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Sample records for over-the-counter whitening agents

  1. Over-the-counter whitening agents: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Meireles, Sônia Saeger; Masotti, Alexandre Severo

    2009-01-01

    Tooth discoloration is commonly found in the dental clinic and tooth bleaching has been considered the preferred esthetic alternative, being more conservative, safe and with predictable results. Supervised home-use of 10% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) bleaching with custom-trays is the most common bleaching procedure dispensed by dentists to their patients. The good results obtained with this technique stimulated the flourishing of new products and techniques. Over-the-counter (OTC) bleaching products appeared as a low-cost alternative to bleach discolored teeth without dentist supervision. Different OTC products are available in supermarkets, drug stores or on the Internet, including rinses, paint-on brushes, toothpastes, chewing guns, dental floss, and whitening strips. There is lack of clinical evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of these products, being most of the studies supported by the manufacturers'. Basically, toothpastes, chewing gums, and dental floss are removal agents of superficial stains. Rinses and paint-on brushes with low levels of hydrogen peroxide have some whitening effect, but without clinical relevance. Strips present similar esthetic results and side-effects, compared to bleaching with 10% CP using trays; however, the studies have financial support from the manufacturers and were based on short term evaluations. Legislation varies widely in different countries regarding OTC dental bleaching. Concerns have appeared due to the potential abusive use of these self-medication agents, especially in young patients, with potential harmful results. Dentists should be acquainted with this kind of products to be able to inform their patients. In conclusion, there is a need for independent clinical trials to provide sufficient evidence regarding the use of OTC bleaching products.

  2. Comparison of two over-the-counter tooth whitening products using a novel system.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew J; Charles, Christine A; Zhao, Qian; Dembling, Wayne Z

    2005-02-01

    Tooth whitening is one of the most widely accepted esthetic procedures in dentistry. Various treatment options include in-office and prescribed at-home bleaching procedures, over-the-counter bleaching kits, and whitening dentifrices. This study evaluated and compared a 6% hydrogen peroxide tooth bleaching gel delivered on polyethylene film (HP) with an 18% carbamide peroxide brush-applied liquid gel (CP). A total of 59 subjects completed this 2-week, examiner blind, randomized, parallel group study. Both treatments were applied twice daily for 2 weeks according to the manufacturer's instructions. Evaluations for oral safety and Vita tooth shade were conducted by a dental examiner at baseline and 2 weeks after product use. In addition, the ShadeVision System was used to determine changes in Vita shade and L*a*b* values. Based on both the examiner and ShadeVision System assessments, both treatments significantly improved tooth shade. Improvements in Vita tooth shade based on the adjusted mean for HP were 2.64 (P < 0.001) and 2.33 (P < 0.001) for the examiner and ShadeVision System assessments, respectively, compared with improvements of 1.04 (P = .004) and 0.42 (P = 0.029) for CP users, respectively. The difference between treatments was found to be significant for both the examiner (P = .005) and ShadeVision (P = .001) assessments. Findings from the L*a*b* data derived from the ShadeVision System were in agreement with Vita assessments, with significant differences for changes in L*, a*, and b* in favor of HP users (P = .001). In this study, the ShadeVision method of color analysis was relatively easy to use and demonstrated significant differences between 2 OTC whitening products using both Vitapan and L*a*b* means of assessment.

  3. Use and abuse of over-the-counter analgesic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, F V; Fraser, M I

    1998-01-01

    Pain and discomfort in everyday life are often treated with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic medications. These drugs are remarkably safe, but serious side effects can occur. Up to 70% of the population in Western countries uses analgesics regularly, primarily for headaches, other specific pains and febrile illness. It is not known whether the patterns of use are consistent with good pain management practices. OTC analgesics are also widely used to treat dysphoric mood states and sleep disturbances, and high levels of OTC analgesic medication use are associated with psychiatric illness, particularly depressive symptoms, and the use of alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. More than 4 g per day of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or acetaminophen over long periods is considered abuse. People using excessive amounts of OTC analgesics may need more effective treatments for chronic pain, depression or dysthymia. The possibility that these drugs have subtle reinforcing properties needs to be investigated. Certainly phenacetin, which was taken off the market in the 1970s, had intoxicating effects. A better understanding of patterns of use is needed to determine the extent of problem use of OTC analgesics, and whether health could be improved by educating people about the appropriate use of these drugs. PMID:9505057

  4. Oral Adverse Reactions Caused by Over-the-Counter Oral Agents

    PubMed Central

    Andabak Rogulj, Ana; Vidovic Juras, Danica; Gabric, Dragana; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-01-01

    Over-the-counter products rarely cause unwanted reactions in the oral cavity. Oral reactions to these agents are not specific and might present with various clinical oral findings. Detailed medical history is a key to the proper diagnosis of these lesions and fortunately other diagnostic procedures are rarely needed. Lesions are usually managed with elimination of the offending agent and with topical steroids. In more severe cases systemic steroids should be applied. PMID:25883811

  5. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico; Vicanova, Jana; Pavel, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes. PMID:20054473

  6. Over-the-counter anti-ageing topical agents and their ability to protect and repair photoaged skin.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Eleanor J; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Sherratt, Michael J; Bell, Mike; Watson, Rachel E B

    2015-03-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced photoageing of the skin is associated with characteristic clinical features including a sallow complexion, deep, coarse wrinkles and a loss of elasticity. Remodelling of the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) with changes to fibrillar collagens, elastic fibres and glycosaminoglycans is likely to be a major contributing factor to these particular clinical signs. Over-the-counter (OTC) topical formulations are one popular management strategy for preventing and/or repairing photoaged skin, most commonly targeting wrinkles as these are often the most concerning clinical feature. Due to the cosmetic nature of such formulations, evidence of their clinical efficacy and mechanism of action is often limited. However, these formulations usually contain putative active ingredients which individually have been subject to in vitro and in vivo investigation for efficacy as photoageing interventions. This review highlights commonly found ingredients within OTC formulations and assesses the evidence for: (i) their efficacy in clinically and histologically improving photoaged skin; (ii) the potential mechanisms of action; and (iii) their ability to act synergistically with complementary ingredients to enhance the clinical outcome.

  7. Over-the-Counter Agents for the Treatment of Occasional Disturbed Sleep or Transient Insomnia: A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Culpepper, Larry; Wingertzahn, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the level of evidence supporting the use of common over-the-counter (OTC) agents (diphenhydramine, doxylamine, melatonin, and valerian) for occasional disturbed sleep or insomnia. Data sources: A systematic review of the literature was conducted on July 31, 2014, using MEDLINE (PubMed) and the search terms (insomnia OR sleep) AND (over*the*counter OR OTC OR non*prescription OR antihistamine OR doxylamine OR diphenhydramine OR melatonin OR valerian) with the filters English, human, and clinical trials. Study selection: Identified publications (from 2003 to July 31, 2014, following previous published literature reviews) that met the inclusion criteria were selected. The criteria included randomized placebo-controlled clinical studies that utilized overnight objective (polysomnography) or next-day participant-reported sleep-related endpoints and that were conducted in healthy participants with or without occasional disturbed sleep or diagnosed insomnia. Results: Measures of efficacy and tolerability were summarized for each study individually and grouped according to OTC agent: H1 antagonists or antihistamines (3 studies, diphenhydramine), melatonin (8), and valerian or valerian/hops (7). Of the 3 sleep agents, studies conducted with melatonin, especially prolonged-release formulations in older individuals with diagnosed insomnia, demonstrated the most consistent beneficial effects (vs placebo) on sleep measures, specifically sleep onset and sleep quality, with favorable tolerability. In contrast, the clinical trial data for diphenhydramine, immediate-release melatonin, and valerian suggested limited beneficial effects. Conclusions: A review of randomized controlled studies over the past 12 years suggests commonly used OTC sleep-aid agents, especially diphenhydamine and valerian, lack robust clinical evidence supporting efficacy and safety. PMID:27057416

  8. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. Some prevent or cure ... the Food and Drug Administration decides whether a medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. ...

  9. Over-the-counter Acne Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Emmy M.

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common dermatological disorder that most frequently affects adolescents; however, individuals may be affected at all ages. Many people who suffer from acne seek treatment from both prescription and over-the-counter acne medications. Due to convenience, lower cost, and difficulty getting an appointment with a dermatologist, the use of over-the-counter acne treatments is on the rise. As the plethora of over-the-counter acne treatment options can be overwhelming, it is important that dermatologists are well-versed on this subject to provide appropriate information about treatment regimens and potential drug interactions and that their patients see them as well-informed. This article reviews the efficacy of various over-the-counter acne treatments based on the current literature. A thorough literature review revealed there are many types of over-the-counter acne treatments and each are designed to target at least one of the pathogenic pathways that are reported to be involved in the development of acne lesions. Many of the key over-the-counter ingredients are incorporated in different formulations to broaden the spectrum and consumer appeal of available products. Unfortunately, many over-the-counter products are not well-supported by clinical studies, with a conspicuous absence of double-blind or investigator-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies. Most studies that do exist on over-the-counter acne products are often funded by the manufacturer. Use of over-the-counter acne treatments is a mainstay in our society and it is important that dermatologists are knowledgeable about the different options, including potential benefits and limitations. Overall, over-the-counter acne therapies can be classified into the following five major groups: cleansers, leave-on products, mechanical treatments, essential oils, and vitamins. PMID:22808307

  10. Artocarpus plants as a potential source of skin whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-09-01

    Artocarpus plants have been a focus of constant attention due to the potential for skin whitening agents. In the in vitro experiment, compounds from the Artocarpus plants, such as artocarpanone, norartocarpetin, artocarpesin, artogomezianol, andalasin, artocarbene, and chlorophorin showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Structure-activity investigations revealed that the 4-substituted resorcinol moiety in these compounds was responsible for their potent inhibitory activities on tyrosinase. In the in vitro assay, using B16 melanoma cells, the prenylated polyphenols isolated from Artocarpus plants, such as artocarpin, cudraflavone C, 6-prenylapigenin, kuwanon C, norartocarpin, albanin A, cudraflavone B, and brosimone I showed potent inhibitory activity on melanin formation. Structure-activity investigations revealed that the introduction of an isoprenoid moiety to a non-isoprenoid-substituted polyphenol enhanced the inhibitory activity of melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. In the in vivo investigation, the extract of the wood of Artocarpus incisus and a representative isolated compound from it, artocarpin had a lightening effect on the skin of guinea pigs' backs. Other in vivo experiments using human volunteers have shown that water extract of Artocarpus lakoocha reduced the melanin formation in the skin of volunteers. These results indicate that the extracts of Artocarpus plants are potential sources for skin whitening agents.

  11. Using over-the-counter medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000882.htm Using over-the-counter medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... need to know about OTC drugs. About OTC Medicines You can buy OTC medicines without a prescription ...

  12. Over-the-counter pain relievers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Analgesics; Acetaminophen; NSAID; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; Pain medicine - over-the-counter; Pain medicine - OTC ... Pain medicines are also called analgesics. Each kind of pain medicine has benefits and risks. Some types of pain ...

  13. Toxicoses from over-the-counter human drugs.

    PubMed

    Papich, M G

    1990-03-01

    This article describes the mechanisms, recognition, and management of toxicoses from human over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Drugs that have been included were chosen because of their potential for toxicosis and the incidence of exposure. Drug groups discussed are cough, cold, and allergy medications, laxatives and cathartics, antacids, antidiarrheal agents, topicals, and vitamin and iron supplements.

  14. Current Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Take a Look

    MedlinePlus

    ... Over-the-Counter Medicines The Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Take a Look Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... your family when using over-the-counter (OTC) medicines (available without a prescription). This is especially true ...

  15. Characterization of dentifrices containing desensitizing agents, triclosan or whitening agents: EDX and SEM analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Hilgenberg, Sérgio Paulo; Wambier, Denise Stadler; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; Santos, Fábio André

    2014-01-01

    Dentifrices with different compositions are available on the market, but there is limited information about their properties. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of 12 dentifrices divided into three categories, as containing desensitizing agents, Triclosan or whitening agents. Desiccation loss/residue analysis: 5 g of dentifrice was weighed five times for each group. pH analysis: 5 g of dentifrice were diluted in three parts of distilled water and analyzed using a digital potentiometer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM): analysis of ashes, shape and size of the particles. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX): identification of the abrasive elements. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc test (α=0.05). Desiccation loss: 38.21% to 65.83%. Dentifrices containing Triclosan and desensitizing agents showed statistically significant differences among them (p<0.05). Whitening dentifrices showed statistically significant differences between Close-Up Whitening and Sensodyne Branqueador (44.72%, 65.83%, respectively). Most dentifrices presented neutral or basic pH. Different shape and size particles were observed in the SEM analysis. Abrasive elements were identified in the EDX. These results demonstrate that the evaluated dentifrices had different properties and their composition influences directly their characteristics, thus resulting in a more or less abrasive action on tooth surface. Knowing the characteristics of the dentifrices is important to indicate the ideal product for each case.

  16. Vital tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Kihn, Patricia W

    2007-04-01

    Vital tooth whitening, when administered correctly, is by all accounts one of the safest, most conservative, least expensive, and most effective aesthetic procedures currently available to patients. This article traces the evolution of the technology, describes what is known about the mechanism of action and explores such issues as toxicology and side effects associated with tooth whitening. The article also describes the various tooth-whitening systems, which include dentist-supervised night-guard bleaching, in-office or power bleaching, and bleaching with over-the-counter bleaching products. Combination treatments and light-activated treatments are also discussed. Finally, the article summarizes the areas of research needed in this field.

  17. Sinus Pain: Can Over-the-Counter Medications Help?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Near You Sinus Pain: Can Over-the-Counter Medications Help? Sinus Pain: Can Over-the-Counter Medications ... OTC) medications. What Is The Role Of OTC Medication For Sinus Pain? There are many different OTC ...

  18. Color measurements on prints containing fluorescent whitening agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Mattias; Norberg, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Papers with a slightly blue shade are, at least among a majority of observers being perceived as whiter than papers having a more neutral color1. Therefore, practically all commercially available printing papers contain bluish dyes and fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) to give the paper a whiter appearance. Furthermore, in the paper industry, the most frequently used measure for paper whiteness is the CIE-whiteness. The CIE Whiteness formula, does in turn, also favor slightly bluish papers. Excessive examples of high CIE-whiteness values can be observed in the office-paper segment where a high CIE-whiteness value is an important sales argument. As an effect of the FWA, spectrophotometer measurements of optical properties such as paper whiteness are sensitive to the ultraviolet (UV) content of the light source used in the instrument. To address this, the standard spectrophotometers used in the paper industry are equipped with an adjustable filter for calibrating the UV-content of the illumination. In the paper industry, spectrophotometers with d/0 measurement geometry and a light source of type C are used. The graphical arts industry on the other hand, typically measures with spectrophotometers having 45/0 geometry and a light source of type A. Moreover, these instruments have only limited possibilities to adjust the UV-content by the use of different weighting filters. The standard for color measurements in the paper industry governs that measurements should be carried out using D65 standard illumination and the 10 ° standard observer. The corresponding standard for the graphic arts industry specify D50 standard illumination and the 2 ° standard observer. In both cases, the standard illuminants are simulated from the original light source by spectral weighting functions. However, the activation of FWA, which will impact the measured spectral reflectance, depends on the actual UV-content of the illumination used. Therefore, comparisons between measurements on

  19. Over-the-Counter Medications in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Servey, Jessica; Chang, Jennifer

    2014-10-15

    Many pregnant women take over-the-counter (OTC) medications despite the absence of randomized controlled trials to guide their use during pregnancy. Most data come from case-control and cohort studies. In 1979, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began reviewing all prescription and OTC medications to develop risk categories for use in pregnancy. Most OTC medications taken during pregnancy are for allergy, respiratory, gastrointestinal, or skin conditions, as well as for general analgesia. Acetaminophen, which is used by about 65% of pregnant women, is generally considered safe during any trimester. Cold medications are also commonly used and are considered safe for short-term use outside of the first trimester. Many gastrointestinal medications are now available OTC. Histamine H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors have not demonstrated significant fetal effects. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are generally not recommended in pregnancy, especially during organogenesis and in the third trimester. There are even fewer data regarding use of individual herbal supplements. Ginger is considered safe and effective for treating nausea in pregnancy. Topical creams are considered safe based on small studies and previous practice. All OTC medication use should be discussed with patients, and the effects of the symptoms should be balanced with the risks and benefits of each medication. Because of the expanding OTC market, formalized studies are warranted for patients to make a safe and informed decision about OTC medication use during pregnancy.

  20. [Development of low-concentration hydrogen peroxide whitening agent using visible light-responsive titania photocatalyst].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    Although highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (HP) has been used to bleach vital discolored teeth during office whitening, low-concentration HP was recognized to have insufficient whitening ability. We demonstrated that using a visible light-responsive titania photocatalyst (VLRTP) and a vis-Nd : YAG laser, 3 wt% HP-bleached oxytetracycline (OTC)-stained teeth models were more efficient than 30 wt% HP. The stained samples were prepared by soaking synthetic hydroxyapatite ceramic disks in OTC aqueous solutions. Color images of the OTC-stained models before and after whitening were taken with a conventional flatbed scanner and calibrated using a photocell colorimeter. By VLRTP treatment with vis-Nd : YAG laser irradiation, the lightness value (L*) significantly increased and the yellowness index (b*) significantly approached zero. This suggests that a diluted HP agent with VLRTP can more efficiently decolorize stained teeth by visible light irradiation.

  1. Tooth whitening: facts and fallacies.

    PubMed

    Heymann, H O

    2005-04-23

    Since the introduction of nightguard vital bleaching (tray bleaching) in 1989, dentistry has witnessed an astronomical rise in the interest in tooth whitening.(1) As a result, the most frequently asked question is, 'what bleaching technique works best?' Virtually all of today's whitening approaches work, because bleach is bleach. Whether a nightguard bleach is used with only 10% carbamide peroxide (which contains only 3% hydrogen peroxide), over-the-counter (OTC) whitening strips are applied containing 6% hydrogen peroxide, or an in-office bleach is employed using 25-35% hydrogen peroxide, the end results can potentially be the same. Similarity of results is possible because the mechanism of action is the same: oxidation of organic pigments or chromogens in the tooth. Granted, some bleaching approaches are more expeditious than others, owing to differences in concentration or exposure time. But as just noted, the most important factors in the efficacy of any bleaching treatment are concentration of the bleaching agent and duration of the exposure time.

  2. Toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents: efficacy in reducing extrinsic dental staining.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cristina Neves Girao Salgado; Amaral, Flavia Lucisano Botelho do; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Franca, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents in reducing the extrinsic discoloration of dental enamel. Sixty slabs of dentin from human teeth were sealed so that only the enamel surface was exposed. The enamel surfaces were photographed for initial color assessment. Staining was performed by immersing the dental slabs in 0.2% chlorhexidine solution for 2 minutes and then in black tea for 60 minutes. This process was repeated 15 times. Photographs were taken at the end of the staining process, and the slabs were divided into 5 groups (n = 12), 3 to be brushed with toothpastes containing chemical whitening agents (2 containing phosphate salts and 1 containing phosphate salts plus hydrogen peroxide) and 2 to represent control groups (ordinary/nonwhitening toothpaste and distilled water). The dental slabs were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing with toothpaste slurry or distilled water, according to each group's specifications. After brushing, more photographs were taken for color analysis. The results showed a significant reduction in luminosity after the staining process in addition to an increase in the colors red and yellow (P < 0.001). After brushing, there was a significant increase in luminosity and a reduction in both red and yellow (P < 0.001). However, there was no observed difference between the changes in color values in dental enamel slabs brushed with whitening toothpastes and the changes found in slabs brushed with ordinary toothpaste. The whitening toothpastes did not outperform an ordinary toothpaste in the removal of extrinsic staining.

  3. Over-the-counter cough medicines: New approaches.

    PubMed

    Morice, Alyn H

    2015-12-01

    The global market for over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in the category cough/cold is enormous amounting to 5.77 billion euro in 2014 (source IMS). Despite this enormous healthcare investment, mainly by direct consumer purchase, evidence for efficacy is poor by modern standards. Because of a lack of new drug development existing OTC medicines are supported by trials of inadequate design. This has led to the claim that cough medicines are inefficacious. Recent developments in measuring cough support some existing agents but investment in modern studies to provide comprehensive proof of efficacy has not happened. The switch from prescription medicine to OTC which has occurred in other markets will not occur in antitussives since novel therapies have yet to be developed. One area, that of herbal derived medicines, has seen innovation because it is less hampered by regulatory constraints.

  4. Dental whitening--revisiting the myths.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of dental bleaching has increased with the introduction of at-home whitening. Currently available whitening methods include those prescribed by a dental professional for use at home, those applied by the professional in the dental office, a combination of the two, or systems available over the counter. This article reviews the effect, efficacy, and safety of bleaching techniques and materials. Most whitening techniques are considered effective and safe when carried out under the supervision of a dental professional. This article also compares the efficacy and safety of some of the most popular bleaching techniques, including at-home whitening with carbamide peroxide, over-the-counter (OTC) systems, and in-office whitening. Some of these whitening techniques are illustrated in this article.

  5. Calcium release rates from tooth enamel treated with dentifrices containing whitening agents and abrasives.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Danilo Barral; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; de Araujo, Roberto Paulo Correia

    2010-01-01

    Tooth whitening agents containing hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide are used frequently in esthetic dental procedures. However, lesions on the enamel surface have been attributed to the action of these products. Using conventional procedures for separating and isolating biological structures, powdered enamel was obtained and treated with hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, and sodium bicarbonate, ingredients typically found in dentifrices. The enamel was exposed to different pH levels, and atomic emission spectrometry was used to determine calcium release rates. As the pH level increased, the rate of calcium release from enamel treated with dentifrices containing whitening agents decreased. Carbamide peroxide produced the lowest amount of decalcification, while sodium bicarbonate produced the highest release rates at all pH levels.

  6. Over-the-counter treatments for acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Rosamilia, Lorraine Larsen

    2016-06-01

    Acne and rosacea are common inflammatory processes historically classified in the same disease category, but evolving understanding of their disparate pathophysiology and exacerbating factors have generated an enormous armamentarium of therapeutic possibilities. Patients seek over-the-counter therapies first when managing cutaneous disease; therefore, this review defines ingredients considered to be effective over-the-counter acne and rosacea products, their mechanisms, and safe formulations, including botanical components, oral supplements, and other anecdotal options in this vast skin care domain.

  7. Investigating the Stability of Benzoyl Peroxide in Over-the-Counter Acne Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittredge, Marina Canepa; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Sokol, Melissa S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Sennet, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most commonly used ingredients in over-the-counter acne treatments in cream, gel, and wash form is benzoyl peroxide. It is an anti-bacterial agent that kills the bacterium ("Propionibacterium acne") involved in the formation of acne. The formulation of these products is extremely difficult owing to the instability of benzoyl peroxide.…

  8. The effect of whitening agents on caries susceptibility of human enamel.

    PubMed

    Al-Qunaian, Talal A

    2005-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated whether the treatment of human enamel with whitening agents containing different concentrations of carbamide or hydrogen peroxide changes the susceptibility of enamel to caries. Twenty-four sound human incisors were selected for this study. For each tooth, the crown was sectioned into two halves in the cervical-incisal direction. One half of the sectioned tooth was treated and the other half was used as a control specimen. Each half was randomly divided into three treatment groups (eight two-halves/group). The whitening agents were 10% carbamide peroxide, 20% carbamide peroxide with fluoride and 35% hydrogen peroxide. Following pretreatment, the specimens were demineralized for four days in an in vitro microbial caries model and then analyzed using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Results showed that there were no significant differences between the treated and controlled specimens for teeth treated with 10% carbamide peroxide or 35% hydrogen peroxide. However, specimens treated with 20% carbamide peroxide with FP (0.11% fluoride and potassium nitrate) were less susceptible to caries than their controls at p < or = 0.05. In conclusion, application of bleaching agents does not increase the caries susceptibility of human enamel.

  9. Clinical evaluation of a new 10% carbamide peroxide tooth-whitening agent.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D M; Kihn, P W; Romberg, E; George, D; DePaola, L; Medina, E

    1998-10-01

    NUPRO Gold Tooth Whitening System was evaluated for efficacy according to the proposed ADA guidelines for acceptance. Sixty participants with discolored anterior teeth participated in a 14-day, double-blind, clinical trial. The participants were matched for age, gender, and oral health status and were given either a placebo gel without the active agent or the NUPRO Gold active gel, which they wore in a custom-fabricated mouth guard for home use. The shade of each participant's maxillary anterior teeth was evaluated using a value-oriented Vita Lumin Vacuum Shade Guide before the study. The same shade guide was used to determine shade changes. Time of use of the agent and potential side effects, such as tooth and gingival hypersensitivity and tissue irritation, were assessed at all recall examinations and were recorded by participants in daily diaries. The average shade change for the placebo users was less than one shade. The average shade change for the NUPRO Gold users was 6.96 shades. Tooth hypersensitivity varied from none to severe. Tissue irritation was minimal. The results of these evaluations indicate that NUPRO Gold is effective as a tooth-whitening system, when administered properly under the supervision of a dentist, with commonly reported side effects of transient tooth sensitivity and minimal gingival sensitivity. Little or no change in tissue health was noted. This study was supported by Dentsply Preventive Care (York, Pennsylvania).

  10. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  11. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  12. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  13. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  14. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  15. Detection of whitening agents in illegal cosmetics using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-09-01

    Cosmetic products containing illegal whitening agents are still found on the European market. They represent a considerable risk to public health, since they are often characterised by severe side effects when used chronically. The detection of such products at customs is not always simple, due to misleading packaging and the existence of products containing only legal components. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, was evaluated for that purpose. It was found that the combination of ATR-IR with the simple chemometric technique k-nearest neighbours gave good results. A model was obtained in which a minimum of illegal samples was categorised as legal. The correctly classified illegal samples could be attributed to the illegal components present.

  16. Aspirin and acetaminophen: should they be available over the counter?

    PubMed

    Brune, Kay; Hinz, Burkhard; Otterness, Ivan

    2009-02-01

    Traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs block cyclooxygenase (COX). They are the most widely used drugs for pain relief. They are indispensable for their effects but are condemned for their adverse drug reactions. Two COX inhibitors, acetaminophen and aspirin, are the most widely used over-the-counter drugs. They have low (but useful) therapeutic activity, but they are endowed with specific risks that are not seen with most other COX inhibitors. Both are lethal if taken in overdose. Each is stigmatized by severe adverse effects. Aspirin results in prolonged inhibition of blood coagulation, and acetaminophen can result in liver toxicity at normal dose and liver failure at higher dose. Both drugs cause many deaths every year. We recommend that the status of both drugs be changed to prescription only. Their continued availability over the counter poses an unacceptable risk to the general population.

  17. Development of a quantitative method to monitor the effect of a tooth whitening agent.

    PubMed

    Amaechi, Bennett T; Higham, Susan M

    2002-01-01

    This study demonstrated a quantitative method for assessing the effect of a tooth whitening agent. Forty human teeth were stained with a tea solution, and randomly assigned to two groups (A, B) of twenty teeth. The teeth were subsequently treated with either sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL) or deionized distilled water (DDW) by intermittent immersion (60 seconds on each occasion) in a 1:10 dilution of NaOCL (group A) or DDW (group B). Prior to whitening and following each immersion, the color of the teeth at the stained spot was measured using ShadeEye-Ex Dental Chroma Meter and quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). ShadeEye-Ex instantly gave a numerical value for the stain intensity, chroma (C), which is the average of three measurements taken automatically by the machine. QLF gave a quantitative value for the stain, delta Q (% mm2), following analysis of the fluorescence image of the tooth. Immersion was stopped after four readings when one specimen, in group A, was observed to have regained its natural color. There was a good correlation between C and delta Q with either NaOCL (Pearson correlation coefficient (r) = 0.974; p < 0.05) or DDW (r = 0.978; p < 0.05). With NaOCL, an inverse relationship observed between stain measurements, C (Linear fit correlation (R) = -0.982; p < 0.05) or delta Q (R = -0.988; p < 0.05) and exposure time correlated to a linear fit, but not with DDW. ANOVA showed a significant difference between the means (n = 20) of the reading at the measurement intervals (0, 60, 120 and 180 seconds) for both C (p < 0.001) and delta Q (p < 0.001) with NaOCL but not with DDW. In conclusion, the study highlighted the potential of ShadeEye-Ex Dental Chroma Meter as a tool for the quantitative assessment of the gradual change in shade of discolored teeth by tooth whitening products.

  18. [In vitro tests of internal tooth whitening agents on colored solutions do not replace tests on teeth].

    PubMed

    Bäumler, Marc A; Schug, Jens; Schmidlin, PatrickR; Imfeld, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Two in vitro tests for the assessment of whitening agents were evaluated. A simple, reproducible and cost-effective model using coloured solutions was compared to a tooth model. The following bleaching agents were investigated: 1) Sodium perborate tetrahydrate/30% H2O2, 2) sodium perborate tetrahydrate/3% H2O2, 3) thermocatalytic procedure with 30% H2O2 and 4) Opal-escence Endo. In the model using coloured solutions, the light absorption of the solutions was assessed one and 24 hours after application of the whitening agents. In discoloured teeth, whitening agents were placed in a simulated access cavity. In groups 1, 2, and 4, the agents were left in the cavity for three days, whereas in group 3 the substance was applied three times for 30 seconds. Bleaching processes were repeated three times. All bleaching agents proved effective in the model with coloured solutions, as well as in the tooth model. The effect was most pronounced after the first bleaching step. The results showed, however, that the simplified experiment with coloured solutions cannot replace the tooth model.

  19. Over-the-Counter Access to Oral Contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Making oral contraceptives (OCs) available over the counter (OTC) could help to reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States. Surveys show widespread support for OTC access to OCs among US women. Studies indicate that women can accurately use checklists to identify contraindications to OCs. Continuation is as good or better among OTC users compared with women using OCs obtained by prescription. Women and clinicians have expressed concerns related to making OCs available OTC. These concerns can be addressed by existing data or through research required by the Food and Drug Administration as part of the application to make OCs available OTC.

  20. [Determination of fluorescent whitening agents in plastic food contact materials by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yanna; Ding, Li; Zhu, Shaohua; Fu, Shanliang; Gong, Qiang; Li, Hui; Wang, Libing

    2013-01-01

    A method for the determination of fluorescent whitening agents in plastic food contact materials by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector was developed. The samples were extracted with trichloromethane by sonication for 30 min at 40 degrees C. The HPLC method was performed on a column of Eclipse XDB-C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) by gradient elution using 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as the mobile phases, and detected by the fluorescence detector at an excitation wavelength of 350 nm and an emission wavelength of 430 nm. The experimental results indicated that the four fluorescent whitening agents were separated well. The limits of detection (LOD) (S/N = 3) were 0.3, 0.1, 0.05, 0.14 mg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQ) (S/N = 10) were 1.0, 0.4, 0.2, 0.5 mg/L for 1,4-bis (4-cyanostyryl) benzene (C. I. 199), 1,4-bis (2-benzoxazolyl) naphthalene (C. I. 367), 4,4'-bis(2-methoxystyryl) biphenyl (C. I. 378) and 2,5-thiophenediylbis (5-tert-butyl-1,3-benzoxazole) (C. I. 184), respectively. Good linearities with correlation coefficients (r2) not less than 0.991 were obtained. The proposed method is simple, accurate, sensitive and can meet the requirements of the routine determination of fluorescent whitening agents in entry-exit products.

  1. Photodegradation-based detection of fluorescent whitening agents in a mountain river.

    PubMed

    Assaad, Aziz; Pontvianne, Steve; Pons, Marie-Noëlle

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are highly soluble and poorly biodegradable ingredients used in laundry detergents and in industries (paper, textile, plastic manufacturing). They are likely to pass through biological wastewater treatment systems. The presence of FWAs in a mountain river was detected by monitoring the decay of synchronous fluorescence intensity at λ(ex)=360 nm after exposing samples to ultraviolet (UV) light (365 nm), for mimicking sunlight, for 15 min. The method was first validated on four commercial FWAs (DAS-1, FB28, DMA-X and CBS-X) in different water matrices (deionized water and pristine river water in the presence of humic acid and dyes). A 40% decay was observed after 15 min for the least photosensitive FWA (CBS-X). A field application was then performed on samples collected along a mountain river in which impacts of FWAs from domestic sources (laundry greywater) and industrial sources (paper and textile mills) were suspected. Variations of fluorescence decay at λ(ex)=360 nm could be explained by these potential sources of pollution. It is suggested that the fluorescence decay at λ(ex)=280 nm also be considered as an indicator, as some FWAs can exhibit fluorescence at that excitation wavelength.

  2. Drug interactions between prescribed and over-the-counter medication.

    PubMed

    Honig, P K; Gillespie, B K

    1995-11-01

    The use and availability of over-the-counter (OTC) medication is increasing. Although regulatory agencies take care to assure than nonprescription medications are safe and effective, these drugs still have the potential to have clinically significant interactions with prescription medicines. The major classes of OTC medication to be considered in this light include antacids, histamine H2 receptor antagonists, NSAIDs, cough and cold preparations and the antiasthma products. Healthcare providers and patients/consumers should be educated regarding possible drug interactions, patient drug regimens should be simplified where possible, and all therapeutic failures and adverse reactions should be investigated with regard to the potential contribution of OTC drug products. Regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical manufacturers should ensure that nonprescription drug labelling is complete and intelligible to meet these objectives. Consideration should be given to improving the postmarketing surveillance of OTC medications.

  3. Toxicity of over-the-counter cough and cold medications.

    PubMed

    Gunn, V L; Taha, S H; Liebelt, E L; Serwint, J R

    2001-09-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medications are marketed widely for relief of common cold symptoms, and yet studies have failed to demonstrate a benefit of these medications for young children. In addition, OTC medications can be associated with significant morbidity and even mortality in both acute overdoses and when administered in correct doses for chronic periods of time. Physicians often do not inquire about OTC medication use, and parents (or other caregivers) often do not perceive OTCs as medications. We present 3 cases of adverse outcomes over a 13-month period-including 1 death-as a result of OTC cough and cold medication use. We explore the toxicities of OTC cough and cold medications, discuss mechanisms of dosing errors, and suggest why physicians should be more vigilant in specifically inquiring about OTCs when evaluating an ill child.

  4. Evaluation of an over-the-counter medication program.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul Evan

    2004-07-01

    Nonprescription medication (i.e., "over-the-counter") programs have historically been popular at many military treatment facilities. These programs were developed to provide a mechanism through which active duty members could obtain certain nonprescription medications without seeing a health care provider. The goal of such programs was to reduce demand on health care provider appointments and operational costs associated with such visits. Coast Guard military treatment facilities are encouraged to provide the service. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate whether the nonprescription medication program offered at the Coast Guard Alameda pharmacy reduced demand on health care provider appointments for self-limiting conditions and reduced costs associated with such visits.

  5. [Health care consumers about over-the-counter drugs].

    PubMed

    Burger, David M

    2014-01-01

    Dutch consumers can now purchase 'over-the-counter drugs' (OTCs) at three distribution channels: (a) the pharmacy; (b) the chemist; (c) other sales outlets such as supermarkets and petrol stations. However, little is known about whether consumers consider themselves and others to have adequate knowledge to purchase OTCs in relative freedom. During a recent study, members of the Healthcare Consumer Panel of the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research completed a survey on freely available analgesics. These consumers were very confident of their personal skills in handling OTCs responsibly. However, they had less confidence in how others would deal with OTCs. Regarding the wider availability of OTCs, only 1-8% believed it would be preferable to have these drugs available in the supermarket or petrol station, depending on the type and frequency of side effects of the medication. The government would be wise in conducting this type of qualitative study before measures are taken for wider availability of medicines.

  6. Best Way to Take Your Over-the-Counter Pain Reliever? Seriously.

    MedlinePlus

    ... best way to take your over-the-counter pain reliever? Seriously. Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Print (PDF version - 6MB) Over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers/fever reducers (the kind you can buy without ...

  7. 78 FR 57623 - TRICARE Over-the-Counter Drug Demonstration Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... of the Secretary TRICARE Over-the-Counter Drug Demonstration Project AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Notice of modification to the TRICARE Over-the-Counter Drug Demonstration Project... which the Department of Defense (DoD) evaluates allowing selected over-the-counter (OTC) drugs to...

  8. [Removal of fluorescent whitening agent by hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Long; Zhang, Zhong-Min; Zhao, Xia; Jiao, Ru-Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Degradation of fluorescent whitening agent VBL in the processes of activated carbon (AC) and activated carbon modified (ACM) adsorptions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by activated carbon were studied. Mechanism of the above catalytic oxidation was also investigated by adding tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA), the free radical scavenger, and detecting the released gases. The results showed that: the activated carbon modified by Fe (NO3)3 (ACM)exhibited better adsorption removal than AC. Catalytic oxidation showed efficient removal of VBL, and the catalytic removal of AC (up to 95%) was significantly higher than that of ACM (58% only). Catalytic oxidation was inhibited by TBA, which indicates that the above reaction involved *OH radicals and atom oxygen generated by hydrogen peroxide with the presence of AC. The results of H2O2 decomposition and released gases detection involved in the process showed that activated carbon enhanced the decomposition of H2O2 which released oxygen and heat. More O2 was produced and higher temperature of the reactor was achieved, which indicated that H2O2 decomposition catalyzed by ACM was significantly faster than that of AC. Combining the results of VBL removal, it could be concluded that the rate of active intermediates (*OH radicals and atom oxygen) production by ACM catalytic reaction was faster than that of AC. These intermediates consumed themselves and produced O2 instead of degrading VBL. It seemed that the improper mutual matching of the forming rate of activating intermediates and the supply rate of reactants was an important reason for the lower efficiency of ACM catalytic reaction comparing with AC.

  9. Aluminium in over-the-counter drugs: risks outweigh benefits?

    PubMed

    Reinke, Claudia M; Breitkreutz, Jörg; Leuenberger, Hans

    2003-01-01

    In the early 1970s, aluminium toxicity was first implicated in the pathogenesis of clinical disorders in patients with chronic renal failure involving bone (renal osteomalacia) or brain tissue (dialysis encephalopathy). Before that time the toxic effects of aluminium ingestion were not considered to be a major concern because absorption seemed unlikely to occur. Meanwhile, aluminium toxicity has been investigated in countless epidemiological and clinical studies as well as in animal experiments and many papers have been published on the subject. It is now commonly acknowledged that aluminium toxicity can be induced by infusion of aluminium-contaminated dialysis fluids, by parenteral nutrition solutions, and by oral exposure as a result of aluminium-containing pharmaceutical products such as aluminium-based phosphate binders or antacid intake. Over-the-counter antacids are the most important source for human aluminium exposure from a quantitative point of view. However, aluminium can act as a powerful neurological toxicant and provoke embryonic and fetal toxic effects in animals and humans after gestational exposure. Despite these facts, the patient information leaflets from European antacids that are available OTC show substantial differences regarding warnings from aluminium toxicity. It seems advisable that all patients should receive the same information on aluminium toxicity from patient information leaflets, in particular with regard to the increased absorption through concomitant administration with citrate-containing beverages and the use of such antacids during pregnancy.

  10. Enhanced eyelashes: prescription and over-the-counter options.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek

    2011-02-01

    Women have long strived to possess long, thick, and dark eyelashes. Prominent eyes and eyelashes are often considered a sign of beauty and can be associated with increased levels of attractiveness, confidence, and well-being. Numerous options may improve the appearance of eyelashes. Mascara aims to temporarily darken, lengthen, and thicken eyelashes using a combination of waxes, pigments, and resins. Artificial eyelashes can be adhered either to the dermal margin or to individual eyelashes. Individuals may even use eyelash transplantations to improve the appearance of their eyelashes. The unique properties of eyelashes (e.g., relatively long telogen and short anagen phases compared with scalp hairs, slow rate of growth, and a lack of influence by androgens) may allow for specific aesthetic interventions to improve the appearance of natural eyelashes. Some over-the-counter (OTC) products may contain prostaglandin analogs that can affect eyelash growth, but neither the safety nor efficacy of these OTC cosmetics has been fully studied. Originally indicated for the reduction of intraocular pressure, the synthetic prostaglandin analog bimatoprost was recently approved for the treatment of hypotrichosis of the eyelashes. In a double-blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled trial, bimatoprost safely and effectively grew natural eyelashes, making them longer, thicker, and darker. Bimatoprost was generally safe and well tolerated and appears to provide an additional option for individuals looking to improve the appearance of their eyelashes.

  11. [Over the counter drugs--a new era in Israel].

    PubMed

    Abadi-Korek, Ifat; Vaknin, Sharona; Marom, Eli; Shemer, Joshua; Luxenburg, Osnat

    2011-01-01

    The reformation in the marketing of non-prescription medicinal products has been launched. As of May 10th 2005, the pharmacist regulations 2004 (marketing of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs outside of pharmacies, as well as not by a pharmacist) will be in effect. This change aLlows the marketing of medicines outside of pharmacies, as has been the custom in the U.S.A., England and some of the European Union countries for many years. This reformation is incorporated in a policy that encourages self-medication by the use of non-prescription drugs. The self-medication policy originates from the point of view of the consumers who wish to be responsible for their own health and save precious time wasted on doctor visits; and the government's assumption that self-medication of OTC medicines by citizens wiLL decrease expenses for the HMOs in both doctor's billings as well as medication costs. In order to regulate the marketing terms of these medicinal products, regulations and complimentary guidelines were written and published. These documents encompass the following issues: the list of OTC medicines, marketing reguLations, packaging regulations, Licensed marketing Locations, storage regulations as well as display regulations, advertising regulations, monitoring and control. The medicinal products in this category only included medicines containing "safe" active ingredients with restrictions regarding the strength/concentration and packaging size; this category does not include medicines requiring special storage conditions (such as refrigeration or freezing), medicines containing an active ingredient that is addictive, medicines containing an active ingredient with danger of poisoning if misused, and medicines containing an active ingredient that has the potential to harm. The implementation of the regulations and guidelines will improve the consumer's ability to diagnose and treat oneself when sick with minor ailments, without consulting a doctor.

  12. Pharmacy consultation and over-the-counter medication purchasing outcomes. Over-the-Counter Medication Intervention Project Team.

    PubMed

    Sclar, D A; Robison, L M; Skaer, T L

    1996-06-01

    A demonstration project was conducted within 23 community pharmacies located throughout the state of Washington to: (1) assess the effects of pharmacy consultation on over-the-counter (OTC) medication purchasing decisions and costs, (2) to identify factors influencing those intending to purchase a brand name medication to change to a generic or private label product, or to a different brand name product, and (3) to quantify prevented adverse medication outcomes. Pharmacy students in their final year of training provided consultation to 745 consumers intending to purchase an OTC product. The consultations averaged 4.6 min in length, and resulted in 42.6% of consumers changing their intended purchase. These changes reduced OTC expenditures by an average of US $1.53 per customer, primarily as a result of movement from brand name products to lower priced generic or private label equivalents. Nearly 8% of consumers made no purchase after consultation, and 4.3% were referred to a physician. Logistic regression analysis identified gender of the consultant being female (odds ratio = 3.87, 95% CI = 1.58-9.45), and an increasing length of consultation (odds ratio = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.08-1.57) as being significant factors influencing consumers to change their final purchase from a brand name OTC product to a generic or private label, or to a different brand name product. Potential adverse outcomes (disease-medication interaction; medication-medication interaction; additive side-effects; or duplication in therapeutic category) were prevented in 7.1% of the study population. This study documents consumer need for pharmacy consultation in order to optimize both the therapeutic appropriateness of, and pharmaceutical expenditures for OTC medication.

  13. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  14. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  15. Ionic liquid as a mobile phase additive in high-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of eleven fluorescent whitening agents in paper materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Chen, Xianbo; Qiu, Bin; Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Juan; Luo, Yan; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, 11 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid based fluorescent whitening agents with different numbers of sulfonic acid groups were separated by using an ionic liquid as a mobile phase additive in high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The effects of ionic liquid concentration, pH of mobile phase B, and composition of mobile phase A on the separation of fluorescent whitening agents were systematically investigated. The ionic liquid tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate is superior to tetrabutylammomnium bromide for the separation of the fluorescent whitening agents. The optimal separation conditions were an ionic liquid concentration at 8 mM and the pH of mobile phase B at 8.5 with methanol as mobile phase A. The established method exhibited low limits of detection (0.04-0.07 ng/mL) and wide linearity ranges (0.30-20 ng/mL) with high linear correlation coefficients from 0.9994 to 0.9998. The optimized procedure was applied to analyze target analytes in paper samples with satisfactory results. Eleven target analytes were quantified, and the recoveries of spiked paper samples were in the range of 85-105% with the relative standard deviations from 2.1 to 5.1%. The obtained results indicated that the method was efficient for detection of 11 fluorescent whitening agents.

  16. 77 FR 66182 - TRICARE Over-the-Counter Drug Demonstration Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... demonstration project under 10 U.S.C. 1092 to allow certain over-the- counter (OTC) medications to be included... demonstration project continues to be authorized by 10 U.S.C. 1092. Dated: October 31, 2012. Aaron...

  17. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products ...

  18. Informational and symbolic content of over-the-counter drug advertising on television.

    PubMed

    Tsao, J C

    1997-01-01

    The informational and symbolic content of 150 over-the-counter drug commercials on television are empirically analyzed in this study. Results on the informational content suggest that over-the-counter drug ads tend to focus on the concern of what the drug will do for the consumer, rather than on the reasons why the drug should be ingested. Accordingly, advertising strategy is centered on consumer awareness of the product as the primary goal. Educational commitment, however, did not seem to be blended into the promotional efforts for over-the-counter drugs. Findings on the symbolic content of over-the-counter drug ads reveal that drug images have been distorted. Performance of most drugs has been portrayed to be simple resolutions to relieve the symptom. Moreover, a casual attitude toward drug usage is encouraged in the commercials, while time lapse of drug effects is overlooked.

  19. Toxicity and use of over-the-counter cough and cold medication in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Emily J; Wasserman, Gary S

    2008-01-01

    Discussions of the efficacy and toxicity of over-the-counter cough and cold medication have been circulating in the pediatric literature for years. Adverse effects of these medications and the lack of evidence of their efficacy in children make their use a serious matter. An additional consideration for physicians is the recreational use of over-the-counter medications, including adolescent abuse of dextromethorphan. The recent increase in media attention to these issues warrants further review.

  20. Readability and comprehensibility of over-the-counter medication labels.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Hariprasad; Trivedi, Akshaya; Hannan, Mary F

    2014-04-01

    Nonprescription medications are relatively safe, but not risk-free and can lead to serious adverse events, particularly if used contrary to directions or without attention to depicted warnings. The question arises whether the information presented on the product label is readable and comprehensible to the average lay person. We examined the product labels of nonprescription medications for readability and comprehensibility characteristics using the Flesch-Kincaid method. The Flesch-Kincaid reading ease scores and grade level scores were derived. We further validated the grade level scores using the Gunning-Fog method. Qualitative assessment of select labels found severe deficiencies such as poor organization and inundation with technical terms. By quantitative assessment the average reading ease score of 40 nonprescription medication labels (including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, antacids, laxative preparations, anti-allergy medications, H-2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors, sleep aids, an antiasthmatic, and cough and cold remedies) was 38 ± 12. The average Flesch-Kincaid grade level score was 16 ± 5. All labels except one were at reading grade level greater than the eighth grade. The average grade level of education necessary to understand the material according to the Gunning-Fog method was 17 ± 5 and all labels were above the eighth grade reading level. Nonprescription medication labels are written in a language that is not comprehensible to the average member of the general public. There is a need for considerable improvement in the readability of these labels.

  1. [Determination of four fluorescent whitening agents in laundry detergents by solid phase extraction combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Xian, Yanping; Guo, Xindong; Luo, Haiying; Wu, Yuluan; Chen, Yiguang; Luo, Donghui; Wu, Wenhai

    2013-02-01

    A new method was established to determine three stilbene-type disulfonate and one distyrylbiphenyl-type fluorescent whitening agents (FWA351, FWA85, FWA28 and FWA71) in laundry detergents by solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (UPLC-DAD). The fluorescent whitening agents were extracted from laundry detergents with 2% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol, and purified by WAX SPE column, and analyzed by UPLC-DAD on a Phenomenex Synergi Max-RP column (150 mm x 2.0 mm), employing acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate as the mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. The fluorescent whitening agents were qualitatively determined by retention time, and confirmed by the ultraviolet spectrum. The results indicated that the target analytes were in the range of 0.05-180 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0. 999 3, and the method limits of quantification (MLOQ) of target analytes were ranged from 1.5 mg/kg to 15 mg/kg (S/N = 10). The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by the determination of FWAs in samples with spiked recoveries. The recoveries were in the range between 84.9% and 105%, and the precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) ranged from 3.2% to 6.1% (n = 6). Among the 15 samples analyzed, the rate of positive samples was 53.3%, over 1 000 mg/kg of FWA351 and FWA71 were detected. The method is simple, precise and has high recoveries for the determination of fluorescent whitening agents in laundry detergent samples.

  2. Facile synthesis of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@ porous hollow yeast-based carbonaceous microspheres for fluorescent whitening agent-VBL wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Pei; Tong, Zhiqing; Bai, Bo

    2016-03-15

    Porous hollow carbonaceous microspheres (PHCMs) fabricated from yeast cells by hydrothermal treatment have stimulated interest because of their outstanding chemical and physical properties. Herein, the functionalizations of PHCMs by further coating of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles onto the surface were carried out. The structure of resulted α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@PHCMs products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and BET specific surface area measurements (BET), respectively. Its promising application was evaluated by the Fenton-like degradation of fluorescent whitening agent-VBL from aqueous solutions. - Graphical abstract: In this work, novel α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@porous hollow carbonaceous microspheres (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@PHCMs) were synthesized through a combination of hydrothermal method and calcinations route and achieved excellent removal efficiency for fluorescent whitening Agent-VBL. - Highlights: • The hybrid α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@ porous hollow microspheres (PHCMs) were firstly fabricated. • The formation mechanism of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@PHCMs microspheres was proposed and verified. • Dithizone played a key role in the synthesis of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@PHCMs composites. • A favorable removal for the fluorescent whitening agent-VBL were achieved.

  3. Long chain ionic liquid based mixed hemimicelles and magnetic dispersed solid-phase extraction for the extraction of fluorescent whitening agents in paper materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Xianbo; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2017-04-12

    A novel mixed hemimicelles and magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction method based on long-chain ionic liquids for the extraction of five fluorescent whitening agents was established. The factors influenced on extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, namely, the pH of sample solution at 8.0, the concentration of long chain ionic liquid at 0.5 mmol/L, the amount of Fe3 O4 nanoparticle at 12 mg, extraction time at 10 min, pH 6.0 of methanol as eluent and the desorption time at 1 min, satisfactory results were obtained. Wide linear ranges (0.02-10 ng/mL) and good linearity were attained (0.9997-0.9999). The intra-day and inter-day RSDs were 2.1-8.3%. Limits of detection were 0.004-0.01 ng/mL, which was decreased by almost an order of magnitude compared to direct detection without extraction. The present method was applied to extract the fluorescent whitening agents in two kinds of paper samples, obtaining satisfactory results. All showed results illustrated that the detection sensitivity was improved and the proposed method was a good choice for the enriching and monitoring of trace fluorescent whitening agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and validation of a fast chromatographic method for screening and quantification of legal and illegal skin whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2013-09-01

    During the last years, the EU market is flooded by illegal cosmetics via the Internet and a so-called "black market". Among these, skin-bleaching products represent an important group. They contain, according to the current European cosmetic legislation (Directive 76/768/EEC), a number of illegal active substances including hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. These may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. To control this market there is a need for a fast screening method capable of detecting illegal ingredients in the wide variety of existing bleaching cosmetic formulations. In this paper the development and validation of an ultra high pressure liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method is described. The proposed method makes use of a Waters Acquity BEH shield RP18 column with a gradient using 25 mM ammonium borate buffer (pH 10) and acetonitrile. This method is not only able to detect the major illegal (hydroquinone, tretinoin and six dermatologic active corticosteroids) and legal whitening agents, the latter having restrictions with respect to concentration and application (kojic acid, arbutin, nicotinamide and salicylic acid), but can also quantify these in a run time of 12 min. The method was successfully validated using the "total error" approach in accordance with the validation requirements of ISO-17025. During the validation a variety of cosmetic matrices including creams, lotions and soaps were taken into consideration.

  5. Optical properties and surface structure comparison of tooth whitening using four laser systems and chemical action agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Pavel; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Housova, Devana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kokta, Milan R.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of various laser techniques for bleaching teeth in office vital whitening. Hydrogen peroxide (30% concentration) and carbamide peroxide (10% solution) were used for chemical activation of bleaching process. Extracted non-carcious upper central incisors were exposed to laser radiation. Four different laser systems (Nd:YAG laser SHG, wavelength 0.53 μm, CTE:YAG laser, wavelength 2.7 μm, Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1.06 μm, and alexandrite laser, wavelength 0.75 μm) were applied to accelerate the speed of the process. The end of chemical exposition was verified by the change of bleaching agent color. The color change was determined by stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan), the quality of surface structure was checked by scanning electron microscope Joel, Japan). The speed of bleaching rnaged from 630 s (chemical methods only) to 250-340 s (chemicals + alexandrite laser radiation). The Alexandrite laser application was considered an elective process to decrease the time of bleaching without modifying the surface.

  6. Organic pollutant removal versus toxicity reduction in industrial wastewater treatment: the example of wastewater from fluorescent whitening agent production.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie; Escher, Beate I; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2006-05-15

    Industrial wastewater treatment in the chemical industry aims at eliminating organic contaminants, as these pollutants may be persistent and ecotoxic. In a case study performed in collaboration with the chemical industry, we investigated the removal of a fluorescent whitening agent and its side products in the wastewater-treatment system. Adsorption to activated carbon and biological treatment were simulated in laboratory tests. Algae toxicity tests were performed to quantify the toxicity of the wastewater mixture and of single components. The contaminants identified accounted for up to 82% of the wastewater's total organic carbon (TOC). Adsorption to activated carbon eliminated the TOC and the single contaminants only slightly. Nevertheless, the toxicity of the wastewater decreased by 40%. In contrast, biological treatment reduced the TOC by up to 80%, and the whole effluent toxicity increased. These results indicate that new ecotoxic metabolites were formed during the biological treatment. They also illustrate that mere reduction of the TOC in the wastewater-treatment system is not sufficient for ensuring a reduction of environmental impact. Therefore, simultaneously conducting TOC measurements and toxicity tests, as demonstrated in the current work, is recommended.

  7. "Just Advil": Harm reduction and identity construction in the consumption of over-the-counter medication for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Emery R

    2015-12-01

    Direct-to-consumer marketing has sparked ongoing debate concerning whether ads empower consumers to be agents of their own care or shift greater control to the pharmaceutical industry. Ads for over-the-counter (OTC) medications in particular portend to offer simple, harmless solutions for meeting the demands of social life. Rather than join the longstanding debate between consumer agency and social control in pharmaceutical advertising, I approach self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics using Harm Reduction as a framework. From this perspective, consumption of OTC analgesics by chronic pain sufferers is a means of seeking some level of relief while also avoiding the stigma associated with prescription pain medication. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data from two sources: (1) semi-structured qualitative interviews with 95 participants in a trial examining the effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) from 2006 to 2011 in Tucson, AZ and Portland, OR; and (2) print, online, and television advertisements for three major brands of OTC pain medication. Participants described their use of OTC medications as minimal, responsible, and justified by the severity of their pain. OTC medication advertising, while ostensibly ambiguous and targeting all forms of pain, effectively lends support to the consumption of these medications as part of the self-projects of chronic pain sufferers, allowing them to reconcile conflicting demands for pain relief while being stoic and maintaining a positive moral identity. Describing OTC medication as "just over-the-counter" or "not real pain medication," sufferers engage in ideological harm reduction, distinguishing themselves from "those people who like taking pain medication" while still seeking relief. Justifying one's use of OTC medication as minimal and "normal," regardless of intake, avoids association with the addictive potential of prescription pain medications and

  8. Implementing an over-the-counter medication administration policy in an elementary school.

    PubMed

    Foster, Lori S; Keele, Rebecca

    2006-04-01

    A major focus of school nursing interventions is to improve school attendance. In many schools, parents are required to leave work and/or to arrange transportation to bring their children over-the-counter medicines. Many times these children went home, missing class and making it difficult to keep up with class work. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a new policy and procedure allowing school nurses to administer certain over-the-counter medications in elementary schools in a southern New Mexico public school district. "Sent home" rates before implementation of the new policy were compared with sent home rates for 2 years following implementation. Although not statistically significant, findings indicated that over-the-counter medication administration by school nurses does show a trend toward sending fewer students home and, therefore, keeping them in the learning environment.

  9. History of whitening.

    PubMed

    Anliker, R

    1975-01-01

    Man's earliest endeavours to enhance the brightness of white objects in everyday use, especially clothing, led to the invention of various bleaching processes. KRAIS'S discovery in 1929 that the natural substance esculin could be applied to textiles to give whites of unprecedented brilliance led to the industrial development of fluorescent whitening agents (FWA's). The limited effectiveness of esculin, a glycoside of 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin prompted research which led to the synthesis of other compounds of the same class, many of which have proved useful as whiteners; though the really broad developments of the 1940's stemmed from the synthesis of the 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'disulfonic acid derivatives which are sill the most important groups of FWAs.

  10. Ineffectiveness of over-the-counter total-release foggers against the bed bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan C; Bryant, Joshua L

    2012-06-01

    Field-collected bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) showed little, if any, adverse effects after 2-h direct exposure to the aerosolized pyrethroid(s) from three over-the-counter total-release foggers ('bug bombs' or 'foggers'); Hotshot Bedbug and Flea Fogger, Spectracide Bug Stop Indoor Fogger, and Eliminator Indoor Fogger. One field-collected population, EPM, was an exception in that there was significant mortality at 5-7 d when bugs out in the open had been exposed to the Spectracide Fogger; mortality was low when these bugs had access to an optional harborage, a situation observed for all field-collected populations when exposed to the three foggers. Even the Harlan strain, the long-term laboratory population that is susceptible to pyrethroids and that served as an internal control in these experiments, was unaffected if the bugs were covered by a thin cloth layer that provided harborage. In residences and other settings, the majority of bed bugs hide in protected sites where they will not be directly contracted by the insecticide mist from foggers. This study provides the first scientific data supporting the position that total-release foggers should not be recommended for control of bed bugs, because 1) many field-collected bed bugs are resistant to pyrethroids, and they are not affected by brief exposure to low concentrations of pyrethrins and/or pyrethroids provided by foggers; and 2) there is minimal, if any, insecticide penetration into typical bed bug harborage sites. This study provides strong evidence that Hotshot Bedbug and Flea Fogger, Spectracide Bug Stop Indoor Fogger, and Eliminator Indoor Fogger were ineffective as bed bug control agents.

  11. Implementing an Over-the-Counter Medication Administration Policy in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Lori S.; Keele, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    A major focus of school nursing interventions is to improve school attendance. In many schools, parents are required to leave work and/or to arrange transportation to bring their children over-the-counter medicines. Many times these children went home, missing class and making it difficult to keep up with class work. The purpose of this study was…

  12. Developing a Nursing Protocol for Over-the-Counter Medications in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awbrey, Lucinda Mejdell; Juarez, Sandra M.

    2003-01-01

    Management of medications in school is one of the critical roles that school nurses carry out in the school setting. In recent years, parents have come to question the medication procedures that school districts follow. Parents question why a physician's order is required for school personnel to provide over-the-counter (OTC) medications to their…

  13. Exploring Ovulation & Pregnancy Using Over-the-Counter Products: A Novel Guided Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venditti, Jennifer J.; Surmacz, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    In this guided inquiry, students explore the complex hormonal regulation of the female reproductive cycle using inexpensive ovulation and pregnancy detection kits that are readily available over the counter. This hands-on activity engages students in the practice of doing science as highlighted by the "National Science Education Standards." The…

  14. Over-the-Counter Data's Impact on Educators' Data Analysis Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive research on the benefits of making data-informed decisions, but research also contains evidence many educators incorrectly interpret student data. Meanwhile, the types of detailed labeling on over-the-counter medication have been shown to improve use of non-medication products, as well. However, data systems most educators use…

  15. Parent, Teacher, and School Factors Associated with Over-the-Counter Drug Use among Multiracial Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Over-the-counter (OTC) drug use is an increasing health issue among adolescents. Purpose: This study investigated OTC drug use among 7th through 12th grade multiracial students in one metropolitan area. Methods: A total of 2134 students completed the PRIDE Questionnaire, which examines alcohol and other drug use. Results: A total of…

  16. Over-the-Counter Data's Impact on Educators' Data Analysis Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive research on the benefits of making data-informed decisions, but research also contains evidence many educators incorrectly interpret student data. Meanwhile, the types of detailed labeling on over-the-counter medication have been shown to improve use of "non"-medication products, as well. However, data systems most…

  17. Glutathione as a skin whitening agent: Facts, myths, evidence and controversies.

    PubMed

    Sonthalia, Sidharth; Daulatabad, Deepashree; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione is a low molecular weight thiol-tripeptide that plays a prominent role in maintaining intracellular redox balance. In addition to its remarkable antioxidant properties, the discovery of its antimelanogenic properties has led to its promotion as a skin-lightening agent. It is widely used for this indication in some ethnic populations. However, there is a dichotomy between evidence to support its efficacy and safety. The hype around its depigmentary properties may be a marketing gimmick of pharma-cosmeceutical companies. This review focuses on the various aspects of glutathione: its metabolism, mechanism of action and the scientific evidence to evaluate its efficacy as a systemic skin-lightening agent. Glutathione is present intracellularly in its reduced form and plays an important role in various physiological functions. Its skin-lightening effects result from direct as well as indirect inhibition of the tyrosinase enzyme and switching from eumelanin to phaeomelanin production. It is available in oral, parenteral and topical forms. Although the use of intravenous glutathione injections is popular, there is no evidence to prove its efficacy. In fact, the adverse effects caused by intravenous glutathione have led the Food and Drug Administration of Philippines to issue a public warning condemning its use for off-label indications such as skin lightening. Currently, there are three randomized controlled trials that support the skin-lightening effect and good safety profile of topical and oral glutathione. However, key questions such as the duration of treatment, longevity of skin-lightening effect and maintenance protocols remain unanswered. More randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size, long-term follow-up and well-defined efficacy outcomes are warranted to establish the relevance of this molecule in disorders of hyperpigmentation and skin lightening.

  18. Facile synthesis of α-Fe2O3@ porous hollow yeast-based carbonaceous microspheres for fluorescent whitening agent-VBL wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pei; Tong, Zhiqing; Bai, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Porous hollow carbonaceous microspheres (PHCMs) fabricated from yeast cells by hydrothermal treatment have stimulated interest because of their outstanding chemical and physical properties. Herein, the functionalizations of PHCMs by further coating of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles onto the surface were carried out. The structure of resulted α-Fe2O3@PHCMs products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and BET specific surface area measurements (BET), respectively. Its promising application was evaluated by the Fenton-like degradation of fluorescent whitening agent-VBL from aqueous solutions.

  19. The Use of Over-The-Counter Medications to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, A J; Stillwell, M E

    2010-01-01

    Over-the-counter drugs are medications that are available without the requirement of a prescription. They are considered relatively safe and well-tolerated when taken in accordance with the dosing instructions on the package label. However, when taken alone or in combination with other drugs, they possess pharmacological properties that have the potential to facilitate sexual assault. This chapter reviews the chemistry and pharmacology of these drugs. Additionally, a brief overview of analytical methodology is presented.

  20. Over-the-Counter and Prescription Sleep Medication and Incident Stroke: The REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Megan E. Ruiter; Howard, Virginia J.; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Grandner, Michael A.; Molano, Jennifer R.; Howard, George

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Preliminary evidence suggests sleep medications are associated with risk of vascular events; however, the long-term vascular consequences are understudied. This study investigated the relation between sleep medication use and incident stroke. Methods Within the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study, 21,678 black and white participants (≥45yrs) with no history of stroke were studied. Participants were recruited from 2003−2007. From 2008−2010, participants self-reported their prescription and over-the-counter sleep medication use over the past month. Suspected stroke events were identified by telephone contact at 6-month intervals, and associated medical records were retrieved and physician-adjudicated. Proportional hazards analysis was used to the estimate hazard ratios for incident stroke associated with sleeping medication use (0, 1−14, and 15+ days per month) controlling for sociodemographics, stroke risk factors, mental health symptoms, and sleep apnea risk. Results At the sleep assessment, 9.6% of the sample used prescription sleep medication and 11.1% used over-the-counter sleep aids. Over an average follow-up of 3.3±1.0 years, 297 stroke events occurred. Over-the-counter sleep medication use was associated with increased risk for incident stroke in a frequency-response relationship (p-trend = 0.014), with a 46% increased risk for 1–14 days of use per month (HR=1.46; 95%CI: 0.99–2.15) and a 65% increased risk for 15+ days (HR=1.65; 95%CI: 0.96–2.85). There was no significant association with prescription sleep medications (p = 0.80). Conclusions Over-the-counter sleep medication use may independently increase the risk of stroke beyond other risk factors in middle-aged to older individuals with no history of stroke. PMID:25113086

  1. Ion mobility spectrometry for the rapid analysis of over-the-counter drugs and beverages

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Maestre, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, there are increasing requirements for analytical methods in quality assessment for the production of drugs. In this investigation, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was used for the rapid qualitative separation and identification of active ingredients in generic over-the-counter drugs and food additives in beverages. The active ingredients determined in drugs were acetaminophen, aspartame, bisacodyl, caffeine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, famotidine, glucosamine, guaifenesin, loratadine, niacin, phenylephrine, pyridoxine, thiamin, and tetrahydrozoline. Aspartame and caffeine were determined in beverages. Fourteen over-the-counter drugs and beverages were analyzed. Analysis times below 10 s were obtained for IMS, and reduced mobilities were reported for the first time for 12 compounds. A quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to a mobility spectrometer was used to assure a correct peak assignation. The combination of fast analysis, low cost, and inexpensive maintenance of IMS instruments makes IMS an attractive technique for the qualitative determination of the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs and food additives in manufacture quality control and cleaning verification for the drug and food industries. PMID:20835390

  2. Tooth Whitening: What We Now Know

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title Current research about tooth whitening shows that it is safe and effective when manufacturer’s protocol is followed, yet there are risks of which the profession and users should be aware. This update provides a summary of current research and assessment of the safety and efficacy of tooth whitening regimens. Background Tooth whitening has become one of the most frequently requested dental procedures by the public. The public has come to demand whiter, more perfect smiles and in response many choices for tooth whitening have been made available. These include home-based products such as toothpastes, gels, and films, as well as in-office based systems where products containing highly concentrated bleaching agents are applied under professional supervision. The profession and public have been aware of certain risks related to tooth whitening such as increased tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation. New research has shown that there are other risks such as tooth surface roughening and softening, increased potential for demineralization, degradation of dental restorations, and unacceptable color change of dental restorations. The new research is also focused on optimizing whitening procedures to reduce tooth sensitivity and to increase the persistence of the whitening. Methods Current reports in the literature are reviewed that are related to the use of peroxide based whitening methods. These reports include in vitro studies for method optimization and mechanism as well as clinical studies on effects of various whitening regimens. Conclusions When manufacturer’s instructions are followed, hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide based tooth whitening is safe and effective. Patients should be informed of the risks associated with tooth whitening and instructed on identification of adverse occurrences so that they may seek professional help asneeded. PMID:24929591

  3. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin...

  4. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin...

  5. 76 FR 56682 - Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...-ZA40 Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information Regarding... on certain dosage forms of over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen drug products marketed without approved..., 2011, ANPRM), FDA published an ANPRM that requested data and information on OTC sunscreen...

  6. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products. 211.132 Section 211.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products. (a) General. The Food and Drug Administration has...

  7. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products. 211.132 Section 211.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products. (a) General. The Food and Drug Administration has...

  8. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products. 211.132 Section 211.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products. (a) General. The Food and Drug Administration has...

  9. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products. 211.132 Section 211.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products. (a) General. The Food and Drug Administration has...

  10. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products. 211.132 Section 211.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products. (a) General. The Food and Drug Administration has...

  11. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  12. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  13. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  14. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  15. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  16. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310... Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

  17. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310... Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

  18. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310... Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

  19. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310... Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

  20. Analysis of Marketing Strategy for Food Supplements and Over-The-Counter Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Dzeparoski, Marjan; Trajkovic-Jolevska, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Marketing strategy is correlated with the regulations for the corresponding product category. Accordingly, there is a big difference in the marketing strategy of food supplements and over-the-counter medicines. In this paper are presented 2 different marketing strategies of a new small pharmaceutical company in two studies. The findings of studies analysis can be used for developing marketing strategies in the wider sense and other products, for other small to medium sized companies in other countries of interest with similar regulations and help them understand how to position and promote themselves and their products. PMID:27703582

  1. Drug facilitated sexual assault using an over-the-counter ocular solution containing tetrahydrozoline (Visine).

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry A; Rogers, Jacqualine; Sawyer, Tama S

    2007-07-01

    Drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) has been defined as sexual activity occurring where consent is invalid or absent due to the effects of drugs and or alcohol. We report the use of a commonly available over-the-counter drug to induce an obtunded compliant victim with no memory of the period during the sexual assault. An adult male repeatedly used tetrahydrozoline to induce a comatose state in an adult female and four female children for the purposes of sexual assault. It may be warranted to include imidazoline derivatives in the testing for cases of DFSA.

  2. Antiperspirant drug products for over-the-counter human use; final monograph. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-06-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule in the form of a final monograph establishing conditions under which over-the-counter (OTC) antiperspirant drug products are generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded as part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products. FDA is issuing this final rule after considering public comments on its proposed regulation, issued as a tentative final monograph (TFM), and all new data and information on antiperspirant drug products that have come to the agency's attention.

  3. Analysis of Marketing Strategy for Food Supplements and Over-The-Counter Medicines.

    PubMed

    Dzeparoski, Marjan; Trajkovic-Jolevska, Suzana

    2016-09-15

    Marketing strategy is correlated with the regulations for the corresponding product category. Accordingly, there is a big difference in the marketing strategy of food supplements and over-the-counter medicines. In this paper are presented 2 different marketing strategies of a new small pharmaceutical company in two studies. The findings of studies analysis can be used for developing marketing strategies in the wider sense and other products, for other small to medium sized companies in other countries of interest with similar regulations and help them understand how to position and promote themselves and their products.

  4. Gastrointestinal tolerability of ibuprofen compared with paracetamol and aspirin at over-the-counter doses.

    PubMed

    Rampal, P; Moore, N; Van Ganse, E; Le Parc, J M; Wall, R; Schneid, H; Verrière, F

    2002-01-01

    This multicentre, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel-group study compared the gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability of ibuprofen, paracetamol and aspirin at over-the-counter doses for common pain indications. Patients (of whom 8633 were evaluable) took either ibuprofen up to 1200 mg daily, or paracetamol or aspirin, each up to 3000 mg daily, for 1-7 days. The main outcome was the proportion of patients with GI adverse events. There were significantly more patients who suffered GI adverse events, principally abdominal pain, dyspepsia, nausea and diarrhoea, with aspirin (18.5%) than with ibuprofen (11.5%), but the difference between ibuprofen and paracetamol (13.1%) was not significant. Significantly more of those patients with a history of non-ulcer GI disease (n = 371) developed GI adverse events than did those with no such history; the incidence of GI adverse events in both groups was lowest with ibuprofen. More women than men experienced GI adverse events (15.5% versus 12.8%). The higher incidence of GI adverse events with aspirin was evident from the first day of treatment. In conclusion, the GI tolerability of ibuprofen, at over-the-counter doses of up to 1200 mg daily for up to 7 days, was at least as good as that of paracetamol and significantly better than that of aspirin.

  5. Atrial Fibrillation Due to Over The Counter Stimulant Drugs in A Young Adult

    PubMed Central

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    The usage of over the counter stimulant drugs and energy drinks is increasing on a day to day basis for various purposes including work, sports and leisure among individuals in all age groups. Multiple formulations are available in the market including pills, liquid capsules and drinks in various flavours. Many of them contain excessively high doses of caffeine along with a variety of stimulant compounds that have multiple effects in different parts of the human body. The consumption of such high amounts of caffeine itself has shown to have caused cardiac arrhythmias in healthy individuals and when it is mixed with a number of stimulant compounds can be associated with a number of adverse effects in the human body. However, the awareness of such life threatening complications associated with these energy drinks does not exist among people who consume it on a day to day basis. We report a case of 25-year-old Caucasian male with no significant past medical history for cardiac diseases, no risk factors for atrial fibrillation, non smoker, occasional alcohol drinker who presents with new onset atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response due to the consumption of over the counter stimulant energy capsule which had high doses of caffeine. PMID:26435989

  6. Over-the-counter sleeping pills: a survey of use in Hong Kong and a review of their constituents.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ka Fai; Lee, Claire K Y

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the composition of over-the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills in Hong Kong and reviewed the current knowledge about the hypnotic efficacy and safety of their major herbal and dietary supplement constituents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of OTC sleep aids at drug stores in a residential district of 0.3 million population and literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, China Journal Net, China Biomedical Database and relevant English and Chinese literature. We identified 17 brands of OTC sleeping pill: eleven of them were composed of mixtures of Chinese and Western herbal agents and six brands contained 3 mg of melatonin. The Chinese herbal mixture suanzaorentang, comprising zizyphi spinosi semen, poria cocos, ligusticum wallichii, anemarrhenae rhizoma and glycyrrhizae radix in ratio of 7:5:2:1:1, was the most common OTC sleeping pill available in the survey. Our literature review showed that kava, valerian and melatonin were the better-researched herbs and dietary supplements, however, the data on hypnotic efficacy and safety was inadequate to support their clinical use. More rigorous investigations of the risk-benefit relationship of herbal agents and dietary supplements used for insomnia are needed.

  7. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of boils. (a) Aminacrine hydrochloride, benzocaine, bismuth..., petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide... aminacrine hydrochloride, bismuth subnitrate, calomel, camphor, cholesterol, ergot fluid...

  8. The benefits and risks of over-the-counter availability of levonorgestrel emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Camp, S L; Wilkerson, D S; Raine, T R

    2003-11-01

    Removing the prescription requirement for Plan B will help ensure that the product plays a larger role nationally in the reduction of unintended pregnancy and abortion-important public health goals. Over-the-counter (OTC) sale of Plan B should present no serious safety issues. OTC consumers are able to understand and follow the instructions for proper use of Plan B. Efficacy of the OTC product is likely to be the same as, or better than, the prescription product, given more timely access to treatment. Based on the results of a growing body of literature and foreign marketing experience, the risk of unintended health consequences also appears to be minimal. There is no evidence to suggest that American women will abuse Plan B as an OTC product.

  9. Over-the-counter cough and cold medications in children: are they helpful?

    PubMed

    Bell, Edward A; Tunkel, David E

    2010-05-01

    Over-the-counter cough/cold medications are commonly used in children. Recent recommendations by the Food and Drug Administration and changes to product labeling by cough/cold product manufacturers have reduced use of these products in children younger than four years of age. Data from controlled clinical trials of cough/cold product ingredients do not support their efficacy in young children. Serious adverse effects have been reported from cough/cold product use in infants and children, which largely result from inappropriate use by caregivers. Conservative therapies, including nasal suctioning, humidification, and nasal saline, should be recommended over cough/cold product use for infants and children. Otolaryngologists should educate caregivers of children on the safe and effective use of these products and therapies.

  10. A Model of Consumer Response to Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final behavioral outcome. Several noteworthy patterns also emerged: (a) Product involvement was directly linked to ad attention, rather than exerting an indirect influence through ad involvement; (b) ad attention was significantly related to both cognitive and affective/evaluative responses to different degrees, with stronger links to cognitive responses; and

  11. Sulbutiamine, an 'innocent' over the counter drug, interferes with therapeutic outcome of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Douzenis, Athanasios; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient with bipolar disorder with a history of hospitalizations and addiction to sulbutiamine is presented. Sulbutiamine is a precursor of thiamine that crosses the blood-brain barrier and is widely available without prescription in most countries or over the internet. Because of this patient's need to consume ever increasing quantities of sulbutiamine, his psychiatric care was severely compromised through him defaulting appointments and frequent changes of psychiatrists. This paper reviews the current scientific knowledge about sulbutiamine, and some of the information and claims available on the web about its use and potential. It is argued that doctors need to be aware of the potential misuse of medication available over the counter or on the internet and its potential harmful influence.

  12. Consumer involvement: effects on information processing from over-the-counter medication labels.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S; Sansgiry, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumer involvement on information processing from over-the-counter (OTC) medication labels. A sample of 256 students evaluated simulated OTC product labels for two product categories (headache and cold) in random order. Each participant evaluated labels after reading a scenario to simulate high and low involvement respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect data on variables such as label comprehension, attitude-towards-product label, product evaluation, and purchase intention. The results indicate that when consumers are involved in their purchase of OTC medications they are significantly more likely to understand information from the label and evaluate it accordingly. However, involvement does not affect attitude-towards-product label nor does it enhance purchase intention.

  13. Prescription to over-the-counter switches in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jongwha; Lizer, Allison; Patel, Isha; Bhatia, Deepak; Tan, Xi; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    As the role of the pharmacist becomes more patient and counseling-centered, the healthcare market is changing to keep pace with more modern needs, such as self-treatment. Self-treatment provides patients the ability to diagnose their own condition and pick an appropriate medication from the pharmacy to treat their symptoms. This process allows a certain freedom for consumers to actively engage in their own health. In order for patients to self-treat, access to over-the-counter (OTC) medication is of prime importance. Many medications that are available as OTC today were previously labeled as prescription medications. As more safety studies and trials are conducted for different drugs, they can be deemed appropriate for use without a prescription. This review study discusses the process of switching of prescription medications to OTC medications in the United States and the implications of switching on patients, practitioners, drug makers, and insurers. PMID:27512703

  14. The benefits and risks of over-the-counter availability of nicotine polacrilex ("nicotine gum").

    PubMed

    Oster, G; Delea, T E; Huse, D M; Regan, M M; Colditz, G A

    1996-05-01

    Nicotine polacrilex ("nicotine gum") is effective in helping persons to quit smoking cigarettes. Because many persons try to quit without formal assistance, it may be an appropriate product for over-the-counter (OTC) purchase. Some smokers, however, might use such a product in lieu of more effective methods of cessation, and still others might use it to cope with enforced periods of nicotine abstinence (eg, at the work place) and thereby delay their decision to quit. The study's objective was to assess the public health benefits and risks of OTC availability of nicotine gum. A Markov model was developed and used to contrast two alternative policy scenarios: one in which nicotine gum was assumed to remain available only by prescription, and another in which it was assumed to be made available for OTC purchase. Various data sources were used to estimate the model, including the Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Supplement to the 1991 National Health Interview Survey and the 1986 Adult Use of Tobacco Survey. Primary outcome measures included the numbers of persons who would try to quit smoking, the numbers who would use various methods of smoking cessation, including OTC nicotine gum, and the numbers of current adult smokers who would be abstinent at the end of 10 years. Findings suggest that an average of 3 million persons each year would use OTC nicotine gum. As a consequence of OTC availability, an additional 450,000 smokers would be abstinent at the end of 10 years. These results are sensitive to assumptions regarding the effectiveness of OTC nicotine gum, as well as to the effect of OTC availability on the use of other methods of smoking cessation. The number of persons who would quit smoking, however, increases under a fairly wide range of assumptions. Over-the-counter availability of nicotine gum may confer significant public health benefits.

  15. Tooth sensitivity and whitening.

    PubMed

    Swift, Edward J

    2005-09-01

    This article presents a review of the basic concepts of tooth sensitivity and how those concepts apply to cervical dentin hypersensitivity and the sensitivity frequently associated with tooth whitening. The etiology and treatment of cervical dentin hypersensitivity are described. The clinical presentation, incidence, and predisposing factors for sensitivity associated with tooth whitening also are discussed.

  16. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of over the counter cough medicines for acute cough in adults

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Knut; Fahey, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether over the counter cough medicines are effective for acute cough in adults. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Search of the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group specialised register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Embase, and the UK Department of Health National Research Register in all languages. Included studies All randomised controlled trials that compared oral over the counter cough preparations with placebo in adults with acute cough due to upper respiratory tract infection in ambulatory settings and that had cough symptoms as an outcome. Results 15 trials involving 2166 participants met all the inclusion criteria. Antihistamines seemed to be no better than placebo. There was conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of antitussives, expectorants, antihistamine-decongestant combinations, and other drug combinations compared with placebo. Conclusion Over the counter cough medicines for acute cough cannot be recommended because there is no good evidence for their effectiveness. Even when trials had significant results, the effect sizes were small and of doubtful clinical relevance. Because of the small number of trials in each category, the results have to be interpreted cautiously. What is already know on this topicThe NHS encourages self treatment of acute self limiting illnessesOver the counter cough medicines are commonly used as first line treatment for acute coughWhat this study addsThere is little evidence for or against the effectiveness of over the counter cough medicinesAlthough cough medicines are generally well tolerated, they may be an unnecessary expenseRecommendation of over the counter cough medicines to patients is not justified by current evidence PMID:11834560

  17. Over-the-counter hearing aids: electroacoustic characteristics and possible target client groups.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C M; McPherson, B

    2000-01-01

    Over-the-counter hearing aids (OTCs) are those directly purchased from retail outlets, without the benefit of prior professional hearing health care. They are particularly common in developing countries. This study examined the amplification characteristics of a selected sample of OTCs to determine if any target client group or groups were suitable for the OTCs. The electroacoustical performance of 10 OTCs was measured. The measurements included saturated sound pressure level curve, high-frequency average full-on gain, frequency response, total harmonic distortion, equivalent input noise level, and input-output curve. The full-on gain curve of each hearing aid was used to estimate the hypothetical hearing loss of target clients for each aid as it would be calculated by four hearing aid prescription formulae. Real-ear probe tube measurements were also performed on 10 adult subjects to determine the amplification that could be achieved by the OTCs before audible feedback occurred. The OTC hearing aids were not able to meet the prescription gain requirements of the majority of elderly clients who usually purchased them.

  18. Over-the-counter topical skin products--a common component of skin disease management.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Curt A; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Fleischer, Alan B; Cayce, Kimberly A; Feldman, Steven R

    2004-07-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) products are widely recommended by physicians and utilized by the public for the treatment and prevention of disease. The use of OTC drugs has been studied extensively, but the patterns of physician recommendations for OTC topical skin products and the characteristics associated with patients receiving such recommendations remain unclear. We aimed to look at patterns of OTC topical skin product recommendations by physician specialty, patient demographics, geographical region, diagnosis, and metropolitan status to determine whether there are differences in the utilization of these products in the treatment of dermatologic conditions. We analyzed office-based physician visits for OTC topical skin product recommendations recorded in the 1995 to 2000 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). From 1995 to 2000, there were an estimated 36 million physician recommendations for OTC topical skin products. Although dermatologists were responsible for 53.8% of recommendations, pediatricians had the largest proportion of recommendations per prescription recommendation (OTC/Rx=0.58). Women patients, white patients, patients younger than 20 years, urban residents, and those living in the Southern United States received greater numbers of OTC topical skin product recommendations. Of the leading products recommended, hydrocortisone (27.6%), anti-infectives (23.4%), and moisturizers (13.4%) were the most common. OTC topical skin product recommendations by US physicians are substantial, particularly among dermatologists and primary care physicians. Physician specialty, gender, race, and age appear to be factors associated with those recommendations.

  19. Pharmacotherapy and over-the-counter drug use among elderly in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Nurkovic, Selmina; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Kurtagic, Ilma; Kovacevic, Nikolina; Gazibara, Teodora; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    From November 2012 to January 2013, 480 seniors were recruited at the Pubic Health Center in Belgrade, Serbia. The patients' records were validated by four independent investigators. Data on over-the-counter (OTC) drug use were collected through a questionnaire. Polypharmacy, an intake of ≥5 prescribed medications, reported in 10.4% of seniors, was associated with cardiovascular (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-8.39) and endocrine diseases (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.05-4.84) as well as with the number of treated chronic conditions (OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.75-3.44). The most frequently used OTC drugs were analgesics (metamizole, diclofenac and acetaminophen) and vitamins (vitamin C and vitamin B complex). The number of treated chronic conditions was associated with use of OTC drugs (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.01-1.36). Multiple chronic conditions correlated with multiple OTC drug use (ρ = 0.125, p = 0.019). Our analysis indicated that the prevalence of polypharmacy and OTC drug use in the elderly are comparable to those in industrialized countries.

  20. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    PubMed

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales.

  1. Over-the-counter stimulant, depressant, and nootropic use by veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik H; Muilenburg, Jessica L; Kogan, Lori; Elrod, Susan M

    2010-01-01

    US veterinary students are subject to significant stress throughout their veterinary education. In this article, the authors characterize the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and relate their use to stress in a veterinary student population. Of the students sampled, 35% were OTC medication users; 33% of these were regular OTC medication users. Forty-three percent of students were energy drink (ED) users; 45% of these were regular ED users. OTC medication users had significantly higher stress scores than non-OTC medication users, and ED users had significantly higher anxiety scores than non-ED users. The most common reasons for use given by OTC medication users were to help with studying and to fall asleep at night. Depression scores were significantly higher for juniors and sophomores than for freshmen. Depression, stress, and anxiety scores were all lower in the Colorado State University students when compared with the University of Georgia students. OTC medication and ED veterinary student users had distinct characteristics that differed from those of nonusers. Users suffered from more stress and anxiety and had more difficulties with sleep, which may have affected their overall health and academic performance. Educating veterinary students about the consequences of using OTC medication and ED and providing counseling support may be of benefit to veterinary students' psychological well-being.

  2. Over-the-counter cough and cold medication use in young children.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Teresa; Brewer, Melanie; Small, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    During a 2-year period from 2004 and 2005, emergency departments treated over 1,500 children under the age of 2 years for adverse events related to over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medication use; these incidents include 3 infant deaths. The risk of overdose, incorrect dosing and adverse events is increased in young children due to the greater number of colds they acquire each year. Lack of evidence to support the use of OTC medications in young children is well documented in the literature; however, people continue to use OTC medications with young children. The common cold is generally a mild, self-limited illness that usually improves with time. Recommended care and treatment for the common cold includes symptomatic treatment. This article presents and reviews the available evidence regarding the use of OTC cough and cold medications for pediatric healthcare providers. This review of the evidence will be helpful for healthcare providers to minimize risks to young children who intentionally or unintentionally ingest these medications and to educate child caregivers regarding proper use of OTC cough and cold medications with children.

  3. The risks of do-it-yourself and over-the-counter devices for tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The tattoo removal market has boomed over the years following the increased prevalence of tattooed individuals around the world. Surgery and laser are currently the gold standards for tattoo removal. However, both of them have drawbacks. Surgery is better suited for small tattoos in areas of adequate skin laxity but leave a scar, while laser removal is a long and painful procedure, with no guarantee of a complete efficacy. Both are expensive procedures, and not all individuals are ready to fund them privately. Consequently, some individuals are in the search of faster, easier, and cheaper procedures that can be performed either by themselves or by laypeople. The unregulated market of internet provides a favorable ground for many websites to offer various tattoo removal methods. Besides, some tattooists and other non-medical laypeople have started to get interested by such a growing market, especially as some laser devices manufactured in Asia are now available at competitive prices, and due to weaknesses in the EU legislation regarding the use of lasers for cosmetic procedures by non-medical laypeople. We review here different do-it-yourself and over-the-counter tattoo removal methods. We discuss the potential risks for tattooed individuals and stress the importance of a better regulation of such a market.

  4. The impact of over-the-counter availability of "Plan B" on teens' contraceptive decision making.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurti, Tamar; Eggers, Sara L; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2008-08-01

    In ruling on the over-the-counter status (OTC) of the emergency contraceptive, "Plan B", the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) questioned whether younger adolescent females could adequately self-select and self-medicate. That determination requires a judgment of fact, regarding how increased emergency contraceptive availability would affect adolescents' behavior, and a judgment of values, regarding the acceptability of different outcomes. We present a general approach to such problems, using analytical and empirical methods grounded in behavioral decision research. We illustrate it with findings from 30 in-depth interviews and follow-up surveys, with adolescent females aged 13-19 in the Pittsburgh area reporting how Plan B availability would affect three decisions (having sex, choosing contraceptives, using Plan B). Although the FDA expressed concern about younger teens using Plan B as their primary form of contraception, neither younger nor older teens revealed such an intention. However, teens preferred easier availability, should emergency contraceptive be needed. Incorporating an understanding of teens' decision-related perspectives can make such policies more predictable and transparent.

  5. Hand-Held Instrument Fights Acne, Tops Over-the-Counter Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tyrell Inc., a Houston-based medical technologies company, was able to access engineering support in redesigning a heating element for a hand-held acne-fighting device through SATOP, NASA's Space Alliance Technology Outreach Program. SATOP put Tyrell in contact with The Boeing Company, which assessed the design and made several major contributions. The product, named Zeno, is now the highest selling over-the-counter medical device for the treatment of acne, and in 2006, Zeno was named the "SATOP Texas, Success Story of the Year." Zeno employs proprietary ClearPoint technology to provide relief of mild to moderate inflammatory acne by delivering a precisely controlled low-level dosage of heat to the blemish, causing the bacteria at the root of more than 90 percent of acne to self-destruct. Within its first year on the market, Zeno was cited by various publications for several awards, including Allure's 2005 "Best of Beauty," Marie Claire's "10 Best Gadgets for Girls," and Popular Science's 2005 "Best of What's New." A variation of the Zeno for use in treating herpetic lesions such as cold sores, by killing the virus that causes them, is currently undergoing FDA trials.

  6. Management of common cold symptoms with over-the-counter medications: clearing the confusion.

    PubMed

    Jackson Allen, Patricia; Simenson, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The common cold, an acute upper respiratory tract infection of viral origin, is among the most widespread ailments in the world. Although the general public usually relies on over-the-counter (OTC) medication(s) to treat cough/cold symptoms, reliable guidance is needed to help select the appropriate OTC medication for each individual. Consumers may be confused by the wide variety of products available, containing ≥ 1 active pharmaceutical ingredient. Health care professionals are in a position to help people identify the most bothersome symptom(s), evaluate underlying medical conditions and medications, and recommend the most appropriate OTC active ingredient(s) for treatment. Patients should be educated about available OTC medications to manage cough/cold symptoms and the importance of learning to read the package labeling for appropriate dosing and administration. In addition, potentially serious causes of cough/cold symptoms (eg, influenza, asthma, bronchitis) or underlying medical conditions that put the individual at increased risk for complications should be ruled out when symptoms do not resolve within a typical cold timeline. This review article discusses the active ingredients found in OTC medications and the clinical evidence supporting their use. The need to educate health care professionals and patients on the safe and effective use of OTC medications is addressed, and we offer a guide for the management of symptoms that appear during the timeline of a typical common cold.

  7. Adverse drug reactions and drug–drug interactions with over-the-counter NSAIDs

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Nicholas; Pollack, Charles; Butkerait, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen have a long history of safe and effective use as both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics/antipyretics. The mechanism of action of all NSAIDs is through reversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) including gastrointestinal bleeding as well as cardiovascular and renal effects have been reported with NSAID use. In many cases, ADRs may occur because of drug–drug interactions (DDIs) between the NSAID and a concomitant medication. For example, DDIs have been reported when NSAIDs are coadministered with aspirin, alcohol, some antihypertensives, antidepressants, and other commonly used medications. Because of the pharmacologic nature of these interactions, there is a continuum of risk in that the potential for an ADR is dependent on total drug exposure. Therefore, consideration of dose and duration of NSAID use, as well as the type or class of comedication administered, is important when assessing potential risk for ADRs. Safety findings from clinical studies evaluating prescription-strength NSAIDs may not be directly applicable to OTC dosing. Health care providers can be instrumental in educating patients that using OTC NSAIDs at the lowest effective dose for the shortest required duration is vital to balancing efficacy and safety. This review discusses some of the most clinically relevant DDIs reported with NSAIDs based on major sites of ADRs and classes of medication, with a focus on OTC ibuprofen, for which the most data are available. PMID:26203254

  8. Rosacea Patient Perspectives on Homeopathic and Over-the-counter Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Lucy; Kuo, Sandy; Huang, Karen E.; Taylor, Sarah L.; Feldman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rosacea patients commonly employ nonprescription therapies. The authors’ aim was to understand rosacea patients’ perceptions of over-the-counter products, complementary and alternative medicine, and homeopathic therapies. Method: A public, online discussion forum comprising 3,350 members and 27,051 posts provided a source of 346 posts on patient perceptions on alternative rosacea treatments. Results: Three major themes of nonprescription treatment were identified—motivation for use, patient-provider discussions, and experience with these treatments. Perceived medication failure, barriers to treatment, and distrust of physicians drive patients to seek nonprescription therapies. Still, patients prefer to consult a physician on incorporating nonprescription therapies into treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine natural products (19.4% of posts), complementary and alternative medicine practices (16.5%), and homeopathic medicine (3.8%) were commonly discussed. Conclusion: Physicians have an opportunity to be a trusted source of information on the strengths and weaknesses of skin care products and other complementary treatments for rosacea. PMID:26557217

  9. Effect of two in-office whitening agents on the enamel surface in vivo: a morphological and non-contact profilometric study.

    PubMed

    Cadenaro, Milena; Breschi, Lorenzo; Nucci, Cesare; Antoniolli, Francesca; Visintini, Erika; Prati, Carlo; Matis, Bruce A; Di Lenarda, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the morphological effects produced in vivo by two in-office bleaching agents on enamel surface roughness using a noncontact profilometric analysis of epoxy replicas. The null hypothesis tested was that there would be no difference in the micromorphology of the enamel surface during or after bleaching with two different bleaching agents. Eighteen subjects were selected and randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n=9). The tooth whitening materials tested were 38% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (Opalescence Xtra Boost) and 35% carbamide peroxide (CP) (Rembrandt Quik Start). The bleaching agents were applied in accordance with manufacturer protocols. The treatments were repeated four times at one-week intervals. High precision impressions of the upper right incisor were taken at baseline as the control (CTRL) and after each bleaching treatment (T0: first application, T1: second application at one week, T2: third application at two weeks and T3: fourth application at three weeks). Epoxy resin replicas were poured from impressions, and the surface roughness was analyzed by means of a non-contact profilometer (Talysurf CLI 1000). Epoxy replicas were then observed using SEM. All data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and differences were determined with a t-test. No significant differences in surface roughness were found on enamel replicas using either 38% hydrogen peroxide or 35% carbamide peroxide in vivo. This in vivo study supports the null hypothesis that two in-office bleaching agents, with either a high concentration of hydrogen or carbamide peroxide, do not alter enamel surface roughness, even after multiple applications.

  10. Simultaneous determination of 11 fluorescent whitening agents in food-contact paper and board by ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dingguo; Chen, Lisong; Fu, Wusheng; Qiu, Hanquan

    2015-02-01

    4,4'-Diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid based fluorescent whitening agents (DSD-FWAs) are prohibited in food-contact paper and board in many countries. In this work, a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 common DSD-FWAs in paper material. Sample preparation and extraction as well as chromatographic separation of multicomponent DSD-FWAs were successfully optimized. DSD-FWAs in prepared samples were ultrasonically extracted with acetonitrile/water/triethylamine (40:60:1, v/v/v), separated on the C(18) column with the mobile phase containing tetrabutylammonium bromide, and then detected by a fluorescence detector. The limits of detection were 0.12-0.24 mg/kg, and the calibration curves showed the linear correlation (R(2) ≥ 0.9994) within the range of 8.0-100 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the range of 0.80-10 mg/kg in the sample. The average recoveries and the RSDs were 81-106% and 2-9% at two fortification levels (1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) in paper bowls, respectively. The successful determination of 11 DSD-FWAs in food-contact paper and board obtained from local markets indicated that the newly developed method was rapid, accurate, and highly selective.

  11. Determination of fluorescent whitening agents in laundry detergents and surface waters by solid-phase extraction and ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shu, Wei-Chuan; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2005-09-23

    A simple method was developed to detect four stilbene-type disulfonate and one distyrylbiphenyl-type fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in household laundry detergents and surface waters by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. The FWA concentrations in detergents were measured directly. The contents of FWAs in water samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction (C18-SPE) with ion-pairing reagent, and were then determined by an isocratic ion-pair chromatography (IPC) using a C18 column, applying tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate (TBA) as the ion-pairing reagent in mobile phase, and equipped with fluorescence detection. Water samples at various pH conditions for SPE were evaluated. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is precise and sensitive in analyzing FWAs, and enables quantitation of 0.01-0.1 microg/l in 100 ml water samples. The recovery rates of FWAs in spiked water samples were between 73 and 89%, and the precision (RSD) ranged from 2.6 to 8.9%. Over 7200 microg/g of 4,4'-bis(2-sulfostryl)-biphenyl (DSBP) and 2320 microg/g of 4,4'-bis[(4-anilino-6-morpholino-1,3,5-triazine-2-yl)-amino]stilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DAS1) were detected in household laundry detergents. Trace amounts of DSBP were detected in surface water samples ranging from 0.2 to 3.7 microg/l.

  12. Perception of pharmacists regarding over-the-counter medication: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Abinaya; Basavareddy, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of the pharmacists toward dispensing the over-the-counter (OTC) medications using questionnaire. Materials and Methods: cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice among pharmacists regarding OTC medications. Eighty out of hundred filled questionnaires were received from various pharmacists from medical shops in and around Kolar. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 74.6% responded to the questionnaire. Most of the dispensers (97.3%) at pharmacy were qualified with a D.Pharma/B.Pharma degree. Pharmacists with B.Pharma (80%) were able to define OTC. Majority of them had more than ten consumers taking OTC per week. Among the OTCs dispensed, common were analgesics (75%), antacids (48%), antihistaminics (40%), and others (35%). The choice of OTC brand was made by pharmacists (58.7%) and consumers (41.2%). Most of them (96.5%) asked the consumer's complaints before dispensing the drug, but only few (51%) counseled them regarding the instructions to administer medication. The brand of OTC was influenced by prescriptions of local doctor (60%), consumer's choice (31.2%), cost of the drug (16.7%), and medical representatives (5%). OTCs were safe to dispense, according to 90% of the pharmacists; however, among them, 50% expressed that the consumers should first consult doctor. Conclusion: Majority of the pharmacists were qualified to dispense medication, but only few knew about OTC drugs. Analgesics were most commonly used OTC. These drugs were safe to dispense, however, consulting doctor before taking medications was suggested by some of them. PMID:28066116

  13. Over-the-counter medication patterns in households in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Zaghloul, Ashraf Ahmad; Elsergany, Moetaz; El-Enein, Nagwa Abou; Alsuwaidi, Hamda; Ayoub, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-medication and acquisition of over-the-counter (OTC) medications are emerging community health issues. Besides being a cheap alternative for treating common illnesses, the behavior entails serious ramifications, such as medication wastage, increasing pathogen resistance, and adverse drug reactions. The present study was conducted to explore the extent of OTC medications in households in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE), including native UAE and expatriate families. Methods The study employed a population-based, cross-sectional, analytical study design. The study population included native and expatriate households residing in the Emirate of Sharjah, UAE. The snowball sampling technique was used, and the sample included a total of 335 households. Results Expatriate households acquired more OTC medications than did native households (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.7). The demographic determinants for expatriate households were number of family members (aOR=1.6), age of children in the family (aOR=1.8), and annual income (aOR=0.5). Expatriate households purchased more OTC medication practices than did native households (aOR=2.2). In the statistical sense, expatriate household practices were buying medication upon relatives’ advice (aOR=0.3), storage condition of medication (aOR=2.4), and disposal of expired medication (aOR=0.6). The highest percentages of OTC medications in native and expatriate households were those related to gastric and ear, nose, and throat illnesses. Conclusion The presence of OTC medications in expatriate households was two-fold more common than in native households in Sharjah, UAE. There were significant associations for behaviors related to the reasons why OTC medications were purchased and stored within the household for both native and expatriate families. PMID:24403846

  14. Chlorpheniramine, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and over-the-counter (OTC) treatment.

    PubMed

    Hellbom, Einar

    2006-01-01

    Some old antihistamines were selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the SSRI effect was discovered by Nobel Laureate Professor Arvid Carlsson as early as 1969. Chlorpheniramine was the most active of the tested drugs, and it compares favourably with amitriptyline and imipramine with respect to actions on both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons. Chlorpheniramine can be called a SSRI, since the blocking of 5HT is stronger than the effect on noradrenaline neurons; however it might also be called a selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI) and be compared with new drugs, such as venlafaxine. Carlsson suggested the potential value of clinical studies of the antidepressant properties of this and related antihistamine drugs. But, in the event, no such trials were ever performed at the time. However, later clinical observations of the benefits of dex-chlorpheniramine treatment in panic disorder have been published. Clinical experience suggests that patients using chlorpheniramine, and having also a concomitant depression or panic disorder, may experience a return of symptoms when their old drug is changed to a new antihistamine lacking SSRI effects. Yet this phenomenon is not known to many doctors, and even less known to the large number of patients buying chlorpheniramine under various trade names over-the-counter (OTC) at a low price for self-treatment of hay fewer or as a cold remedy. Chlorpheniramine was introduced in USA under the name Chlor-Trimeton as long ago as July 1950, and is still on the market. Therefore, this SSRI is now over 50 years old. If chlorpheniramine had been tested in depression in the nineteen seventies, it is probable that a safe, inexpensive SSRI drug could have been used some 15 years earlier than fluoxetine - which became available in 1987. Chlorpheniramine might have been the first safe, non-cardiotoxic and well-tolerated antidepressant. Billions of dollars in the development and marketing costs would

  15. Surveillance and uncertainty: community pharmacy responses to over the counter medicine abuse.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from community pharmacies offers important opportunities for members of the public to access medicines and self-treat conditions. They are increasingly recognised, however, as having the potential for abuse and harm despite their perceived relative safety. This study reports on a qualitative study that explored the experiences and views of community pharmacy staff in relation to current practices and concerns, management and support relating to OTC medicine abuse. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of ten pharmacists and seven medicines counter assistants in the United Kingdom. Analysis of interviews indicated that a range of medicines was implicated, including opiates, sedative antihistamines, laxatives and decongestants. A surveillance role was apparent for assistants, who placed emphasis on regulations, procedure and monitoring frequency of purchases to manage abuse, with referral on to pharmacists. Frequency of purchase was central to assistants' definition of those suspected of OTC medicine abuse, which pharmacists also utilised as well as a distinction between intentional abuse and unintentional medicine misuse. A lack of information about customers, easy access to, and poor communication between community pharmacies were emergent barriers to pharmacists providing more support. Many appeared uncertain of referral options or how pharmacists could effectively stop the problem of abuse. The commercial environment was a particular concern, in relation to customer expectations, medicine advertising and easy access to different community pharmacies. A key tension emerged between providing medicine supplies that permitted consumer freedom, with the needs of healthcare professionals to understand more about those consumers qua patients. Policy implications include the need for improved knowledge for community pharmacy staff about signposting to relevant services, increased awareness of who

  16. Over-the-counter antibiotics in Saudi Arabia, an urgent call for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Bin Nafisah, Sharafaldeen; Bin Nafesa, Salahaldin; Alamery, Aliyah H; Alhumaid, Mazen A; AlMuhaidib, Haitham M; Al-Eidan, Fahad A

    2017-02-02

    Antibiotics over-consumption is a pandemic that has a tremendous cost on the overwhelmed healthcare system. The accessibility of antibiotics coupled with the misconception of public toward those drugs both of which implicated in the use and misuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of the community toward antibiotics, its purpose and harmfulness, in addition to the accessibility of those drugs as over the counter and without prescriptions. We also investigated the behavior toward antibiotic prescriptions when perceived unnecessary. This is a cross-sectional study in Riyadh-Saudi Arabia based upon a structured self-administered questionnaire. The study included 473 individuals with a mean age of 27 years old. Forty eight percent (n=227) of the participants obtain antibiotics without prescriptions. Ninety two percent (n=208) of those noted pharmacist counseling as their method of acquisition. Self-prescription noted in 8.4% (n=19). Viral illnesses accounted for the highest percentage for seeking antibiotics in 35.5% (n=166) more commonly among females. Thirty one point eight percent (n=149) used antibiotics for analgesia while 13.7% (n=64) believed in their prophylactic use. We also noted that the prevalence of sharing antibiotics is 19.7%. The perceived unnecessary prescriptions uncovered 122 of the participants who reported throwing the prescribed antibiotics away after acquisition. Dispensing antibiotics without prescription is an issue that mandates a political intervention and implementation of the existing laws that prohibit dispensing without proper prescription. We advocate public health measures targeting both healthcare providers and the public on the use and misuse of antibiotics.

  17. Over-the-counter treatments and perineal hygiene in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Martin, Deanna K.; Brousseau, E. Christine; Yip, Sallis O.; Fried, Terri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this descriptive study was to quantify the personal hygiene habits/practices and over-the-counter (OTC) products used by postmenopausal women. Specifically, we were interested in any product that would contact the vulva or vagina. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of postmenopausal women seeking routine gynecologic care. We developed questionnaire of personal hygiene habits/practices and OTC products used by women that would contact the vulva or vagina. We recruited postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care from two separate gynecology practices. Descriptive statistics were performed as appropriate to characterize the frequency of reported treatments and practices. Results The questionnaire on OTC treatments and perineal hygiene was completed by 114 postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight women (50.9%) reported using at least one OTC vulvovaginal treatment in the last three months, including barrier treatments, topical anesthetics, powders, and antifungals. Women often used more than one OTC product. Thirty-seven women (32.5%) reported the use of two or more OTC products. Powders were used by 34 women (29.8%). Talcum powder was the most commonly used powder (76.5%, n/N = 26/34). Nine (7.9%) postmenopausal women reported douching in the last three months. Conclusions We found that over half of postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care have used an OTC product for vulvovaginal symptoms in the last three months and 1/3 of women use 2 or more products. Because the use of OTC products is so common, our study highlights the need for detailed history inquiry about OTC product use and perineal hygiene practices. PMID:23880795

  18. The Impact of Restricting Over-the-Counter Sales of Antimicrobial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Maria Luísa; Boszczowski, Icaro; Mortari, Naíma; Barrozo, Lígia Vizeu; Neto, Francisco Chiaravalloti; Lobo, Renata Desordi; Pedroso de Lima, Antonio Carlos; Levin, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To describe the nationwide impact of a restrictive law on over-the-counter sales of antimicrobial drugs, implemented in Brazil in November 2010. Approximately 75% of the population receives healthcare from the public health system and receives free-of-charge medication if prescribed. Total sales in private pharmacies as compared with other channels of sales of oral antibiotics were evaluated in this observational study before and after the law (2008–2012). Defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) was used as standard unit. In private pharmacies the effect of the restrictive law was statistically significant (P < 0.001) with an estimated decrease in DDD/TID of 1.87 (s.e. =  0.18). In addition, the trend of DDD/TID before the restrictive law was greater than after the intervention (P < 0.001). Before November 2010, the slope for the trend line was estimated as 0.08 (s.e. = 0.01) whereas after the law, the estimated slope was 0.03 (s.e. = 0.01). As for the nonprivate channels, no difference in sales was observed (P = 0.643). The impact in the South and Southeast (more developed) regions was higher than in the North, Northeast, and Mid-West. The state capitals had a 19% decrease, compared with 0.8% increase in the rest of the states. Before the law, the sales of antimicrobial drugs were steadily increasing. From November 2010, with the restrictive law, there was an abrupt drop in sales followed by an increase albeit at a significantly lower rate. The impact was higher in regions with better socio-economic status. PMID:26402824

  19. 76 FR 38975 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 201 (formerly Docket No. 1978N-0038) RIN 0910-AF43 Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human...

  20. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy. 310.532 Section... prostatic hypertrophy. (a) The amino acids glycine, alanine, and glutamic acid (alone or in combination) and... of benign prostatic hypertrophy, e.g., urinary urgency and frequency, excessive urinating at...

  1. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is that the product will have a therapeutic or some other physiological effect on the body. Therefore... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. 310.530 Section 310.530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  2. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is that the product will have a therapeutic or some other physiological effect on the body. Therefore... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. 310.530 Section 310.530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  3. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is that the product will have a therapeutic or some other physiological effect on the body. Therefore... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. 310.530 Section 310.530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  4. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is that the product will have a therapeutic or some other physiological effect on the body. Therefore... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. 310.530 Section 310.530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  5. Over the Counter, under the Radar: Inequitably Distributing New York City's Late-Enrolling High School Students. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Toi Sin; Fruchter, Norm; Mokhtar, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Every year, some 36,000 students who enroll in New York City high schools without participating in the high school choice process are labeled as "over-the-counter" or OTC students and are assigned a school by the New York City Department of Education (DOE). These young people are among the school system's highest-needs students: new…

  6. Over the Counter, under the Radar: Inequitably Distributing New York City's Late-Enrolling High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Toi Sin; Fruchter, Norm; Mokhtar, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Every year, some 36,000 students who enroll in New York City high schools without participating in the high school choice process are labeled as "over-the-counter" or OTC students and are assigned a school by the New York City Department of Education (DOE). These young people are among the school system's highest-needs students: new…

  7. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores... the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. (a) l-lysine (lysine, lysine hydrochloride), Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus have been present in orally administered OTC...

  8. 76 FR 35619 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this document to address labeling and effectiveness testing for certain over-the counter (OTC) sunscreen products containing specified active ingredients and marketed without approved applications. This document addresses labeling and effectiveness testing issues raised by the nearly 2,900 submissions that we received in response to the......

  9. 76 FR 35678 - SPF Labeling and Testing Requirements and Drug Facts Labeling for Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 201 and 310 SPF Labeling and Testing... solicits comments on SPF labeling and testing requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen products... of information technology. SPF Labeling and Testing Requirements for OTC Sunscreen...

  10. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale. 201.308 Section 201.308 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of choice. The immediate availability of this drug for...

  11. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310...) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. (a) Colloidal silver ingredients and silver salts have... treatment or prevention of any disease. These ingredients and salts include, but are not limited to,...

  12. 31 CFR 359.34 - May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series I... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Definitive Series I Savings Bonds § 359.34 May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter? You may purchase definitive bonds...

  13. 31 CFR 359.34 - May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series I... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Definitive Series I Savings Bonds § 359.34 May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter? Effective January 1, 2012, Treasury discontinued the...

  14. 31 CFR 359.34 - May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series I... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Definitive Series I Savings Bonds § 359.34 May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter? You may purchase definitive bonds...

  15. 31 CFR 351.46 - May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series EE... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Definitive Series EE Savings Bonds § 351.46 May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds over-the-counter? You may purchase definitive bonds...

  16. 31 CFR 351.46 - May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series EE... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Definitive Series EE Savings Bonds § 351.46 May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds over-the-counter? You may purchase definitive bonds...

  17. 31 CFR 351.46 - May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series EE... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Definitive Series EE Savings Bonds § 351.46 May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds over-the-counter? Effective January 1, 2012,...

  18. 31 CFR 351.46 - May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series EE... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Definitive Series EE Savings Bonds § 351.46 May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds over-the-counter? Effective January 1, 2012,...

  19. 31 CFR 351.46 - May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series EE... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Definitive Series EE Savings Bonds § 351.46 May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds over-the-counter? Effective January 1, 2012,...

  20. 31 CFR 359.34 - May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series I... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Definitive Series I Savings Bonds § 359.34 May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter? Effective January 1, 2012, Treasury discontinued the...

  1. 31 CFR 359.34 - May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I purchase definitive Series I... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Definitive Series I Savings Bonds § 359.34 May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds over-the-counter? Effective January 1, 2012, Treasury discontinued the...

  2. To the Federal Trade Commission in the Matter of a Trade Regulation Rule on Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Children, Media, and Merchandising, Washington, DC.

    This report supports amending the proposed Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Rule on Over-the Counter (OTC) Drug Advertising to insure better protection for children, illiterate populations, the deaf and the blind, from advertising on the air-waves. Several points are addressed: (1) the difficulties of combining the rule making schedules of the Food…

  3. 78 FR 68854 - Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products-Emergency Use Eyewash Products; Rescheduling of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products--Emergency Use... Wednesday, September 18, 2013. Based on a request received by the Agency, we are rescheduling the public... Webcast location will be posted on the Web page at http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/NewsEvents/ucm356526.htm...

  4. Impact of Over-the-Counter Restrictions on Antibiotic Consumption in Brazil and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Dreser, Anahi; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; Wirtz, Veronika J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In Latin American countries over-the-counter (OTC) dispensing of antibiotics is common. In 2010, both Mexico and Brazil implemented policies to enforce existing laws of restricting consumption of antibiotics only to patients presenting a prescription. The objective of the present study is therefore to evaluate the impact of OTC restrictions (2010) on antibiotics consumption in Brazil and Mexico. Methods and Findings Retail quarterly sales data in kilograms of oral and injectable antibiotics between January 2007 and June 2012 for Brazil and Mexico were obtained from IMS Health. The unit of analysis for antibiotics consumption was the defined daily dose per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) according to the WHO ATC classification system. Interrupted time series analysis was conducted using antihypertensives as reference group to account for changes occurring independently of the OTC restrictions directed at antibiotics. To reduce the effect of (a) seasonality and (b) autocorrelation, dummy variables and Prais-Winsten regression were used respectively. Between 2007 and 2012 total antibiotic usage increased in Brazil (from 5.7 to 8.5 DDD/TID, +49.3%) and decreased in Mexico (10.5 to 7.5 DDD/TID, −29.2%). Interrupted time series analysis showed a change in level of consumption of −1.35 DDD/TID (p<0.01) for Brazil and −1.17 DDD/TID (p<0.00) for Mexico. In Brazil the penicillins, sulfonamides and macrolides consumption had a decrease in level after the intervention of 0.64 DDD/TID (p = 0.02), 0.41 (p = 0.02) and 0.47 (p = 0.01) respectively. While in Mexico it was found that only penicillins and sulfonamides had significant changes in level of −0.86 DDD/TID (p<0.00) and −0.17 DDD/TID (p = 0.07). Conclusions Despite different overall usage patterns of antibiotics in Brazil and Mexico, the effect of the OTC restrictions on antibiotics usage was similar. In Brazil the trend of increased usage of antibiotics was tempered after the OTC

  5. Diethylene glycol in health products sold over-the-counter and imported from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Schier, Joshua G; Barr, Dana B; Li, Zheng; Wolkin, Amy F; Baker, Samuel E; Lewis, Lauren S; McGeehin, Michael A

    2011-03-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG), a chemical that has been implicated in multiple medication-associated mass poisonings, can result in renal and neurological toxicity if ingested. Three previous such mass poisonings implicated Chinese manufacturers as the origin of contaminated ingredients. No literature exists on potential DEG or triethylene glycol (TEG), a related compound, contamination of health products imported from Asian countries to the USA. Our primary objective was to quantitatively assess the amount of DEG present in a convenience sampling of these health products. The study's secondary objectives were to: (1) evaluate for, and quantify TEG levels in these samples; (2) compare DEG and TEG levels in these products directly to levels in medications implicated in previous similar mass poisonings; and (3) to estimate DEG dose (in mg/kg) based on the manufacturer's instructions and compare these values to toxic doses from past mass poisonings and the literature. A quantitative assessment of DEG and TEG was performed in a convenience sampling of over-the-counter health products imported from Asian countries. Results were converted to volume to volume (v/v) % and compared with DEG levels in medications implicated in previous mass poisonings. Estimated doses (based on the manufacturer's instructions) of each product with detectable levels of DEG for a 70 kg adult were compared to toxic doses of DEG reported in the literature. Seventeen of 85 (20%) samples were not able to be analyzed for DEG or TEG due to technical reasons. Fifteen of 68 (22%) samples successfully tested had detectable levels of DEG (mean, 18.8 μg/ml; range, 0.791-110.1 μg/ml; and volume to volume (v/v) range, 0.00007-0.01%). Two of 68 (3%) samples had TEG levels of 12.8 and 20.2 μg/ml or 0.0012% and 0.0018% TEG v/v. The product with the highest DEG% by v/v was 810 times less than the product involved in the Panama DEG mass poisoning (8.1%). The lowest reported toxic dose from a past DEG mass

  6. A Guide to the Ingredients and Potential Benefits of Over-the-Counter Cleansers and Moisturizers for Rosacea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Richard

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult for rosacea patients to discern which products and ingredients will be beneficial to their skin and which products will lead to an exacerbation of the signs and symptoms of rosacea. In this paper, the authors provide a brief overview of rosacea, its pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, and the management of the two major rosacea subtypes—erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. Reviewed in greater detail are the common ingredients used in over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers with discussion of how these ingredients potentially benefit or harm the skin of patients with rosacea. Clinical studies investigating the benefits of using certain over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers in patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea with or without topical prescription therapy are also reviewed. The specific formulas used in the clinical studies include a sensitive skin synthetic detergent bar, a nonalkaline cleanser and moisturizer, polyhydroxy acid containing cleanser and moisturizer, and a ceramide-based cleanser and moisturizer formulated in a multivesicular emulsion. Based on review of available data, the authors conclude that the use of mild over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers is beneficial for patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. The properties of over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers that contribute to their mildness include an acidic-neutral pH to minimize the flux in skin pH; surfactants or emulsifiers that will not strip the skin of its moisture or strip the lipids and proteins of the stratum corneum; moisturizing ingredients such as emollients, humectants, and occlusives; and formulas without potential irritants and allergens. The most consistent clinical benefits demonstrated in the reviewed studies were a subjectively perceived improvement in subjective symptoms of dryness and irritation as well as an objective improvement in

  7. Food and Drug Administration Review and Action on Over-the-Counter Time and Extent Applications. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-11-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is amending its nonprescription (over-the-counter or OTC) drug regulations. This final rule supplements the time and extent application (TEA) process for OTC drugs by establishing timelines and performance metrics for FDA's review of non-sunscreen TEAs, as required by the Sunscreen Innovation Act (SIA). It also amends the existing TEA process to include filing determination and withdrawal provisions to make the TEA process more efficient.

  8. Factors influencing consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer and over-the-counter drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mina; Whitehill King, Karen; Reid, Leonard N

    2015-04-01

    Using a model developed from the research literature, the authors compared consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DCTA) and over-the-counter nonprescription drug advertising (OTCA) of drugs. Adults 18 years of age and older who had taken any prescription drugs in the past 6 months completed online survey questionnaires. Variables measured included demographics (age, gender, race, education, and income), health-related characteristics (health status, prescription and over-the-counter drug use, health consciousness, and involvement with prescription or over-the-counter drugs), perceived amount of attention and exposure to DTCA and OTCA, attitudinal outcomes (skepticism toward DTCA/OTCA and attitude toward DTCA/OTCA), and behavioral outcomes triggered by DTCA and OTCA. The findings indicate that exposure to drug advertising is one of the most significant predictors of attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Some audience factors such as health status, involvement with drugs, health consciousness, drug use, income, and age also were differentially associated with consumer responses to drug advertising.

  9. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. 310.529 Section 310.529 Food and Drugs... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. (a) Thiamine hydrochloride... insect repellent (an orally administered drug product intended to keep insects away). There is a lack...

  10. “Just Advil”: Harm reduction and identity construction in the consumption of Over-The-Counter medication for chronic pain Social Science & Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer marketing has sparked ongoing debate concerning whether ads empower consumers to be agents of their own care or shift greater control to the pharmaceutical industry. Ads for over-the-counter (OTC) medications in particular portend to offer simple, harmless solutions for meeting the demands of social life. Rather than join the longstanding debate between consumer agency and social control in pharmaceutical advertising, I approach self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics using Harm Reduction as a framework. From this perspective, consumption of OTC analgesics by chronic pain sufferers is a means of seeking some level of relief while also avoiding the stigma associated with prescription pain medication. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data from two sources: (1) semi-structured qualitative interviews with 95 participants in a trial examining the effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) from 2006 to 2011 in Tucson, AZ and Portland, OR; and (2) print, online, and television advertisements for three major brands of OTC pain medication. Participants described their use of OTC medications as minimal, responsible, and justified by the severity of their pain. OTC medication advertising, while ostensibly ambiguous and targeting all forms of pain, effectively lends support to the consumption of these medication as part of the self-projects of chronic pain sufferers, allowing them to reconcile conflicting demands for pain relief while being stoic and maintaining a positive moral identity. Describing OTC medication as “just over-the-counter” or “not real pain medication,” sufferers engage in ideological harm reduction, distinguishing themselves from “those people who like taking pain medication” while still seeking relief. Justifying one’s use of OTC medication as minimal and “normal,” regardless of intake, avoids association with the addictive potential of prescription pain

  11. Over the counter (OTC) artificial tear drops for dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pucker, Andrew D; Ng, Sueko M; Nichols, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the counter (OTC) artificial tears historically have been the first line of treatment for dry eye syndrome and dry eye-related conditions like contact lens discomfort, yet currently we know little regarding the overall efficacy of individual, commercially available artificial tears. This review provides a much needed meta-analytical look at all randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials that have analyzed head-to-head comparisons of OTC artificial tears. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of OTC artificial tear applications in the treatment of dry eye syndrome compared with another class of OTC artificial tears, no treatment, or placebo. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to December 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) and the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) website (www.fda.gov). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 December 2015. We searched reference lists of included trials for any additional trials not identified by the electronic searches. Selection criteria This review includes randomized controlled trials with adult participants who were diagnosed with dry eye, regardless of race and gender. We included trials in which the age of participants was not reported, and clinical trials comparing OTC artificial tears with another class of OTC artificial tears, placebo, or no treatment. This review did not

  12. Effect of various tooth whitening modalities on microhardness, surface roughness and surface morphology of the enamel.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Kurti, Steven R; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Li, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of four whitening modalities on surface enamel as assessed with microhardness tester, profilometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter (OTC), dentist dispensed for home use (HW) and in-office (OW) whitening. Do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for microhardness testing at baseline and post-whitening. Following microhardness testing specimens were prepared for SEM observations. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for surface roughness testing at baseline and post-whitening (n = 20 per group). Rank-based Analysis of Covariance was performed to compare microhardness and surface roughness changes. Tests of hypotheses were two-sided with α = 0.05. There was a significant difference in Knoop hardness changes (ΔKHN) among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Significant hardness reduction was observed in the positive control and DIY group (p < 0.0001). Mean surface roughness changes (ΔRa) were significantly different among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Surface roughness increased in the OTC group (p = 0.03) and in the positive control (p < 0.0001). The four whitening modalities-DIY, OTC, HW and OW induced minimal surface morphology changes when observed with SEM. It can be concluded that none of the four whitening modalities adversely affected enamel surface morphology. However, caution should be advised when using a DIY regimen as it may affect enamel microhardness and an OTC product as it has the potential to increase surface roughness.

  13. Tooth whitening in children.

    PubMed

    Donly, Kevin J; Donly, Adriana Segura; Baharloo, Laila; Rojas-Candelas, Edith; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Zhou, Xiaojie; Gerlach, Robert W

    2002-01-01

    Although there are several case reports of vital tooth bleaching in children, there is limited clinical trial evidence of the safety or efficacy of this practice. Accordingly, a new clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of 2 different bleaching systems, a 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip system and a 10% carbamide peroxide tray system, in a population of preteens and teens. A total of 106 volunteers, aged 11 to 18 years, took part in this 8-week study. Patients were randomized by a ratio of 2:1 to the strip or tray groups, with each group treating the maxillary arch first and then the mandibular arch for 4 consecutive weeks each. Individuals assigned to the strip group used the system twice daily for 30 minutes (a total of 56 contact hours over the 8-week study). Those assigned to the tray group used that system overnight (approximately 448 contact hours). Digital images were obtained at baseline and after every 2-week treatment period. Average tooth color was determined in L*, a*, b* color space, where L* indicated lightness, a* indicated red-green, and b* indicated yellow-blue. Both systems significantly whitened teeth (P < 0.0001). While there were no significant differences between groups with respect to the primary whitening response (delta b*) on the maxillary teeth, 4 weeks of overnight treatment with the 10% carbamide peroxide tray (approximately 224 contact hours) yielded statistically significant whitening (P < 0.05) on the mandibular teeth compared with the 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip used for 28 hours. Both tooth-whitening systems had similar sensitivity/irritation reported after instructed use. This research demonstrates that tooth whitening in teens may be safely accomplished using either the short-contact-time hydrogen peroxide bleaching strips or the overnight carbamide peroxide tray systems tested in this study.

  14. Intoxication with over-the-counter antitussive medication containing dihydrocodeine and chlorpheniramine causes generalized convulsion and mixed acidosis.

    PubMed

    Murao, Satoshi; Manabe, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Tetsuji; Sekikawa, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    We report a 35-year-old man who was referred to our hospital with generalized convulsion and mixed acidosis presumably caused by abuse of SS-BRON tablets, an over-the-counter (OTC) antitussive medication sold in Japan. These tablets contain dihydrocodeine phosphate, methylephedrine, chlorpheniramine, and caffeine. Although it is difficult to discern which component caused these symptoms, it seems that dihydrocodeine phosphate or methylephedrine was involved in the addiction to SS-BRON and chlorpheniramine may have caused the generalized convulsion. It should be recognized that an OTC antitussive, which is quite easy to obtain, can be abused and subsequently induce serious intoxication.

  15. Anti-calculus and whitening toothpastes.

    PubMed

    van Loveren, Cor; Duckworth, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    In terms of novel formulations, there seems to have been a shift in emphasis from anti-caries/anti-gingivitis to anti-calculus/whitening toothpastes in recent years. The anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes are to some extent based on the same active ingredients: compounds of high affinity for tooth mineral. Due to this affinity, crystal growth may be hindered (anti-calculus) and chromophores be displaced (whitening). Besides these common ingredients, both types of toothpaste may contain agents specifically aimed at each condition. Clinical studies have shown that these active ingredients can be successfully formulated in fluoride toothpastes to give significant reductions in supragingival calculus and stain formation and facilitate their removal. Some of the ingredients are formulated in toothpastes that additionally contain anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis ingredients, making these toothpastes (together with the fluoride) truly multi-functional. The development of these products is not straightforward because of interaction between formulation components and because the active ingredients must maintain their beneficial characteristics during the shelf life of the paste. Neither a therapeutic benefit (in terms of less gingivitis or less caries) nor a societal benefit (in terms of less treatment demand) has been demonstrated as a result of the anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes.

  16. Over-the-Counter and Out-of-Control: Legal Strategies to Protect Youths From Abusing Products for Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lisa M.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of widely available, over-the-counter drugs and supplements such as laxatives and diet pills for weight control by youths is well documented in the epidemiological literature. Many such products are not medically recommended for healthy weight control or are especially susceptible to abuse, and their misuse can result in serious health consequences. We analyzed the government’s role in regulating these products to protect public health. We examined federal and state regulatory authority, and referred to international examples to inform our analysis. Several legal interventions are indicated to protect youths, including increased warnings and restrictions on access through behind-the-counter placement or age verification. We suggest future directions for governments internationally to address this pervasive public health problem. PMID:23237149

  17. Over-the-counter but out of reach: a pharmacy-based survey of OTC syringe sales in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pollini, Robin A; Gallardo, Manuel; Ruiz, Serena; Case, Patricia; Zaller, Nickolas; Lozada, Remedios

    2014-05-01

    Sterile syringe access is critical to HIV prevention efforts targeting injection drug users (IDUs) but some pharmacies do not sell syringes over-the-counter (OTC) even where such sales are legal. We conducted a pharmacy survey in Tijuana, Mexico (where OTC sales are legal) to characterize attitudes toward syringe sales and to explore support for expanding pharmacy-based HIV prevention efforts. Of 203 respondents, 28% supported OTC syringe sales to IDUs and 74% said their pharmacy required a prescription for at least some syringe sales. Support for OTC syringe sales was independently associated with selling OTC syringes, understanding the role of sterile syringes in HIV prevention, and recognizing pharmacies as an important health resource for IDUs. Most respondents supported an expanded role for pharmacies in HIV prevention, exclusive of OTC syringe sales. Our study provides information for developing interventions to promote OTC syringe sales and expanding pharmacy-based distribution of HIV-related information and resources.

  18. Safety implications of transferring the oral contraceptive from prescription-only to over-the-counter status.

    PubMed

    Potts, M; Denny, C

    1995-12-01

    The idea of making oral contraceptives available without prescription has a long history, and has been recently revived in the US and the UK. High dose oral contraceptives have generally been replaced by low dose formulations and, subsequently, most cardiovascular risks have been reduced and a protection against ovarian and uterine cancers has been consistently demonstrated. Oral contraceptive compliance, however, continues to be a problem, but there is no reason to assume that wise practice would be any more or less if oral contraceptives were available over-the-counter (OTC). Some countries have introduced alternatives to prescription-only oral contraceptives, whereby nurses, midwives, social workers and/or pharmacists are incorporated into the distribution process. This article concludes that the balance of risks and benefits is in favour of OTC access for oral contraceptives.

  19. Usage of Over-the-Counter and Herbal Products in Common Cold in Poland: Findings from Consumer Survey.

    PubMed

    Karlowicz-Bodalska, K; Miśkiewicz, K; Kurpas, D; Han, S; Kowalczyk, A; Marciniak, D; Dryś, A; Glomb, T; Cedzich, S; Broniecka, U; Kuchar, E

    2016-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are usually self-treated with synthetic and herbal over-the-counter products. The aim of the study was to assess the reasons for the purchase of those medications in Poland. We examined 413 adults, aged 18 and over (70.5% of them were women) using a questionnaire. The findings demonstrate that oral synthetic products were used by 76% of respondents, while herbal products by 30%. Synthetic products were used mainly by educated people under 65 years of age, students, and the employed. Herbal products were used mainly by older people. In conclusion, synthetic products against common cold are perceived as more effective. Such medications are used by people who probably would like to recover and return to professional activity as quickly as possible. As they generally use more medications, they are at increased risk of adverse effects resulting from drug interactions, and they should be a target group for health education programs.

  20. Occurrence of phthalate esters in over-the-counter medicines from China and its implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lu-Lu; Lou, Xiang-Ying; Guo, Ying; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-01-01

    Food, air, personal care products and indoor dust have been recognized as the main routes of exposure to phthalates in Chinese population, but other sources may have been overlooked, e.g., medicines. To fill the knowledge gap, phthalate esters were measured in 96 over-the-counter medicines made in China, including selected 71 Chinese patented medicines and 25 western medicines. It was found that none of the medicines was free of phthalates. The mean concentrations of individual phthalates ranged from 0.001μg/g (dicyclohexyl phthalate) to 5.85μg/g (diethyl phthalate). Among 9 targeted phthalates, di-n-butyl phthalate was the dominant congener, accounting for >65% of the total phthalates in all medicine samples, followed by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diethyl phthalate. Phthalates in medicines appeared to derive from gastroresistant film coatings, plastic packing materials or phthalate contaminated rural herbal plants (especially for Chinese patented medicines). Daily human exposure to phthalates was estimated for local patients for one treatment cycle (e.g., one week) based on suggested consumption dosage and phthalate concentrations. Almost all exposure levels were below the guidelines suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency or European Food Safety Authority, indicating low health risk with phthalates from consumption of the medicines. In addition, concentration levels of phthalates in patients would increase upon administration but are expected to decrease to the same values as those in patients before they took medicines in several days. Because the number of medicine samples was limited and the concentrations of phthalates varied in a large range, further investigations are needed to acquire more data for better assessment of human health effects for Chinese population. Capsule: Distribution of phthalate esters in over-the-counter medicines and related exposure for Chinese population are examined.

  1. Ex vivo effectiveness of French over-the-counter products against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1778).

    PubMed

    Combescot-Lang, Catherine; Vander Stichele, Robert H; Toubate, Berthine; Veirron, Emilie; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is still a public health problem worldwide, with an intracountry and intercountry prevalence variation of 0.7 to 59%. There is a large variety of over-the-counter anti-louse products, but their efficacy is not always well assessed. Our objective was to test the pediculicidal and ovicidal efficacy of 21 over-the-counter head louse products, available in France during the period of 2008 to 2012. We tested children living in Tours City in central France and visiting preschools, primary schools, kindergarten, camps, and child care facilities, as well as children in their family houses, and were examined for the presence of lice. The products were collected from randomly selected pharmacies by covert investigators and then tested in the laboratory on an ex vivo sample of head lice and their eggs, collected from the hair of infested children. Living lice and unharmed eggs were collected from the scalps of 3-12 years old. The laboratory conditions for ex vivo testing mimicked the manufacturers' instructions for exposure time and application method. In 21 runs, 3919 living lice and 4321 undamaged living eggs were collected from the scalp of over 400 children. The 21 products were classified in three groups: 6 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity and potentially 100% ovicidal activity, 8 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity but insufficient ovicidal activity (including 2 products with claims of single application treatment), and 7 products in a group of insufficient pediculicidal activity and ovicidal activity. The pharmaceutical market for head lice products in France is swamped with poorly tested and ineffective products. Rigorous efficacy testing preregistration and periodic screening and testing of effectiveness in the post-registration period should be endorsed by the health authorities.

  2. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin.

  3. Popularity and customer preferences for over-the-counter Chinese medicines perceived by community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou: a questionnaire survey study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study interviewed community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou for their perception of the popular categories of over-the-counter (OTC) Chinese medicines and the factors affecting customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in six main administrative districts in Guangzhou and eight main administrative districts in Shanghai, China. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted in this study. Results OTC Chinese medicines contributed 21–50% among all the pharmaceutical sales by the community pharmacies. The prevalent categories of OTC Chinese medicines were common cold medicines, respiratory system medicines, digestive system agents, gynecological medicines, health tonic medicines, and qing re (heat-clearing) and qu du (detoxifying) medicines. Customers were more concerned about medical factors of OTC Chinese medicines than business factors. Among the medical factors, the most important was drug safety, followed by efficacy, contraindications, indications, and side effects. Among the business factors, the most important were brand and price. Conclusions This study identified the top sales categories of OTC Chinese medicines in Shanghai and Guangzhou and the important factors such as drug safety, efficacy, period of validity, contraindications, and indications that are affecting the customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. PMID:25243017

  4. Investigation of social, demographic and health variations in the usage of prescribed and over-the-counter medicines within a large cohort (South Yorkshire, UK)

    PubMed Central

    Green, Mark A; Little, Emma; Cooper, Richard; Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Prescribed and over-the-counter (non-prescribed) medicine usage has increased in recent years; however, there has been less investigation of the socioeconomic predictors of use. This has been due to a lack of data, especially for over-the-counter medicines. Our study aims to understand how prescribed and over-the-counter medicine patterns vary by demographic, social and health characteristics within a large population cohort. Design Cross-sectional data analysis. Setting South Yorkshire, UK. Participants 27 806 individuals from wave 1 of the Yorkshire Health Study (2010–2012). Measures Individuals self-reported each medicine they were taking and whether each was prescribed or not. The medicines were grouped into 14 categories (eg, cardiovascular system, infection, contraception). Negative binomial regression models were used to analyse the count of medicine usage. We included demographic (age, gender, ethnicity), social (education), health-related (body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) factors and chronic health conditions (eg, stroke, anxiety and heart disease) in our analyses. Results 49% of men and 62% of women were taking medicine with the majority of this prescribed (88% and 83%, respectively). Health conditions were found to be positively associated with prescribed medicine usage, but mixed in their associated with over-the-counter medicines. Educational attainment was negatively associated with prescribed and positively associated with over-the-counter usage. Conclusions Our study addresses a dearth of evidence to provide new insights into how behaviours in medicine usage vary by demographic, social and health-related factors. Differences in over-the-counter medicine usage by educational attainment may help our understanding of the determinants of health inequalities. PMID:27683515

  5. Over-the-Counter Relief From Pains and Pleasures Alike: Acetaminophen Blunts Evaluation Sensitivity to Both Negative and Positive Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Durso, Geoffrey R O; Luttrell, Andrew; Way, Baldwin M

    2015-06-01

    Acetaminophen, an effective and popular over-the-counter pain reliever (e.g., the active ingredient in Tylenol), has recently been shown to blunt individuals' reactivity to a range of negative stimuli in addition to physical pain. Because accumulating research has shown that individuals' reactivity to both negative and positive stimuli can be influenced by a single factor (an idea known as differential susceptibility), we conducted two experiments testing whether acetaminophen blunted individuals' evaluations of and emotional reactions to both negative and positive images from the International Affective Picture System. Participants who took acetaminophen evaluated unpleasant stimuli less negatively and pleasant stimuli less positively, compared with participants who took a placebo. Participants in the acetaminophen condition also rated both negative and positive stimuli as less emotionally arousing than did participants in the placebo condition (Studies 1 and 2), whereas nonevaluative ratings (extent of color saturation in each image; Study 2) were not affected by drug condition. These findings suggest that acetaminophen has a general blunting effect on individuals' evaluative and emotional processing, irrespective of negative or positive valence.

  6. [Adverse Event Trends Associated with Over-the-counter Drugs: Data Mining of the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database].

    PubMed

    Umetsu, Ryogo; Abe, Junko; Ueda, Natsumi; Kato, Yamato; Nakayama, Yoko; Kinosada, Yasutomi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs play an important role in self-medication. To ensure patient safety, pharmacists should ask patients to pay attention to possible adverse events (AE) associated with OTC drugs and educate patients about the symptoms related to those AEs. The aims of the present study were as follows: (1) to assess the tendency of AEs to occur with OTC drug use in Japan; (2) to detect a safety signal for OTC drugs using the reporting odds ratio (ROR); and (3) to evaluate clustery features, which include suspected drugs and therapeutic classifications, and safety signal indices (number of reports and the ROR), using cluster analysis. The number of reports of AEs following use of combination cold remedy, antipyretic and analgesic remedy, and herbal medicine was 1007, 566, and 221, respectively. We set the cluster number at five; clustery features obtained were as follows: (1) high reporting rate for skin and subcutaneous tissue disorder AEs was the largest group related to combination cold remedy; (2) high reporting rate for nervous system disorder AEs including dizziness was the second largest group. The same medicinal ingredient may demonstrate similar tendencies of the occurrence of AEs and similar clustery features in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database. Our analysis of AEs associated with OTC drugs may be useful for pharmacists and patients alike. Further studies are required to draw better-informed conclusions.

  7. Over the counter drugs (and dietary supplement) exercise: a team-based introduction to biochemistry for health professional students.

    PubMed

    Phadtare, Sangita; Abali, Emine; Brodsky, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    For successful delivery of basic science topics for health-professional students, it is critical to reduce apprehension and illustrate relevance to clinical settings and everyday life. At the beginning of the Biochemistry course for Physician Assistants, a team-based assignment was designed to develop an understanding of the mechanism of action, effectiveness, and toxicity of five common over the counter (OTC) drugs and dietary supplements, and place these familiar medicines in a political and historical context. The objectives of this exercise were to stimulate interest in biochemistry; to provide basic information on enzymes and enzyme inhibitors related to these drugs to be expanded upon later in the course; and to encourage active and interactive learning. Teams of five students were formed, and each student was given an information sheet on aspirin, alpha-galactosidase, orlistat, dextromethorphan, or simvastatin, a low dose statin, which was previously available without prescription at pharmacies in the UK. After each member of the team acquired information on one OTC drug/dietary supplement by reading an assigned information sheet, the team was asked to go through a series of questions, and then submit answers to a quiz as a group. A high rate of success on the quiz, an overwhelmingly positive response on formal course evaluations, and enthusiastic exchanges during class suggested this team-based session accomplished its goals.

  8. JAAD online. Over-the-counter scar products for postsurgical patients: disparities between online advertised benefits and evidence regarding efficacy.

    PubMed

    Morganroth, Pamela; Wilmot, Alissa Cowden; Miller, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    Surgical patients frequently read about over-the-counter (OTC) scar products online and ask physicians for advice about product use. We summarized the characteristics of the 20 best-selling scar products on the Web site drugstore.com and reviewed the medical literature for data supporting the efficacy of OTC scar products used on fresh postsurgical wounds. Products had an average price of $16.25 (range $9.49-$59.99) and an average of 9.2 ingredients (range 1-29). Silicone, vitamin E, and onion extract were common ingredients. Although weak evidence indicates that silicone gel dressings may improve postsurgical scar appearance, published evidence does not support postoperative use of most scar products. However, many products have multiple ingredients, and few clinical trials assess the ingredient combinations of specific products. The practical information about OTC scar products and published efficacy data found in this review may help physicians to counsel patients about postsurgical product use and counter unrealistic expectations gained from online advertisements.

  9. Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 3: Paediatric deaths associated with over the counter cough and cold medicines.

    PubMed

    Deschler, Deanna; Judge, Bryan

    2014-02-01

    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether over the counter cough and cold medicines were associated with unexpected deaths in childhood. 115 papers were found using the reported searches, of which three presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of those best papers are tabulated. It is concluded that while over the counter cough and cold medications may be associated with unexpected paediatric deaths, the degree of risk is not clear.

  10. Quantitative determination of a-Arbutin, ß-Arbutin, Kojic acid, nicotinamide, hydroquinone, resorcinol, 4-methoxyphenol, 4-ethoxyphenol and ascorbic acid from skin whitening Products by HPLC-UV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multifarious skin whitening agents will provide an efficient tool to analyze skin whitening cosmetics. An HPLC-UV method was developed for quantitative analysis of six commonly used whitening agents, a-arbutin, ß-arbutin, koji...

  11. Is wetter better? An evaluation of over-the-counter personal lubricants for safety and anti-HIV-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Dezzutti, Charlene S; Brown, Elizabeth R; Moncla, Bernard; Russo, Julie; Cost, Marilyn; Wang, Lin; Uranker, Kevin; Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Ratiya P; Pryke, Kara; Pickett, Jim; Leblanc, Marc-André; Rohan, Lisa C

    2012-01-01

    Because lubricants may decrease trauma during coitus, it is hypothesized that they could aid in the prevention of HIV acquisition. Therefore, safety and anti-HIV-1 activity of over-the-counter (OTC) aqueous- (n = 10), lipid- (n = 2), and silicone-based (n = 2) products were tested. The rheological properties of the lipid-based lubricants precluded testing with the exception of explant safety testing. Six aqueous-based gels were hyperosmolar, two were nearly iso-osmolar, and two were hypo-osmolar. Evaluation of the panel of products showed Gynol II (a spermicidal gel containing 2% nonoxynol-9), KY Jelly, and Replens were toxic to Lactobacillus. Two nearly iso-osmolar aqueous- and both silicone-based gels were not toxic toward epithelial cell lines or ectocervical or colorectal explant tissues. Hyperosmolar lubricants demonstrated reduction of tissue viability and epithelial fracture/sloughing while the nearly iso-osmolar and silicon-based lubricants showed no significant changes in tissue viability or epithelial modifications. While most of the lubricants had no measurable anti-HIV-1 activity, three lubricants which retained cell viability did demonstrate modest anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. To determine if this would result in protection of mucosal tissue or conversely determine if the epithelial damage associated with the hyperosmolar lubricants increased HIV-1 infection ex vivo, ectocervical tissue was exposed to selected lubricants and then challenged with HIV-1. None of the lubricants that had a moderate to high therapeutic index protected the mucosal tissue. These results show hyperosmolar lubricant gels were associated with cellular toxicity and epithelial damage while showing no anti-viral activity. The two iso-osmolar lubricants, Good Clean Love and PRÉ, and both silicone-based lubricants, Female Condom 2 lubricant and Wet Platinum, were the safest in our testing algorithm.

  12. Seasonal variation in penicillin use in Mexico and Brazil: analysis of the impact of over-the-counter restrictions.

    PubMed

    Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2015-01-01

    During 2010, Mexico and Brazil implemented policies to enforce existing laws of restricting over-the-counter sales of antibiotics. We determined if the enforcement led to more appropriate antibiotic use by measuring changes in seasonal variation of penicillin use. We used retail quarterly sales data in defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitant-days (DDD/TID) from IMS Health from the private sector in Mexico and Brazil from the first quarter of 2007 to the first quarter of 2013. This database contains information on volume of antibiotics sold in retail pharmacies using information from wholesalers. We used interrupted time-series models controlling for external factors with the use of antihypertensives with interaction terms to assess changes in trend, level, and variation in use between quarters for total penicillin use and by active substance. The most used penicillin was amoxicillin, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin (minimal use in Brazil). Before the restrictions, the seasonal variation in penicillin use was 1.1 DDD/TID in Mexico and 0.8 DDD/TID in Brazil. In Mexico, we estimated a significant decrease in the seasonal variation of 0.4 DDD/TID after the restriction, mainly due to changes in seasonal variation of amoxicillin and ampicillin. In Brazil, the seasonal variation did not change significantly, overall and in the breakdown by individual active substances. For Mexico, inappropriate penicillin use may have diminished after the restrictions were enforced. For Brazil, increasing use and no change in seasonal variation suggest that further efforts are needed to reduce inappropriate penicillin use.

  13. Is Wetter Better? An Evaluation of Over-the-Counter Personal Lubricants for Safety and Anti-HIV-1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Moncla, Bernard; Russo, Julie; Cost, Marilyn; Wang, Lin; Uranker, Kevin; Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Ratiya P.; Pryke, Kara; Pickett, Jim; LeBlanc, Marc-André; Rohan, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    Because lubricants may decrease trauma during coitus, it is hypothesized that they could aid in the prevention of HIV acquisition. Therefore, safety and anti-HIV-1 activity of over-the-counter (OTC) aqueous- (n = 10), lipid- (n = 2), and silicone-based (n = 2) products were tested. The rheological properties of the lipid-based lubricants precluded testing with the exception of explant safety testing. Six aqueous-based gels were hyperosmolar, two were nearly iso-osmolar, and two were hypo-osmolar. Evaluation of the panel of products showed Gynol II (a spermicidal gel containing 2% nonoxynol-9), KY Jelly, and Replens were toxic to Lactobacillus. Two nearly iso-osmolar aqueous- and both silicone-based gels were not toxic toward epithelial cell lines or ectocervical or colorectal explant tissues. Hyperosmolar lubricants demonstrated reduction of tissue viability and epithelial fracture/sloughing while the nearly iso-osmolar and silicon-based lubricants showed no significant changes in tissue viability or epithelial modifications. While most of the lubricants had no measurable anti-HIV-1 activity, three lubricants which retained cell viability did demonstrate modest anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. To determine if this would result in protection of mucosal tissue or conversely determine if the epithelial damage associated with the hyperosmolar lubricants increased HIV-1 infection ex vivo, ectocervical tissue was exposed to selected lubricants and then challenged with HIV-1. None of the lubricants that had a moderate to high therapeutic index protected the mucosal tissue. These results show hyperosmolar lubricant gels were associated with cellular toxicity and epithelial damage while showing no anti-viral activity. The two iso-osmolar lubricants, Good Clean Love and PRÉ, and both silicone-based lubricants, Female Condom 2 lubricant and Wet Platinum, were the safest in our testing algorithm. PMID:23144863

  14. Medicine reclassification processes and regulations for proper use of over-the-counter self-care medicines in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Kaori; Kitagawa, Yuki; Yuda, Yasukatsu; Takano-Ohmuro, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Japan has actively reclassified substances ranging from prescription drugs to over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in recent years. The sale of most OTC drugs was deregulated several times and pharmacists’ supervision was deemed no longer mandatory. Japan established a new OTC evaluation system in 2015 to hear opinions from various stakeholders regarding medicine types to be reclassified. This study aimed to examine the new framework to identify candidate substances for reclassification. Moreover, we examined how to manage the safe, self-care use of OTC drugs in Japan. Methods The necessary regulatory information on OTC approvals as of January 2015 was collected using an Internet search and relevant databases. To highlight the characteristics of OTC drugs in Japan, the UK was selected as a comparison country because it too was actively promoting the reclassification of medicines from prescription to nonprescription status, and because of economic similarity. Results Japan and the UK have a risk-based classification for nonprescription medicines. Japan has made OTC drugs available with mandatory pharmacists’ supervision, face-to-face with pharmacists, or online instruction, which is similar to the “pharmacy medicine” practiced in the UK. Japan recently reformed the reclassification process to involve physicians and the public in the process; some interactions were back to “prescription-only medicine” in the UK. Conclusion It is expected that the opinion of marketers, medical professionals, and the public will improve the discussion that will greatly contribute to the safe use of drugs. Monitoring the new system will be noteworthy to ensure that OTC drug users are managing their self-care properly and visiting a doctor only when necessary. The supply methods are similar in Japan and the UK; however, the expected growth in the Japanese OTC market by the Cabinet and the industry is still uncertain. PMID:27555801

  15. Simple heuristics in over-the-counter drug choices: a new hint for medical education and practice

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are widely available and often purchased by consumers without advice from a health care provider. Many people rely on self-management of medications to treat common medical conditions. Although OTC medications are regulated by the National and the International Health and Drug Administration, many people are unaware of proper dosing, side effects, adverse drug reactions, and possible medication interactions. Purpose This study examined how subjects make their decisions to select an OTC drug, evaluating the role of cognitive heuristics which are simple and adaptive rules that help the decision-making process of people in everyday contexts. Subjects and methods By analyzing 70 subjects’ information-search and decision-making behavior when selecting OTC drugs, we examined the heuristics they applied in order to assess whether simple decision-making processes were also accurate and relevant. Subjects were tested with a sequence of two experimental tests based on a computerized Java system devised to analyze participants’ choices in a virtual environment. Results We found that subjects’ information-search behavior reflected the use of fast and frugal heuristics. In addition, although the heuristics which correctly predicted subjects’ decisions implied significantly fewer cues on average than the subjects did in the information-search task, they were accurate in describing order of information search. A simple combination of a fast and frugal tree and a tallying rule predicted more than 78% of subjects’ decisions. Conclusion The current emphasis in health care is to shift some responsibility onto the consumer through expansion of self medication. To know which cognitive mechanisms are behind the choice of OTC drugs is becoming a relevant purpose of current medical education. These findings have implications both for the validity of simple heuristics describing information searches in the field of OTC drug choices and

  16. Purchasing Over-the-counter medicines from Australian pharmacy: What do the pharmacy customers value and expect?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over-the-counter medicines (OTC) are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. Objective: This study aimed to examine customers’ key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour. Methods: Customers from two metropolitan pharmacies across two different suburbs in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection was conducted over a six-week period. The questionnaire examined demographics, current level of health and stress, as well as a range of questions (seven-point Likert-scale) examining perceived benefits and risks, what they value, trust and expect when purchasing OTC. Results: A total of 86 customers from a broad range of demographics were captured in this study. When asked about their current health state, 41% and 23% respectively indicated that they were stressed and tense when they arrived at the pharmacy but many were feeling well (38%). Most customers strongly agreed/agreed that trust in the advice from a pharmacy (96%), trust in the products (73%), and the altruistic approach of a pharmacy (95%) were critical to them. Further, 82% and 78% respectively disagreed that time pressures or costs were concerns, despite many feeling tense and stressed when they came in. When asked where they intend to buy their future OTC, 89% indicated pharmacy instead of a supermarket. Conclusions: High levels of trust, confidence and sense of altruism and care were key factors for customers buying OTC from a pharmacy, regardless of time pressures, costs or existing

  17. Seasonal Variation in Penicillin Use in Mexico and Brazil: Analysis of the Impact of Over-the-Counter Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.

    2014-01-01

    During 2010, Mexico and Brazil implemented policies to enforce existing laws of restricting over-the-counter sales of antibiotics. We determined if the enforcement led to more appropriate antibiotic use by measuring changes in seasonal variation of penicillin use. We used retail quarterly sales data in defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitant-days (DDD/TID) from IMS Health from the private sector in Mexico and Brazil from the first quarter of 2007 to the first quarter of 2013. This database contains information on volume of antibiotics sold in retail pharmacies using information from wholesalers. We used interrupted time-series models controlling for external factors with the use of antihypertensives with interaction terms to assess changes in trend, level, and variation in use between quarters for total penicillin use and by active substance. The most used penicillin was amoxicillin, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin (minimal use in Brazil). Before the restrictions, the seasonal variation in penicillin use was 1.1 DDD/TID in Mexico and 0.8 DDD/TID in Brazil. In Mexico, we estimated a significant decrease in the seasonal variation of 0.4 DDD/TID after the restriction, mainly due to changes in seasonal variation of amoxicillin and ampicillin. In Brazil, the seasonal variation did not change significantly, overall and in the breakdown by individual active substances. For Mexico, inappropriate penicillin use may have diminished after the restrictions were enforced. For Brazil, increasing use and no change in seasonal variation suggest that further efforts are needed to reduce inappropriate penicillin use. PMID:25313222

  18. Relationships between Perceptual Attributes and Rheology in Over-the-Counter Vaginal Products: A Potential Tool for Microbicide Development

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Ellen D.; Zaveri, Toral; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal microbicides are believed to have substantial potential to empower women to protect themselves from HIV, although clinical trials to date have had mixed results at best. Issues with patient adherence in these trials suggest additional emphasis should be placed on optimizing acceptability. Acceptability is driven, in part, by the sensory properties of the microbicide, so better understanding of the relationships between sensory properties and the physical and rheological properties of microbicides should facilitate the simultaneous optimization of sensory properties in parallel with the biophysical properties required for drug deployment. Recently, we have applied standard methods to assess the potential acceptability of microbicide prototypes ex vivo and to quantify the sensory properties of microbicide surrogates. Here, we link quantitative perceptual data to the rheological properties of 6 over-the counter (OTC) vaginal products used as ex vivo microbicide surrogates. Shear-thinning behavior (n) and tan δ (10 rad/s) showed no relationship with any perceptual attributes while shear storage modulus, G’ (10 rad/s) was correlated with some attributes, but did not appear to be a strong predictor of sensory properties. Conversely, the storage loss modulus, G” (10 rad/s) and the consistency coefficient, K, were correlated with several sensory attributes: stickiness, rubberiness, and uniform thickness for G’’ and stickiness, rubberiness, and peaking for K. Although these relationships merit confirmation in later studies, this pilot study suggests rheological principles can be used to understand the sensory properties evoked by microbicide surrogates assessed ex vivo. Additional work is needed to determine if these findings would apply for microbicides in vivo. PMID:25188244

  19. Possible role of pseudoephedrine and other over-the-counter cold medications in the deaths of very young children.

    PubMed

    Wingert, William E; Mundy, Lisa A; Collins, Gary L; Chmara, Edward S

    2007-03-01

    The Philadelphia Medical Examiners Office has reported a series of 15 deaths between February 1999 and June 2005 of infants and toddlers 16 months and younger in which drugs commonly found in over-the-counter (OTC) cold medications were present. A total of 10 different drugs were detected: pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, acetaminophen, brompheniramine, carbinoxamine, chlorpheniramine, ethanol, doxylamine and the anticonvulsants, phenobarbital, and phenytoin. The drugs were confirmed and quantified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry, with the exception of ethanol, which was analyzed by headspace GC and of phenobarbital and phenytoin that were quantified by GC with a nitrogen phosphorus detector. The most predominant drug was pseudoephedrine, which was found in all of the cases (blood concentration, n=14, range=0.10-17.0 mg/L, mean=3.34 mg/L) and was the sole drug detected in three cases. Acetaminophen was detected in blood from each of the five cases with sufficient sample. Other drugs (with frequency of detection) were dextromethorphan (five cases), carbinoxamine (four cases), chlorpheniramine (two cases) and brompheniramine, doxylamine, and ethanol (one case each). In the majority of the cases, toxicity from drugs found in easily available OTC medications was listed either as the direct cause of death or as a contributory factor. The manner of death was determined to be natural in only two of the cases. This postmortem study supports previous evidence that the administration of OTC cold medications to infants may, under some circumstances, be an unsafe practice and in some cases may even be fatal. The treating physicians and the general public need to be made more aware of the dangers of using OTC cold medications to treat very young children so that these types of tragedies might be avoided.

  20. Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasio, Michael J.; Curry, Kim; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Glassman, Destinee M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods:…

  1. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially...

  2. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially...

  3. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially...

  4. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially...

  5. Ibuprofen-Induced Hypokalemia and Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis: A Patient's Perceptions of Over-the-Counter Medications and Their Adverse Effects.

    PubMed

    Salter, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    We highlight a case of distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to ibuprofen and codeine use. Of particular interest in this case are the patient's perception of over-the-counter (OTC) medication use, her own OTC use prior to admission, and her knowledge of adverse reactions or side effects of these medications prior to taking them.

  6. Emergency Contraceptive Pill (ECP) Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States: Changes since ECP Went Over-the-Counter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers since ECP went over-the-counter (OTC) in 2006. Related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved, contraindications, follow-up procedures, methods of advertising, and staff attitudes, were…

  7. Ibuprofen-Induced Hypokalemia and Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis: A Patient's Perceptions of Over-the-Counter Medications and Their Adverse Effects

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    We highlight a case of distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to ibuprofen and codeine use. Of particular interest in this case are the patient's perception of over-the-counter (OTC) medication use, her own OTC use prior to admission, and her knowledge of adverse reactions or side effects of these medications prior to taking them. PMID:24829833

  8. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis and other severe drug eruptions from over the counter medications: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kline, Amy; Fischer, Gayle

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis in an 11-year-old girl who used Duro-Tuss, an over-the-counter cough mixture containing pholcodine, and present a comprehensive review of the literature on severe drug reactions resulting from using non-prescription medications. This case reinforces the importance of taking a complete medication history.

  9. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturers and distributors of all OTC drugs effect changes in their formulations and/or labeling to bring... give increased assurance that the drug will have its intended effect, yet not raise or contribute any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs...

  10. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturers and distributors of all OTC drugs effect changes in their formulations and/or labeling to bring... give increased assurance that the drug will have its intended effect, yet not raise or contribute any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs...

  11. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturers and distributors of all OTC drugs effect changes in their formulations and/or labeling to bring... give increased assurance that the drug will have its intended effect, yet not raise or contribute any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs...

  12. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturers and distributors of all OTC drugs effect changes in their formulations and/or labeling to bring... give increased assurance that the drug will have its intended effect, yet not raise or contribute any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs...

  13. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturers and distributors of all OTC drugs effect changes in their formulations and/or labeling to bring... give increased assurance that the drug will have its intended effect, yet not raise or contribute any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs...

  14. 76 FR 36307 - Guidance for Industry on Topical Acne Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use-Revision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 333 Guidance for Industry on Topical Acne Drug... availability of a guidance for small business entities entitled ``Topical Acne Drug Products for Over-the... ingredient in over-the-counter (OTC) topical acne drug products and provides new labeling...

  15. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD...-threatening disease. Quinine is no longer the drug of choice for the treatment and/or prevention of most...

  16. Key information providers, channels, and characteristics of Japanese consumers' informed choices of over-the-counter medications.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Makiko; Masuda, Sachiko; Kimura, Hiromichi

    2015-01-01

    People need reliable information regarding over-the-counter medications (OTCs), so that they can independently make appropriate informed choices. The study aimed to identify the information providers and channels that have an impact on the purchase of OTCs, and to demonstrate the information needs of OTC purchasers, using these providers and channels, from the viewpoint of information characteristics such as specialty, objectivity, concreteness, comprehensiveness, individuality, and availability, focusing on the efficacy of OTCs and related safety information. A questionnaire survey of randomly sampled adults aged ≥20 was conducted at the Japan Drugstore Show 2012, hosted by the Japan Association of Chain Drug Stores. In this questionnaire, information was particularly limited to the efficacy and safety of OTCs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on data from 1743 respondents (1625 purchasers and 118 non-purchasers of OTCs) who obtained information on OTCs in their daily lives, to demonstrate the associations between the use of information providers and channels (predictor variables) and the purchase of OTCs (outcome variable), as well as between information characteristics valued by purchasers (predictor variables) and their use of these information providers or channels (outcome variables). Both the use of pharmacists as information providers and consultation at pharmacies as an information channel were positively associated with the purchase of OTCs (odds ratio [OR], 3.74; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 2.46-5.68; P < 0.001 and OR, 4.55; 95 % CI 2.92-7.11, P < 0.001, respectively), whereas both the use of family or friends using OTCs as information providers and family or friends as information channels were negatively associated with the purchase of OTCs (OR, 0.60; 95 % CI 0.40-0.90; P = 0.014 and OR, 0.55; 95 % CI 0.36-0.82; P = 0.004, respectively). OTC purchasers who valued individuality of information were more likely to

  17. Efficacy of a twice-daily, 3-step, over-the-counter skincare regimen for the treatment of acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Rodan, Katie; Fields, Kathy; Falla, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris (acne) is the most common skin disorder producing physical and emotional scars that can persist for years. An estimated 83% of acne sufferers self-treat, but there is lack of studies documenting the effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) acne treatment products. Objective This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of an OTC, 3-step, anti-acne skincare regimen in treating acne and improving the appearance of red/inflamed facial skin. Methods This 6-week, open-label clinical study included both genders aged between 12 and 35 years with mild-to-moderate acne. All subjects were required to have an acne score of 1–3 (Cook’s acne grading scale: 0=clear to 7=very severe) and a moderate redness score of ≥2 (0=none and 4=severe). Subjects completed a 3-step facial treatment regimen every morning and evening using an OTC cleanser, toner, and acne treatment. Evaluations for effectiveness and safety were done at baseline and weeks 2, 4, and 6 using digital photographs (Visia-CR® digital imaging system) of the face and analyzed using Image-Pro® software for the grading of acne, red/inflamed skin, and the number and type of lesions. Results Thirty subjects (12 males and 18 females) were enrolled (mean age of 19 years; range 12–34 years). This skincare regimen resulted in statistically significant improvements in acne grading scores after 2 weeks of use, with mean scores continuing to improve after 4 and 6 weeks of use (P<0.001). Statistically significant improvements from baseline in red/inflamed skin, open and closed comedones, and papules were detected at all time points and for nodules at week 6, compared to their respective baselines (P<0.05). Conclusion This clinical study demonstrated the effectiveness of an OTC 3-step, anti-acne skincare regimen in significantly improving acne and the overall appearance of skin in the majority of subjects who had mild-to-moderate acne. PMID:28115862

  18. Acute adverse events from over-the-counter Chinese herbal medicines: a population-based survey of Hong Kong Chinese

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although over-the-counter traditional Chinese herbal medicine (COTC) is commonly used to treat everyday illness in many parts of the world, no population-based study has been done to examine the prevalence and factors associated with COTC-related adverse events. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese adults in 2011 (n = 1100) with informed verbal consent. Stepwise logistic regression of demographic, attitudinal and behavioral variables was used to determine factors associated with past-year adverse events. Results Of study respondents, 71.7% (789/1100) reported past-year COTC use and 2.3% (25/1100) reported at least one COTC-related adverse event in the past year. Of the 27 adverse events cases reported among COTC users, the most common were allergic reactions (n = 11) dizziness (n = 5), and gastro-intestinal problems (n = 4). Pills/capsules were the dosage form that caused the highest proportion of adverse events (n = 10), followed by plasters (n = 7), creams/ointments (n = 5), and ingestible powders (n = 2). Although COTC users reporting adverse events were more likely to report greater practices to avoid adverse events (OR = 6.47; 95% CI: 1.38-30.3); they were also more likely to possess lower education levels (OR = 9.64, 95% CI: 2.20-42.3) and to have received COTC information from non-reliable, mass-media information sources such as magazines (OR = 3.32; 95% CI: 1.01-8.50) or television (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.03-10.7). Package labels were also felt to be unclear by 42.9% of COTC users. A large proportion of COTC users demonstrated low levels of COTC-related knowledge, while the main impediment to greater information-seeking was the belief that reliable COTC information is not obtainable from Western health professionals. Conclusions Despite global movements toward more stringent complementary medicine regulation, the limited accessibility of reliable information

  19. The effect of three whitening oral rinses on enamel micro-hardness.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, E; Osman, Y; Grobler, S R

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on human enamel micro-hardness of three over-the-counter whitening oral rinses available in South Africa. Enamel fragments were gathered into three groups of 15 each. One group was exposed to Colgate Plax Whitening Blancheur, the second group to White Glo 2 in 1 and the third to Plus White, in each case for periods recommended by the respective manufacturers. Surface micro-hardness of all groups was measured before and after a 14 day treatment period. pH levels of the oral rinses were also determined with a combination pH electrode. Pre- and post- treatment data were analysed by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test. According to the micro-hardness values no significant (p > 0.05) enamel damage was found as a result of treatment. However, it was observed that Colgate Pax and White Glo decreased the enamel hardness, an early sign of enamel damage, while Plus White showed a small increase in hardness. The three whitening oral rinses on the South African market do not damage the tooth enamel significantly when used as recommended by the manufacturers. However, extending the contact period and increasing the frequency of application might lead to damage of enamel.

  20. Hot-water and solid-phase extraction of fluorescent whitening agents in paper materials and infant clothes followed by unequivocal determination with ion-pair chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chang; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2006-03-10

    A comprehensive method for the determination of four stilbene-type disulfonate and one distyrylbiphenyl-type fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in paper materials (napkin and paper tissue) and infant clothes was developed. FWAs were extracted from paper material and cloth samples using a hot-water extraction, and the aqueous extracts were then preconcentrated with the newly developed Oasis WAX (mixed-mode of weak anion exchange and reversed-phase sorbent) solid-phase extraction cartridge. The analytes were unequivocal determined by ion pair chromatography coupled with negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS), applying a di-n-hexyl-ammonium acetate (DHAA) as the ion-pairing reagent in mobile phase. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were established between 0.2 and 0.9 ng/g in 2 g of samples. Recovery of five FWAs in spiked commercial samples was between 42 and 95% and RSD (n = 3) ranging from 2 to 11%. The method was finally applied to commercial samples, showing that two stilbene-type disulfonates were predominant FWAs detected in napkin and infant cloth samples.

  1. Tooth whitening and temperature rise with two bleaching activation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-02-01

    Objectives: To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and intra-pulpal temperature increase in vitro on extracted upper human incisors after chemical, zoom light and diode laser activated bleaching. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n=10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power zoom activation light, for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. Degree of whitening was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and intrapulpal. Results: The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Conclusions: Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than zoom AP light. Diode lasers used to activate bleaching gels are not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulps using power settings of 2W.

  2. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-09-27

    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoom activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.

  3. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-09-01

    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoom activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.

  4. The risks and benefits of an Rx-to-OTC switch. The case of over-the-counter H2-blockers.

    PubMed

    Oster, G; Huse, D M; Delea, T E; Colditz, G A; Richter, J M

    1990-09-01

    In recent years, many new over-the-counter (OTC) medications have resulted from the granting of OTC status by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to drug entities that previously were available only by prescription (Rx). While the benefits to consumers of Rx-to-OTC switches may be substantial, they also involve some degree of risk, as usage typically expands and physician supervision diminishes. This study explores the potential utility of techniques of decision analysis in evaluating the balance of these benefits and risks. Histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2-blockers), which are currently available only by prescription, are presented as a case study and were examined to determine how OTC availability of these agents would alter the patterns, effectiveness, and risks of self-treatment for acid-peptic disorders. Currently, about 5.7 million persons experience an episode of dyspepsia during any given quarter, of whom 3.5 million self-medicate with antacids. Study results indicate that OTC availability of H2-blockers would: 1) increase the proportion of persons with dyspepsia who self-medicate from 61.8% currently to 64.1%; 2) increase the proportion of persons who experience complete relief of their symptoms while self-medicating from 37.9% currently to 43.2%; 3) result in 14 additional cases of serious hematologic disorders and an additional 22,000 instances of minor side effects per quarter, but cause the overall rate of side effects among persons who self-medicate to decline; 4) cause an additional 300 persons per quarter with gastric cancer to self-medicate before seeking professional care, but cause no change in the median time between onset of symptoms and the decision to seek such care; and 5) decrease by 277,000 the number of persons per quarter who seek professional care for dyspepsia. On balance, results suggest that OTC H2-blockers may be a relatively safe and effective means of self-care for acid-peptic disorders, and may substantially reduce the

  5. How adolescents experience and cope with pain in daily life: a qualitative study on ways to cope and the use of over-the-counter analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Lagerløv, Per; Rosvold, Elin Olaug; Holager, Tanja; Helseth, Sølvi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe how different adolescents experience and manage pain in their daily life, with a focus on their use of over-the-counter analgesics. More specifically, the aim was to explore different patterns among the adolescents in pain descriptions, in the management of pain, in relationships with others, and in their daily life. Design Qualitative semistructured interviews on experiences with pain, pain management and involvement of family and friends during pain. Pain and stress management strategies and attachment theory will be in focus for interpretations. Participants and setting 25 participants aged 15–16-years from six different junior high schools, both genders, with and without immigrant background were interviewed at their local schools in Norway. Results We identified 4 groups of adolescents with similarities in attitudes and management strategies to pain: ‘pain is manageable’, ‘pain is communicable’, ‘pain is inevitable’ and ‘pain is all over’. The participants within each group differed in how they engaged their parents in pain; how they perceived, communicated and managed pain; and how they involved emotions and used over-the-counter analgesics. Conclusions The adolescents’ different involvement with the family during pain related to their pain perception and management. Knowledge of the different ways of approaching pain is important when supporting adolescents and may be a subject for further research on the use of over-the-counter analgesics in the family. PMID:26932141

  6. What information for the patient? Large scale pilot study on experimental package inserts giving information on prescribed and over the counter drugs.

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the acceptability and the degree of understandability of two drug information leaflets on three over the counter and two prescribed drugs. DESIGN--Prospective observational study. SETTING--Random sample of municipal pharmacies throughout Italy. SUBJECTS--A total of 6992 clients of the pharmacies who requested the study drugs over a period of four months. INTERVENTION--Exposure of patients to two information leaflets, one approved by the Ministry of Health, and the other an experimental sheet prepared by the research working group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The degree of acceptability of the information was assessed by using a pretested questionnaire. Comments concerning information needs were also encouraged and collected. RESULTS--6992 Clients responded to the questionnaire. Non-metropolitan (urban and rural) areas had the highest rate of participation. The participants strongly preferred the experimental leaflets to the approved leaflets, both with respect to accessibility of the contents (overall preference 78.1% v 17.8%) and ease of understanding the contraindications of drug use (90.2% v 73.7%). Basic attitudes related to the use of written information were similar among clients of different age groups, educational levels (though emerging people with primary school or lower educational levels showed slightly lesser understanding), and geographic areas. Up to 50% of those who took over the counter drugs indicated a disposition to change their drug seeking behaviour on the basis of the information in the experimental leaflet. The comments provided a useful complementary set of data on the information needs expressed by participants. CONCLUSIONS--The results of this pilot study indicate that patients will enter active programmes to investigate the provision of problem oriented drug information. Their information needs seem to concern both prescribed and over the counter drugs. More extensive and systematic work is required to develop an

  7. Organ-specific warnings; internal analgesic, antipyretic, and antirheumatic drug products for over-the-counter human use; final monograph. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2009-04-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to require important new organ-specific warnings and related labeling for over-the-counter (OTC) internal analgesic, antipyretic, and antirheumatic (IAAA) drug products. The new labeling informs consumers about the risk of liver injury when using acetaminophen and the risk of stomach bleeding when using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). The new labeling is required for all OTC IAAA drug products whether marketed under an OTC drug monograph or an approved new drug application (NDA).

  8. Dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products containing coal tar and menthol for over-the-counter human use; amendment to the monograph. Final rule

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph (FM) for over-the-counter (OTC) dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products to include the combination of 1.8 percent coal tar solution and 1.5 percent menthol in a shampoo drug product to control dandruff. FDA did not receive any comments or data in response to its previously proposed rule to include this combination. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  9. Over-the-counter nicotine patch therapy for smoking cessation: results from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and open label trials.

    PubMed Central

    Hays, J T; Croghan, I T; Schroeder, D R; Offord, K P; Hurt, R D; Wolter, T D; Nides, M A; Davidson, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the nicotine patch for smoking cessation in an over-the-counter environment. The years of study were 1994 to 1995. METHODS: Parallel 6-week trials were conducted: a placebo-controlled trial of no-cost 22-mg, 24-hour nicotine patch therapy and an open label trial of the same therapy with patches purchased by subjects. Participants (n = 958) were 18 years or older, had smoked at least 15 cigarettes daily for at least 6 months, and were enrolled at 3 study sites. The main outcome measure was self-reported smoking abstinence confirmed by expired carbon monoxide measurements. RESULTS: Smoking cessation rates in the placebo-controlled trial were 16.8% and 9.6% at week 6 and 8.7% and 4.3% at week 24 for the active patch and placebo groups, respectively. Smoking cessation rates in the open label-pay trial were 19.0% and 10.8% at weeks 6 and 24, respectively. A slight increase in adverse cardiovascular events was noted only in the open label-pay group in comparison with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In an over-the-counter environment, the 22-mg, 24-hour nicotine patch is effective and safe for smoking cessation treatment. PMID:10553392

  10. The effects of a customized over-the-counter mouth guard on neuromuscular force and power production in trained men and women.

    PubMed

    Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Luk, Hui-Ying; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Kupchak, Brian R; Watts, Ashley M; Putney, Brendan J; Hydren, Jay R; Volek, Jeff S; Denegar, Craig R; Kraemer, William J

    2012-04-01

    Although mouth guards were originally designed for injury prevention, even elite athletes are now using performance mouth guards to improve athletic success. Both expensive custom models and over-the-counter models are available, but the efficacy is not well known. Some athletes remain wary of the perceived potential for detriments using a mouth guard to their performance. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine various physical performance tests when using a mouth guard including a customized over-the-counter mouth guard. Twenty-six trained men (25 ± 4 years; 1.78 ± 0.07 m; 83.3 ± 11.4 kg) and 24 trained women (23 ± 3 years; 1.65 ± 0.08 m; 62.6 ± 7.8 kg) volunteered for the investigation. The subjects completed a familiarization period and then balanced and randomized treatment conditions that included: (a) a customized Power Balance performance mouth guard (PB MG); (b) a regular over the counter boil-and-bite mouth guard (Reg MG); and (c) a no mouth guard (No MG) treatment condition. At each visit, the subjects completed a testing protocol that was sequenced in the following order: sit-and-reach flexibility, medial-lateral balance, visual reaction time, vertical jump, 10-m sprint, bench throw, and plyo press power quotient (3PQ). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded around the 3PQ. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Expected significant sex differences existed for all power, strength, and speed variables. Bench throw power (watts) and force (newtons) were significantly higher under PB MG than either Reg MG or No MG or in both men and women. The 3PQ power and force production were higher than that for the other 2 treatments for the PB MG for men only. There were no significant differences for treatment conditions in the heart rate or RPE after the 3PQ test. Men were better able to maintain significantly higher 3PQ power production under PB MG treatment condition compared with the other 2 treatment conditions. Rate of power

  11. Additional criteria and procedures for classifying over-the-counter drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-01-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule establishing additional criteria and procedures by which over-the- counter (OTC) conditions may become eligible for consideration in the OTC drug monograph system. The criteria and procedures address how OTC drugs initially marketed in the United States after the OTC drug review began in 1972, and OTC drugs without any U.S. marketing experience, can meet the statutory definition of marketing to a "material extent" and "for a material time" and become eligible. If found eligible, the condition would be evaluated for general recognition of safety and effectiveness in accordance with FDA's OTC drug monograph regulations. FDA is also changing the current OTC drug monograph procedures to streamline the process and provide additional information in the review.

  12. Laws prohibiting over-the-counter syringe sales to injection drug users: relations to population density, HIV prevalence, and HIV incidence.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, S R; Perlis, T; Des Jarlais, D C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess relations of laws prohibiting over-the-counter syringe sales (anti-OTC laws) to population prevalence of injection drug users and HIV prevalence or incidence among 96 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was used. RESULTS: Metropolitan areas with anti-OTC laws had a higher mean HIV prevalence (13.8% vs 6.7%) than other metropolitan areas (pseudo-P < .001). In 83 metropolitan areas with HIV prevalence of less than 20%, anti-OTC laws were associated with HIV incidence rates of 1% or greater (pseudo-P < .001). Population proportions of injection drug users did not vary by presence of anti-OTC laws. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-OTC laws are not associated with lower population proportions of injection drug users. Laws restricting syringe access are associated with HIV transmission and should be repealed. PMID:11344889

  13. Overview of a professional tooth-whitening system containing 6.5% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Paul A; Jeffers, Melissa E; Gibb, Roger D; Gerlach, Robert W

    2002-01-01

    Professionally dispensed, at-home tooth whitening began with 10% carbamide peroxide gels applied to the dentition with custom-made trays. In the 1990s, higher-concentration carbamide peroxide gels were introduced to achieve faster results. Today, 15% and 20% carbamide peroxide gels are commonly used. Recently, a new vital tooth-whitening technique that uses a flexible strip rather than a tray to apply a 5.3% hydrogen peroxide whitening gel was introduced. The new strip-based product was shown to provide whitening equivalent to a 10% carbamide peroxide tray with half the wear time. In addition, the strip eliminated the need to custom fabricate trays for each patient. This article provides an overview of a professionally distributed strip-based whitening system and reviews some of the clinical data which supports the efficacy of the product. This new whitening system includes 42 mandibular and 42 maxillary strips at a higher concentration of 6.5% hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the system also includes a novel dual-action whitening dentifrice to prevent future staining postbleaching and an extrasoft toothbrush. Clinically, the professionally distributed strip-based whitening system provided 96% more efficacy than a popular carbamide plus hydrogen peroxide (equivalent to 10% carbamide peroxide) tray system and 52% more whitening than the 5.3% hydrogen peroxide strip system.

  14. Over-the-counter medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... YS. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2013;6:CD006362. PMID: ... Lin X, Wu T. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) for the common cold in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2013;7: ...

  15. Over-the-counter analgesics.

    PubMed

    Clarence, M

    The increasing availability of analgesic drugs from a variety of outlets may be seen as a welcome development by manufacturers and consumers, but there are poorly acknowledged dangers associated with injudicious usage. Maggie Clarence outlines the properties of the most common products on the market, and emphasises the need for sound patient education from suitably trained personnel.

  16. Physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpaste and evaluation of its effects on enamel roughness.

    PubMed

    Hilgenberg, Sérgio Paulo; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Wambier, Denise Stadler

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpastes and their effect on bovine enamel after application of a bleaching agent (16% carbamide peroxide). Physical-chemical analysis was made considering mass loss by desiccation, ash content and pH of the toothpastes. Thirty bovine dental enamel fragments were prepared for roughness measurements. The samples were subjected to bleaching treatments and simulated brushing: G1. Sorriso Dentes Brancos (Conventional toothpaste), G2. Close-UP Whitening (Whitening toothpaste), and G3. Sensodyne Branqueador (Whitening toothpaste). The average roughness (Ra) was evaluated prior to the bleaching treatment and after brushing. The results revealed differences in the physical-chemical characteristics of the toothpastes (p < 0.0001). The final Ra had higher values (p < 0.05) following the procedures. The mean of the Ra did not show significant differences, considering toothpaste groups and bleaching treatment. Interaction (toothpaste and bleaching treatment) showed significant difference (p < 0.0001). The whitening toothpastes showed differences in their physical-chemical properties. All toothpastes promoted changes to the enamel surface, probably by the use of a bleaching agent.

  17. Effect of Whitening Dentifrice on Micro Hardness, Colour Stability and Surface Roughness of Aesthetic Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Basappa, N.; Prabhakar, AR; Raju, OS; Lamba, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Whitening agents present in the novel whitening dentifrices may have deleterious effects over the aesthetic restorations. Aim The present study evaluated the invitro effect of whitening dentifrice on micro hardness, colour stability and surface roughness on aesthetic restorative materials. Materials and Methods Forty specimens each of compomer and of composite were prepared using brass mould. Specimens were equally divided into 4 groups. Group I (20 disks of compomer are subjected to brushing with conventional tooth paste) Group II (20 disks of composite subjected to brushing with conventional tooth paste), Group III (20 disks of compomer subjected to brushing with whitening tooth paste). Group IV (20 disks of composite subjected to brushing with whitening toothpaste). Each group was further divided into two subgroups, where 10 sample were subjected for two weeks of brushing with respective tooth paste and other 10 were subjected for four weeks of brushing. For the evaluation of micro hardness, colour stability and surface roughness, micro hardness testing machine, spectrophotometer and surface testing machine were used respectively. Initial and final readings were taken for each specimen and difference obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. One-way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparison followed by post-hoc Tukey’s-test. The paried t-test was used for intra group comparison and unpaired t-test for comparing independent sample groups. Results The compomer and composite showed no significant difference in micro hardness either with conventional or whitening tooth paste both at two and four weeks. Although there was a highly significant colour change observed after using whitening tooth paste for both compomer and composite. Regarding surface roughness, there was a significant change in roughness in both conventional and whitening tooth paste with compomer and composite. However, whitening tooth paste had a significant change in surface

  18. The skin whitening industry in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2014-05-01

    Skin whitening is a big and booming industry in many developing countries. Its popularity owes mainly to post-colonial, internalized racism. This study examines whether government intervention is necessary and more efficient than market-driven approaches in addressing the health risks and harms associated with skin whitening. We gathered empirical data on the quality and quantity of health-related information about skin whiteners with a multi-stage probability sample of consumers in two cities in the Philippines (n=110; α=0.05). Regardless of their socio-demographic characteristics, we find that cognitive biases and information asymmetries build and sustain consumers' trust in manufacturers and distributors of skin whiteners while, paradoxically, breeding uncertainties over the integrity of these products. The results are product adulteration and misbranding, leading to pricing advantages for toxic whiteners over safer products. This has impeded regulatory efficacy. We recommend anchoring government intervention in transaction cost-reduction, containing the externalities of skin bleaching, and institutionalizing third party partnerships. Failure to do so would leave consumers extremely vulnerable to the forces of supply and demand that favor toxic whiteners, particularly in a market where voluntary collective action is difficult to organize.

  19. The relevance of the urinary concentration of ephedrines in anti-doping analysis: determination of pseudoephedrine, cathine, and ephedrine after administration of over-the-counter medicaments.

    PubMed

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Leone, Daniele; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2009-08-01

    This article describes a method for the detection and quantitation of cathine, pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, and methylephedrine in urine, using their deuterated analogues as internal standards and derivatization to form the corresponding trimethylsilyl derivatives after a simple liquid-liquid extraction. The study was designed to evaluate whether the urinary cutoff values set by the World Anti-Doping Agency for the banned ephedrines (cathine >5 microg/mL, ephedrine and methylephedrine >10 microg/mL) can be exceeded after the normal self-administration of common over-the-counter medicaments containing nonbanned ephedrines. The present method, after validation, has been applied on real urine samples obtained from 9 healthy volunteers taking different doses of over-the-counter preparations containing ephedrines. Results obtained from excretion studies show high interindividual differences in the urinary concentrations of both pseudoephedrine and cathine, not dependent on body weight or sex nor, in some instances, on the administered dose. The same typical therapeutic dose of pseudoephedrine (60 mg) produced a urinary concentration of more than 5 microg/mL for cathine and of more than 100 microg/mL for pseudoephedrine in 2 of 9 subjects only. When a dose of 120 mg was administered, cathine concentration exceeded 5 microg/mL in 4 of 7 subject, and also concentrations of pseudoephedrine above 100 microg/mL. After administration of 5 x 120 mg of pseudoephedrine (120 mg administered every 7 days for 5 weeks) to one of the subjects exceeding the urinary threshold values, the urinary concentration of cathine and pseudoephedrine exceeded 5 microg/mL (peak concentration 14.8 microg/mL) and 100 microg/mL (peak concentration 275 microg/mL), respectively. When the same subject took 180 mg of pseudoephedrine, the urinary concentration values were below 5 microg/mL for ephedrine and 100 microg/mL for pseudoephedrine. In the case of ephedrine administration in a sustained

  20. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Ruchir; Salvo, Marissa C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by patients as part of their medical care plan. Often clinicians may not be aware of their use, because patients do not always consider these to be medications. All clinicians need to continually ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when collecting a medication history. Dietary supplements and prescription medications often share similar enzymatic pathways for their metabolism. These interactions may lead to severe adverse reactions. This article reviews available evidence for a variety of dietary supplements in select disease categories.

  1. Age estimation using level of eyebrow and eyelash whitening

    PubMed Central

    Kantarcı, Feride Aylin; Kantarcı, Muhammed Nabi; Bilgi, Sefer

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine whether eyebrow and eyelash whitening is an effective parameter in age estimation. Material/Methods We evaluated 1545 patients. Age groups were 1–10, 11–20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 61–70, 71–80, and 81–90 years. Level of whitening was categorized as level 0: no whitening, level 1: 1–3 strands, level 2: 3–10 strands, level 3: 10 strands–2/3 whitening, level 4: >3/4 whitening. Results Mean age was 42.39±20.01. While there was no eyebrow whitening in 87% of the subjects, level 4 whitening of eyebrows was observed in 0,8% of the subjects. There was no eyelash whitening in 97,7% of the subjects and no level 4 eyelash whitening was detected in any subject. Men had significantly more level 1, 2, 3, and 4 eyebrow whitening compared with women. There was no gender difference in terms of eyelash whitening level. There was no eyebrow and eyelash whitening in subjects age 1–40 years; whitening began in the 41–50 years age group and increased with age in other groups. Mean age was 39.59±19.63 years in subjects with no eyebrow whitening; 59 years in level 1, 61 years in level 2, 63 years in level 3, and 69 years in level 4 eyebrow whitening. Mean age was 41.85±19.87 in subjects with no eyelash whitening; and 63.57±10.75 in those with whitening. Conclusions Particularly after 41–50 years of age, level of eyebrow and eyelash whitening may be among a useful age estimation parameter. PMID:24448310

  2. Over-the-counter and Prescription Medications for Acne: A Cross-Sectional Survey in a Sample of University Students in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alshehri, Mohja D.; Almutairi, Abdulsalam T.; Alomran, Asma M.; Alrashed, Batool A.; Kaliyadan, Feroze

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Background: Acne is a very common dermatological condition found among the adolescent population in Saudi Arabia. Many patients with acne try various forms of self-medication, over the counter medicines (OTC), and prescription medicines for the same. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among university students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A validated questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of university students to evaluate their knowledge and attitudes towards OTC (mainly) as well as prescription medicine for acne. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression tests were used for comparisons between groups. Results: Four hundred and twenty valid, completed questionnaires were obtained. A total of 220 (52.4%) used some type of OTC medications at least once, where as 108 (25.7%) used prescription medicines and 92 (21.9%) used both. The most common OTC medications used were cleansers by 250 participants (41.9%). Among prescription medicines, the most common were topical and oral antibiotics (11.4%). Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed that females are statistically more likely to use OTC medicines compared to males (Odds ratio: 1.7). Conclusion: The use of self-medications and OTC medications is common among university students in KSA. The most common OTC medicine used for acne was cleanser.

  3. The availability and validity of safety information of over the counter herbal products for use in diabetes in Sri Lanka: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Medagama, Arjuna Bandara; Widanapahirana, Heshan; Prasanga, Tharindu

    2015-01-01

    Aims: There is an increase of over-the-counter (OTC) herbal products for use in diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety information provided with OTC herbal remedies intended for diabetic patients in Sri Lanka and to assess the completeness of the information provided. Methods: Inclusion criteria consisted of OTC herbal remedies meant for use in diabetes. They were bought from local Sri Lankan supermarkets and non-ayurvedic pharmacies and product information regarding the risk of hypoglycemia, precautions for use, adverse events, dose, and interactions were assessed using a scoring system. The accuracy of the information was then compared against published data. Results: 11 products fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Five products contained a single constituent and five contained more than one. None had complete and accurate safety information according to our criteria. None specifically warned against the risk of hypoglycemia. 9 out of 11 products (81.8%) carried ≤3 items of the five essential factual information we expected. Hypoglycemic coma, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenesis, and interactions causing elevated drug levels of Carbamazepine were some of the safety information that was missing. Conclusions: Key safety information was absent in most products. Regulation of sale, provision of key safety information and adverse event reporting should be a priority. PMID:26649230

  4. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell: Parental Nondisclosure of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Over-the-Counter Medication Use in Children’s Asthma Management

    PubMed Central

    Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly; Yoos, H. Lorrie; Kitzman, Harriet; McMullen, Ann; Anson, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background Parent-healthcare provider (HCP) communication is an important component of pediatric asthma management. Given the high prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and over-the-counter (OTC) medication use among this population, it is important to examine parental nondisclosure of these asthma management strategies. Method One-time interview and one-year retrospective medical record review with 228 parents of 5–12 year old children with asthma enrolled from 6 pediatric primary care practices examining parental nondisclosure of CAM and OTC medication use, reasons for nondisclosure, medical record documentation of CAM usage, and association between parent-HCP relationship and nondisclosure. Results Seventy-one percent of parents reported using CAM and/or OTC medication for children’s asthma management and 54% of those parents did not disclose usage. Seventy-five percent “did not think” to discuss it. Better parent-HCP relationship led to decreased nondisclosure. Discussion HCPs can play an important role in creating an environment where parents feel comfortable sharing information about their children’s asthma management strategies in order to arrive at a shared asthma management plan for the child leading to improved asthma health outcomes. PMID:18590866

  5. Drugs involved in drug-facilitated crimes--part II: Drugs of abuse, prescription and over-the-counter medications. A review.

    PubMed

    Shbair, M K S; Eljabour, S; Bassyoni, I; Lhermitte, M

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, there has been a notable increase in the number of reports of drug-facilitated crimes. Usually, individuals report that they were robbed or assaulted while incapacitated by drugs. Most often, these cases have involved drugs that have the ability to produce an effect that leaves the victim in a semiconscious or unconscious state. It is reasonable to assume that the purpose of drug-induced incapacitation is probably largely unchanged with time. This covers the full range of property offences (particularly theft) and crimes against the person (often sexual assault). What have changed are the drugs themselves: the number; type; their accessibility; effects and detection. This review describes the different aspects related to the involvement and use of drugs of abuse, as well as prescription and over-the counter medications in drug-facilitated crimes, which may help people working in this field to expand their knowledge in order to better understand the nature of these crimes or offences.

  6. [Surveillance study on use of over-the-counter drug and health food by school pharmacist for grade-schooler, junior high school student, and high school students].

    PubMed

    Anraku, Makoto; Tomida, Hisao; Sato, Eiji; Tabuchi, Norihiko; Yoshitomi, Hironori; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Taguchi, Katsuhide; Kondo, Yuko; Murakami, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, it is necessary to acquire knowledge not only about medicine but also over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and health food for children, because lowering trend in the age of the health hazard by improper use of health food is reported. Therefore, in order to estimate the extent of use of OTC drugs and health food, the school pharmacists administered a questionnaire to students in grade-school (n=123), junior high school (n=303), and high school (n=115) in Fukuyama city. As a result of the questionnaire survey, surprisingly, the usage ratio of OTC drugs and health food showed the most increase in grade-schooler. The trigger of use of health food is "parents' recommendations" in the lower grades, otherwise the ratio of "use by themselves" was increased in the higher grades. Moreover, a remarkable difference was observed by the kinds of use in students with or without exercise. Interestingly, exercise group expected "physical strength" effects than no exercise group. In addition, the ratio of consultation to the pharmacist at the time of purchase of OTC drugs and health food was low in all grade students. In particular, the ratio of consultation to the pharmacist at the time of purchase of health food was very low in high school students. Therefore, to provide accurate information of medicine and health food for students, the school pharmacist should engage not only in routine work but also in positive guidance about OTC drugs and health food in the future.

  7. Study of the influence of over-the-counter vitamin supplement intake on urine fluorescence to optimize cancer detection by fluorescence cystoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellweger, Matthieu; Martoccia, Carla; Mengin, Matthieu; Iselin, Christophe; Bergh, Hubert van den; Wagnières, Georges

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescence cystoscopy (FC) efficiently enhances the detection and improves the therapeutic management of early bladder cancer. During an FC, about 150 ml of water is needed to inflate the bladder. The water is quickly diluted by urine which can be fluorescent. If this bladder washout fluid (BWF) becomes fluorescent, the FC images are frequently degraded. Unfortunately, it is unclear which elements of the diet may contribute to this background fluorescence. We propose to start this exploration with over-the-counter (OTC) vitamin supplements. To this end, we measured excitation-emission matrices of urine samples and the kinetics of modifications of urine fluorescence obtained from nine healthy volunteers before, during, and after intake of a commercially available OTC vitamin supplement. The pharmacokinetics shows that the BWF fluorescence values reach a maximum 8 to 10 h after vitamin intake. They decrease in the half-day that follows and reach values close to baseline ˜1 day afterward. Based on these results, we conclude that, in order to avoid degradations of fluorescence images, it is likely best that the intake of OTC vitamin supplements be avoided during the week preceding an FC.

  8. Analysis of multiple end points in consumer research in support of switching drugs from prescription to over-the-counter status: the concept of end-point hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Brass, E P; Shay, L E; Leonard-Segal, A

    2009-04-01

    Clinical and regulatory decision making concerning over-the-counter (OTC) drugs requires research designed to understand how consumers will self-manage treatment using the candidate OTC drug. Consumer research for an OTC drug may include studies of label comprehension, self-selection, and actual use. Definition and analysis of end points for these trials have varied in the absence of consensus on optimal approaches. Research programs should prospectively prioritize the importance of label messages based on their roles in the safe and effective use of the drug. The assessment of messages for which failure to heed warnings will expose the consumer to increased risk or clinically relevant treatment failure should receive the highest priority as study end points. Based on the consequences of unheeded warnings, message-specific targets for appropriate response rates can be predefined. This prospective, hierarchical approach to end-point definition, combined with prespecification of targeted correct-response rates, has the potential to increase the scientific rigor and regulatory utility of these important research studies.

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of an over-the-counter acne regimen containing benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid in subjects with acne.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H; Gwazdauskas, Jennifer; Butners, Victoria; Eastern, Joseph; Green, Lawrence J

    2013-03-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is a widely used over-the-counter (OTC) topical acne treatment often used in combination with salicylic acid (SA) to achieve better comedone control than that achieved with BPO alone. MaxClarity™ is an OTC acne treatment system comprising BPO and SA in an aqueous foam delivery vehicle, VersaFoam AF™. This paper describes 2 open-label, single-arm studies conducted to assess the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and patient preference of MaxClarity in the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe acne. Subjects applied MaxClarity twice daily for 8 weeks in study 402 and for 12 weeks in study 405. Reductions in all lesion types were seen throughout both studies. At week 8 (study 402), there was a mean reduction from baseline of -56.9 ± 32.7% in total lesions in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe acne. At week 12 (study 405), there was a reduction from baseline of -61.6 ± 22.0% in total lesions in subjects with moderate or severe acne. Overall, both studies demonstrated that MaxClarity is a generally well tolerated and effective treatment for mild, moderate, and severe acne.

  10. Influence of precursor solvent extraction on stable isotope signatures of methylamphetamine prepared from over-the-counter medicines using the Moscow and Hypophosphorous routes.

    PubMed

    NicDaéid, Niamh; Jayamana, Saravana; Kerr, William J; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen F

    2013-03-01

    A number of methods of clandestine manufacture of methylamphetamine involve the extraction and subsequent reaction of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride with other essential chemicals. The precursor can be easily extracted from over-the-counter medication widely available in the UK and elsewhere. Essential chemicals such as iodine and red phosphorous are also readily available and can be extracted from iodine tinctures and matchboxes, respectively. This work reports the repetitive preparation of methylamphetamine using two popular routes (the Moscow and Hypophosphorous synthesis). The focus was on the extraction solvent used for isolation of the precursor chemical and any consequential isotopic variation which may arise in the final product. Six batches of methylamphetamine were prepared under precisely controlled conditions for each synthetic route and for each of three different precursor extraction solvents. Synthesis of the final product from laboratory grade precursor using the synthetic methods described was used as a template for comparison. The resultant IRMS data from all 48 prepared samples suggests some underlying trends in the identification of the synthetic route which may aid in the interpretation of IRMS data derived from clandestine samples.

  11. Use of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to monitor tooth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-04-01

    The changing of tooth shade by whitening agents occurs gradually. Apart from being subjective and affected by the conditions of the surroundings, visual observation cannot detect a very slight change in tooth color. An electronic method, which can communicate the color change quantitatively, would be more reliable. Quantitative Light- induced Fluorescence (QLF) was developed to detect and assess dental caries based on the phenomenon of change of autofluorescence of a tooth by demineralization. However, stains on the tooth surface exhibit the same phenomenon, and therefore QLF can be used to measure the percentage fluorescence change of stained enamel with respect to surrounding unstained enamel. The present study described a technique of assessing the effect of a tooth-whitening agent using QLF. This was demonstrated in two experiments in which either wholly or partially stained teeth were whitened by intermittent immersion in sodium hypochlorite. Following each immersion, the integrated fluorescence change due to the stain was quantified using QLF. In either situation, the value of (Delta) Q decreased linearly as the tooth regained its natural shade. It was concluded that gradual changing of the shade of discolored teeth by a whitening agent could be quantified using QLF.

  12. Consumer behavior in the setting of over-the-counter statin availability: lessons from the consumer use study of OTC Mevacor.

    PubMed

    Brass, Eric P

    2004-11-04

    Despite the proven benefits of statins, large numbers of patients meeting guideline criteria for therapy are not receiving these drugs. It has been suggested that over-the-counter (OTC) availability of statins would allow more consumers to use statins and achieve cardiovascular risk reduction. However, concerns have been raised as to the consumers' ability to self-manage hyperlipidemia and use statins safely. The Consumer Use Study of OTC Mevacor (CUSTOM) was designed to define consumer behaviors in the setting of OTC statin availability. The study was conducted in a simulated OTC setting and allowed consumers to purchase once-daily lovastatin 20 mg. The CUSTOM dataset includes >3,300 consumers who evaluated OTC lovastatin for potential purchase at study sites and follow-up information on purchasers for up to 6 months of self-managed therapy. These data have been analyzed to address consumers' knowledge of their cholesterol concentrations as well as their ability to make OTC use decisions based on their cardiovascular risk, avoid drug-drug interactions, self-manage their cholesterol treatment after deciding to use the OTC product, and maintain interactions with physicians while using lovastatin OTC. The results showed that most study participants appropriately self-selected OTC statin therapy and managed their treatment. Use of OTC statins by consumers needing more intensive statin therapy or facing the risk of potential drug-drug interactions remains an area of concern but occurred infrequently in CUSTOM. These data are important for making an informed risk-benefit decision concerning OTC statin availability.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Algorithm Evaluation for Detecting Over-The-Counter Thermometer Sale Increases during 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Que, Jialan; Tsui, Fu-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Spatial outbreak detection algorithms using routinely collected healthcare data have been developed since the late 90s to identify and locate disease outbreaks. However, current well-received spatial algorithms assume only one outbreak cluster present at the same point of time which may not be valid during a pandemic when several clusters of geographic areas concurrently occur. Based on a retrospective evaluation on time-series and spatial algorithms, this paper suggests that time series analysis in detection of pandemics is still a desirable process, which may achieve more sensitive performance with better timeliness. Methods In this paper, we first prove in theory that two existing spatial models, the likelihood ratio and the Bayesian spatial scan statistics, are not useful if multiple clusters occur at the same point of time in different geographic regions. Then we conduct a comparison between a spatial algorithm, the Bayesian Spatial Scan Statistic (BSS), and a time series algorithm, the wavelet anomaly detector (WAD), on the performance of detecting the increase of the over-the-counter (OTC) medicine sales during 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Results The experiments demonstrated that the Bayesian spatial algorithm responded to the increase of thermometer sales about 3 days later than the time series algorithm. Conclusion Time-series algorithms demonstrated an advantage for early outbreak detection, especially when multiple clusters occur at the same time in different geographic regions. Given spatial-temporal algorithms for outbreak detection are widely used, this paper suggests that epidemiologists or public health officials would benefit by applying time series algorithms as a complement to spatial algorithms for public health surveillance. PMID:23569624

  14. ‘I can't be an addict. I am.’ Over-the-counter medicine abuse: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacy medicines are considered relatively safe in contrast to prescribed and illicit substances, but their abuse and addiction potential is increasingly recognised. Those affected represent a hard to reach group, with little known about their experiences. Study objectives were to describe the experiences and views of those self-reporting OTC medicine abuse, and why medicines were taken, how they were obtained and associated treatment and support sought. Design Qualitative study using in-depth mainly telephone interviews. Participants A purposive sample of 25 adults, aged 20–60s, 13 women. Setting UK, via two internet support groups. Results Individuals considered themselves ‘addicted’, but socially and economically active and different from illicit substance misusers. They blamed themselves for losing control over their medicine use, which usually began for genuine medical reasons and not experimentation and was often linked to the cessation of, or ongoing, medical prescribing. Codeine, in compound analgesics, was the main medicine implicated with three distinct dose ranges emerging with decongestant and sedative antihistamine abuse also being reported. Subsequent use was for the ‘buzz’ or similar effects of the opiate, which was obtained unproblematically by having lists of pharmacies to visit and occasionally using internet suppliers. Perceived withdrawal symptoms were described for all three dose ranges, and work and health problems were reported with higher doses. Mixed views about different treatment and support options emerged with standard drug treatment services being considered inappropriate for OTC medicines and concerns that this ‘hidden addiction’ was recorded in medical notes. Most supported the continued availability of OTC medicines with appropriate addiction warnings. Conclusions Greater awareness of the addiction potential of OTC medicines is needed for the public, pharmacists and medical

  15. Oxidation levels of North American over-the-counter n-3 (omega-3) supplements and the influence of supplement formulation and delivery form on evaluating oxidative safety.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Alvi, Azhar Z; Mirajkar, Abdur; Imani, Zahabia; Gamalevych, Yuliya; Shaikh, Nisar A; Jackowski, George

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidation status of North American n-3 (omega-3) PUFA nutritional supplements commercially available in Canada and evaluate the influence of product formulation and delivery form on oxidative safety. A total of 171 North American over-the-counter n-3 PUFA nutritional supplements were analysed for oxidation safety. Primary and secondary oxidation and total oxidation (TOTOX) were determined using the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) procedures. Comparisons between supplements' final forms, oil source and n-3 PUFA concentration quartiles, as measures of product formulations and delivery forms, were compared using ANOVA. Of the products successfully tested, 50 % exceeded the voluntary recommended levels for markers of oxidation. Another 18 % of products were approaching the limits with 1-3 years before expiration. Encapsulated products without flavour additives had significantly lower secondary and TOTOX levels than bulk oils and flavoured products (P < 0·05). Children's products had significantly higher primary, secondary and TOTOX levels compared with all other products (P < 0·05). Markers of oxidation did not differ between oil sources (P > 0·05), with the exception of krill oil products having higher secondary oxidation levels than plant-based products (P > 0·05). Markers of oxidation did not differ between n-3 PUFA supplement concentration quartiles. Consumers may be at risk of exposure to higher levels of oxidative products. New regulatory mandates need to be introduced to ensure that all n-3 PUFA products, used as nutritional supplements, regardless of their formulation or delivery form, can be tested for oxidative safety and compliance.

  16. The Safety of Appropriate Use of Over-the-Counter Proton Pump Inhibitors: An Evidence-Based Review and Delphi Consensus.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David A; Katz, Philip O; Armstrong, David; Cohen, Henry; Delaney, Brendan C; Howden, Colin W; Katelaris, Peter; Tutuian, Radu I; Castell, Donald O

    2017-04-01

    The availability of over-the-counter (OTC) proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for the short-term (2 weeks) management of frequent heartburn (≥2 days/week) has increased markedly, yet evidence-based recommendations have not been developed. A panel of nine international experts in gastroesophageal reflux disease developed consensus statements regarding the risks and benefits of OTC PPIs using a modified Delphi process. Consensus (based on ≥80% approval) was reached through multiple rounds of remote voting and a final round of live voting. To identify relevant data, the available literature was searched and summarized. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system terminology was used to rate the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations; consensus was based on ≥2/3 agreement. After 4 rounds of review, consensus was achieved for 18 statements. Notably, the available data did not directly reflect OTC use, but instead, prescription use; therefore, extrapolations to the OTC setting were often necessary. This limitation is regrettable, but it justifies performing this exercise to provide evidence-based expert opinion on a widely used class of drugs. The panel determined that using OTC PPIs according to label instructions is unlikely to mask the symptoms of esophageal or gastric cancer or adversely impact the natural history of related precursor conditions. OTC PPIs are not expected to substantially affect micronutrient absorption or bone mineral density or cause community-acquired pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, or cardiovascular adverse events. However, OTC PPI use may be associated with slightly increased risks for infectious diarrhea, certain idiosyncratic reactions, and cirrhosis-related spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The available evidence does not suggest that OTC PPI use consistent with label instructions is associated with substantial health risks. To minimize potential risks, healthcare

  17. Socioeconomic Determinants of Antibiotic Consumption in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: The Effect of Restricting Over-The-Counter Sales

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Anna S.; Moura, M. Luísa; Boszczowski, Icaro; Lewis, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Improper antibiotic use is one of the main drivers of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, increasing infectious diseases morbidity and mortality and raising costs of healthcare. The level of antibiotic consumption has been shown to vary according to socioeconomic determinants (SED) such as income and access to education. In many Latin American countries, antibiotics could be easily purchased without a medical prescription in private pharmacies before enforcement of restrictions on over-the-counter (OTC) sales in recent years. Brazil issued a law abolishing OTC sales in October 2010. This study seeks to find SED of antibiotic consumption in the Brazilian state of São Paulo (SSP) and to estimate the impact of the 2010 law. Methods Data on all oral antibiotic sales having occurred in the private sector in SSP from 2008 to 2012 were pooled into the 645 municipalities of SSP. Linear regression was performed to estimate consumption levels that would have occurred in 2011 and 2012 if no law regulating OTC sales had been issued in 2010. These values were compared to actual observed levels, estimating the effect of this law. Linear regression was performed to find association of antibiotic consumption levels and of a greater effect of the law with municipality level data on SED obtained from a nationwide census. Results Oral antibiotic consumption in SSP rose from 8.44 defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) in 2008 to 9.95 in 2010, and fell to 8.06 DID in 2012. Determinants of a higher consumption were higher human development index, percentage of urban population, density of private health establishments, life expectancy and percentage of females; lower illiteracy levels and lower percentage of population between 5 and 15 years old. A higher percentage of females was associated with a stronger effect of the law. Conclusions SSP had similar antibiotic consumption levels as the whole country of Brazil, and they were effectively reduced by the

  18. A Review of the Ingredients Contained in Over the Counter (OTC) Cough Syrup Formulations in Kenya. Are They Harmful to Infants?

    PubMed Central

    Kigen, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Background Cough syrups are widely used in the developing world, but safety of their use in infants and children less than two years has not been well documented. Some syrups contain multiple combinations of such drugs as promethazine, diphenhydramine and ephedrine; which are individually now contraindicated in children less than two years. Despite this, the syrups are available as over the counter drugs and may be dispensed to mothers who are unaware of the potentially hazardous effects to their infants. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to investigate suitability of cough syrups sold within Eldoret municipality for use in children less than two years of age based on their formulations and available literature. Methods Two semi-structured questionnaires were administered to pharmacy attendants and mothers attending sick child clinic at a referral hospital to establish whether cough syrups containing more than one active ingredient of compounds, now contraindicated in children are administered to infants, and awareness of potential serious adverse effects. Data from labeled contents of cough syrups from retail pharmacies was recorded and corroborated with information from literature to determine those deemed to contain the ingredients. The second questionnaire was administered to mothers with children less than two years to ascertain whether they had used the identified syrups. A total of 260 mothers and 55 pharmacy attendants were interviewed. Results There was widespread use of the syrups in children, including infants, with 192 (74%) of the respondents having used identified syrups and over 90% of these on children less than 2 years including those less than three months.146 (76%) mothers had administered the syrup at double the recommended dose. Conclusion The regulatory authorities should make concerted efforts to discourage use of cough syrups containing ingredients that pose adverse events to infants, including campaigns to educate pharmacy

  19. Safety and Efficacy of Over-the-Counter Drug Use by the Elderly. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains the prepared statements and panel testimony from the Congressional hearing on over-the-counter (OTC) drug use by the elderly. Opening statements are given by Representatives Claude Pepper (chairman), Ralph Regula, Mary Rose Oakar, Michael Bilirakis, Tom Lantos, and Hal Daub. Topics which are covered include the incidence and…

  20. Clinical response of three direct-to-consumer whitening products: strips, paint-on gel, and dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Robert W; Barker, Matthew L

    2003-06-01

    A randomized, examiner-blind, parallel-group, 3-week clinical trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of 3, popular, direct-to-consumer whitening products: a paint-on gel, a whitening dentifrice, and whitening strips. Both the paint-on gel (18% carbamide peroxide) and the whitening strips (6% hydrogen peroxide) were peroxide-based systems, while the dual-phase whitening dentifrice incorporated surface cleaning agents and sodium fluoride, but contained no peroxide. Treatment consisted of twice-daily use over 3 weeks following label instructions, except that strips were applied only during the first 14 days as per the manufacturer's instructions. Tooth color was measured on the maxillary anterior teeth from polarized digital images. Safety was assessed by examination and subject report. A total of 48 healthy adults were randomized, and 42 completed 1 or more post-baseline visits. For the primary efficacy variable delta b*, the adjusted mean +/- standard error reduction in yellowness was -0.06 +/- 0.131 for the dentifrice with no peroxide and -0.21 +/- 0.109 for the 18% carbamide peroxide paint-on gel, compared with -2.53 +/- 0.244 for the whitening strip control. Only the strip group exhibited significant (P < 0.0001) delta b* improvement. Between-group comparisons demonstrated significant and improved whitening for the strip treatment compared with the whitening dentifrice or paint-on peroxide gel, as evidenced by the more than 2-unit improvement in delta b* at week 3. Regardless of the parameter (delta b*, delta L*, delta a*, or delta E*), this represented a significant (P < 0.0001) color improvement for the whitening strips relative to both of the comparative treatments. There were no significant differences in color improvement for the 18% carbamide peroxide paint-on gel used for up to 3 weeks continuously, compared with normal brushing with a dual-phase whitening dentifrice. All products were well tolerated, with no subjects discontinuing treatment early because

  1. A clinical evaluation of bleaching using whitening wraps and strips.

    PubMed

    Matis, Bruce A; Cochran, Michael; Wang, Ge; Franco, Miguel; Eckert, George J; Carlotti, Ronald J; Bryan, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree of color change of teeth and the sensitivities of teeth and gums in an in vivo study. Ranir Whitening Wraps (WW2) and Crest Whitestrips Premium (WP2) were used twice a day and Ranir Whitening Wraps (WW1) were used once a day. Color evaluations occurred at baseline, after five and seven-day use of bleaching agent and 14 days post-bleaching. Color change was evaluated objectively and subjectively. Sensitivity evaluations were also accomplished. Seventy-six of the 78 subjects enrolled completed the study. All three products significantly lightened teeth. WW2 lightened more than WP2 and WW1 in L*, a*, b*, E and shade guide value. WP2 lightened more than WW1 in a*, b*, E and shade guide value. There was no difference in tooth sensitivity, but WW1 and WP2 caused less gingival sensitivity than WW2. The mean age of smokers was seven years younger than nonsmokers who qualified.

  2. Rococo study: a real-world evaluation of an over-the-counter medicine in acute cough (a multicentre, randomised, controlled study)

    PubMed Central

    Birring, S S; Brew, J; Kilbourn, A; Edwards, V; Wilson, R; Morice, A H

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the efficacy and safety of CS1002, an over-the-counter cough treatment containing diphenhydramine, ammonium chloride and levomenthol in a cocoa-based demulcent. Design A multicentre, randomised, parallel group, controlled, single-blinded study in participants with acute upper respiratory tract infection-associated cough. Setting 4 general practitioner (GP) surgeries and 14 pharmacies in the UK. Participants Participants aged ≥18 years who self-referred to a GP or pharmacist with acute cough of <7 days' duration. Participant inclusion criterion was cough severity ≥60 mm on a 0–100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Exclusion criteria included current smokers or history of smoking within the past 12 months (including e-cigarettes). 163 participants were randomised to the study (mean participant age 38 years, 57% females). Interventions Participants were randomised to CS1002 (Unicough) or simple linctus (SL), a widely used cough treatment, and treatment duration was 7 days or until resolution of cough. Main outcome measures The primary analysis was intention-to-treat (157 participants) and comprised cough severity assessed using a VAS after 3 days' treatment (prespecified primary end point at day 4). Cough frequency, sleep disruption, health status (Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ-acute)) and cough resolution were also assessed. Results At day 4 (primary end point), the adjusted mean difference (95% CI) in cough severity VAS between CS1002 and SL was −5.9 mm (−14.4 to 2.7), p=0.18. At the end of the study (day 7) the mean difference in cough severity VAS was −4.2 mm (−12.2 to 3.9), p=0.31. CS1002 was associated with a greater reduction in cough sleep disruption (mean difference −11.6 mm (−20.6 to 2.7), p=0.01) and cough frequency (mean difference −8.1 mm (−16.2 to 0.1), p=0.05) compared with SL. There was greater improvement in LCQ-acute quality of life scores with CS1002 compared with SL: mean

  3. On distributional assumptions and whitened cosine similarities.

    PubMed

    Loog, Marco

    2008-06-01

    Recently, an interpretation of the whitened cosine similarity measure as a Bayes decision rule was proposed (C. Liu, "The Bayes Decision Rule Induced Similarity Measures,'' IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1086-1090, June 2007. This communication makes the observation that some of the distributional assumptions made to derive this measure are very restrictive and, considered simultaneously, even inconsistent.

  4. a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttram, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.

  5. Safety issues of tooth whitening using peroxide-based materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Greenwall, L

    2013-07-01

    In-office tooth whitening using hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) has been practised in dentistry without significant safety concerns for more than a century. While few disputes exist regarding the efficacy of peroxide-based at-home whitening since its first introduction in 1989, its safety has been the cause of controversy and concern. This article reviews and discusses safety issues of tooth whitening using peroxide-based materials, including biological properties and toxicology of H₂O₂, use of chlorine dioxide, safety studies on tooth whitening, and clinical considerations of its use. Data accumulated during the last two decades demonstrate that, when used properly, peroxide-based tooth whitening is safe and effective. The most commonly seen side effects are tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation, which are usually mild to moderate and transient. So far there is no evidence of significant health risks associated with tooth whitening; however, potential adverse effects can occur with inappropriate application, abuse, or the use of inappropriate whitening products. With the knowledge on peroxide-based whitening materials and the recognition of potential adverse effects associated with the procedure, dental professionals are able to formulate an effective and safe tooth whitening regimen for individual patients to achieve maximal benefits while minimising potential risks.

  6. Comparative investigation of the tooth whitening processes using Ar+ and CuBr lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, S.; Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Gisbrecht, Alexander; Todorovska, Roumiana; Avramov, Lachezar A.; Todorov, Georgy C.

    2001-04-01

    In the present work some results of the comparative measurements of the tooth whitening effect using a bleaching agent activated by Ar+ (emitting at 488 nm) and CuBr (emitting at 510 nm) lasers are reported. It is shown that the whitening effect is observed in both cases. Some of the peculiarities in application of CuBr laser in the field of aesthetic dentistry are discussed, as well as the possibility to replace the more expensive Ar+ laser. In order to ensure reliable results from a light-chemical treatment of the teeth, as spectroscopy method has been developed and applied. The method is based on the analysis of laser-induced fluorescence spectra of the teeth with different coloring.

  7. A Game-Theoretic Model of Marketing Skin Whiteners.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies consistently find that people in less developed countries tend to regard light or "white" skin, particularly among women, as more desirable or superior. This is a study about the marketing of skin whiteners in these countries, where over 80 percent of users are typically women. It proceeds from the following premises: a) Purely market or policy-oriented approaches toward the risks and harms of skin whitening are cost-inefficient; b) Psychosocial and informational factors breed uninformed and risky consumer choices that favor toxic skin whiteners; and c) Proliferation of toxic whiteners in a competitive buyer's market raises critical supplier accountability issues. Is intentional tort a rational outcome of uncooperative game equilibria? Can voluntary cooperation nonetheless evolve between buyers and sellers of skin whiteners? These twin questions are key to addressing the central paradox in this study: A robust and expanding buyer's market, where cheap whitening products abound at a high risk to personal and societal health and safety. Game-theoretic modeling of two-player and n-player strategic interactions is proposed in this study for both its explanatory and predictive value. Therein also lie its practical contributions to the economic literature on skin whitening.

  8. A six-month study of two self-applied tooth whitening products containing carbamide peroxide.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Paul A; Ellwood, Roger; Davies, Robin

    2004-01-01

    Bleaching offers a non-interventive way of improving the appearance of sound, yet discolored anterior teeth. Until recently, the whitening agent was applied using a tray, but now other methods of delivering whitening agents, such as those using brush applicators, are available. This study investigated the tooth whitening efficacy of two novel, self-applied tooth whitening systems containing either 18% (Group 1) or 16.4% (Group 2) carbamide peroxide. Ninety-five subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 70 with anterior teeth A3 or darker, were recruited and randomly allocated to a group. The subjects were instructed to apply the formulation to all maxillary anterior teeth after brushing in the morning and evening. At baseline, two weeks and six months the upper six anterior teeth of the subjects were measured using the Vita shade guide tab system. In addition, the gingival health of the labial surfaces of the upper six anterior teeth was assessed using the Loee and Silness Gingival index (Loee & Silness, 1963) at baseline and at two weeks. The mean (SD) reduction in shade guide scores was 4.1 (2.4) shade guide tabs for subjects in Group 1, compared to 3.7 (2.6) shades for those in Group 2. This difference was not statistically significant (p=0.5). During the course of study, the gingivitis scores reduced from a mean (SD) of 0.91 (0.62) at baseline to 0.44 (0.55) at final examination (48% reduction). At the six-month recall, the mean (SD) reduction in shade guide scores was 2.3 (2.7) shade guide tabs for subjects in Group 1, compared to 2.5 (2.5) shades for those in Group 2. The different concentrations tested were found to be equally effective in improving the whiteness of upper anterior teeth by approximately four shades over a two-week period and the majority of the whitening benefit (c.60%) was sustained at six-month recall.

  9. Insights into an adipocyte whitening program

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Bradford G

    2015-01-01

    White adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating systemic metabolism and can remodel rapidly in response to changes in nutrient availability. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the metabolic changes occurring in adipocytes during obesity. Our laboratory recently addressed this issue in a commonly used, high-fat-diet mouse model of obesity. We found remarkable changes in adipocyte metabolism that occur prior to infiltration of macrophages in expanding adipose tissue. Results of metabolomic analyses, adipose tissue respirometry, electron microscopy, and expression analyses of key genes and proteins revealed dysregulation of several metabolic pathways, loss of mitochondrial biogenetic capacity, and apparent activation of mitochondrial autophagy which were followed in time by downregulation of numerous mitochondrial proteins important for maintaining oxidative capacity. These findings demonstrate the presence of an adipocyte whitening program that may be critical for regulating adipose tissue remodeling under conditions of chronic nutrient excess. PMID:26167407

  10. A randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded comparative clinical study of five over-the-counter non-pharmacological topical analgesics for myofascial pain: single session findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of topical agents for the treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) and Myofascial Trigger Point (MTRP). Methods Subjects with an identifiable trigger point in the trapezius muscle, age 18-80 were recruited for a single-session randomized, placebo-blinded clinical study. Baseline measurements of trapezius muscle pressure pain threshold (PPT: by pressure algometer) along with right and left cervical lateral flexion (rangiometer) were obtained by a blinded examiner. An assessor blinded to the outcomes assessments applied one of 6 topical formulations which had been placed in identical plastic containers. Five of these topicals were proposed active formulations; the control group was given a non-active formulation (PLA). Five minutes after the application of the formula the outcome measures were re-tested. Data were analyzed with a 5-way ANOVA and Holms-adjusted t-tests with an alpha level of 0.05. Results 120 subjects were entered into the study (63 females; ages 16-82); 20 subjects randomly allocated into each group. The pre- and post-treatment results for pressure threshold did show significant intra-group increases for the Ben-Gay Ultra Strength Muscle Pain Ointment (BG), the Professional Therapy MuscleCare Roll-on (PTMC roll-on) and Motion Medicine Cream (MM) with an increased threshold of 0.5 kg/cm2 (+/-0.15), 0.72 kg/cm2 (+/-0.17) and 0.47 Kg/cm2 (+/-0.19) respectively. With respect to the inter-group comparisons, PTMC roll-on showed significant increases in pressure threshold compared with Placebo (PLA) (p = 0.002) and Icy Hot Extra Strength Cream (IH) (p = 0.006). In addition, BG demonstrated significant increases in pressure threshold compared with PLA (p = 0.0003). Conclusions With regards to pressure threshold, PTMC roll-on, BG and MM showed significant increases in pain threshold tolerance after a short-term application on a trigger points located in the trapezius muscle. PTMC roll-on and BG were both shown to be

  11. Role of fluoridated carbamide peroxide whitening gel in the remineralization of demineralized enamel: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bollineni, Swetha; Janga, Ravi Kumar; Venugopal, L.; Reddy, Indukuri Ravikishore; Babu, P. Ravisekhar; Kumar, Sunil S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of self-administered carbamide peroxide bleaching gels has become increasingly popular for whitening of discolored vital teeth. Studies have reported that its use may induce increased levels of sensitivity and surface roughness of the tooth due to demineralization. This study evaluates the effect of fluoride addition to the bleaching agent – its remineralizing capacity and alterations in the whitening properties. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four extracted lower third molar teeth, with the pretreatment shade determined, were taken up in the study. Each tooth was sectioned into four and labeled as groups A, B, C, and D. The tooth quadrants in group A-C were demineralized; groups A and B were treated with 10% carbamide peroxide gel (group-A without fluoride and group-B with 0.463% fluoride addition) (no further treatment was carried out for group c) group-D remained as the control. The post-treatment shade was determined. The tooth samples were sectioned (approximately 200 μm) for evaluation under a light microscope. The depth of demineralization was analyzed at five different equidistant points. Statistical analysis was carried out with t-tests, accepting ≤0.05 as significant. Results and Conclusion: Addition of fluoride caused remineralization of demineralized enamel. The tooth whitening system showed that the remineralization properties did not affect the whitening properties. PMID:25254197

  12. Adrenal insufficiency from over-the-counter medicine as a cause of shock in rural area of Thailand: a study at Sisaket Provincial Hospital during October 2012--October 2013.

    PubMed

    Kamrat, Nuttamon

    2015-04-01

    This retrospective study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of an adrenal crisis at a provincial hospital in Thailand over a period of 1 year, and also to explore the relationship between adrenal insufficiency and over-the-counter medicine (OTCM) ingestion. We recruited those patients admitted at Sisaket Hospital between October 2012 and October 2013 who were diagnosed with shock and adrenal insufficiency or adrenal crisis. Of 2,435 patients diagnosed with shock from all causes, 62 (2.55 %) were diagnosed with adrenal crisis, of whom 31 (50.0%) gave a history of OTCM ingestion. This study suggests adrenal crisis with shock is not that uncommon and that the use of OTCM may be the prime culprit.

  13. Classification of benzoyl peroxide as safe and effective and revision of labeling to drug facts format; topical acne drug products for over-the-counter human use; final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-03-04

    We, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), are issuing this final rule to include benzoyl peroxide as a generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE) active ingredient in over-the-counter (OTC) topical acne drug products. In addition, this final rule includes new warnings and directions required for OTC acne drug products containing benzoyl peroxide. We are also revising labeling for OTC topical acne drug products containing resorcinol, resorcinol monoacetate, salicylic acid and/or sulfur to meet OTC drug labeling content and format requirements in a certain FDA regulation. This final rule is part of our ongoing review of OTC drug products and represents our conclusions on benzoyl peroxide in OTC acne drug products.

  14. Influence of Whitening Gel Application Protocol on Dental Color Change

    PubMed Central

    Caneppele, Taciana Marco Ferraz; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Huhtala, Maria Filomena Rocha Lima; Bresciani, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the influence of different whitening protocols on the efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) tooth whitening and gel pH and concentration. Material and Methods. Eighty-four enamel/dentin discs from bovine incisors were used. The baseline color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Two sessions of in-office whitening with 35% HP were performed under different protocols: G1: 3 applications of HP (10 min each) per session; G2: 1 application of 30 min per session; G3: 1 application of 40 min per session, with no gel replenishment within session for groups 2 and 3. HP titration and pH evaluation at baseline, after 10, 30, and 40 min were also performed. The final color was measured 24 h after the 1st and 2nd whitening sessions. Data were submitted to Repeated Measures ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results. For color evaluation, no differences were observed among groups after two sessions. HP titration showed no drop on concentration after 10, 30, or 40 min. The pH was 5.54 at baseline and 5.41 after 40 min. Conclusion. Replenishment or extended application time of in-office whitening gel does not affect gel pH and concentration, a fact that supports the similar effectiveness of whitening observed among the tested protocols. PMID:25866839

  15. Synthesis and cosmetic whitening effect of glycosides derived from several phenylpropanoids.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Shinichi; Tominaga, Hitoshi; Okada, Yoshiharu; Nomura, Masato

    2006-03-01

    Plant-derived phenylpropanoid compounds (4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, 2,3-dimethoxyphenol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol, 3,5-dimethoxyphenol, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid) were glycosidated to form glycoside compounds. We evaluated the effects of these compounds on the inhibition of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis and their cytotoxicity from the viewpoint of their use as whitening agents in cosmetics. Some compounds had more potent tyrosinase-inhibiting activity than commercial arbutin, which was used as a control, and showed no cytotoxicity at low concentration ranges.

  16. Use Over-the-Counter Medicines Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... have Risks as well as benefits; and ● Take Responsibility for learning about how to take each OTC ... Discussion and action concerning medicines are solely the responsibility of patients and their health care professionals, and ...

  17. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Naloxone Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post-Award Concerns General Information Grant & Contract Application ...

  18. Undesirable and adverse effects of tooth-whitening products: a review.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Michel; Grootveld, Martin; Lynch, Edward

    2010-02-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is a powerful oxidising agent. It gives rise to agents known to be effective bleaching agents. The mechanisms of bleaching involve the degradation of the extracellular matrix and oxidation of chromophores located within enamel and dentin. However, H(2)O(2) produces also local undesirable effects on tooth structures and oral mucosa. In clinical conditions, the daily low-level doses used to produce tooth whitening never generate general acute and sub-acute toxic effects. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity only occur at concentrations that are never reached during dental treatments. Some transient adverse effects have been reported on the oral mucosa and the digestive tract if the product is swallowed. Local effects may occur on the oral mucosa and dental tissues during whitening, namely, pulp sensitivity, cervical resorption, release of selected components of dental restorative materials, and alteration of the enamel surface. Most of the local effects are dependent of the technique and concentration of the product so far used, but as the results of bleaching obtained are not stable, repeated treatments add to the adverse effects. The informed decision to administer or not and the control of bleaching effects should stand in the hand of dental surgeons and certainly not as it appears at present, as cosmetics sold without any restriction despite the potential health hazards of peroxides.

  19. Skin whitening agents: medicinal chemistry perspective of tyrosinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Manickam, Manoj; Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran

    2017-12-01

    Melanogenesis is a process to synthesize melanin, which is a primary responsible for the pigmentation of human skin, eye and hair. Although numerous enzymatic catalyzed and chemical reactions are involved in melanogenesis process, the enzymes such as tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 played a major role in melanin synthesis. Specifically, tyrosinase is a key enzyme, which catalyzes a rate-limiting step of the melanin synthesis, and the downregulation of tyrosinase is the most prominent approach for the development of melanogenesis inhibitors. Therefore, numerous inhibitors that target tyrosinase have been developed in recent years. The review focuses on the recent discovery of tyrosinase inhibitors that are directly involved in the inhibition of tyrosinase catalytic activity and functionality from all sources, including laboratory synthetic methods, natural products, virtual screening and structure-based molecular docking studies.

  20. Effect of whitening toothpaste on superficial roughness of composite resin.

    PubMed

    da Cas, Natalia Ventura; Ruat, Gabrielle Rodrigues; Bueno, Renata Pla Rizzolo; Pachaly, Raquel; Pozzobon, Roselaine Terezinha

    2013-07-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effect of different toothpastes with whitening action on the average surface roughness (Ra) of a microhybrid composite resin. Twenty-five specimens of composite resin were prepared and distributed randomly among 5 experimental groups (n = 5). Groups 1-3 were treated with whitening toothpastes: Close-up Extra Whitening, Colgate Ultra White, and Colgate Total 12 Whitening. Group 4 was a negative control group (with samples brushed with deionized water), and Group 5 was a positive control group (with samples brushed using a non-whitening toothpaste). A profilometer was used to determine Ra before and after brushing. A simulated brushing machine was used for all groups, providing horizontal back and forth movement with an amplitude of 3.8 cm applying an axial load of 200 g and a speed of 356 rpm, totaling 20,000 cycles. To determine the Ra in each specimen, 6 readings were taken at various positions before and after brushing. The results were submitted to variance analyses and Tukey's test. (P < 0.05). Groups 1, 2, 3, and 5 demonstrated statistically significant differences between initial and final averages. Based on these results, it was determined that brushing with toothpaste, regardless of formulation, significantly increased the Ra of the resin composite evaluated in this study.

  1. Automated detection of retinal whitening in malarial retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, V.; Agurto, C.; Barriga, S.; Nemeth, S.; Soliz, P.; MacCormick, I.; Taylor, T.; Lewallen, S.; Harding, S.

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe neurological complication associated with malarial infection. Malaria affects approximately 200 million people worldwide, and claims 600,000 lives annually, 75% of whom are African children under five years of age. Because most of these mortalities are caused by the high incidence of CM misdiagnosis, there is a need for an accurate diagnostic to confirm the presence of CM. The retinal lesions associated with malarial retinopathy (MR) such as retinal whitening, vessel discoloration, and hemorrhages, are highly specific to CM, and their detection can improve the accuracy of CM diagnosis. This paper will focus on development of an automated method for the detection of retinal whitening which is a unique sign of MR that manifests due to retinal ischemia resulting from CM. We propose to detect the whitening region in retinal color images based on multiple color and textural features. First, we preprocess the image using color and textural features of the CMYK and CIE-XYZ color spaces to minimize camera reflex. Next, we utilize color features of the HSL, CMYK, and CIE-XYZ channels, along with the structural features of difference of Gaussians. A watershed segmentation algorithm is used to assign each image region a probability of being inside the whitening, based on extracted features. The algorithm was applied to a dataset of 54 images (40 with whitening and 14 controls) that resulted in an image-based (binary) classification with an AUC of 0.80. This provides 88% sensitivity at a specificity of 65%. For a clinical application that requires a high specificity setting, the algorithm can be tuned to a specificity of 89% at a sensitivity of 82%. This is the first published method for retinal whitening detection and combining it with the detection methods for vessel discoloration and hemorrhages can further improve the detection accuracy for malarial retinopathy.

  2. Effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate combined with hydrogen peroxide and CPP-ACPF in whitening and microhardness of enamel

    PubMed Central

    Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Rajabi, Omid; Forouzannejad, Zakiyeh

    2017-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) combined with 1.5% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF) on color and microhardness of enamel. Material and Methods Seventy-five bovine incisors were immersed in a tea solution for 7.5 days. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening agent applied: 1) 94% NaHCO3, 2) a blend of 94% NaHCO3 and CPP-ACPF, 3) a blend of 94% NaHCO3 and 1.5% H2O2, 4) a blend of 94% NaHCO3, 1.5% H2O2 and CPP-ACPF, 5) control. The whitening procedure was performed for 10 times over 10 days. At each day, the buccal surfaces were covered with whitening agents for 5 minutes and then brushed for 30 seconds. After the 10 days, the teeth were again immersed in a tea solution for 10 minutes. Color assessment was performed at baseline (T1), after the first staining process (T2), after the whitening procedure (T3), and after the second staining process (T4). Finally, the specimens were subjected to microhardness test. Results There was a statistically significant difference in the color change between T2 and T3 stages among the study groups (p<0.05), with the greatest improvement observed in group 4. Microhardness was significantly greater in groups 2 and 4, as compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusions The combination of 94% NaHCO3, 1.5% H2O2 and CPP-ACPF was effective in improving color and microhardness of teeth with extrinsic stains and could be recommended in the clinical situation. PMID:28298972

  3. Now you see it. Now you don't: fair balance and adequate provision in advertisements for drugs before and after the switch from prescription to over-the-counter.

    PubMed

    Faerber, Adrienne E; Kreling, David H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure differences in fair balance (benefit and risk statements) and adequate provision (toll-free numbers, Internet URLs, print ad references, and medical professional references) in advertising content for drugs that have switched from prescription to over-the-counter (OTC). The Vanderbilt TV News Archive was used to select products to study, to measure the frequency and placement of ads for those products, and to view advertising content for those products. Unique advertisements (n = 108) for loratadine (Claritin), citirizine (Zyrtec), and omeprazole (Prilosec) were analyzed for the presence of adequate provision statements and for the frequency of benefit, risk, and other statements. OTC ads were shorter than prescription ads by 10.6 seconds but contained the same total number of statements. Most prescription ads (n (RX) = 31) contained toll-free numbers (97%), Internet URLs (94%), medical professional references (100%) and print ad references (68%). Few OTC ads (n (OTC) = 77) contained adequate provision statements: 4% contained toll-free numbers and 10% contained Internet URLs. Prescription ads had similar numbers of benefits (1.5) and risks (1.8) per 30 seconds of ad time, and OTC ads had more benefits (6.6) than risks (1.2) per 30 seconds of ad time. Prescription drug ads contained risk statements that listed specific side effects and explicit harms from taking the product, but OTC ads contained nonspecific risk information and statements that implied risk rather than directly identifying risk. Differences in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulation of advertising affected the balance of risk and benefit information that appeared and the specificity of risk information available.

  4. Comparative 3-week clinical tooth-shade evaluation of a novel liquid whitening gel containing 18% carbamide peroxide and a commercially available whitening dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, Salim; Giniger, Martin; Proskin, Howard M; Stewart, Bernal; Robinson, Richard; Collins, Michael; DeVizio, William; Petrone, Margaret; Volpe, Anthony R

    2002-11-01

    A randomized, controlled, examiner-blind, parallel-group clinical trial was performed to compare the tooth-whitening benefits of a novel, nontray, "paint-on" liquid gel containing 18% carbamide peroxide (Colgate Simply White Clear Whitening Gel) to those of a commercially available whitening dentifrice. Efficacy was measured by using Vita shade scores obtained at baseline and after 2 and 3 weeks of product use. Eighty subjects were first balanced according to gender, age, and shade scores into two groups. Half were then randomly assigned to either alpha 3-week routine of tooth-brushing (using a nonwhitening dentifrice) and twice-daily 18% carbamide peroxide gel application or a 3-week routine of twice-daily brushing with the commercially available whitening dentifrice. At the completion of the study, the results showed that subjects' teeth in the liquid whitening gel-treated group exhibited a statistically significant (P < .05) 4.12 mean tooth-shade improvement compared to baseline and exhibited a mean score that was 3.7 units higher than the corresponding mean score of the group assigned to use the whitening dentifrice (statistically significant, P < .05). It can therefore be concluded that the combined use of Colgate Simply White Clear Whitening Gel immediately after brushing with a regular toothpaste is clinically superior at whitening teeth than solely using a clinically proven, commercially available whitening dentifrice.

  5. Clinical comparison of the stain-removal efficacy of a novel liquid whitening gel containing 18% carbamide peroxide and a commercially available whitening dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Farid; Giniger, Martin; Proskin, Howard M; Curtis, John P; Santarpia, Peter P; Stewart, Bernal; DeVizio, William; Petrone, Margaret; Volpe, Anthony R

    2002-11-01

    The objective of this examiner-blind clinical study was to compare the extrinsic tooth-stain removal efficacy of a novel, nontray, "paint-on" liquid whitening gel containing 18% carbamide peroxide (Colgate Simply White Clear Whitening Gel) with a commercially available whitening dentifrice. After a baseline examination for extrinsic tooth stain, qualifying adult men and women from Canada were randomized into two treatment groups balanced for age, gender, and level of extrinsic tooth stain. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for 1 minute with their assigned dentifrice (Group 1: nonwhitening dentifrice; Group 2: whitening dentifrice). The subjects in Group 1 also were instructed to use the paint-on whitening gel for 30 minutes twice daily. Examinations for extrinsic tooth stain were repeated after 2 and 3 weeks. Ninety-seven subjects complied with the protocol and completed the entire study. At both the 2- and 3-week examinations, subjects assigned to the liquid whitening gel-treatment group exhibited statistically significant reductions in extrinsic tooth stain (P < .05) with respect to stain area (22.7% reduction at 3 weeks), stain intensity (26.3% reduction at 3 weeks), and overall stain removal (32% reduction at 3 weeks) compared with the commercially available whitening dentifrice group. Thus, the results of the examiner-blind clinical study support the conclusion that Colgate Simply White Clear Whitening Gel provides a significantly greater level of extrinsic tooth-stain removal efficacy than a commercially available whitening dentifrice.

  6. Efficacy of Mouthwashes Containing Hydrogen Peroxide on Tooth Whitening.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Muhammet; Hatipoglu, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide compared with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel. Fifty enamel-dentin samples were obtained from bovine incisors and then stained in a tea solution. The stained samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening product applied (n = 10): AS: no whitening (negative control), with the samples stored in artificial saliva; CR: Crest 3D White mouthwash; LS: Listerine Whitening mouthwash; SC: Scope White mouthwash; and OP group: 10% CP Opalescence PF (positive control). Color measurements were carried out with a spectrophotometer before staining, after staining, and on the 7th, 28th, and 56th day of the whitening period. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance followed by a Tukey post hoc test. The color change (ΔE) was significantly greater in all the groups compared to that of the AS group. After 56 days, no significant differences were found among the mouthwash products with respect to color change (P > 0.05). The whiteness of the teeth treated with the mouthwashes increased significantly over time. Nevertheless, the color change achieved with the mouthwashes was significantly lower than that achieved with the 10% CP at-home bleaching gel.

  7. Efficacy of Mouthwashes Containing Hydrogen Peroxide on Tooth Whitening

    PubMed Central

    Karadas, Muhammet; Hatipoglu, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide compared with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel. Fifty enamel-dentin samples were obtained from bovine incisors and then stained in a tea solution. The stained samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening product applied (n = 10): AS: no whitening (negative control), with the samples stored in artificial saliva; CR: Crest 3D White mouthwash; LS: Listerine Whitening mouthwash; SC: Scope White mouthwash; and OP group: 10% CP Opalescence PF (positive control). Color measurements were carried out with a spectrophotometer before staining, after staining, and on the 7th, 28th, and 56th day of the whitening period. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance followed by a Tukey post hoc test. The color change (ΔE) was significantly greater in all the groups compared to that of the AS group. After 56 days, no significant differences were found among the mouthwash products with respect to color change (P > 0.05). The whiteness of the teeth treated with the mouthwashes increased significantly over time. Nevertheless, the color change achieved with the mouthwashes was significantly lower than that achieved with the 10% CP at-home bleaching gel. PMID:26295061

  8. A Simple Recipe for Whitening Old Newspaper Clippings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Henry A.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a method for experimenting with both whitening and deacidifying old newspaper clippings using sodium borohydride bleaching. Clippings are soaked in distilled water then immersed in sodium borohydride for 15-20 minutes. After rinsing with distilled water, the paper is washed with saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. Readers should not begin…

  9. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michael; Hasler-Nguyen, Nathalie; Saroea, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B) on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whitening chewing gum (C) and human saliva (D). Methods Bovine incisors were stained by alternating air exposure and immersion in a broth containing natural pigments such as coffee, tea and oral microorganisms for 10 days. Stained enamel samples were exposed to saliva alone or to the test chewing gums under conditions simulating human mastication. The coloration change of the enamel samples was measured using a spectrophotometer. Measurements were obtained for each specimen (average of three absorbances) using the L*a*b scale: lightness (L*), red-green (a) and yellow-blue (b). Results Medicated chewing gums (A and B) removed a greater amount of visible extrinsic stain, while the confectionary chewing gum with a whitening claim (C) had a milder whitening effect as evaluated by quantitative and qualitative assessment. Conclusion The tested Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) chewing gums were more effective in the removal of the extrinsic tooth stain. This visible improvement in tooth whitening appearance could strengthen the smokers' motivation to quit smoking. PMID:18694488

  10. Seismic arrival enhancement through the use of noise whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnie, Claire; Chambers, Kit; Angus, Doug

    2017-01-01

    A constant feature in seismic data, noise is particularly troublesome for passive seismic monitoring where noise commonly masks microseismic events. We propose a statistics-driven noise suppression technique that whitens the noise through the calculation and removal of the noise's covariance. Noise whitening is shown to reduce the noise energy by a factor of 3.5 resulting in microseismic events being observed and imaged at lower signal to noise ratios than originally possible - whilst having negligible effect on the seismic wavelet. The procedure is shown to be highly resistant to most changes in the noise properties and has the flexibility of being used as a stand-alone technique or as a first step before standard random noise attenuation methods.

  11. [Study on the influence of whitening toothpastes on the nanocomposite material surface].

    PubMed

    Orekhova, L Yu; Prokhorova, O V; Kameneva, S V; Kuschenko, N V; Safaryan, M O

    2016-01-01

    The influence of whitening toothpastes on the surface of nanocomposite dental restorative materials (24 samples divided in 3 groups according to type of toothpaste used) was studied using optical profilometry. The most significant changes on the surface roughness of the material caused abrasive whitening toothpaste in comparison to enzymes-based paste. Selection and use of whitening toothpastes in patients with dental restorations must be carried out under dentist's supervision.

  12. Effect of whitening toothpaste on titanium and titanium alloy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Bordin, Angelo Rafael de Vito; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2012-01-01

    Dental implants have increased the use of titanium and titanium alloys in prosthetic applications. Whitening toothpastes with peroxides are available for patients with high aesthetic requirements, but the effect of whitening toothpastes on titanium surfaces is not yet known, although titanium is prone to fluoride ion attack. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare Ti-5Ta alloy to cp Ti after toothbrushing with whitening and conventional toothpastes. Ti-5Ta (%wt) alloy was melted in an arc melting furnace and compared with cp Ti. Disks and toothbrush heads were embedded in PVC rings to be mounted onto a toothbrushing test apparatus. A total of 260,000 cycles were carried out at 250 cycles/minute under a load of 5 N on samples immersed in toothpaste slurries. Surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were evaluated before and after toothbrushing. One sample of each material/toothpaste was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and compared with a sample that had not been submitted to toothbrushing. Surface roughness increased significantly after toothbrushing, but no differences were noted after toothbrushing with different toothpastes. Toothbrushing did not significantly affect sample microhardness. The results suggest that toothpastes that contain and those that do not contain peroxides in their composition have different effects on cp Ti and Ti-5Ta surfaces. Although no significant difference was noted in the microhardness and roughness of the surfaces brushed with different toothpastes, both toothpastes increased roughness after toothbrushing.

  13. Assessment of the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on postoperative sensitivity associated with in-office vital tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Maghaireh, G A; Alzraikat, H; Guidoum, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth mousse containing 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in reducing tooth sensitivity associated with in-office vital tooth whitening. In-office tooth whitening was performed for 51 participants using 35% hydrogen peroxide gel in a single visit. After the procedure, each participant was randomly assigned to one of three groups: gel without desensitizing agent (n=17), gel with 2% sodium fluoride (n=17), gel with 10% CPP-ACP (n=17). A small amount of the desensitizing gel assigned for each participant was applied directly on the labial surfaces of teeth and left undisturbed for three minutes. The participants were asked to apply the gel assigned to them for three minutes twice daily after brushing their teeth, and to continue this for 14 days. The participants were asked to return for follow-up visits after 24 hours and on days 3, 7, and 14, at which time teeth shade changes were assessed by one evaluator using a value-oriented Vita classic shade guide. The incidence, duration, and intensity of tooth sensitivity experienced was self-assessed on a daily basis for the 14-day study period using a visual analog scale (VAS). The effect of the three gels on tooth sensitivity was assessed using one-way analysis of variance and a χ (2) test (α=0.05). The general linear model was used to compare intensity-level differences in the three studied groups and for shade stability over the follow-up period. The results of this study showed that all three gels decreased the intensity of sensitivity associated with tooth whitening. The intensity of sensitivity was lower in the fluoride group than in the other two groups; however, it was not statistically significant (p=0.112 and p=0.532 on day 1 and day 2, respectively). The average shade change was 6.8. None of the tested materials affected the efficacy of tooth whitening, but the shade change among the fluoride group showed more color stability

  14. Critical appraisal. In-office tooth whitening: pulpal effects and tooth sensitivity issues.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Swift, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    In-office bleaching is an effective method for whitening teeth.Tooth sensitivity associated with in-office whitening is reversible and may range from mild to considerable. The incidence and severity of tooth sensitivity can be reduced by pretreatment with a desensitizer such as potassium nitrate. Histologic studies and clinical studies on long-term pulpal effects are lacking to definitively support the safety of in-office tooth whitening. Future studies on the etiology of tooth sensitivity related to whitening might greatly improve the means of preventing and managing this side effect.

  15. Betula pendula leaves: polyphenolic characterization and potential innovative use in skin whitening products.

    PubMed

    Germanò, M P; Cacciola, F; Donato, P; Dugo, P; Certo, G; D'Angelo, V; Mondello, L; Rapisarda, A

    2012-07-01

    The research of new tyrosinase inhibitors is currently important for the development of skin whitening agents; particularly, birch leaves extracts are included in many skin cosmetic products. In this study, the potential ability of Betula pendula leaves ethanolic extract (BE) was evaluated on mushroom tyrosinase activity. Results showed that BE was capable to inhibit dose-dependently l-DOPA oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase. The inhibition kinetics, analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots, showed a noncompetitive inhibition of BE towards the enzyme, using l-DOPA as substrate. The inhibitory mechanism of BE as studied by spectrophotometric analysis, demonstrated its ability to chelate copper ion in the active site of tyrosinase. In addition, BE exhibited Fe(2+)-chelating ability (IC(50)=614.12±2.14 μg/mL), reducing power and radical-scavenging properties (IC(50)=137.22±1.98 μg/mL). These results suggest the usefulness of birch leaves extracts in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for their skin-whitening and antioxidant effects. Determination of the polyphenolic compounds in BE extracts was afterward achieved by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. A total of 25 compounds were positively identified, through the complementary analytical information, and are reported in such a matrix for the first time. Knowledge on the qualitative composition and contents of these natural sources in fact represents mandatory information, for rational consumption and correlation of the beneficial effects to the specific amounts.

  16. The Scientification of Skin Whitening and the Entrepreneurial University-Linked Corporate Scientific Officer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mire, Amina

    2012-01-01

    This work examines the interlocking strategies of scientific entrepreneurialism and academic capitalism in cutting-edge innovations in molecular biology, biomedicine, and other life sciences deployed in research and the development of high-end skin whitening and anti-aging cosmeceuticals. Skin whitening products and anti-aging cosmeceuticals are…

  17. A clinical study comparing the efficacy and sensitivity of home vs combined whitening.

    PubMed

    Dawson, P F L; Sharif, M O; Smith, A B; Brunton, P A

    2011-01-01

    This randomized clinical study assessed efficacy in terms of color change and production of sensitivity after home whitening alone and home whitening supplemented with in-office bleaching. Thirty-six subjects (aged 19 to 58 years) were randomly assigned to one of three different treatment groups: (A) home whitening for two weeks, with 16% carbamide peroxide in custom-made trays; (B) home whitening for two weeks, with 16% carbamide peroxide in custom-made trays supplemented with in-office bleaching with 9% hydrogen peroxide (in the same trays); or (C) home whitening for two weeks, with 16% carbamide peroxide in custom-made trays supplemented with in-office bleaching with 27% hydrogen peroxide (in the same trays). The efficacy of tooth whitening was assessed by determining the color change associated with the six upper anterior teeth using a value-ordered shade guide. Sensitivity was self-assessed with the use of a visual analog scale (VAS). Tooth shade and sensitivity were assessed at the following points: pretreatment; immediately after the home whitening phase; immediately after the in-office phase (groups B and C); and one week post active treatment. At the one week follow-up visit, subjects in group A had a mean (SD) color change of 5.9 (1.83) (teeth were lighter) immediately after cessation of treatment (p<0.01). Subjects in groups B and C experienced a greater change in mean (SD) shade immediately following their respective in-office treatments of 5.1 (1.53) and 5.4 (1.55). However, within one week, the shade of these teeth regressed to a similar degree to that achieved by subjects treated in group A. Overall, no significant difference in shade change or sensitivity was produced between the three groups. Investigators concluded that the in-office element of combined whitening produced no significant difference in tooth color or sensitivity when compared with home whitening alone.

  18. The effect of whitening transformation on pooling operations in convolutional autoencoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuhe; Fan, Yangyu; Liu, Weihua

    2015-12-01

    Convolutional autoencoders (CAEs) are unsupervised feature extractors for high-resolution images. In the pre-processing step, whitening transformation has widely been adopted to remove redundancy by making adjacent pixels less correlated. Pooling is a biologically inspired operation to reduce the resolution of feature maps and achieve spatial invariance in convolutional neural networks. Conventionally, pooling methods are mainly determined empirically in most previous work. Therefore, our main purpose is to study the relationship between whitening processing and pooling operations in convolutional autoencoders for image classification. We propose an adaptive pooling approach based on the concepts of information entropy to test the effect of whitening on pooling in different conditions. Experimental results on benchmark datasets indicate that the performance of pooling strategies is associated with the distribution of feature activations, which can be affected by whitening processing. This provides guidance for the selection of pooling methods in convolutional autoencoders and other convolutional neural networks.

  19. Tooth-Bleaching: A Review of the Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Various Tooth Whitening Products.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Abdul; Farooq, Imran; Grobler, Sias R; Rossouw, R J

    2015-12-01

    Tooth bleaching (whitening) is one of the most common and inexpensive method for treating discolouration of teeth. Dental aesthetics, especially tooth colour, is of great importance to majority of the people; and discolouration of even a single tooth can negatively influence the quality of life. Therefore, a review of the literature was carried out (limited to aesthetic tooth-bleaching) to provide a broad overview of the efficacy and adverse effects of various tooth whitening products on soft and hard oral tissues.

  20. Surface and pulpal temperature comparison of tooth whitening using lasers and curing lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joel M.; Pelino, Jose; Rodrigues, Rively; Zwhalen, Brian J.; Nguyen, Max H.; Wu, Emily

    2000-03-01

    Chemical action of bleaching agents applied to tooth surface is accelerated by increase in temperature. This in vitro study measured the temperature rises on the surface and in the pulp of teeth during whitening using a diode laser, a plasma arc curing (PAC) light and conventional curing lights. Extracted, non-carious single-rooted teeth were exposed to PAC light and laser at times ranging from 10 to 60 seconds and energy ranges of 2 W, 4 W, and 6 W, and to low-intensity curing lights from 1 to 4 minutes. Maximum temperature rises were analyzed for both pulpal and surface temperature. Diode laser exposures at 2 W for all times and at 4 watts for 10 seconds and PAC light exposures at 10 seconds all produced acceptably safe pulpal rises equivalent to conventional light-curing exposures. Exposures at these settings also attained surface temperature rises that were significantly higher than those using conventional light-curing. The diode laser demonstrated bleaching results equivalent to the PAC light, and both were achieved in significantly less times than conventional light- curing.

  1. Laboratory studies on the chemical whitening effects of a sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Baig, Arif A; Kozak, Kathy M; Cox, Ed R; Zoladz, James R; Mahony, Lynn; White, Donald J

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory studies were developed to permit the evaluation of chemical actions of toothpaste components in the non-abrasive prevention and removal of tea stains. Powdered hydroxyapatites were used as substrates for adsorption of tea chromogens. Pre-treatment with a sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice (Crest Dual Action Whitening) reduced tea adsorption to powdered apatite, while post-treatments of pre-stained powder resulted in desorption of tea components. These results exemplified the chemical actions of condensed calcium phosphate surface active builders toward dental stain removal and prevention. A cycling synamel chip model permitted the study of stain prevention, including salivary pellicle formation and chlorhexidine enhancement of dental staining by tea chromogens. Staining was evaluated by image analysis of color development. Under these conditions, condensed phosphate dentifrices were observed to produce superior prevention of stain accumulations, with Crest Dual Action Whitening dentifrice providing stain prevention superior to a variety of commercial dentifrices, including Colgate Total, Aquafresh Whitening, Colgate Tartar Control Whitening, Mentadent Baking Soda and Peroxide Whitening, Close-Up Whitening, Crest Tartar Control and Crest Regular Cavity Protection.

  2. Efficacy of a novel, nontray, paint-on 18% carbamide peroxide whitening gel.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, Salim; Stewart, Bernal; Zhang, Yun Po; Chaknis, Pat; Rustogi, Kedar N; DeVizio, William; Petrone, Margaret; Volpe, Anthony R

    2002-11-01

    A double-blind, 3-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the tooth-whitening efficacy of a novel nontray, "paint-on" liquid whitening gel containing 18% carbamide peroxide (Colgate Simply White Clear Whitening Gel). Efficacy was based on measured Vita tooth-shade scores collected at baseline and after 2 and 3 weeks of product use. Eighty healthy volunteers were balanced into 2 groups based on gender, age, and shade scores (A3 or higher). The duration of product usage was 30 minutes, twice daily, for 3 weeks. Results from this clinical study showed that subjects' teeth in the liquid whitening gel-treated group exhibited an overall mean 3.84-shade improvement and a 3.5-shade difference compared with teeth in the placebo gel group (statistically significant, P < .05) after 3 weeks. Furthermore, this improvement exceeds the minimum requirement to claim "clinical efficacy" as established by the "Guidelines for the Acceptance of Peroxide-Containing Oral Hygiene Products," published by the American Dental Association in 1994. Therefore, it can be concluded that Colgate Simply White Clear Whitening Gel significantly whitens teeth.

  3. Agents.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2002-01-01

    Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists.

  4. Whitening efficacy of plant extracts including Hippophae rhamnoides and Cassia fistula extracts on the skin of Asian patients with melasma

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naveed; Hussain, Irshad; Abbas, Khwaja Asad; Rasul, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Melasma/hyperpigmentation and solar damage of the skin remains a difficult problem to treat. Various types of whitening agents are used to treat hyperpigmentation. A change has been observed recently to use plant extracts as skin whitening agents. Aim To compare the effectiveness of emulsion formulations containing plant extracts that include catechins/polyphenols and placebo without plant extracts, on patients with melasma. Material and methods Two groups of 25 patients each (aged 21–35 years), who reported to the outpatient department of BV Hospital and Personal clinic of a dermatologist, were included in the study. Volunteers applied the formulations with plant extracts and placebo to one side of the cheek. Prior to the study, signed consent was obtained from each patient. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the extracts and formulations was tested in vitro. The pigment density of patients was evaluated biometrologically using Mexameter® and subjectively using a visual survey before and after treatment of 12 weeks. The approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee of Faculty of Pharmacy, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur was obtained before the study. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used in the statistical analysis. Results A significant decrease in the level of melanin was determined in all 50 patients who used a plant extract containing catechin (p ≤ 0.05). The difference between pre- and post-treatment levels of melanin was statistically significant (p = 0.05). Formulations prepared with plant extracts containing catechin were found effective on melasma, compared to the placebo. Conclusions Formulations containing plant extracts that are not yet being used widespread commercially on melasma could be an effective alternative treatment of melasma. PMID:24278079

  5. A clinical investigation of the efficacy of a tooth-whitening gel.

    PubMed

    Sielski, Chester; Conforti, Nicholas; Stewart, Bernal; Chaknis, Pat; Petrone, Margaret E; DeVizio, William; Volpe, Anthony R; Proskin, Howard M

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this randomized, controlled, examiner-blind, parallel-group clinical study was to determine whether a tooth-whitening gel (Colgate Simply White Night Clear Whitening Gel) can significantly lighten teeth when used once daily at night, as compared with a commercially available dentifrice. Following a baseline tooth shade evaluation using the VITA Shade Guide, qualifying adult male and female subjects from the Buffalo, New York area were randomized into 2 treatment groups, which were balanced for baseline VITA Shade Guide scores, gender, and age. The treatment groups were: (1) a commercially available dentifrice only; and (2) a tooth-whitening gel in addition to a commercially available dentifrice. Subjects assigned to the 2 groups were given the dentifrice and a soft-bristled toothbrush. In addition, subjects in one of the groups were given the tooth-whitening gel. All subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for 1 minute twice daily (morning and evening) with the dentifrice. The subjects in the group also using the tooth-whitening gel were further instructed to apply the gel once daily at night, as per manufacturer instructions. Evaluations of tooth shade for each subject were repeated after 2 weeks, and again after 3 weeks of product use. In addition, evaluations of tooth shade for subjects using the tooth-whitening gel were later conducted at 6 months after product use. Seventy-five subjects complied with the protocol and completed the study. At the 2-week and 3-week examinations, subjects using the tooth-whitening gel and dentifrice exhibited statistically significant (P < .05) tooth shade lightening relative to baseline tooth shade. Furthermore, at the 2-week and 3-week examinations, subjects using the tooth-whitening gel exhibited statistically significant (P < .05) tooth shade lightening relative to subjects using only the dentifrice. In addition, the 6-month-postuse examination showed that subjects using the tooth-whitening gel exhibited

  6. Over-the-Counter Biosensors: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Thomas Ming-Hung

    2008-01-01

    The demand for specific, low cost, rapid, sensitive and easy detection of biomolecules is huge. A well-known example is the glucose meters used by diabetics to monitor their blood glucose levels. Nowadays, a vast majority of the glucose meters are based on electrochemical biosensor technology. The inherent small size and simple construction of the electrochemical transducer and instrument are ideally suited for point-of-care biosensing. Besides glucose, a wide variety of electrochemical biosensors have been developed for the measurements of some other key metabolites, proteins, and nucleic acids. Nevertheless, unlike the glucose meters, limited success has been achieved for the commercialization of the protein and nucleic acid biosensors. In this review article, key technologies on the electrochemical detection of key metabolites, proteins, and DNAs are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on those that are compatible to home-use setting. Moreover, emerging technologies of lab-on-a-chip microdevices and nanosensors (i.e., silicon and carbon nanotube field-effect sensors) offer opportunities for the construction of new generation biosensors with much better performances. Together with the continuous innovations in the basic components of biosensors (i.e., transducers, biorecognition molecules, immobilization and signal transduction schemes), consumers could soon buy different kinds of biosensing devices in the pharmacy stores. PMID:27873829

  7. Over-the-Counter Derivatives Markets Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Frank, Barney [D-MA-4

    2009-10-13

    10/21/2009 Ordered to be Reported by Voice Vote. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4173, which became Public Law 111-203 on 7/21/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Over the Counter Laxatives for Constipation: Use with Caution

    MedlinePlus

    ... et al. Mothrerisk update: Treating constipation during pregnancy. Canadian Family Physician. 2012;58:836. Laxative (Oral route). ... org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation ...

  9. Over-the-Counter Acne Products: What Works and Why

    MedlinePlus

    ... pores. OTC benzoyl peroxide products are available in strengths from 2.5 to 10 percent. Possible side ... plugged. OTC salicylic acid products are available in strengths from 0.5 to 5 percent. Possible side ...

  10. Over-the-Counter Medicines: What's Right for You?

    MedlinePlus

    ... long to take it "OTHER INFORMATION": such as storage information "INACTIVE INGREDIENTS": substances such as binders, colors, ... 463-6332) Contact FDA Subscribe to FDA RSS feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook ...

  11. Indoles: Industrial, Agricultural and Over-the-Counter Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Timothy C.

    Indole-containing compounds are best known for their medicinal properties in the pharmaceutical industry. Although to a lesser degree, the indole motif none-the-less appears in many significant products across the entire chemical industry. This chapter describes the role that indole plays in a more commodity setting and provides examples illustrating these uses.

  12. Micro-structural integrity of dental enamel subjected to two tooth whitening regimes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reina; Shibata, Yo; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Colour modification of tooth enamel has proven successful, but it is unclear how various bleaching applications affect micro-structural integrity of the whitened enamel. To investigate the internal structural integrity of human intact tooth enamel with the application of two commonly used whitening regimes (in-office power bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide), evaluations were performed on teeth of identical colour classification. After the bleaching applications, the enamel mineral density was quantified and visualised with micro-computed tomography. The micro-structural differences between the whitened tooth enamel samples were distinctive, though the colour parameter changes within the samples were equivalent. Home bleaching achieved colour modification by demineralisation, whereas in-office bleaching depended on redistribution of the minerals after treatment and subsequent enhanced mineralisation.

  13. Digital whitening of band-limited white noise in the presence of colored noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A. K.; Penafiel, M.

    1986-06-01

    Four all zero whitening filters, one-sided and two-sided Wiener and linear prediction filters, are compared on the basis of reduction of input noise power, when the sum of a band-limited white noise and the colored noise is the input to a unity gain whitening filter. The colored noise is assumed to be one of the three types: equally spaced, equal power multiple tones, a periodic pulsetrain of random strength, and a random process having a first-order Butterworth spectrum.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide tooth-whitening (bleaching): review of safety in relation to possible carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Naik, Supritha; Tredwin, Christopher Jeremy; Scully, Crispian

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide in the form of carbamide peroxide is widely used in professionally and self-administered products for tooth whitening. Hydrogen peroxide is a highly reactive substance that can damage oral soft and hard tissues when present in high concentrations and with exposures of prolonged duration. This review examines the issue of oral mucosal damage and possible carcinogenicity relating to the use of hydrogen peroxide in the mouth for tooth whitening, with an emphasis on safety with prolonged exposure to low concentrations of peroxide products.

  15. Power and Socioscientific Issues: The Pedagogy of Mire's Critique of Skin Whitening Cosmeceuticals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blades, David

    2012-01-01

    In her article, "The Scientification of Skin Whitening and the Entrepreneurial University- Linked Corporate Scientific Officer," published in this issue, Amina Mire (2012) deconstructs the tacit investments implicit in such discourses of beauty, in particular those linked to cosmetic products that purport to fight the "war on aging" through the…

  16. Randomized controlled trial of professional at-home tooth whitening in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Donly, Kevin J; Segura, Adriana; Henson, Timothy; Barker, Matthew L; Gerlach, Robert W

    2007-11-01

    A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to compare two professional at-home tooth whitening systems in a teenage population. Informed consent and child assent were obtained from 60 teenagers aged 12-17 (mean age = 14.8). After baseline measurements, subjects were randomized to one of two groups, using either 14% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips or 10% carbamide peroxide in a custom bleaching tray. Strips were used for 30 minutes twice daily, while the tray was worn overnight. Treatment took place for 14 days sequentially, first on the maxillary arch and then on the mandibular arch; all use was unsupervised. Efficacy was measured objectively by L*a*b* color change from digital images obtained at baseline and end of treatment, using combined color measures for both arches. Both professional whitening systems had significant (p < 0.0001) reductions in yellowness (Deltab*) and increased lightness (DeltaL*) after two weeks of treatment on each arch. At the end of treatment, Deltab* or DeltaL* did not differ significantly between the groups (p > 0.28). Tooth sensitivity and mild oral irritation represented the most common adverse events, with only one subject discontinuing treatment as a result. Teenagers who used either bleaching method for two weeks experienced significant tooth whitening without serious adverse events.

  17. Light-enhanced chemical whitening of teeth: new in vitro investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorovska, R.; Dimitrov, S.; Pavlova, P.; Todorov, G.

    2007-03-01

    We report new results on the light enhanced teeth whitening obtained in a research collaboration financed by the Medical Science Council of the Medical University of Sofia. The project is an extension of previous research and its basic goal is to develop new teeth bleaching substances and procedures, in which the activators are diode lamps (LED).

  18. The effect of bleaching gel and (940 nm and 980 nm) diode lasers photoactivation on intrapulpal temperature and teeth whitening efficiency.

    PubMed

    Al-Karadaghi, Tamara S; Al-Saedi, Asmaa A; Al-Maliky, Mohammed A; Mahmood, Ali S

    2016-12-01

    This in vitro study aimed to investigate the whitening efficacy of 940 nm and 980 nm diode laser photoactivation in tooth bleaching by analysing pulp chamber temperature, as well as the change in tooth colour. Root canals of thirty extracted human lower premolars were prepared. Laserwhite* 20 bleaching agent containing 38% of hydrogen peroxide was photoactivated with 7 W output power of 940 nm and 980 nm diode lasers for 120 s. Bleaching gel reduced 27-29% of the temperature from reaching the pulp chamber. For shade assessment, only the groups photoactivated using diode lasers showed statistically significant differences from control group P < 0.001. Within the studied parameters, both 940 nm and 980 nm diode lasers produced a safe pulp temperature increase. Diode laser photoactivation of bleaching gel resulted in more efficient teeth whitening. Photoactivation with 940 nm diode laser yielded the highest change in colour with only minor increase in pulp chamber temperature.

  19. Quantitative Determination of α-Arbutin, β-Arbutin, Kojic Acid, Nicotinamide, Hydroquinone, Resorcinol, 4-Methoxyphenol, 4-Ethoxyphenol, and Ascorbic Acid from Skin Whitening Products by HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Mei; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    An HPLC-UV method was developed for the quantitative analysis of nine skin whitening agents in a single injection. These compounds are α-arbutin, β-arbutin, kojic acid, nicotinamide, resorcinol, ascorbic acid, hydroquinone, 4-methoxyphenol, and 4-ethoxyphenol. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column within 30 min. The mobile phase was composed of water and methanol, both containing 0.1% acetic acid (v/v). The stability of the analytes was evaluated at different pH values between 2.3 and 7.6, and the extraction procedure was validated for different types of skin whitening product matrixes, which included two creams, a soap bar, and a capsule. The best solvent system for sample preparation was 20 mM NaH2PO4 containing 10% methanol at pH 2.3. The analytical method was validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ. The developed HPLC-UV method was applied for the quantitation of the nine analytes in 59 skin whitening products including creams, lotions, sera, foams, gels, mask sheets, soap bars, tablets, and capsules.

  20. Effect of tooth whitening strips on fatigue resistance and flexural strength of bovine dentin in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namhee; De Souza, Grace M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of whitening strips on bovine dentin fatigue resistance and flexural strength in vitro. Materials and methods A total of eighty bovine dentin specimens (2x2x17mm) were treated with either: control glycerine gel on plastic film wrap or whitening strips containing 9.5% hydrogen peroxide. Treatment was applied for 30 minutes, twice a day, for 1- or 4-weeks. After the last treatment, ten specimens per group were randomly selected to undergo fatigue testing (106 cycles, 3Hz, 20N) while the other ten were subjected to flexural strength testing after ten days of storage in artificial saliva. Kaplan-Meier method with a log rank test, Wilcoxon test and Cox regression were used to assess fatigue test results (p<0.05). One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests were used to compare the flexural strength results (p<0.05). Results There were significant differences in survival during the fatigue test among the groups (p<0.001). Treatment (control or bleach) was a significant factor for specimen survival (p<0.001, Exp(B) = 33.45). There were significant differences in mean flexural strength (p<0.001). No significant difference was found between “1-wk control” and “4-wk control”. The mean flexural strength and fatigue resistance of the “4-wk bleach” were significantly lower than all the other groups. Conclusions The use of whitening strips reduced the fatigue resistance and flexural strength of bovine dentin in vitro. Until the effect of whitening strips on mechanical properties of human dentin is fully elucidated, it remains prudent to advise patients to avoid excessive direct use of whitening strips on dentin. PMID:28278191

  1. Removal of extrinsic stain using a tartar control whitening dentifrice: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, R W; White, D J

    2001-01-01

    A nine-week, double blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel tartar control whitening dentifrice with a silica-based abrasive system on induced dental stain. The study model involved three weeks of stain induction followed by six weeks of unsupervised brushing to assess efficacy. To induce stain, 222 healthy adult volunteers received a dental prophylaxis, and then began a limited brushing regimen supplemented by three-times daily rinsing with tea and once daily rinsing with 15 ml of 0.12% chlorhexidine. This regimen was suspended, and 187 subjects with tooth stain were entered into a six-week clinical trial where they were randomized to either a silica-based tartar control whitening dentifrice or a marketed regular dentifrice control, balancing for stain levels and smoking status. At baseline, three and six weeks, stain area and stain intensity were measured on the 8 anterior teeth using the Lobene Index. After six weeks' use, composite Lobene means were 35% lower for the whitening dentifrice compared to the regular control. In addition to the overall reductions, there were statistically significant reductions in stain area (p < 0.015) and stain intensity (p < 0.01) at both three and six weeks. The tartar control whitening dentifrice was effective in removing stain on the gingival margins and elsewhere on the body of the tooth. Safety profiles for the two test dentifrices were generally similar. After three and six weeks' use, the tartar control whitening dentifrice reduced chlorhexidine and tea stain compared to the marketed control.

  2. Therapeutic options for herpes labialis, I: Oral agents.

    PubMed

    Elish, Diana; Singh, Fiza; Weinberg, Jeffrey M

    2004-07-01

    Given the prevalence of herpes labialis, effective therapy has the potential to affect the lives of many and presents a challenge for clinicians. Over the last several years, most of the focus of herpes research has been on the treatment of genital herpes. Recently, however, several studies have been published examining the efficacy of therapies specifically for herpes labialis. Several therapeutic agents, both prescription and over-the-counter, are available for controlling and managing the disease. In this series of articles, we review oral and topical therapeutic agents that are available in the treatment of herpes labialis and its associated symptoms. This article will review oral treatment options.

  3. On the reduced susceptibility to stress whitening behavior of melt intercalated polybutene-clay nanocomposites during tensile straining

    SciTech Connect

    Nathani, H.; Dasari, A.; Misra, R.D.K

    2004-06-21

    The paper describes the micro-scale response, mechanism, and susceptibility to stress whitening during tensile straining of polybutene-5 wt% clay nanocomposites, and its comparison with unreinforced neat polybutene utilizing electron microscopy observations. Polybutene-5 wt% clay nanocomposites exhibit increased tensile modulus, significantly reduced susceptibility to stress whitening, and are characterized by lower optical gray level in the plastically deformed stress whitened zone. Furthermore, crystallization studies suggest that the reinforcement mineral increases the rate of nucleation, accelerating the crystallization process. The reinforcement of polybutene with 5 wt% clay alters the primary micromechanism of stress whitening from stress relaxation of the 'fish-scale psiloma' containing tiny voids and subsequent transformation to ridge tearing at high plastic strains to nucleation and growth of large size voids in polybutene-clay nanocomposites. The final fracture in neat polybutene occurs by a mixed mode (brittle and fibrillation), while brittle deformation is the predominant fracture mode in polybutene-5 wt% clay nanocomposites.

  4. Anticalculus efficacy and safety of a novel whitening dentifrice containing sodium hexametaphosphate: a controlled six-month clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Henry; Segreto, Vincent A; Baker, Robert A; Vastola, Kathleen A; Ramsey, Lorie L; Gerlach, Robert W

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish the tartar control efficacy and long-term safety of a new dentifrice containing sodium hexametaphosphate. In a randomized, examiner blind, parallel group clinical trial, the experimental dentifrice with 7% sodium hexametaphosphate (5% hexametaphosphate anion), a non-abrasive cleaning agent that provides whitening and tartar control benefits, was compared to two currently marketed controls, a regular sodium fluoride dentifrice and a triclosan/copolymer dentifrice. The 8-month trial model included a 2-month pretest period to establish calculus formation after prophylaxis, and a 6-month test period to evaluate anti-calculus efficacy and safety. Following the pretest period, 551 subjects were allocated to one of the three treatment groups and then monitored for calculus accumulation and soft tissue tolerance. After 6 months, the sodium hexametaphosphate group exhibited superior calculus inhibition compared to the regular sodium fluoride dentifrice and triclosan/copolymer dentifrice (p < 0.01). Over the 6-month observation period, the sodium hexametaphosphate and the marketed control dentifrices were comparable in terms of adverse event type and severity, and no subject discontinued treatment due to an oral soft tissue adverse event.

  5. In vitro assessment of the effectiveness of whitening dentifrices for the removal of extrinsic tooth stains.

    PubMed

    Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Silva, André Luís Faria e; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane Suzy; Munin, Egberto; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Lovadino, José Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effectiveness of whitening dentifrices for the removal of extrinsic tooth stains. Twenty dental blocks (4 x 4 mm), including enamel and dentine, removed from freshly extracted bovine incisors, were randomly divided into 4 groups: G1--distilled water, G2--Colgate, G3--Crest Extra Whitening and G4--Rapid White. In all specimens, the dentin was covered with colorless nail polish, and the enamel was left exposed. Next, the specimens were immersed in a solution of black tea, which was changed every 24 h, for a period of 6 days. After this period, a photo-reflectance reading was taken (Time 1) with a spectrometer. The stained specimens were then submitted to linear brushing movements (5,000 cycles) using brushes (Oral B-Soft) coupled to an automatic toothbrushing machine, under a static axial load of 200 g and with a speed of 4 movements/second, at 37 degrees C, with the dentifrice or water being injected every 60 s. When toothbrushing ended, a second photo-reflectance reading was taken (Time 2). The results were submitted to two-criteria analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to the Tukey test ( = 0.05). When the two times for a same group were compared, Time 2 presented the highest reflectance values with statistical difference only for G3 and G4. Among the dentifrices tested, only the Rapid White group differed from the control group, presenting the highest reflectance values. Only the whitening dentifrice Rapid White was effective for the removal of extrinsic stains.

  6. Effect of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of a nanohybrid composite resin

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Gabriela Migliorin; da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Menezes, Márcio; do Vale, Hugo Felipe; Regalado, Diego Ferreira; Pontes, Danielson Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study verified the influence of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of a nanohybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two specimens were prepared with Filtek™ Z350 XT (3M/ESPE) and randomly divided into four groups (n = 08) that were subjected to brushing simulation equivalent to the period of 1 month. The groups assessed were a control group with distilled water (G1), Colgate Total 12 Professional Clean (G2), Sensodyne Extra Whitener Extra Fresh (G3), and Colgate Luminous White (G4). A sequence of 90 cycles was performed for all the samples. The initial roughness of each group was analyzed by the Surface Roughness Tester (TR 200-TIME Group Inc., CA, USA). After the brushing period, the final roughness was measured, and the results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn tests for intergroup roughness comparison in the time factor. For intragroup and “Δ Final − Initial” comparisons, the Wilcoxon test and (one-way) ANOVA were, respectively, performed (α = 0.05). Results: The roughness mean values before and after brushing showed no statistically significant difference when the different dentifrices were used. None of the dentifrices analyzed increased significantly the nanohybrid composite resin surface roughness in a 1 month of tooth brushing simulation. Conclusions: These results suggest that no hazardous effect on the roughness of nanohybrid composite resin can be expected when whitening dentifrices are used for a short period. Similar studies should be conducted to analyze other esthetic composite materials. PMID:27095891

  7. Comparative seven-day clinical evaluation of two tooth whitening products.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, S; Santana, E; Zhang, Y P; Lin, N; Collins, M; Klimpel, K; DeVizio, W; Giniger, M

    2001-07-01

    A 1-week study was conducted to compare the tooth whitening efficacy of two carbamide peroxide-based products (one containing 5% carbamide peroxide and one containing 10% carbamide peroxide). In addition, the perception of transient tooth hypersensitivity associated with the use of these products was subjectively evaluated. Sixty participants took part in a double-blind, randomized, parallel clinical study. Change in tooth color was measured by chroma meter and Vita shade guide at the initiation of the study and after 7 days of product use. Color change (delta E) was calculated using the color-difference equation established by the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage. Data concerning dental hypersensitivity was assessed by subjective panelist questionnaires administered after the day 7 recall examination. Results of the whitening data showed that there was no significant difference between the two products. After 1 week, the mean delta E for the product containing 5% carbamide peroxide was 4.43 +/- 1.89 and the mean delta E for the product containing 10% carbamide peroxide was 4.05 +/- 1.84. However, the subjective data collected on tooth hypersensitivity showed that the product containing 5% carbamide peroxide was associated with less discomfort. Of the group using the 5% carbamide peroxide product, 20% reported transient sensitivity of their teeth after product use for 1 week compared with 53% of the group using the product with 10% carbamide peroxide. Statistical analysis using a 2-tailed t test showed significant differences between the two groups (P < .05). The data suggest that these products are clinically equivalent for tooth whitening; however, the product containing 5% carbamide peroxide was associated with less tooth hypersensitivity after 1 week of application.

  8. Effects of in-office tooth whiteners on hardness of tooth-colored restoratives.

    PubMed

    Yap, A U J; Wattanapayungkul, P

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of in-office tooth whiteners on the hardness of hybrid (Spectrum TPH), polyacid-modified (Dyract AP), PRG (Reactmer) composites and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji II LC). Twenty-seven specimens of each material were fabricated, randomly divided into three groups of nine and treated as follows--Group 1: stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for three weeks (control); Group 2: treated with carbamide peroxide (Opalescence Quick) for 30 minutes/week for three weeks; Group 3: treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide power bleach (Opalescence Xtra) for 30 minutes/week for three weeks. For Groups 2 and 3, specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C during the hiatus periods. The treated specimens were subsequently subjected to microhardness testing (load = 500gf; dwell time = 15 seconds). Results were analyzed using ANOVA/Scheffe's test (p<0.05). For all treatment groups, Spectrum was significantly harder than the other materials and Reactmer was significantly harder than Dyract and Fuji II LC. The effects of in-office tooth whiteners on microhardness were material-dependent. No significant difference in hardness was observed between treatment groups for Dyract and Reactmer. For Spectrum and Fuji II LC, specimens treated with Opalescence Quick were significantly harder than those treated with Opalescence Xtra. No significant difference in hardness was observed between the control and bleached groups for all materials. The hardness of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements, hybrid, polyacid-modified and PRG composites is therefore not significantly affected by the use of 35% carbamide peroxide and 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office tooth whiteners.

  9. The effectiveness of two different battery-powered toothbrushes on whitening through removal of stain.

    PubMed

    Karpinia, Katherine; Magnusson, Ingvar; Biesbrock, Aaron R; Walters, Patricia A; Bartizek, Robert D

    2002-01-01

    Whitening dentifrices have recently become popular, achieving a whitening benefit by surface chemical action and/or abrasion that serve to remove extrinsic stains and/or prevent extrinsic stain buildup. Some powered toothbrushes have also been demonstrated to have whitening/stain-removal efficacy when used with standard dentifrice products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an experimental prototype powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush Pro) and a commercially available powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush) on dental whitening through the removal of extrinsic stain. This study was a randomized, controlled, examiner-blind, parallel-group design, which examined extrinsic stain removal over four weeks of brushing by 70 subjects. Following a three-week period of stain induction using rinses of chlorhexidine and tea, subjects were randomized to use one of the two toothbrushes. Tooth stain was scored using the Lobene stain index at baseline, and after two and four weeks of toothbrush use. Prior to statistical analysis, the stain scores were averaged on a per-subject basis. The stain reductions (baseline minus post-treatment) in average scores were calculated and analyzed using an analysis of covariance, with baseline average score as the covariate. The experimental prototype powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush Pro) delivered statistically significant (p < 0.001) adjusted (via analysis of covariance) mean reductions from baseline in Lobene composite stain scores of 1.90 and 2.11 after 2 weeks and 4 weeks of use, respectively. These results represent 56-62% reductions in extrinsic stain compared to baseline. The commercially available powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush) also delivered statistically significant (p < 0.001) adjusted (via analysis of covariance) mean reductions from baseline in Lobene composite stain scores, with magnitudes of 1.95 and 2.22 after two and four weeks of use, respectively. These results represent 60-68% reductions in

  10. Comparison of in vitro fluoride uptake from whitening toothpastes and a conventional toothpaste in demineralised enamel.

    PubMed

    Altenburger, Markus J; Bernhart, Jasmin; Schicha, Thurid D; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hellwig, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the compatibility of abrasives and fluoride compounds deal exclusively with fluoride uptake and remineralization after storing the enamel specimens in a toothpaste-saliva mixture. The influence of brushing on the fluoride uptake when highly abrasive toothpastes are used has hardly been investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate fluoride uptake in initially demineralised dental enamel after storage in, or brushing with, whitening toothpaste slurries, compared to a conventional toothpaste. For this purpose two widely available whitening toothpastes with ionically bound fluoride (sodium fluoride NaF), two with covalently-bound fluoride toothpastes (sodium monofluorophosphate, NaMFP) and a conventional amine fluoride toothpaste (AmF) were compared. The fluoride uptake after use of the AmF toothpaste was shown to be statistically significantly higher than that after application of the NaF toothpastes, which in turn was statistically significantly higher than the uptake resulting from NaMFP application. The fluoride uptake was slightly higher when the enamel samples were brushed with NaF toothpaste, rather than just stored in the respective toothpaste slurry. Brushing with highly abrasive toothpastes did not negatively influence fluoride uptake in demineralised dental enamel. The ionic form of the fluoride in toothpastes appears to be critical for increased fluoride uptake. The acidic components of the AmF toothpaste improved fluoride uptake compared to alkaline NaF toothpastes.

  11. Effective of diode laser on teeth enamel in the teeth whitening treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klunboot, U.; Arayathanitkul, K.; Chitaree, R.; Emarat, N.

    2011-12-01

    This research purpose is to investigate the changing of teeth color and to study the surface of teeth after treatment by laser diode at different power densities for tooth whitening treatment. In the experiment, human-extracted teeth samples were divided into 7 groups of 6 teeth each. After that laser diode was irradiated to teeth, which were coated by 38% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, during for 20, 30 and 60 seconds at power densities of 10.9 and 52.1 W/cm2. The results of teeth color change were described by the CIEL*a*b* systems and the damage of teeth surface were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the power density of the laser diode could affect the whiteness of teeth. The high power density caused more luminous teeth than the low power density did, but on the other hand the high power density also caused damage to the teeth surface. Therefore, the laser diode at the low power densities has high efficiency for tooth whitening treatment and it has a potential for other clinical applications.

  12. Spectrophotometric evaluation of peroxide penetration into the pulp chamber from whitening strips and gel: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ramesh; Wadhwani, KK

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate pulp chamber penetration of different concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were taken and grouped into five (n = 10). All teeth were cut approximately 3 mm apical to the cemento-enamel junction. Pulp was removed and the pulp chamber filled with acetate buffer. Buccal crown surfaces of teeth in the experimental groups were subjected to whitening strip and paint on whitener gel. Control group teeth were exposed to distilled water. The acetate buffer solution in each tooth was then transferred to a glass test tube after 30 min. Leuco-crystal violet dye and enzyme horse radish peroxidase were added. The optical density of resultant blue color in the tubes was measured by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The values were converted into microgram equivalents of hydrogen peroxide. Results: The results were evaluated statistically using nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test. Whitening strip showed the lowest pulpal peroxide penetration whereas paint on whitener gel showed highest pulpal peroxide penetration. Conclusion: This study demonstrate that peroxide is readily penetrate into the pulp chamber of teeth. PMID:23716964

  13. An innovations-based noise cancelling technique on inverse kepstrum whitening filter and adaptive FIR filter in beamforming structure.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jinsoo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an acoustic noise cancelling technique using an inverse kepstrum system as an innovations-based whitening application for an adaptive finite impulse response (FIR) filter in beamforming structure. The inverse kepstrum method uses an innovations-whitened form from one acoustic path transfer function between a reference microphone sensor and a noise source so that the rear-end reference signal will then be a whitened sequence to a cascaded adaptive FIR filter in the beamforming structure. By using an inverse kepstrum filter as a whitening filter with the use of a delay filter, the cascaded adaptive FIR filter estimates only the numerator of the polynomial part from the ratio of overall combined transfer functions. The test results have shown that the adaptive FIR filter is more effective in beamforming structure than an adaptive noise cancelling (ANC) structure in terms of signal distortion in the desired signal and noise reduction in noise with nonminimum phase components. In addition, the inverse kepstrum method shows almost the same convergence level in estimate of noise statistics with the use of a smaller amount of adaptive FIR filter weights than the kepstrum method, hence it could provide better computational simplicity in processing. Furthermore, the rear-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure has shown less signal distortion in the desired signal than the front-end kepstrum method and the front-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure.

  14. Efficacy and safety of 10% and 16% carbamide peroxide tooth-whitening gels: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Sônia Saeger; Heckmann, Sani Silva; Leida, Fedinan Luis; dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Della Bona, Alvaro; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This double-blind randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of two carbamide peroxide concentrations used in at-home vital bleaching. Ninety-two volunteers with a shade mean of C1 or darker for the six maxillary anterior teeth were randomized into two balanced groups (n=46) according to bleaching agent concentration: 10% (CP10) or 16% (CP16) carbamide peroxide. The patients were instructed to use the whitening agent in a tray for two hours once a day for three weeks. Shade evaluations were done with a value-oriented shade guide and a spectrophotometer at baseline and one week post-bleaching (four-week evaluation). Tooth sensitivity was measured daily using a scale ranging from 0 (no sensitivity) to 4 (severe sensitivity). At the end of the study, the volunteers filled out a questionnaire with seven questions aimed to give their opinion about the adopted treatment regimen. Both carbamide peroxide concentrations resulted in significantly lighter teeth at the four-week evaluation compared to the baseline for all color parameters (p < 0.0001) and shade median (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of shade change difference with either the spectrophotometer (p = 0.1) or the shade guide (p = 0.7). Also, no statistically significant difference was found in relation to deltaL* (p = 0.7), delta a* and deltaE* (p = 0.5). A significant reduction in yellowness (delta b*) was observed for CP16 compared to CP10 (p = 0.05) in crude analysis, which disappeared after controlling for b* parameter at baseline. The group treated with CP16 experienced more tooth sensitivity during the first (p = 0.02) and third (p = 0.01) weeks of treatment compared to the CP10 group. However, no major difference was observed (p = 0.09) when the degree of tooth sensitivity between groups was compared. Both 10% and 16% carbamide peroxide concentrations were equally effective and safe for a three-week at-home tooth-bleaching treatment.

  15. Effects of a tartar control whitening dentifrice on tooth shade in a population with long-standing natural stain.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, R W; Barker, M L; Hyde, J D; Jones, M B; Cordero, R E

    2001-01-01

    Changing and whitening tooth color in people with long-standing tooth stain without excessive hard tissue abrasion may represent one of the more difficult challenges for whitening dentifrices. An eight-week clinical trial was conducted to evaluate change in tooth color by a silica-based, enamel-safe tartar control whitening dentifrice compared to a marketed baking soda dentifrice control. First, a screening exercise was conducted to identify individuals with long-standing extrinsic dental stain. This exercise targeted adults who reported "stained teeth" and coffee/tea drinking or smoking, but who had no recent history of dental prophylaxis. Targeted subjects were examined for stain (Lobene Index) and tooth shade/color (Vita). A total of 291 adults having extrinsic stain and discolored teeth were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomized to one of the two treatment groups, and all dentifrice use was unsupervised. Tooth color was measured at 4 and 8 weeks from shade values collected from the 8 incisors, and averages were determined from a linear ordering of the shade guide. A total of 278 evaluable subjects completed the 8-week study. Overall, the tartar control whitening dentifrice group experienced an improvement in color, differing statistically from baseline (p < 0.001) and from the marketed control (p < 0.05). Safety profiles for the two dentifrices were generally similar. Among patients with long-standing extrinsic stain, use of the tartar control whitening dentifrice resulted in superior overall tooth shade and reduced maximum or worst color compared to the marketed baking soda dentifrice control.

  16. Blind whitening of correlated speckle to enforce despeckling of single-look high-resolution SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapini, Alessandro; Bianchi, Tiziano; Argenti, Fabrizio; Alparone, Luciano

    2012-11-01

    During the last three decades, several methods have been developed for the despeckling of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. While some of them are totally empirical, the majority of those relying on signal and noise models has been derived under the assumption of a fully-developed speckle model, in which the multiplicative fading term is supposed to be a white process. Unfortunately, the frequency response of the SAR system may introduce a statistical correlation, which decreases the capability of reducing speckle for filters that assume a white speckle model. In this work, an unsupervised method for whitening single-look complex (SLC) images produced by very-high resolution (VHR) SAR systems is proposed. By using the statistical properties of the SLC image and some likely assumptions, estimation of the frequency response of the SAR system is performed. After that, a decorrelation stage is applied to the complex image in order to yield uncorrelated speckle in the intensity/amplitude component. Strong scatterers are automatically detected and left unprocessed. After the whitening step, the complex image is detected and the resulting intensity/amplitude may be despeckled. Experimental results have been carried out both on optical images corrupted by synthetic correlated complex speckle and on true SLC images acquired by the COSMO-SkyMed SAR satellite constellation. Both advanced and classical despeckling filters achieve significantly better performance when they are preceded by the proposed whitening step. On homogeneous areas the equivalent number of looks (ENL) increases by four-five times. The sharpness of edges and strong textures is negligibly diminished by the whitening step; this effect is even less noticeable after the despeckling step has been performed. The radiometric characteristics of images are preserved by the whitening process to a large extent.

  17. In vitro tooth whitening by a sodium bicarbonate/peroxide dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Kleber, C J; Putt, M S; Nelson, B J

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this laboratory study was to determine the tooth whitening effect of a baking soda dentifrice containing stabilized 1% hydrogen peroxide following repeated applications to intrinsically stained teeth. Additional objectives were to investigate (1) the influence of tooth surface curvature and moisture on color measurements, (2) preliminary treatment parameters using 1% hydrogen peroxide solution, and (3) the relationship between Vita shade guide standards and instrumental color readings. Human tooth specimens with intrinsic stain were specially prepared and measured for color (L*a*b*) by means of diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. Specimens were measured under wet and dry conditions with natural and flattened enamel surfaces. A preliminary test was conducted with 1% H2O2 solution to establish tooth whitening versus treatment time. Then, new tooth specimens were treated repeatedly with slurries of silica, baking soda, or baking soda/peroxide dentifrices at 30-minute intervals, and color measurements were taken under both wet and dry conditions after 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours. L*a*b* color measurements of the Vita shade guide teeth were also made in order to relate laboratory color changes to clinical effects. The parameter testing results showed that flattening the enamel surface had no effect on tooth color, but the teeth rapidly became lighter and less yellow upon air-drying. The 1% H2O2 solution caused both a significant decrease in yellow (b*) and an increase in lightness (L*). Since the reduction for b* occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent than the L* factor, the b* component may be the more important indicator of tooth whitening by bleaching. Compared to the silica and baking soda dentifrices, the baking soda/peroxide dentifrice significantly decreased the yellow color (b*) of the teeth after 8 or more hours of topical treatment. The instrumental color readings of the Vita Shade guide teeth showed that the color differences between

  18. Whitening Effect of Black Tea Water Extract on Brown Guinea Pig Skin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, So-Young

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the whitening effect of black tea water extract (BT), BT was topically applied to artificially hyperpigmented spots on the back skins of brown guinea-pigs (weight: 450~500 g) induced by 1,500 mJ/ cm2 of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The test compounds of 30 μl were applied twice a day, six days a week, for four weeks. The artificially hyperpigmented spots were divided into 5 groups: control (UVB + saline, C), vehicle control [UVB + propylene glycol: ethanol: water (5 : 3 : 2), VC], positive control (UVB + 2% hydroquinone, PC), experimental 1 (UVB + 1% BT), experimental 2 (UVB + 2% BT). After 4-week application, the spots were removed by biopsy punch under anesthetic condition and used as specimens for the histological examination. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of BT were 104 and 91 mg/g, respectively. The electron-donating ability of BT revealed a dose-dependent response, showing the excellent capacities of 86% at 800 μg/ml. The artificially hyperpigmented spots treated with the PC and BT were obviously lightened compared to the C and VC groups. At the fourth week, the melanin indices for the PC and BT groups were significantly lower (p < 0.00l) than those of the C and VC groups. In histological examination, PC and BT groups were significantly reduced in the melanin pigmentation, the proliferation of melanocytes and the synthesis of melanosomes compared to the C and VC groups. It is found that BT inhibits the proliferation of melanocytes and synthesis of melanosomes in vivo using brown guinea pigs, thereby showing a definite skin whitening effect. PMID:24278566

  19. Automated model selection in covariance estimation and spatial whitening of MEG and EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Engemann, Denis A; Gramfort, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure non-invasively the weak electromagnetic fields induced by post-synaptic neural currents. The estimation of the spatial covariance of the signals recorded on M/EEG sensors is a building block of modern data analysis pipelines. Such covariance estimates are used in brain-computer interfaces (BCI) systems, in nearly all source localization methods for spatial whitening as well as for data covariance estimation in beamformers. The rationale for such models is that the signals can be modeled by a zero mean Gaussian distribution. While maximizing the Gaussian likelihood seems natural, it leads to a covariance estimate known as empirical covariance (EC). It turns out that the EC is a poor estimate of the true covariance when the number of samples is small. To address this issue the estimation needs to be regularized. The most common approach downweights off-diagonal coefficients, while more advanced regularization methods are based on shrinkage techniques or generative models with low rank assumptions: probabilistic PCA (PPCA) and factor analysis (FA). Using cross-validation all of these models can be tuned and compared based on Gaussian likelihood computed on unseen data. We investigated these models on simulations, one electroencephalography (EEG) dataset as well as magnetoencephalography (MEG) datasets from the most common MEG systems. First, our results demonstrate that different models can be the best, depending on the number of samples, heterogeneity of sensor types and noise properties. Second, we show that the models tuned by cross-validation are superior to models with hand-selected regularization. Hence, we propose an automated solution to the often overlooked problem of covariance estimation of M/EEG signals. The relevance of the procedure is demonstrated here for spatial whitening and source localization of MEG signals.

  20. Natural Compounds as Therapeutic Agents in the Treatment Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Isha; Shah, Kalpit; Bradbury, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    The recent FDA approval of two drugs to treat the basic defect in cystic fibrosis has given hope to patients and their families battling this devastating disease. Over many years, with heavy financial investment from Vertex Pharmaceuticals and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, pre-clinical evaluation of thousands of synthetic drugs resulted in the production of Kalydeco and Orkambi. Yet, despite the success of this endeavor, many other compounds have been proposed as therapeutic agents in the treatment of CF. Of note, several of these compounds are naturally occurring, and are present in spices from the grocery store and over the counter preparations in health food stores. In this short review, we look at three such compounds, genistein, curcumin, and resveratrol, and evaluate the scientific support for their use as therapeutic agents in the treatment of patients with CF. PMID:27081574

  1. A new approach to strip-based tooth whitening: 14% hydrogen peroxide delivered via controlled low dose.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Paul A; Landrigan, William F

    2004-08-01

    Professionally dispensed, take-home whitening products originally consisted of tray systems into which the patient dispensed a peroxide-containing gel. Because the process of inserting peroxide-containing gels into the trays is patient controlled, the resulting exposure of the gingiva to peroxide can be variable, and often high. In addition to concentration, soft tissue irritation is a function of the amount, or dose, of peroxide with which the tissue is challenged. All other things being equal, higher-concentration products will whiten faster because of the peroxide concentration gradient, but they also will lead to poorer soft tissue tolerability because of a higher peroxide challenge. Consequently, take-home trays are somewhat limited with respect to the concentration of hydrogen peroxide that they can safely use. In 2000, strip-based whitening technology was introduced that allowed a controlled, uniform, low dose of peroxide to be applied to the teeth. An execution of this strip-based technology that contained 6.5% hydrogen peroxide, Crest Professional Whitestrips, was launched in 2001. A new professionally dispensed strip product, Crest Whitestrips Supreme, recently has been introduced. A 14% hydrogen-peroxide gel is incorporated onto these strips, but the amount of gel is half of what is on the 6.5% strips. The net result is that the dose, or amount, of peroxide on each strip is essentially the same as for the Professional Whitestrips product. Therefore, the 14% hydrogen-peroxide strip product whitens faster and better than previous strip products, while still being well tolerated by the soft tissue.

  2. The comparison of the effects of different whitening toothpastes on the micro hardness of a nano hybrid composite resin

    PubMed Central

    Nainan, Mohan Thomas; Balan, Ashok Kalappurakkal; Sharma, Roshni; Thomas, Sabeena Susan; Deveerappa, Santhosh B

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the micro hardness of a nanohybrid composite resin after brushing with two herbal and one non-herbal whitening toothpastes. Materials and Methods: We divided Eighty disk-shaped specimens of a nanohybrid composite (Tetric N Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Asia) into 4 groups of 20 specimens each: Groups A, B, C, and D. Group A was control, Group B was brushed with Colgate total advanced whitening (Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited), Group C with Salt and Lemon, Dabur (Dabur International Limited, Dubai, UAE), and Group D with HiOra Shine, Himalaya (The Himalaya Drug Company, India). The specimens were polished using medium, fine, and superfine discs (Sof-lex, 3M, ESPE, USA) and subsequently placed at 37°C in distilled water. They were brushed for 2 minutes twice daily with a soft motorized toothbrush (Colgate 360 sonic power battery-operated tooth brush, Colgate Palmolive, India) for 30 days. The samples were rinsed under running water to remove the toothpaste and stored in distilled water at 37°C until the readout was taken on the Vickers's hardness tester for microhardness. Results: The results revealed that the difference among the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Tukey's test showed that reduction in microhardness for Group B was significantly higher than that for Group C and Group D (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, non-herbal whitening toothpaste had a greater impact on the microhardness of nanohybrid resin composite than herbal whitening toothpastes. PMID:25506143

  3. Hydrogen peroxide release kinetics into saliva from different whitening products: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Marques, Duarte Nuno da Silva; da Mata, António Duarte Sola Pereira; Silveira, João Miguel Lourenço; Marques, Joana Rita Oliveira Faria; Amaral, João Pedro de Almeida Rato; Guilherme, Nuno Filipe Rito Parada Marques

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study is to compare salivary hydrogen peroxide (HP) release kinetics and potential toxicity of systemic exposure of four different whitening products. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a Portuguese dental faculty clinic. Two hundred forty volunteers were randomized to eight intervention groups. Participants were randomly assigned to receive active or placebo applications of one of four different products: Opalescence 10% PF™ (OPL), Vivastyle® 10%™ (VS10%), Vivadent Paint On Plus™ (PO+), and Trés White Supreme™ (TWS). Saliva collection was obtained by established methods at different times. The HP salivary content was determined by a photometric method. Salivary HP variations, total amount of salivary HP, and counts of subjects above the safe daily HP dose were the main outcome measures. All whitening systems significantly released HP to the saliva when compared to placebo, and all showed different release kinetics. The adaptable tray system (TWS) presented a risk increase of 37% [20-54%, 95% confidence interval] when compared to the other systems. The use of an adaptable tray whitening system with higher concentration of HP increases the toxicity potential.

  4. Evidence of Clear-Sky Daylight Whitening: Are we already conducting geoengineering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. N.; Flynn, C. J.; Barnard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Long et al. (2009, JGR 114) analyzed surface radiation data spanning 1995 through 2007 from several ARM and six SURFRAD sites across the continental US, and showed an average 8 Wm-2/decade brightening in all-sky downwelling SW. The study also showed a 5 Wm-2/decade increase in the clear-sky downwelling SW, an expected result of decreasing aerosol optical depths during the same time period (Augustine et al., 2008, JGR 113). However, the unexpected result of the Long et al. study is that the 5 Wm-2/decade increase occurred in the diffuse SW, while the direct SW remained virtually unchanged...opposite what is expected for aerosol direct effect due to decreases in aerosols. With detailed radiative transfer modeling and correlation with US FAA commercial flight hours through the same years, Long et al. suggested that while the decreased aerosols did increase the total SW, an increase in high, sub-visual contrail-generated ice haze repartitioned the increase into the diffuse SW component through large-mode particle scattering. Subsequent attempts to investigate the veracity of this speculation using long time series of ARM Micropulse and Raman lidars data proved untenable due to instrument limitations and continuity issues. However, similar to using the red/blue ratio of pixel color amounts in processing color sky images to infer clouds, we have used clear-sky diffuse SW irradiance measurements from the Multi-Frequency Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) 870, 500, and 415 nm spectral channels to look at any possible trends suggesting "whitening" of the cloud-free skies over the ARM SGP site. We will present our preliminary findings to date of these investigations suggesting indeed that there has been an aggregate "whitening" of the sky conditions we typically consider to be "cloud free." Augustine, J.A., G.B.Hodges, E.G.Dutton, J.J. Michalsky, and C.R.Cornwall (2008), An aerosol optical depth climatology for NOAA's national surface radiation budget network (SURFRAD

  5. Evidence of Clear-Sky Daylight Whitening: Are we already conducting geoengineering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. N.; Barnard, J.; Flynn, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Long et al. (2009, JGR 114) analyzed surface radiation data spanning 1995 through 2007 from several ARM and six SURFRAD sites across the continental US, and showed an average 8 Wm-2/decade brightening in all-sky downwelling SW. The study also showed a 5 Wm-2/decade increase in the clear-sky downwelling SW, an expected result of decreasing aerosol optical depths during the same time period (Augustine et al., 2008, JGR 113). However, the unexpected result of the Long et al. study is that the 5 Wm-2/decade increase is in the diffuse SW, while the direct SW remained virtually unchanged...opposite what is expected for aerosol direct effect due to decreases in aerosols. With detailed radiative transfer modeling and correlation with US FAA commercial flight hours through the same years, Long et al. speculated that while the decreased aerosols did increase the total SW, an increase in high, sub-visual contrail-generated ice haze repartitioned the increase into the diffuse SW component through large-mode scattering. Subsequent attempts to investigate the veracity of this speculation using long time series of ARM Micropulse and Raman lidar data proved untenable due to instrument limitation and continuity issues. However, similar to using the red/blue ratio of pixel color amounts in processing color sky images to infer clouds, we have used clear-sky diffuse SW irradiance measurements from the Multi-Frequency Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) 870 and 415 nm spectral channels to look at any possible trends suggesting "whitening" of the cloud-free skies over the ARM SGP site. We will present our preliminary findings to date of these investigations suggesting indeed that there has been an aggregate "whitening" of the sky conditions we typically consider to be "cloud free." Augustine, J.A., G.B.Hodges, E.G.Dutton, J.J. Michalsky, and C.R.Cornwall (2008), An aerosol optical depth climatology for NOAA's national surface radiation budget network (SURFRAD), J. Geophys. Res., 113

  6. Enamel colour changes following whitening with 10 per cent carbamide peroxide: a comparison of orthodontically-bonded/debonded and untreated teeth.

    PubMed

    Hintz, J K; Bradley, T G; Eliades, T

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a colour difference exists between teeth that had orthodontic appliances bonded to and debonded from them and untreated controls subjected to whitening with 10 per cent carbamide peroxide. The sample consisted of 20 pairs of first and second premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons. The contralateral surfaces were divided into an experimental and control group. The experimental group underwent orthodontic bonding/debonding procedures. Both groups were subjected to 4 hour whitening and 20 hour hydration sessions for 30 days. The L*a*b* colour system was chosen to evaluate any colour change and these changes were calculated by determining the delta E from the L*a*b* values using a colorimeter. Colour change readings were taken before and after each 4 hour whitening. Additional readings were taken at 48 hour intervals for 30 days following the cessation of active whitening. The results were analysed using statistical (ANOVA) and graphical analyses (alpha = 0.05). A colour change difference of 2 CIELAB units was set as being clinically significant. A mean clinical colour difference was found for enamel surfaces subjected to orthodontic bonding/debonding of attachments relative to control sites after whitening. Bonding and debonding procedures resulted in a significant colour difference between orthodontic bonded and control sites at the end of the active period, which became insignificant at the end of the 30 day period of monitoring. Both the control and debonded sites responded to whitening; however, the control sites responded initially to a greater extent; the orthodontic debonded sites did not respond until after 2 weeks of continuous whitening. After the 2 week period the improved response of the debonded sites decreased the colour difference between the two groups.

  7. Real-Time Spatio-Temporal Twice Whitening for MIMO Energy Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Mitra, Pramita; Barhen, Jacob; Schleck, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    While many techniques exist for local spectrum sensing of a primary user, each represents a computationally demanding task to secondary user receivers. In software-defined radio, computational complexity lengthens the time for a cognitive radio to recognize changes in the transmission environment. This complexity is even more significant for spatially multiplexed receivers, e.g., in SIMO and MIMO, where the spatio-temporal data sets grow in size with the number of antennae. Limits on power and space for the processor hardware further constrain SDR performance. In this report, we discuss improvements in spatio-temporal twice whitening (STTW) for real-time local spectrum sensing by demonstrating a form of STTW well suited for MIMO environments. We implement STTW on the Coherent Logix hx3100 processor, a multicore processor intended for low-power, high-throughput software-defined signal processing. These results demonstrate how coupling the novel capabilities of emerging multicore processors with algorithmic advances can enable real-time, software-defined processing of large spatio-temporal data sets.

  8. Formulation and stability of whitening VCO-in-water nano-cream.

    PubMed

    Al-Edresi, Sarmad; Baie, Saringat

    2009-05-21

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO)-in-water, nano-emulsion in the form of cream stabilized by Emulium Kappa as an emulsifier, was prepared by using the Emulsion Inversion Point method. A nano-emulsion with droplet size <300 nm was then obtained. VCO has recently become a more popular new material in the cosmetic industries. Emulium Kappa is an ionic emulsifier that contains sodium stearoyl lactylate, the active whitening ingredient was Kojic Dipalmitate. Ostwald ripening is the main destabilizing factor for the nano-emulsion. This decline can be reduced by adding non-soluble oil, namely squalene, to the virgin coconut oil. We tested VCO:squalene in the ratios of 10:0, 9.8:0.2, 9.6:0.4, 9.4:0.6, 9.2:0.8, 9:1 and 8:2 and discovered that squalene's higher molecular weight (above critical molecular weight) resulted in low polarity and insolubility in the continuous phase. The continuous partitioning between the droplets results in the decline of Ostwald ripening. Furthermore, flocculation may occur due to the instability of nano-emulsion, especially for the preparations with little or no squalene at all. The stability of the nano-emulsion was evaluated by the electrophoretic properties of the emulsion droplets. The zeta potential values for the emulsion increased as the percentage of squalene oil increased.

  9. Anti-wrinkle and anti-whitening effects of jucá (Libidibia ferrea Mart.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Barros, Aline Oliveira; Nogueira, Jéssica Rodrigues; Fruet, Andréa Costa; Rodrigues, Isis Costa; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Smith, Marilia de Arruda Cardoso; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; Barros, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes; de Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho; Silva, Felipe Moura Araújo da; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2016-11-01

    Skin aging is a natural process of the human body that may be accelerated due to extrinsic causes. Libidibia ferrea, popularly known as jucá, is a small tree, which possesses an abundant phenolic composition with potential antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the anti-wrinkle and anti-whitening potentials of jucá trunk bark (LFB) and pod (LFP) extracts. A comprehensive analysis of LFB and LFP phenolic composition was accomplished by means of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Effects on skin degradation were assessed by inhibitory enzymatic activity against elastase, hyaluronidase and collagenase through colorimetric assays. Cellular viability in B16F10 and primary fibroblasts were determined by Trypan Blue exclusion assay. Anti-melanogenic effects on B16F10 cells were evaluated using cellular tyrosinase, melanin content, western blot, and RT-qPCR analyses. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) was determined by gelatin zymography and western blot methodologies. LC-MS/MS analyses of LFB and LFP extracts allowed the characterization of 18 compounds, among them, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and secoridoids. Additionally the pod and trunk bark compositions were compared. Hyaluronidase inhibitory activity for both extracts, LFB (IC50 = 8.5 ± 0.8 µg/mL) and LFP (IC50 = 16 ± 0.5 µg/mL), was stronger than standard rutin (IC50 = 27.6 ± 0.06). Pro-MMP-2 was significantly inhibited by both extracts. LFB and LFP decreased the melanin content in B16F10 due to tyrosinase inhibitory activity. L. ferrea extracts has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle and depigmentant effects.

  10. Controlled clinical trial addressing teeth whitening with hydrogen peroxide in adolescents: a 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Marcelo Mendes; Gonçalves, Marcela Leticia Leal; da Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Olivan, Silvia Regina; Bortoletto, Carolina; de Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal; Vergilio, Katia Lumi Tanikawa; Altavista, Olga Maria; Motta, Lara J; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the colorimetric change in incisors and canines of adolescents aged 12 to 20 years submitted to at-home whitening and to evaluate satisfaction, sensitivity and discomfort during the procedures through a questionnaire. METHOD: Thirty adolescents were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) 6.0% hydrogen peroxide (White Class with calcium – FGM); 2) 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (White Class with calcium - FGM); 3) 10% hydrogen peroxide (Oral B 3D White – Oral-B); 4) Control group – placebo. Assessments were performed prior to treatment as well as at 7, 30, 180 and 360 days after treatment. Friedman’s ANOVA was used to analyze color. The Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s post hoc test was used to compare the groups at the different evaluation times. Answers on the questionnaires were ranked, and non-parametrical tests were employed. The groups were compared in each period using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Categorical data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test, and the Wilcoxon test was used for the analysis of different periods. P-values were corrected using the Hyan-Holm step-down Bonferroni procedure. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01998386. RESULTS: Similar results were obtained one month after treatment with both tooth whitening gels and whitening strips. Patients were partially satisfied with the treatment after the first and second weeks and would recommend it. All products demonstrated color stability after 12 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The bleaching procedure was efficient, and the patients could perceive its result. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of bleaching on young teeth. PMID:28355362

  11. Noise Whitening in Airborne Wind Profiling With a Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Arthur, Grant E.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Two different noise whitening methods in airborne wind profiling with a pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia are presented. In order to provide accurate wind parameter estimates from the airborne lidar data acquired during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in 2010, the adverse effects of background instrument noise must be compensated properly in the early stage of data processing. The results of the two methods are presented using selected GRIP data and compared with the dropsonde data for verification purposes.

  12. Investigation of photo-bleaching through transmittance method in pigmented solution: understanding possible mechanisms and advantages for photo dental whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, F. L. E.; Lins, E. C.; Portero, Priscila P.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Oliveira, O. B., Jr.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2007-02-01

    The dental bleaching is known for many years. Recently a technique employing light has open up new and exciting possibilities. Besides its vast application there are still many important points to be understood about teeth photon bleaching. In this work we present an "in vitro" experiment to explore the main mechanisms involved during the photon action in tooth whitening. Our results indicated that light at same wavelengths are great absorbed by pigments creating a local heating which considerably increase the bleaching rate. This results in a fast reaction without heating the whole dental structure. We discuss details of our experiment. Work supported by Fapesp and CNPq.

  13. Alteration of dentin-enamel mechanical properties due to dental whitening treatments.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, B; Datko, L; Cupelli, M; Alapati, S; Dean, D; Kennedy, M

    2010-05-01

    The mechanical properties of dentin and enamel affect the reliability and wear properties of a tooth. This study investigated the influence of clinical dental treatments and procedures, such as whitening treatments or etching prior to restorative procedures. Both autoclaved and non-autoclaved teeth were studied in order to allow for both comparison with published values and improved clinical relevance. Nanoindentation analysis with the Oliver-Pharr model provided elastic modulus and hardness across the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). Large increases were observed in the elastic modulus of enamel in teeth that had been autoclaved (52.0 GPa versus 113.4 GPa), while smaller increases were observed in the dentin (17.9 GPa versus 27.9 GPa). Likewise, there was an increase in the hardness of enamel (2.0 GPa versus 4.3 GPa) and dentin (0.5 GPa versus 0.7 GPa) with autoclaving. These changes suggested that the range of elastic modulus and hardness values previously reported in the literature may be partially due to the sterilization procedures. Treatment of the exterior of non-autoclaved teeth with Crest Whitestrips, Opalescence or UltraEtch caused changes in the mechanical properties of both the enamel and dentin. Those treated with Crest Whitestrips showed a reduction in the elastic modulus of enamel (55.3 GPa to 32.7 GPa) and increase in the elastic modulus of dentin (17.2 GPa to 24.3 GPa). Opalescence treatments did not significantly affect the enamel properties, but did result in a decrease in the modulus of dentin (18.5 GPa to 15.1 GPa). Additionally, as expected, UltraEtch treatment decreased the modulus and hardness of enamel (48.7 GPa to 38.0 GPa and 1.9 GPa to 1.5 GPa, respectively) and dentin (21.4 GPa to 15.0 GPa and 1.9 GPa to 1.5 GPa, respectively). Changes in the mechanical properties were linked to altered protein concentration within the tooth, as evidenced by fluorescence microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  14. 76 FR 35672 - Revised Effectiveness Determination; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... far higher UV radiation doses than a consumer would ever receive even under the most severe sun... provided. Docket: For access to the docket to read background documents or comments received, go to http..., into the ``Search'' box and follow the prompts and/or go to the Division of Dockets Management,...

  15. Over-the-counter pharmaceuticals: exploratory research of consumer preference toward solid oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Reisenwitz, T H; Wimbish, G J

    1996-01-01

    The capsule dosage form in nonprescription pharmaceuticals persists as being one of the most vulnerable to product tampering. This study examines consumer preference toward three solid oral dosage forms (capsules, caplets, and tablets) in nonprescription products. Thirteen independent variables representing dosage form attributes are measured on semantic differential scales. The data are analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and factor analysis. Implications for the pharmaceutical marketer are noted. Future directions for research are also outlined.

  16. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs... irritability that ruins your day,” “helps you relax,” “restlessness,” “when you're under occasional...

  17. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  18. Over-the-Counter Weight-Loss Pills: Do They Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements The standards for regulating the production and marketing of these two types of treatments are different. ... not subject to FDA review or approval before marketing. Also, the type or quality of research used ...

  19. Reporting Data with "Over-the-Counter" Data Analysis Supports Improves Educators' Data Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of making data-informed decisions to improve learning rely on educators correctly interpreting given data. Many educators routinely misinterpret data, even at districts with proactive support for data use. The tool most educators use for data analyses, which is an information technology data system or its reports, typically reports…

  20. Revisiting the safety of over-the-counter cough and cold medications in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Michele; So, Tsz-Yin

    2014-04-01

    Increased reports of serious adverse events in young children have led to numerous investigations of its therapeutic role in the pediatric population. A review of the literature has shown limited support of its use in young children, with the majority of randomized controlled trials showing no difference in endpoints when compared to placebo. Because of the recent recommended changes to pediatric cough and cold medication use, studies have suggested a decline in ingestion misuses, health care referrals, and reports of adverse events. While these patterns of use are reassuring, clinicians should continue to educate and provide caregivers guidance in managing cough and cold symptoms. Although a tremendous improvement in frequency of therapeutic error ingestions in children younger than 2 years was shown in these studies, the same magnitude of improvement was not seen in children 2 to 12 years. Therefore, future research is necessary to investigate its role in children younger than 12 years.

  1. 49 CFR 219.103 - Prescribed and over-the-counter drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... informed of all medications authorized or prescribed and has determined that use of the medications is... imposed with respect to use of the medications in combination). (b) This subpart does not restrict...

  2. Medicines in My Home: Information for Adults on Using Over-the-Counter Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    Medicines In My Home More about using medicines safely Medicines in My Home: www.fda.gov/medsinmyhome FDA Consumer Medicine Education: www.fda.gov/usemedicinesafely National Council on Patient Information and ...

  3. Over-the-Counter Chemistry: Bringing Aspirin, Antacids, and Detergent to Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocci, Salvatore

    1982-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry course which encourages students to investigate the applications of chemical concepts to everyday situations. Commercially available products are analyzed and the accuracy of manufacturers' claims are evaluated. For example, students compare different aspirin brands, calculating percentage of active ingredients and…

  4. Over-the-Counter Data: The Heroics of Well-Displayed Information. MENSA Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2016-01-01

    Even before Florence Nightingale diagrammed soldiers' changing mortality rates to save lives, we have seen clever design used to convey statistics and other complex concepts. In the field of education, student data is used extensively, and those who share such data need to ensure this communication is effective. This article is based on education…

  5. Over-the-Counter Drugs and Complementary Medications Use among Children in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pileggi, Claudia; Mascaro, Valentina; Bianco, Aida; Pavia, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The use of nonprescription medicines (NPDs) for children illnesses without a doctor's suggestion can lead to unnecessary medication use and is not free of risks. The aim of our study was to examine attitudes and practice of parents towards NPDs use for their children. We also investigated the conditions that may predict NPDs use. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on parents of children attending Community Based Pediatrician (CBP) consultation and data were collected through structured interviews. Positive attitude on NPDs use was reported by 71.4% of parents, and 61.5% of them had administered NPDs in the previous 6 months. Antipyretic drugs were the most frequently used medication class without the supervision of the CBP. A positive attitude towards NPDs was significantly more frequent in parents who did not use the CBP as the sole source of information about drugs. The study demonstrated a widespread use of NPDs in children in our context, supported by a substantial positive attitude towards their safety. However, considering potential harms related to some NPDs and the finding that most parents rely on CBP advice, role of CBP on appropriate use of NPDs by parents should be emphasized.

  6. Transcript for: Why Data Should Be Over-the-Counter. TEDxTUM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2015-01-01

    Data is critical, but data has not always lead to success. If data is not communicated clearly, the results can be disastrous. Design lets us communicate data so it can be understood. Dr. Rankin believes that "when we're fluent in visualizing our ideas, we can communicate them across global boundaries, across spoken language barriers, and…

  7. Checklist for Choosing Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medicine for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the doctor: ____________________________________________________________________________ Other medicines (OTC and prescription), vitamins, ... the form of medicine (such as tablet, capsule, or liquid) wanted. Read the “ Drug Facts” label ...

  8. Reporting Data with "Over-the-Counter" Data Analysis Supports Increases Educators' Analysis Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive research on the benefits of making data-informed decisions to improve learning, but these benefits rely on the data being effectively interpreted. Despite educators' above-average intellect and education levels, there is evidence many educators routinely misinterpret student data. Data analysis problems persist even at districts…

  9. 76 FR 12916 - Benzocaine; Weight Control Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... hunger actually resulted in a ``clinically ] significant benefit of the type claimed'' (i.e., weight loss... daily) Group 4: Glucose hard candy containing benzocaine, caffeine, and vitamins (benzocaine group... Order 12866 directs agencies to assess all costs and benefits of available regulatory alternatives...

  10. Fabrication of Metal Nanoparticle-Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes for the Evaluation of Hydrogen Peroxide Content in Teeth Whitening Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popa, Adriana; Abenojar, Eric C.; Vianna, Adam; Buenviaje, Czarina Y. A.; Yang, Jiahua; Pascual, Cherrie B.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment in which students synthesize Ag, Au, and Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and use them to modify screen printed carbon electrodes for the electroanalysis of the hydrogen peroxide content in commercially available teeth whitening strips is described. This experiment is designed for two 3-h laboratory periods and can be adapted for…

  11. Comparison of the Effects of Two Whitening Toothpastes on Microhardness of the Enamel and a Microhybride Composite Resin: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Khamverdi, Z.; Kasraie, Sh.; Rezaei-Soufi, L.; Jebeli, S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Whitening toothpastes which have been accepted in populations may affect properties of enamel and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to compare the microhardness of human enamel and Z250 microhybrid composite resin after brushing with two whitening toothpastes. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study of enamel specimens, forty five freshly extracted human incisors were prepared and divided into three groups of control enamel (ClE), Crest enamel (CtE) and Aquafresh enamel (AfE). For composite resin specimens, forty five cylindrical-shaped specimens of light-cured Z250 composite were prepared and divided into three groups of control composite (ClC), Crest composite (CtC) and Aquafresh composite (AfC). The control groups were brushed without toothpaste. Crest and Aquafresh group specimens were brushed with Crest and Aquafresh whitening toothpastes, respectively. Vickers microhardness test was performed for all groups. Data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: Microhardness values of ClE, CtE, AfE, ClC, CtC and AfC groups were 332.99 ± 26.59, 313.99 ± 20.56, 323.57 ± 27.96, 137.1 ± 3.16, 122.95 ± 3.27 and 130.36 ± 4.8, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed no significant differences among three enamel groups but there was significant difference among composite groups (p<0.01). Conclusion: Crest and Aquafresh whitening toothpastes did not affect enamel hardness but reduced the microhardness value of Z-250 composite resin. However, Crest whitening toothpaste decreased the microhardness more than Aquafresh. PMID:21998788

  12. Two-stage damage diagnosis based on the distance between ARMA models and pre-whitening filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Mita, A.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a two-stage damage diagnosis strategy for damage detection and localization. Auto-regressive moving-average (ARMA) models are fitted to time series of vibration signals recorded by sensors. In the first stage, a novel damage indicator, which is defined as the distance between ARMA models, is applied to damage detection. This stage can determine the existence of damage in the structure. Such an algorithm uses output only and does not require operator intervention. Therefore it can be embedded in the sensor board of a monitoring network. In the second stage, a pre-whitening filter is used to minimize the cross-correlation of multiple excitations. With this technique, the damage indicator can further identify the damage location and severity when the damage has been detected in the first stage. The proposed methodology is tested using simulation and experimental data. The analysis results clearly illustrate the feasibility of the proposed two-stage damage diagnosis methodology.

  13. Study of the temporal evolution of Whitening Teeth immersed in Peroxide of hydrogen (H2O2) Using Digital Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, L.; Morales, Y.; Torres, C.

    2015-01-01

    The esthetic dentistry reference in our society is determined by several factors, including one that produces more dissatisfaction is abnormal tooth color or that does not meet the patient's expectations. For this reason it has been designed and implemented an algorithm in MATLAB that captures, digitizes, pre-processing and analyzed dental imaging by allowing to evaluate the degree of bleaching caused by the use of peroxide of hidrogen. The samples analyzed were human teeth extracted, which were subjected to different concentrations of peroxide of hidrogen and see if they can teeth whitening when using these products, was used different concentrations and intervals of time to analysis or study of the whitening of the teeth with the hydrogen peroxide.

  14. An evaluation of common cerumenolytic agents: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bellini, M J; Terry, R M; Lewis, F A

    1989-02-01

    Four non-prescription cerumenolytic agents were acquired over the counter of a high-street chemist and evaluated along with Sodium Bicarbonate ear drops BP, olive oil, distilled water, and acetone in an in-vitro study. Sodium Bicarbonate ear-drops BP are used by the nurses in the department and are recommended in the British National Formulary as the most effective solution to soften cerumen prior to syringing. Acetone was included as an effective organic solvent. The test was performed in a water bath, controlled to match the temperature of the external auditory meatus. Disintegration of the cerumen was noted over a two-hour period. Substantial disintegration occurred with three products: Waxsol, Stores Own Brand, and distilled water.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-Angiogenic and Skin Whitening Activities of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica Hara Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hye-Won; Choi, Hojin; Ji, Dam-Jung; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to assess some pharmacological activities of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara. The dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara were extracted with 70% ethanol to generate the powdered extract, named PLE. Anti-angiogenic activity was detected using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via analyzing nitric oxide (NO) content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the stimulated macrophage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activities in the culture media were detected using zymography. PLE exhibits an anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay, and displays an inhibitory action on the generation of NO in the LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. In the stimulated macrophage cells, it is able to diminish the enhanced ROS level. It can potently scavenge the stable DPPH free radical. It suppresses the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the enhanced MMP-9 activity in the stimulated macrophage cells. Both monooxygenase and oxidase activities of tyrosinase were strongly inhibited by PLE. Taken together, the dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin whitening activities, which might partly provide its therapeutic efficacy in traditional medicine. PMID:24009862

  16. Influence of gel/LED-laser application on cervical microleakage of two barrier materials used for endodontically treated teeth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesan, Melissa Andréia; Barros, Felipe; Porto, Saulo; Zaitter, Suellen; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D.

    2007-02-01

    This study evaluated ex vivo the influence of the number of gel/LED-laser applications/activations on cervical microleakage of two different barrier materials used for protection during whitening of endodontically treated teeth. Eighty-four canines were instrumented and obturated with epoxy resin sealer. The seal was removed 2 mm beyond the cemento-enamel junction for barrier placement and the teeth were divided into two groups of 40 teeth each: G1, zinc phosphate cement; G2, glass ionomer cement. The two groups were subdivided into 4 subgroups (n=10 each): I) no gel or LED-laser application; II) one gel application and two LED-laser activations; III) two gel applications and four LED-laser activations; IV) three gel applications and six LED-laser activations. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 7 days, decalcified and cleared. Cervical microleakage was quantified with a measurement microscope. Statistical analysis showed that zinc phosphate caused significantly lower microleakage than glass ionomer cement (presented microleakage in all subgroups). However, after two (p<0.01) and three (p<0.001) applications of gel, there was statistially significant microleakage in zinc phosphate barriers. Based on the present results, it can be concluded that cervical barriers with zinc phosphate cement show less cervical microleakage and that two or more applications/activations of gel/LED-laser significantly increase microleakage.

  17. New Whitening Constituents from Taiwan-Native Pyracantha koidzumii: Structures and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Analysis in Human Epidermal Melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Dih; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Liu, Yan-Ling; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Lu, Mei-Kuang; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Nontoxic natural products useful in skin care cosmetics are of considerable interest. Tyrosinase is a rate-limiting enzyme for which its inhibitor is useful in developing whitening cosmetics. Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder is an endemic species in Taiwan that exhibits tyrosinase-inhibitory activity. To find new active natural compounds from P. koidzumii, we performed bioguided isolation and studied the related activity in human epidermal melanocytes. In total, 13 compounds were identified from P. koidzumii in the present study, including two new compounds, 3,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-dibenzofuran (9) and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl-2ʹ-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (13), as well as 11 known compounds. The new compound 13 exhibited maximum potency in inhibiting cellular tyrosinase activity, the protein expression of cellular tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-2, as well as the mRNA expression of Paired box 3 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in a concentration-dependent manner. In the enzyme kinetic assay, the new compound 13 acted as an uncompetitive mixed-type inhibitor against the substrate l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and had a Km value against this substrate of 0.262 mM, as calculated using the Lineweaver–Burk plots. Taken together, our findings show compound 13 exhibits tyrosinase inhibition in human melanocytes and compound 13 may be a potential candidate for use in cosmetics. PMID:26633381

  18. Reduction of facial pigmentation of melasma by topical lignin peroxidase: A novel fast-acting skin-lightening agent

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, SHAO-MIN; SUN, NAN; LIU, HUI-XIAN; NIU, YUE-QING; WU, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lignin peroxidase (LIP) as a skin-lightening agent in patients with melasma. A self-controlled clinical study was performed in 31 women who had melasma on both sides of the face. This study involved 8 weeks of a full-face product treatment. The skin color was measured at days 0, 7, 28 and 56 using a chromameter on the forehead and cheeks. Standardized digital photographic images of each side of the face of all subjects were captured by a complexion analysis system. Clinical scores of the pigmentation were determined by two dermatologists. After using the LIP whitening lotion for 7 days, the luminance (L*) values of the melasma and the normal skin were significantly increased from baseline. The L* values continued to increase at days 28 and 56. The melasma area severity index (MASI) score was statistically decreased after 28 days of treatment. No treatment-related adverse events were observed. LIP whitening lotion was able to eliminate the skin pigmentation after 7 days of treatment, and provides a completely innovative approach to rapid skin lightening. The LIP whitening lotion exhibited good compatibility and was well tolerated. PMID:25574195

  19. [The effect of 2 bleaching agents on the enamel surface. An in-vitro study].

    PubMed

    Llena Puy, M C; Forner Navarro, L; Ferrandez, A; Faus Llacer, J V

    1992-01-01

    We present a study "in vitro" of the effect of bleaching agents on dental surfaces using the "Walking bleaching technique". We found that hydrogen peroxide bleached more quickly than carbamide although, after a period of six weeks, the results were the same as far as whitening was concerned. In the scanning electron microscope we observed significantly different changes in each case. Carbamide caused a regular and uniform opening of the enamel prisms of the surface while hydrogen peroxide produced more severe superficial destruction with the appearance of patterning similar to the acid etching, and the presence of some crystalline areas emerging from the body of the prisms.

  20. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... Orange Parkinson’s Awareness Month Were you exposed to herbicides during service and have Parkinson’s disease? You may ...

  1. Chemical Composition and Microhardness of Human Enamel Treated with Fluoridated Whintening Agents. A Study in Situ

    PubMed Central

    Petta, Thais de Mendonça; do Socorro Batista de Lima Gomes, Yasmin; Antunes Esteves, Renata; do Carmo Freitas Faial, Kelson; Souza D`Almeida Couto, Roberta; Martins Silva, Cecy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dental whitening has been increasingly sought out to improve dental aesthetics, but may cause chemical and morphological changes in dental enamel surfaces. Objective: Assess in situ the effects of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide with and without fluoride on human dental enamel using the ion chromatography test (IC) and the Knoop hardness test (KHN). Material and Methods: Nineteen enamel specimens were prepared using third human molars. These specimens were fixed on molars of volunteers and were divided into groups: OP38-Opalescence Boost PF38%, PO37-Pola Office 37.5% and CO-Control group. For chemical analysis (n= 3), the dentin layer was removed, keeping only the enamel, which was subjected to acidic digestion by microwave radiation. It was necessary to perform sample dilutions for the elements fluorine (F), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) for quantification using the IC test. The KHN (n= 5) was performed before and after the treatments. Five indentations were made, separated by 100 µm, for each specimen using a load of 25 gf for 5 seconds in the microdurometer. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with a 5% significance level. Results: The OP38 group had the largest concentrations of F, Ca and P ions. The PO37 group showed the lowest concentrations of F and Ca ions. The average KHN was not significantly different between the OP38 and PO37 groups. Conclusion: Enamel whitened with hydrogen peroxide containing fluoride had greater concentrations of F, Ca and P ions. The presence of fluoride in the whitening agent did not influence the enamel microhardness.

  2. 21 CFR 201.327 - Over-the-counter sunscreen drug products; required labeling based on effectiveness testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... indication in § 201.327(c)(1): “ if used as directed with other sun protection measures (see Directions ), decreases the risk of skin cancer and early skin aging caused by the sun”. (3) Any labeling or promotional... in the sun increases your risk of skin cancer and early skin aging. This product has been shown...

  3. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... approved drug application for any product that requires a separate allergy warning. This warning shall follow the subheading “Allergy alert:” (C) Flammability warning, with appropriate flammability...

  4. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... subnitrate, calomel, camphor, cholesterol, ergot fluid extract, hexachlorophene, ichthammol, isobutamben... aminacrine hydrochloride, bismuth subnitrate, calomel, camphor, cholesterol, ergot fluid...

  5. 21 CFR 201.327 - Over-the-counter sunscreen drug products; required labeling based on effectiveness testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) of this chapter shall not apply to these products. (i) SPF test procedure—(1) UV source (solar simulator). (i) Emission spectrum. A single port or multiport solar simulator should be filtered so that it... square meter (W/m2) on total irradiance for all wavelengths between 250 and 1,400 nm. (A) The...

  6. 21 CFR 201.327 - Over-the-counter sunscreen drug products; required labeling based on effectiveness testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) of this chapter shall not apply to these products. (i) SPF test procedure—(1) UV source (solar simulator). (i) Emission spectrum. A single port or multiport solar simulator should be filtered so that it... square meter (W/m2) on total irradiance for all wavelengths between 250 and 1,400 nm. (A) The...

  7. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide..., oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, thymol, or zinc...

  8. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide..., oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, thymol, or zinc...

  9. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide..., oxyguinoline sulfate, petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, thymol, or zinc...

  10. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral...

  11. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral...

  12. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral...

  13. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral...

  14. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral...

  15. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chapter, or (2) An active ingredient at a dosage level higher than that available in an OTC drug product on December 4, 1975, shall be regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the act... level higher than that available in an OTC drug product on December 4, 1975, which ingredient...

  16. Effects of an over-the-counter vented mouthguard on cardiorespiratory responses to exercise and physical agility.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stephen P; Willauer, Thomas J; Balilionis, Gytis; Wilson, Laura E; Salley, John T; Bailey, Elizabeth K; Strickland, Tony L

    2015-03-01

    Many athletes avoid using mouthguards because they believe that they impair their ability to breath and negatively affect performance. Recently, some manufacturers have developed "vented" mouthguards (VentMGs) to address this concern. The purposes of this investigation were to describe the impact of a commercially available "vented" boil-and-bite mouthguard on the physiological responses to graded exercise and to determine whether the use of the same mouthguard influences performance during traditional physical agility tests. Recreationally trained males (n = 15) (age = 24 ± 1 year; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 43.5 ± 1.9 ml·kg·min; body mass index = 25.2 ± 0.9) completed 3 randomly assigned trials where they wore no mouthguard (control), a traditional mouthguard (TradMG), or a VentMG. During each trial, subjects completed a modified maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and a series of physical agility tests (40-m dash, vertical leap, broad jump, 3-cone drill, and shuttle run). No differences were seen between control and the TradMG in any cardiorespiratory measures at any time during the maximal exercise test. Ventilation and blood lactate were lower (p ≤ 0.05) during VentMG at 200 W and at MAX; however, no differences in (Equation is included in full-text article.)were observed. Although TradMG had no impact on physical agility, VentMG produced a higher (1.9 cm; p = 0.03) vertical leap than control. Both mouthguard conditions negatively affected perceptions of breathability, comfort, and ability to communicate, but no differences existed between the 2 conditions. These findings confirm that TradMG has no negative impact on physiological function during exercise and physical agility; however, VentMG may have a positive impact at higher workload and on vertical leap.

  17. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (as single ingredient) Resorcinol monoacetate (as single ingredient) Salicylic acid (over 2 up to 5... stearate Zinc sulfide (2) Anticaries drug products—(i) Approved as of May 7, 1991. Hydrogen fluoride Sodium... hydrochloride (B) Ingredients. Phenyltoloxamine dihydrogen citrate Methapyrilene hydrochloride...

  18. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (as single ingredient) Resorcinol monoacetate (as single ingredient) Salicylic acid (over 2 up to 5... stearate Zinc sulfide (2) Anticaries drug products—(i) Approved as of May 7, 1991. Hydrogen fluoride Sodium... hydrochloride (B) Ingredients. Phenyltoloxamine dihydrogen citrate Methapyrilene hydrochloride...

  19. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (as single ingredient) Resorcinol monoacetate (as single ingredient) Salicylic acid (over 2 up to 5... stearate Zinc sulfide (2) Anticaries drug products—(i) Approved as of May 7, 1991. Hydrogen fluoride Sodium... hydrochloride (B) Ingredients. Phenyltoloxamine dihydrogen citrate Methapyrilene hydrochloride...

  20. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (as single ingredient) Resorcinol monoacetate (as single ingredient) Salicylic acid (over 2 up to 5... stearate Zinc sulfide (2) Anticaries drug products—(i) Approved as of May 7, 1991. Hydrogen fluoride Sodium... hydrochloride (B) Ingredients. Phenyltoloxamine dihydrogen citrate Methapyrilene hydrochloride...

  1. 78 FR 57397 - Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products-Emergency Use Eyewash Products; Announcement of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Acanthamoeba, bacteria, or fungi)? For example, FDA is aware of published reports of Acanthamoeba having... Document for Acanthamoeba,'' 2003. 2. Bowman, E. K., A. A. Vass, R. Mackowski, et al., ``Quantitation...

  2. 21 CFR 201.322 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... not limited to, acetaminophen, aspirin, carbaspirin calcium, choline salicylate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen... salicylate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, magnesium salicylate, naproxen sodium, and sodium salicylate. “Alcohol... limited to aspirin, carbaspirin calcium, choline salicylate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, magnesium...

  3. Medicines in My Home: Information for Students on the Safe Use of Over-the-Counter Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... the common cold: • acetaminophen • aspirin • ibuprofen • naproxen sodium • ketoprofen The last four active ingredients are all members ... you use more than directed. • Ibuprofen, naproxen, or ketoprofen can damage your kidneys. • Children and teenagers shouldn’ ...

  4. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... calcium, choline salicylate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, magnesium salicylate, naproxen sodium, and sodium..., ibuprofen, ketoprofen, magnesium salicylate, naproxen sodium, and sodium salicylate. (i) Statement...

  5. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... substance formed in some organ of the body, such as the adrenal glands or the pituitary, and carried to..., progestins, androgens, anabolic steroids, and adrenal corticosteroids, and synthetic analogs....

  6. 76 FR 7743 - Professional Labeling for Laxative Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... proposing that sodium phosphate salts (dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic sodium phosphate, and the combination of dibasic sodium phosphate/monobasic sodium phosphate salts in a solution dosage form) are not... labeling proposed for sodium phosphate salts in the 1985 TFM. Professional labeling is...

  7. Over the Counter Drugs (and Dietary Supplement) Exercise: A Team-based Introduction to Biochemistry for Health Professional Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phadtare, Sangita; Abali, Emine; Brodsky, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    For successful delivery of basic science topics for health-professional students, it is critical to reduce apprehension and illustrate relevance to clinical settings and everyday life. At the beginning of the Biochemistry course for Physician Assistants, a team-based assignment was designed to develop an understanding of the mechanism of action,…

  8. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pancreatic insufficiency drug products. Pancreatin and pancrelipase are composed of enzymes: amylase, trypsin... potential for serious risk to patients using these drug products. The bioavailability of pancreatic enzymes... included in an OTC drug monograph. Therefore, the safe and effective use of these enzymes for...

  9. 75 FR 7606 - Safety and Efficacy Review for Additional Ingredients in Over-the-Counter Drug Products for Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... applications (TEAs). We are currently evaluating the safety and effectiveness of these ingredients. DATES... found eligible for possible addition to an OTC drug monograph via the TEA process described in 21 CFR... inclusion in an OTC drug monograph under the TEA process on the basis of foreign marketing...

  10. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and... acids, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 60, sulfanilamide, sulfur 1 percent on carbon in a fraction...

  11. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and... acids, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 60, sulfanilamide, sulfur 1 percent on carbon in a fraction...

  12. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and... acids, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 60, sulfanilamide, sulfur 1 percent on carbon in a fraction...

  13. 78 FR 19718 - Modifications To Labeling of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Cigarette Smokers,'' Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 86(1):132-39, 2007. 14. Horst, W.D., et al... Does Not Increase Abuse Liability of Nicotine Chewing Gum,'' Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and...

  14. 76 FR 35669 - Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ..., for the purposes of labeling: ``(e.g., cream, gel, ] lotion, oil, spray, etc.).'' In 21 CFR 352.72(e), we further identified oils, lotions, creams, gels, butters, and pastes and ointments for the purposes... monograph: Oils Lotions Creams Gels Butters Pastes Ointments Sticks Sprays On the existing record,...

  15. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proposed monograph, an OTC drug product that contains: (1) An active ingredient limited, on or after May 11... proposed monograph. (2) An OTC drug product covered by paragraph (b)(1) of this section which is marketed after the date of publication in the Federal Register of a proposed monograph but prior to the...

  16. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean ginseng, licorice, mandrake, methyltestosterone, minerals, nux vomica, Pega Palo, sarsaparilla,...

  17. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean ginseng, licorice, mandrake, methyltestosterone, minerals, nux vomica, Pega Palo, sarsaparilla,...

  18. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean ginseng, licorice, mandrake, methyltestosterone, minerals, nux vomica, Pega Palo, sarsaparilla,...

  19. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean ginseng, licorice, mandrake, methyltestosterone, minerals, nux vomica, Pega Palo, sarsaparilla,...

  20. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... approved drug application for any product that requires a separate allergy warning. This warning shall follow the subheading “Allergy alert:” (C) Flammability warning, with appropriate flammability...

  1. 76 FR 35665 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Enforcement Policy for Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Register that would, if finalized, limit the maximum labeled sun protection factor (SPF) value for OTC.... 201.327 (i.e., products with Broad Spectrum SPF values of 15 or higher, products that do not provide broad spectrum protection, and products with Broad Spectrum SPF values between 2 and 14). The...

  2. 77 FR 27591 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Delay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... as a minimum sun protection factor (SPF) of 15. These sunscreens are particularly important for the public health because, in addition to helping prevent sunburn, sunscreens with a broad spectrum SPF...

  3. Medical professionals' perspectives on prescribed and over-the-counter medicines containing codeine: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Michelle; Carney, Tara; Rich, Eileen; Parry, Charles; Van Hout, Marie-Claire; Deluca, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore prescribing practitioners' perspectives on prescribed codeine use, their ability to identify dependence and their options for treatment in the UK. Design Cross-sectional design using a questionnaire containing closed-ended and open-ended items. Setting A nationally representative sample of prescribing professionals working in the UK. Participants 300 prescribing professionals working in primary care and pain settings. Results Participants stated that they regularly reviewed patients prescribed codeine, understood the risks of dependence and recognised the potential for codeine to be used recreationally. Over half the participants felt patients were unaware of the adverse health consequences of high doses of combination codeine medicines. One-quarter of participants experienced patient resentment when asking about medicines containing codeine. Just under 40% of participants agreed that it was difficult to identify problematic use of codeine without being informed by the patient and did not feel confident in identification of codeine dependence. Less than 45% of all participants agreed that codeine dependence could be managed effectively in general practice. Slow or gradual withdrawal was the most popular suggested treatment in managing dependence. Education and counselling was also emphasised in managing codeine-dependent patients in primary care. Conclusions Communication with patients should involve assessment of patient understanding of their medication, including the risk of dependence. There is a need to develop extra supports for professionals including patient screening tools for identifying codeine dependence. The support structure for managing codeine-dependent patients in primary care requires further examination. PMID:27417200

  4. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... nitrate Sodium borate Sodium diacetate Talc Tannic acid glycerite Thymol Topical starch Zinc chloride Zinc... subnitrate Boric acid Pyridoxine hydrochloride Sulfur Tannic acid Topical starch Trolamine Zinc sulfate (v... dihydrogen citrate Povidone-vinylacetate copolymers Salicylic acid Simethicone Tannic acid Topical...

  5. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... have a history of stomach problems, such as heartburn you have high blood pressure, heart disease... (e.g., fluorescent or color contrast) or in bold type, be in lines generally parallel to the base on... “acetaminophen” must appear highlighted or in bold type, and in a prominent print size, as described in...

  6. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... have a history of stomach problems, such as heartburn you have high blood pressure, heart disease... (e.g., fluorescent or color contrast) or in bold type, be in lines generally parallel to the base on... “acetaminophen” must appear highlighted or in bold type, and in a prominent print size, as described in...

  7. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... have a history of stomach problems, such as heartburn you have high blood pressure, heart disease... (e.g., fluorescent or color contrast) or in bold type, be in lines generally parallel to the base on... “acetaminophen” must appear highlighted or in bold type, and in a prominent print size, as described in...

  8. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the product states the following warnings under the heading “Warnings”: (A) The liver warning states “Liver warning : This product contains acetaminophen. Severe liver damage may occur if you take more than... alcoholic drinks every day while using this product”. This “Liver” warning must be the first warning...

  9. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... “Reye's syndrome:” (B) Allergic reaction and asthma alert warnings. Allergic reaction warnings set forth... separate allergy warning. This warning shall follow the subheading “Allergy alert:” The asthma alert... subheading “Asthma alert:” (C) Flammability warning, with appropriate flammability signal word(s)...

  10. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “Reye's syndrome:” (B) Allergic reaction and asthma alert warnings. Allergic reaction warnings set forth... separate allergy warning. This warning shall follow the subheading “Allergy alert:” The asthma alert... subheading “Asthma alert:” (C) Flammability warning, with appropriate flammability signal word(s)...

  11. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... “Reye's syndrome:” (B) Allergic reaction and asthma alert warnings. Allergic reaction warnings set forth... separate allergy warning. This warning shall follow the subheading “Allergy alert:” The asthma alert... subheading “Asthma alert:” (C) Flammability warning, with appropriate flammability signal word(s)...

  12. 21 CFR 310.536 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 505 of the act and part 314 of this chapter is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved... product initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction into interstate commerce that is...

  13. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required for marketing. In the absence of an approved application, such product is also misbranded under... introduction into interstate commerce that is not in compliance with this section is subject to regulatory... initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction into interstate commerce that is not...

  14. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... marketing. In the absence of an approved new drug application, such product is also misbranded under section... initially delivered for introduction into interstate commerce that is not in compliance with this section...

  15. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved application, such product is also..., 1990, any such OTC drug product initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction...

  16. 21 CFR 310.541 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and part 314 of this chapter is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved application..., 1990, any such OTC drug product initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction...

  17. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved application, such product is also misbranded... or initially delivered for introduction into interstate commerce that is not in compliance with...

  18. 21 CFR 310.538 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use for ingrown...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved new drug application or abbreviated new drug... March 9, 1994, any such OTC drug product initially introduced or initially delivered for...

  19. 21 CFR 310.542 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and part 314 of this chapter is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved application..., 1990, any such OTC drug product initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction...

  20. Quantitative perceptual differences among over-the-counter vaginal products using a standardized methodology: implications for microbicide development☆

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Ellen D.; Morrow, Kathleen M.; Hayes, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing prevalence of HIV infection among women worldwide has motivated the development of female-initiated prevention methods, including gel-based microbicides. User acceptability is vital for microbicide success; however, varying cultural vaginal practices indicate multiple formulations must be developed to appeal to different populations. Perceptual attributes of microbicides have been identified as primary drivers of acceptability; however, previous studies do not allow for direct comparison of these qualities between multiple formulations. Study Design Six vaginal products were analyzed ex vivo using descriptive analysis. Perceptual attributes of samples were identified by trained participants (n=10) and rated quantitatively using scales based on a panel-developed lexicon. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVAs for each attribute; product differences were assessed via Tukey’s honestly significant difference test. Results Significant differences were found between products for multiple attributes. Patterns were also seen for attributes across intended product usage (i.e., contraceptive, moisturizer or lubricant). For example, Options© Gynol II® (Caldwell Consumer Health, LLC) was significantly stickier and grainier than other products. Conclusions Descriptive analysis, a quantitative approach that is based on consensus lexicon usage among participants, successfully quantified perceptual differences among vaginal products. Since perceptual attributes of products can be directly compared quantitatively, this study represents a novel approach that could be used to inform rational design of microbicides. PMID:21757061

  1. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of quinine sulfate, vitamin E, or... quinine sulfate, in the absence of evidence of its effectiveness, outweighs any potential benefit...

  2. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of quinine sulfate, vitamin E, or... quinine sulfate, in the absence of evidence of its effectiveness, outweighs any potential benefit...

  3. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of quinine sulfate, vitamin E, or... quinine sulfate, in the absence of evidence of its effectiveness, outweighs any potential benefit...

  4. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of quinine sulfate, vitamin E, or... quinine sulfate, in the absence of evidence of its effectiveness, outweighs any potential benefit...

  5. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of quinine sulfate, vitamin E, or... quinine sulfate, in the absence of evidence of its effectiveness, outweighs any potential benefit...

  6. Antibiotic Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... producing ). Examples of this type are the alcohols, chlorine, peroxides, and aldehydes. The second group consists mostly ... viruses have some kind of antibacterial agent. Alcohols, chlorine and peroxides have been used for many decades ...

  7. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible Veterans a free Agent Orange Registry health exam for possible long-term health problems related to ...

  8. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  9. Exploring the link between pholcodine exposure and neuromuscular blocking agent anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Brusch, Anna M; Clarke, Russell C; Platt, Peter R; Phillips, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are the most commonly implicated drugs in IgE-mediated anaphylaxis during anaesthesia that can lead to perioperative morbidity and mortality. The rate of NMBA anaphylaxis shows marked geographical variation in patients who have had no known prior exposure to NMBAs, suggesting that there may be external or environmental factors that contribute to the underlying aetiology and pathophysiology of reactions. Substituted ammonium ions are shared among NMBAs and are therefore thought to be the main allergenic determinant of this class of drugs. Substituted ammonium ions are found in a wide variety of chemical structures, including prescription medications, over-the-counter medications and common household chemicals, such as the quaternary ammonium disinfectants. Epidemiological studies have shown parallels in the consumption of pholcodine, a nonprescription antitussive drug which contains a tertiary ammonium ion, and the incidence of NMBA anaphylaxis. This link has prompted the withdrawal of pholcodine in some countries, with an ensuing fall in the observed rate of NMBA anaphylaxis. While such observations are compelling in their suggestion of a relationship between pholcodine exposure and NMBA hypersensitivity, important questions remain regarding the mechanisms by which pholcodine is able to sensitize against NMBAs and whether there are other, as yet unidentified, agents that can elicit similar hypersensitivity reactions. This review aims to explore the evidence linking pholcodine exposure to NMBA hypersensitivity and discuss the implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of these reactions. PMID:24251966

  10. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  11. The melanogenesis and mechanisms of skin-lightening agents--existing and new approaches.

    PubMed

    Gillbro, J M; Olsson, M J

    2011-06-01

    Skin-lightening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes to obtain lighter skin complexion. Clinically, they are also used for treatment of hyperpigmentary disorders such as melasma, café au lait spot and solar lentigo. All of these target naturally melanin production, and many of the commonly used agents are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, one of the key enzymes in melanogenesis. In this review, we present an overview of commonly used skin-whitening ingredients that are commercialized, but we also hypothesize on other mechanisms that could be important targets to control skin pigmentation such as for example regulation of the adrenergic and glutaminergic signalling and also control of tetrahydrobiopterins in the human skin.

  12. Silicon and germanium nanoparticles with tailored surface chemistry as novel inorganic fiber brightening agents.

    PubMed

    Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Prabakar, Sujay; Krsinic, Gail; Dyer, Jolon M; Tilley, Richard D

    2013-07-31

    Low-molecular-weight organic molecules, such as coumarins and stilbenes, are used commercially as fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) to mask photoyellowing and to brighten colors in fabrics. FWAs achieve this by radiating extra blue light, thus changing the hue and also adding to the brightness. However, organic FWAs can rapidly photodegrade in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, exacerbating the yellowing process through a reaction involving singlet oxygen species. Inorganic nanoparticles, on the other hand, can provide a similar brightening effect with the added advantage of photostability. We report a targeted approach in designing new inorganic silicon- and germanium-based nanoparticles, functionalized with hydrophilic (amine) surface terminations as novel inorganic FWAs. When applied on wool, by incorporation in a sol-gel Si matrix, the inorganic FWAs improved brightness properties, demonstrated enhanced photostability toward UV radiation, especially the germanium nanoparticles, and also generated considerably lower levels of reactive oxygen species compared to a commercial stilbene-based organic FWA, Uvitex NFW.

  13. Enzymatic production of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose from agarose and its purification and in vitro skin whitening and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Saeyoung; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Bo Bae; Kim, Hee Taek; Lee, Sun Hee; Pelton, Jeffrey G; Kang, Nam Joo; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2013-04-01

    3,6-Anhydro-L-galactose (L-AHG) constitutes 50% of agarose, which is the main component of red macroalgae. No information is currently available on the mass production, metabolic fate, or physiological effects of L-AHG. Here, agarose was converted to L-AHG in the following three steps: pre-hydrolysis of agarose into agaro-oligosaccharides by using acetic acid, hydrolysis of the agaro-oligosaccharides into neoagarobiose by an exo-agarase, and hydrolysis of neoagarobiose into L-AHG and galactose by a neoagarobiose hydrolase. After these three steps, L-AHG was purified by adsorption and gel permeation chromatographies. The final product obtained was 95.6% pure L-AHG at a final yield of 4.0% based on the initial agarose. In a cell proliferation assay, L-AHG at a concentration of 100 or 200 μg/ mL did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity. In a skin whitening assay, 100 μg/ mL of L-AHG showed significantly lower melanin production compared to arbutin. L-AHG at 100 and 200 μg/ mL showed strong anti-inflammatory activity, indicating the significant suppression of nitrite production. This is the first report on the production of high-purity L-AHG and its physiological activities.

  14. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  15. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  16. Caries management with fluoride agents.

    PubMed

    Lam, Anty; Chu, C H

    2012-11-01

    Dental caries is the single most common, chronic oral disease of childhood. It is progressive and cumulative, and becomes more complex over time. The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health revealed that more than 51 million school hours are lost each year as a result of dental problems. Contemporary caries management philosophy has changed from the traditional surgical approach to a medical model that emphasizes prevention. Among various strategies for caries prevention or reduction, fluoride therapy has been highly promoted. Various in-office and over-the-counter fluoride products are available for caries prevention. Dental professionals should identify and assess the caries risk level of patients and optimize the use of fluorides in caries management. Since multiple sources of fluoride exposure exist, a coordinated approach to fluoride delivery is essential.

  17. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  18. Effect of bleaching agents on enamel surface of bovine teeth: A SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta-Dutra, Ana-Cristina; Albuquerque, Rodrigo-de Castro; Morgan, Luís-Fernando-dos Santos-Alves; Pereira, Geraldo-Magela; Nunes, Eduardo; Horta, Martinho-Campolina-Rebello

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate changes in the enamel surface of bovine teeth after whitening with exogenous bleaching agents: 10% carbamide peroxide (group 1), 16% carbamide peroxide (group 2) and 35% hydrogen peroxide activated by a light-emitting diode (LED) (group 3). The evaluations were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Material and Methods Ninety bovine teeth were divided into five groups (n = 18). The bleaching agents 10% and 16% carbamide peroxide were applied for eight hours a day for 14 consecutive days. The third agent, LED-activated 35% hydrogen peroxide, was used four times at seven-day intervals. Each of the four time points consisted of three applications of 10 minutes each. A 37% phosphoric acid solution and artificial saliva were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Results The evaluations by SEM showed changes in the enamel surfaces of the specimens. Based on the Mann-Whitney statistical test, the data showed significant differences (p<0.05) between groups 1 and 2 and between groups 2 and 3. However, no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between groups 1 and 3. Conclusions Based on these results, it can be concluded that bleaching agents can cause changes in the structure of tooth enamel and that these changes are related to the concentration and the duration of contact with the tooth surface. Key words:Bovine teeth, carbamide peroxide, enamel, hydrogen peroxide, scanning electronic microscopy. PMID:28149462

  19. Diffuse reflectance study of the effects of bleaching agents in damaged dental pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bante-Guerra, J.; Trejo-Tzab, R.; Macias, J. D.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2011-03-01

    One of the most important subjects of interest in dentistry and teeth preservation is related to the effects of bleaching agents on the integrity of the dental pieces. This is especially crucial when teeth surface has received some damage, generated by chemical, biological and mechanical agents or weathering in the case of dental pieces recovered from burial sites. In this work the time evolution of the effects of bleaching agents on the surface of dental pieces is monitored using diffuse reflectance in the visible spectrum is reported. The effects were monitored in teeth previously subject to chemical agents. Bleaching was induced using commercial whitening products. It is shown that the time evolution of the reflectance depends strongly on the condition of the surface as well as on the thickness of enamel. Additionally the colorimetric analysis of the samples during the bleaching is presented. This is especially useful in for comparing with previous studies. In order to complement our studies, the effects of the bleaching on the surface of the teeth were monitored by scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Current and emerging treatments for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and chronic idiopathic constipation: focus on prosecretory agents.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rachel H; Luthin, David R

    2015-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) are two common functional gastrointestinal disorders that impair quality of life and pose a significant economic burden to the health care system. Current therapeutic options include lifestyle modifications, over-the-counter (OTC) agents, antispasmodics, serotonin agonists, and lubiprostone and linaclotide, two prosecretory prescription drugs approved for the treatment of IBS-C and CIC. This review discusses the efficacy and safety of current treatments and emerging therapies for the treatment of IBS-C and CIC, with a focus on the prosecretory agents. A search of the PubMed database (1966-November 2014) was performed to identify relevant articles; clinical trials on emerging agents were also identified by searching the ClinicalTrials.gov registry. OTC laxatives may relieve constipation but do not treat abdominal pain and discomfort. Antispasmodics may provide short-term relief in patients with IBS-C, but their utility is limited by anticholinergic adverse effects. Tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors have shown benefit in providing global symptom relief and in improving abdominal discomfort, but further research is needed. Phase III clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of lubiprostone and linaclotide relative to placebo for the short-term treatment of IBS-C and CIC, with improvements reported in stool frequency, perceived constipation severity, and abdominal pain and discomfort. Relatively small response rates, higher costs, and adverse effects associated with lubiprostone and linaclotide will likely render these agents suitable as second-line therapies in the treatment of IBS-C and CIC. Emerging potential treatment options include prucalopride, plecanatide, elobixibat, and tenapanor. Several of these emerging therapies have novel mechanisms of action and may show promise in patients

  1. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  2. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  3. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  4. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  5. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Delta agent (Hepatitis D) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delta agent is a type of virus called hepatitis ...

  6. Anti-elastase, anti-tyrosinase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activity of earthworm extracts as potential new anti-aging agent

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Nurhazirah; Hashim, Puziah; Hashim, Dzulkifly M; Halimoon, Normala; Majid, Nik Muhamad Nik

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether earthworms of Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus rubellus and Eudrilus eugeniae extracts have elastase, tyrosinase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity. Methods The earthworms extract was screened for elastase, tyrosinase and MMP-1 inhibitory activity and compared with the positive controls. It was also evaluated for whitening and anti-wrinkle capacity. Results The extract showed significantly (P<0.05) good elastase and tyrosinase inhibition and excellent MMP-1 inhibition compared to N-Isobutyl-N-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl)-glycylhydroxamic acid. Conclusions Earthworms extract showed effective inhibition of tyrosinase, elastase and MMP-1 activities. Therefore, this experiment further rationalizes the traditional use of this worm extracts which may be useful as an anti-wrinkle agent. PMID:25183109

  7. Animal Capture Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  8. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

  9. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  10. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for orally administered OTC insect repellent drug products: “Oral mosquito repellent,” “mosquitos avoid you,” “bugs stay away,” “keep mosquitos away for 12 to 24 hours,” and “the newest way to fight mosquitos.” Therefore, any drug product containing ingredients offered for oral use as an insect...

  11. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for orally administered OTC insect repellent drug products: “Oral mosquito repellent,” “mosquitos avoid you,” “bugs stay away,” “keep mosquitos away for 12 to 24 hours,” and “the newest way to fight mosquitos.” Therefore, any drug product containing ingredients offered for oral use as an insect...

  12. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for orally administered OTC insect repellent drug products: “Oral mosquito repellent,” “mosquitos avoid you,” “bugs stay away,” “keep mosquitos away for 12 to 24 hours,” and “the newest way to fight mosquitos.” Therefore, any drug product containing ingredients offered for oral use as an insect...

  13. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for orally administered OTC insect repellent drug products: “Oral mosquito repellent,” “mosquitos avoid you,” “bugs stay away,” “keep mosquitos away for 12 to 24 hours,” and “the newest way to fight mosquitos.” Therefore, any drug product containing ingredients offered for oral use as an insect...

  14. 21 CFR 310.533 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contained in Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium have been present as ingredients in cough-cold drug... Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium, are neither safe nor effective as an OTC anticholinergic....

  15. 21 CFR 310.533 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contained in Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium have been present as ingredients in cough-cold drug... Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium, are neither safe nor effective as an OTC anticholinergic....

  16. 21 CFR 310.533 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contained in Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium have been present as ingredients in cough-cold drug... Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium, are neither safe nor effective as an OTC anticholinergic....

  17. 21 CFR 310.533 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contained in Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium have been present as ingredients in cough-cold drug... Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium, are neither safe nor effective as an OTC anticholinergic....

  18. 21 CFR 310.533 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contained in Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium have been present as ingredients in cough-cold drug... Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium, are neither safe nor effective as an OTC anticholinergic....

  19. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  20. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  1. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  2. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  3. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  4. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... lobeline sulfate or natural lobelia alkaloids or Lobelia inflata herb), menthol, methyl salicylate... drug product containing lobeline (in the form of lobeline sulfate or natural lobelia alkaloids...

  5. 21 CFR 201.325 - Over-the-counter drugs for vaginal contraceptive and spermicide use containing nonoxynol 9 as the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome... the rectum. These effects may increase the risk of transmission of the AIDS virus (HIV) from an... transmission of the AIDS virus (HIV) or other STDs, that use of these products can increase vaginal and...

  6. 21 CFR 201.325 - Over-the-counter drugs for vaginal contraceptive and spermicide use containing nonoxynol 9 as the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome... the rectum. These effects may increase the risk of transmission of the AIDS virus (HIV) from an... transmission of the AIDS virus (HIV) or other STDs, that use of these products can increase vaginal and...

  7. 21 CFR 201.325 - Over-the-counter drugs for vaginal contraceptive and spermicide use containing nonoxynol 9 as the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome... the rectum. These effects may increase the risk of transmission of the AIDS virus (HIV) from an... transmission of the AIDS virus (HIV) or other STDs, that use of these products can increase vaginal and...

  8. 21 CFR 201.325 - Over-the-counter drugs for vaginal contraceptive and spermicide use containing nonoxynol 9 as the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome... the rectum. These effects may increase the risk of transmission of the AIDS virus (HIV) from an... transmission of the AIDS virus (HIV) or other STDs, that use of these products can increase vaginal and...

  9. 21 CFR 201.325 - Over-the-counter drugs for vaginal contraceptive and spermicide use containing nonoxynol 9 as the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome... the rectum. These effects may increase the risk of transmission of the AIDS virus (HIV) from an... transmission of the AIDS virus (HIV) or other STDs, that use of these products can increase vaginal and...

  10. [Analysis of the Cochrane review: Multimedia educational interventions for consumers about prescribed and over-the-counter medications. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013;4:CD008416].

    PubMed

    Vaz Carneiro, António; Costa, João

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of the relevant information is especially important in the area of drug treatment, to guarantee an appropriate and rational use of medications by patients. The relevant information must be delivered in a way that patients understand all aspects of the treatment regimen they are taking. In this systematic review the authors analyzed a set of studies on the effectiveness of multimedia educational interventions about medications (prescribed or not) in patients of all ages, concluding that the aforementioned interventions are more effective than usual care (non-standardized education provided by health professionals as part of usual clinical care) or no education.

  11. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., povidone-silver nitrate, quinine ascorbate, silver acetate, silver nitrate, and thymol have been present as... (terpeneless), licorice root extract, menthol, methyl salicylate, quinine ascorbate, silver nitrate, and/or... Lobelia inflata herb), povidone-silver nitrate, silver acetate, or any other ingredients...

  12. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., povidone-silver nitrate, quinine ascorbate, silver acetate, silver nitrate, and thymol have been present as... (terpeneless), licorice root extract, menthol, methyl salicylate, quinine ascorbate, silver nitrate, and/or... Lobelia inflata herb), povidone-silver nitrate, silver acetate, or any other ingredients...

  13. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., povidone-silver nitrate, quinine ascorbate, silver acetate, silver nitrate, and thymol have been present as... (terpeneless), licorice root extract, menthol, methyl salicylate, quinine ascorbate, silver nitrate, and/or... Lobelia inflata herb), povidone-silver nitrate, silver acetate, or any other ingredients...

  14. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., povidone-silver nitrate, quinine ascorbate, silver acetate, silver nitrate, and thymol have been present as... (terpeneless), licorice root extract, menthol, methyl salicylate, quinine ascorbate, silver nitrate, and/or... Lobelia inflata herb), povidone-silver nitrate, silver acetate, or any other ingredients...

  15. Association of over-the-counter pharmaceutical sales with influenza-like-illnesses to patient volume in an urgent care setting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Timothy Y; Sanders, Jason L; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U; Dato, Virginia M; Suyama, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We studied the association between OTC pharmaceutical sales and volume of patients with influenza-like-illnesses (ILI) at an urgent care center over one year. OTC pharmaceutical sales explain 36% of the variance in the patient volume, and each standard deviation increase is associated with 4.7 more patient visits to the urgent care center (p<0.0001). Cross-correlation function analysis demonstrated that OTC pharmaceutical sales are significantly associated with patient volume during non-flu season (p<0.0001), but only the sales of cough and cold (p<0.0001) and thermometer (p<0.0001) categories were significant during flu season with a lag of two and one days, respectively. Our study is the first study to demonstrate and measure the relationship between OTC pharmaceutical sales and urgent care center patient volume, and presents strong evidence that OTC sales predict urgent care center patient volume year round.

  16. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  17. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    PubMed

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  18. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  19. Effects of three different bleaching agents on microhardness and roughness of composite sample surfaces finished with different polishing techniques

    PubMed Central

    Yikilgan, İhsan; Akgul, Sinem; Ozcan, Suat; Bala, Oya

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of different polishing methods and whitening agents on surface hardness and roughness of nano-hybrid composite resin. Material and Methods In total, one hundred twenty disc-shaped specimens were prepared to nano-hybrid composite (Charisma Diamond). 60 samples were used for microhardness measurements and the others were used for the evaluation of surface roughness. Samples were divided randomly into two subgroups (n = 30 each). In first group a low-viscosity liquid polishing agent (Biscover LV) was applied. In the second group, nothing was applied. All the samples were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h. After initial measurements were completed, samples were divided randomly into three subgroups for bleaching application. 10% carbamide peroxide (Opalescence PF), 45% carbamide peroxide (Opalescence PF Quick), 38% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Boost) was applied. Then microhardness and surface roughness measurements of samples were repeated and data were recorded as final values for each sample. Results When the polishing techniques were compared, no signicant difference was observed in surface hardness and roughness. When the bleaching agents were compared, the 10% carbamide peroxide and 38% hydrogen peroxide containing bleaching agent groups showed statistically significant differences between pre- and post-procedure hardness values (p<0.05). Conclusions Office-type bleaching agent containing CP was observed to be more secure for composite resins than other bleaching agents. No negative effect of glaze materials on the protection of surface roughness and hardness of composite resin was observed. Key words:Composite resin, bleaching, surface hardness, surface roughness. PMID:28298992

  20. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…