discoloration and hemorrhages can further improve the detection accuracy for malarial retinopathy.

  9. Demographic, medical, and behavioral characteristics associated with over the counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in a population based cohort: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Joseph A C; Biggs, Mary L.; Kronmal, Richard A; Psaty, Bruce M

    2010-01-01

    Background Three types of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be obtained both over the counter (OTC) and by prescription in the United States. OTC NSAID use is not recorded in prescription claims databases; this might lead to differential misclassification of NSAID exposure status in studies that use computerized pharmacy databases to study NSAID use. Objective To evaluate characteristics of OTC versus prescription NSAID users Methods This analysis is set within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study; a prospective cohort study of 6,814 adults from 4 ethnic groups (European descent, Asian, African-American and Hispanic) with a mean age of 62 years. The cohort was restricted to those who initiated NSAID use (aspirin, ibuprofen or naproxen) during follow-up. We compared information about age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, medication use, education, income, health insurance status and exercisebetween groups. Results OTC NSAID use was prevalent at baseline (25% Aspirin, 9% Ibuprofen, 2% Naproxen). Compared to prescribed NSAID use, OTC NSAID use was lower for users of non-European descent for all classes: aspirin (p<0.0001), ibuprofen (p<0.0001) and naproxen (p=0.0094). For aspirin, differences were seen for male gender (Relative Risk (RR):0.92; 95%(Confidence interval) CI:0.86–0.98), use of lipid lowering drugs (RR:0.88; 95% CI: 0.80–0.96), low income (RR:0.89; 95%CI:0.81–0.97), and participants one standard deviation above average in intentional exercise (RR:1.03; 95%CI:1.01–1.05). Conclusions OTC NSAID use is prevalent in an older multi-ethnic population and OTC users differ from prescription NSAID users. Caution should be exercised when using prescribed NSAIDs as a proxy for NSAID use. PMID:21182156

  10. Now you see it. Now you don't: fair balance and adequate provision in advertisements for drugs before and after the switch from prescription to over-the-counter.

    PubMed

    Faerber, Adrienne E; Kreling, David H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure differences in fair balance (benefit and risk statements) and adequate provision (toll-free numbers, Internet URLs, print ad references, and medical professional references) in advertising content for drugs that have switched from prescription to over-the-counter (OTC). The Vanderbilt TV News Archive was used to select products to study, to measure the frequency and placement of ads for those products, and to view advertising content for those products. Unique advertisements (n = 108) for loratadine (Claritin), citirizine (Zyrtec), and omeprazole (Prilosec) were analyzed for the presence of adequate provision statements and for the frequency of benefit, risk, and other statements. OTC ads were shorter than prescription ads by 10.6 seconds but contained the same total number of statements. Most prescription ads (n (RX) = 31) contained toll-free numbers (97%), Internet URLs (94%), medical professional references (100%) and print ad references (68%). Few OTC ads (n (OTC) = 77) contained adequate provision statements: 4% contained toll-free numbers and 10% contained Internet URLs. Prescription ads had similar numbers of benefits (1.5) and risks (1.8) per 30 seconds of ad time, and OTC ads had more benefits (6.6) than risks (1.2) per 30 seconds of ad time. Prescription drug ads contained risk statements that listed specific side effects and explicit harms from taking the product, but OTC ads contained nonspecific risk information and statements that implied risk rather than directly identifying risk. Differences in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulation of advertising affected the balance of risk and benefit information that appeared and the specificity of risk information available. PMID:21745037

  11. Comparative 3-week clinical tooth-shade evaluation of a novel liquid whitening gel containing 18% carbamide peroxide and a commercially available whitening dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, Salim; Giniger, Martin; Proskin, Howard M; Stewart, Bernal; Robinson, Richard; Collins, Michael; DeVizio, William; Petrone, Margaret; Volpe, Anthony R

    2002-11-01

    A randomized, controlled, examiner-blind, parallel-group clinical trial was performed to compare the tooth-whitening benefits of a novel, nontray, "paint-on" liquid gel containing 18% carbamide peroxide (Colgate Simply White Clear Whitening Gel) to those of a commercially available whitening dentifrice. Efficacy was measured by using Vita shade scores obtained at baseline and after 2 and 3 weeks of product use. Eighty subjects were first balanced according to gender, age, and shade scores into two groups. Half were then randomly assigned to either alpha 3-week routine of tooth-brushing (using a nonwhitening dentifrice) and twice-daily 18% carbamide peroxide gel application or a 3-week routine of twice-daily brushing with the commercially available whitening dentifrice. At the completion of the study, the results showed that subjects' teeth in the liquid whitening gel-treated group exhibited a statistically significant (P < .05) 4.12 mean tooth-shade improvement compared to baseline and exhibited a mean score that was 3.7 units higher than the corresponding mean score of the group assigned to use the whitening dentifrice (statistically significant, P < .05). It can therefore be concluded that the combined use of Colgate Simply White Clear Whitening Gel immediately after brushing with a regular toothpaste is clinically superior at whitening teeth than solely using a clinically proven, commercially available whitening dentifrice.

  12. Efficacy of Mouthwashes Containing Hydrogen Peroxide on Tooth Whitening.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Muhammet; Hatipoglu, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide compared with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel. Fifty enamel-dentin samples were obtained from bovine incisors and then stained in a tea solution. The stained samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening product applied (n = 10): AS: no whitening (negative control), with the samples stored in artificial saliva; CR: Crest 3D White mouthwash; LS: Listerine Whitening mouthwash; SC: Scope White mouthwash; and OP group: 10% CP Opalescence PF (positive control). Color measurements were carried out with a spectrophotometer before staining, after staining, and on the 7th, 28th, and 56th day of the whitening period. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance followed by a Tukey post hoc test. The color change (ΔE) was significantly greater in all the groups compared to that of the AS group. After 56 days, no significant differences were found among the mouthwash products with respect to color change (P > 0.05). The whiteness of the teeth treated with the mouthwashes increased significantly over time. Nevertheless, the color change achieved with the mouthwashes was significantly lower than that achieved with the 10% CP at-home bleaching gel.

  13. Efficacy of Mouthwashes Containing Hydrogen Peroxide on Tooth Whitening

    PubMed Central

    Karadas, Muhammet; Hatipoglu, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide compared with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel. Fifty enamel-dentin samples were obtained from bovine incisors and then stained in a tea solution. The stained samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening product applied (n = 10): AS: no whitening (negative control), with the samples stored in artificial saliva; CR: Crest 3D White mouthwash; LS: Listerine Whitening mouthwash; SC: Scope White mouthwash; and OP group: 10% CP Opalescence PF (positive control). Color measurements were carried out with a spectrophotometer before staining, after staining, and on the 7th, 28th, and 56th day of the whitening period. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance followed by a Tukey post hoc test. The color change (ΔE) was significantly greater in all the groups compared to that of the AS group. After 56 days, no significant differences were found among the mouthwash products with respect to color change (P > 0.05). The whiteness of the teeth treated with the mouthwashes increased significantly over time. Nevertheless, the color change achieved with the mouthwashes was significantly lower than that achieved with the 10% CP at-home bleaching gel. PMID:26295061

  14. A Simple Recipe for Whitening Old Newspaper Clippings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Henry A.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a method for experimenting with both whitening and deacidifying old newspaper clippings using sodium borohydride bleaching. Clippings are soaked in distilled water then immersed in sodium borohydride for 15-20 minutes. After rinsing with distilled water, the paper is washed with saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. Readers should not begin…

  15. Efficacy of Mouthwashes Containing Hydrogen Peroxide on Tooth Whitening.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Muhammet; Hatipoglu, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide compared with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel. Fifty enamel-dentin samples were obtained from bovine incisors and then stained in a tea solution. The stained samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening product applied (n = 10): AS: no whitening (negative control), with the samples stored in artificial saliva; CR: Crest 3D White mouthwash; LS: Listerine Whitening mouthwash; SC: Scope White mouthwash; and OP group: 10% CP Opalescence PF (positive control). Color measurements were carried out with a spectrophotometer before staining, after staining, and on the 7th, 28th, and 56th day of the whitening period. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance followed by a Tukey post hoc test. The color change (ΔE) was significantly greater in all the groups compared to that of the AS group. After 56 days, no significant differences were found among the mouthwash products with respect to color change (P > 0.05). The whiteness of the teeth treated with the mouthwashes increased significantly over time. Nevertheless, the color change achieved with the mouthwashes was significantly lower than that achieved with the 10% CP at-home bleaching gel. PMID:26295061

  16. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michael; Hasler-Nguyen, Nathalie; Saroea, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B) on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whitening chewing gum (C) and human saliva (D). Methods Bovine incisors were stained by alternating air exposure and immersion in a broth containing natural pigments such as coffee, tea and oral microorganisms for 10 days. Stained enamel samples were exposed to saliva alone or to the test chewing gums under conditions simulating human mastication. The coloration change of the enamel samples was measured using a spectrophotometer. Measurements were obtained for each specimen (average of three absorbances) using the L*a*b scale: lightness (L*), red-green (a) and yellow-blue (b). Results Medicated chewing gums (A and B) removed a greater amount of visible extrinsic stain, while the confectionary chewing gum with a whitening claim (C) had a milder whitening effect as evaluated by quantitative and qualitative assessment. Conclusion The tested Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) chewing gums were more effective in the removal of the extrinsic tooth stain. This visible improvement in tooth whitening appearance could strengthen the smokers' motivation to quit smoking. PMID:18694488

  17. 21 CFR 349.16 - Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. 349.16 Section 349.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients §...

  18. 21 CFR 349.16 - Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. 349.16 Section 349.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients §...

  19. 21 CFR 349.16 - Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. 349.16 Section 349.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients §...

  20. 21 CFR 349.16 - Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. 349.16 Section 349.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients §...

  1. 21 CFR 349.16 - Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. 349.16 Section 349.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients §...

  2. Artocarpus lakoocha heartwood extract as a novel cosmetic ingredient: evaluation of the in vitro anti-tyrosinase and in vivo skin whitening activities.

    PubMed

    Tengamnuay, P; Pengrungruangwong, K; Pheansri, I; Likhitwitayawuid, K

    2006-08-01

    The heartwood extract of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. was evaluated for the in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity and the in vivo melanin-reducing efficacy in human volunteers. The IC(50) of the extract and oxyresveratrol, its major active ingredient, against mushroom tyrosinase was determined to be 0.76 and 0.83 mug mL(-1), respectively. The extract dissolved in propylene glycol was subsequently tested in female volunteers using a parallel clinical trial with self-control (n = 20 per group). The first group received the 0.25% w/v A. lakoocha solution as the test solution, whereas the second and the third group, respectively, received 0.25% licorice extract and 3% kojic acid as the reference solutions in the same solvent. The subjects in each group twice daily applied the test (or reference) solution in one of her upper arm, whereas the remaining arm was treated with only propylene glycol (self-control) for 12 weeks. The melanin content of each application site was measured using Mexameter every week and calculated as % reduction in melanin content relative to the initial melanin value (% whitening). The value of % whitening was then compared between the product-treated and the propylene glycol-treated arms within the same subject using paired t-test (alpha = 0.05). The A. lakoocha extract was the most effective agent, giving the shortest onset of significant whitening effect after only 4 weeks of application (P < 0.05), followed by 3% kojic acid (6 weeks) and 0.25% licorice extract (10 weeks). The effect also increased with time with maximum whitening observed at week 12 for A. lakoocha extract. When the extract was formulated as an oil-in-water emulsion, its whitening efficacy was further enhanced. Daily application of 0.1% w/w A. lakoocha lotion to the upper arms (n = 25) and cheeks (n = 15) of volunteers produced significant whitening over the lotion base after 2 and 3 weeks, respectively (P < 0.05). Thus, the preliminary study suggested that the heartwood

  3. A longitudinal comparison of tooth whitening resulting from dentifrice use.

    PubMed

    Koertge, T E; Brooks, C N; Sarbin, A G; Powers, D; Gunsolley, J C

    1998-01-01

    The effect of twice-daily brushing with one of three different dentifrices (Arm & Hammer Dental Care, Arm & Hammer Dental Care Extra Whitening, Crest) on stain removal and tooth whitening was examined in 115 volunteers over a period of 12 weeks. The facial surfaces of 12 anterior teeth were assessed for stain using a published, modified version of a standard stain index. Whiteness was measured on teeth 8 and 9 using a single Vita Lumin-Vaccum Shade Guide for consistency. At baseline, the mean facial stain scores were significantly higher (p < 0.05-0.01) for both Arm & Hammer dentifrices than for Crest. In addition, the tooth shades, as indicated by the stain guide, specifically the b* values representing yellowness, were quantified using a Minolta spectrophotometer. Arm & Hammer Dental Care Extra Whitening formula was found to be significantly better than Crest at removing naturally occurring extrinsic stain. The difference between Arm & Hammer Dental Care Extra Whitening and Crest became significant (p < 0.01) after two weeks of use, and remained intact during the balance of the study, achieving p values of 0.0002 for at least one of the three assessed parameters (total stain, proximal, and facial) at weeks 4 and 12. The study also found that Arm & Hammer Dental Care produced a significant increase in tooth whiteness by week 12, whereas Crest showed no such increase at any time during the study. These results suggest that the two Arm & Hammer Baking Soda products are more effective in reducing stain and increasing whiteness than the standard silica-based dentifrice. Their effectiveness is not related to abrasivity since they are less abrasive to tooth enamel than the silica-based product tested. PMID:10518865

  4. [Study on the influence of whitening toothpastes on the nanocomposite material surface].

    PubMed

    Orekhova, L Yu; Prokhorova, O V; Kameneva, S V; Kuschenko, N V; Safaryan, M O

    2016-01-01

    The influence of whitening toothpastes on the surface of nanocomposite dental restorative materials (24 samples divided in 3 groups according to type of toothpaste used) was studied using optical profilometry. The most significant changes on the surface roughness of the material caused abrasive whitening toothpaste in comparison to enzymes-based paste. Selection and use of whitening toothpastes in patients with dental restorations must be carried out under dentist's supervision. PMID:26925561

  5. Assessment of the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on postoperative sensitivity associated with in-office vital tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Maghaireh, G A; Alzraikat, H; Guidoum, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth mousse containing 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in reducing tooth sensitivity associated with in-office vital tooth whitening. In-office tooth whitening was performed for 51 participants using 35% hydrogen peroxide gel in a single visit. After the procedure, each participant was randomly assigned to one of three groups: gel without desensitizing agent (n=17), gel with 2% sodium fluoride (n=17), gel with 10% CPP-ACP (n=17). A small amount of the desensitizing gel assigned for each participant was applied directly on the labial surfaces of teeth and left undisturbed for three minutes. The participants were asked to apply the gel assigned to them for three minutes twice daily after brushing their teeth, and to continue this for 14 days. The participants were asked to return for follow-up visits after 24 hours and on days 3, 7, and 14, at which time teeth shade changes were assessed by one evaluator using a value-oriented Vita classic shade guide. The incidence, duration, and intensity of tooth sensitivity experienced was self-assessed on a daily basis for the 14-day study period using a visual analog scale (VAS). The effect of the three gels on tooth sensitivity was assessed using one-way analysis of variance and a χ (2) test (α=0.05). The general linear model was used to compare intensity-level differences in the three studied groups and for shade stability over the follow-up period. The results of this study showed that all three gels decreased the intensity of sensitivity associated with tooth whitening. The intensity of sensitivity was lower in the fluoride group than in the other two groups; however, it was not statistically significant (p=0.112 and p=0.532 on day 1 and day 2, respectively). The average shade change was 6.8. None of the tested materials affected the efficacy of tooth whitening, but the shade change among the fluoride group showed more color stability

  6. Critical appraisal. In-office tooth whitening: pulpal effects and tooth sensitivity issues.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Swift, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    In-office bleaching is an effective method for whitening teeth.Tooth sensitivity associated with in-office whitening is reversible and may range from mild to considerable. The incidence and severity of tooth sensitivity can be reduced by pretreatment with a desensitizer such as potassium nitrate. Histologic studies and clinical studies on long-term pulpal effects are lacking to definitively support the safety of in-office tooth whitening. Future studies on the etiology of tooth sensitivity related to whitening might greatly improve the means of preventing and managing this side effect.

  7. The Scientification of Skin Whitening and the Entrepreneurial University-Linked Corporate Scientific Officer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mire, Amina

    2012-01-01

    This work examines the interlocking strategies of scientific entrepreneurialism and academic capitalism in cutting-edge innovations in molecular biology, biomedicine, and other life sciences deployed in research and the development of high-end skin whitening and anti-aging cosmeceuticals. Skin whitening products and anti-aging cosmeceuticals are…

  8. Maintenance of whitening with a power toothbrush after bleaching treatment.

    PubMed

    Kugel, Gerard; Aboushala, Ayman; Sharma, Shradha; Ferreira, Susana; Anderson, Chad

    2004-02-01

    A randomized, parallel, examiner-blind clinical study was conducted to examine the ability of 2 toothbrushes to maintain teeth whitening after at-home bleaching. Forty subjects used a 15% carbamide peroxide tray bleaching system at home for 2 weeks per the manufacturer's instructions and then were randomly assigned to use either the Sonicare Advance power toothbrush or a manual toothbrush as part of their home oral hygiene routine for 6 months. The color of the labial surfaces of the subjects' maxillary anterior dentition was assessed before bleaching and immediately, 2 months, 3 months, and 6 months after bleaching. Color was assessed by comparison with Vita Classical shade tabs and by digital image analysis in the CIE L*a*b* color space. Both groups demonstrated a rebound effect at the 2-month visit and beyond, with mean Vita shade scores significantly higher than immediately after bleaching. At the 6-month evaluation, a significant difference in the amount of rebound in each group was observed. Specifically, the rebound of the Sonicare brush group was on average 1.12 Vita shades less than that of the manual brush group. The 6-month difference was confirmed through digital image analysis, with the Sonicare brush group 4.8 L* units lighter, corresponding to 2 Vita shades, and 2.1 b* units less yellow than the manual brush group. This clinical trial demonstrates that the Sonicare Advance toothbrush better maintains whitening after bleaching treatment than a manual toothbrush.

  9. A clinical study comparing the efficacy and sensitivity of home vs combined whitening.

    PubMed

    Dawson, P F L; Sharif, M O; Smith, A B; Brunton, P A

    2011-01-01

    This randomized clinical study assessed efficacy in terms of color change and production of sensitivity after home whitening alone and home whitening supplemented with in-office bleaching. Thirty-six subjects (aged 19 to 58 years) were randomly assigned to one of three different treatment groups: (A) home whitening for two weeks, with 16% carbamide peroxide in custom-made trays; (B) home whitening for two weeks, with 16% carbamide peroxide in custom-made trays supplemented with in-office bleaching with 9% hydrogen peroxide (in the same trays); or (C) home whitening for two weeks, with 16% carbamide peroxide in custom-made trays supplemented with in-office bleaching with 27% hydrogen peroxide (in the same trays). The efficacy of tooth whitening was assessed by determining the color change associated with the six upper anterior teeth using a value-ordered shade guide. Sensitivity was self-assessed with the use of a visual analog scale (VAS). Tooth shade and sensitivity were assessed at the following points: pretreatment; immediately after the home whitening phase; immediately after the in-office phase (groups B and C); and one week post active treatment. At the one week follow-up visit, subjects in group A had a mean (SD) color change of 5.9 (1.83) (teeth were lighter) immediately after cessation of treatment (p<0.01). Subjects in groups B and C experienced a greater change in mean (SD) shade immediately following their respective in-office treatments of 5.1 (1.53) and 5.4 (1.55). However, within one week, the shade of these teeth regressed to a similar degree to that achieved by subjects treated in group A. Overall, no significant difference in shade change or sensitivity was produced between the three groups. Investigators concluded that the in-office element of combined whitening produced no significant difference in tooth color or sensitivity when compared with home whitening alone.

  10. The effect of whitening transformation on pooling operations in convolutional autoencoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuhe; Fan, Yangyu; Liu, Weihua

    2015-12-01

    Convolutional autoencoders (CAEs) are unsupervised feature extractors for high-resolution images. In the pre-processing step, whitening transformation has widely been adopted to remove redundancy by making adjacent pixels less correlated. Pooling is a biologically inspired operation to reduce the resolution of feature maps and achieve spatial invariance in convolutional neural networks. Conventionally, pooling methods are mainly determined empirically in most previous work. Therefore, our main purpose is to study the relationship between whitening processing and pooling operations in convolutional autoencoders for image classification. We propose an adaptive pooling approach based on the concepts of information entropy to test the effect of whitening on pooling in different conditions. Experimental results on benchmark datasets indicate that the performance of pooling strategies is associated with the distribution of feature activations, which can be affected by whitening processing. This provides guidance for the selection of pooling methods in convolutional autoencoders and other convolutional neural networks.

  11. Studies on preparation of medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration process.

    PubMed

    Khatkar, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Khatkar, Anju Boora

    2014-09-01

    A study was conducted to develop good quality medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration (UF) process. The buffalo skim milk was UF concentrated to 4.05 to 4.18 (23.63 ± 0.30 % TS) fold and standardized to 10 % fat (on Dry Matter Basis) (i.e. formulation) and homogenized at 175.76 kg/cm(2). The addition of 0.4 % mixture of monosodium and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) improved the heat stability of homogenized formulation to an optimum of 66 min. The bland flavour of homogenized formulation with added 0.4 % mixture of monosodium phosphate and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) and 18 % sugar (on DMB) (i.e. medium fat liquid dairy whitener) was improved significantly (P < 0.01) with the addition of 0.2 % potassium chloride, but heat stability of medium fat liquid dairy whitener got reduced substantially (i.e. 19 min). With subsequent heat treatment to 85 °C for 5 min, heat stability of medium fat liquid dairy whitener got improved to reasonable level of 27 min. Whitening ability in terms of L* value of medium fat liquid dairy whitener in both tea and coffee was significantly (P < 0.01) better when homogenized at 175.76 kg/cm(2) vis-à-vis 140.61 kg/cm(2). Standardized medium fat liquid dairy whitener had significantly (P < 0.01) greater protein content (i.e. approximately 2.43 times) compared to market dairy whitener samples. At 2 % solids level, standardized medium fat liquid dairy whitener in tea/coffee fetched significantly (P < 0.01) better sensory attributes and instrumental whitening ability compared to market sample at 3 % solids level. There could be clear 33 % solids quantity saving in case of developed product compared to market dairy whitener sample.

  12. Surface and pulpal temperature comparison of tooth whitening using lasers and curing lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joel M.; Pelino, Jose; Rodrigues, Rively; Zwhalen, Brian J.; Nguyen, Max H.; Wu, Emily

    2000-03-01

    Chemical action of bleaching agents applied to tooth surface is accelerated by increase in temperature. This in vitro study measured the temperature rises on the surface and in the pulp of teeth during whitening using a diode laser, a plasma arc curing (PAC) light and conventional curing lights. Extracted, non-carious single-rooted teeth were exposed to PAC light and laser at times ranging from 10 to 60 seconds and energy ranges of 2 W, 4 W, and 6 W, and to low-intensity curing lights from 1 to 4 minutes. Maximum temperature rises were analyzed for both pulpal and surface temperature. Diode laser exposures at 2 W for all times and at 4 watts for 10 seconds and PAC light exposures at 10 seconds all produced acceptably safe pulpal rises equivalent to conventional light-curing exposures. Exposures at these settings also attained surface temperature rises that were significantly higher than those using conventional light-curing. The diode laser demonstrated bleaching results equivalent to the PAC light, and both were achieved in significantly less times than conventional light- curing.

  13. Tooth-Bleaching: A Review of the Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Various Tooth Whitening Products.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Abdul; Farooq, Imran; Grobler, Sias R; Rossouw, R J

    2015-12-01

    Tooth bleaching (whitening) is one of the most common and inexpensive method for treating discolouration of teeth. Dental aesthetics, especially tooth colour, is of great importance to majority of the people; and discolouration of even a single tooth can negatively influence the quality of life. Therefore, a review of the literature was carried out (limited to aesthetic tooth-bleaching) to provide a broad overview of the efficacy and adverse effects of various tooth whitening products on soft and hard oral tissues.

  14. Teeth whitening versus the influence of extrinsic factors on teeth stains.

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Madejczyki, Marlena; Grajewskai, Iwona; Kobyłecka, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    The improvement of teeth colour is the effect of using whitening toothpastes, professional removal of dental deposits, pulpless teeth and vital teeth whitening. The aim of the study was evaluation of various methods of teeth whitening in relation to sex and age of the investigated as well as the extrinsic factors causing teeth stains such as cigarette smoking, consumption of coffee and tea. Questionnaire survey was conducted in the group of 204 patients, reporting for a dental treatment at the Chair and Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics of the Medical University of Lublin as well as private dental practice in Lublin. Questionnaire survey was elaborated for the needs of the planned investigation and included questions concerning, among others, socio-demographic data of the investigated, methods of teeth whitening, cigarette smoking, consumption of coffee and tea. Statistic analysis was performed with the use of descriptive statistics, Chi2 test, Mann-Whitney test. The values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically essential. Women used whitening toothpastes more frequently in comparison with men (χ2 = 7.96, p < 0.01). People who declared drinking at least one coffee cup used whitening toothpastes more frequently in comparison with the people drinking coffee occasionally and those who didn't drink it (χ2 = 9.99, p < χ0.05).

  15. Laboratory studies on the chemical whitening effects of a sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Baig, Arif A; Kozak, Kathy M; Cox, Ed R; Zoladz, James R; Mahony, Lynn; White, Donald J

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory studies were developed to permit the evaluation of chemical actions of toothpaste components in the non-abrasive prevention and removal of tea stains. Powdered hydroxyapatites were used as substrates for adsorption of tea chromogens. Pre-treatment with a sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice (Crest Dual Action Whitening) reduced tea adsorption to powdered apatite, while post-treatments of pre-stained powder resulted in desorption of tea components. These results exemplified the chemical actions of condensed calcium phosphate surface active builders toward dental stain removal and prevention. A cycling synamel chip model permitted the study of stain prevention, including salivary pellicle formation and chlorhexidine enhancement of dental staining by tea chromogens. Staining was evaluated by image analysis of color development. Under these conditions, condensed phosphate dentifrices were observed to produce superior prevention of stain accumulations, with Crest Dual Action Whitening dentifrice providing stain prevention superior to a variety of commercial dentifrices, including Colgate Total, Aquafresh Whitening, Colgate Tartar Control Whitening, Mentadent Baking Soda and Peroxide Whitening, Close-Up Whitening, Crest Tartar Control and Crest Regular Cavity Protection. PMID:11507927

  16. Teeth whitening versus the influence of extrinsic factors on teeth stains.

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Madejczyki, Marlena; Grajewskai, Iwona; Kobyłecka, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    The improvement of teeth colour is the effect of using whitening toothpastes, professional removal of dental deposits, pulpless teeth and vital teeth whitening. The aim of the study was evaluation of various methods of teeth whitening in relation to sex and age of the investigated as well as the extrinsic factors causing teeth stains such as cigarette smoking, consumption of coffee and tea. Questionnaire survey was conducted in the group of 204 patients, reporting for a dental treatment at the Chair and Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics of the Medical University of Lublin as well as private dental practice in Lublin. Questionnaire survey was elaborated for the needs of the planned investigation and included questions concerning, among others, socio-demographic data of the investigated, methods of teeth whitening, cigarette smoking, consumption of coffee and tea. Statistic analysis was performed with the use of descriptive statistics, Chi2 test, Mann-Whitney test. The values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically essential. Women used whitening toothpastes more frequently in comparison with men (χ2 = 7.96, p < 0.01). People who declared drinking at least one coffee cup used whitening toothpastes more frequently in comparison with the people drinking coffee occasionally and those who didn't drink it (χ2 = 9.99, p < χ0.05). PMID:26731868

  17. A clinical investigation of the efficacy of a tooth-whitening gel.

    PubMed

    Sielski, Chester; Conforti, Nicholas; Stewart, Bernal; Chaknis, Pat; Petrone, Margaret E; DeVizio, William; Volpe, Anthony R; Proskin, Howard M

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this randomized, controlled, examiner-blind, parallel-group clinical study was to determine whether a tooth-whitening gel (Colgate Simply White Night Clear Whitening Gel) can significantly lighten teeth when used once daily at night, as compared with a commercially available dentifrice. Following a baseline tooth shade evaluation using the VITA Shade Guide, qualifying adult male and female subjects from the Buffalo, New York area were randomized into 2 treatment groups, which were balanced for baseline VITA Shade Guide scores, gender, and age. The treatment groups were: (1) a commercially available dentifrice only; and (2) a tooth-whitening gel in addition to a commercially available dentifrice. Subjects assigned to the 2 groups were given the dentifrice and a soft-bristled toothbrush. In addition, subjects in one of the groups were given the tooth-whitening gel. All subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for 1 minute twice daily (morning and evening) with the dentifrice. The subjects in the group also using the tooth-whitening gel were further instructed to apply the gel once daily at night, as per manufacturer instructions. Evaluations of tooth shade for each subject were repeated after 2 weeks, and again after 3 weeks of product use. In addition, evaluations of tooth shade for subjects using the tooth-whitening gel were later conducted at 6 months after product use. Seventy-five subjects complied with the protocol and completed the study. At the 2-week and 3-week examinations, subjects using the tooth-whitening gel and dentifrice exhibited statistically significant (P < .05) tooth shade lightening relative to baseline tooth shade. Furthermore, at the 2-week and 3-week examinations, subjects using the tooth-whitening gel exhibited statistically significant (P < .05) tooth shade lightening relative to subjects using only the dentifrice. In addition, the 6-month-postuse examination showed that subjects using the tooth-whitening gel exhibited

  18. Over-the-Counter Biosensors: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Thomas Ming-Hung

    2008-01-01

    The demand for specific, low cost, rapid, sensitive and easy detection of biomolecules is huge. A well-known example is the glucose meters used by diabetics to monitor their blood glucose levels. Nowadays, a vast majority of the glucose meters are based on electrochemical biosensor technology. The inherent small size and simple construction of the electrochemical transducer and instrument are ideally suited for point-of-care biosensing. Besides glucose, a wide variety of electrochemical biosensors have been developed for the measurements of some other key metabolites, proteins, and nucleic acids. Nevertheless, unlike the glucose meters, limited success has been achieved for the commercialization of the protein and nucleic acid biosensors. In this review article, key technologies on the electrochemical detection of key metabolites, proteins, and DNAs are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on those that are compatible to home-use setting. Moreover, emerging technologies of lab-on-a-chip microdevices and nanosensors (i.e., silicon and carbon nanotube field-effect sensors) offer opportunities for the construction of new generation biosensors with much better performances. Together with the continuous innovations in the basic components of biosensors (i.e., transducers, biorecognition molecules, immobilization and signal transduction schemes), consumers could soon buy different kinds of biosensing devices in the pharmacy stores.

  19. New 'Superlice' Resist Most Over-The-Counter Remedies

    MedlinePlus

    ... the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: School Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  20. Over-the-Counter Drugs: A Challenge for Drug Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrone, David M.

    1973-01-01

    Drug education should be a complete program including information on the all too frequently overused group of self medicaments. Misuse of these drugs by self medication may, in many circumstances, lead to serious consequences. Knowledge of their use should be an effort of every drug education program. (Author)

  1. Over-the-Counter Medicines: What's Right for You?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids Aren't Just Small Adults Child-Resistant Packaging Protect Yourself Against Tampering Advice for Americans about ... remember that you called it candy. Child-Resistant Packaging Child-resistant closures are designed for repeated use ...

  2. Current Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Take a Look

    MedlinePlus

    ... version - 342KB) Always Read the Label Reading the product label is the most important part of taking care ... for special "flags" or "banners" on the front product label alerting you to such changes. If you read ...

  3. Indoles: Industrial, Agricultural and Over-the-Counter Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Timothy C.

    Indole-containing compounds are best known for their medicinal properties in the pharmaceutical industry. Although to a lesser degree, the indole motif none-the-less appears in many significant products across the entire chemical industry. This chapter describes the role that indole plays in a more commodity setting and provides examples illustrating these uses.

  4. Sinus Pain: Can Over-the-Counter Medications Help?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in treating the initial stages of a common cold or viral infection. Nasal decongestant sprays are safe ... and to halt progression of sinus infections following colds. However, they should only be utilized for 3- ...

  5. Kinetic release of hydrogen peroxide from different whitening products.

    PubMed

    da Silva Marques, Duarte Nuno; Silveira, Joao Miguel; Marques, Joana Rita; Amaral, Joao Almeida; Guilherme, Nuno Marques; da Mata, António Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide (HP) release from five different bleaching products: VivaStyle® 10% fitted tray gel, VivaStyle® 30% in-office bleaching gel, VivaStyle® Paint-On Plus paint-on bleaching varnish, Opalescence PF® 10% carbamide peroxide gel and Trèswhite Supreme™ 10% HP gel. Each product was firstly titrated for its HP content by a described method. HP release kinetics was assessed by a modified spectrophotometric technique. One sample t test was performed to test for differences between the manufacturers' claimed HP concentrations and the titrated HP content in the whitening products. Analysis of variance plus Tamhane's post hoc tests and Pearson correlation analysis were used as appropriate. Values of P < 0.05 were taken as significant. Titrated HP revealed an increased content when compared to the manufacturer's specifications for all the products tested (P < 0.05), although only products from one manufacturer produced significantly higher results. All products presented a significant (P < 0.05) and sustained release of HP. However, the product with paint-on cellulose-based matrix resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) faster kinetics when compared to other products tested. These results are consistent with manufacturers' reduced recommended application times. The results of this study suggest that modifying the matrix composition may be a viable alternative to HP concentration increase, since this may result in faster release kinetics without exposure to high HP concentrations. PMID:22908081

  6. Micro-structural integrity of dental enamel subjected to two tooth whitening regimes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reina; Shibata, Yo; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Colour modification of tooth enamel has proven successful, but it is unclear how various bleaching applications affect micro-structural integrity of the whitened enamel. To investigate the internal structural integrity of human intact tooth enamel with the application of two commonly used whitening regimes (in-office power bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide), evaluations were performed on teeth of identical colour classification. After the bleaching applications, the enamel mineral density was quantified and visualised with micro-computed tomography. The micro-structural differences between the whitened tooth enamel samples were distinctive, though the colour parameter changes within the samples were equivalent. Home bleaching achieved colour modification by demineralisation, whereas in-office bleaching depended on redistribution of the minerals after treatment and subsequent enhanced mineralisation.

  7. Colour effects on extracted teeth after a tooth whitening regime: assessment in an artificial oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Lath, D L; Wildgoose, D G

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a digital image analysis system and to assess its suitability for quantifying the colour (including whiteness) of extracted teeth in a purpose built artificial oral cavity after a whitening regime. Extracted teeth were treated with a scale and polish and a bleaching solution. The Image analysis system showed excellent intra operator repeatability. Significant tooth colour and whiteness changes occurred after the bleaching treatment. The digital image system has been shown to be a reliable and valid method for assessing colour and whiteness changes on extracted teeth after whitening treatments.

  8. Tooth-Bleaching: A Review of the Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Various Tooth Whitening Products.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Abdul; Farooq, Imran; Grobler, Sias R; Rossouw, R J

    2015-12-01

    Tooth bleaching (whitening) is one of the most common and inexpensive method for treating discolouration of teeth. Dental aesthetics, especially tooth colour, is of great importance to majority of the people; and discolouration of even a single tooth can negatively influence the quality of life. Therefore, a review of the literature was carried out (limited to aesthetic tooth-bleaching) to provide a broad overview of the efficacy and adverse effects of various tooth whitening products on soft and hard oral tissues. PMID:26691365

  9. Light-enhanced chemical whitening of teeth: new in vitro investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorovska, R.; Dimitrov, S.; Pavlova, P.; Todorov, G.

    2007-03-01

    We report new results on the light enhanced teeth whitening obtained in a research collaboration financed by the Medical Science Council of the Medical University of Sofia. The project is an extension of previous research and its basic goal is to develop new teeth bleaching substances and procedures, in which the activators are diode lamps (LED).

  10. Power and Socioscientific Issues: The Pedagogy of Mire's Critique of Skin Whitening Cosmeceuticals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blades, David

    2012-01-01

    In her article, "The Scientification of Skin Whitening and the Entrepreneurial University- Linked Corporate Scientific Officer," published in this issue, Amina Mire (2012) deconstructs the tacit investments implicit in such discourses of beauty, in particular those linked to cosmetic products that purport to fight the "war on aging" through the…

  11. Quantitative Determination of α-Arbutin, β-Arbutin, Kojic Acid, Nicotinamide, Hydroquinone, Resorcinol, 4-Methoxyphenol, 4-Ethoxyphenol, and Ascorbic Acid from Skin Whitening Products by HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Mei; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    An HPLC-UV method was developed for the quantitative analysis of nine skin whitening agents in a single injection. These compounds are α-arbutin, β-arbutin, kojic acid, nicotinamide, resorcinol, ascorbic acid, hydroquinone, 4-methoxyphenol, and 4-ethoxyphenol. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column within 30 min. The mobile phase was composed of water and methanol, both containing 0.1% acetic acid (v/v). The stability of the analytes was evaluated at different pH values between 2.3 and 7.6, and the extraction procedure was validated for different types of skin whitening product matrixes, which included two creams, a soap bar, and a capsule. The best solvent system for sample preparation was 20 mM NaH2PO4 containing 10% methanol at pH 2.3. The analytical method was validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ. The developed HPLC-UV method was applied for the quantitation of the nine analytes in 59 skin whitening products including creams, lotions, sera, foams, gels, mask sheets, soap bars, tablets, and capsules.

  12. Quantitative Determination of α-Arbutin, β-Arbutin, Kojic Acid, Nicotinamide, Hydroquinone, Resorcinol, 4-Methoxyphenol, 4-Ethoxyphenol, and Ascorbic Acid from Skin Whitening Products by HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Mei; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    An HPLC-UV method was developed for the quantitative analysis of nine skin whitening agents in a single injection. These compounds are α-arbutin, β-arbutin, kojic acid, nicotinamide, resorcinol, ascorbic acid, hydroquinone, 4-methoxyphenol, and 4-ethoxyphenol. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column within 30 min. The mobile phase was composed of water and methanol, both containing 0.1% acetic acid (v/v). The stability of the analytes was evaluated at different pH values between 2.3 and 7.6, and the extraction procedure was validated for different types of skin whitening product matrixes, which included two creams, a soap bar, and a capsule. The best solvent system for sample preparation was 20 mM NaH2PO4 containing 10% methanol at pH 2.3. The analytical method was validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ. The developed HPLC-UV method was applied for the quantitation of the nine analytes in 59 skin whitening products including creams, lotions, sera, foams, gels, mask sheets, soap bars, tablets, and capsules. PMID:25857872

  13. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of arbutin, whitening agent through oxidation by periodate and complexation with ferric chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoom, B. N.; Abdelsamad, A. M. E.; Adib, N. M.

    2006-07-01

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of arbutin (glycosylated hydroquinone) is described. It is based on the oxidation of arbutin by periodate in presence of iodate. Excess periodate causes liberation of iodine at pH 8.0. The unreacted periodate is determined by measurement of the liberated iodine spectrophotometrically in the wavelength range (300-500 nm). A calibration curve was constructed for more accurate results and the correlation coefficient of linear regression analysis was -0.9778. The precision of this method was better than 6.17% R.S.D. ( n = 3). Regression analysis of Bear-Lambert plot shows good correlation in the concentration range 25-125 ug/ml. The identification limit was determined to be 25 ug/ml a detailed study of the reaction conditions was carried out, including effect of changing pH, time, temperature and volume of periodate. Analyzing pure and authentic samples containing arbutin tested the validity of the proposed method which has an average percent recovery of 100.86%. An alternative method is also proposed which involves a complexation reaction between arbutin and ferric chloride solution. The produced complex which is yellowish-green in color was determined spectophotometrically.

  14. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of arbutin, whitening agent through oxidation by periodate and complexation with ferric chloride.

    PubMed

    Barsoom, B N; Abdelsamad, A M E; Adib, N M

    2006-07-01

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of arbutin (glycosylated hydroquinone) is described. It is based on the oxidation of arbutin by periodate in presence of iodate. Excess periodate causes liberation of iodine at pH 8.0. The unreacted periodate is determined by measurement of the liberated iodine spectrophotometrically in the wavelength range (300-500 nm). A calibration curve was constructed for more accurate results and the correlation coefficient of linear regression analysis was -0.9778. The precision of this method was better than 6.17% R.S.D. (n=3). Regression analysis of Bear-Lambert plot shows good correlation in the concentration range 25-125 ug/ml. The identification limit was determined to be 25 ug/ml a detailed study of the reaction conditions was carried out, including effect of changing pH, time, temperature and volume of periodate. Analyzing pure and authentic samples containing arbutin tested the validity of the proposed method which has an average percent recovery of 100.86%. An alternative method is also proposed which involves a complexation reaction between arbutin and ferric chloride solution. The produced complex which is yellowish-green in color was determined spectophotometrically. PMID:16458577

  15. On the reduced susceptibility to stress whitening behavior of melt intercalated polybutene-clay nanocomposites during tensile straining

    SciTech Connect

    Nathani, H.; Dasari, A.; Misra, R.D.K

    2004-06-21

    The paper describes the micro-scale response, mechanism, and susceptibility to stress whitening during tensile straining of polybutene-5 wt% clay nanocomposites, and its comparison with unreinforced neat polybutene utilizing electron microscopy observations. Polybutene-5 wt% clay nanocomposites exhibit increased tensile modulus, significantly reduced susceptibility to stress whitening, and are characterized by lower optical gray level in the plastically deformed stress whitened zone. Furthermore, crystallization studies suggest that the reinforcement mineral increases the rate of nucleation, accelerating the crystallization process. The reinforcement of polybutene with 5 wt% clay alters the primary micromechanism of stress whitening from stress relaxation of the 'fish-scale psiloma' containing tiny voids and subsequent transformation to ridge tearing at high plastic strains to nucleation and growth of large size voids in polybutene-clay nanocomposites. The final fracture in neat polybutene occurs by a mixed mode (brittle and fibrillation), while brittle deformation is the predominant fracture mode in polybutene-5 wt% clay nanocomposites.

  16. On-the-teeth whitening process using Ar+ and CuBr lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, S.; Raychev, L.; Gisbrecht, Alexander; Todorovska, Roumyana; Petrov, Lyubomir P.; Todorov, Georgy C.

    2004-06-01

    The present investigations are directed at a more detailed studying of methods for colour determination aimed at estimation of human teeth whiteness degree, sufficiently handy for common use in clinical practice. In order to be obtained unbiased results of the whitening, specific techniques for the degree of whiteness (coloration) determination had been developed on the basis of common colorimetric and spectral methods and apparatus, including a standard computer processing and accorded to the three-dimensional colour scheme Vita 3D. Comparative experimental investigations with two lasers (Ar+, CuBr) and three experimental whitening compositions for treatment of 6 different groups of samples were carried out. The results of the applied spectral and colorimetric techniques are in a good agreement with those of the standard computer processing of the corresponding digital photographs and comply with the visually estimated degree of the teeth whiteness judged according to the standard reference scale commonly used in the aesthetic dentistry.

  17. Effectiveness of a combined in-office and take-home whitening system for teeth shades A3.5 to A4.

    PubMed

    Radz, Gary M

    2014-10-01

    As teeth whitening increases in popularity, dental professionals are challenged to select the proper materials and technique to create esthetically whitened smiles for their patients. This study examined nine subjects with baseline shades of A3.5 to A4 on four to six of their maxillary anterior teeth with the VITA Classical (VC) shade guide. All subjects received one session of in-office whitening (Philips Zoom WhiteSpeed), 3 weeks of at-home tray whitening (Zoom NiteWhite), and the option of a second WhiteSpeed treatment. Subjects achieved, on average, documented change of 11.1 shades. Only two subjects reported any sensitivity, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of a combined whitening system, including both chairside and take-home whitening, and a sensitivity prevention protocol.

  18. Efficacy of tooth whitening with different calcium phosphate-based formulations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian; Xu, Xiaohui; Lai, Guangyun; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth whitening using different calcium phosphate-based formulations. Teeth were treated with three different hydroxyapatite preparations at different concentrations and with two control preparations; each tooth was treated a total of three times. After application of the last material, hydrodynamic shear force was applied to mimic mechanical loading. After each treatment, tooth color was measured using a dental spectrophotometer, and the mean changes in L*a*b* values between different measurements were expressed as ∆E. The results indicated significant differences between the materials, but neither dose- nor time-dependent associations were found. The suspension containing tricalcium phosphate (10 wt%) showed the most obvious color change (∆E = 2.20 ± 0.90), while the suspension containing zinc-carbonate-apatite (20 wt%) showed the least obvious color change (∆E = 0.91 ± 0.50). Calcium phosphate-based formulations that can adhere to the enamel surface and contribute to tooth whitening have promising tooth-whitening potential.

  19. Partial Whitening SVD Analysis and its application to tropical-extratropical teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Various multivariate statistical methods have been established and proven useful for isolating relationships between datasets. Many popular linear methods are based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and include Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA), and Redundancy Analysis (RDA). In this study, Partial Whitening SVD Analysis (PWSVD) is introduced as a new technique that maximizes the squared covariance between partially-whitened variables. Applied as a pre-filter, the partial whitening transformation acts to decorrelate and normalize individual variables to a fractional degree that is specified prior. Particular PWSVD solutions include a new and effective regularization for CCA as well a variance bias correction for MCA. Also, given some crude prior expectation of the signal-to-noise, asymmetric PWSVD solutions can provide significant benefit, and the full range of solutions bridges those of CCA, MCA and RDA. After deriving PWSVD, it is used to linearly relate precipitation in the tropical Pacific with Northern Hemisphere extratropical circulation during boreal winter, and solutions are contrasted with those of traditional methods. It is demonstrated that PWSVD produces a highly robust representation of the dominant teleconnections, namely ENSO and ENSO Modoki, or flavors of ENSO. Lastly, the practical use of PWSVD is encouraged for a range of applications.

  20. Review of the extrinsic stain removal and enamel/dentine abrasion by a calcium carbonate and perlite containing whitening toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Andrew

    2006-08-01

    There has been an increase in the demand from consumers and patients for products that whiten teeth. To meet this demand, a whitening toothpaste containing calcium carbonate and perlite as the abrasive system and an efficacious fluoride source has recently been launched. The aim of the current paper is to review the toothpaste's stain removal efficacy and its effects on enamel and dentine wear. It has been shown to be effective at removing model extrinsic stain in vitro. Further, it has been shown to be more effective in removing naturally occurring extrinsic tooth stain than a silica non-whitening control toothpaste after two weeks of twice daily brushing in a parallel group, double-blind clinical study using 152 adult volunteers. In addition, the enhanced whitening effect did not give a clinically relevant level of wear to enamel or a significant increase in dentine wear compared to marketed non-whitening toothpaste formulations, as shown by using an in situ type model with ex vivo brushing.

  1. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... its box has the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance, it is good for your oral ... dispensed solutions have the American Dental Association (ADA) seal. Other over-the-counter whitening products include whitening ...

  2. In vitro assessment of the effectiveness of whitening dentifrices for the removal of extrinsic tooth stains.

    PubMed

    Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Silva, André Luís Faria e; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane Suzy; Munin, Egberto; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Lovadino, José Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effectiveness of whitening dentifrices for the removal of extrinsic tooth stains. Twenty dental blocks (4 x 4 mm), including enamel and dentine, removed from freshly extracted bovine incisors, were randomly divided into 4 groups: G1--distilled water, G2--Colgate, G3--Crest Extra Whitening and G4--Rapid White. In all specimens, the dentin was covered with colorless nail polish, and the enamel was left exposed. Next, the specimens were immersed in a solution of black tea, which was changed every 24 h, for a period of 6 days. After this period, a photo-reflectance reading was taken (Time 1) with a spectrometer. The stained specimens were then submitted to linear brushing movements (5,000 cycles) using brushes (Oral B-Soft) coupled to an automatic toothbrushing machine, under a static axial load of 200 g and with a speed of 4 movements/second, at 37 degrees C, with the dentifrice or water being injected every 60 s. When toothbrushing ended, a second photo-reflectance reading was taken (Time 2). The results were submitted to two-criteria analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to the Tukey test ( = 0.05). When the two times for a same group were compared, Time 2 presented the highest reflectance values with statistical difference only for G3 and G4. Among the dentifrices tested, only the Rapid White group differed from the control group, presenting the highest reflectance values. Only the whitening dentifrice Rapid White was effective for the removal of extrinsic stains. PMID:18622478

  3. A study of the human skin-whitening effects of resveratryl triacetate.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ja Hyun; Seok, Jin Kyung; An, Sang Mi; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Koh, Jae Sook; Boo, Yong Chool

    2015-04-01

    Resveratrol has a variety of bioactivities that include its anti-melanogenic effects, but its use in cosmetics has been challenging partly because of its chemical instability. Resveratryl triacetate (RTA) is a prodrug that can enhance stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the skin safety and whitening effects of RTA in human subjects. The primary skin irritation potentials of RTA and resveratrol were tested at 0.1 and 0.5 % on human subjects. Resveratrol at a concentration of 0.5 % induced weak skin irritation, whereas RTA did not induce any skin responses. The skin-whitening efficacy of a cosmetic formulation containing 0.4 % RTA was evaluated in two different test models. In the artificial tanning model, the test product and the control product were applied twice daily to the skin of the forearms of 22 human subjects after pigmentation induction by ultraviolet irradiation. Applying the test and the control products to the artificial tanning model for 8 weeks increased the individual topology angles (ITA°) by 17.06 and 13.81 %, respectively, a difference that was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In the hyperpigmentation model, the test product and the control product were applied twice daily to the faces of 21 human subjects. The averaged intensity of the hyperpigmented spots decreased by 2.67 % in the test group and 1.46 % in the control group, a difference that was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Therefore, RTA incorporated into cosmetic formulations can whiten human skin without inducing skin irritation. PMID:25750159

  4. Effect of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of a nanohybrid composite resin

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Gabriela Migliorin; da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Menezes, Márcio; do Vale, Hugo Felipe; Regalado, Diego Ferreira; Pontes, Danielson Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study verified the influence of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of a nanohybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two specimens were prepared with Filtek™ Z350 XT (3M/ESPE) and randomly divided into four groups (n = 08) that were subjected to brushing simulation equivalent to the period of 1 month. The groups assessed were a control group with distilled water (G1), Colgate Total 12 Professional Clean (G2), Sensodyne Extra Whitener Extra Fresh (G3), and Colgate Luminous White (G4). A sequence of 90 cycles was performed for all the samples. The initial roughness of each group was analyzed by the Surface Roughness Tester (TR 200-TIME Group Inc., CA, USA). After the brushing period, the final roughness was measured, and the results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn tests for intergroup roughness comparison in the time factor. For intragroup and “Δ Final − Initial” comparisons, the Wilcoxon test and (one-way) ANOVA were, respectively, performed (α = 0.05). Results: The roughness mean values before and after brushing showed no statistically significant difference when the different dentifrices were used. None of the dentifrices analyzed increased significantly the nanohybrid composite resin surface roughness in a 1 month of tooth brushing simulation. Conclusions: These results suggest that no hazardous effect on the roughness of nanohybrid composite resin can be expected when whitening dentifrices are used for a short period. Similar studies should be conducted to analyze other esthetic composite materials. PMID:27095891

  5. The effectiveness of two different battery-powered toothbrushes on whitening through removal of stain.

    PubMed

    Karpinia, Katherine; Magnusson, Ingvar; Biesbrock, Aaron R; Walters, Patricia A; Bartizek, Robert D

    2002-01-01

    Whitening dentifrices have recently become popular, achieving a whitening benefit by surface chemical action and/or abrasion that serve to remove extrinsic stains and/or prevent extrinsic stain buildup. Some powered toothbrushes have also been demonstrated to have whitening/stain-removal efficacy when used with standard dentifrice products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an experimental prototype powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush Pro) and a commercially available powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush) on dental whitening through the removal of extrinsic stain. This study was a randomized, controlled, examiner-blind, parallel-group design, which examined extrinsic stain removal over four weeks of brushing by 70 subjects. Following a three-week period of stain induction using rinses of chlorhexidine and tea, subjects were randomized to use one of the two toothbrushes. Tooth stain was scored using the Lobene stain index at baseline, and after two and four weeks of toothbrush use. Prior to statistical analysis, the stain scores were averaged on a per-subject basis. The stain reductions (baseline minus post-treatment) in average scores were calculated and analyzed using an analysis of covariance, with baseline average score as the covariate. The experimental prototype powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush Pro) delivered statistically significant (p < 0.001) adjusted (via analysis of covariance) mean reductions from baseline in Lobene composite stain scores of 1.90 and 2.11 after 2 weeks and 4 weeks of use, respectively. These results represent 56-62% reductions in extrinsic stain compared to baseline. The commercially available powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush) also delivered statistically significant (p < 0.001) adjusted (via analysis of covariance) mean reductions from baseline in Lobene composite stain scores, with magnitudes of 1.95 and 2.22 after two and four weeks of use, respectively. These results represent 60-68% reductions in

  6. The benefits of toothpaste--real or imagined? Review of its role in tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Pontefract, H; Sheen, S; Moran, J

    2001-03-01

    The market for whitening toothpastes in the UK is burgeoning at present, but little has been published about the modes of action or efficacy of such pastes. Much is known about how the individual ingredients work, but toothpaste formulations are complex and there is potential for interaction. Studies have been undertaken to compare the efficacy of various test products, but these have used different types of trial design and consequently direct comparisons are difficult, not least because there are several ways of measuring 'whiteness', and there is no consensus of opinion between workers in this field as to the best way to record it. PMID:11819960

  7. Effective of diode laser on teeth enamel in the teeth whitening treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klunboot, U.; Arayathanitkul, K.; Chitaree, R.; Emarat, N.

    2011-12-01

    This research purpose is to investigate the changing of teeth color and to study the surface of teeth after treatment by laser diode at different power densities for tooth whitening treatment. In the experiment, human-extracted teeth samples were divided into 7 groups of 6 teeth each. After that laser diode was irradiated to teeth, which were coated by 38% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, during for 20, 30 and 60 seconds at power densities of 10.9 and 52.1 W/cm2. The results of teeth color change were described by the CIEL*a*b* systems and the damage of teeth surface were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the power density of the laser diode could affect the whiteness of teeth. The high power density caused more luminous teeth than the low power density did, but on the other hand the high power density also caused damage to the teeth surface. Therefore, the laser diode at the low power densities has high efficiency for tooth whitening treatment and it has a potential for other clinical applications.

  8. Comparison of in vitro fluoride uptake from whitening toothpastes and a conventional toothpaste in demineralised enamel.

    PubMed

    Altenburger, Markus J; Bernhart, Jasmin; Schicha, Thurid D; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hellwig, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the compatibility of abrasives and fluoride compounds deal exclusively with fluoride uptake and remineralization after storing the enamel specimens in a toothpaste-saliva mixture. The influence of brushing on the fluoride uptake when highly abrasive toothpastes are used has hardly been investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate fluoride uptake in initially demineralised dental enamel after storage in, or brushing with, whitening toothpaste slurries, compared to a conventional toothpaste. For this purpose two widely available whitening toothpastes with ionically bound fluoride (sodium fluoride NaF), two with covalently-bound fluoride toothpastes (sodium monofluorophosphate, NaMFP) and a conventional amine fluoride toothpaste (AmF) were compared. The fluoride uptake after use of the AmF toothpaste was shown to be statistically significantly higher than that after application of the NaF toothpastes, which in turn was statistically significantly higher than the uptake resulting from NaMFP application. The fluoride uptake was slightly higher when the enamel samples were brushed with NaF toothpaste, rather than just stored in the respective toothpaste slurry. Brushing with highly abrasive toothpastes did not negatively influence fluoride uptake in demineralised dental enamel. The ionic form of the fluoride in toothpastes appears to be critical for increased fluoride uptake. The acidic components of the AmF toothpaste improved fluoride uptake compared to alkaline NaF toothpastes.

  9. A clinical evaluation comparing two H2O2 concentrations used with a light-assisted chairside tooth whitening system.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marilyn; Felix, Heather

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of two different BriteSmile hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gels in a split-arch protocol for whitening teeth in a clinical setting when used in conjunction with a BriteSmile BS4000 lamp. Fifteen subjects were enrolled into a single-center clinical trial. The efficacy of the BriteSmile BS4000 lamp using both 15% H2O2 and 25% H2O2 gel formulations was tested. Study subjects were concurrently exposed to the whitening lamp with the 15% H2O2 gel placed on half of their anterior teeth and the 25% H2O2 gel on the other half for a total light and gel exposure of 60 minutes. The clinical data collected were shade score, gingival health, and dentinal hypersensitivity self-assessment. Changes in tooth shade were better for subjects exposed to the 25% gel and the dental whitening lamp (average 8.0 shade changes) compared to subjects exposed to the 15% gel and dental whitening lamp (average 7.6 shade changes) immediately after treatment. The same held true at the 7-day follow-up (25% gel average 7.4 shade changes versus 15% gel average 7.3 shade changes). However, these differences were not statistically significant. No reports of irritation of gingival soft tissues were documented. The relative changes in mean sensitivity scores were similar for both groups with no significant differences in mean sensitivity scores between the groups. Both concentrations of H2O2 gel and the whitening lamp combined gave study subjects an average of 8.0 (25% gel) and 7.6 (15% gel) shade changes immediately after treatment. The 7-day follow-up examination resulted in a regression of lightest to an average of 7.4 (25% gel) and 7.3 (15% gel). It was concluded that the use of the chairside whitening light and either 15% or 25% hydrogen peroxide gel is safe and effective for whitening teeth in 1 hour.

  10. A clinical evaluation comparing two H2O2 concentrations used with a light-assisted chairside tooth whitening system.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marilyn; Felix, Heather

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of two different BriteSmile hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gels in a split-arch protocol for whitening teeth in a clinical setting when used in conjunction with a BriteSmile BS4000 lamp. Fifteen subjects were enrolled into a single-center clinical trial. The efficacy of the BriteSmile BS4000 lamp using both 15% H2O2 and 25% H2O2 gel formulations was tested. Study subjects were concurrently exposed to the whitening lamp with the 15% H2O2 gel placed on half of their anterior teeth and the 25% H2O2 gel on the other half for a total light and gel exposure of 60 minutes. The clinical data collected were shade score, gingival health, and dentinal hypersensitivity self-assessment. Changes in tooth shade were better for subjects exposed to the 25% gel and the dental whitening lamp (average 8.0 shade changes) compared to subjects exposed to the 15% gel and dental whitening lamp (average 7.6 shade changes) immediately after treatment. The same held true at the 7-day follow-up (25% gel average 7.4 shade changes versus 15% gel average 7.3 shade changes). However, these differences were not statistically significant. No reports of irritation of gingival soft tissues were documented. The relative changes in mean sensitivity scores were similar for both groups with no significant differences in mean sensitivity scores between the groups. Both concentrations of H2O2 gel and the whitening lamp combined gave study subjects an average of 8.0 (25% gel) and 7.6 (15% gel) shade changes immediately after treatment. The 7-day follow-up examination resulted in a regression of lightest to an average of 7.4 (25% gel) and 7.3 (15% gel). It was concluded that the use of the chairside whitening light and either 15% or 25% hydrogen peroxide gel is safe and effective for whitening teeth in 1 hour. PMID:22536662

  11. Effect of brushing with conventional versus whitening dentifrices on surface roughness and biofilm formation of dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Sarina Maciel Braga; Kantorski, Karla Zanini; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Pavanelli, Carlos Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional and whitening dentifrices on the weight loss, surface roughness, and early in situ biofilm formation on the surface of dental ceramics. Standardized feldspar ceramic specimens (Vita VM7 and Vita VM13) were submitted to the following experimental conditions: no brushing; brushing without a dentifrice; brushing with a conventional dentifrice; and brushing with a whitening dentifrice. A brushing machine was used to simulate brushing. The mass and surface roughness of all specimens from the test groups were evaluated prior to and after brushing. Ten participants used an oral device for eight hours to evaluate the biofilm formed in situ on the specimens. Scanning electron microscopy was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the biofilm. ANOVA and Tukey tests were used to analyze the results of weight loss, surface roughness, and presence of bacteria. A one-way Kruskal-Wallis test was used for bacterial colonization results. For both ceramics, brushing with a whitening dentifrice resulted in weight loss that was significantly greater when compared to brushing without a dentifrice or with a conventional dentifrice. Increased surface roughness was noticed on VM13 ceramic samples with both dentifrices, whereas only conventional dentifrice had a significant effect on the surface roughness of VM7 samples. For both VM7 and VM13, no difference was found between the experimental conditions with regard to the presence or number of bacteria. Cocci and short rods were the predominant microbial morphotypes. Granular or fibrillar acellular material partially covered the specimens. Brushing with a whitening dentifrice resulted in significant weight loss of ceramic restorations, while brushing with both conventional and whitening dentifrices can roughen ceramic surfaces. The increase in roughness was not clinically significant to contribute to increased biofilm formation.

  12. Effects of a tartar control whitening dentifrice on tooth shade in a population with long-standing natural stain.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, R W; Barker, M L; Hyde, J D; Jones, M B; Cordero, R E

    2001-01-01

    Changing and whitening tooth color in people with long-standing tooth stain without excessive hard tissue abrasion may represent one of the more difficult challenges for whitening dentifrices. An eight-week clinical trial was conducted to evaluate change in tooth color by a silica-based, enamel-safe tartar control whitening dentifrice compared to a marketed baking soda dentifrice control. First, a screening exercise was conducted to identify individuals with long-standing extrinsic dental stain. This exercise targeted adults who reported "stained teeth" and coffee/tea drinking or smoking, but who had no recent history of dental prophylaxis. Targeted subjects were examined for stain (Lobene Index) and tooth shade/color (Vita). A total of 291 adults having extrinsic stain and discolored teeth were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomized to one of the two treatment groups, and all dentifrice use was unsupervised. Tooth color was measured at 4 and 8 weeks from shade values collected from the 8 incisors, and averages were determined from a linear ordering of the shade guide. A total of 278 evaluable subjects completed the 8-week study. Overall, the tartar control whitening dentifrice group experienced an improvement in color, differing statistically from baseline (p < 0.001) and from the marketed control (p < 0.05). Safety profiles for the two dentifrices were generally similar. Among patients with long-standing extrinsic stain, use of the tartar control whitening dentifrice resulted in superior overall tooth shade and reduced maximum or worst color compared to the marketed baking soda dentifrice control. PMID:11476014

  13. Effects of a tartar control whitening dentifrice on tooth shade in a population with long-standing natural stain.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, R W; Barker, M L; Hyde, J D; Jones, M B; Cordero, R E

    2001-01-01

    Changing and whitening tooth color in people with long-standing tooth stain without excessive hard tissue abrasion may represent one of the more difficult challenges for whitening dentifrices. An eight-week clinical trial was conducted to evaluate change in tooth color by a silica-based, enamel-safe tartar control whitening dentifrice compared to a marketed baking soda dentifrice control. First, a screening exercise was conducted to identify individuals with long-standing extrinsic dental stain. This exercise targeted adults who reported "stained teeth" and coffee/tea drinking or smoking, but who had no recent history of dental prophylaxis. Targeted subjects were examined for stain (Lobene Index) and tooth shade/color (Vita). A total of 291 adults having extrinsic stain and discolored teeth were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomized to one of the two treatment groups, and all dentifrice use was unsupervised. Tooth color was measured at 4 and 8 weeks from shade values collected from the 8 incisors, and averages were determined from a linear ordering of the shade guide. A total of 278 evaluable subjects completed the 8-week study. Overall, the tartar control whitening dentifrice group experienced an improvement in color, differing statistically from baseline (p < 0.001) and from the marketed control (p < 0.05). Safety profiles for the two dentifrices were generally similar. Among patients with long-standing extrinsic stain, use of the tartar control whitening dentifrice resulted in superior overall tooth shade and reduced maximum or worst color compared to the marketed baking soda dentifrice control.

  14. In vitro tooth whitening by a sodium bicarbonate/peroxide dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Kleber, C J; Putt, M S; Nelson, B J

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this laboratory study was to determine the tooth whitening effect of a baking soda dentifrice containing stabilized 1% hydrogen peroxide following repeated applications to intrinsically stained teeth. Additional objectives were to investigate (1) the influence of tooth surface curvature and moisture on color measurements, (2) preliminary treatment parameters using 1% hydrogen peroxide solution, and (3) the relationship between Vita shade guide standards and instrumental color readings. Human tooth specimens with intrinsic stain were specially prepared and measured for color (L*a*b*) by means of diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. Specimens were measured under wet and dry conditions with natural and flattened enamel surfaces. A preliminary test was conducted with 1% H2O2 solution to establish tooth whitening versus treatment time. Then, new tooth specimens were treated repeatedly with slurries of silica, baking soda, or baking soda/peroxide dentifrices at 30-minute intervals, and color measurements were taken under both wet and dry conditions after 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours. L*a*b* color measurements of the Vita shade guide teeth were also made in order to relate laboratory color changes to clinical effects. The parameter testing results showed that flattening the enamel surface had no effect on tooth color, but the teeth rapidly became lighter and less yellow upon air-drying. The 1% H2O2 solution caused both a significant decrease in yellow (b*) and an increase in lightness (L*). Since the reduction for b* occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent than the L* factor, the b* component may be the more important indicator of tooth whitening by bleaching. Compared to the silica and baking soda dentifrices, the baking soda/peroxide dentifrice significantly decreased the yellow color (b*) of the teeth after 8 or more hours of topical treatment. The instrumental color readings of the Vita Shade guide teeth showed that the color differences between

  15. In vitro tooth whitening by a sodium bicarbonate/peroxide dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Kleber, C J; Putt, M S; Nelson, B J

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this laboratory study was to determine the tooth whitening effect of a baking soda dentifrice containing stabilized 1% hydrogen peroxide following repeated applications to intrinsically stained teeth. Additional objectives were to investigate (1) the influence of tooth surface curvature and moisture on color measurements, (2) preliminary treatment parameters using 1% hydrogen peroxide solution, and (3) the relationship between Vita shade guide standards and instrumental color readings. Human tooth specimens with intrinsic stain were specially prepared and measured for color (L*a*b*) by means of diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. Specimens were measured under wet and dry conditions with natural and flattened enamel surfaces. A preliminary test was conducted with 1% H2O2 solution to establish tooth whitening versus treatment time. Then, new tooth specimens were treated repeatedly with slurries of silica, baking soda, or baking soda/peroxide dentifrices at 30-minute intervals, and color measurements were taken under both wet and dry conditions after 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours. L*a*b* color measurements of the Vita shade guide teeth were also made in order to relate laboratory color changes to clinical effects. The parameter testing results showed that flattening the enamel surface had no effect on tooth color, but the teeth rapidly became lighter and less yellow upon air-drying. The 1% H2O2 solution caused both a significant decrease in yellow (b*) and an increase in lightness (L*). Since the reduction for b* occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent than the L* factor, the b* component may be the more important indicator of tooth whitening by bleaching. Compared to the silica and baking soda dentifrices, the baking soda/peroxide dentifrice significantly decreased the yellow color (b*) of the teeth after 8 or more hours of topical treatment. The instrumental color readings of the Vita Shade guide teeth showed that the color differences between

  16. Automated model selection in covariance estimation and spatial whitening of MEG and EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Engemann, Denis A; Gramfort, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure non-invasively the weak electromagnetic fields induced by post-synaptic neural currents. The estimation of the spatial covariance of the signals recorded on M/EEG sensors is a building block of modern data analysis pipelines. Such covariance estimates are used in brain-computer interfaces (BCI) systems, in nearly all source localization methods for spatial whitening as well as for data covariance estimation in beamformers. The rationale for such models is that the signals can be modeled by a zero mean Gaussian distribution. While maximizing the Gaussian likelihood seems natural, it leads to a covariance estimate known as empirical covariance (EC). It turns out that the EC is a poor estimate of the true covariance when the number of samples is small. To address this issue the estimation needs to be regularized. The most common approach downweights off-diagonal coefficients, while more advanced regularization methods are based on shrinkage techniques or generative models with low rank assumptions: probabilistic PCA (PPCA) and factor analysis (FA). Using cross-validation all of these models can be tuned and compared based on Gaussian likelihood computed on unseen data. We investigated these models on simulations, one electroencephalography (EEG) dataset as well as magnetoencephalography (MEG) datasets from the most common MEG systems. First, our results demonstrate that different models can be the best, depending on the number of samples, heterogeneity of sensor types and noise properties. Second, we show that the models tuned by cross-validation are superior to models with hand-selected regularization. Hence, we propose an automated solution to the often overlooked problem of covariance estimation of M/EEG signals. The relevance of the procedure is demonstrated here for spatial whitening and source localization of MEG signals.

  17. Automated model selection in covariance estimation and spatial whitening of MEG and EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Engemann, Denis A; Gramfort, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure non-invasively the weak electromagnetic fields induced by post-synaptic neural currents. The estimation of the spatial covariance of the signals recorded on M/EEG sensors is a building block of modern data analysis pipelines. Such covariance estimates are used in brain-computer interfaces (BCI) systems, in nearly all source localization methods for spatial whitening as well as for data covariance estimation in beamformers. The rationale for such models is that the signals can be modeled by a zero mean Gaussian distribution. While maximizing the Gaussian likelihood seems natural, it leads to a covariance estimate known as empirical covariance (EC). It turns out that the EC is a poor estimate of the true covariance when the number of samples is small. To address this issue the estimation needs to be regularized. The most common approach downweights off-diagonal coefficients, while more advanced regularization methods are based on shrinkage techniques or generative models with low rank assumptions: probabilistic PCA (PPCA) and factor analysis (FA). Using cross-validation all of these models can be tuned and compared based on Gaussian likelihood computed on unseen data. We investigated these models on simulations, one electroencephalography (EEG) dataset as well as magnetoencephalography (MEG) datasets from the most common MEG systems. First, our results demonstrate that different models can be the best, depending on the number of samples, heterogeneity of sensor types and noise properties. Second, we show that the models tuned by cross-validation are superior to models with hand-selected regularization. Hence, we propose an automated solution to the often overlooked problem of covariance estimation of M/EEG signals. The relevance of the procedure is demonstrated here for spatial whitening and source localization of MEG signals. PMID:25541187

  18. Whitening Effect of Black Tea Water Extract on Brown Guinea Pig Skin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, So-Young

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the whitening effect of black tea water extract (BT), BT was topically applied to artificially hyperpigmented spots on the back skins of brown guinea-pigs (weight: 450~500 g) induced by 1,500 mJ/ cm2 of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The test compounds of 30 μl were applied twice a day, six days a week, for four weeks. The artificially hyperpigmented spots were divided into 5 groups: control (UVB + saline, C), vehicle control [UVB + propylene glycol: ethanol: water (5 : 3 : 2), VC], positive control (UVB + 2% hydroquinone, PC), experimental 1 (UVB + 1% BT), experimental 2 (UVB + 2% BT). After 4-week application, the spots were removed by biopsy punch under anesthetic condition and used as specimens for the histological examination. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of BT were 104 and 91 mg/g, respectively. The electron-donating ability of BT revealed a dose-dependent response, showing the excellent capacities of 86% at 800 μg/ml. The artificially hyperpigmented spots treated with the PC and BT were obviously lightened compared to the C and VC groups. At the fourth week, the melanin indices for the PC and BT groups were significantly lower (p < 0.00l) than those of the C and VC groups. In histological examination, PC and BT groups were significantly reduced in the melanin pigmentation, the proliferation of melanocytes and the synthesis of melanosomes compared to the C and VC groups. It is found that BT inhibits the proliferation of melanocytes and synthesis of melanosomes in vivo using brown guinea pigs, thereby showing a definite skin whitening effect. PMID:24278566

  19. Pharmacology in rehabilitation: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Ross E

    2005-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are the most commonly encountered over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications in physical therapy practice. Worldwide, over 73000000 prescriptions for nonsteroidal agents are written yearly. NSAIDs produce a wide range of beneficial effects to the physical therapy patient, enhancing the outcome of treatment. Helpful effects of NSAIDs include analgesia, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic properties. However, NSAIDs are also associated with frequent and significant side effects that are deleterious to treatment outcome, including delay in soft tissue and bone healing, renal and liver toxicity, hemorrhagic events, gastric irritation and ulceration, and central nervous system effects. Understanding of the pharmacological properties of these drugs, exemplified by aspirin, and the individual pharmacokinetics of specific preparations will help the therapist to screen patients for potential side effects, develop more effective plans of care, and, where allowed, effectively and safely prescribe NSAIDs. PMID:16001907

  20. Natural Compounds as Therapeutic Agents in the Treatment Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Isha; Shah, Kalpit; Bradbury, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    The recent FDA approval of two drugs to treat the basic defect in cystic fibrosis has given hope to patients and their families battling this devastating disease. Over many years, with heavy financial investment from Vertex Pharmaceuticals and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, pre-clinical evaluation of thousands of synthetic drugs resulted in the production of Kalydeco and Orkambi. Yet, despite the success of this endeavor, many other compounds have been proposed as therapeutic agents in the treatment of CF. Of note, several of these compounds are naturally occurring, and are present in spices from the grocery store and over the counter preparations in health food stores. In this short review, we look at three such compounds, genistein, curcumin, and resveratrol, and evaluate the scientific support for their use as therapeutic agents in the treatment of patients with CF. PMID:27081574

  1. Pharmacology in rehabilitation: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Ross E

    2005-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are the most commonly encountered over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications in physical therapy practice. Worldwide, over 73000000 prescriptions for nonsteroidal agents are written yearly. NSAIDs produce a wide range of beneficial effects to the physical therapy patient, enhancing the outcome of treatment. Helpful effects of NSAIDs include analgesia, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic properties. However, NSAIDs are also associated with frequent and significant side effects that are deleterious to treatment outcome, including delay in soft tissue and bone healing, renal and liver toxicity, hemorrhagic events, gastric irritation and ulceration, and central nervous system effects. Understanding of the pharmacological properties of these drugs, exemplified by aspirin, and the individual pharmacokinetics of specific preparations will help the therapist to screen patients for potential side effects, develop more effective plans of care, and, where allowed, effectively and safely prescribe NSAIDs.

  2. The comparison of the effects of different whitening toothpastes on the micro hardness of a nano hybrid composite resin

    PubMed Central

    Nainan, Mohan Thomas; Balan, Ashok Kalappurakkal; Sharma, Roshni; Thomas, Sabeena Susan; Deveerappa, Santhosh B

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the micro hardness of a nanohybrid composite resin after brushing with two herbal and one non-herbal whitening toothpastes. Materials and Methods: We divided Eighty disk-shaped specimens of a nanohybrid composite (Tetric N Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Asia) into 4 groups of 20 specimens each: Groups A, B, C, and D. Group A was control, Group B was brushed with Colgate total advanced whitening (Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited), Group C with Salt and Lemon, Dabur (Dabur International Limited, Dubai, UAE), and Group D with HiOra Shine, Himalaya (The Himalaya Drug Company, India). The specimens were polished using medium, fine, and superfine discs (Sof-lex, 3M, ESPE, USA) and subsequently placed at 37°C in distilled water. They were brushed for 2 minutes twice daily with a soft motorized toothbrush (Colgate 360 sonic power battery-operated tooth brush, Colgate Palmolive, India) for 30 days. The samples were rinsed under running water to remove the toothpaste and stored in distilled water at 37°C until the readout was taken on the Vickers's hardness tester for microhardness. Results: The results revealed that the difference among the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Tukey's test showed that reduction in microhardness for Group B was significantly higher than that for Group C and Group D (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, non-herbal whitening toothpaste had a greater impact on the microhardness of nanohybrid resin composite than herbal whitening toothpastes. PMID:25506143

  3. OCT monitoring of diffusion of clearing agents within tooth dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunina, N. A.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2009-08-01

    Monitoring of agent diffusion within tooth tissues is important in a wide context of tooth therapy (diffusion of medicinal preparations) and cosmetics (chemical whitening agents). We report here the results of optical coherence tomography (OCT) monitoring of diffusion of water and glycerol as clearing agents in samples of human tooth tissue. The diffusion process is analyzed by monitoring the changes in the OCT signal slope and the depth-resolved amplitude of OCT signal from a sample. Slow temporal kinetics of the mean attenuation coefficient was measured to monitor a saturable optical clearing due to the diffusion of the agent. The average permeability coefficient was estimated by dividing the measured thickness of the selected region by the time it took for the agent to diffuse through. The experimental results demonstrate that OCT can be an efficient tool in the study of agent diffusion through hard tissues.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide release kinetics into saliva from different whitening products: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Marques, Duarte Nuno da Silva; da Mata, António Duarte Sola Pereira; Silveira, João Miguel Lourenço; Marques, Joana Rita Oliveira Faria; Amaral, João Pedro de Almeida Rato; Guilherme, Nuno Filipe Rito Parada Marques

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study is to compare salivary hydrogen peroxide (HP) release kinetics and potential toxicity of systemic exposure of four different whitening products. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a Portuguese dental faculty clinic. Two hundred forty volunteers were randomized to eight intervention groups. Participants were randomly assigned to receive active or placebo applications of one of four different products: Opalescence 10% PF™ (OPL), Vivastyle® 10%™ (VS10%), Vivadent Paint On Plus™ (PO+), and Trés White Supreme™ (TWS). Saliva collection was obtained by established methods at different times. The HP salivary content was determined by a photometric method. Salivary HP variations, total amount of salivary HP, and counts of subjects above the safe daily HP dose were the main outcome measures. All whitening systems significantly released HP to the saliva when compared to placebo, and all showed different release kinetics. The adaptable tray system (TWS) presented a risk increase of 37% [20-54%, 95% confidence interval] when compared to the other systems. The use of an adaptable tray whitening system with higher concentration of HP increases the toxicity potential.

  5. Evidence of Clear-Sky Daylight Whitening: Are we already conducting geoengineering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. N.; Barnard, J.; Flynn, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Long et al. (2009, JGR 114) analyzed surface radiation data spanning 1995 through 2007 from several ARM and six SURFRAD sites across the continental US, and showed an average 8 Wm-2/decade brightening in all-sky downwelling SW. The study also showed a 5 Wm-2/decade increase in the clear-sky downwelling SW, an expected result of decreasing aerosol optical depths during the same time period (Augustine et al., 2008, JGR 113). However, the unexpected result of the Long et al. study is that the 5 Wm-2/decade increase is in the diffuse SW, while the direct SW remained virtually unchanged...opposite what is expected for aerosol direct effect due to decreases in aerosols. With detailed radiative transfer modeling and correlation with US FAA commercial flight hours through the same years, Long et al. speculated that while the decreased aerosols did increase the total SW, an increase in high, sub-visual contrail-generated ice haze repartitioned the increase into the diffuse SW component through large-mode scattering. Subsequent attempts to investigate the veracity of this speculation using long time series of ARM Micropulse and Raman lidar data proved untenable due to instrument limitation and continuity issues. However, similar to using the red/blue ratio of pixel color amounts in processing color sky images to infer clouds, we have used clear-sky diffuse SW irradiance measurements from the Multi-Frequency Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) 870 and 415 nm spectral channels to look at any possible trends suggesting "whitening" of the cloud-free skies over the ARM SGP site. We will present our preliminary findings to date of these investigations suggesting indeed that there has been an aggregate "whitening" of the sky conditions we typically consider to be "cloud free." Augustine, J.A., G.B.Hodges, E.G.Dutton, J.J. Michalsky, and C.R.Cornwall (2008), An aerosol optical depth climatology for NOAA's national surface radiation budget network (SURFRAD), J. Geophys. Res., 113

  6. Evidence of Clear-Sky Daylight Whitening: Are we already conducting geoengineering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. N.; Flynn, C. J.; Barnard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Long et al. (2009, JGR 114) analyzed surface radiation data spanning 1995 through 2007 from several ARM and six SURFRAD sites across the continental US, and showed an average 8 Wm-2/decade brightening in all-sky downwelling SW. The study also showed a 5 Wm-2/decade increase in the clear-sky downwelling SW, an expected result of decreasing aerosol optical depths during the same time period (Augustine et al., 2008, JGR 113). However, the unexpected result of the Long et al. study is that the 5 Wm-2/decade increase occurred in the diffuse SW, while the direct SW remained virtually unchanged...opposite what is expected for aerosol direct effect due to decreases in aerosols. With detailed radiative transfer modeling and correlation with US FAA commercial flight hours through the same years, Long et al. suggested that while the decreased aerosols did increase the total SW, an increase in high, sub-visual contrail-generated ice haze repartitioned the increase into the diffuse SW component through large-mode particle scattering. Subsequent attempts to investigate the veracity of this speculation using long time series of ARM Micropulse and Raman lidars data proved untenable due to instrument limitations and continuity issues. However, similar to using the red/blue ratio of pixel color amounts in processing color sky images to infer clouds, we have used clear-sky diffuse SW irradiance measurements from the Multi-Frequency Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) 870, 500, and 415 nm spectral channels to look at any possible trends suggesting "whitening" of the cloud-free skies over the ARM SGP site. We will present our preliminary findings to date of these investigations suggesting indeed that there has been an aggregate "whitening" of the sky conditions we typically consider to be "cloud free." Augustine, J.A., G.B.Hodges, E.G.Dutton, J.J. Michalsky, and C.R.Cornwall (2008), An aerosol optical depth climatology for NOAA's national surface radiation budget network (SURFRAD

  7. Real-Time Spatio-Temporal Twice Whitening for MIMO Energy Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Mitra, Pramita; Barhen, Jacob; Schleck, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    While many techniques exist for local spectrum sensing of a primary user, each represents a computationally demanding task to secondary user receivers. In software-defined radio, computational complexity lengthens the time for a cognitive radio to recognize changes in the transmission environment. This complexity is even more significant for spatially multiplexed receivers, e.g., in SIMO and MIMO, where the spatio-temporal data sets grow in size with the number of antennae. Limits on power and space for the processor hardware further constrain SDR performance. In this report, we discuss improvements in spatio-temporal twice whitening (STTW) for real-time local spectrum sensing by demonstrating a form of STTW well suited for MIMO environments. We implement STTW on the Coherent Logix hx3100 processor, a multicore processor intended for low-power, high-throughput software-defined signal processing. These results demonstrate how coupling the novel capabilities of emerging multicore processors with algorithmic advances can enable real-time, software-defined processing of large spatio-temporal data sets.

  8. Formulation and stability of whitening VCO-in-water nano-cream.

    PubMed

    Al-Edresi, Sarmad; Baie, Saringat

    2009-05-21

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO)-in-water, nano-emulsion in the form of cream stabilized by Emulium Kappa as an emulsifier, was prepared by using the Emulsion Inversion Point method. A nano-emulsion with droplet size <300 nm was then obtained. VCO has recently become a more popular new material in the cosmetic industries. Emulium Kappa is an ionic emulsifier that contains sodium stearoyl lactylate, the active whitening ingredient was Kojic Dipalmitate. Ostwald ripening is the main destabilizing factor for the nano-emulsion. This decline can be reduced by adding non-soluble oil, namely squalene, to the virgin coconut oil. We tested VCO:squalene in the ratios of 10:0, 9.8:0.2, 9.6:0.4, 9.4:0.6, 9.2:0.8, 9:1 and 8:2 and discovered that squalene's higher molecular weight (above critical molecular weight) resulted in low polarity and insolubility in the continuous phase. The continuous partitioning between the droplets results in the decline of Ostwald ripening. Furthermore, flocculation may occur due to the instability of nano-emulsion, especially for the preparations with little or no squalene at all. The stability of the nano-emulsion was evaluated by the electrophoretic properties of the emulsion droplets. The zeta potential values for the emulsion increased as the percentage of squalene oil increased.

  9. The large deviations of the whitening process in random constraint satisfaction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, Alfredo; Dall'Asta, Luca; Semerjian, Guilhem; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2016-05-01

    Random constraint satisfaction problems undergo several phase transitions as the ratio between the number of constraints and the number of variables is varied. When this ratio exceeds the satisfiability threshold no more solutions exist; the satisfiable phase, for less constrained problems, is itself divided in an unclustered regime and a clustered one. In the latter solutions are grouped in clusters of nearby solutions separated in configuration space from solutions of other clusters. In addition the rigidity transition signals the appearance of so-called frozen variables in typical solutions: beyond this threshold most solutions belong to clusters with an extensive number of variables taking the same values in all solutions of the cluster. In this paper we refine the description of this phenomenon by estimating the location of the freezing transition, corresponding to the disappearance of all unfrozen solutions (not only typical ones). We also unveil phase transitions for the existence and uniqueness of locked solutions, in which all variables are frozen. From a technical point of view we characterize atypical solutions with a number of frozen variables different from the typical value via a large deviation study of the dynamics of a stripping process (whitening) that unveils the frozen variables of a solution, building upon recent works on atypical trajectories of the bootstrap percolation dynamics. Our results also bear some relevance from an algorithmic perspective, previous numerical studies having shown that heuristic algorithms of various kinds usually output unfrozen solutions.

  10. Evaluating the bonding of two adhesive systems to enamel submitted to whitening dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Toseto, Roberta Mariano; de Arruda, Alex Mendes; Tolentino, Patricia Ramos; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Sversut; dos Santos, Paulo Henrique

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate by micro-shear bond strength test, the bond strength of composite resin restoration to enamel submitted to whitening dentifrices. Forty bovine teeth were embedded in polystyrene resin and polished. The specimens were randomly divided into eight groups (n=5), according to the dentifrice (carbamide peroxide, hydrogen peroxide and conventional dentifrice) and the adhesive system (Prime & Bond 2.1 and Adper Single Bond 2). Dentifrice was applied for 15 minutes a day, for 21 days. Thirty minutes after the last exposure to dentifrice, the samples were submitted to a bonding procedure with the respective adhesive system. After that, four buttons of resin were bonded in each sample using transparent cylindrical molds. After 24 hours, the teeth were submitted to the micro-shear bond strength test and subsequent analysis of the fracture mode. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD test (alpha = 0.05). The micro-shear bond strength showed no difference between adhesives systems but a significant reduction was found between the control and carbamide groups (p = 0.0145) and the control and hydrogen groups (p = 0.0370). The evaluation of the failures modes showed that adhesive failures were predominant. Cohesive failures were predominant in group IV The use of dentifrice with peroxides can decrease bonding strength in enamel.

  11. Depth-resolved dynamics of aceto-whitening in rabbit cornea studied by 1300nm optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, P.; Mittar, S.; Kasaragod, D.; Lu, Z.; Matcher, S. J.

    2014-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the eleventh most common cancer in the UK, especially for women under 35. In developed countries, cervical cancer is diagnosed by performing colposcopy. Contrast is enhanced by spraying dilute acetic acid onto the surface of the tissue. In the past decades, it has been shown that abnormal cervical epithelium turns opaque white upon contact with this weak acid whereas normal epithelium is generally not affected. This mechanism is known as aceto-whitening. However, the exact mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully known. In this study, OCT using near infrared light was used to quantify depth-resolved kinetics of aceto-whitening in a simple squamous epithelium model: rabbit cornea. We have found that both the epithelium and stroma brighten with approximately the same time course, reaching a peak reflectivity at about 50 seconds. The most significant increase in reflectivity was seen in the first 20 seconds upon the application of acid, and was measured to be 11dB. This result is compared with phosphate buffered saline solution, which was shown to exhibit no effect. Lactic acid, an alpha-hydroxy acid, has been reported as a negative control for aceto-whitening. However, our OCT results showed a significant epithelial brightening effect of approximately 8 dB in the first 20 seconds. The key difference with acetic acid is the lack of brightening in the corneal stroma. This could be due to inability to permeate through the basal lamina between corneal epithelium and stroma or lack of interaction with stromal keratocytes.

  12. Noise Whitening in Airborne Wind Profiling With a Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Arthur, Grant E.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Two different noise whitening methods in airborne wind profiling with a pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia are presented. In order to provide accurate wind parameter estimates from the airborne lidar data acquired during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in 2010, the adverse effects of background instrument noise must be compensated properly in the early stage of data processing. The results of the two methods are presented using selected GRIP data and compared with the dropsonde data for verification purposes.

  13. Investigation of photo-bleaching through transmittance method in pigmented solution: understanding possible mechanisms and advantages for photo dental whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, F. L. E.; Lins, E. C.; Portero, Priscila P.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Oliveira, O. B., Jr.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2007-02-01

    The dental bleaching is known for many years. Recently a technique employing light has open up new and exciting possibilities. Besides its vast application there are still many important points to be understood about teeth photon bleaching. In this work we present an "in vitro" experiment to explore the main mechanisms involved during the photon action in tooth whitening. Our results indicated that light at same wavelengths are great absorbed by pigments creating a local heating which considerably increase the bleaching rate. This results in a fast reaction without heating the whole dental structure. We discuss details of our experiment. Work supported by Fapesp and CNPq.

  14. Body malodours and their topical treatment agents.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2011-08-01

    Body malodour, including foot odour, suppresses social interaction by diminishing self-confidence and accelerating damage to the wearer's clothes and shoes. Most treatment agents, including aluminium anti-perspirant salts, inhibit the growth of malodourous bacteria. These metallic salts also reduce sweat by blocking the excretory ducts of sweat glands, minimizing the water source that supports bacterial growth. However, there are some drawback effects that limit the use of aluminium anti-perspirant salts. In addition, over-the-counter anti-perspirant and deodourant products may not be sufficiently effective for heavy sweaters, and strong malodour producers. Body odour treatment agents are rarely mentioned in the literature compared with other cosmetic ingredients. This review briefly summarizes the relationship among sweat, skin bacteria, and body odour; describes how odourous acids, thiols, and steroids are formed; and discusses the active ingredients, including metallic salts and herbs, that are used to treat body odour. A new class of ingredients that function by regulating the release of malodourants will also be described. These ingredients do not alter the balance of the skin flora.

  15. Body malodours and their topical treatment agents.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2011-08-01

    Body malodour, including foot odour, suppresses social interaction by diminishing self-confidence and accelerating damage to the wearer's clothes and shoes. Most treatment agents, including aluminium anti-perspirant salts, inhibit the growth of malodourous bacteria. These metallic salts also reduce sweat by blocking the excretory ducts of sweat glands, minimizing the water source that supports bacterial growth. However, there are some drawback effects that limit the use of aluminium anti-perspirant salts. In addition, over-the-counter anti-perspirant and deodourant products may not be sufficiently effective for heavy sweaters, and strong malodour producers. Body odour treatment agents are rarely mentioned in the literature compared with other cosmetic ingredients. This review briefly summarizes the relationship among sweat, skin bacteria, and body odour; describes how odourous acids, thiols, and steroids are formed; and discusses the active ingredients, including metallic salts and herbs, that are used to treat body odour. A new class of ingredients that function by regulating the release of malodourants will also be described. These ingredients do not alter the balance of the skin flora. PMID:21401651

  16. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... irritability that ruins your day,” “helps you relax,” “restlessness,” “when you're under occasional stress . . . helps you work relaxed.” Based on evidence presently available, there are no ingredients that can be... is labeled, represented, or promoted as an OTC daytime sedative (or any similar or related...

  17. Seizure caused by dermal application of over-the-counter eucalyptus oil head lice preparation.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Neil

    2011-10-01

    Natural plant oils such as eucalyptus are common worldwide in non-prescription natural health products. Oral ingestion of eucalyptus oil is well known to produce neurological symptoms and seizures; however, its dermal use is presumed to be safe. We describe a brief, self-limited, tonic-clonic seizure in a healthy 4-year-old girl following dermal exposure to eucalyptus oil as directed for treatment of head lice. Initial symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, and ataxia followed by a grand mal seizure. Recovery occurred rapidly after the skin was washed. Health care providers should be aware that eucalyptus oil toxicity may occur with dermal exposure and should report additional cases.

  18. Medicines in My Home: Information for Adults on Using Over-the-Counter Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    Medicines In My Home More about using medicines safely Medicines in My Home: www.fda.gov/medsinmyhome FDA Consumer Medicine Education: www.fda.gov/usemedicinesafely National Council on Patient Information and ...

  19. Acute Therapy: Why Not Over-The-Counter or Other Nonspecific Options?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY About Migraine Patient Registry Corporate Roundtable Info for Residents & Fellows Living With Migraines Types of Headache/Migraine Life with Headache/Migraine ...

  20. Reporting Data with "Over-the-Counter" Data Analysis Supports Increases Educators' Analysis Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive research on the benefits of making data-informed decisions to improve learning, but these benefits rely on the data being effectively interpreted. Despite educators' above-average intellect and education levels, there is evidence many educators routinely misinterpret student data. Data analysis problems persist even at…

  1. Allergy evaluation after emergency treatment: anaphylaxis to the over-the-counter medication clobutinol.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Cornelia S; Bröcker, Eva-B; Trautmann, Axel

    2007-03-01

    Anaphylaxis is traditionally diagnosed and treated as an acute emergency but should be always followed by a search for specific triggers, resulting in avoidance strategies. This case report highlights the relevance of a detailed evaluation after anaphylaxis for diagnosis of a rare but potentially life-threatening allergy. Considering the high frequency of clobutinol application, IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity seems extremely rare and has to be distinguished from infection-associated urticaria and angioedema as well as non-specific summation effects. Accidental re-exposure has to be strictly avoided and therefore after identification of clobutinol as the anaphylaxis trigger, the patient received detailed allergy documents including international non-proprietary and trade names of the culprit drug.

  2. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain if they follow the directions on the product label. But taking too much can lead to liver ... pain if they follow the directions on the product label. But taking too much can lead to liver ...

  3. 76 FR 12916 - Benzocaine; Weight Control Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... of gum, lozenges, or candy is an effective OTC drug product for weight control'' (47 FR 8466 at 8474... were published in the Federal Register as an ANPR for OTC weight control products in 1982 (47 FR 8466...) lack of randomization within families, affecting the independence of observations. These...

  4. Seizure caused by dermal application of over-the-counter eucalyptus oil head lice preparation.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Neil

    2011-10-01

    Natural plant oils such as eucalyptus are common worldwide in non-prescription natural health products. Oral ingestion of eucalyptus oil is well known to produce neurological symptoms and seizures; however, its dermal use is presumed to be safe. We describe a brief, self-limited, tonic-clonic seizure in a healthy 4-year-old girl following dermal exposure to eucalyptus oil as directed for treatment of head lice. Initial symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, and ataxia followed by a grand mal seizure. Recovery occurred rapidly after the skin was washed. Health care providers should be aware that eucalyptus oil toxicity may occur with dermal exposure and should report additional cases. PMID:21867365

  5. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs...) is regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act for which an approved new drug application under section 505 of the act and part 314 of...

  6. 76 FR 35672 - Revised Effectiveness Determination; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...) published in 1978 (43 FR 38206 at 38213 through 38214, August 25, 1978). A panel of sunscreen experts... by an SPF 50 sunscreen product compared to an SPF 30 sunscreen product (64 FR 27666 at 27675). We... inadequate application and infrequent reapplication of sunscreen products (72 FR 49070 at 49086). C....

  7. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... been made for daytime sedative products: “occasional simple nervous tension,” “nervous irritability,” “nervous tension headache,” “simple nervousness due to common every day overwork and fatigue,” “a relaxed feeling,” “calming down and relaxing,” “gently soothe away the tension,” “calmative,” “resolving...

  8. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... been made for daytime sedative products: “occasional simple nervous tension,” “nervous irritability,” “nervous tension headache,” “simple nervousness due to common every day overwork and fatigue,” “a relaxed feeling,” “calming down and relaxing,” “gently soothe away the tension,” “calmative,” “resolving...

  9. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  10. Bacterial counts from five over-the-counter probiotics: are you getting what you paid for?

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Claros, Marina C; Tyrrell, Kerin L

    2014-02-01

    There is concern that the bacterial colony counts present at the time of manufacture and listed on the probiotic package may not be reflective of the numbers viable colonies at the time of purchase and patient consumption thereby diminishing efficacy. We performed a colony count study of three separate samples of five different probiotics purchased from three different stores: Bifidobacterium infantis (Align(®)); Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®) and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R(®) (Bio-K+(®)); Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (Culturelle(®)); Saccharomyces boulardii (Florastor(®)) and "L. acidophilus" and "Lactobacillus helveticus" (Lactinex(®)). Approximately 1 g of powder of each (Lactinex(®) tablets were crushed before testing) was reconstituted in sterile distilled water, serial 10-fold dilutions were prepared and plated in duplicate onto blood agar plates, with incubation for 48 h in an anaerobic chamber (except the Saccharomyces which was incubated aerobically) after which colony counts were performed. The Florastor(®) packaging did not state an expected concentration and was found to have 9.2 × 10(9)-1.3 × 10(10) CFU/g. Lactinex(®), Align(®), Bio-K+(®), and Culturelle(®) had viable colony counts that were similar to those stated on the package.

  11. Transcript for: Why Data Should Be Over-the-Counter. TEDxTUM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2015-01-01

    Data is critical, but data has not always lead to success. If data is not communicated clearly, the results can be disastrous. Design lets us communicate data so it can be understood. Dr. Rankin believes that "when we're fluent in visualizing our ideas, we can communicate them across global boundaries, across spoken language barriers, and…

  12. Reporting Data with "Over-the-Counter" Data Analysis Supports Improves Educators' Data Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of making data-informed decisions to improve learning rely on educators correctly interpreting given data. Many educators routinely misinterpret data, even at districts with proactive support for data use. The tool most educators use for data analyses, which is an information technology data system or its reports, typically reports…

  13. The application of a DNA-based identification technique to over-the-counter herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tazimuddin; Hussain, Nazreen; Bremner, Paul; Slater, Adrian; Howard, Caroline

    2013-06-01

    Reliable methods to identify medicinal plant material are becoming more important in an increasingly regulated market place. DNA-based methods have been recognised as a valuable tool in this area with benefits such as being unaffected by the age of the plant material, growth conditions and harvesting techniques. It is possible that the methods of production used for medicinal plant products will degrade or remove DNA. So how applicable are these techniques to processed medicinal plant products? A simple PCR-based identification technique has been developed for St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum L. Thirteen St. John's Wort products were purchased including capsules, tablets and tinctures. DNA was extracted from each product, and the species specific PCR test conducted. DNA was successfully extracted from all thirteen products, using a fast and efficient modified method for extracting DNA from tinctures. Only four products yielded the full length ITS region (850 bp) due to the quality of the DNA. All of the products tested positive for H. perforatum DNA. DNA-based identification methods can complement existing methods of authentication. This paper shows that these methods are applicable to a wide range of processed products, provided that they are designed to account for the possibility of DNA degradation. PMID:23500384

  14. Allergy evaluation after emergency treatment: anaphylaxis to the over-the-counter medication clobutinol.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Cornelia S; Bröcker, Eva-B; Trautmann, Axel

    2007-03-01

    Anaphylaxis is traditionally diagnosed and treated as an acute emergency but should be always followed by a search for specific triggers, resulting in avoidance strategies. This case report highlights the relevance of a detailed evaluation after anaphylaxis for diagnosis of a rare but potentially life-threatening allergy. Considering the high frequency of clobutinol application, IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity seems extremely rare and has to be distinguished from infection-associated urticaria and angioedema as well as non-specific summation effects. Accidental re-exposure has to be strictly avoided and therefore after identification of clobutinol as the anaphylaxis trigger, the patient received detailed allergy documents including international non-proprietary and trade names of the culprit drug. PMID:17351213

  15. Over-the-Counter Chemistry: Bringing Aspirin, Antacids, and Detergent to Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocci, Salvatore

    1982-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry course which encourages students to investigate the applications of chemical concepts to everyday situations. Commercially available products are analyzed and the accuracy of manufacturers' claims are evaluated. For example, students compare different aspirin brands, calculating percentage of active ingredients and…

  16. Spatio-Temporal Signal Twice-Whitening Algorithms on the hx3100 Ultra-Low Power Multicore Processor

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Mitra, Pramita; Barhen, Jacob; Schleck, Bryan; Polcari, John; Traweek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    While modern signal detection theory fully accounts for spatially distributed sensors, exploiting these techniques for real-time sensing using large, underwater acoustic arrays requires advances in the spatio-temporal signal processing algorithms. In particular, the computational complexity of many spatio-temporal processing techniques is so large that conventional computer processors lack sufficient throughput to provide real-time processing of large spatio-temporal data sets. These limits are exacerbated when constraints, such as power consumption or footprint, reduce the available computational resources. In this report, we demonstrate an implementation of a signal twice-whitening algorithm that is better suited for processing spatio-temporal data in real time. We emphasize these advances by implementing data whitening on the Coherent Logix hx3100 processor, a programmable multicore processor intended for low-power and high-throughput signal processing. These results serve as an example of how the novel capabilities available from emerging multicore processor platforms can provide real-time, software-defined processing of large data sets acquired by spatially distributed sensing.

  17. Fabrication of Metal Nanoparticle-Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes for the Evaluation of Hydrogen Peroxide Content in Teeth Whitening Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popa, Adriana; Abenojar, Eric C.; Vianna, Adam; Buenviaje, Czarina Y. A.; Yang, Jiahua; Pascual, Cherrie B.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment in which students synthesize Ag, Au, and Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and use them to modify screen printed carbon electrodes for the electroanalysis of the hydrogen peroxide content in commercially available teeth whitening strips is described. This experiment is designed for two 3-h laboratory periods and can be adapted for…

  18. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  19. Study of the temporal evolution of Whitening Teeth immersed in Peroxide of hydrogen (H2O2) Using Digital Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, L.; Morales, Y.; Torres, C.

    2015-01-01

    The esthetic dentistry reference in our society is determined by several factors, including one that produces more dissatisfaction is abnormal tooth color or that does not meet the patient's expectations. For this reason it has been designed and implemented an algorithm in MATLAB that captures, digitizes, pre-processing and analyzed dental imaging by allowing to evaluate the degree of bleaching caused by the use of peroxide of hidrogen. The samples analyzed were human teeth extracted, which were subjected to different concentrations of peroxide of hidrogen and see if they can teeth whitening when using these products, was used different concentrations and intervals of time to analysis or study of the whitening of the teeth with the hydrogen peroxide.

  20. Reduction of facial pigmentation of melasma by topical lignin peroxidase: A novel fast-acting skin-lightening agent

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, SHAO-MIN; SUN, NAN; LIU, HUI-XIAN; NIU, YUE-QING; WU, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lignin peroxidase (LIP) as a skin-lightening agent in patients with melasma. A self-controlled clinical study was performed in 31 women who had melasma on both sides of the face. This study involved 8 weeks of a full-face product treatment. The skin color was measured at days 0, 7, 28 and 56 using a chromameter on the forehead and cheeks. Standardized digital photographic images of each side of the face of all subjects were captured by a complexion analysis system. Clinical scores of the pigmentation were determined by two dermatologists. After using the LIP whitening lotion for 7 days, the luminance (L*) values of the melasma and the normal skin were significantly increased from baseline. The L* values continued to increase at days 28 and 56. The melasma area severity index (MASI) score was statistically decreased after 28 days of treatment. No treatment-related adverse events were observed. LIP whitening lotion was able to eliminate the skin pigmentation after 7 days of treatment, and provides a completely innovative approach to rapid skin lightening. The LIP whitening lotion exhibited good compatibility and was well tolerated. PMID:25574195

  1. Influence of gel/LED-laser application on cervical microleakage of two barrier materials used for endodontically treated teeth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesan, Melissa Andréia; Barros, Felipe; Porto, Saulo; Zaitter, Suellen; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D.

    2007-02-01

    This study evaluated ex vivo the influence of the number of gel/LED-laser applications/activations on cervical microleakage of two different barrier materials used for protection during whitening of endodontically treated teeth. Eighty-four canines were instrumented and obturated with epoxy resin sealer. The seal was removed 2 mm beyond the cemento-enamel junction for barrier placement and the teeth were divided into two groups of 40 teeth each: G1, zinc phosphate cement; G2, glass ionomer cement. The two groups were subdivided into 4 subgroups (n=10 each): I) no gel or LED-laser application; II) one gel application and two LED-laser activations; III) two gel applications and four LED-laser activations; IV) three gel applications and six LED-laser activations. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 7 days, decalcified and cleared. Cervical microleakage was quantified with a measurement microscope. Statistical analysis showed that zinc phosphate caused significantly lower microleakage than glass ionomer cement (presented microleakage in all subgroups). However, after two (p<0.01) and three (p<0.001) applications of gel, there was statistially significant microleakage in zinc phosphate barriers. Based on the present results, it can be concluded that cervical barriers with zinc phosphate cement show less cervical microleakage and that two or more applications/activations of gel/LED-laser significantly increase microleakage.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-Angiogenic and Skin Whitening Activities of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica Hara Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hye-Won; Choi, Hojin; Ji, Dam-Jung; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to assess some pharmacological activities of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara. The dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara were extracted with 70% ethanol to generate the powdered extract, named PLE. Anti-angiogenic activity was detected using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via analyzing nitric oxide (NO) content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the stimulated macrophage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activities in the culture media were detected using zymography. PLE exhibits an anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay, and displays an inhibitory action on the generation of NO in the LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. In the stimulated macrophage cells, it is able to diminish the enhanced ROS level. It can potently scavenge the stable DPPH free radical. It suppresses the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the enhanced MMP-9 activity in the stimulated macrophage cells. Both monooxygenase and oxidase activities of tyrosinase were strongly inhibited by PLE. Taken together, the dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin whitening activities, which might partly provide its therapeutic efficacy in traditional medicine. PMID:24009862

  3. New Whitening Constituents from Taiwan-Native Pyracantha koidzumii: Structures and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Analysis in Human Epidermal Melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Dih; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Liu, Yan-Ling; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Lu, Mei-Kuang; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Nontoxic natural products useful in skin care cosmetics are of considerable interest. Tyrosinase is a rate-limiting enzyme for which its inhibitor is useful in developing whitening cosmetics. Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder is an endemic species in Taiwan that exhibits tyrosinase-inhibitory activity. To find new active natural compounds from P. koidzumii, we performed bioguided isolation and studied the related activity in human epidermal melanocytes. In total, 13 compounds were identified from P. koidzumii in the present study, including two new compounds, 3,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-dibenzofuran (9) and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl-2ʹ-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (13), as well as 11 known compounds. The new compound 13 exhibited maximum potency in inhibiting cellular tyrosinase activity, the protein expression of cellular tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-2, as well as the mRNA expression of Paired box 3 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in a concentration-dependent manner. In the enzyme kinetic assay, the new compound 13 acted as an uncompetitive mixed-type inhibitor against the substrate l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and had a Km value against this substrate of 0.262 mM, as calculated using the Lineweaver–Burk plots. Taken together, our findings show compound 13 exhibits tyrosinase inhibition in human melanocytes and compound 13 may be a potential candidate for use in cosmetics. PMID:26633381

  4. Eliminating the influence of serial correlation on statistical process control charts using trend free pre-whitening (TFPW) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa, Nor Hasliza Mat; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2013-11-01

    A key assumption in traditional statistical process control (SPC) technique is based on the requirement that observations or time series data are normally and independently distributed. The presences of a serial autocorrelation results in a number of problems, including an increase in the type I error rate and thereby increase the expected number of false alarm in the process observation. However, the independency assumption is often violated in practice due to the influence of serial correlation in the observation. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate with the hospital admission data, the influence of serial correlation on the statistical control charts. The trend free pre-whitening (TFPW) method has been used and applied as an alternative method to obtain residuals series which are statistically uncorrelated to each other. In this study, a data set of daily hospital admission for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases was used from the period of 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009 (365 days). Result showed that TFPW method is an easy and useful method in removing the influence of serial correlation from the hospital admission data. It can be concluded that statistical control chart based on residual series perform better compared to original hospital admission series which influenced by the effects of serial correlation data.

  5. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  6. Reemergence of chloroquine (CQ) analogs as multi-targeting antimalarial agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Mushtaque, Md; Shahjahan

    2015-01-27

    Amongst several communicable diseases (CDs), malaria is one of the deadliest parasitic disease all over the world, particularly in African and Asian countries. To curb this menace, numbers of antimalarial agents are being sold as over the counter (OTC) drugs. Chloroquine (CQ) is one of them and is one of the oldest, cheapest, and easily available synthetic agents used to curb malaria. Unfortunately, after the reports of CQ-resistance against different strains of malarial parasite strains worldwide, scientist are continuously modifying the core structure of CQ to get an efficient drug. Interestingly, several new drugs have been emerged in due course having unique and enhanced properties (like dual stage inhibitors, resistance reversing ability etc.) and are ready to enter into the clinical trial. In this course, some new agents have also been discovered which are; though inactive against CQS strain, highly active against CQR strains. The present article describes the role of modification of the core structure of CQ and its effects on the biological activities. Moreover, the attempt has also been made to predict the future prospects of such drugs to reemerge as antimalarial agents. PMID:25461328

  7. Role of epidermal γδ T-cell-derived interleukin 13 in the skin-whitening effect of Ginsenoside F1.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiyeon; Lee, Eunkyung; Kim, EunJoo; Yeom, Myung Hun; Kwon, Ohsang; Yoon, Tae Hong; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Kwangmi

    2014-11-01

    Ginsenoside F1 (GF1) is a metabolite of ginsenoside Rg1. Although GF1 has several benefits for skin physiology, the effect of GF1 on skin pigmentation has not been reported. We found that a cream containing 0.1% GF1 showed a significant whitening effect on artificially tanned human skin after 8 weeks of application. However, GF1 did not inhibit mRNA expression of tyrosinase or dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) in normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEMs) or cocultured NHEMs/normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Interestingly, GF1 enhanced production of interleukin 13 (IL-13) from human epidermal γδ T cells. IL-13 significantly reduced the mRNA expression and protein amount of both tyrosinase and DCT and reduced melanin synthesis activities in NHEMs, resulting in visible brightening of NHEM pellet. These results suggest that enhancement of IL-13 production by GF1 from epidermal γδ T cells might play a role in the skin-whitening effect of GF1 via the suppression of tyrosinase and DCT.

  8. A study to assess the tooth whitening efficacy of a new dentifrice formulation variant containing a special grade of silica: a six-week study on adults.

    PubMed

    Sielski, Chester; Berta, Raymond L; Petrone, Margaret E; Chaknis, Patricia; DeVizio, William; Volpe, Anthony R; Proskin, Howard M

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this double-blind clinical study was to investigate the tooth whitening efficacy of a formulation variant of a commercially available dentifrice (Colgate Total Plus Whitening Toothpaste) obtained by the addition of high cleaning silica, relative to that of its currently marketed formulation (Colgate Total Toothpaste). Following a baseline examination, qualifying adult male and female subjects were randomized into two treatment groups which were balanced for age, gender and level of extrinsic tooth stain. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice, using a soft-bristled toothbrush. After one, and again after two weeks' use of the assigned dentifrices, a randomly selected panel of subjects was examined for soft tissue findings. Examinations for extrinsic tooth stain were repeated for all subjects after six weeks' use of the study dentifrices. Ninety-seven (97) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the entire study. At the six-week examination, subjects assigned to the new dentifrice formulation group exhibited statistically significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of extrinsic tooth stain area and extrinsic tooth stain intensity than did those subjects assigned to the Colgate Total Toothpaste group. Thus, the results of this double-blind clinical study support the conclusion that the new dentifrice formulation variant is efficacious for the removal of extrinsic tooth stain.

  9. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 310.545, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... specific number of hours of protection that is inconsistent with the directions for application in 21 CFR... sagrada extract Catechu, tincture Catnip Chamomile flowers Charcoal, wood Chloroform Cinnamon oil...

  10. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 310.545, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... sagrada extract Catechu, tincture Catnip Chamomile flowers Charcoal, wood Chloroform Cinnamon oil...

  11. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 310.545, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... sagrada extract Catechu, tincture Catnip Chamomile flowers Charcoal, wood Chloroform Cinnamon oil...

  12. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hours of protection that is inconsistent with the directions for application in 21 CFR 201.327. (30) (b..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... sagrada extract Catechu, tincture Catnip Chamomile flowers Charcoal, wood Chloroform Cinnamon oil...

  13. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hours of protection that is inconsistent with the directions for application in 21 CFR 201.327. (30) (b..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... sagrada extract Catechu, tincture Catnip Chamomile flowers Charcoal, wood Chloroform Cinnamon oil...

  14. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... authority under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) to establish a uniform national... tamper-evident package may involve an immediate-container and closure system or secondary-container or carton system or any combination of systems intended to provide a visual indication of package...

  15. Medicines in My Home: Information for Students on the Safe Use of Over-the-Counter Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sweat Contains active ingredients Yes that reduce plaque and gum disease No Just makes breath smell better Yes Treats dandruff and itching No Just cleans hair Yes Reduces cavities No Just cleans your teeth Read the label each time before you use ...

  16. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pancreatic insufficiency drug products. Pancreatin and pancrelipase are composed of enzymes: amylase, trypsin... potential for serious risk to patients using these drug products. The bioavailability of pancreatic enzymes... included in an OTC drug monograph. Therefore, the safe and effective use of these enzymes for...

  17. Administration of over-the-counter medication to children at home--a survey of parents from community health centers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Colleen; Rolfe, Paula; Brennan-Hunter, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Parents (n = 135) were surveyed in relation to administering antipyretic/analgesic medications to their children (2 months-6 years) at home. Parents usually chose acetaminophen, calculated dosages based on weight but did not always know the child's weight, administered medications with a dropper, and reported having a sick child was moderately stressful. Many children were medicated for pain and/or fever during the week prior to immunization and many weighed more than the age/weight recommended dosages on the label. Community health nurses can facilitate safe administration of medications by integrating knowledge of parents' pain and fever management practices into discussions and anticipatory planning during clinic visits.

  18. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and all other B-vitamins, dexpanthenol, estradiol and other topical hormones, jojoba oil, lanolin, nucleic acids, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 60, sulfanilamide, sulfur 1 percent on carbon in a fraction...

  19. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and all other B-vitamins, dexpanthenol, estradiol and other topical hormones, jojoba oil, lanolin, nucleic acids, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 60, sulfanilamide, sulfur 1 percent on carbon in a fraction...

  20. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and all other B-vitamins, dexpanthenol, estradiol and other topical hormones, jojoba oil, lanolin, nucleic acids, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 60, sulfanilamide, sulfur 1 percent on carbon in a fraction...

  1. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and all other B-vitamins, dexpanthenol, estradiol and other topical hormones, jojoba oil, lanolin, nucleic acids, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 60, sulfanilamide, sulfur 1 percent on carbon in a fraction...

  2. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and all other B-vitamins, dexpanthenol, estradiol and other topical hormones, jojoba oil, lanolin, nucleic acids, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 60, sulfanilamide, sulfur 1 percent on carbon in a fraction...

  3. Medical professionals' perspectives on prescribed and over-the-counter medicines containing codeine: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Michelle; Carney, Tara; Rich, Eileen; Parry, Charles; Van Hout, Marie-Claire; Deluca, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore prescribing practitioners' perspectives on prescribed codeine use, their ability to identify dependence and their options for treatment in the UK. Design Cross-sectional design using a questionnaire containing closed-ended and open-ended items. Setting A nationally representative sample of prescribing professionals working in the UK. Participants 300 prescribing professionals working in primary care and pain settings. Results Participants stated that they regularly reviewed patients prescribed codeine, understood the risks of dependence and recognised the potential for codeine to be used recreationally. Over half the participants felt patients were unaware of the adverse health consequences of high doses of combination codeine medicines. One-quarter of participants experienced patient resentment when asking about medicines containing codeine. Just under 40% of participants agreed that it was difficult to identify problematic use of codeine without being informed by the patient and did not feel confident in identification of codeine dependence. Less than 45% of all participants agreed that codeine dependence could be managed effectively in general practice. Slow or gradual withdrawal was the most popular suggested treatment in managing dependence. Education and counselling was also emphasised in managing codeine-dependent patients in primary care. Conclusions Communication with patients should involve assessment of patient understanding of their medication, including the risk of dependence. There is a need to develop extra supports for professionals including patient screening tools for identifying codeine dependence. The support structure for managing codeine-dependent patients in primary care requires further examination. PMID:27417200

  4. 78 FR 19718 - Modifications To Labeling of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Therapeutics, 78(6):689-96, 2005. 2. Benowitz, N.L., et al., ``Suppression of Nicotine Intake During Ad Libitum... Prevention, ``Quitting Smoking Among Adults--United States, 2001-2010,'' , Morbidity and Mortality...

  5. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide..., oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, thymol, or zinc...

  6. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide..., oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, thymol, or zinc...

  7. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide..., oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, thymol, or zinc...

  8. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide..., oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, thymol, or zinc...

  9. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... on December 4, 1975, shall be regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the act... regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the act for which an approved new drug... the procedures set forth in § 330.10. Section 330.14(h) applies to the marketing of all...

  10. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution... consumer deaths. Sodium phosphates oral solution has been marketed in 45-milliliter (mL), 90-mL, and 240-mL container sizes. The 45-mL and 90-mL container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution are...

  11. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution... consumer deaths. Sodium phosphates oral solution has been marketed in 45-milliliter (mL), 90-mL, and 240-mL container sizes. The 45-mL and 90-mL container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution are...

  12. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution... consumer deaths. Sodium phosphates oral solution has been marketed in 45-milliliter (mL), 90-mL, and 240-mL container sizes. The 45-mL and 90-mL container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution are...

  13. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.540 Drug products containing active... regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  14. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.532 Drug... hypertrophy is regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the Federal Food, Drug, and... governing the use of investigational new drugs set forth in part 312 of this chapter. (d) After August......

  15. 21 CFR 310.536 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.536 Drug products... thumbsucking deterrent is regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the Federal Food, Drug... new drug application or abbreviated new drug application, such product is also misbranded...

  16. 21 CFR 310.538 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use for ingrown...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.538 Drug products containing active... product that is labeled, represented, or promoted for ingrown toenail relief is regarded as a new drug... is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved new drug application or abbreviated new...

  17. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.543 Drug products... new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act... the use of investigational new drugs set forth in part 312 of this chapter. (d) After May 7, 1991,...

  18. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.537... regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... comply with the requirements and procedures governing the use of investigational new drugs set forth...

  19. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manner during manufacture, distribution, and retail display. (2) In addition to the tamper-evident... dermatological, dentifrice, insulin, or lozenge product) for retail sale that is not packaged in a tamper..., dentifrice, insulin, or lozenge product) for retail sale shall package the product in a...

  20. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manner during manufacture, distribution, and retail display. (2) In addition to the tamper-evident... dermatological, dentifrice, insulin, or lozenge product) for retail sale that is not packaged in a tamper..., dentifrice, insulin, or lozenge product) for retail sale shall package the product in a...

  1. 76 FR 7743 - Professional Labeling for Laxative Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... monograph for OTC laxative drug products published January 15, 1985 (50 FR 2124), FDA proposed labeling for... document March 21, 1975 (40 FR 12902), Recommendations of the Advisory Review advance notice of proposed... preparation of the colon for x-ray and endoscopic examination. (50 FR 12902 at 12940 and 12942) January...

  2. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the body of humans. The term includes those components that may undergo chemical change in the...” heading. (7) Graphical images (e.g., the UPC symbol) and information not described in paragraphs (c)(1... envelope as a “Request for Exemption from 21 CFR 201.66 (OTC Labeling Format)” and shall be directed...

  3. 76 FR 35678 - SPF Labeling and Testing Requirements and Drug Facts Labeling for Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... described in the May 21, 1999, final rule (64 FR 27666 at 27689 through 27693) or the SPF test method described in the August 27, 2007, proposed rule (72 FR 49070 at 49114 through 49119). We believe that the..., 1999 (64 FR 13254), we amended our regulations governing requirements for human drug products...

  4. 76 FR 35669 - Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... (ANPR) (43 FR 38206 at 38207, 38223, 38224, 38229, and 38239) as lip protectants, which are allowed to... products (72 FR 49070), several submissions recommended that we include the following dosage forms in the... Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 352 RIN 0910-ZA40 Sunscreen Drug Products for...

  5. 76 FR 35665 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Enforcement Policy for Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... sunscreen final rule published in the Federal Register of May 21, 1999 (64 FR 27666) (the 1999 final rule) that was stayed before becoming effective (69 FR 53801, September 3, 2004); The draft guidance states... FR 27666 at 27689 through 27693) or a proposed rule that published in the Federal Register of...

  6. 77 FR 27591 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Delay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... proposed rule (72 FR 49070 at 49073, August 27, 2007) and the 1999 sunscreen final rule (64 FR 27666 at... Federal Register of June 17, 2011 (76 FR 35620). The final rule establishes labeling and effectiveness.... The final rule published at 76 FR 35620 on June 17, 2011, remains effective June 18, 2012....

  7. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean ginseng, licorice, mandrake, methyltestosterone, minerals, nux vomica, Pega Palo, sarsaparilla,...

  8. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean ginseng, licorice, mandrake, methyltestosterone, minerals, nux vomica, Pega Palo, sarsaparilla,...

  9. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean ginseng, licorice, mandrake, methyltestosterone, minerals, nux vomica, Pega Palo, sarsaparilla,...

  10. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean ginseng, licorice, mandrake, methyltestosterone, minerals, nux vomica, Pega Palo, sarsaparilla,...

  11. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean ginseng, licorice, mandrake, methyltestosterone, minerals, nux vomica, Pega Palo, sarsaparilla,...

  12. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR... requirement for tamper-evident packaging of OTC drug products that will improve the security of OTC drug... by this section must be sealed using an acceptable tamper-evident technology. (c) Labeling. (1)...

  13. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... following, in a prominent and conspicuous manner: (1) A statement conspicuously boxed and in red letters, to... Poison Control Center, or hospital emergency room immediately for advice.” (2) A warning to the...

  14. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... following, in a prominent and conspicuous manner: (1) A statement conspicuously boxed and in red letters, to... Poison Control Center, or hospital emergency room immediately for advice.” (2) A warning to the...

  15. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... following, in a prominent and conspicuous manner: (1) A statement conspicuously boxed and in red letters, to... Poison Control Center, or hospital emergency room immediately for advice.” (2) A warning to the...

  16. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following, in a prominent and conspicuous manner: (1) A statement conspicuously boxed and in red letters, to... Poison Control Center, or hospital emergency room immediately for advice.” (2) A warning to the...

  17. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... following, in a prominent and conspicuous manner: (1) A statement conspicuously boxed and in red letters, to... Poison Control Center, or hospital emergency room immediately for advice.” (2) A warning to the...

  18. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of quinine sulfate, vitamin E,...

  19. 21 CFR 310.536 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... nailbiting or thumbsucking deterrent. Based on evidence currently available, any OTC drug product containing... and effective. (b) Any OTC drug product that is labeled, represented, and promoted as a nailbiting or... investigational new drugs set forth in part 312 of this chapter. (d) After March 2, 1994, any such OTC...

  20. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... included in an OTC drug monograph. Therefore, the safe and effective use of these enzymes for treating exocrine pancreatic insufficiency cannot be regulated adequately by an OTC drug monograph. Information on... such OTC drug product that contains hemicellulase initially introduced or initially delivered...

  1. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statements are required for the safe use of any OTC laxative drug product containing sodium phosphates. (b) Any OTC drug product for laxative or bowel cleansing use containing sodium phosphates as an active....” (3) Directions—(i) The labeling of all orally or rectally administered OTC drug products...

  2. 21 CFR 201.327 - Over-the-counter sunscreen drug products; required labeling based on effectiveness testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... materials that suggest or imply that the use, alone, of any sunscreen reduces the risk of or prevents skin...-11-15), which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to:...

  3. 21 CFR 201.327 - Over-the-counter sunscreen drug products; required labeling based on effectiveness testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... materials that suggest or imply that the use, alone, of any sunscreen reduces the risk of or prevents skin... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a... this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to:...

  4. 21 CFR 201.327 - Over-the-counter sunscreen drug products; required labeling based on effectiveness testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... materials that suggest or imply that the use, alone, of any sunscreen reduces the risk of or prevents skin...-11-15), which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to:...

  5. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease you are taking a diuretic”. (C) “Stop use and ask a doctor if you..., liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease child is taking a diuretic”. (3) “Stop use and ask a doctor if child... heartburn user has high blood pressure, heart disease, liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease user takes...

  6. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease you are taking a diuretic”. (C) “Stop use and ask a doctor if you..., liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease child is taking a diuretic”. (3) “Stop use and ask a doctor if child... heartburn user has high blood pressure, heart disease, liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease user takes...

  7. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease you are taking a diuretic”. (C) “Stop use and ask a doctor if you..., liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease child is taking a diuretic”. (3) “Stop use and ask a doctor if child... heartburn user has high blood pressure, heart disease, liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease user takes...

  8. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease you are taking a diuretic”. (C) “Stop use and ask a doctor if you..., liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease child is taking a diuretic”. (3) “Stop use and ask a doctor if child... heartburn user has high blood pressure, heart disease, liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease user takes...

  9. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease you are taking a diuretic”. (C) “Stop use and ask a doctor if you..., liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease child is taking a diuretic”. (3) “Stop use and ask a doctor if child... heartburn user has high blood pressure, heart disease, liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease user takes...

  10. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide... product that contains benzocaine, ichthammol, sulfur, or triclosan initially introduced or...

  11. 75 FR 7606 - Safety and Efficacy Review for Additional Ingredients in Over-the-Counter Drug Products for Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... Sodium shale oil Dandruff FDA-2009-N-014 April 7, 2009, 74 sulfonate 6 FR 15741 Triclosan Acne FDA-2005-N-045 December 5, 2005, 4 70 FR 72447 Triclosan\\1\\ Antigingivitis/ FDA-1981-N-001 July 6, 2004, 69... No. Eligibility Amiloxate Sunscreen FDA-2003-N-019 July 11, 2003, 68 6 FR 41386...

  12. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... request shall be clearly identified on the envelope as a “Request for Exemption from 21 CFR 201.66 (OTC... this heading. (ii) The phenylalanine/aspartame content required by § 201.21(b), if applicable,...

  13. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... request shall be clearly identified on the envelope as a “Request for Exemption from 21 CFR 201.66 (OTC... this heading. (ii) The phenylalanine/aspartame content required by § 201.21(b), if applicable,...

  14. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... request shall be clearly identified on the envelope as a “Request for Exemption from 21 CFR 201.66 (OTC... this heading. (ii) The phenylalanine/aspartame content required by § 201.21(b), if applicable,...

  15. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... request shall be clearly identified on the envelope as a “Request for Exemption from 21 CFR 201.66 (OTC... this heading. (ii) The phenylalanine/aspartame content required by § 201.21(b), if applicable,...

  16. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dermatological, dentifrice, insulin, or lozenge product) for retail sale that is not packaged in a tamper..., dentifrice, insulin, or lozenge product) for retail sale shall package the product in a...

  17. 76 FR 35619 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... June 17, 2011 Part IV Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 201 and 310 (Formerly... published at 69 FR 53801, September 3, 2004. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Reynold Tan, Center for...

  18. Over the Counter Drugs (and Dietary Supplement) Exercise: A Team-based Introduction to Biochemistry for Health Professional Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phadtare, Sangita; Abali, Emine; Brodsky, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    For successful delivery of basic science topics for health-professional students, it is critical to reduce apprehension and illustrate relevance to clinical settings and everyday life. At the beginning of the Biochemistry course for Physician Assistants, a team-based assignment was designed to develop an understanding of the mechanism of action,…

  19. 21 CFR 201.322 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... not limited to, acetaminophen, aspirin, carbaspirin calcium, choline salicylate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen... analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients—including but not limited to aspirin, carbaspirin calcium, choline... limited to aspirin, carbaspirin calcium, choline salicylate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, magnesium...

  20. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... available in the marketplace have caused consumer confusion and appear to have been involved in several... section 502 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act unless packaged and labeled as follows:...

  1. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  2. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E

    1992-03-01

    In recent years, introduction of new and more effective agents has improved the overall therapy for parasitic infections. This field, however, is still plagued by numerous problems, including the development of resistance to antimicrobial agents (especially with malaria), unavailability of agents in the United States or lack of approval by the Food and Drug Administration, and major toxicities or lack of experience in pregnant women and children, which limits use in these groups of patients. Widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and other agents has complicated the treatment and prophylaxis of this type of malaria. A combination of quinine and Fansidar is usually effective oral therapy for falciparum malaria; quinidine may be administered if intravenous therapy is needed. Mefloquine, which is currently recommended for prophylaxis against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum, is also effective for single-dose oral treatment, although this regimen has not yet been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Metronidazole has been widely used for treatment of gastroenteritis due to Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia (not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the latter) and is considered safe and effective. A new macrolide, azithromycin, has been reported to be effective for cryptosporidiosis in experimental animals; currently, no effective therapy is available for human infections. Combinations of sulfonamides with other antifolates, trimethoprim or pyrimethamine, are recommended therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or toxoplasmosis, respectively. Therapies for the various types of leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are complex, often toxic, and often of limited efficacy. The benzimidazoles are effective for roundworm infections, although thiabendazole has severe toxic effects. The recent introduction of ivermectin has revolutionized the treatment and control of onchocerciasis. Another relatively new agent, praziquantel

  3. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  4. Newly Approved Agents for the Treatment and Prevention of Pediatric Migraine.

    PubMed

    Kacperski, Joanne; Hershey, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of pediatric migraine remains an unmet medical need. There continues to be a paucity of pediatric randomized controlled trials for the treatment of migraine, both in the acute and preventive settings. Pediatric studies are often complicated by high placebo-response rates and much of our current practice is based on adult trials. This lack of significant pediatric studies results in a wide variation in migraine management both amongst clinicians and between institutions, and evidence-based treatments are not always administered. In this article, we aim to briefly review newly approved abortive and preventive agents for migraine in the pediatric age group. Over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medications, including ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, aspirin, and acetaminophen are reasonable first-line options for abortive therapy. In addition, studies have shown triptans, or migraine-specific agents, to be safe and effective in children and adolescents and several formulations have been approved for the pediatric population, including rizatriptan, almotriptan, zolmitriptan nasal spray, and naproxen sodium/sumatriptan in combination. PMID:27503180

  5. Exploring the link between pholcodine exposure and neuromuscular blocking agent anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Brusch, Anna M; Clarke, Russell C; Platt, Peter R; Phillips, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are the most commonly implicated drugs in IgE-mediated anaphylaxis during anaesthesia that can lead to perioperative morbidity and mortality. The rate of NMBA anaphylaxis shows marked geographical variation in patients who have had no known prior exposure to NMBAs, suggesting that there may be external or environmental factors that contribute to the underlying aetiology and pathophysiology of reactions. Substituted ammonium ions are shared among NMBAs and are therefore thought to be the main allergenic determinant of this class of drugs. Substituted ammonium ions are found in a wide variety of chemical structures, including prescription medications, over-the-counter medications and common household chemicals, such as the quaternary ammonium disinfectants. Epidemiological studies have shown parallels in the consumption of pholcodine, a nonprescription antitussive drug which contains a tertiary ammonium ion, and the incidence of NMBA anaphylaxis. This link has prompted the withdrawal of pholcodine in some countries, with an ensuing fall in the observed rate of NMBA anaphylaxis. While such observations are compelling in their suggestion of a relationship between pholcodine exposure and NMBA hypersensitivity, important questions remain regarding the mechanisms by which pholcodine is able to sensitize against NMBAs and whether there are other, as yet unidentified, agents that can elicit similar hypersensitivity reactions. This review aims to explore the evidence linking pholcodine exposure to NMBA hypersensitivity and discuss the implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of these reactions. PMID:24251966

  6. Exploring the link between pholcodine exposure and neuromuscular blocking agent anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Brusch, Anna M; Clarke, Russell C; Platt, Peter R; Phillips, Elizabeth J

    2014-07-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are the most commonly implicated drugs in IgE-mediated anaphylaxis during anaesthesia that can lead to perioperative morbidity and mortality. The rate of NMBA anaphylaxis shows marked geographical variation in patients who have had no known prior exposure to NMBAs, suggesting that there may be external or environmental factors that contribute to the underlying aetiology and pathophysiology of reactions. Substituted ammonium ions are shared among NMBAs and are therefore thought to be the main allergenic determinant of this class of drugs. Substituted ammonium ions are found in a wide variety of chemical structures, including prescription medications, over-the-counter medications and common household chemicals, such as the quaternary ammonium disinfectants. Epidemiological studies have shown parallels in the consumption of pholcodine, a nonprescription antitussive drug which contains a tertiary ammonium ion, and the incidence of NMBA anaphylaxis. This link has prompted the withdrawal of pholcodine in some countries, with an ensuing fall in the observed rate of NMBA anaphylaxis. While such observations are compelling in their suggestion of a relationship between pholcodine exposure and NMBA hypersensitivity, important questions remain regarding the mechanisms by which pholcodine is able to sensitize against NMBAs and whether there are other, as yet unidentified, agents that can elicit similar hypersensitivity reactions. This review aims to explore the evidence linking pholcodine exposure to NMBA hypersensitivity and discuss the implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of these reactions. PMID:24251966

  7. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  8. Silicon and germanium nanoparticles with tailored surface chemistry as novel inorganic fiber brightening agents.

    PubMed

    Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Prabakar, Sujay; Krsinic, Gail; Dyer, Jolon M; Tilley, Richard D

    2013-07-31

    Low-molecular-weight organic molecules, such as coumarins and stilbenes, are used commercially as fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) to mask photoyellowing and to brighten colors in fabrics. FWAs achieve this by radiating extra blue light, thus changing the hue and also adding to the brightness. However, organic FWAs can rapidly photodegrade in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, exacerbating the yellowing process through a reaction involving singlet oxygen species. Inorganic nanoparticles, on the other hand, can provide a similar brightening effect with the added advantage of photostability. We report a targeted approach in designing new inorganic silicon- and germanium-based nanoparticles, functionalized with hydrophilic (amine) surface terminations as novel inorganic FWAs. When applied on wool, by incorporation in a sol-gel Si matrix, the inorganic FWAs improved brightness properties, demonstrated enhanced photostability toward UV radiation, especially the germanium nanoparticles, and also generated considerably lower levels of reactive oxygen species compared to a commercial stilbene-based organic FWA, Uvitex NFW.

  9. Filling agents.

    PubMed

    Glavas, Ioannis P

    2005-06-01

    Injectable fillers have become an important component of minimally invasive facial rejuvenation modalities. Their ease of use, effectiveness, low morbidity, and fast results with minimal downtime are factors that have made them popular among patients. Soft tissue augmentation has evolved to a unique combination of medicine and art. A wide selection of available agents and new products, each one with unique properties, may be used alone or in combination. The physician acquires the tools to rebalance facial characteristics not only by filling wrinkles but also by having the ability to shape the face and restore bony contours and lines. Careful selection of candidates, realistic expectations, and an understanding of the limitations of fillers are crucial for a successful result.

  10. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  11. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  12. Diffuse reflectance study of the effects of bleaching agents in damaged dental pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bante-Guerra, J.; Trejo-Tzab, R.; Macias, J. D.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2011-03-01

    One of the most important subjects of interest in dentistry and teeth preservation is related to the effects of bleaching agents on the integrity of the dental pieces. This is especially crucial when teeth surface has received some damage, generated by chemical, biological and mechanical agents or weathering in the case of dental pieces recovered from burial sites. In this work the time evolution of the effects of bleaching agents on the surface of dental pieces is monitored using diffuse reflectance in the visible spectrum is reported. The effects were monitored in teeth previously subject to chemical agents. Bleaching was induced using commercial whitening products. It is shown that the time evolution of the reflectance depends strongly on the condition of the surface as well as on the thickness of enamel. Additionally the colorimetric analysis of the samples during the bleaching is presented. This is especially useful in for comparing with previous studies. In order to complement our studies, the effects of the bleaching on the surface of the teeth were monitored by scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  14. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  15. A Novel Function for Kojic Acid, a Secondary Metabolite from Aspergillus Fungi, as Antileishmanial Agent

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula D.; Farias, Luis Henrique S.; Carvalho, Antonio Sérgio C.; Santos, Alberdan S.; do Nascimento, José Luiz M.; Silva, Edilene O.

    2014-01-01

    Kojic acid (KA) is a fungal metabolite used as a topical treatment skin-whitening cosmetic agent for melasma in humans; however its potential as an anti-leishmanial agent is unknown. Chemotherapy is one of the most effective treatments for Leishmaniasis. However, the drugs available are expensive, invasive, require long-term treatment and have severe side effects. Thus, the development of new effective leishmanicidal agents is a necessity. In this study we investigated the anti-leishmanial effect of KA on L. amazonensis, following in vitro and in vivo infections. KA (50 μg/mL) was found to decrease the growth by 62% (IC50 34 μg/mL) and 79% (IC50 27.84 μg/mL) of promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro, respectively. Ultrastructural analysis of KA-treated amastigotes showed the presence of vesicles bodies into the flagellar pocket, and an intense intracellular vacuolization and swelling of the mitochondrion. During the in vitro interaction of parasites and the host cell, KA reverses the superoxide anions (O2-) inhibitory mechanism promoted by parasite. In addition, 4 weeks after KA-topical formulation treatment of infected animals, a healing process was observed with a high production of collagen fibers and a decrease in parasite burden. Thus, these results demonstrated the great potential of KA as an anti-leishmanial compound. PMID:24621481

  16. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  17. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  18. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, R; Faruqi, S; Singh, K K; Varma, S; Singh, M; Karthik, V

    2008-09-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous gas chambers. Since then these have been intermittently used both in war and acts of terrorisms. Many countries have stockpiles of these agents. There has been a legislative effort worldwide to ban the use of CWA's under the chemical weapons convention which came into force in 1997. However the manufacture of these agents cannot be completely prohibited as some of them have potential industrial uses. Moreover despite the remedial measures taken so far and worldwide condemnation, the ease of manufacturing these agents and effectiveness during combat or small scale terrorist operations still make them a powerful weapon to reckon with. These agents are classified according to mechanism of toxicity in humans into blister agents, nerve agents, asphyxiants, choking agents and incapacitating/behavior altering agents. Some of these agents can be as devastating as a nuclear bomb. In addition to immediate injuries caused by chemical agents, some of them are associated with long term morbidities and psychological problems. In this review we will discuss briefly about the historical background, properties, manufacture techniques and industrial uses, mechanism of toxicity, clinical features of exposure and pharmacological management of casualties caused by chemical agents. PMID:21783898

  19. Mobile Agents Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  20. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.