Science.gov

Sample records for overcoming organizational barriers

  1. Overcoming Intercultural Communication Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity that helps students overcome the multicultural barriers that might be encountered in dealing with people from various cultures in a global economy. Outlines instructions, reporting procedures, principles to emphasize, and time required for the exercise. (HB)

  2. Overcoming the organization-practice barrier in sports injury prevention: A nonhierarchical organizational model.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Ö; Jacobsson, J; Timpka, T

    2015-08-01

    The organization of sports at the national level has seldom been included in scientific discussions of sports injury prevention. The aim of this study was to develop a model for organization of sports that supports prevention of overuse injuries. The quality function deployment technique was applied in seminars over a two-season period to develop a national organizational structure for athletics in Sweden that facilitates prevention of overuse injuries. Three central features of the resulting model for organization of sports at the national level are (a) diminishment of the organizational hierarchy: participatory safety policy design is introduced through annual meetings where actors from different sectors of the sporting community discuss training, injury prevention, and sports safety policy; (b) introduction of a safety surveillance system: a ubiquitous system for routine collection of injury and illness data; and (c) an open forum for discussion of safety issues: maintenance of a safety forum for participants from different sectors of the sport. A nonhierarchical model for organization of sports at the national level - facilitated by modern information technology - adapted for the prevention of overuse injuries has been developed. Further research is warranted to evaluate the new organizational model in prospective effectiveness studies.

  3. OVERCOMING CULTURAL BARRIERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARRUTIA, RICHARD

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT TO CULTURAL BARRIERS AND THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES IS DISCUSSED IN THIS ARTICLE. VARIOUS VIEWS OF THE MEANING OF CULTURE ARE MENTIONED IN ORDER TO SINGLE OUT ANTHROPOLOGICAL CULTURE AS A MAIN FOCAL POINT. INTERCULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE SPELLED OUT WITH EXAMPLES OF LINGUISTIC BARRIERS, AND…

  4. Overcoming barriers to patient safety.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Beatrice J; Aebersold, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Creating a culture of patient safety is a critical goal of all patient care unit staff. An analysis of the key barriers to patient safety on a typical inpatient unit in an acute care hospital (unclear unit values), the fear of punishment for errors, the lack of systematic analysis of mistakes, the complexity of the nurses' work, and inadequate teamwork are presented. Nine practices to overcome these barriers and achieve patient safety are discussed.

  5. Overcoming barriers to patient safety.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Beatrice J; Aebersold, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Creating a culture of patient safety is a critical goal of all patient care unit staff. An analysis of the key barriers to patient safety on a typical inpatient unit in an acute care hospital (unclear unit values), the fear of punishment for errors, the lack of systematic analysis of mistakes, the complexity of the nurses' work, and inadequate teamwork are presented. Nine practices to overcome these barriers and achieve patient safety are discussed. PMID:16786829

  6. Overcoming Blocks and Barriers to Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudsepp, Eugene

    1982-01-01

    Organizational barriers to creativity are examined. It is noted that resistance to change is a major impediment to creative problem solving in most organizations. Understanding the barriers to change that exist is viewed to help people exercise and develop their creativity more fully and effectively. (MP)

  7. Overcoming Barriers in Working with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heru, Alison M.; Drury, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Residency Review Committee for psychiatry outline the expected competencies for residents. These competencies include working with families. This article describes barriers that residents face when working with families, and offers ways to overcome these barriers. Method:…

  8. Overcoming biological barriers with ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakkar, Dhaval; Gupta, Roohi; Mohan, Praveena; Monson, Kenneth; Rapoport, Natalya

    2012-10-01

    Effect of ultrasound on the permeability of blood vessels and cell membranes to macromolecules and nanodroplets was investigated using mouse carotid arteries and tumor cells. Model macromolecular drug, FITC-dextran with molecular weight of 70,000 Da was used in experiments with carotid arteries. The effect of unfocused 1-MHz ultrasound and and perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether nanodroplets stabilized with the poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(D, L-lactide) block copolymer shells was studied. In cell culture experiments, ovarian carcinoma cells and Doxorubicin (DOX) loaded poly(ethylene oxide)-co-polycaprolactone nanodroplets were used. The data showed that the application of ultrasound resulted in permeabilization of all biological barriers tested. Under the action of ultrasound, not only FITC-dextran but also nanodroplets effectively penetrated through the arterial wall; the effect of continuous wave ultrasound was stronger than that of pulsed ultrasound. In cell culture experiments, ultrasound triggered DOX penetration into cell nuclei, presumably due to releasing the drug from the carrier. Detailed mechanisms of the observed effects require further study.

  9. Overcoming Barriers in the Media Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Web 2.0 has revolutionized one's ability to teach students in new and exciting ways. Students with disabilities can now overcome many barriers that once kept them from being successful in the regular education classroom. Media specialists can effectively advocate for students with disabilities. School library media specialists have the ability to…

  10. Overcoming Barriers to Engaging in College Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Lauren; Shaulskiy, Stephanie; Zircher, Andrew; Sanders, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Underprepared college students face transition issues that prevent full academic engagement. The written responses of 176 students in a learning-strategies course were used to develop a grounded model of overcoming barriers to academic engagement. Findings revealed contexts in which academic engagement involved high costs (i.e., effort, trade-off,…

  11. Overcoming Organizational Fixation: Creating and Sustaining an Innovation Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stempfle, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Fixation on established paradigms and practices can severely limit the capability of organizations to change, thereby jeopardizing the ability of organizations to keep up with changes in their environment and new technological developments. Overcoming organizational fixation is therefore a requirement for any organization that strives to achieve…

  12. Consumer and Employer Strategies for Overcoming Employment Barriers. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crudden, Adele; Williams, Wendy; McBroom, Lynn W.; Moore, J. Elton

    This report on strategies for overcoming employment barriers for persons with visual impairments summarizes comments and suggestions of 7 focus groups comprised of either consumers (n=49) or employers (n=19). The report first reviews the literature concerning employment barriers and how consumers in previous studies suggested these barriers be…

  13. Explaining and overcoming barriers to climate change adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenack, Klaus; Moser, Susanne C.; Hoffmann, Esther; Klein, Richard J. T.; Oberlack, Christoph; Pechan, Anna; Rotter, Maja; Termeer, Catrien J. A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The concept of barriers is increasingly used to describe the obstacles that hinder the planning and implementation of climate change adaptation. The growing literature on barriers to adaptation reveals not only commonly reported barriers, but also conflicting evidence, and few explanations of why barriers exist and change. There is thus a need for research that focuses on the interdependencies between barriers and considers the dynamic ways in which barriers develop and persist. Such research, which would be actor-centred and comparative, would help to explain barriers to adaptation and provide insights into how to overcome them.

  14. Overcoming Barriers to Shared Decision Making

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... to interfere with your daily life, you may benefit from counseling, medication or both. Barrier: Difficulty understanding ...

  15. Overcoming Autopsy Barriers in Pediatric Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Alabran, Jennifer L.; Hooper, Jody E.; Hill, Melissa; Smith, Sandra E.; Spady, Kimberlee K.; Davis, Lara E.; Peterson, Lauren S.; Malempati, Suman; Ryan, Christopher W.; Acosta, Rae; Spunt, Sheri L.; Keller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than 13,000 children annually in the United States and Canada under the age of 20 will be diagnosed with cancer at a mortality approaching twenty percent [1,2]. Tumor samples obtained by autopsy provide an innovative way to study tumor progression, potentially aiding in the discovery of new treatments and increased survival rates. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to autopsies and develop guidelines for requesting autopsies for research purposes. PROCEDURE Families of children treated for childhood cancer were referred by patient advocacy groups and surveyed about attitudes and experiences with research autopsies. From 60 interviews, barriers to autopsy and tumor banking were identified. An additional 14 interviews were conducted with medical and scientific experts. RESULTS Ninety-three percent of parents of deceased children did or would have consented to a research autopsy if presented with the option; however, only half of these families were given the opportunity to donate autopsy tissue for research. The most significant barriers were the physicians’ reluctance to ask a grieving family and lack of awareness about research opportunities. CONCLUSIONS The value of donating tumor samples to research via an autopsy should be promoted to all groups managing pediatric cancer patients. Not only does autopsy tumor banking offer a potentially important medical and scientific impact, but the opportunity to contribute this Legacy Gift of autopsy tumor tissue also creates a positive outlet for the grieving family. Taking these findings into account, our multidisciplinary team has developed a curriculum addressing key barriers. PMID:23015377

  16. Dos Hermanas Chicanas: Overcoming Barriers to Professional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prospero, Moises

    2007-01-01

    Women and ethnic minorities face steep barriers to professional advancement, and those who rise to the executive level typically use a variety of strategies to overcome obstacles in their way. This study first reviewed the literature on barriers to professional advancement for women and ethnic minorities and the strategies that they report using…

  17. Overcoming learning barriers through knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Dror, Itiel E; Makany, Tamas; Kemp, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    The ability to learn highly depends on how knowledge is managed. Specifically, different techniques for note-taking utilize different cognitive processes and strategies. In this paper, we compared dyslexic and control participants when using linear and non-linear note-taking. All our participants were professionals working in the banking and financial sector. We examined comprehension, accuracy, mental imagery & complexity, metacognition, and memory. We found that participants with dyslexia, when using a non-linear note-taking technique outperformed the control group using linear note-taking and matched the performance of the control group using non-linear note-taking. These findings emphasize how different knowledge management techniques can avoid some of the barriers to learners.

  18. Organizational barriers to quality improvement in medical and health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Ziegenfuss, J T

    1991-01-01

    This paper identifies organizational barriers to quality improvement in medical and health care organizations. Quality is now recognized as one of the most challenging issues of the 1990s. The push for quality improvement rests on the significant assumption that large and small medical and health care organizations will engage in quality assessment and assurance. Both researchers and practitioners must consider the organizational barriers the quality movement will encounter, particularly those major impediments to be overcome in the next 5-10 years. This paper organizes the analysis of organizational barriers to quality assessment and assurance according to a five-part systems model of the organization. The barriers are categorized as technical, structural, psychosocial, managerial, and goals and values. Following a mapping of the barriers, education, training, and research and development needs to support quality improvement are identified.

  19. Overcoming health literacy barriers: a model for action.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    A large influx of Indonesian immigrants seeking asylum from racial and religious persecution into our hospital service area alerted providers to the need for specific cultural knowledge about this ethnic group, and to develop new skill sets to effectively care for this population. Health education programs that provide knowledge and tools to overcome misunderstandings that arise from differences between provider and client expectations for behavior will be most effective in overcoming the health literacy barriers that so often contribute to health disparities. A framework to understand factors that affect health literacy for local Indonesian asylum seekers guided community health education, while the written educational materials for programs informed providers about health literacy barriers for this population. Community outreach engaged local pastors and interpreters as cultural brokers to collaborate with nurses to develop and implement culturally sensitive programs that are socially sensitive to the local Indonesian refugee population. PMID:21744676

  20. Overcoming the barriers to implementation of TQM/CQI in hospitals: myths and realities.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, D S; Wakefield, B J

    1993-03-01

    Many health care organizations are attempting to rapidly implement total quality management (TQM) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) philosophies and concepts. In the case of hospitals, a number of issues resulting from traditional organizational design and management practices as well as the characteristics of health care professionals pose significant challenges to rapid implementation. Recognizing and developing strategies to address these challenges, along with realizing that TQM and CQI represent viable processes for conducting organizational "preventive maintenance," may help in changing the focus of quality assessment and enhancement initiatives from processes that are "broken" to processes that should be "fixed" before they "break." This article discusses strategies for overcoming some of the major barriers and challenges to successful TQM and CQI implementation to the hospital setting.

  1. Synergistic action of RNA polymerases in overcoming the nucleosomal barrier.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Bai, Lu; Johnson, Daniel S; Fulbright, Robert M; Kireeva, Maria L; Kashlev, Mikhail; Wang, Michelle D

    2010-06-01

    During gene expression, RNA polymerase (RNAP) encounters a major barrier at a nucleosome and yet must access the nucleosomal DNA. Previous in vivo evidence has suggested that multiple RNAPs might increase transcription efficiency through nucleosomes. Here we have quantitatively investigated this hypothesis using Escherichia coli RNAP as a model system by directly monitoring its location on the DNA via a single-molecule DNA-unzipping technique. When an RNAP encountered a nucleosome, it paused with a distinctive 10-base pair periodicity and backtracked by approximately 10-15 base pairs. When two RNAPs elongate in close proximity, the trailing RNAP apparently assists in the leading RNAP's elongation, reducing its backtracking and enhancing its transcription through a nucleosome by a factor of 5. Taken together, our data indicate that histone-DNA interactions dictate RNAP pausing behavior, and alleviation of nucleosome-induced backtracking by multiple polymerases may prove to be a mechanism for overcoming the nucleosomal barrier in vivo.

  2. Evolving Drug Delivery Strategies to Overcome the Blood Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, David S.; Wadajkar, Aniket S.; Roberts, Nathan B.; Perez, Jimena G.; Connolly, Nina P.; Frenkel, Victor; Winkles, Jeffrey A.; Woodworth, Graeme F.; Kim, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) poses a unique challenge for drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). The BBB consists of a continuous layer of specialized endothelial cells linked together by tight junctions, pericytes, nonfenestrated basal lamina, and astrocytic foot processes. This complex barrier controls and limits the systemic delivery of therapeutics to the CNS. Several innovative strategies have been explored to enhance the transport of therapeutics across the BBB, each with individual advantages and disadvantages. Ongoing advances in delivery approaches that overcome the BBB are enabling more effective therapies for CNS diseases. In this review, we discuss: (1) the physiological properties of the BBB, (2) conventional strategies to enhance paracellular and transcellular transport through the BBB, (3) emerging concepts to overcome the BBB, and (4) alternative CNS drug delivery strategies that bypass the BBB entirely. Based on these exciting advances, we anticipate that in the near future, drug delivery research efforts will lead to more effective therapeutic interventions for diseases of the CNS.

  3. Overcoming the barriers to xenotransplantation: prospects for the future

    PubMed Central

    Ekser, Burcin; Cooper, David KC

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species transplantation (xenotransplantation) has immense potential to solve the critical need for organs, tissues and cells for clinical transplantation. The increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs is enabling progress to be made in pig-to-nonhuman primate experimental models. Potent pharmacologic immunosuppressive regimens have largely prevented T-cell rejection and a T-cell-dependent elicited antibody response. However, coagulation dysfunction between the pig and primate is proving to be a major problem, and this can result in life-threatening consumptive coagulopathy. This complication is unlikely to be overcome until pigs expressing a human ‘antithrombotic’ or ‘anticoagulant’ gene, such as thrombomodulin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor or CD39, become available. Progress in islet xenotransplantation has been more encouraging, and diabetes has been controlled in nonhuman primates for periods in excess of 6 months, although this has usually been achieved using immunosuppressive protocols that might not be clinically applicable. Further advances are required to overcome the remaining barriers. PMID:20402385

  4. Overcoming the Confucian psychological barrier in government cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ook; Gong, Sung Jin

    2004-02-01

    The Confucian tradition still dictates the behavior of many people in East Asian countries such as South Korea. Even in e-mail communication, people try their best to show signs of respect which is required by the Confucian tradition. This psychological barrier can be detrimental to the development of democracy as people are educated not to challenge opinions of elders or bosses. After a long military dictatorship, South Korea has emerged as a newly democratized nation where the Confucian tradition is less emphasized. However, this tradition dies hard, and citizens are still afraid of offending government officials who have the power to affect lives of citizens. In light of creating a more democratic society, the e-government project has been implemented, and one of the features of cyber-government is to give citizens a place in cyberspace to express their concerns. Even though citizens have to use their real names, it is found that those who wrote messages in the bulletin board of the city of Seoul government's web pages tend not to use terms that are often used in e-mails for the purpose of expressing respect. A survey was conducted, and results show that people were able to overcome the Confucian psychological barrier in government cyberspace. Self-efficacy is proposed to explain this phenomenon. PMID:15006165

  5. Better buildings by design: Overcoming barriers to efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lovins, A. )

    1995-01-01

    Buildings use roughly a third of the energy--and two-thirds of the electricity in the US--and, unfortunately, waste most of it. Most offices, schools, factories, shopping malls, apartment complexes, houses, and other buildings are heated, cooled, ventilated, and lit in abysmally inefficient ways--not because their developers, architects, contractors, operators, and owners were venal or stupid, but because they all faithfully did their jobs, responding to the incentives they saw. Indeed, the market in efficient building services is so imperfect that it is best described as spherically senseless--it makes no sense no matter which way you look at it. The good news--now being demonstrated by farseeing architects, developers, contractors and engineers--is that the numerous institutional barriers to efficiency can be profitably overcome. Indeed, the compelling economic and environmental advantages of better design represent a tremendously lucrative opportunity. To seize it, however, one must first understand where the barriers are, and how they can be surmounted.

  6. Overcoming entropic barrier with coupled sampling at dual resolutions.

    PubMed

    Lwin, Thur Zar; Luo, Ray

    2005-11-15

    An enhanced sampling method is proposed for ab initio protein folding simulations. The new method couples a high-resolution model for accuracy and a low-resolution model for efficiency. It aims to overcome the entropic barrier found in the exponentially large protein conformational space when a high-resolution model, such as an all-atom molecular mechanics force field, is used. The proposed method is designed to satisfy the detailed balance condition so that the Boltzmann distribution can be generated in all sampling trajectories in both high and low resolutions. The method was tested on model analytical energy functions and ab initio folding simulations of a beta-hairpin peptide. It was found to be more efficient than replica-exchange method that is used as its building block. Analysis with the analytical energy functions shows that the number of energy calculations required to find global minima and to converge mean potential energies is much fewer with the new method. Ergodic measure shows that the new method explores the conformational space more rapidly. We also studied imperfect low-resolution energy models and found that the introduction of errors in low-resolution models does decrease its sampling efficiency. However, a reasonable increase in efficiency is still observed when the global minima of the low-resolution models are in the vicinity of the global minimum basin of the high-resolution model. Finally, our ab initio folding simulation of the tested peptide shows that the new method is able to fold the peptide in a very short simulation time. The structural distribution generated by the new method at the equilibrium portion of the trajectory resembles that in the equilibrium simulation starting from the crystal structure.

  7. Overcoming the barrier of lactose intolerance to reduce health disparities.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Judith K; Miller, Gregory D

    2002-02-01

    Federal health goals for the public have focused on reducing health disparities that exist between whites and various racial and ethnic groups. Many of the chronic diseases for which African Americans are at greater risk- hypertension, stroke, colon cancer, and obesity-may be exacerbated by a low intake of calcium and/or other dairy-related nutrients. For example, a low intake of dairy food nutrients, such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium, may contribute to the high risk of hypertension seen in African Americans. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study demonstrated that a low-fat diet rich in fruits and vegetables (8 to 10 servings) and low-fat dairy foods (3 servings) significantly reduced blood pressure-and was twice as effective in African-American participants. Calcium and dairy food consumption is particularly low among African-American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Average intakes are near the threshold of 600 to 700 mg/day, below which bone loss and hypertension can result. Although lactose intolerance may be partly to blame for the low calcium intakes due to reduced dairy food consumption by minority populations, culturally determined food preferences and dietary practices learned early in life also play a role. The high incidence figures for primary lactose maldigestion among minority groups grossly overestimates the number who will experience intolerance symptoms after drinking a glass of milk with a meal. Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that by using a few simple dietary strategies, those who maldigest lactose (have low levels of the lactase enzyme) can easily tolerate a dairy-rich diet that meets calcium intake recommendations. Physicians and other health professionals can help their minority patients and the general public understand how to improve calcium nutrition by overcoming the surmountable barrier of lactose intolerance. At the same time they will be helping to reduce the incidence

  8. Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

    2012-10-09

    This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

  9. Psychology of Success: Overcoming Barriers to Pursuing Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Stanford T.; Martin, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Of the many barriers that prevent adults from continuing their education, psychological barriers are least often addressed by educators. This is an important area of concern because psychological factors influence how prospective students respond to other barriers. This qualitative study was conducted to describe how adults negotiate…

  10. 75 FR 58347 - Information Collection; Overcoming Barriers to Wildland Fire Defensible Space Behaviors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Overcoming Barriers to Wildland Fire... Fire Defensible Space Behaviors. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on or before November 23...: Overcoming Barriers to Wildland Fire Defensible Space Behaviors. OMB Number: 0596-New. Type of Request:...

  11. SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To make treatment a viable option for remediation you must first identify the barriers to implementing treatment. The primary barrier is economics. Treatment options are relatively expensive and there is a lack of funds for treatment. The cost of technologies can be lowered by 1)...

  12. Provider barriers to telemental health: obstacles overcome, obstacles remaining.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Elizabeth; Turvey, Carolyn; Augusterfer, Eugene F

    2013-06-01

    Many providers are hesitant to use telemental health technologies. When providers are queried, various barriers are presented, such as the clinician's skepticism about the effectiveness of telemental health (TMH), viewing telehealth technologies as inconvenient, or reporting difficulties with medical reimbursement. Provider support for TMH is critical to its diffusion because clinicians often serve as the initial gatekeepers to telehealth implementation and program success. In this article, we address provider concerns in three broad domains: (1) personal barriers, (2) clinical workflow and technology barriers, and (3) licensure, credentialing, and reimbursement barriers. We found evidence that, although many barriers have been discussed in the literature for years, advancements in TMH have rapidly reduced obstacles for its use. Improvements include extensive opportunities for training, a growing evidence base supporting positive TMH outcomes, and transformations in technologies that improve provider convenience and transmission quality. Recommendations for further change are discussed within each domain. In particular, it is important to grow and disseminate data underscoring the promise and effectiveness of TMH, integrate videoconferencing capabilities into electronic medical record platforms, expand TMH reimbursement, and modify licensure standards.

  13. Overcoming Barriers to Generalism in Medicine: The Residents' Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Elizabeth; Stoken, Jacqueline M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents medical residents' opinions regarding barriers to producing more generalist physicians, such as lack of appropriate training in ambulatory generalist practice and the increased prestige given to specialists. Recommendations are offered to medical schools, residency programs, the community, and the culture of medicine to…

  14. Automation U.S.A.: Overcoming Barriers to Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Herb

    1985-01-01

    Although labor unions and inadequate technology play minor roles, the principal barrier to factory automation is "fear of change." Related problems include long-term benefits, nontechnical executives, and uncertainty of factory cost accounting. Industry support for university programs is helping to educate engineers to design, implement, and…

  15. Jumping Deadfall: Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Outdoor and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Glenda

    This paper discusses some of the common barriers confronting outdoor and experiential education teachers and presents strategies for surmounting them. The identified concerns and suggested solutions were obtained from in-depth open-ended interviews conducted with 10 outdoor education/environmental education consultants and teachers in Alberta…

  16. Women in School Administration: Overcoming the Barriers to Advancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEEA Digest, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This digest examines three prominent theories that attempt to explain why women are underrepresented in educational administration and develops a three-dimensional matrix as an empowerment perspective. Each of the theories--resocialization, structural barriers, and male dominance--is based on deficiencies in the woman, the system, or the society.…

  17. Why and how to prescribe exercise: overcoming the barriers.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Gerald; Trejo, Jorge F

    2005-08-01

    Exercise helps prevent and improve atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases, and physicians should encourage their patients to exercise more. Unfortunately, there are many barriers to prescribing exercise. To help patients start exercising and stay with it, clinicians need to address specifics. Several guidelines are available to achieve this goal.

  18. Adolescents' Self-Efficacy to Overcome Barriers to Physical Activity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, John J. M.; Chulak, Tala; Maitland, Scott; Allison, Kenneth R.; Lysy, Daria C.; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Sheeshka, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a revised measure of self-efficacy to overcome barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity in a sample of 484 high school students in Toronto, Ontario. The students had a mean age of 15.3 years. Principal axis factoring with oblique rotation yielded five factors: self-efficacy to overcome internal, harassment, physical…

  19. No One Is Unemployable: Creative Solutions for Overcoming Barriers to Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, Elisabeth E.

    The goal of the WorkNet Model Career Development & Job Placement for people with barriers is to help even the most challenged job seekers begin and advance in careers they enjoy. This paper presents one key component of the WorkNet Model, a practical process for creatively overcoming any barrier a candidate faces. The chapter includes: the…

  20. Overcoming the barriers to using kangaroo care in neonatal settings.

    PubMed

    Penn, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo care (KC), has benefits for babies and parents, improving clinical outcomes, temperature control, breastfeeding rates and child-parent bonding; it reduces morbidity and mortality. Barriers to KC for neonates may include a lack of training for nurses, lack of time, maternal or child physical or mental ill health, and inappropriate settings. With education and helpful management, neonatal nurses can advocate for KC for all babies. Parents may need information and encouragement to begin with. Therefore, nurses can improve the experiences of their patients and, in the long run, free time to perform clinical procedures.

  1. Overcoming barriers to public understanding of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayhoe, K.

    2012-12-01

    Humans are interfering with global climate, increasing the risk of serious consequences for human society and the natural environment. As the scientific evidence builds, however, so does the public controversy surrounding this issue. Why is climate change so contentious? What makes it so hard to comprehend? I argue that there is no single reason for this, but rather a perfect storm of multiple confounding factors; scientific, historical, ideological, psychological and even physiological in nature. Education—of both the messengers and the audience—can play a critical role in surmounting many of the common barriers to understanding, accepting, and acting this important issue.

  2. Recognizing and overcoming potential barriers to oral medications for MS.

    PubMed

    Moses, Harold

    2014-10-01

    Three FDA-approved oral medications are available for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis: fingolimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate. While injection and IV treatments have proven to be beneficial, these newer oral agents also offer positive outcomes for patients. Numerous barriers exist, though, for these oral agents, including the unknown long-term efficacy and safety and potential side effects. Despite possible side effects, oral agents provide convenience, ease of use, and the elimination of injection/IV administration-site pain. To ensure MS patients receive the most appropriate individualized care, clinicians should present all of the available treatment options to both newly diagnosed and established patients. PMID:25373133

  3. Newborn screening progress in developing countries--overcoming internal barriers.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Krotoski, Danuta; Therrell, Bradford L

    2010-04-01

    Newborn screening is an important public health measure aimed at early identification and management of affected newborns thereby lowering infant morbidity and mortality. It is a comprehensive system of education, screening, follow-up, diagnosis, treatment/management, and evaluation that must be institutionalized and sustained within public health systems often challenged by economic, political, and cultural considerations. As a result, developing countries face unique challenges in implementing and expanding newborn screening that can be grouped into the following categories: (1) planning, (2) leadership, (3) medical support, (4) technical support, (5) logistical support, (6) education, (7) protocol and policy development, (8) administration, (9) evaluation, and (10) sustainability. We review some of the experiences in overcoming implementation challenges in developing newborn screening programs, and discuss recent efforts to encourage increased newborn screening through support networking and information exchange activities in 2 regions-the Asia Pacific and the Middle East/North Africa. PMID:20207264

  4. Barriers to overcome for effective cancer control in Africa.

    PubMed

    Harford, Joe B

    2015-08-01

    Cancer control in Africa is complicated due to large differences in cancer incidence between countries caused by differences in exposure to known risk factors. For example, substantial differences are seen when selected cancers in north Africa are compared with those in sub-Saharan Africa. In the future, population growth and demographic shifts are likely to have profound effects on the prevalence of cancer across the continent. Likewise, many factors outside of health care such as language differences, conflict, and poverty can affect cancer control efforts. Although cooperation in cancer control efforts is desirable, differences in cultural and geopolitical factors that characterise African countries and their populations, together with the sheer size of the continent, present unique challenges to effective cancer control. This Series paper discusses factors related to the size, diversity, and conditions within Africa that present barriers to optimal collaboration in cancer control efforts across the continent. PMID:26248846

  5. Rethinking technology, revitalizing ethics: overcoming barriers to ethical design.

    PubMed

    Feng, P

    2000-04-01

    This paper explores the role of ethics in design. Traditionally, ethical questions have been seen as marginal issues in the design of technology. Part of the reason for this stems from the widely held notion of technology being "out of control." This notion is a barrier to what I call "ethical design" because it implies that ethics has no role to play in the development of technology. This view, however, is challenged by recent work in the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Looking into the dynamics of technological change, STS scholars argue that human choices are present at every stage of a technology's development and, furthermore, that human values are reflected in the very design of artifacts. This alternative view suggests that ethics can and should be included in the design process. Drawing on examples from the privacy arena, I point to some of the potential advantages of addressing ethical concerns early on in the design of a technology. I conclude with some general strategies for bringing ethics back into design.

  6. Understanding and overcoming barriers to human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance.

    PubMed

    Zimet, Gregory D

    2006-02-01

    New vaccines designed to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have the potential to reduce the incidence of serious illness and death worldwide among women, substantially reduce the emotional suffering associated with abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) test results and the diagnosis of cervical cancer, and save significant health care dollars. However, these benefits may not be fully realized until the vaccine is accepted by patients, parents, and health care practitioners. Furthermore, there may be unique issues related to the acceptance of a vaccine designed to prevent a sexually transmitted infection that is poorly understood by many women. Among the acceptance issues are: individual comfort with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) vaccine; parental comfort with vaccination of their preadolescent/early adolescent daughters; physician comfort with recommending a human papillomavirus vaccine to women and parents of preadolescents; and physician communication skills related to talking with women and parents about the vaccine. Potentially difficult as it might be to implement a vaccination program, vaccination and prevention of HPV-associated disease are still infinitely preferable to observation and treatment. This article will review some of the potential barriers to HPV Vaccine acceptance, with a particular focus on factors relevant to female patients, parents, and health care providers.

  7. Mentoring women in academic surgery: overcoming institutional barriers to success.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Eddie L

    2006-09-01

    Women now comprise 50% of Caucasian matriculants to medical school; 66.6% of African Americans, 48% of Hispanics and 51.3% of Asians beginning medical school are also women. This trend is likely to continue since women now earn 57% of all undergraduate degrees, and they earn more degrees in the health professions and biological sciences than men. Black and Hispanic women now earn 66% and 60% of bachelor's degrees in their respective ethnic groups. Overall, women are concentrated at the lowest faculty ranks at medical schools, with 70% holding the rank of instructor or assistant professor. Women continue to experience difficulty with recruitment, retention, promotion and pay issues compared to men. They also experience additional gender-specific issues, including primary responsibility for rearing families and quality-of-life issues in some specialties, including most of the surgical disciplines. Clearly, there is an evolving population shift at work here; the pool of candidates for medical school faculty positions is likely to be evenly split between men and women for Caucasians, Hispanics and Asians, while the African-American pool is likely heavily weighted in favor of the women. Women are beginning to garner more Latin honors recognition at graduation as well and the definition of the "best and the brightest" is being redefined. Therefore, institutions must continue to identify the barriers that deter women from entering surgery, to develop research tools to understand how to improve the process of developing leadership skills among women and to insure a "buy-in" of their male counterparts when components of the plan are being implemented. PMID:17019926

  8. Mentoring women in academic surgery: overcoming institutional barriers to success.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Eddie L

    2006-09-01

    Women now comprise 50% of Caucasian matriculants to medical school; 66.6% of African Americans, 48% of Hispanics and 51.3% of Asians beginning medical school are also women. This trend is likely to continue since women now earn 57% of all undergraduate degrees, and they earn more degrees in the health professions and biological sciences than men. Black and Hispanic women now earn 66% and 60% of bachelor's degrees in their respective ethnic groups. Overall, women are concentrated at the lowest faculty ranks at medical schools, with 70% holding the rank of instructor or assistant professor. Women continue to experience difficulty with recruitment, retention, promotion and pay issues compared to men. They also experience additional gender-specific issues, including primary responsibility for rearing families and quality-of-life issues in some specialties, including most of the surgical disciplines. Clearly, there is an evolving population shift at work here; the pool of candidates for medical school faculty positions is likely to be evenly split between men and women for Caucasians, Hispanics and Asians, while the African-American pool is likely heavily weighted in favor of the women. Women are beginning to garner more Latin honors recognition at graduation as well and the definition of the "best and the brightest" is being redefined. Therefore, institutions must continue to identify the barriers that deter women from entering surgery, to develop research tools to understand how to improve the process of developing leadership skills among women and to insure a "buy-in" of their male counterparts when components of the plan are being implemented.

  9. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: overcoming technical barriers for clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Tu, Haohua; Boppart, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Clinical translation of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy is of great interest because of the advantages of noninvasive label-free imaging, high sensitivity, and chemical specificity. For this to happen, we have identified and review the technical barriers that must be overcome. Prior investigations have developed advanced techniques (features), each of which can be used to effectively overcome one particular technical barrier. However, the implementation of one or a small number of these advanced features in previous attempts for clinical translation has often introduced more tradeoffs than benefits. In this review, we outline a strategy that would integrate multiple advanced features to overcome all the technical barriers simultaneously, effectively reduce tradeoffs, and synergistically optimize CARS microscopy for clinical translation. The operation of the envisioned system incorporates coherent Raman micro-spectroscopy for identifying vibrational biomolecular markers of disease and single-frequency (or hyperspectral) Raman imaging of these specific biomarkers for real-time in vivo diagnostics and monitoring.

  10. Overcoming Barriers to Skills Training in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Qualitative Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Barnicot, Kirsten; Couldrey, Laura; Sandhu, Sima; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that skills training is an important mechanism of change in dialectical behaviour therapy, little research exploring facilitators and barriers to this process has been conducted. The study aimed to explore clients’ experiences of barriers to dialectical behaviour therapy skills training and how they felt they overcame these barriers, and to compare experiences between treatment completers and dropouts. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 clients with borderline personality disorder who had attended a dialectical behaviour therapy programme. A thematic analysis of participants’ reported experiences found that key barriers to learning the skills were anxiety during the skills groups and difficulty understanding the material. Key barriers to using the skills were overwhelming emotions which left participants feeling unable or unwilling to use them. Key ways in which participants reported overcoming barriers to skills training were by sustaining their commitment to attending therapy and practising the skills, personalising the way they used them, and practising them so often that they became an integral part of their behavioural repertoire. Participants also highlighted a number of key ways in which they were supported with their skills training by other skills group members, the group therapists, their individual therapist, friends and family. Treatment dropouts were more likely than completers to describe anxiety during the skills groups as a barrier to learning, and were less likely to report overcoming barriers to skills training via the key processes outlined above. The findings of this qualitative study require replication, but could be used to generate hypotheses for testing in further research on barriers to skills training, how these relate to dropout, and how they can be overcome. The paper outlines several such suggestions for further research. PMID:26465757

  11. Overcoming Barriers to Skills Training in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    PubMed

    Barnicot, Kirsten; Couldrey, Laura; Sandhu, Sima; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that skills training is an important mechanism of change in dialectical behaviour therapy, little research exploring facilitators and barriers to this process has been conducted. The study aimed to explore clients' experiences of barriers to dialectical behaviour therapy skills training and how they felt they overcame these barriers, and to compare experiences between treatment completers and dropouts. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 clients with borderline personality disorder who had attended a dialectical behaviour therapy programme. A thematic analysis of participants' reported experiences found that key barriers to learning the skills were anxiety during the skills groups and difficulty understanding the material. Key barriers to using the skills were overwhelming emotions which left participants feeling unable or unwilling to use them. Key ways in which participants reported overcoming barriers to skills training were by sustaining their commitment to attending therapy and practising the skills, personalising the way they used them, and practising them so often that they became an integral part of their behavioural repertoire. Participants also highlighted a number of key ways in which they were supported with their skills training by other skills group members, the group therapists, their individual therapist, friends and family. Treatment dropouts were more likely than completers to describe anxiety during the skills groups as a barrier to learning, and were less likely to report overcoming barriers to skills training via the key processes outlined above. The findings of this qualitative study require replication, but could be used to generate hypotheses for testing in further research on barriers to skills training, how these relate to dropout, and how they can be overcome. The paper outlines several such suggestions for further research.

  12. Overcoming Barriers to Skills Training in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    PubMed

    Barnicot, Kirsten; Couldrey, Laura; Sandhu, Sima; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that skills training is an important mechanism of change in dialectical behaviour therapy, little research exploring facilitators and barriers to this process has been conducted. The study aimed to explore clients' experiences of barriers to dialectical behaviour therapy skills training and how they felt they overcame these barriers, and to compare experiences between treatment completers and dropouts. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 clients with borderline personality disorder who had attended a dialectical behaviour therapy programme. A thematic analysis of participants' reported experiences found that key barriers to learning the skills were anxiety during the skills groups and difficulty understanding the material. Key barriers to using the skills were overwhelming emotions which left participants feeling unable or unwilling to use them. Key ways in which participants reported overcoming barriers to skills training were by sustaining their commitment to attending therapy and practising the skills, personalising the way they used them, and practising them so often that they became an integral part of their behavioural repertoire. Participants also highlighted a number of key ways in which they were supported with their skills training by other skills group members, the group therapists, their individual therapist, friends and family. Treatment dropouts were more likely than completers to describe anxiety during the skills groups as a barrier to learning, and were less likely to report overcoming barriers to skills training via the key processes outlined above. The findings of this qualitative study require replication, but could be used to generate hypotheses for testing in further research on barriers to skills training, how these relate to dropout, and how they can be overcome. The paper outlines several such suggestions for further research. PMID:26465757

  13. Measuring women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, women must overcome numerous barriers when they need modern healthcare. Respect of gender norms within the household and the community may still influence women's ability to obtain care. A lack of gender-sensitive instruments for measuring women's ability to overcome barriers compromises attempts to adequately quantify the burden and risk of exclusion they face when seeking modern healthcare. The aim of this study was to create and validate a synthetic measure of women's access to healthcare from a publicly available and possibly internationally comparable population-based survey. Method Seven questionnaire items from the Burkina Faso 2003 DHS were combined to create the index. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the index. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were applied to evaluate the factorial structure and construct validity of the index while taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data. Results The index has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.75, suggesting adequate reliability. In EFA, three correlated factors fitted the data best. In CFA, the construct of perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking emerged as a second-order latent variable with three domains: socioeconomic barriers, geographical barriers and psychosocial barriers. Model fit indices support the index's global validity for women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso. Evidence for construct validity comes from the finding that women's index scores increase with household living standard. Conclusion The DHS items can be combined into a reliable and valid, gender-sensitive index quantifying reproductive-age women's perceived ability to overcome barriers to healthcare seeking in Burkina Faso. The index complies conceptually with the sector-cross-cutting capability approach and enables measuring directly the perceived access to healthcare. Therefore it can help to improve the

  14. Strategies for Overcoming Key Barriers to Development of a National Security Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    This report documents the strategies for overcoming identified key barriers to development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. Many barriers currently exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of properly trained national security personnel. The identified strategies to address the barriers will focus on both short-term and long-term efforts, as well as strategies to capture legacy knowledge of retiring national security workforce personnel.

  15. Powering Your Community With Solar: Overcoming Market and Implementation Barriers (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This document introduces the Energy Department's new Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems. The guide is designed for 'green' consumers, utilities, local governments, and community groups who want to replicate the success of the Solarize Portland model, overcome barriers to implementation, and permanently transform the market for solar energy in their communities.

  16. Using Appropriate Digital Tools to Overcome Barriers to Collaborative Learning in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardlow, Liane; Harm, Eian

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative learning provides students with vital opportunities to create and build knowledge. Existing technologies can facilitate collaborative learning. However, barriers exist to enacting collaborative practices related to the coverage of material for assessments and classroom management concerns, among others. Teachers can overcome these…

  17. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, P. C.; Halverson, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    This guidance document was prepared using the input from the meeting summarized in the draft CSI Roadmap to provide Building America research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods.

  18. Autism and Overcoming Job Barriers: Comparing Job-Related Barriers and Possible Solutions in and outside of Autism-Specific Employment.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Timo; Frischling, Cora; Cuadros, Raphael; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover how individuals with autism succeed in entering the job market. We therefore sought to identify expected and occurred barriers, keeping them from taking up and staying in employment as well as to identify the solutions used to overcome these barriers. Sixty-six employed individuals with autism--17 of them with autism-specific employment--participated in an online survey. Results showed a variety of possible barriers. Individuals in autism-specific employment named formality problems--problems with organizational and practical process-related aspects of the job entry--most frequently while individuals in non-autism-specific employment mentioned social problems--obstacles concerning communication and human interaction--most. In terms of solutions, both groups used their own resources as much as external help, but differed in their specific strategies. In addition, correlations of an autism-specific employment with general and occupational self-efficacy as well as life and job satisfaction were examined. Possible implications of the results are discussed with regard to problem solving behavior and the use of strengths. PMID:26766183

  19. Autism and Overcoming Job Barriers: Comparing Job-Related Barriers and Possible Solutions in and outside of Autism-Specific Employment.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Timo; Frischling, Cora; Cuadros, Raphael; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover how individuals with autism succeed in entering the job market. We therefore sought to identify expected and occurred barriers, keeping them from taking up and staying in employment as well as to identify the solutions used to overcome these barriers. Sixty-six employed individuals with autism--17 of them with autism-specific employment--participated in an online survey. Results showed a variety of possible barriers. Individuals in autism-specific employment named formality problems--problems with organizational and practical process-related aspects of the job entry--most frequently while individuals in non-autism-specific employment mentioned social problems--obstacles concerning communication and human interaction--most. In terms of solutions, both groups used their own resources as much as external help, but differed in their specific strategies. In addition, correlations of an autism-specific employment with general and occupational self-efficacy as well as life and job satisfaction were examined. Possible implications of the results are discussed with regard to problem solving behavior and the use of strengths.

  20. Autism and Overcoming Job Barriers: Comparing Job-Related Barriers and Possible Solutions in and outside of Autism-Specific Employment

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Timo; Frischling, Cora; Cuadros, Raphael; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover how individuals with autism succeed in entering the job market. We therefore sought to identify expected and occurred barriers, keeping them from taking up and staying in employment as well as to identify the solutions used to overcome these barriers. Sixty-six employed individuals with autism–17 of them with autism-specific employment–participated in an online survey. Results showed a variety of possible barriers. Individuals in autism-specific employment named formality problems–problems with organizational and practical process-related aspects of the job entry–most frequently while individuals in non-autism-specific employment mentioned social problems–obstacles concerning communication and human interaction–most. In terms of solutions, both groups used their own resources as much as external help, but differed in their specific strategies. In addition, correlations of an autism-specific employment with general and occupational self-efficacy as well as life and job satisfaction were examined. Possible implications of the results are discussed with regard to problem solving behavior and the use of strengths. PMID:26766183

  1. Overcoming barriers to exercise among parents: a social cognitive theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Emily L; Phillips, Siobhan M; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Conroy, David E

    2016-08-01

    Parents face numerous barriers to exercise and exhibit high levels of inactivity. Examining theory-based determinants of exercise among parents may inform interventions for this population. The purpose of this study was to test a social-cognitive model of parental exercise participation over a 12-month period. Mothers (n = 226) and fathers (n = 70) of children <16 completed measures of exercise, barriers self-efficacy, perceived barriers, and exercise planning at baseline and 1 year later. Panel analyses were used to test the hypothesized relationships. Barriers self-efficacy was related to exercise directly and indirectly through perceived barriers and prioritization/planning. Prioritization and planning also mediated the relationship between perceived barriers and exercise. These paths remained significant at 12 months. These results suggest efforts to increase exercise in parents should focus on improving confidence to overcome exercise barriers, reducing perceptions of barriers, and helping parents make specific plans for prioritizing and engaging in exercise.

  2. Emergency department crowding, part 2--barriers to reform and strategies to overcome them.

    PubMed

    Moskop, John C; Sklar, David P; Geiderman, Joel M; Schears, Raquel M; Bookman, Kelly J

    2009-05-01

    Part 1 of this 2-article series reviews serious moral problems created by emergency department (ED) crowding. In this second part of the series, we identify and describe operational and financial barriers to resolving the crisis of ED crowding, along with a variety of institutional and public policy strategies proposed or implemented to overcome those barriers. Finally, the article evaluates 2 additional actions designed to address the problem of ED crowding, namely, distribution of a warning statement to ED patients and implementation of a "reverse triage" system for safe early discharge of hospital inpatients. PMID:19027194

  3. Overcoming transport barriers for interstitial-, lymphatic-, and lymph node-targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Susan N.; Schudel, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Despite drug formulation improving circulation times and targeting, efficacy is stymied by inadequate penetration into and retention within target tissues. This review highlights the barriers restricting delivery to the connective tissue interstitium, lymphatics, and lymph nodes as well as advances in engineering drug carriers to overcome these delivery challenges. Three-dimensional tissue physiology is discussed in the context of providing material design principles for delivery to these tissues; in particular the influence of interstitial and lymphatic flows as well as differential permeabilities of the blood and lymphatic capillaries. Key examples of materials with different characteristics developed to overcome these transport barriers are discussed as well as potential areas for further development. PMID:25745594

  4. Public Health in the Emergency Department: Overcoming Barriers to Implementation and Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Mary Pat; Vaca, Federico E.; Field, Craig; Rhodes, Karin

    2011-01-01

    This article is the outcome of a consensus building workshop entitled, “Overcoming Barriers to Implementation and Dissemination” convened at the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, “Public Health in the ED: Surveillance, Screening, and Intervention.” The participants were asked to address potential methods for overcoming barriers to the dissemination and implementation in the emergency department (ED) of evidenced-based practices to improve public health. The panel discussed three broad areas of interest including methods for disseminating evidence-based practices, barriers encountered during the process of implementation, and the importance of involvement in activities outside the ED including engagement in policy development and improvement. Four recommendations were discussed in detail and consensus was reached. The recommendations included 1) researchers and advocates should disseminate findings through multiple forums beyond peer-reviewed publications when an ED-based public health intervention has enough evidence to support integration into the routine practice of emergency care; 2) local barriers to implementation of public health interventions should be recognized and well understood from multiple perspectives prior to implementation; 3) innovation must be put into place and adapted based on local institutional context and culture as barriers and the best methods for overcoming them will vary across institutions; and 4) use of legislation, regulation, and incentives outside of the ED should support and strengthen ED-based interventions. For each area of interest, research dimensions to extend the current understanding of methods for effectively and efficiently implementing evidence-based public health interventions in the ED were discussed and consensus was achieved. PMID:20053233

  5. The Role of Carrier Geometry in Overcoming Biological Barriers to Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Carolyn; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Bailey, Mark; Muzykantov, Vladimir R; Dziubla, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    For a variety of diseases, effective therapy is severely limited or rendered impossible due to an inability to deliver medications to the intended sites of action. Multiple barriers exist through the body, which have evolved over time to limit the migration of foreign compounds from entering the tissues. Turning toward biology as inspiration, it has been the general goal of drug delivery to create carrier strategies that mimic, in part, features of bacteria/ viruses that allow them overcome these barriers. By packaging drugs into nano and micron scale vehicles, it should be possible to completely change the biodistribution and residence times of pharmaceutically active compounds. Recently, due to advances in formulation technologies, it has become possible to control not just the material selection, surface chemistry, and/or size, but also the overall geometry and plasticity of the drug carriers. These approaches aid in the formulation of nonspherical particles such as, discs, rods, and even unique structures such as cubes and nanodiamonds. The adjustment of size and shape can be used for the aid or prevention in cellular uptake and also to overcome the vascular and mucosal barrier. In this review, we present a summary of some approaches used to control carrier shape and the impact these geometries have upon drug transport across biological barriers.

  6. The Role of Carrier Geometry in Overcoming Biological Barriers to Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Carolyn; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Bailey, Mark; Muzykantov, Vladimir R; Dziubla, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    For a variety of diseases, effective therapy is severely limited or rendered impossible due to an inability to deliver medications to the intended sites of action. Multiple barriers exist through the body, which have evolved over time to limit the migration of foreign compounds from entering the tissues. Turning toward biology as inspiration, it has been the general goal of drug delivery to create carrier strategies that mimic, in part, features of bacteria/ viruses that allow them overcome these barriers. By packaging drugs into nano and micron scale vehicles, it should be possible to completely change the biodistribution and residence times of pharmaceutically active compounds. Recently, due to advances in formulation technologies, it has become possible to control not just the material selection, surface chemistry, and/or size, but also the overall geometry and plasticity of the drug carriers. These approaches aid in the formulation of nonspherical particles such as, discs, rods, and even unique structures such as cubes and nanodiamonds. The adjustment of size and shape can be used for the aid or prevention in cellular uptake and also to overcome the vascular and mucosal barrier. In this review, we present a summary of some approaches used to control carrier shape and the impact these geometries have upon drug transport across biological barriers. PMID:26675218

  7. Mental health care for irregular migrants in Europe: Barriers and how they are overcome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Irregular migrants (IMs) are exposed to a wide range of risk factors for developing mental health problems. However, little is known about whether and how they receive mental health care across European countries. The aims of this study were (1) to identify barriers to mental health care for IMs, and (2) to explore ways by which these barriers are overcome in practice. Methods Data from semi-structured interviews with 25 experts in the field of mental health care for IMs in the capital cities of 14 European countries were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Experts reported a range of barriers to mental health care for IMs. These include the absence of legal entitlements to health care in some countries or a lack of awareness of such entitlements, administrative obstacles, a shortage of culturally sensitive care, the complexity of the social needs of IMs, and their fear of being reported and deported. These barriers can be partly overcome by networks of committed professionals and supportive services. NGOs have become important initial points of contact for IMs, providing mental health care themselves or referring IMs to other suitable services. However, these services are often confronted with the ethical dilemma of either acting according to the legislation and institutional rules or providing care for humanitarian reasons, which involves the risk of acting illegally and providing care without authorisation. Conclusions Even in countries where access to health care is legally possible for IMs, various other barriers remain. Some of these are common to all migrants, whilst others are specific for IMs. Attempts at improving mental health care for IMs should consider barriers beyond legal entitlement, including communicating information about entitlement to mental health care professionals and patients, providing culturally sensitive care and ensuring sufficient resources. PMID:22607386

  8. "Closing the Loop": Overcoming barriers to locally sourcing food in Fort Collins, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a focal point for many communities in recent years, and restaurants are seeking creative ways to become more sustainable. As many chefs realize, sourcing food locally is an important step towards sustainability and towards building a healthy, resilient community. Review of literature on sustainability in restaurants and the local food movement revealed that chefs face many barriers to sourcing their food locally, but that there are also many solutions for overcoming these barriers that chefs are in the early stages of exploring. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify barriers to local sourcing and investigate how some restaurants are working to overcome those barriers in the city of Fort Collins, Colorado. To do this, interviews were conducted with four subjects who guide purchasing decisions for restaurants in Fort Collins. Two of these restaurants have created successful solutions and are able to source most of their food locally. The other two are interested in and working towards sourcing locally but have not yet been able to overcome barriers, and therefore only source a few local items. Findings show that there are four barriers and nine solutions commonly identified by each of the subjects. The research found differences between those who source most of their food locally and those who have not made as much progress in local sourcing. Based on these results, two solution flowcharts were created, one for primary barriers and one for secondary barriers, for restaurants to assess where they are in the local food chain and how they can more successfully source food locally. As there are few explicit connections between this research question and climate change, it is important to consider the implicit connections that motivate and justify this research. The question of whether or not greenhouse gas emissions are lower for locally sourced food is a topic of much debate, and while there are major developments

  9. Designing Caregiver-Implemented Shared-Reading Interventions to Overcome Implementation Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Jessica R.; Damschroder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study presents an application of the theoretical domains framework (TDF; Michie et al., 2005), an integrative framework drawing on behavior-change theories, to speech-language pathology. Methods A multistep procedure was used to identify barriers affecting caregivers' implementation of shared-reading interventions with their children with language impairment (LI). The authors examined caregiver-level data corresponding to implementation issues from two randomized controlled trials and mapped these to domains in the TDF as well as empirically validated behavior-change techniques. Results Four barriers to implementation were identified as potentially affecting caregivers' implementation: time pressures, reading difficulties, discomfort with reading, and lack of awareness of benefits. These were mapped to 3 TDF domains: intentions, beliefs about capabilities, and skills. In turn, 4 behavior-change techniques were identified as potential vehicles for affecting these domains: reward, feedback, model, and encourage. An ongoing study is described that is determining the effects of these techniques for improving caregivers' implementation of a shared-reading intervention. Conclusions A description of the steps to identifying barriers to implementation, in conjunction with an ongoing experiment that will explicitly determine whether behavior-change techniques affect these barriers, provides a model for how implementation science can be used to identify and overcome implementation barriers in the treatment of communication disorders. PMID:26262941

  10. Overcoming Recruitment Barriers in Urban Older Adults Residing in Congregate Living Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Simning, Adam; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Participation of minority older adults in mental health research has been limited by mistrust, transportation difficulties, lack of knowledge, and insufficient community partnership. We describe strategies utilized to overcome these recruitment barriers. Methods. Our target population included 553 public housing residents of older adult high-rise buildings in Rochester, NY. We had a two-stage cross-sectional study: Stage 1 was a health survey for all residents and Stage 2 was a psychiatric interview of English-speaking residents aged 60 years and older. Recruitment occurred through mailings, onsite activities, and resident referrals. Results. Stage 1 had 358 participants (64.7% response) and Stage 2 had 190 (61.6% target population response), with higher participation among African Americans. We found some strategies effective for overcoming recruitment barriers. First, we partnered with a community agency and organized onsite educational activities to improve residents' trust. Second, the study occurred entirely onsite, which facilitated participation of functionally impaired residents. Third, onsite activities allowed the residents to learn about the study and complete surveys in person. Fourth, we provided immediate incentives that resulted in many study referrals. Conclusions. Although recruitment of minority older adults presents unique challenges, a multifaceted community-tailored approach mitigated several recruitment barriers in this mental health study. PMID:26106598

  11. Geothermal(Ground-Source)Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pumps, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in this report along with conclusions and recommendations.

  12. Strategies to overcome the barrier: use of nanoparticles as carriers and modulators of barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Rempe, Ralf; Cramer, Sandra; Qiao, Ruirui; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2014-03-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain from toxic substances within the bloodstream and keeps the brain's homeostasis stable. On the other hand, it also represents the main obstacle in the treatment of many CNS diseases. Among different techniques, nanoparticles have emerged as promising tools to enhance brain drug delivery of therapeutic molecules. For successful drug delivery, nanoparticles may either modulate BBB integrity or exploit transport systems present on the endothelium. In this review, we present two different nanoparticles to enhance brain drug delivery. Poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles were shown to induce a reversible disruption of the BBB in vitro which may be exploited by simultaneous injection of the drug in question. By coating the poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles with, e.g., ApoE, it is also possible to circumvent the BBB via the LDL-receptor. Another example of the use of receptor-mediated endocytosis to enhance brain uptake of nanoparticles are poly(ethylene glycol)-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles which are covalently attached to lactoferrin. These nanoparticles have been shown to facilitate the transport via the lactoferrin receptor, and so could then be used for magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Delivery of nucleic acids for cancer gene therapy: overcoming extra- and intra-cellular barriers.

    PubMed

    McErlean, Emma M; McCrudden, Cian M; McCarthy, Helen O

    2016-09-01

    The therapeutic potential of cancer gene therapy has been limited by the difficulty of delivering genetic material to target sites. Various biological and molecular barriers exist which need to be overcome before effective nonviral delivery systems can be applied successfully in oncology. Herein, various barriers are described and strategies to circumvent such obstacles are discussed, considering both the extracellular and intracellular setting. Development of multifunctional delivery systems holds much promise for the progression of gene delivery, and a growing body of evidence supports this approach involving rational design of vectors, with a unique molecular architecture. In addition, the potential application of composite gene delivery platforms is highlighted which may provide an alternative delivery strategy to traditional systemic administration. PMID:27582234

  14. Overcoming cultural barriers to diabetes control: a qualitative study of southwestern New Mexico Hispanics.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Joanne; Flenniken, Donna

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the impact of cultural barriers on self-management of diabetes among Hispanic participants in LA VIDA (Lifestyle and Values Impact Diabetes Awareness), a diabetes intervention program in southwestern New Mexico. As part of the LA VIDA program evaluation, in depth interviews were conducted with 50 Hispanics who had participated in one or more activities, including diabetes education classes, grocery store tours, and support groups, and who had interacted with promotores (community health workers). LA VIDA participants reported that a sense of empowerment and increased self-efficacy enabled them to overcome cultural barriers related to the traditional Hispanic diet, lack of social support, and denial about having diabetes. PMID:20860336

  15. Overcoming barriers to high performance seismic design using lessons learned from the green building industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glezil, Dorothy

    NEHRP's Provisions today currently governing conventional seismic resistant design. These provisions, though they ensure the life-safety of building occupants, extensive damage and economic losses may still occur in the structures. This minimum performance can be enhanced using the Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering methodology and passive control systems like base isolation and energy dissipation systems. Even though these technologies and the PBEE methodology are effective reducing economic losses and fatalities during earthquakes, getting them implemented into seismic resistant design has been challenging. One of the many barriers to their implementation has been their upfront costs. The green building community has faced some of the same challenges that the high performance seismic design community currently faces. The goal of this thesis is to draw on the success of the green building industry to provide recommendations that may be used overcome the barriers that high performance seismic design (HPSD) is currently facing.

  16. Overcoming Codes and Standards Barriers to Innovations in Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pamala C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2015-02-15

    In this journal article, the authors discuss approaches to overcoming building code barriers to energy-efficiency innovations in home construction. Building codes have been a highly motivational force for increasing the energy efficiency of new homes in the United States in recent years. But as quickly as the codes seem to be changing, new products are coming to the market at an even more rapid pace, sometimes offering approaches and construction techniques unthought of when the current code was first proposed, which might have been several years before its adoption by various jurisdictions. Due to this delay, the codes themselves can become barriers to innovations that might otherwise be helping to further increase the efficiency, comfort, health or durability of new homes. . The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America, a program dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of America’s housing stock through research and education, is working with the U.S. housing industry through its research teams to help builders identify and remove code barriers to innovation in the home construction industry. The article addresses several approaches that builders use to achieve approval for innovative building techniques when code barriers appear to exist.

  17. Overcoming barriers to diabetes care: Perceived communication issues of healthcare professionals attending a pilot Diabetes UK training programme.

    PubMed

    Mosely, Kylie; Aslam, Aysha; Speight, Jane

    2010-02-01

    As part of our evaluation of the Diabetes UK Careline workshop "Overcoming barriers to diabetes care", we received feedback from 18 healthcare professionals. Generally, they felt competent in identifying patients' psychosocial issues but less knowledgeable/skilled in handling them. Lack of time, privacy and support were barriers to addressing patients' psychosocial concerns.

  18. Nanocomplexes for gene therapy of respiratory diseases: Targeting and overcoming the mucus barrier.

    PubMed

    Di Gioia, Sante; Trapani, Adriana; Castellani, Stefano; Carbone, Annalucia; Belgiovine, Giuliana; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Puglisi, Giovanni; Cavallaro, Gennara; Trapani, Giuseppe; Conese, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Gene therapy, i.e. the delivery and expression of therapeutic genes, holds great promise for congenital and acquired respiratory diseases. Non-viral vectors are less toxic and immunogenic than viral vectors, although they are characterized by lower efficiency. However, they have to overcome many barriers, including inflammatory and immune mediators and cells. The respiratory and airway epithelial cells, the main target of these vectors, are coated with a layer of mucus, which hampers the effective reaching of gene therapy vectors carrying either plasmid DNA or small interfering RNA. This barrier is thicker in many lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis. This review summarizes the most important advancements in the field of non-viral vectors that have been achieved with the use of nanoparticulate (NP) systems, composed either of polymers or lipids, in the lung gene delivery. In particular, different strategies of targeting of respiratory and airway lung cells will be described. Then, we will focus on the two approaches that attempt to overcome the mucus barrier: coating of the nanoparticulate system with poly(ethylene glycol) and treatment with mucolytics. Our conclusions are: 1) Ligand and physical targeting can direct therapeutic gene expression in specific cell types in the respiratory tract; 2) Mucopenetrating NPs are endowed with promising features to be useful in treating respiratory diseases and should be now advanced in pre-clinical trials. Finally, we discuss the development of such polymer- and lipid-based NPs in the context of in vitro and in vivo disease models, such as lung cancer, as well as in clinical trials. PMID:26192479

  19. Overcoming Barriers: Adolescents’ Experiences Using a Mobile Phone Dietary Assessment App

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Åsa; Magnusson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of new technology has the potential to increase participation rates in dietary studies and improve the validity of collected dietary data. However, to evaluate the usability of developed dietary methods, qualitative studies of participants’ experiences and perceptions are needed. Objective To explore adolescents’ experiences using a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app, with a focus on factors that could affect their recording of dietary intake. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with 75 participants who had used a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app in a quantitative evaluation study. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and the theoretical framework of Self Determination Theory was applied. Results The adolescents’ use of the mobile phone dietary assessment app was characterized by their struggle to overcome several perceived barriers. Facilitators that helped adolescents complete the method were also identified. Motivation was found to be an important facilitator, and intrinsically motivated participants completed the method because they found it fun to use. The autonomous extrinsically motivated participants completed the method for the greater good, in order to contribute to the study. The controlled extrinsically motivated participants completed the method to get a reward or avoid punishment. Amotivated participants did not complete the method. More motivated participants were assumed to be more able to overcome barriers and needed less facilitators. Conclusions Future studies that examine the recording of food intake should include systematic efforts that aim to minimize identified barriers and promote identified facilitators. Further research should specifically aim at studying methods for (and effects of) increasing intrinsic motivation by supporting autonomy, competence, and relatedness among adolescents asked to participate in dietary studies. PMID:27473462

  20. Nanocomplexes for gene therapy of respiratory diseases: Targeting and overcoming the mucus barrier.

    PubMed

    Di Gioia, Sante; Trapani, Adriana; Castellani, Stefano; Carbone, Annalucia; Belgiovine, Giuliana; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Puglisi, Giovanni; Cavallaro, Gennara; Trapani, Giuseppe; Conese, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Gene therapy, i.e. the delivery and expression of therapeutic genes, holds great promise for congenital and acquired respiratory diseases. Non-viral vectors are less toxic and immunogenic than viral vectors, although they are characterized by lower efficiency. However, they have to overcome many barriers, including inflammatory and immune mediators and cells. The respiratory and airway epithelial cells, the main target of these vectors, are coated with a layer of mucus, which hampers the effective reaching of gene therapy vectors carrying either plasmid DNA or small interfering RNA. This barrier is thicker in many lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis. This review summarizes the most important advancements in the field of non-viral vectors that have been achieved with the use of nanoparticulate (NP) systems, composed either of polymers or lipids, in the lung gene delivery. In particular, different strategies of targeting of respiratory and airway lung cells will be described. Then, we will focus on the two approaches that attempt to overcome the mucus barrier: coating of the nanoparticulate system with poly(ethylene glycol) and treatment with mucolytics. Our conclusions are: 1) Ligand and physical targeting can direct therapeutic gene expression in specific cell types in the respiratory tract; 2) Mucopenetrating NPs are endowed with promising features to be useful in treating respiratory diseases and should be now advanced in pre-clinical trials. Finally, we discuss the development of such polymer- and lipid-based NPs in the context of in vitro and in vivo disease models, such as lung cancer, as well as in clinical trials.

  1. Barriers to Differentiation: Applying Organizational Studies to Ontario Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milian, Roger Pizarro; Davies, Scott; Zarifa, David

    2016-01-01

    Ontario's Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities is currently attempting to increase institutional differentiation within that province's postsecondary education system. We contend that such policies aimed to trigger organizational change are likely to generate unanticipated responses. Using insights from the field of organizational…

  2. Teams, tribes and patient safety: overcoming barriers to effective teamwork in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Weller, Jennifer; Boyd, Matt; Cumin, David

    2014-03-01

    Modern healthcare is delivered by multidisciplinary, distributed healthcare teams who rely on effective teamwork and communication to ensure effective and safe patient care. However, we know that there is an unacceptable rate of unintended patient harm, and much of this is attributed to failures in communication between health professionals. The extensive literature on teams has identified shared mental models, mutual respect and trust and closed-loop communication as the underpinning conditions required for effective teams. However, a number of challenges exist in the healthcare environment. We explore these in a framework of educational, psychological and organisational challenges to the development of effective healthcare teams. Educational interventions can promote a better understanding of the principles of teamwork, help staff understand each other's roles and perspectives, and help develop specific communication strategies, but may not be sufficient on their own. Psychological barriers, such as professional silos and hierarchies, and organisational barriers such as geographically distributed teams, can increase the chance of communication failures with the potential for patient harm. We propose a seven-step plan to overcome the barriers to effective team communication that incorporates education, psychological and organisational strategies. Recent evidence suggests that improvement in teamwork in healthcare can lead to significant gains in patient safety, measured against efficiency of care, complication rate and mortality. Interventions to improve teamwork in healthcare may be the next major advance in patient outcomes.

  3. Barriers to the Uptake of Human-based Test Methods, and How to Overcome Them.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Kathy; Drake, Tamara; Coleman, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Although there is growing concern as to the questionable value of animal-based methods for determining the safety and efficacy of new medicines, which has in turn led to many groups developing innovative human-based methods, there are many barriers to their adoption for regulatory submissions. The reasons for this are various, and include a lack of confidence that the available human-based methods, be they in vivo, in silico or in vitro, can be sufficiently predictive of clinical outcomes. However, this is not the only problem: the issue of validation presents a serious impediment to progress, a particularly frustrating situation, in view of the fact that the existing animal-based methods have never themselves been formally validated. Superimposed upon this is the issue of regulatory requirements, where, although regulators may be willing to accept non-animal approaches in place of particular animal tests, nowhere is this explicitly stated in their guidelines. Such problems are far from trivial, and represent major hurdles to be overcome. In addition, there are a range of other barriers, real or self-imposed, that are hindering a more-predictive approach to establishing a new drug's clinical safety and efficacy profiles. Some of these barriers are identified, and ways forward are suggested.

  4. Physicochemical properties of polymers: An important system to overcome the cell barriers in gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Namvar, Ali; Bolhassani, Azam; Khairkhah, Niloofardokht; Motevalli, Fatemeh

    2015-07-01

    Delivery of the macromolecules including DNA, miRNA, and antisense oligonucleotides is typically mediated by carriers due to the large size and negative charge. Different physical (e.g., gene gun or electroporation), and chemical (e.g., cationic polymer or lipid) vectors have been already used to improve the efficiency of gene transfer. Polymer-based DNA delivery systems have attracted special interest, in particular via intravenous injection with many intra- and extracellular barriers. The recent progress has shown that stimuli-responsive polymers entitled as multifunctional nucleic acid vehicles can act to target specific cells. These nonviral carriers are classified by the type of stimulus including reduction potential, pH, and temperature. Generally, the physicochemical characterization of DNA-polymer complexes is critical to enhance the transfection potency via protection of DNA from nuclease digestion, endosomal escape, and nuclear localization. The successful clinical applications will depend on an exact insight of barriers in gene delivery and development of carriers overcoming these barriers. Consequently, improvement of novel cationic polymers with low toxicity and effective for biomedical use has attracted a great attention in gene therapy. This article summarizes the main physicochemical and biological properties of polyplexes describing their gene transfection behavior, in vitro and in vivo. In this line, the relative efficiencies of various cationic polymers are compared.

  5. Peptide modules for overcoming barriers of nucleic acids transport to cells.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Anna A; Kiselev, Anton V

    2016-01-01

    Absence of safe and efficient methods of nucleic acids delivery is one of the major issues which limits the development of human gene therapy. Highly efficient viral vectors raise questions due to safety reasons. Among non-viral vectors peptide-based carriers can be considered as good candidates for the development of "artificial viruses"--multifunctional polyplexes that mimic viruses. Suggested strategy to obtain multifunctionality is to combine several peptide modules into one modular carrier. Different kinds of peptide modules are needed for successful overcoming barriers of nucleic acids transport into the cells. Design of such modules and establishment of structure-function relationships are issues of importance to researchers working in the field of nucleic acids delivery.

  6. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pamala C.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building America program implemented a new Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) Team in 2013. The Team’s mission is to assist Building America (BA) research teams and partners in identifying and resolving conflicts between Building America innovations and the various codes and standards that govern the construction of residences. A CSI Roadmap was completed in September, 2013. This guidance document was prepared using the information in the CSI Roadmap to provide BA research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America (BA) innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods. For more information on the BA CSI team, please email: CSITeam@pnnl.gov

  7. Can security-enhancing interventions overcome psychological barriers to responsiveness in couple relationships?

    PubMed

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Bar-On, Naama

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that both dispositional and experimentally enhanced attachment security facilitate compassion and altruism. Here we report findings from a laboratory experiment, replicated in two countries (Israel and the United States), testing the hypotheses that (a) increased security (accomplished through subliminal priming) fosters caregiving behavior toward a romantic partner who discloses a personal problem, and (b) this increased security overcomes barriers to responsiveness induced by mental depletion. We gathered data on participants' attachment insecurities, randomly assigned them to one of four mental depletion (yes, no) and priming (security, neutral) conditions, and coded their behavior in an interaction with their romantic partner who was disclosing a personal problem. Dispositional attachment insecurities and manipulated mental depletion adversely affected caregiving, but security priming overrode the detrimental effects of both mental depletion and attachment insecurity in both Israel and the United States.

  8. Cronobacter sakazakii clinical isolates overcome host barriers and evade the immune response.

    PubMed

    Almajed, Faisal S; Forsythe, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is the most frequently clinically isolated species of the Cronobacter genus. However the virulence factors of C. sakazakii including their ability to overcome host barriers remains poorly studied. In this study, ten clinical isolates of C. sakazakii were assessed for their ability to invade and translocate through human colonic carcinoma epithelial cells (Caco-2) and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Their ability to avoid phagocytosis in human macrophages U937 and human brain microglial cells was investigated. Additionally, they were tested for serum sensitivity and the presence of the Cronobacter plasminogen activation gene (cpa) gene, which is reported to confer serum resistance. Our data showed that the clinical C. sakazakii strains invaded and translocated through Caco-2 and HBMEC cell lines and some strains showed significantly higher levels of invasion and translocation. Moreover, C. sakazakii was able to persist and even multiply in phagocytic macrophage and microglial cells. All strains, except one, were able to withstand human serum exposure, the single serum sensitive strain was also the only one which did not encode for the cpa gene. These results demonstrate that C. sakazakii clinical isolates are able to overcome host barriers and evade the host immune response indicating their capacity to cause diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and meningitis. Our data showed for the first time the ability of C. sakazakii clinical isolates to survive and multiply within human microglial cells. Additionally, it was shown that C. sakazakii clinical strains have the capacity to translocate through the Caco-2 and HBMEC cell lines paracellularly.

  9. Overcoming Barriers in Kidney Health-Forging a Platform for Innovation.

    PubMed

    Linde, Peter G; Archdeacon, Patrick; Breyer, Matthew D; Ibrahim, Tod; Inrig, Jula K; Kewalramani, Reshma; Lee, Celeste Castillo; Neuland, Carolyn Y; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Sloand, James A; Meyer, Rachel; Smith, Kimberly A; Snook, Jennifer; West, Melissa; Falk, Ronald J

    2016-07-01

    Innovation in kidney diseases is not commensurate with the effect of these diseases on human health and mortality or innovation in other key therapeutic areas. A primary cause of the dearth in innovation is that kidney diseases disproportionately affect a demographic that is largely disenfranchised, lacking sufficient advocacy, public attention, and funding. A secondary and likely consequent cause is that the existing infrastructure supporting nephrology research pales in comparison with those for other internal medicine specialties, especially cardiology and oncology. Citing such inequities, however, is not enough. Changing the status quo will require a coordinated effort to identify and redress the existing deficits. Specifically, these deficits relate to the need to further develop and improve the following: understanding of the disease mechanisms and pathophysiology, patient engagement and activism, clinical trial infrastructure, and investigational clinical trial designs as well as coordinated efforts among critical stakeholders. This paper identifies potential solutions to these barriers, some of which are already underway through the Kidney Health Initiative. The Kidney Health Initiative is unique and will serve as a current and future platform from which to overcome these barriers to innovation in nephrology.

  10. Highly compacted biodegradable DNA nanoparticles capable of overcoming the mucus barrier for inhaled lung gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Mastorakos, Panagiotis; da Silva, Adriana L; Chisholm, Jane; Song, Eric; Choi, Won Kyu; Boyle, Michael P; Morales, Marcelo M; Hanes, Justin; Suk, Jung Soo

    2015-07-14

    Gene therapy has emerged as an alternative for the treatment of diseases refractory to conventional therapeutics. Synthetic nanoparticle-based gene delivery systems offer highly tunable platforms for the delivery of therapeutic genes. However, the inability to achieve sustained, high-level transgene expression in vivo presents a significant hurdle. The respiratory system, although readily accessible, remains a challenging target, as effective gene therapy mandates colloidal stability in physiological fluids and the ability to overcome biological barriers found in the lung. We formulated highly stable DNA nanoparticles based on state-of-the-art biodegradable polymers, poly(β-amino esters) (PBAEs), possessing a dense corona of polyethylene glycol. We found that these nanoparticles efficiently penetrated the nanoporous and highly adhesive human mucus gel layer that constitutes a primary barrier to reaching the underlying epithelium. We also discovered that these PBAE-based mucus-penetrating DNA nanoparticles (PBAE-MPPs) provided uniform and high-level transgene expression throughout the mouse lungs, superior to several gold standard gene delivery systems. PBAE-MPPs achieved robust transgene expression over at least 4 mo following a single administration, and their transfection efficiency was not attenuated by repeated administrations, underscoring their clinical relevance. Importantly, PBAE-MPPs demonstrated a favorable safety profile with no signs of toxicity following intratracheal administration.

  11. Understanding and Overcoming Barriers to Upper Limb Surgical Reconstruction After Tetraplegia: The Need for Interdisciplinary Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Punj, Vandana; Curtin, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately 300,000 persons with spinal cord injury living in the United States, and nearly 60% of these persons have suffered tetraplegia with resultant alterations in body function, activity, and therefore participation. Restoring hand function can improve independence, and various studies have shown that persons with tetraplegia rate restoration of arm and hand function higher than bowel and bladder control, walking, or sexuality. There are conservative options to improve upper limb function in this population (eg, orthoses, neuroprostheses). Surgical interventions are also available, and 70% of surgical patients report satisfaction and improvement in various activities of daily living after surgery to restore arm and hand function. Despite these positive surgical outcomes, <10% of the eligible population of 60% to 70% undergo tendon transfer surgery to restore function. Underutilization of surgical interventions can be explained by population-, provider-, and health care systems-specific barriers. With further education of providers and patients and team building across disciplines these barriers can be overcome, ultimately leading to reduced disability and improved quality of life for persons with tetraplegia. PMID:27233595

  12. Creating sustainable local health information exchanges: can barriers to stakeholder participation be overcome?

    PubMed

    Grossman, Joy M; Kushner, Kathryn L; November, Elizabeth A

    2008-02-01

    Local health information exchanges (HIEs) hold the promise of collecting patient clinical data across sites of care to provide more complete and timely information for treatment, as well as supporting quality improvement and reporting, public health activities, and clinical research. Findings from a study of stakeholder perspectives on participation in four HIEs by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) and the National Institute for Health Care Management (NIHCM) Foundation suggest, however, that barriers to achieving data exchange remain high. Concerns about loss of competitive advantage and data misuse impede provider and health plan willingness to contribute patient data. Additionally, uncertainty about who benefits from HIEs is affecting stakeholder willingness to fund the exchanges. The more mature exchanges--Cincinnati-based HealthBridge and the Indiana Health Information Exchange (IHIE)--have achieved some viability by meeting a specific business need--more efficient delivery of hospital test results to physicians. The newer exchanges--CareSpark, serving northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia, and the Tampa Bay Regional Health Information Organization (RHIO)--have struggled to identify and finance initial services without a similar critical mass of hospital participation. While narrow data exchange efforts that improve transaction efficiency may be a pragmatic first step to overcome barriers to stakeholder participation, expanding HIEs to achieve the broad-based data exchange necessary for quality reporting and pay-for-performance (P4P) activities raises more challenges.

  13. Electrical, magnetic, photomechanical and cavitational waves to overcome skin barrier for transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin Wui

    2014-11-10

    Transdermal drug delivery is hindered by the barrier property of the stratum corneum. It limits the route to transport of drugs with a log octanol-water partition coefficient of 1 to 3, molecular weight of less than 500Da and melting point of less than 200°C. Active methods such as iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, magnetophoresis and laser techniques have been investigated for the past decades on their ability, mechanisms and limitations in modifying the skin microenvironment to promote drug diffusion and partition. Microwave, an electromagnetic wave characterized by frequencies range between 300MHz and 300GHz, has recently been reported as the potential skin permeation enhancer. Microwave has received a widespread application in food, engineering and medical sectors. Its potential use to facilitate transdermal drug transport is still in its infancy stage of evaluation. This review provides an overview and update on active methods utilizing electrical, magnetic, photomechanical and cavitational waves to overcome the skin barrier for transdermal drug administration with insights into mechanisms and future perspectives of the latest microwave technique described.

  14. Evidence for Health II: Overcoming barriers to using evidence in policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Andermann, Anne; Pang, Tikki; Newton, John N; Davis, Adrian; Panisset, Ulysses

    2016-03-14

    Even the highest quality evidence will have little impact unless it is incorporated into decision-making for health. It is therefore critical to overcome the many barriers to using evidence in decision-making, including (1) missing the window of opportunity, (2) knowledge gaps and uncertainty, (3) controversy, irrelevant and conflicting evidence, as well as (4) vested interests and conflicts of interest. While this is certainly not a comprehensive list, it covers a number of main themes discussed in the knowledge translation literature on this topic, and better understanding these barriers can help readers of the evidence to be more savvy knowledge users and help researchers overcome challenges to getting their evidence into practice. Thus, the first step in being able to use research evidence for improving population health is ensuring that the evidence is available at the right time and in the right format and language so that knowledge users can take the evidence into consideration alongside a multitude of other factors that also influence decision-making. The sheer volume of scientific publications makes it difficult to find the evidence that can actually help inform decisions for health. Policymakers, especially in low- and middle-income countries, require context-specific evidence to ensure local relevance. Knowledge synthesis and dissemination of policy-relevant local evidence is important, but it is still not enough. There are times when the interpretation of the evidence leads to various controversies and disagreements, which act as barriers to the uptake of evidence. Research evidence can also be influenced and misused for various aims and agendas. It is therefore important to ensure that any new evidence comes from reliable sources and is interpreted in light of the overall body of scientific literature. It is not enough to simply produce evidence, nor even to synthesize and package evidence into a more user-friendly format. Particularly at the policy

  15. Evidence for Health II: Overcoming barriers to using evidence in policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Andermann, Anne; Pang, Tikki; Newton, John N; Davis, Adrian; Panisset, Ulysses

    2016-01-01

    Even the highest quality evidence will have little impact unless it is incorporated into decision-making for health. It is therefore critical to overcome the many barriers to using evidence in decision-making, including (1) missing the window of opportunity, (2) knowledge gaps and uncertainty, (3) controversy, irrelevant and conflicting evidence, as well as (4) vested interests and conflicts of interest. While this is certainly not a comprehensive list, it covers a number of main themes discussed in the knowledge translation literature on this topic, and better understanding these barriers can help readers of the evidence to be more savvy knowledge users and help researchers overcome challenges to getting their evidence into practice. Thus, the first step in being able to use research evidence for improving population health is ensuring that the evidence is available at the right time and in the right format and language so that knowledge users can take the evidence into consideration alongside a multitude of other factors that also influence decision-making. The sheer volume of scientific publications makes it difficult to find the evidence that can actually help inform decisions for health. Policymakers, especially in low- and middle-income countries, require context-specific evidence to ensure local relevance. Knowledge synthesis and dissemination of policy-relevant local evidence is important, but it is still not enough. There are times when the interpretation of the evidence leads to various controversies and disagreements, which act as barriers to the uptake of evidence. Research evidence can also be influenced and misused for various aims and agendas. It is therefore important to ensure that any new evidence comes from reliable sources and is interpreted in light of the overall body of scientific literature. It is not enough to simply produce evidence, nor even to synthesize and package evidence into a more user-friendly format. Particularly at the policy

  16. Let's not contribute to disparities: the best methods for teaching clinicians how to overcome language barriers to health care.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa C; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2010-05-01

    Clinicians should be educated about how language barriers contribute to disparities for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). However, educators must avoid developing educational interventions that increase health disparities for LEP patients. For example, studies suggest that teaching "Medical Spanish" or related courses may actually contribute to health care disparities if clinicians begin using these non-English language skills inappropriately with patients. We discuss the risks and benefits of teaching specific cultural competence skills and make evidence-based recommendations for the teaching content and methods for educational interventions focused on overcoming language barriers in health care. At minimum, we suggest such interventions include: (1) the role of language barriers in health disparities, (2) means of overcoming language barriers, (3) how to work with interpreters, (4) identifying and fixing problems in interpreted encounters, and (5) appropriate and safe use of one's own limited non-English language skills.

  17. Overcoming Barriers to Eye Care: Patient Response to a Medical Social Worker in a Glaucoma Service.

    PubMed

    Fudemberg, Scott J; Amarasekera, Dilru C; Silverstein, Marlee H; Linder, Kathryn M; Heffner, Paul; Hark, Lisa A; Waisbourd, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the patient response to a medical social worker in a glaucoma clinic. The literature suggests that medical social workers are effective in a variety of health care settings, yet the efficacy of a medical social worker in an adult ophthalmic setting has not been studied. We present the results of a retrospective chart review of 50 patients with glaucoma referred to a medical social worker between January 5, 2015 and June 31, 2015 in an outpatient clinic of an urban eye hospital. Clinical and demographic data, as well as the data from a quality of care questionnaire, were collected for each patient. Patients rated their interaction with the medical social worker as highly positive (mean = 4.75, 5-point Likert scale), and nearly 90 % of patients expressed interest in future contact with the social worker. Additionally, most patients reported that the social worker resolved the issues they were facing (61.1 %), supported them in seeing their ophthalmologist (70.6 %), and helped them to manage their glaucoma (69.7 %). Reported barriers to glaucoma care were emotional distress; cost of office visits and medications; lack of medical insurance; transportation; poor medication adherence; impairment of daily activities; follow-up adherence; and language. As vision loss from glaucoma is irreversible, it is important to detect and treat patients at early stages of the disease. Therefore, it is imperative for patients to regularly visit their eye care providers and adhere to treatment and follow-up recommendations. This study suggests that a medical social worker could play a pivotal role in helping patients with glaucoma overcome barriers to treatment and facilitate disease management. PMID:26860278

  18. Overcoming the Barrier on Time Step Size in Multiscale Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Molecular Liquids.

    PubMed

    Omelyan, Igor P; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2012-01-10

    We propose and validate a new multiscale technique, the extrapolative isokinetic Nóse-Hoover chain orientational (EINO) motion multiple time step algorithm for rigid interaction site models of molecular liquids. It nontrivially combines the multiple time step decomposition operator method with a specific extrapolation of intermolecular interactions, complemented by an extended isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain approach in the presence of translational and orientational degrees of freedom. The EINO algorithm obviates the limitations on time step size in molecular dynamics simulations. While the best existing multistep algorithms can advance from a 5 fs single step to a maximum 100 fs outer step, we show on the basis of molecular dynamics simulations of the TIP4P water that our EINO technique overcomes this barrier. Specifically, we have achieved giant time steps on the order of 500 fs up to 5 ps, which now become available in the study of equilibrium and conformational properties of molecular liquids without a loss of stability and accuracy.

  19. Translating Research to Practice: Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Effective Off-Campus Party Intervention. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on overcoming barriers in implementing effective off-campus party intervention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Confronting the Problems Associated With Off-Campus Parties With Evidence-Based Strategies (John D. Clapp); (2) Overview of Research on Effective Off-Campus Party…

  20. Overcoming Relationship-Initiation Barriers: The Impact of a Computer-Dating System on Sex Role, Shyness, and Appearance Inhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharlott, Bradford W.; Christ, William G.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of the users of an online computer-mediated matchmaking service showed that their communication patterns and objectives varied by their sex, shyness level, and appearance. Intrinsic aspects of this system helped some users overcome relationship-initiation barriers rooted in sex role, shyness, and appearance inhibitions. (Author)

  1. All Health Plans Need CLAMS: Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Materials for Diverse Populations Can Overcome Language Barriers to Effective Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra; Gonzales, Virginia

    2000-01-01

    CLAMs are "Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Materials" designed for diverse populations to help them overcome language barriers to effective treatment. The demographic shift underway in the United States is making the country more linguistically diverse. Health plans need to accommodate this shift, because without information patients…

  2. Overcoming the Fundamental Barrier Thickness Limits of Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions through BaTiO3/SrTiO3 Composite Barriers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingfei; Cho, Myung Rae; Shin, Yeong Jae; Kim, Jeong Rae; Das, Saikat; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Chung, Jin-Seok; Noh, Tae Won

    2016-06-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) have attracted increasing research interest as a promising candidate for nonvolatile memories. Recently, significant enhancements of tunneling electroresistance (TER) have been realized through modifications of electrode materials. However, direct control of the FTJ performance through modifying the tunneling barrier has not been adequately explored. Here, adding a new direction to FTJ research, we fabricated FTJs with BaTiO3 single barriers (SB-FTJs) and BaTiO3/SrTiO3 composite barriers (CB-FTJs) and reported a systematic study of FTJ performances by varying the barrier thicknesses and compositions. For the SB-FTJs, the TER is limited by pronounced leakage current for ultrathin barriers and extremely small tunneling current for thick barriers. For the CB-FTJs, the extra SrTiO3 barrier provides an additional degree of freedom to modulate the barrier potential and tunneling behavior. The resultant high tunability can be utilized to overcome the barrier thickness limits and enhance the overall CB-FTJ performances beyond those of SB-FTJ. Our results reveal a new paradigm to manipulate the FTJs through designing multilayer tunneling barriers with hybrid functionalities.

  3. Overcoming the Meter Barrier and The Formation of Systems with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boley, Aaron C.; Morris, Melissa A.; Ford, Eric B.

    2014-11-01

    The Kepler space mission has revealed numerous planetary types and systems, shaping our understanding of planet formation. Among the quickly-growing data is a subclass of multi-planet configurations referred to as Systems with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs). Their large abundance (>10% of stars) suggests that they are one of the principal outcomes of planet formation. The prototype STIP is Kepler-11, which hosts six known transiting planets, five of which have measured masses in the super-Earth and mini-Neptune regimes. The known planetary orbits in this system are spaced between a=0.09 and 0.47 AU, with small eccentricities and mutual inclinations. The lack of low-order mean motion resonances among planets in STIPs suggests that migration may have not played a dominant role in placing all of these planets on short orbital periods. While the formation of massive planetary systems on the hot side of the water ice line may be difficult to reconcile under the current paradigm of planet formation, we must explore whether many STIP planets formed by and large in situ. We discuss an overlooked mechanism that may allow the in situ formation of planetary systems on very short orbital periods. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can reduce net evaporation of incoming material, which could promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth and overcoming the classic meter barrier.

  4. Nanoparticles decorated with proteolytic enzymes, a promising strategy to overcome the mucus barrier.

    PubMed

    Pereira de Sousa, Irene; Cattoz, Beatrice; Wilcox, Matthew D; Griffiths, Peter C; Dalgliesh, Robert; Rogers, Sarah; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The intestinal mucus gel layer represents a stumbling block for drug adsorption. This study is aimed to formulate a nanoparticulate system able to overcome this barrier by cleaving locally the glycoprotein substructures of the mucus. Mucolytic enzymes such as papain (PAP) and bromelain (BRO) were covalently conjugated to poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). Nanoparticles (NPs) were then formulated via ionic gelation method and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, enzyme content and enzymatic activity. The NPs permeation quantified by rotating tube studies was correlated with changes in the mucus gel layer structure determined by pulsed-gradient-spin-echo NMR (PGSE-NMR), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and spin-echo SANS (SESANS). PAP and BRO functionalized NPs had an average size in the range of 250 and 285 nm and a zeta potential that ranged between -6 and -5 mV. The enzyme content was 242 μg enzyme/mg for PAP modified NPs and 253 μg enzyme/mg for BRO modified NPs. The maintained enzymatic activity was 43% for PAP decorated NPs and 76% for BRO decorated NPs. The rotating tube technique revealed a better performance of BRO decorated NPs compared to PAA decorated NPs, with a 4.8-fold higher concentration of NPs in the inner slice of mucus. Addition of 0.5 wt% of enzyme functionalized NPs to 5 wt% intestinal mucin led to c.a. 2-fold increase in the mobility of the mucin as measured by PGSE-NMR indicative of a significant break-up of the structure of the mucin. SANS and SESANS measurements further revealed a change in structure of the intestinal mucus induced by the incorporation of the functionalized NPs mostly occurring at a length scale longer than 0.5 μm. Accordingly, BRO decorated NPs show higher potential than PAP functionalized NPs as mucus permeating drug delivery systems.

  5. Can Self-Prediction Overcome Barriers to Hepatitis B Vaccination? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Anthony D.; Cox, Dena; Cyrier, Rosalie; Graham-Dotson, Yolanda; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a serious public health problem, due in part to low vaccination rates among high-risk adults, many of whom decline vaccination because of barriers such as perceived inconvenience or discomfort. This study evaluates the efficacy of a self-prediction intervention to increase HBV vaccination rates among high-risk adults. Method Randomized controlled trial of 1175 adults recruited from three STD clinics in the United States over 28 months. Participants completed an audio-computer-assisted self-interview (A-CASI), which presented information about HBV infection and vaccination, and measured relevant beliefs, behaviors and demographics. Half of participants were assigned randomly to a "self-prediction" intervention, asking them to predict their future acceptance of HBV vaccination. The main outcome measure was subsequent vaccination behavior. Other measures included perceived barriers to HBV vaccination, measured prior to the intervention. Results There was a significant interaction between the intervention and vaccination barriers, indicating the effect of the intervention differed depending on perceived vaccination barriers. Among high-barriers patients, the intervention significantly increased vaccination acceptance. Among low-barrier patients, the intervention did not influence vaccination acceptance. Conclusions The self-prediction intervention significantly increased vaccination acceptance among "high-barriers" patients, who typically have very low vaccination rates. This brief intervention could be a useful tool in increasing vaccine uptake among high-barriers patients. PMID:21875205

  6. Proposal for a university-community-hospice partnership to address organizational barriers to cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Reese, Dona J

    2011-02-01

    Models of culturally competent hospice services have been developed, but they are not generally being used. This article describes a participatory action research project which is addressing organizational barriers to cultural competence through a university-community-hospice partnership. The intervention plan is to develop a connection with the African American community, increasing community knowledge, and hospice staff cultural competence through a social work student field placement. It is hoped that, if successful, this model will be replicated to address the problem of African American utilization and access to hospice.

  7. Energy management action plan: Developing a strategy for overcoming institutional barriers to municipal energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Energy offices working to improve efficiency of local government facilities face not only technical tasks, but institutional barriers, such as budget structures that do not reward efficiency, a low awareness of energy issues, and purchasing procedures based only on minimizing initial cost. The bureau, in working to remove such barriers in San Francisco, has identified 37 institutional barriers in areas such as operations & maintenance, purchasing, and facility design; these barriers were then reorganized into three groupings-- policy & attitudes, budget & incentives, and awareness & information-- and mapped. This map shows that the barriers mutually reinforce each other, and that a holistic approach is required for permanent change. The city`s recreation & parks department was used as a model department, and information about facility energy use was compiled into a departmental energy review. Staff interviews showed how barriers affect conservation. The bureau then generated ideas for projects to remove specific barriers and rated them according to potential impact and the resources required to implement them. Four of the six projects selected focused on maintenance staff: a cost- sharing lighting retrofit program, a boiler efficiency program, a departmental energy tracking system, and a budgetary incentive program for conservation. The other two projects are city-wide: promotion of a new term contract supplying energy-efficient light materials, and publication/distribution of ENERGY NEWS newsletter. A general methodology, the EMAP Strategy Guide, has been created to assist other energy offices in developing EMAPs.

  8. Principles of nanoparticle design for overcoming biological barriers to drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Elvin; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Biological barriers to drug transport prevent successful accumulation of nanotherapeutics specifically at diseased sites, limiting efficacious responses in disease processes ranging from cancer to inflammation. Although substantial research efforts have aimed to incorporate multiple functionalities and moieties within the overall nanoparticle design, many of these strategies fail to adequately address these barriers. Obstacles, such as nonspecific distribution and inadequate accumulation of therapeutics, remain formidable challenges to drug developers. A reimagining of conventional nanoparticles is needed to successfully negotiate these impediments to drug delivery. Site-specific delivery of therapeutics will remain a distant reality unless nanocarrier design takes into account the majority, if not all, of the biological barriers that a particle encounters upon intravenous administration. By successively addressing each of these barriers, innovative design features can be rationally incorporated that will create a new generation of nanotherapeutics, realizing a paradigmatic shift in nanoparticle-based drug delivery. PMID:26348965

  9. Tailored interventions to overcome identified barriers to change: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard; Camosso-Stefinovic, Janette; Gillies, Clare; Shaw, Elizabeth J; Cheater, Francine; Flottorp, Signe; Robertson, Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Background In the previous version of this review, the effectiveness of interventions tailored to barriers to change was found to be uncertain. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change on professional practice or patient outcomes. Search methods For this update, in addition to the EPOC Register and pending files, we searched the following databases without language restrictions, from inception until August 2007: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, BNI and HMIC. We searched the National Research Register to November 2007. We undertook further searches to October 2009 to identify potentially eligible published or ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions tailored to address prospectively identified barriers to change that reported objectively measured professional practice or healthcare outcomes in which at least one group received an intervention designed to address prospectively identified barriers to change. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently assessed quality and extracted data. We undertook quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analyses had two elements. We carried out a meta-regression to compare interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change with either no interventions or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers.We carried out heterogeneity analyses to investigate sources of differences in the effectiveness of interventions. These included the effects of: risk of bias, concealment of allocation, rigour of barrier analysis, use of theory, complexity of interventions, and the reported presence of administrative constraints. Main results We included 26 studies comparing an intervention tailored to address identified barriers to change to no intervention or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers. The effect sizes of these studies varied both across and within studies. Twelve studies provided

  10. Defining and overcoming barriers between Euro-American chaplains and African American families.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This article describes various communication barriers between Euro-American chaplains and African American families which prevent effective spiritual care. These barriers include covert and deeply internalized racism, belief in false ideologies, persistent stereotyping, and being unaware of white privilege. Proposes potential solutions of acknowledging ones own race; becoming sensitive to the history and continuing oppression of Euro-Americans toward African Americans; building multicultural competence through education; and building equal-status relationships with African American individuals.

  11. 'We do the impossible': women overcoming barriers to cervical cancer screening in rural Honduras--a positive deviance analysis.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Jenna J; Barrington, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in Honduras, and sexual behaviour and low screening uptake are two major factors contributing to high rates of morbidity and mortality. A qualitative study was conducted to investigate barriers that prevent rural Honduran women from engaging in screening and ways that women overcome those barriers. This study examined examples of positive deviance, or individuals engaging in the uncommon but beneficial practise of screening. Amor por sí misma (self-love), and social support were identified as two constructs women employed to overcome barriers to screening. Participants defined self-love as the act of displaying care and concern for oneself and one's health and suggested that it compels women to participate in screening. Social support was defined as receiving tangible aid and advice from others that facilitated women's screening participation. Findings suggest that the concept of self-love could be used in future screening promotion efforts and that integrating social support would also be beneficial. Engaging men in sexual and reproductive health programming is suggested in order to ensure male partners offer social support for screening and to challenge the cultural, gender and sexual norms that place women at higher risk for cervical cancer.

  12. Ground-Source Heat Pumps. Overview of Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Options for Overcoming Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Lisle, Heather; Burgos, Javier

    2009-02-03

    February 2009 final report submitted to DOE by Navigant Consulting, Inc. This report summarizes the status of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology and market penetration globally, estimates the energy saving potential of GSHPs in the U.S., identifies key market barriers that are inhibiting wider market adoption of GSHPs, and recommends initiatives that can be implemented or facilitated by the DOE to accelerate market adoption.

  13. Department of Defense transformation: Organizational barriers to commercial product use in aerospace projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellenzer, Sally Jean

    Over the past decade, the benefits of using commercial products in Department of Defense (DOD) projects have become evident. As a result, the DOD has been mandated to incorporate technology from the private sector by the increased use of commercially available products when feasible. This significant organizational transformation not only includes the adoption of new technologies, but also a new business philosophy. These changes have come slowly and have been problematic. This inductive study seeks to determine the organizational barriers that have prevented this new business concept from being incorporated to a greater extent than it has been to date. Based on the comparison of two Earth orbiting satellite ground control facilities; each with identical operational requirements, but built using different technologies, contract and management types, analysis on commercial product incorporation has been performed. Additionally, qualitative interview data from government procurement personnel and commercial vendors as well as data from DOD documents was collected and analyzed. Findings suggest that a misaligned reward system, entrenched networks, and historical precedent are the primary organizational impediments to adopting this significant change in business philosophy.

  14. Overcoming Barriers for Displaced Homemakers in Nontraditional Occupations. A Manual of Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    This manual examines problems the displaced homemaker encounters on the job and offers strategies which vocational educators, counselors, and other service providers can suggest to nontraditional students for overcoming these problems. A brief overview of the displaced homemaker is provided and the term "nontraditional occupation" is defined. An…

  15. Overcoming the barrier of narrative adherence in conflicts through awareness of the psychological bias of naïve realism.

    PubMed

    Nasie, Meytal; Bar-Tal, Daniel; Pliskin, Ruthie; Nahhas, Eman; Halperin, Eran

    2014-11-01

    One significant socio-psychological barrier for peaceful resolution of conflicts is each party's adherence to its own collective narrative. We hypothesized that raising awareness to the psychological bias of naïve realism and its identification in oneself would provide a path to overcoming this barrier, thus increasing openness to the adversary's narrative. We conducted three experimental studies in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Studies 1 and 2, conducted among Jewish Israelis and Palestinian Israelis, respectively, revealed that participants with hawkish political ideology reported greater openness to the adversary's narrative when they were made aware of naïve realism bias. Study 3 revealed that hawkish participants at the baseline adhered to the ingroup narrative and resisted the adversary's narrative more than dovish participants. They were also more able to identify the bias in themselves upon learning about it. This identification may explain why the manipulation led to bias correction only among hawkish participants.

  16. Overcoming Barriers to the Sexual Expression of Women with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Jennifer; Christian, LeeAnn; Dotson, Lori Ann

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses barriers to sexual fulfillment faced by women with developmental disabilities, including: access to gynecological healthcare, limited choices regarding reproductive issues, lack of sex education, and prevailing negative stereotypes that affect the way women are viewed by others and the way they view themselves.…

  17. Designing Caregiver-Implemented Shared-Reading Interventions to Overcome Implementation Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Logan, Jessica R.; Damschroder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents an application of the theoretical domains framework (TDF; Michie et al., 2005), an integrative framework drawing on behavior-change theories, to speech-language pathology. Methods: A multistep procedure was used to identify barriers affecting caregivers' implementation of shared-reading interventions with their…

  18. At-Risk Students Defy the Odds: Overcoming Barriers to Educational Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Rosa

    The phenomenon of educational resilience in at-risk students involves complex questions and answers. Seven people were interviewed whose lives are chronicled in the context of surviving and achieving despite significant barriers to success in life. They encountered common hindrances arising from poverty, racial and ethnic identity, isolation,…

  19. Strategies for Overcoming Barriers to Training and Education for Canadians with Disabilities. Lessons in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    If stronger skills and more education are key to greater labour force participation, then it is important to identify critical barriers to education and training for Canadians with disabilities. In 2008, the Canadian Council on Learning's Adult Learning Knowledge Centre funded a "Community Outreach Initiative for Learner's with Disabilities" that…

  20. Strategies for overcoming the blood-brain barrier for the treatment of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jethro; Kesari, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    The era of targeted therapy for cancer has been punctuated by some resounding successes, but with few exceptions, metastases to the brain remain frustratingly difficult to treat. It is increasingly apparent that old concerns regarding the ability of therapeutic agents to penetrate the blood-brain barrier have not been brushed aside by high-affinity small-molecule kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Indeed, illustrative trends, such as the increasing incidence of brain metastases from HER2(+) breast cancer since the advent of trastuzumab therapy, have helped to solidify the concept of the CNS as a sanctuary site for cancer. With 200,000 patients diagnosed with brain metastases in the USA each year, the therapeutic challenge posed by the blood-brain barrier continues to be a big problem.

  1. Overcoming Barriers to the Market Access of Biosimilars in the European Union: The Case of Biosimilar Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Moorkens, Evelien; Jonker-Exler, Clara; Huys, Isabelle; Declerck, Paul; Simoens, Steven; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2014, six of the top ten blockbuster medicines were monoclonal antibodies. This multibillion-dollar market with expiring patents is the main driver for the development of biosimilar mAbs. With the ever-increasing cost of healthcare and the economic pressure to reduce or sustain healthcare expenses, biosimilars could be instrumental in reducing costs for medication and increasing patient access to treatment. Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify and describe the barriers to market access of biosimilar mAbs in the European Union and to analyze how these barriers could be overcome. Methods: A narrative literature review was carried out using the databases PubMed, Embase, and EconLit. Studies were published in English or Dutch. Additionally, the reference list of the articles was checked for relevant studies. Articles and conference papers known to the authors were included as well. Articles were also identified by searching on the website of the Generics and Biosimilars Initiative (GaBI) journal. Results: Six barriers were identified based on available literature: The manufacturing process, the regulatory process, intellectual property rights, lack of incentive, the impossibility of substitution, and the innovator's reach. These six barriers are presented as a possible framework to study the market access of biosimilar mAbs. Based on the literature search, recommendations can be made to overcome these barriers: (i) invest initially in advanced production processes with the help of single-use technology, experience or outsourcing (ii) gain experience with the regulatory process and establish alignment between stakeholders (iii) limit patent litigation, eliminate evergreening benefits, build out further the unitary patent and unified patent litigation system within the EU (iv) create demand-side policies, disseminate objective information (v) change attitude toward biosimilar switching/substitution, starting with physician, and patient

  2. Overcoming barriers to the mobilisation of patients in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, S; Chapman, M J; Edwards, S; Stiller, K

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a quality improvement project aimed at increasing the frequency of mobilisation in our ICU. We designed a four-part quality improvement project comprising: an audit documenting the baseline frequency of mobilisation; a staff survey evaluating perceptions of the barriers to mobilisation; identification of barriers that were amenable to change and implementation of strategies to address these; and a follow-up audit to determine their effectiveness. The setting was a tertiary care, urban, public hospital ICU in South Australia. All patients admitted to the ICU during the two audit periods were included in the audits, while all permanent/semi-permanent ICU staff were eligible for inclusion in the staff survey. We found that patient- and institution-related factors had the greatest impact on the mobilisation of patients in our ICU. Barriers identified as being amenable to change included insufficient staff education about the benefits of mobilisation, poor interdisciplinary communication and lack of leadership regarding mobilisation. Various strategies were implemented to address these barriers over a three-month period. Multivariable analyses showed that three out of four mobility outcomes did not significantly change between the baseline and follow-up audits, with a significant difference in favour of the baseline audit found for the fourth mobility outcome (maximum level of mobility). We concluded that implementing relatively simple measures to improve staff education, interdisciplinary communication and leadership regarding early progressive mobilisation was ineffective at improving mobility outcomes for patients in a large tertiary-level Australian ICU. Other strategies, such as changing sedation practices and/or increasing staffing, may be required to improve mobility outcomes of these patients. PMID:26603796

  3. Overcoming the Barrier Treatment of Ichthyosis: A Combination-therapy Approach.

    PubMed

    Bellew, Susun; Del Rosso, James Q

    2010-07-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris is an inherited disorder of keratinization that results in asteatotic scales on extensor surfaces of the arm, legs, and trunk. A combination-therapy approach with a physiological lipid-based barrier repair topical emulsion and ammonium lactate 12% lotion applied topically was shown to be effective at four-week follow up without any untoward side effects. This combination therapy addresses the importance of caring for both the corneocytes ("bricks") and the intercellular lipid bilayer ("mortar") for optimal benefit.

  4. Overcoming barriers to the mobilisation of patients in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, S; Chapman, M J; Edwards, S; Stiller, K

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a quality improvement project aimed at increasing the frequency of mobilisation in our ICU. We designed a four-part quality improvement project comprising: an audit documenting the baseline frequency of mobilisation; a staff survey evaluating perceptions of the barriers to mobilisation; identification of barriers that were amenable to change and implementation of strategies to address these; and a follow-up audit to determine their effectiveness. The setting was a tertiary care, urban, public hospital ICU in South Australia. All patients admitted to the ICU during the two audit periods were included in the audits, while all permanent/semi-permanent ICU staff were eligible for inclusion in the staff survey. We found that patient- and institution-related factors had the greatest impact on the mobilisation of patients in our ICU. Barriers identified as being amenable to change included insufficient staff education about the benefits of mobilisation, poor interdisciplinary communication and lack of leadership regarding mobilisation. Various strategies were implemented to address these barriers over a three-month period. Multivariable analyses showed that three out of four mobility outcomes did not significantly change between the baseline and follow-up audits, with a significant difference in favour of the baseline audit found for the fourth mobility outcome (maximum level of mobility). We concluded that implementing relatively simple measures to improve staff education, interdisciplinary communication and leadership regarding early progressive mobilisation was ineffective at improving mobility outcomes for patients in a large tertiary-level Australian ICU. Other strategies, such as changing sedation practices and/or increasing staffing, may be required to improve mobility outcomes of these patients.

  5. Overcoming barriers in care for the dying: Theoretical analysis of an innovative program model.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Cara L

    2016-08-01

    This article explores barriers to end-of-life (EOL) care (including development of a death denying culture, ongoing perceptions about EOL care, poor communication, delayed access, and benefit restrictions) through the theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism (SI), and applies general systems theory (GST) to a promising practice model appropriate for addressing these barriers. The Compassionate Care program is a practice model designed to bridge gaps in care for the dying and is one example of a program offering concurrent care, a recent focus of evaluation though the Affordable Care Act. Concurrent care involves offering curative care alongside palliative or hospice care. Additionally, the program offers comprehensive case management and online resources to enrollees in a national health plan (Spettell et al., 2009).SI and GST are compatible and interrelated theories that provide a relevant picture of barriers to end-of-life care and a practice model that might evoke change among multiple levels of systems. These theories promote insight into current challenges in EOL care, as well as point to areas of needed research and interventions to address them. The article concludes with implications for policy and practice, and discusses the important role of social work in impacting change within EOL care.

  6. Zelda overcomes the high intrinsic nucleosome barrier at enhancers during Drosophila zygotic genome activation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujia; Nien, Chung-Yi; Chen, Kai; Liu, Hsiao-Yun; Johnston, Jeff; Zeitlinger, Julia; Rushlow, Christine

    2015-11-01

    The Drosophila genome activator Vielfaltig (Vfl), also known as Zelda (Zld), is thought to prime enhancers for activation by patterning transcription factors (TFs). Such priming is accompanied by increased chromatin accessibility, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly understood. Here, we analyze the effect of Zld on genome-wide nucleosome occupancy and binding of the patterning TF Dorsal (Dl). Our results show that early enhancers are characterized by an intrinsically high nucleosome barrier. Zld tackles this nucleosome barrier through local depletion of nucleosomes with the effect being dependent on the number and position of Zld motifs. Without Zld, Dl binding decreases at enhancers and redistributes to open regions devoid of enhancer activity. We propose that Zld primes enhancers by lowering the high nucleosome barrier just enough to assist TFs in accessing their binding motifs and promoting spatially controlled enhancer activation if the right patterning TFs are present. We envision that genome activators in general will utilize this mechanism to activate the zygotic genome in a robust and precise manner.

  7. Pathogen population bottlenecks and adaptive landscapes: overcoming the barriers to disease emergence.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Jemma L; Senior, Alistair M; Holmes, Edward C

    2016-08-31

    Emerging diseases are a major challenge to public health. Revealing the evolutionary processes that allow novel pathogens to adapt to new hosts, also the potential barriers to host adaptation, is central to understanding the drivers of disease emergence. In particular, it is unclear how the genetics and ecology of pathogens interact to shape the likelihood of successful cross-species transmission. To better understand the determinants of host adaptation and emergence, we modelled key aspects of pathogen evolutionary dynamics at both intra- and inter-host scales, using parameter values similar to those observed in influenza virus. We considered the possibility of acquiring the necessary host adaptive mutations both before ('off-the-shelf' emergence) and after ('tailor-made' emergence) a virus is transmitted from a donor to a new recipient species. Under both scenarios, population bottlenecks at inter-host transmission act as a major barrier to host adaptation, greatly limiting the number of adaptive mutations that are able to cross the species barrier. In addition, virus emergence is hindered if the fitness valley between the donor and recipient hosts is either too steep or too shallow. Overall, our results reveal where in evolutionary parameter space a virus could adapt to and become transmissible in a new species. PMID:27581875

  8. Overcoming barriers in care for the dying: Theoretical analysis of an innovative program model.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Cara L

    2016-08-01

    This article explores barriers to end-of-life (EOL) care (including development of a death denying culture, ongoing perceptions about EOL care, poor communication, delayed access, and benefit restrictions) through the theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism (SI), and applies general systems theory (GST) to a promising practice model appropriate for addressing these barriers. The Compassionate Care program is a practice model designed to bridge gaps in care for the dying and is one example of a program offering concurrent care, a recent focus of evaluation though the Affordable Care Act. Concurrent care involves offering curative care alongside palliative or hospice care. Additionally, the program offers comprehensive case management and online resources to enrollees in a national health plan (Spettell et al., 2009).SI and GST are compatible and interrelated theories that provide a relevant picture of barriers to end-of-life care and a practice model that might evoke change among multiple levels of systems. These theories promote insight into current challenges in EOL care, as well as point to areas of needed research and interventions to address them. The article concludes with implications for policy and practice, and discusses the important role of social work in impacting change within EOL care. PMID:27332743

  9. Enhanced Oral Delivery of Protein Drugs Using Zwitterion-Functionalized Nanoparticles to Overcome both the Diffusion and Absorption Barriers.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wei; Zhu, Xi; Tao, Wei; Cui, Yi; Liu, Min; Wu, Lei; Li, Lian; Zheng, Yaxian; Huang, Yuan

    2016-09-28

    Oral delivery of protein drugs based on nanoparticulate delivery system requires permeation of the nanoparticles through the mucus layer and subsequent absorption via epithelial cells. However, overcoming these two barriers requires very different or even contradictory surface properties of the nanocarriers, which greatly limits the oral bioavailability of macromolecular drugs. Here we report a simple zwitterions-based nanoparticle (NP) delivery platform, which showed a great potency in simultaneously overcoming both the mucus and epithelium barriers. The dense and hydrophilic coating of zwitterions endows the NPs with excellent mucus penetrating ability. Moreover, the zwitterions-based NPs also possessed excellent affinity with epithelial cells, which significantly improved (4.5-fold) the cellular uptake of DLPC NPs, compared to PEGylated NPs. Our results also indicated that this affinity was due to the interaction between zwitterions and the cell surface transporter PEPT1. Moreover, the developed NPs loaded with insulin could induce a prominent hypoglycemic response in diabetic rats following oral administration. These results suggest that zwitterions-based NPs might provide a new perspective for oral delivery of protein therapeutics.

  10. AccessAbility: Overcoming Information Barriers. Proceedings from the 1987 Spring Meeting of the Nebraska Library Association, College and University Section (Omaha, Nebraska, May 29, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kacena, Barbara J., Ed.

    Various aspects of the theme, "AccessAbility: Overcoming Information Barriers," are considered in the conference papers collected in this document. They include: (1) "The Library Image: A Barrier to Accessibility" (Janice S. Boyer); (2) "The Educationally Disadvantaged Student: How Can the Library Help?" (Michael Poma and Richard Jehlik); (3)…

  11. [Overcoming language barriers with telephone interpreters: first experiences at a German children's hospital].

    PubMed

    Langer, Thorsten; Wirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Language barriers in the care for patients with limited German language proficiency contribute to impaired quality of care, more frequent medical errors and decreased patient satisfaction. However, professional interpreters are not systematically used in Germany. We conducted a pilot study in a German paediatric hospital to explore the demand for an interpreter by conducting a survey among parents and to test the use of telephone interpreters. Eight percent of the respondents said they were interested in interpreter support. All physicians and parents using a telephone interpreter were very satisfied with the quality and the organisation of the service.

  12. "Take your own path": minority leaders encountering and overcoming barriers in cultural community centers.

    PubMed

    Flores, Kevin Lynn; Matkin, Gina Sue

    2014-01-01

    Minority leaders face workplace issues not experienced by white leaders including lack of support, discrimination, racism, and stereotyping. The purpose of this study was to explore how racial/ethnic minority leaders encountered and overcame barriers as leaders of cultural community centers. Three racial/ethnic minority executive directors of cultural community centers located in a Midwestern city were interviewed and their responses were hand-coded to develop themes. Six themes emerged from this process: finding "inspiration", "developing thick skin", "stereotypes", "damage from within", "take your path", and "hope". Their stories help us understand the complexities of inter-racial relations in the workplace.

  13. Overcoming barriers to addressing education problems with research design: a panel discussion.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Lalena M; Gruppen, Larry D; Hamstra, Stanley J; Anders Ericsson, K; Cook, David A

    2012-12-01

    A plenary panel session at the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Education Research in Emergency Medicine: Opportunities, Challenges, and Strategies for Success" discussed barriers educators face in imagining, designing, and implementing studies to address educational challenges. This proceedings article presents a general approach to getting started in education research. Four examples of studies from the medical education literature that illustrate a distinct way to approach specific research questions are discussed. The study designs used are applicable to a variety of education research problems in emergency medicine (EM). Potential applications of studies are discussed, as well as effects and lessons learned.

  14. OVERCOMING THE METER BARRIER AND THE FORMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH TIGHTLY PACKED INNER PLANETS (STIPs)

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Ford, E. B.

    2014-09-10

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly packed Inner Planets discovered by the NASA Kepler Mission.

  15. Behavioral training and AIDS risk reduction: overcoming barriers to condom use.

    PubMed

    Weisse, C S; Turbiasz, A A; Whitney, D J

    1995-02-01

    To assess the short- and long-term effects of an AIDS-prevention workshop on undergraduates' attitudes about condom use and AIDS, 31 participants and 31 controls were studied immediately after training sessions as well as three months later. The workshop was aimed at reducing embarrassment to purchase condoms, encouraging positive attitudes about condoms, and promoting knowledge about AIDS. To help students overcome their embarrassment over condom purchases, a behavioral intervention was included allowing students to make condom purchases at nearby drug stores. Results revealed that participants reported less embarrassment over condom purchases after training sessions and that this effect became even stronger over time. Knowledge about AIDS and positive attitudes about condoms also increased immediately after the workshop, but these changes did not persist. Results suggest that AIDS prevention workshops may lead to transient changes unless a specific skill (i.e., condom purchasing) is targeted via behavioral training.

  16. Overcoming barriers to health-care access: A qualitative study among African migrants in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lavinia; Brown, Katherine B; Hall, Brian J; Yu, Fan; Yang, Jingqi; Wang, Jason; Schrock, Joshua M; Bodomo, Adams B; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Nehl, Eric J; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Frank Y

    2016-10-01

    Guangzhou is China's third most populous city, and the region's burgeoning manufacturing economy has attracted many young African businessmen and entrepreneurs to the city. The aims of this study were to examine strategies that African migrants in Guangzhou have adopted in response to health-care barriers, and explore their perceptions of how to address their needs. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were conducted among African migrants residing in Guangzhou, China. Facing multiple barriers to care, African migrants have adopted a number of suboptimal and unsustainable approaches to access health care. These included: using their Chinese friends or partners as interpreters, self-medicating, using personal connections to medical doctors, and travelling to home countries or countries that offer English-speaking doctors for health care. Health-care providers and health organisations in Guangzhou have not yet acquired sufficient cultural competence to address the needs of African migrants residing in the city. Introducing linguistically and culturally competent health-care services in communities concentrated with African migrants may better serve the population. With the growing international migration to China, it is essential to develop sustainable approaches to improving health-care access for international migrants, particularly those who are marginalised.

  17. Overcoming Workplace Barriers: A Focus Group Study Exploring African American Mothers' Needs for Workplace Breastfeeding Support

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Angela Marie; Kirk, Rosalind; Muzik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Persistent racial disparities in breastfeeding show that African American women breastfeed at the lowest rates. Return to work is a critical breastfeeding barrier for African American women who return to work sooner than other ethnic groups and more often encounter unsupportive work environments. They also face psychosocial burdens that make breastfeeding at work uniquely challenging. Participants share personal struggles with combining paid employment and breastfeeding and suggest workplace and personal support strategies that they believe will help continue breastfeeding after a return to work. Objective To explore current perspectives on ways to support African American mothers' workplace breastfeeding behavior. Methods Pregnant African American women (n = 8), African American mothers of infants (n = 21), and lactation support providers (n = 9) participated in 1 of 6 focus groups in the Greater Detroit area. Each focus group audiotape was transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to inductively analyze focus group transcripts and field notes. Focus groups explored thoughts, perceptions, and behavior on interventions to support African American women's breastfeeding. Results Participants indicate that they generally believed breastfeeding was a healthy option for the baby; however, paid employment is a critical barrier to successful breastfeeding for which mothers receive little help. Participants felt breastfeeding interventions that support working African American mothers should include education and training for health care professionals, regulation and enforcement of workplace breastfeeding support policies, and support from peers who act as breastfeeding role models. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to support breastfeeding among working African American women. PMID:25714345

  18. Overcoming barriers to health-care access: A qualitative study among African migrants in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lavinia; Brown, Katherine B; Hall, Brian J; Yu, Fan; Yang, Jingqi; Wang, Jason; Schrock, Joshua M; Bodomo, Adams B; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Nehl, Eric J; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Frank Y

    2016-10-01

    Guangzhou is China's third most populous city, and the region's burgeoning manufacturing economy has attracted many young African businessmen and entrepreneurs to the city. The aims of this study were to examine strategies that African migrants in Guangzhou have adopted in response to health-care barriers, and explore their perceptions of how to address their needs. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were conducted among African migrants residing in Guangzhou, China. Facing multiple barriers to care, African migrants have adopted a number of suboptimal and unsustainable approaches to access health care. These included: using their Chinese friends or partners as interpreters, self-medicating, using personal connections to medical doctors, and travelling to home countries or countries that offer English-speaking doctors for health care. Health-care providers and health organisations in Guangzhou have not yet acquired sufficient cultural competence to address the needs of African migrants residing in the city. Introducing linguistically and culturally competent health-care services in communities concentrated with African migrants may better serve the population. With the growing international migration to China, it is essential to develop sustainable approaches to improving health-care access for international migrants, particularly those who are marginalised. PMID:26400191

  19. Work–life initiatives and organizational change: Overcoming mixed messages to move from the margin to the mainstream

    PubMed Central

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Lewis, Suzan; Hammer, Leslie B

    2011-01-01

    This article examines perspectives on employer work–life initiatives as potential organizational change phenomena. Work–life initiatives address two main organizational challenges: structural (flexible job design, human resource policies) and cultural (supportive supervisors, climate) factors. While work–life initiatives serve a purpose in highlighting the need for organizational adaptation to changing relationships between work, family, and personal life, we argue they usually are marginalized rather than mainstreamed into organizational systems. We note mixed consequences of work–life initiatives for individuals and organizations.While they may enable employees to manage work and caregiving, they can increase work intensification and perpetuate stereotypes of ideal workers. In order to advance the field, organizations and scholars need to frame both structural and cultural work–life changes as part of the core employment systems to enhance organizational effectiveness and not just as strategies to support disadvantaged, non-ideal workers. We conclude with an overview of the articles in this special issue. PMID:22021934

  20. Learning from the best: Overcoming barriers to reforms-based elementary science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banchi, Heather May

    This study explored the characteristics of elementary science teachers who employ reforms-based practices. Particular attention was paid to the consistency of teachers' practices and their beliefs, the impact of professional development experiences on practices, and how teachers mitigated barriers to reforms-based instruction. Understanding how successful elementary science teachers develop fills a gap in the science reforms literature. Participants included 7 upper elementary science teachers from six different schools. All schools were located within two suburban school districts in the south-Atlantic United States and data was collected during the spring of 2008. Data collection included use of the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to evaluate the level of reforms-based instruction, as well as 35 hours of classroom observation field notes and 21 hours of audio-taped teacher interviews. The variety of data sources allowed for triangulation of evidence. The RTOP was analyzed using descriptive statistics and classroom observations and interview data were analyzed using Erickson's (1986) guidelines for analytic induction. Findings indicated (a) reforms-based elementary science teaching was attainable, (b) beliefs and practices were consistent and both reflected reforms-based philosophies and practices, (c) formal professional development experiences were limited and did not foster reforms-based practices, (d) informal professional development pursued by teachers had a positive impact on practices, (e) barriers to reforms-based instruction were present but mitigated by strong beliefs and practical strategies like curriculum integration. These findings suggest that there are common, salient characteristics of reforms-based teachers' beliefs, practices, and professional development experiences. These commonalities contribute to an understanding of how reforms-based teachers develop, and inform efforts to move all elementary teachers in the direction of

  1. Exploring ways to overcome barriers to mammography uptake and retention among South Asian immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farah; Jandu, Barinder; Albagli, Andrea; Angus, Jan E; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2013-01-01

    South Asians comprise one of the fastest growing immigrant groups in North America. Evidence indicates that South Asian (SA) immigrant women are vulnerable to low rates of breast cancer screening. Yet, there is a dearth of knowledge pertaining to socioculturally tailored strategies to guide the uptake of screening mammography in the SA community. In 2010, the authors conducted semi-structured focus groups (FG) to elicit perspectives of health and social service professionals on possible solutions to barriers identified by SA immigrant women in a recent study conducted in the Greater Toronto Area. Thirty-five health and social services staff members participated in five FG. The discussions were audio taped and detailed field notes were taken. All collected data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted using techniques of constant comparison within and across the group discussions. Three dominant themes were identified: (i) 'Target and Tailor' focused on awareness raising through multiple direct and indirect modes or approaches with underlying shared processes of involving men and the whole family, use of first language and learning from peers; (ii) 'Enhancing Access to Services' included a focus on 'adding ancillary services' and 'reinforcement of existing services' including expansion to a one-stop model; and (iii) 'Meta-Characteristics' centred on providing 'multi-pronged' approaches to reach the community, and 'sustainability' of initiatives by addressing structural barriers of adequate funding, healthcare provider mix, inter-sectoral collaboration and community voice. The findings simultaneously shed light on the grassroot practical strategies and the system level changes to develop efficient programmes for the uptake of mammography among SA immigrant women. The parallel focus on the 'Target and Tailor' and 'Enhancing Access to Services' calls for co-ordination at the policy level so that multiple sectors work jointly to streamline resources

  2. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen-consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  3. Mucosal Vaccination Overcomes the Barrier to Recombinant Vaccinia Immunization Caused by Preexisting Poxvirus Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, Igor M.; Moss, Bernard; Strober, Warren; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    1999-04-01

    Overcoming preexisting immunity to vaccinia virus in the adult population is a key requirement for development of otherwise potent recombinant vaccinia vaccines. Based on our observation that s.c. immunization with vaccinia induces cellular and antibody immunity to vaccinia only in systemic lymphoid tissue and not in mucosal sites, we hypothesized that the mucosal immune system remains naive to vaccinia and therefore amenable to immunization with recombinant vaccinia vectors despite earlier vaccinia exposure. We show that mucosal immunization of vaccinia-immune BALB/c mice with recombinant vaccinia expressing HIV gp160 induced specific serum antibody and strong HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. These responses occurred not only in mucosal but also in systemic lymphoid tissue, whereas systemic immunization was ineffective under these circumstances. In this context, intrarectal immunization was more effective than intranasal immunization. Boosting with a second dose of recombinant vaccinia was also more effective via the mucosal route. The systemic HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response was enhanced by coadministration of IL-12 at the mucosal site. These results also demonstrate the independent compartmentalization of the mucosal versus systemic immune systems and the asymmetric trafficking of lymphocytes between them. This approach to circumvent previous vaccinia immunity may be useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in the sizable populations with preexisting immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination.

  4. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  5. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen-consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power.

  6. Research dedicated to children: SwissPedNet with its international links overcomes key barriers to proper research in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Pascale; Frey, Urs; Nadal, David

    2014-01-01

    Conducting clinical studies in the paediatric population is complex and difficult. Paediatricians deal with a vulnerable population, which primarily needs protection and where patient numbers are always low. In addition, the pharmaceutical industry often demonstrates lack of interest due to the small and non-rewarding market. Public awareness for the need of paediatric research is likewise limited. This results in lack of funding for academic studies. In Switzerland, there is a new initiative that strives to overcome the given barriers and hurdles. SwissPedNet is still in a start-up phase, but it is now ready for all collaborations of interest and keen to work together with all stakeholders on the medical progress and improvement of paediatric clinical research with the overall goal of implementing evidence-based medicine for our children (www.swisspednet.ch).

  7. Obtaining family consent for participation in Alzheimer's research in a Cuban-American population: strategies to overcome the barriers.

    PubMed

    Williams, C L; Tappen, R; Buscemi, C; Rivera, R; Lezcano, J

    2001-01-01

    Cultural values and beliefs affect family attitudes toward participation in research. Significant resistance to allowing their elders with dementia to participate in clinical research was encountered in Cuban-American families. These families expressed concern about disturbing the elder's comfort (tranquilidad) and solitude (soledad). Furthermore, most believed that intervention would be futile. Feelings of guilt associated with nursing home placement may have been exacerbated by the suggestion that active intervention could be effective. Strategies to overcome these barriers included reduced emphasis on the potential superiority of the intervention to be tested, reassurance that contact with research staff was usually appreciated by participants, arrangements to talk with the family as a group about the study, and increased use of Spanish-language consent forms. PMID:11398568

  8. Obtaining family consent for participation in Alzheimer's research in a Cuban-American population: strategies to overcome the barriers.

    PubMed

    Williams, C L; Tappen, R; Buscemi, C; Rivera, R; Lezcano, J

    2001-01-01

    Cultural values and beliefs affect family attitudes toward participation in research. Significant resistance to allowing their elders with dementia to participate in clinical research was encountered in Cuban-American families. These families expressed concern about disturbing the elder's comfort (tranquilidad) and solitude (soledad). Furthermore, most believed that intervention would be futile. Feelings of guilt associated with nursing home placement may have been exacerbated by the suggestion that active intervention could be effective. Strategies to overcome these barriers included reduced emphasis on the potential superiority of the intervention to be tested, reassurance that contact with research staff was usually appreciated by participants, arrangements to talk with the family as a group about the study, and increased use of Spanish-language consent forms.

  9. Pregnancy options counseling for adolescents: overcoming barriers to care and preserving preference.

    PubMed

    Dobkin, Loren M; Perrucci, Alissa C; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Current clinical guidelines for counseling adolescent patients about their pregnancy options fail to give concrete suggestions for how to begin and hold conversations that support patient autonomy, provide accurate and unbiased information, and address barriers to care. Recent research suggests that relative to adult women, adolescents are at increased risk of being denied abortion because they present beyond facilities' gestational age limits. Counseling that neglects to address the structural and developmental challenges that adolescents face when seeking care may contribute to the risk of abortion denial as well as subsequent delays in prenatal care. The task of providing non-directive, patient-centered, evidence-based pregnancy options counseling to an adolescent while ensuring that she receives her chosen course of care in a timely manner is challenging. This article presents a shared decision-making framework and specific suggestions for healthcare providers to support adolescent patients in coming to their decision about whether to continue or terminate an unplanned pregnancy and access follow-up care within the current sociopolitical environment.

  10. 'Fit to fly': overcoming barriers to preoperative haemoglobin optimization in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Gómez-Ramírez, S; Kozek-Langeneker, S; Shander, A; Richards, T; Pavía, J; Kehlet, H; Acheson, A G; Evans, C; Raobaikady, R; Javidroozi, M; Auerbach, M

    2015-07-01

    In major surgery, the implementation of multidisciplinary, multimodal and individualized strategies, collectively termed Patient Blood Management, aims to identify modifiable risks and optimise patients' own physiology with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes. Among the various strategies utilized in Patient Blood Management, timely detection and management of preoperative anaemia is most important, as it is in itself a risk factor for worse clinical outcome, but also one of the strongest predisposing factors for perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion, which in turn increases postoperative morbidity, mortality and costs. However, preoperative anaemia is still frequently ignored, with indiscriminate allogeneic blood transfusion used as a 'quick fix'. Consistent with reported evidence from other medical specialties, this imprudent practice continues to be endorsed by non-evidence based misconceptions, which constitute serious barriers for a wider implementation of preoperative haemoglobin optimisation. We have reviewed a number of these misconceptions, which we unanimously consider should be promptly abandoned by health care providers and replaced by evidence-based strategies such as detection, diagnosis and proper treatment of preoperative anaemia. We believe that this approach to preoperative anaemia management may be a viable, cost-effective strategy that is beneficial both for patients, with improved clinical outcomes, and for health systems, with more efficient use of finite health care resources.

  11. Nanoparticle-mediated brain drug delivery: Overcoming blood-brain barrier to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Cláudia; Praça, Catarina; Ferreira, Raquel; Santos, Tiago; Ferreira, Lino; Bernardino, Liliana

    2016-08-10

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a vital boundary between neural tissue and circulating blood. The BBB's unique and protective features control brain homeostasis as well as ion and molecule movement. Failure in maintaining any of these components results in the breakdown of this specialized multicellular structure and consequently promotes neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In several high incidence pathologies such as stroke, Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) the BBB is impaired. However, even a damaged and more permeable BBB can pose serious challenges to drug delivery into the brain. The use of nanoparticle (NP) formulations able to encapsulate molecules with therapeutic value, while targeting specific transport processes in the brain vasculature, may enhance drug transport through the BBB in neurodegenerative/ischemic disorders and target relevant regions in the brain for regenerative processes. In this review, we will discuss BBB composition and characteristics and how these features are altered in pathology, namely in stroke, AD and PD. Additionally, factors influencing an efficient intravenous delivery of polymeric and inorganic NPs into the brain as well as NP-related delivery systems with the most promising functional outcomes will also be discussed.

  12. OVERCOMING BARRIERS To DIVERSITY IN CHIROPRACTIC PATIENT AND PRACTITIONER POPULATIONS: A COMMENTARY.

    PubMed

    Young, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the diversity of practitioner and patient populations has been identified as a worthy goal in the chiropractic profession, which has predominantly white male practitioners and white female patients in the USA. Toward that end, 'diversity' has been the topic of several papers and was the theme of a 2012 conference of chiropractic educators. However, generally just the microcosm of the interactions of practitioners with patients or teachers with students has been discussed. The macrocosm of larger societal issues and government policies has not been broached. Examples of issues and policies that affect diversity within a profession include portrayals of, and value judgements on diversity by the media and politicians, as well as public funding for healthcare and education. Diversity was defined in this paper to mean differences in race, sex, sexual orientation, economic status, ethnicity, religion and other life circumstances in a population. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of evidence that social issues and government policy affect the diversity of practitioners and patients, and to suggest that the barriers to diversity present in these realms be addressed with a cogent, profession-wide effort in order to help increase the diversity of people involved with chiropractic. PMID:26647486

  13. OVERCOMING BARRIERS To DIVERSITY IN CHIROPRACTIC PATIENT AND PRACTITIONER POPULATIONS: A COMMENTARY.

    PubMed

    Young, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the diversity of practitioner and patient populations has been identified as a worthy goal in the chiropractic profession, which has predominantly white male practitioners and white female patients in the USA. Toward that end, 'diversity' has been the topic of several papers and was the theme of a 2012 conference of chiropractic educators. However, generally just the microcosm of the interactions of practitioners with patients or teachers with students has been discussed. The macrocosm of larger societal issues and government policies has not been broached. Examples of issues and policies that affect diversity within a profession include portrayals of, and value judgements on diversity by the media and politicians, as well as public funding for healthcare and education. Diversity was defined in this paper to mean differences in race, sex, sexual orientation, economic status, ethnicity, religion and other life circumstances in a population. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of evidence that social issues and government policy affect the diversity of practitioners and patients, and to suggest that the barriers to diversity present in these realms be addressed with a cogent, profession-wide effort in order to help increase the diversity of people involved with chiropractic.

  14. 'Fit to fly': overcoming barriers to preoperative haemoglobin optimization in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Gómez-Ramírez, S; Kozek-Langeneker, S; Shander, A; Richards, T; Pavía, J; Kehlet, H; Acheson, A G; Evans, C; Raobaikady, R; Javidroozi, M; Auerbach, M

    2015-07-01

    In major surgery, the implementation of multidisciplinary, multimodal and individualized strategies, collectively termed Patient Blood Management, aims to identify modifiable risks and optimise patients' own physiology with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes. Among the various strategies utilized in Patient Blood Management, timely detection and management of preoperative anaemia is most important, as it is in itself a risk factor for worse clinical outcome, but also one of the strongest predisposing factors for perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion, which in turn increases postoperative morbidity, mortality and costs. However, preoperative anaemia is still frequently ignored, with indiscriminate allogeneic blood transfusion used as a 'quick fix'. Consistent with reported evidence from other medical specialties, this imprudent practice continues to be endorsed by non-evidence based misconceptions, which constitute serious barriers for a wider implementation of preoperative haemoglobin optimisation. We have reviewed a number of these misconceptions, which we unanimously consider should be promptly abandoned by health care providers and replaced by evidence-based strategies such as detection, diagnosis and proper treatment of preoperative anaemia. We believe that this approach to preoperative anaemia management may be a viable, cost-effective strategy that is beneficial both for patients, with improved clinical outcomes, and for health systems, with more efficient use of finite health care resources. PMID:26089443

  15. Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-02-01

    Both the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies--in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market--could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary (automotive) and secondary (electricity grid) users. This study investigates the feasibility of and major barriers to the second use of lithium-ion PEV batteries by posing and answering the following critical B2U questions: 1. When will used automotive batteries become available, and how healthy will they be? 2. What is required to repurpose used automotive batteries, and how much will it cost? 3. How will repurposed automotive batteries be used, how long will they last, and what is their value? Advanced analysis techniques are employed that consider the electrical, thermal, and degradation response of batteries in both the primary (automotive) and secondary service periods. Second use applications are treated in detail, addressing operational requirements, economic value, and market potential. The study concludes that B2U is viable and could provide considerable societal benefits due to the large possible supply of repurposed automotive batteries and substantial remaining battery life following automotive service. However, the only identified secondary market large enough to consume the supply of these batteries (utility peaker plant replacement) is expected to be a low margin market, and thus B2U is not expected to affect the upfront cost of PEVs.

  16. Applying Risk Science and Stakeholder Engagement to Overcome Environmental Barriers to Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Anderson, Richard M.; Van Cleve, Frances B.

    2010-09-20

    The production of electricity from the moving waters of the ocean has the potential to be a viable addition to the portfolio of renewable energy sources worldwide. The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) industry faces many hurdles, including technology development, challenges of offshore deployments, and financing; however, the barrier most commonly identified by industry, regulators, and stakeholders is the uncertainty surrounding potential environmental effects of devices placed in the water and the permitting processes associated with real or potential impacts. Regulatory processes are not well positioned to judge the severity of harm due to turbines or wave generators. Risks from MHK devices to endangered or protected animals in coastal waters and rivers, as well as the habitats that support them, are poorly understood. This uncertainty raises concerns about catastrophic interactions between spinning turbine blades or slack mooring lines and marine mammals, birds and fish. In order to accelerate the deployment of tidal and wave devices, there is a need to sort through the extensive list of potential interactions that may cause harm to marine organisms and ecosystems, to set priorities for regulatory triggers, and to direct future research. Identifying the risk of MHK technology components on specific marine organisms and ecosystem components can separate perceived from real risk-relevant interactions. Scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are developing an Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES) to assess environmental effects associated with MHK technologies and projects through a systematic analytical process, with specific input from key stakeholder groups. The array of stakeholders interested in the development of MHK is broad, segmenting into those whose involvement is essential for the success of the MHK project, those that are influential, and those that are interested. PNNL and their partners have engaged these groups, gaining

  17. Performance of some new Niño3.4 predictors at overcoming the spring predictability barrier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, Tasambay-Salazar; Jose, Ortizbevia Maria; Francisco Jose, Alvarez-Garcia; Antonio, Ruizdeelvira

    2016-04-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon is the main source of predictability skill in many regions of the world, at seasonal and interannual timescales. Improving ENSO understanding and forecast skill is still one of the main goals of the international seasonal forecast programs. A common feature found in ENSO forecast is the skill predictability barrier, that is the skill drop for forecast across the spring season. In this study ENSO variability is represented by the Niño3.4 Index. Here we will use different seasonal linear stochastic models to test the performance of some new ENSO predictors at overcoming the spring predictability barrier. The benchmarkt is the performance scored by the same predictive scheme when the variables are those of a basic equatorial model representing the 'recharge-discharge' oscillator paradigm. Some of the new predictors, like the Tropical South Atlantic Index, the Tropical North Atlantic Index, the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode or the Pacific Meridional Model have been pointed at by recent studies. Additionally, we propose two new predictors, that take into account the zonal sea surface temperature gradients across the tropical Pacific, the North Tropical Pacific Zonal Gradient and the South Tropical Pacific Zonal Gradient Indexes. We intercompare the performance of the new predictors, by introducing them, one at a time, in a simple, three variables, stochastic predictive scheme. For some seasons and lags, the differences between the skill scored by some of the models that include one of these predictors are important. However, these are diminished when a Full Stochastic Mode set-up is adopted. References. Tasambay Salazar, M.; Ortiz Beviá, M. J.; Alvarez García, F. J.; Ruiz de Elvira Serra, A. The Niño3.4 region predictability beyond the persistence barrier. Tellus A. 2015, 67. doi: 10.3402/tellusa.v67.27457,

  18. The use of inhibitory agents to overcome the enzymatic barrier to perorally administered therapeutic peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    1998-03-01

    The peroral administration of peptide drugs is a major challenge to pharmaceutical science. In order to provide a sufficient bioavailability of these therapeutic agents after oral dosing, several barriers encountered with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract have to be overcome by a suitable galenic. One of these barriers is caused by proteolytic enzymes, leading to a severe presystemic degradation in the GI tract. Besides some other strategies to overcome the so-called enzymatic barrier, the use of inhibitory agents has gained considerable scientific interest, as various in vivo studies could demonstrate a significantly improved bioavailability of therapeutic peptides and proteins, due to the co-administration of such excipients. In vitro techniques to evaluate the actual potential of inhibitory agents incubation with pure proteases, freshly collected gastric or intestinal fluids, mucosal homogenates, brush border vesicles and freshly excised mucosa. In situ techniques are based on single-pass perfusion studies cannulating different intestinal segments and determining the amount of undegraded model drug in perfusion solutions or blood. For in vivo studies, insulin is mostly used as a model drug, offering the advantage of a well-established method to evaluate the biological response after oral dosing by determining the decrease in blood glucose level. Generally, inhibitory agents can be divided into: inhibitors which are not based on amino acids (I), such as p-aminobenzamidine, FK-448 and camostat mesilate; amino acids and modified amino acids (II), such acid derivatives; peptides and modified peptides (III), e.g. bacitracin, antipain, chymostatin and amastatin; and polypeptide protease inhibitors (IV), e.g. aprotinin, Bowman-Birk inhibitor and soybean trypsin inhibitor. Furthermore, complexing agents and some mucoadhesive polymers also display enzyme inhibitory activity. Drawbacks of inhibitory agents, such the risk of toxic side effects or high production costs, might

  19. Barriers to integration of behavioral and social sciences in the general medicine curriculum and recommended strategies to overcome them: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    TABATABAEI, ZAHRA; YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; SADEGHI, RAMIN

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The integration of behavioral and social sciences (BSS) into the curriculum of medical students in order to equip them with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes is an essential issue, emphasized in many researches. Our aim is to investigate the barriers to integrate BSS into the general medicine curriculum as well as the recommended strategies to overcome such barriers through a systematic review of literature. Methods PubMed, ERIC, Scopus, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and OPENGREY were searched for studies on the barriers to integration of BSS into the general medicine curriculum as well as the strategies employed to overcome them until August 28, 2015. Results Sixteen relevant studies were included and the related domains were categorized as barriers and some strategies were recommended to overcome them. In addition, the quality of the included studies was assessed. Conclusion Despite the prominent role of BSS in the effectiveness of health care, these sciences have not been included in the curriculum of medical students effectively. The identified barriers and the strategies used to overcome them should be considered for all integration programs. Future studies should focus on the process of BSS integration in the medical curricula and should evaluate the efficacy of this integration in more detail. PMID:27382578

  20. Dialogue as an Organizational Learning Intervention: Taking a Closer Look at Psychological Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper synthesizes conceptual and empirical literature on organizational learning interventions based on dialogue. First, I attempt to delineate the concept of dialogue and to explain its relevance to organizational learning. Examples and arguments in support of dialogic learning initiatives are presented. Organizational realities and…

  1. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization's internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations.

  2. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, David A.; Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization’s internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations. PMID:24634639

  3. The GEOFAR Project - Geothermal Finance and Awareness in Europeans Regions - Development of new schemes to overcome non-technical barriers, focusing particularly on financial barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, Adeline; Wendel, Marco; Jaudin, Florence; Hiegl, Mathias

    2010-05-01

    Numerous advantages of geothermal energy like its widespread distribution, a base-load power and availability higher than 90%, a small footprint and low carbon emissions, and the growing concerns about climate changes strongly promote the development of geothermal projects. Geothermal energy as a local energy source implies needs on surface to be located close to the geothermal resource. Many European regions dispose of a good geothermal potential but it is mostly not sufficiently developed due to non-technical barriers occurring at the very early stages of the project. The GEOFAR Project carried out within the framework of EU's "Intelligent Energy Europe" (IEE) program, gathers a consortium of European partners from Germany, France, Greece, Spain and Portugal. Launched in September 2008, the aim of this research project is to analyze the mentioned non-technical barriers, focusing most particularly on economic and financial aspects. Based on this analysis GEOFAR aims at developing new financial and administrative schemes to overcome the main financial barriers for deep geothermal projects (for electricity and direct use, without heat pumps). The analysis of the current situation and the future development of geothermal energy in GEOFAR target countries (Germany, France, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Hungary) was necessary to understand and expose the diverging status of the geothermal sector and the more and less complicated situation for geothermal projects in different Europeans Regions. A deeper analysis of 40 cases studies (operating, planned and failed projects) of deep geothermal projects also contributed to this detailed view. An exhaustive analysis and description of financial mechanisms already existing in different European countries and at European level to support investors completed the research on non-technical barriers. Based on this profound analysis, the GEOFAR project has made an overview of the difficulties met by project

  4. Overcoming the Illiteracy Barrier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Rosemarie J.

    1984-01-01

    This article asks "How literate do workers need to be?" and suggests such measures as the widespread use of technical materials written in "plain language" and employers' offering job-related reading programs. (JB)

  5. The role of "blebbing" in overcoming the hydrophobic barrier during biooxidation of elemental sulfur by Thiobacillus thiooxidans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knickerbocker, C.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Southam, G.

    2000-01-01

    Brimstone Basin, in southeastern Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming is an ancient hydrothermal area containing solfataric alteration. Drainage waters flowing from Brimstone Basin had pH values as low as 1.23 and contained up to 1.7×106 MPN/ml acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Thiobacillus thiooxidans was the dominant sulfur-oxidizing bacterium recovered from an enrichment culture and was used in a structural examination of bacterial sulfur oxidation. Growth in these sulfur cultures occurred in two phases with cells in association with the macroscopic sulfur grains and in suspension above these grains. Colonization of sulfur grains by individual cells and microcolonies was facilitated by organic material that appeared to be responsible for bacterial adhesion. Transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained (2% [wt./vol.] uranyl acetate), sulfur-grown T. thiooxidans revealed extensive membrane blebbing (sloughing of outer membrane vesicles) and the presence of approximately 100 nm sized sulfur particles adsorbed to membrane material surrounding individual bacteria. Sulfite-grown bacteria did not possess membrane blebs. The amphipathic nature of these outer membrane vesicles appear to be responsible for overcoming the hydrophobic barrier necessary for the growth of T. thiooxidans on elemental sulfur.

  6. Overcoming access barriers to health services through membership-based microfinance organizations: a review of evidence from South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Somen; Annear, Peter Leslie

    2015-01-01

    It is a challenge for the poor to overcome the barriers to accessing health services. Membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes can improve health outcomes for the poor. This study reviewed the evidence published between 1993 and 2013 on the role of membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes in improving health outcomes for the poor in South Asia. A total of 661 papers were identified and 26 selected for inclusion, based on the relevance and rigour of the research methods. Of these 26, five were evidence reviews. Of the remaining 21 papers, 12 were from India, seven from Bangladesh, and one each from Sri Lanka and Indonesia. Three papers addressed more than one theme. Five key themes emerged from the review: (i) the impact of microfinance programmes on the social and economic situation of the poor; (ii) the impact of microfinance programmes on community health; (iii) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on raising client awareness; (iv) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on financing health care; and (v) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on affordable health-care products and services. The review provides new evidence on the pathways through which microfinance helps to improve population health and value for money for such programmes. Among countries with large populations in the informal sector, there is a strong case for policy-makers to support these groups in providing access to life-saving health care among the poor. PMID:25685728

  7. The Analysis of the Relationship between Organizational Structure and Information Technology (IT): And the Barriers to Its Establishment at the University of Isfahan from the Faculty Member's Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyman, Yarmohammadzadeh; Mohsen, Allammeh Sayyed; Hassan, Ghalavandi; Aboulghassim, Farhang; Zaman, Ajdari

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between organizational structure between IT and the barriers to its establishment in University of Isfahan from faculty member's viewpoints in 2007-2008. The questionnaires were prepared and examined based on the organization dimensions of organizational structures (formality,…

  8. Effective Strategies to Overcome the Barriers of Poverty in Large Comprehensive High Schools with a Large Minority and Severely Economically Disadvantaged Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify effective strategies used by principals of high-poverty, large high schools with more than 70% minority student population, that overcome the barriers identified for high poverty in the literature. Methodology: Descriptive research was used to gather qualitative and quantitative data to identify…

  9. Exploring facilitators and barriers to individual and organizational level capacity building: outcomes of participation in a community priority setting workshop.

    PubMed

    Flaman, Laura M; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Raine, Kim

    2010-06-01

    This article explores facilitators and barriers to individual and organizational capacity to address priority strategies for community-level chronic disease prevention. Interviews were conducted with a group of participants who previously participated in a community priority-setting workshop held in two Alberta communities. The goal of the workshop was to bring together key community stakeholders to collaboratively identify action strategies for preventing chronic diseases in their communities. While capacity building was not the specific aim of the workshop, it could be considered an unintended byproduct of bringing together community representatives around a specific issue. One purpose of this study was to examine the participants' capacity to take action on the priority strategies identified at the workshop. Eleven one-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with workshop participants to examine facilitators and barriers to individual and organizational level capacity building. Findings suggest that there were several barriers identified by participants that limited their capacity to take action on the workshop strategies, specifically: (i) organizations' lack of priorities or competing priorities; (ii) priorities secondary to the organizational mandate; (iii) disconnect between organizational and community priorities; (iv) disconnect between community organization priorities; (v) disconnect between organizations and government/funder priorities; (vi) limited resources (i.e. time, money and personnel); and, (vii) bigger community issues. The primary facilitator of individual capacity to take action or priority strategies was supportive organizations. Recognition of these elements will allow practitioners, organizations, governments/funders, and communities to focus on seeking ways to improve capacity for chronic disease prevention. PMID:20587629

  10. Effect of chemical permeation enhancers on stratum corneum barrier lipid organizational structure and interferon alpha permeability.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Shadi H; Saliaj, Evi; Wettig, Shawn D; Dong, Chilbert; Ivanova, Marina V; Huzil, J Torin; Foldvari, Marianna

    2013-06-01

    The outermost layer of the skin, known as the stratum corneum (SC), is composed of dead corneocytes embedded in an intercellular lipid matrix consisting of ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. The high level of organization within this matrix protects the body by limiting the permeation of most compounds through the skin. While essential for its protective functions, the SC poses a significant barrier for the delivery of topically applied pharmaceutical agents. Chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) can increase delivery of small drug compounds into the skin by interacting with the intercellular lipids through physical processes including extraction, fluidization, increased disorder, and phase separation. However, it is not clear whether these same mechanisms are involved in delivery of biotherapeutic macromolecules, such as proteins. Here we describe the effect of three categories of CPEs {solvents [ethanol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (transcutol), oleic acid], terpenes [menthol, nerol, camphor, methyl salicylate], and surfactants [Tween 80, SDS, benzalkonium chloride, polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil (Cremophor RH40), didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), didecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)]} on the lipid organizational structure of human SC as determined by X-ray scattering studies. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering studies were conducted to correlate the degree of structural changes and hydrocarbon chain packing in SC lipids caused by these various classes of CPEs to the extent of permeation of interferon alpha-2b (IFNα), a 19 kDa protein drug, into human skin. With the exception of solvents, propylene glycol and ethanol, all classes of CPEs caused increased disordering of lamellar and lateral packing of lipids. We observed that the highest degree of SC lipid disordering was caused by surfactants (especially SDS, DDAB, and DTAB) followed by terpenes, such as nerol. Interestingly, in vitro skin permeation studies

  11. Overcoming the diffusion barrier of mucus and absorption barrier of epithelium by self-assembled nanoparticles for oral delivery of insulin.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wei; Zhu, Xi; Liu, Min; Li, Lian; Zhong, Jiaju; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Zhirong; Huang, Yuan

    2015-03-24

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have demonstrated great potential for the oral delivery of protein drugs that have very limited oral bioavailability. Orally administered NPs could be absorbed by the epithelial tissue only if they successfully permeate through the mucus that covers the epithelium. However, efficient epithelial absorption and mucus permeation require very different surface properties of a nanocarrier. We herein report self-assembled NPs for efficient oral delivery of insulin by facilitating both of these two processes. The NPs possess a nanocomplex core composed of insulin and cell penetrating peptide (CPP), and a dissociable hydrophilic coating of N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymer (pHPMA) derivatives. After systematic screening using mucus-secreting epithelial cells, NPs exhibit excellent permeation in mucus due to the "mucus-inert" pHPMA coating, as well as high epithelial absorption mediated by CPP. The investigation of NP behavior shows that the pHPMA molecules gradually dissociate from the NP surface as it permeates through mucus, and the CPP-rich core is revealed in time for subsequent transepithelial transport through the secretory endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pathway and endocytic recycling pathway. The NPs exhibit 20-fold higher absorption than free insulin on mucus-secreting epithelium cells, and orally administered NPs generate a prominent hypoglycemic response and an increase of the serum insulin concentration in diabetic rats. Our study provides the evidence of using pHPMA as dissociable "mucus-inert" agent to enhance mucus permeation of NPs, and validates a strategy to overcome the multiple absorption barriers using NP platform with dissociable hydrophilic coating and drug-loaded CPP-rich core.

  12. Sequence-Specific, RNA–Protein Interactions Overcome Electrostatic Barriers Preventing Assembly of Satellite Tobacco Necrosis Virus Coat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Robert J.; Barker, Amy M.; Bakker, Saskia E.; Coutts, Robert H.; Ranson, Neil A.; Phillips, Simon E.V.; Pearson, Arwen R.; Stockley, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the roles of RNA–coat protein (CP) interactions in the assembly of satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV). The viral genomic RNA encodes only the CP, which comprises a β-barrel domain connected to a positively charged N-terminal extension. In the previous crystal structures of this system, the first 11 residues of the protein are disordered. Using variants of an RNA aptamer sequence isolated against the CP, B3, we have studied the sequence specificity of RNA-induced assembly. B3 consists of a stem–loop presenting the tetra-loop sequence ACAA. There is a clear preference for RNAs encompassing this loop sequence, as measured by the yield of T = 1 capsids, which is indifferent to sequences within the stem. The B3-containing virus-like particle has been crystallised and its structure was determined to 2.3 Å. A lower-resolution map encompassing density for the RNA has also been calculated. The presence of B3 results in increased ordering of the N-terminal helices located at the particle 3-fold axes, which extend by roughly one and a half turns to encompass residues 8–11, including R8 and K9. Under assembly conditions, STNV CP in the absence of RNA is monomeric and does not self-assemble. These facts suggest that a plausible model for assembly initiation is the specific RNA-induced stabilisation of a trimeric capsomere. The basic nature of the helical extension suggests that electrostatic repulsion between CPs prevents assembly in the absence of RNA and that this barrier is overcome by correct placement of appropriately orientated helical RNA stems. Such a mechanism would be consistent with the data shown here for assembly with longer RNA fragments, including an STNV genome. The results are discussed in light of a first stage of assembly involving compaction of the genomic RNA driven by multiple RNA packaging signal–CP interactions. PMID:23318955

  13. "My hair or my health:" Overcoming barriers to physical activity in African American women with a focus on hairstyle-related factors.

    PubMed

    Huebschmann, Amy G; Campbell, Lucille Johnson; Brown, Candace S; Dunn, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity disparities among African American (AA) women may be related to sociocultural barriers, including difficulties with restyling hair after exercise. We sought to identify physical activity barriers and facilitators in AA women with a focus on sociocultural factors related to hairstyle maintenance. Participants (n = 51) were AA women aged 19-73 years who completed valid surveys and participated in structured focus groups, stratified by age and physical activity levels, from November 2012 to February 2013. The Constant Comparison method was used to develop qualitative themes for barriers and facilitators. The most frequently reported general physical activity barrier among exercisers was "lack of money" (27%) and among non-exercisers was "lack of self-discipline" (57%). A hairstyle-related barrier of "sweating out my hairstyle" was reported by 7% of exercisers and 29% of non-exercisers. This hairstyle-related barrier included the need for extra time and money to restyle hair due to perspiration. Hairstyle-related facilitators included: prioritizing health over hairstyle and high self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration. Participants were interested in resources to simplify hairstyle maintenance. AA women whose hairstyle is affected by perspiration may avoid physical activity due to time and financial burdens. Increasing self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration may help to overcome this barrier.

  14. What are the barriers which discourage 15-16 year-old girls from participating in team sports and how can we overcome them?

    PubMed

    Wetton, Abigail R; Radley, Rebecca; Jones, Angela R; Pearce, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Given the clear benefits of regular physical activity (such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity, as well as other benefits including those related to mental health), exploration of the reasons that adolescent girls give for not taking part in team sports may be particularly valuable for enhancing later rates of participation. We combined questionnaires (n = 60) and semistructured interviews (n = 6) to assess the barriers that prevent 15-16-year-old girls from participating in extracurricular team games and what can be done to overcome these barriers and improve physical activity levels. Four barriers became prominent as to why girls in this sample do not participate: Internal Factors, Existing Stereotypes, Other Hobbies and Teachers. Methods to overcome these barriers were identified; changing teachers' attitudes and shifting the media's focus away from male sport. Following the successful summer Olympics and Paralympics in the UK, and the resulting positive focus on some of the nation's female athletes, a shift in focus may be possible. However, this needs to be maintained to allow girls more opportunities, role models and motivation to participate in sport. PMID:24073416

  15. What are the barriers which discourage 15-16 year-old girls from participating in team sports and how can we overcome them?

    PubMed

    Wetton, Abigail R; Radley, Rebecca; Jones, Angela R; Pearce, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Given the clear benefits of regular physical activity (such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity, as well as other benefits including those related to mental health), exploration of the reasons that adolescent girls give for not taking part in team sports may be particularly valuable for enhancing later rates of participation. We combined questionnaires (n = 60) and semistructured interviews (n = 6) to assess the barriers that prevent 15-16-year-old girls from participating in extracurricular team games and what can be done to overcome these barriers and improve physical activity levels. Four barriers became prominent as to why girls in this sample do not participate: Internal Factors, Existing Stereotypes, Other Hobbies and Teachers. Methods to overcome these barriers were identified; changing teachers' attitudes and shifting the media's focus away from male sport. Following the successful summer Olympics and Paralympics in the UK, and the resulting positive focus on some of the nation's female athletes, a shift in focus may be possible. However, this needs to be maintained to allow girls more opportunities, role models and motivation to participate in sport.

  16. What Are the Barriers Which Discourage 15-16 Year-Old Girls from Participating in Team Sports and How Can We Overcome Them?

    PubMed Central

    Wetton, Abigail R.; Jones, Angela R.; Pearce, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the clear benefits of regular physical activity (such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity, as well as other benefits including those related to mental health), exploration of the reasons that adolescent girls give for not taking part in team sports may be particularly valuable for enhancing later rates of participation. We combined questionnaires (n = 60) and semistructured interviews (n = 6) to assess the barriers that prevent 15-16-year-old girls from participating in extracurricular team games and what can be done to overcome these barriers and improve physical activity levels. Four barriers became prominent as to why girls in this sample do not participate: Internal Factors, Existing Stereotypes, Other Hobbies and Teachers. Methods to overcome these barriers were identified; changing teachers' attitudes and shifting the media's focus away from male sport. Following the successful summer Olympics and Paralympics in the UK, and the resulting positive focus on some of the nation's female athletes, a shift in focus may be possible. However, this needs to be maintained to allow girls more opportunities, role models and motivation to participate in sport. PMID:24073416

  17. Advocating for responsible oil and natural gas extraction policies; FracTracker as a mechanism for overcoming the barriers to scientific advocacy for academics and communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrar, K. J.; Malone, S.; Kelso, M.; Lenker, B.

    2013-12-01

    The inability to translate data to scientific information that can readily be incorporated by citizens into the public arena is an obstacle for science-based advocacy. This issue is particularly poignant for shale oil and natural gas development via hydraulic fracturing, as the issue has become highly politicized. Barriers to engaging in policy debate are different but highly related for community members and scientists. For citizens and interest groups, barriers including accessibility, public awareness and data presentation limit the motivation for community involvement in political interactions. To overcome such barriers, social researchers call for public engagement to move upstream and many call for a broad engagement of scientists in science-based advocacy. Furthermore surveys have shown that citizens, interest groups, and decision-makers share a broad desire for scientists to engage in environmental policy development. Regardless, scientists face a number of perceived barriers, with academics expressing the most resistance to overcoming the tension created by adherence to the scientific method and the need to engage with the broader society, described by Schneider (1990) as the 'double ethical bind'. For the scientific community the appeal of public dissemination of information beyond the scope of academic journals is limited for a number of reasons. Barriers include preservation of credibility, peer attitudes, training, and career trajectory. The result is a lack of translated information available to the public. This systematic analysis of the FracTracker platform provides an evaluation of where the features of the public engagement, GIS platform has been successful at overcoming these barriers to public dissemination, where the platform needs further development or is ill-suited to address these issues, and the development of FracTracker as an outlet for scientific researchers to engage with citizens. The analysis will also provide insight into what

  18. Strategies to Overcome Barriers to Implementation of Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in General Practice: a Delphi Study Among Healthcare Professionals and Addiction Prevention Experts.

    PubMed

    Abidi, L; Oenema, A; Nilsen, P; Anderson, P; van de Mheen, D

    2016-08-01

    Despite the evidence base, alcohol screening and brief intervention (ASBI) have rarely been integrated into routine clinical practice. The aim of this study is to identify strategies that could tackle barriers to ASBI implementation in general practice by involving primary healthcare professionals and addiction prevention experts. A three-round online Delphi study was carried out in the Netherlands. The first-round questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions to generate ideas about strategies to overcome barriers. In the second round, participants were asked to indicate how applicable they found each strategy. Items without consensus were systematically fed back with group median ratings and interquartile range (IQR) scores in the third-round questionnaire. In total, 39 out of 69 (57 %) invited participants enrolled in the first round, 214 participants completed the second round, and 144 of these (67 %) completed the third-round questionnaire. Results show that participants reached consensus on 59 of 81 strategies, such as the following: (1) use of E-learning technology, (2) symptom-specific screening by general practitioners (GPs) and/or universal screening by practice nurses, (3) reimbursement incentives, (4) supportive materials, (5) clear guidelines, (6) service provision of addiction care centers, and (7) more publicity in the media. This exploratory study identified a broad set of strategies that could potentially be used for overcoming barriers to ASBI implementation in general practice and paves the way for future research to experimentally test the identified implementation strategies using multifaceted approaches. PMID:27167074

  19. "We Don't Want to Talk about That": Overcoming Barriers to Rural Aging Research and Interventions on Sensitive Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanjani, Faika; Rowles, Graham D.

    2012-01-01

    Geographical, economic, social and cultural barriers to accessing services in rural areas are widely reported. Less widely discussed are dilemmas posed by individual and community reluctance to address sensitive health issues. This article, focusing on the highly sensitive area of mental health, and employing a participatory action approach,…

  20. Are the Walls Really Down? Behavioral and Organizational Barriers to Faculty and Staff Diversity. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 33, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Alvin, Ed.; Chun, Edna Breinig, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This monograph focuses on the subtle behavioral and organizational barriers that hinder the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women and minority faculty and administrators in higher education today. Specifically the monograph explores the obstacles that face women and minorities who serve as full-time, tenure-track faculty and…

  1. Overcoming barriers to effectiveness in a health care operational environment: building on the lessons of American industry.

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, L W; Zimmerer, T W; Yasin, M M

    1999-01-01

    Several of the manufacturing-based philosophies, techniques and tools, such as Total Quality Management (TQM), Continuous Improvement (CI), Business Process Reengineering (BPR) and Time-based Competition (TBC) have been successfully adapted for use within the service sector. Diverse service industries including airlines, insurance, food services and hospitality have increased customer satisfaction and performance through the use of the quality driven, manufacturing-based philosophies. This article explores the reasons for the limited success of TQM/CI, BPR, TBC and benchmarking within the health care industry. Sixteen barriers to change are identified, possible counter-measures to these barriers are outlined and two conceptual frameworks are offered as possible facilitators of change for the health care industry. PMID:11066723

  2. Overcoming barriers to effectiveness in a health care operational environment: building on the lessons of American industry.

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, L W; Zimmerer, T W; Yasin, M M

    1999-01-01

    Several of the manufacturing-based philosophies, techniques and tools, such as Total Quality Management (TQM), Continuous Improvement (CI), Business Process Reengineering (BPR) and Time-based Competition (TBC) have been successfully adapted for use within the service sector. Diverse service industries including airlines, insurance, food services and hospitality have increased customer satisfaction and performance through the use of the quality driven, manufacturing-based philosophies. This article explores the reasons for the limited success of TQM/CI, BPR, TBC and benchmarking within the health care industry. Sixteen barriers to change are identified, possible counter-measures to these barriers are outlined and two conceptual frameworks are offered as possible facilitators of change for the health care industry.

  3. Structural Barriers and Organizational Mechanisms for Training and Deploying ICT Champions in a School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, David James

    2016-01-01

    The misalignment or contradiction between material and abstract resources within a school are structural barriers to systemic pedagogic innovation and effective teacher professional development. This article contributes a case study to the success stories of information and communication technology (ICT) integration in schools through alternative…

  4. Organizational Barriers and Their Impact on Women in Higher Education. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, M. Jean

    The nature and extent of conditions or barriers that inhibit women administrators in their professional responsibilities and careers were studied. A questionnaire mailed to 241 women was completed by 168 women with executive, administrative, and managerial responsibilities in nine universities of the State University System of Florida. The…

  5. Being "chill" with teachers and "frozen" by peers in science: overcoming social and educational barriers in a learning community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hannah; Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    This forum discusses the issue of `othering' and how intersectionality is a useful analytical framework for understanding the students' immigrant experiences in, and out of, the science classroom. We use a feminist perspective to discuss Minjung's study because gender is a key aspect of one's identity other aspects such as race, religion, socio-economic status, and age have assumed a significant status in gender studies. Lastly we examine the supports and barriers that cliques can produce and propose the importance of building a learning community in the science classroom to engage all students.

  6. Barriers to blood pressure control in African Americans. Overcoming obstacles is challenging, but target goals can be attained.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Janice G; Ferdinand, Keith C; Bakris, George L; Sowers, James R

    2002-10-01

    Outdated and biased attitudes and care standards impede optimal care of hypertension in African Americans. The negative expectations that blood pressure targets cannot be reached must be overcome by systematic and appropriate education and treatment. However, physicians should expect that (1) African American patients with elevated blood pressure benefit from early and intensive management, (2) blood pressure can be maintained at goal with appropriate therapeutic lifestyle changes and medications, and (3) complications related to high blood pressure can be avoided. To bring blood pressure down to the target goal, combination pharmacologic therapy is often required. When extensive efforts to achieve blood pressure control prove unattainable in the primary care setting, consultation with a hypertension specialist should be considered.

  7. Using community-based participatory research to identify potential interventions to overcome barriers to adolescents’ healthy eating and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Ying-Ying; Sipple-Asher, Bessie Ko; Uyeda, Kimberly; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Olarita-Dhungana, Josephina; Ryan, Gery W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a community-based participatory research approach, we explored adolescent, parent, and community stakeholder perspectives on barriers to healthy eating and physical activity, and intervention ideas to address adolescent obesity. We conducted 14 adolescent focus groups (n = 119), 8 parent focus groups (n = 63), and 28 interviews with community members (i.e., local experts knowledgeable about youth nutrition and physical activity). Participants described ecological and psychosocial barriers in neighborhoods (e.g., lack of accessible nutritious food), in schools (e.g., poor quality of physical education), at home (e.g., sedentary lifestyle), and at the individual level (e.g., lack of nutrition knowledge). Participants proposed interventions such as nutrition classes for families, addition of healthy school food options that appeal to students, and non-competitive physical education activities. Participants supported health education delivered by students. Findings demonstrate that community-based participatory research is useful for revealing potentially feasible interventions that are acceptable to community members. PMID:19544091

  8. Exploring the role of social interactions and supports in overcoming accessibility barriers while undertaking health tours in India.

    PubMed

    Jana, Arnab; Harata, Noboru; Kiyoshi, Takami; Ohmori, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of companionship as an adaptation strategy to counter the existing barriers to health care access in developing nations. Companionship is argued to be an outcome of "inter" and "intra" household collaboration to offer diverse supports in addition to altruism. The analysis of the household survey conducted in West Bengal, India, exhibited different patterns of health care tours and the associated dependencies. In addition to support in terms of mobility while traveling and companionship while waiting for the opportunity, support in terms of refuge is also found to be essential, especially for the poor while they undertake regional tours. Causal models focusing on aggregated general health tours and specific regional tours were estimated separately to comprehend the implicit social interactions and their effects on the patient as well as the companions. The research demonstrated that accessibility barriers affect not only the ill, but also those associated with them and at times adversely. Segregation of regional tours illustrated the gaps, which instigated such tours and also might aid in health infrastructure planning as a whole. PMID:24871773

  9. The Value of Companion Diagnostics: Overcoming Access Barriers to Transform Personalised Health Care into an Affordable Reality in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wurcel, Victoria; Perche, Olivier; Lesteven, Daniel; Williams, Doris-Ann; Schäfer, Birgit; Hopley, Colin; Jungwirth, Rebecca; Postulka, Anne; Pasmans, Raf; Hermansson, Lisse-Lotte; Ott, Markus; Glorioso, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Personalised health care is an evolution, moving away from a disease-focused model of care, translating scientific and technological advances into benefits for patients, and placing them at the centre of the patients' health and care. Companion diagnostics emerge as a very specific and special group of in vitro diagnostics among the different technologies shaping the personalised health care spectrum. Companion diagnostics provide highly valuable information, allowing patients, health practitioners and payers to decide with a higher level of certainty on the potential benefits of a treatment or care pathway. Decreasing uncertainty may result in a more efficient selection of treatments and care, targeted at subpopulations that are most likely to benefit. Companion diagnostics account for a minimal portion of the already small expenditure on in vitro diagnostics (far less than 1% of total health care expenditure), and yet they provide the means to limit inefficient use of health care resources while optimising patient outcomes. It is clear that equal access to personalised health care is still an issue across the EU. One of the most common perceived barriers is affordability. The investment in companion diagnostics can provide long-term value for patients and health care systems, shifting resources to areas of need. Health systems do not fully recognise yet the value that companion diagnostics bring to make personalised health care more affordable across the EU. This inhibits patient access to personalised treatments and care, preventing improved outcomes. In many countries, market access frameworks for diagnostic tests are fragmented and not aligned with specific funding and reimbursement mechanisms, discouraging the use of these tests. Emerging evidence shows that patients are missing out on the appropriate tests and treatments while a reduction in the inefficient use of health care resources is not realised. This article outlines some of these market access

  10. The Value of Companion Diagnostics: Overcoming Access Barriers to Transform Personalised Health Care into an Affordable Reality in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wurcel, Victoria; Perche, Olivier; Lesteven, Daniel; Williams, Doris-Ann; Schäfer, Birgit; Hopley, Colin; Jungwirth, Rebecca; Postulka, Anne; Pasmans, Raf; Hermansson, Lisse-Lotte; Ott, Markus; Glorioso, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Personalised health care is an evolution, moving away from a disease-focused model of care, translating scientific and technological advances into benefits for patients, and placing them at the centre of the patients' health and care. Companion diagnostics emerge as a very specific and special group of in vitro diagnostics among the different technologies shaping the personalised health care spectrum. Companion diagnostics provide highly valuable information, allowing patients, health practitioners and payers to decide with a higher level of certainty on the potential benefits of a treatment or care pathway. Decreasing uncertainty may result in a more efficient selection of treatments and care, targeted at subpopulations that are most likely to benefit. Companion diagnostics account for a minimal portion of the already small expenditure on in vitro diagnostics (far less than 1% of total health care expenditure), and yet they provide the means to limit inefficient use of health care resources while optimising patient outcomes. It is clear that equal access to personalised health care is still an issue across the EU. One of the most common perceived barriers is affordability. The investment in companion diagnostics can provide long-term value for patients and health care systems, shifting resources to areas of need. Health systems do not fully recognise yet the value that companion diagnostics bring to make personalised health care more affordable across the EU. This inhibits patient access to personalised treatments and care, preventing improved outcomes. In many countries, market access frameworks for diagnostic tests are fragmented and not aligned with specific funding and reimbursement mechanisms, discouraging the use of these tests. Emerging evidence shows that patients are missing out on the appropriate tests and treatments while a reduction in the inefficient use of health care resources is not realised. This article outlines some of these market access

  11. A Collaborative Care Telemedicine Intervention to Overcome Treatment Barriers for Latina Women with Depression during the Perinatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Ericzén, Mary J.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Dueñas, Cecilia; Landsverk, John A.; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2013-01-01

    Maternal depression is highly prevalent (10 to 20%) during the perinatal period with rates as high as 35 to 40% for Latinas. However, few Latinas are either identified or treated during the perinatal period. To address these disparities, the Perinatal Mental Health Model (PMH) was designed to ameliorate the barriers that prevent adequate diagnoses and intervention. The PMH is a culturally sensitive, short-term telemedicine, and collaborative care intervention for addressing depression among Mexican American mothers. It attends to sociocultural and socioeconomic dimensions and is delivered by trained mental health advisors within obstetric care settings. This article describes the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing the PMH. Participants (n=79) were selected from a first year ongoing randomized trial in community obstetric clinics. The intervention seems feasible and acceptable; low-income Latinas, identified as depressed during the perinatal period, reported having access to a range of appropriate community services and high satisfaction. PMID:22709321

  12. Planet Formation in Stellar Binaries. II. Overcoming the Fragmentation Barrier in α Centauri and γ Cephei-like Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron

    2015-01-01

    Planet formation in small-separation (~20 AU) eccentric binaries such as γ Cephei or α Centauri is believed to be adversely affected by the presence of the stellar companion. Strong dynamical excitation of planetesimals by the eccentric companion can result in collisional destruction (rather than growth) of 1-100 km objects, giving rise to the "fragmentation barrier" for planet formation. We revise this issue using a novel description of secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries, which accounts for the gravity of the eccentric, coplanar protoplanetary disk, as well as gas drag. By studying planetesimal collision outcomes, we show, in contrast to many previous studies, that planetesimal growth and subsequent formation of planets (including gas giants) in AU-scale orbits within ~20 AU separation binaries may be possible, provided that the protoplanetary disks are massive (gsim 10-2 M ⊙) and only weakly eccentric (disk eccentricity <~ 0.01). These requirements are compatible with both the existence of massive (several MJ ) planets in γ Cep-like systems and the results of recent simulations of gaseous disks in eccentric binaries. Terrestrial and Neptune-like planets can also form in lower-mass disks at small (sub-AU) radii. We find that the fragmentation barrier is less of a problem in eccentric disks that are apsidally aligned with the binary orbit. Alignment gives rise to special locations, where (1) relative planetesimal velocities are low and (2) the timescale of their drag-induced radial drift is long. This causes planetesimal pileup at such locations in the disk and promotes their growth locally, helping to alleviate the timescale problem for core formation.

  13. PLANET FORMATION IN STELLAR BINARIES. II. OVERCOMING THE FRAGMENTATION BARRIER IN α CENTAURI AND γ CEPHEI-LIKE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron

    2015-01-10

    Planet formation in small-separation (∼20 AU) eccentric binaries such as γ Cephei or α Centauri is believed to be adversely affected by the presence of the stellar companion. Strong dynamical excitation of planetesimals by the eccentric companion can result in collisional destruction (rather than growth) of 1-100 km objects, giving rise to the ''fragmentation barrier'' for planet formation. We revise this issue using a novel description of secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries, which accounts for the gravity of the eccentric, coplanar protoplanetary disk, as well as gas drag. By studying planetesimal collision outcomes, we show, in contrast to many previous studies, that planetesimal growth and subsequent formation of planets (including gas giants) in AU-scale orbits within ∼20 AU separation binaries may be possible, provided that the protoplanetary disks are massive (≳ 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉}) and only weakly eccentric (disk eccentricity ≲ 0.01). These requirements are compatible with both the existence of massive (several M{sub J} ) planets in γ Cep-like systems and the results of recent simulations of gaseous disks in eccentric binaries. Terrestrial and Neptune-like planets can also form in lower-mass disks at small (sub-AU) radii. We find that the fragmentation barrier is less of a problem in eccentric disks that are apsidally aligned with the binary orbit. Alignment gives rise to special locations, where (1) relative planetesimal velocities are low and (2) the timescale of their drag-induced radial drift is long. This causes planetesimal pileup at such locations in the disk and promotes their growth locally, helping to alleviate the timescale problem for core formation.

  14. Overcoming barriers to seedling regeneration during forest restoration on tropical pasture land and the potential value of woody weeds.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Amelia T; Freebody, Kylie; Pohlman, Catherine L; Shoo, Luke P; Catterall, Carla P

    2014-01-01

    Combating the legacy of deforestation on tropical biodiversity requires the conversion to forest of large areas of established pasture, where barriers to native plant regeneration include competition with pasture grasses and poor propagule supply (seed availability). In addition, initial woody plants that colonise pasture are often invasive, non-native species whose ecological roles and management in the context of forest regeneration are contested. In a restoration experiment at two 0.64 ha sites we quantified the response of native woody vegetation recruitment to (1) release from competition with introduced pasture grasses, and (2) local facilitation of frugivore-assisted seed dispersal provided by scattered woody plants and artificial bird perches. Herbicide pasture grass suppression during 20 months caused a significant but modest increase in density of native woody seedlings, together with abundant co-recruitment of the prominent non-native pioneer wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum). Recruitment of native species was further enhanced by local structure in herbicide-treated areas, being consistently greater under live trees and dead non-native shrubs (herbicide-treated) than in open areas, and intermediate under bird perches. Native seedling recruitment comprised 28 species across 0.25 ha sampled but was dominated by two rainforest pioneers (Homalanthus novoguineensis, Polyscias murrayi). These early results are consistent with the expected increase in woody vegetation recruitment in response to release from competitive and dispersive barriers to rainforest regeneration. The findings highlight the need for a pragmatic consideration of the ecological roles of woody weeds and the potential roles of "new forests" more broadly in accelerating succession of humid tropical forest across large areas of retired agricultural land.

  15. Overcoming barriers to seedling regeneration during forest restoration on tropical pasture land and the potential value of woody weeds.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Amelia T; Freebody, Kylie; Pohlman, Catherine L; Shoo, Luke P; Catterall, Carla P

    2014-01-01

    Combating the legacy of deforestation on tropical biodiversity requires the conversion to forest of large areas of established pasture, where barriers to native plant regeneration include competition with pasture grasses and poor propagule supply (seed availability). In addition, initial woody plants that colonise pasture are often invasive, non-native species whose ecological roles and management in the context of forest regeneration are contested. In a restoration experiment at two 0.64 ha sites we quantified the response of native woody vegetation recruitment to (1) release from competition with introduced pasture grasses, and (2) local facilitation of frugivore-assisted seed dispersal provided by scattered woody plants and artificial bird perches. Herbicide pasture grass suppression during 20 months caused a significant but modest increase in density of native woody seedlings, together with abundant co-recruitment of the prominent non-native pioneer wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum). Recruitment of native species was further enhanced by local structure in herbicide-treated areas, being consistently greater under live trees and dead non-native shrubs (herbicide-treated) than in open areas, and intermediate under bird perches. Native seedling recruitment comprised 28 species across 0.25 ha sampled but was dominated by two rainforest pioneers (Homalanthus novoguineensis, Polyscias murrayi). These early results are consistent with the expected increase in woody vegetation recruitment in response to release from competitive and dispersive barriers to rainforest regeneration. The findings highlight the need for a pragmatic consideration of the ecological roles of woody weeds and the potential roles of "new forests" more broadly in accelerating succession of humid tropical forest across large areas of retired agricultural land. PMID:24904602

  16. Overcoming barriers to seedling regeneration during forest restoration on tropical pasture land and the potential value of woody weeds

    PubMed Central

    Elgar, Amelia T.; Freebody, Kylie; Pohlman, Catherine L.; Shoo, Luke P.; Catterall, Carla P.

    2014-01-01

    Combating the legacy of deforestation on tropical biodiversity requires the conversion to forest of large areas of established pasture, where barriers to native plant regeneration include competition with pasture grasses and poor propagule supply (seed availability). In addition, initial woody plants that colonise pasture are often invasive, non-native species whose ecological roles and management in the context of forest regeneration are contested. In a restoration experiment at two 0.64 ha sites we quantified the response of native woody vegetation recruitment to (1) release from competition with introduced pasture grasses, and (2) local facilitation of frugivore-assisted seed dispersal provided by scattered woody plants and artificial bird perches. Herbicide pasture grass suppression during 20 months caused a significant but modest increase in density of native woody seedlings, together with abundant co-recruitment of the prominent non-native pioneer wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum). Recruitment of native species was further enhanced by local structure in herbicide-treated areas, being consistently greater under live trees and dead non-native shrubs (herbicide-treated) than in open areas, and intermediate under bird perches. Native seedling recruitment comprised 28 species across 0.25 ha sampled but was dominated by two rainforest pioneers (Homalanthus novoguineensis, Polyscias murrayi). These early results are consistent with the expected increase in woody vegetation recruitment in response to release from competitive and dispersive barriers to rainforest regeneration. The findings highlight the need for a pragmatic consideration of the ecological roles of woody weeds and the potential roles of “new forests” more broadly in accelerating succession of humid tropical forest across large areas of retired agricultural land. PMID:24904602

  17. The Long Way From Government Open Data to Mobile Health Apps: Overcoming Institutional Barriers in the US Federal Government

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Government agencies in the United States are creating mobile health (mHealth) apps as part of recent policy changes initiated by the White House’s Digital Government Strategy. Objective The objective of the study was to understand the institutional and managerial barriers for the implementation of mHealth, as well as the resulting adoption pathways of mHealth. Methods This article is based on insights derived from qualitative interview data with 35 public managers in charge of promoting the reuse of open data through Challenge.gov, the platform created to run prizes, challenges, and the vetting and implementation of the winning and vendor-created apps. Results The process of designing apps follows three different pathways: (1) entrepreneurs start to see opportunities for mobile apps, and develop either in-house or contract out to already vetted Web design vendors; (2) a top-down policy mandates agencies to adopt at least two customer-facing mobile apps; and (3) the federal government uses a policy instrument called “Prizes and Challenges”, encouraging civic hackers to design health-related mobile apps using open government data from HealthData.gov, in combination with citizen needs. All pathways of the development process incur a set of major obstacles that have to be actively managed before agencies can promote mobile apps on their websites and app stores. Conclusions Beyond the cultural paradigm shift to design interactive apps and to open health-related data to the public, the managerial challenges include accessibility, interoperability, security, privacy, and legal concerns using interactive apps tracking citizen. PMID:25537314

  18. Socio-ecological Model as a Framework for Overcoming Barriers and Challenges in Randomized Control Trials in Minority and Underserved Communities

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Hamisu M.; Wilson, Ronee E.; King, Lindsey M.; Marty, Phillip J.; Whiteman, Valerie E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Numerous barriers and challenges can hinder the successful enrollment and retention of study participants in clinical trials targeting minority populations. To conduct quality research, it is important to investigate these challenges, determine appropriate strategies that are evidence-based and continue seeking methods of improvement. Methods: In this paper, we report such experiences in a registered clinical trial in an underserved minority population in the Southern part of United States. This research study is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial that tests the efficacy of higher-strength as compared to low-strength/standard of care folic acid to prevent fetal body and brain size reduction in pregnant women who smoke. A unique approach in this socio-behavioral, genetic-epigenetic clinical trial is that we have adopted the socio-ecological model as a functional platform to effectively achieve and maintain high participant recruitment and retention rates. Results: We highlight the barriers we have encountered in our trial and describe how we have successfully applied the socio-ecological model to overcome these obstacles. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Our positive experience will be of utility to other researchers globally. Our fi ndings have far-reaching implications as the socio-ecological model approach is adaptable to developed and developing regions and has the potential to increase recruitment and retention of hard-to-reach populations who are typically under-represented in clinical trials. PMID:27621990

  19. Collective epithelial cell invasion overcomes mechanical barriers of collagenous extracellular matrix by a narrow tube-like geometry and MMP14-dependent local softening†

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, Jordi; Mori, Hidetoshi; Ghajar, Cyrus M.; Brownfield, Doug; Galgoczy, Roland; Bissell, Mina J.

    2013-01-01

    Collective cell invasion (CCI) through interstitial collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to the initial stages of branching morphogenesis, and a hallmark of tissue repair and dissemination of certain tumors. The collagenous ECM acts as a mechanical barrier against CCI. However, the physical nature of this barrier and how it is overcome by cells remains incompletely understood. To address these questions, we performed theoretical and experimental analysis of mammary epithelial branching morphogenesis in 3D type I collagen (collagen-I) gels. We found that the mechanical resistance of collagen-I is largely due to its elastic rather than its viscous properties. We also identified two strategies utilized by mammary epithelial cells that can independently minimize ECM mechanical resistance during CCI. First, cells adopt a narrow tube-like geometry during invasion, which minimizes the elastic opposition from the ECM as revealed by theoretical modeling of the most frequent invasive shapes and sizes. Second, the stiffness of the collagenous ECM is reduced at invasive fronts due to its degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as indicated by direct measurements of collagen-I microelasticity by atomic force microscopy. Molecular techniques further specified that the membrane-bound MMP14 mediates degradation of collagen-I at invasive fronts. Thus, our findings reveal that MMP14 is necessary to efficiently reduce the physical restraints imposed by collagen-I during branching morphogenesis, and help our overall understanding of how forces are balanced between cells and their surrounding ECM to maintain collective geometry and mechanical stability during CCI. PMID:21993836

  20. Generation of nuclear hybrids overcoming the natural barrier of incompatibility: transfer of nuclei from Lentinula edodes into protoplasts of Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Kim, C; Choi, E C; Kim, B K

    2000-02-01

    Heterokaryotic nuclear hybrids overcoming the natural barriers of incompatibility have been studied in basidiomycetes. To produce these nuclear hybrids between incompatible mushrooms, which have several potent pharmacological effects, nuclear transfer was performed between Lentinula edodes and Coriolus versicolor. Nuclei from serine auxotrophs of Lentinula edodes, LE207 (Ser-) were transferred into the protoplasts of arginine auxotrophs of Coriolus versicolor, CV17 (Arg-), using 30% polyethylene glycol 4000 in 10 mM CaCl2-glycine solution (pH 8.0). Nuclear transfer progenies were selected by nutritional complementation on minimal media supplemented with 0.6 M sucrose. The progenies were classified based on colony morphology to L. edodes-like, C. versicolor-like and non-parental type. Most of the progenies grew slower than either parent. The number of nuclei per cell was similar but the DNA content varied between progenies. The isozyme patterns of nuclear hybrids resembled either of the parent profiles or showed a mixed profile. PMID:10728662

  1. Increasing Rural Adults' Participation in Collegial Programs: Exemplary Programs. Proceedings of the Rural Action Conference "Programs and Activities to Overcome Barriers to Rural Adult Participation in Postsecondary Education" (Blacksburg, Virginia, June 1-3, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullins, W. Robert, Ed.; And Others

    Approximately 85 educators from six states participated in a regional conference designed to showcase exemplary and collaborative programs to overcome many of the barriers faced by rural adults in pursuing higher education. After the keynote address, "The Role of Adult Learning in Revitalizing Rural Communities," by Cornelia Butler Flora, the…

  2. Overcoming psychosocial and developmental barriers to blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) in an adolescent/young adult (AYA) transgender patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khazal, Sajad; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Kapoor, Neena; Mahadeo, Kris M

    2014-11-01

    Adolescents/young adults (AYAs) afflicted with cancer face unique barriers to potentially standard curative therapies, such as blood and marrow transplantation (BMT). Transgender AYAs face additional barriers and there is a dearth of published literature regarding their oncology-related experience. We present the case of an AYA male-to-female (MTF) transgender patient on cross-sex hormone therapy, with a history of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) and significant psychosocial barriers, which initially served as a barrier to BMT at two different centers; we modified our standard consent and education process and was able to successfully proceed with BMT and subsequently cure her CML. Despite unique challenges, AYA and transgender patients with significant psychosocial barriers may achieve successful outcomes with BMT. Research is needed regarding guidelines for cross-sex hormone therapy administration for patients undergoing BMT and other issues, which may be unique to the transgender experience.

  3. Linking individual and organizational wellness.

    PubMed

    Canosa, J F; Lewandowski, L M

    1993-09-01

    In addition to intervening when workers have substance abuse or stress problems, many hospital employee assistance programs (EAPs) now include a wellness component that emphasizes prevention and organizational wholeness. The EAP at St. Joseph's Hospital & Medical Center, Paterson, NJ, has taken a number of steps to improve its responsiveness to employees' needs and promote constructive organizational changes. To meet increasing requests for mental health services, St. Joseph's EAP implemented a short-term (up to 12 sessions) counseling program that focuses on problem-solving techniques. The EAP has also used feedback from clients to address organizational issues. For example, a survey that revealed differences between managers' and employees' perceptions of managers' leadership skills has led St. Joseph's to consider development of further workshops to train managers on how to be more effective leaders. And in response to complaints from nurses about a lack of communication with physicians, St. Joseph's invested $8,000 to implement nursing support groups and seminars to enhance nurse-physician collaboration. Additional EAP activities include consulting services for other corporations and help for employees in overcoming financial barriers to access to healthcare and social services. As budgets tighten, effective marketing of EAPs will be essential to their continued growth. In particular, EAP administrators must learn how to document the strategic and financial benefits of their programs.

  4. Overcoming recruitment barriers revealed high readiness to participate and low dropout rate among people with schizophrenia in a randomized controlled trial testing the effect of a Guided Self-Determination intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment is one of the most serious challenges in performing randomized controlled trials. Often clinical trials with participants diagnosed with schizophrenia are terminated prematurely because of recruitment challenges resulting in a considerable waste of resources in the form of time, funding, and the participants’ efforts. Dropout rates in schizophrenia trials are also high. Recruitment challenges are often due to patients not wanting to participate in research but can also be due to clinicians’ concerns regarding individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia as participants in research. This paper reports how overcoming recruitment challenges not related to patients revealed high readiness to take part and low dropout rates in a one year long randomized controlled trial testing Guided Self-Determination (GSD) among outpatients with schizophrenia receiving treatment in Assertive Outreach Teams in the northern part of Denmark. Methods GSD is a shared decision-making and mutual problem-solving method using reflection sheets, which was developed in diabetes care and adjusted for this study and utilized by patients with schizophrenia. Descriptive data on strategies to overcome recruitment challenges were derived from notes and observations made during the randomized controlled trial testing of GSD in six outpatient teams. Results Three types of recruitment challenges not related to patients were identified and met during the trial: 1) organizational challenges, 2) challenges with finding eligible participants and 3) challenges with having professionals invite patients to participate. These challenges were overcome through: 1) extension of time, 2) expansion of the clinical recruitment area and 3) encouragement of professionals to invite patients to the study. Through overcoming these challenges, we identified a remarkably high patient-readiness to take part (101 of 120 asked accepted) and a low dropout rate (8%). Conclusion Distinction between

  5. E-Learning Barriers and Solutions to Knowledge Management and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oye, Nathaniel David; Salleh, Mazleena

    2013-01-01

    This paper present a systematic overview of barriers and solutions of e-learning in knowledge management (KM) and knowledge transfer (KT) with more focus on organizations. The paper also discusses KT in organizational settings and KT in the field of e-learning. Here, an e-learning initiative shows adaptive solutions to overcome knowledge transfer…

  6. A Change Agent's Facilitation Process for Overcoming the Barriers of ICT Adoption for Educational Administration--The Case of a Rural-Bangladesh Vocational Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The factors influencing the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) as a professional and management tool outside the classroom have received little research attention. The two objectives of this research were: how do stakeholders of educational administration experience the barriers of ICT adoption, and how can they facilitate the…

  7. Strengthening institutional and organizational capacity for social health protection of the informal sector in lesser-developed countries: a study of policy barriers and opportunities in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Annear, Peter Leslie; Ahmed, Shakil; Ros, Chhun Eang; Ir, Por

    2013-11-01

    Reaching out to the poor and the informal sector is a major challenge for achieving universal coverage in lesser-developed countries. In Cambodia, extensive coverage by health equity funds for the poor has created the opportunity to consolidate various non-government health financing schemes under the government's proposed social health protection structure. This paper identifies the main policy and operational challenges to strengthening existing arrangements for the poor and the informal sector, and considers policy options to address these barriers. Conducted in conjunction with the Cambodian Ministry of Health in 2011-12, the study reviewed policy documents and collected qualitative data through 18 semi-structured key informant interviews with government, non-government and donor officials. Data were analysed using the Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening Health Financing conceptual framework. We found that a significant shortfall related to institutional, organisational and health financing issues resulted in fragmentation and constrained the implementation of social health protection schemes, including health equity funds, community-based health insurance, vouchers and others. Key documents proposed the establishment of a national structure for the unification of the informal-sector schemes but left unresolved issues related to structure, institutional capacity and the third-party status of the national agency. This study adds to the evidence base on appropriate and effective institutional and organizational arrangements for social health protection in the informal sector in developing countries. Among the key lessons are: the need to expand the fiscal space for health care; a commitment to equity; specific measures to protect the poor; building national capacity for administration of universal coverage; and working within the specific national context.

  8. You can teach an old dog new tricks: a qualitative analysis of how residents of senior living communities may use the web to overcome spatial and social barriers.

    PubMed

    Winstead, Vicki; Anderson, William A; Yost, Elizabeth A; Cotten, Shelia R; Warr, Amanda; Berkowsky, Ronald W

    2013-08-01

    For adults in senior living communities, information and communication technologies (ICTs) can be used to increase and expand communication for a population that is often spatially and socially separated from the general public. Using qualitative observational data from a longitudinal study of the impact of ICT usage on the quality of life among residents in assisted and independent living communities, the authors examine whether ICTs can mitigate the effects of social and spatial barriers. The authors find that ICTs have the potential to allow individuals to transcend social and spatial barriers, providing residents with the ability to maintain and enhance social networks as well as provide a greater sense of connection to the world at large. PMID:25474761

  9. Fractional transfer of a free unpaired electron to overcome energy barriers in the formation of Fe(4+) from Fe(3+) during the core contraction of macrocycles: implication for heme distortion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuhua; Zhou, Xiaochun; Liu, Haomin; Zhang, Xi; Zhou, Zaichun

    2015-03-14

    The free unpaired electron in Fe(3+) ions cannot be directly removed, and needs a transfer pathway with at least four steps to overcome the high energy barriers to form Fe(4+) ions. Fine changes in the electronic structure of Fe(3+) ions on spin conversion were identified through a deeper analysis of the diffraction, spectral and electrochemical data for six non-planar iron porphyrins. Fe(3+) ions can form four d electron tautomers as the compression of the central ion is increased. This indicates that the Fe(3+) ion undergoes a multistep electron transfer where the total energy gap of electron transfer is split into several smaller gaps to form high-valent Fe(4+) ions. We find that the interchange of these four electron tautomers is clearly related to the core size of the macrocycle in the current series. The large energy barrier to produce iron(iv) complexes is overcome through a gradient effect of multiple energy levels. In addition, a possible porphyrin Fe(3+)˙ radical may be formed from its stable isoelectronic form, porphyrin Fe(3+), under strong core contraction. These results indicate the important role of heme distortion in its catalytic oxidation functions. PMID:25609455

  10. Overcoming prejudice.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, J M; Correa, J; Terto, V

    1998-02-01

    People of African descent comprise a large proportion of Brazil's population. While racism exists in the country, it is commonly denied. Most Afro-Brazilians live in poor areas, with poor health care services, sanitation, schools, and transport. Since HIV is linked to poverty, Afro-Brazilians are more affected by HIV than is the overall population. Although Afro-Brazilians contribute to Brazil's culture, they do not benefit from that contribution. Recognizing this considerable social problem, Project Araye was created in 1996 to address issues of race and HIV. Building upon religious and cultural traditions, the project is staffed by Afro-Brazilians who are knowledgeable in both health issues and Afro-Brazilian culture. Project Araye supports a wide range of diverse community leaders in linking sexual health and HIV with other health concerns which affect Afro-Brazilians such as sickle-cell anemia, diabetes, and leprosy. One important challenge has been overcoming the target population's denial of HIV and encouraging Afro-Brazilians to accept that HIV also affects them. Community leaders include religious leaders, rap musicians, artists, and other people respected by various communities. Activities include visits to samba dance schools, Umbanda and Candomble temples, and street youth groups to provide HIV-related information.

  11. Overcoming prejudice.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, J M; Correa, J; Terto, V

    1998-02-01

    People of African descent comprise a large proportion of Brazil's population. While racism exists in the country, it is commonly denied. Most Afro-Brazilians live in poor areas, with poor health care services, sanitation, schools, and transport. Since HIV is linked to poverty, Afro-Brazilians are more affected by HIV than is the overall population. Although Afro-Brazilians contribute to Brazil's culture, they do not benefit from that contribution. Recognizing this considerable social problem, Project Araye was created in 1996 to address issues of race and HIV. Building upon religious and cultural traditions, the project is staffed by Afro-Brazilians who are knowledgeable in both health issues and Afro-Brazilian culture. Project Araye supports a wide range of diverse community leaders in linking sexual health and HIV with other health concerns which affect Afro-Brazilians such as sickle-cell anemia, diabetes, and leprosy. One important challenge has been overcoming the target population's denial of HIV and encouraging Afro-Brazilians to accept that HIV also affects them. Community leaders include religious leaders, rap musicians, artists, and other people respected by various communities. Activities include visits to samba dance schools, Umbanda and Candomble temples, and street youth groups to provide HIV-related information. PMID:12293758

  12. Organizational barriers associated with the implementation of national essential medicines policy: A cross-sectional study of township hospitals in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lianping; Liu, Chaojie; Ferrier, J Adamm; Zhang, Xinping

    2015-11-01

    This study identifies potential organizational barriers associated with the implementation of the Chinese National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) in rural primary health care institutions. We used a multistage sampling strategy to select 90 township hospitals from six provinces, two from each of eastern, middle, and western China. Data relating to eight core NEMP indicators and institutional characteristics were collected from January to September 2011, using a questionnaire. Prescription-associated indicators were calculated from 9000 outpatient prescriptions selected at random. We categorized the eight NEMP indicators using an exploratory factor analysis, and performed linear regressions to determine the association between the factor scores and institution-level characteristics. The results identified three main factors. Overall, low levels of expenditure of medicines (F1) and poor performance in rational use of medicines (F2) were evident. The availability of medicines (F3) varied significantly across both hospitals and regions. Factor scores had no significant relationship with hospital size (in terms of number of beds and health workers); however, they were associated with revenue and structure of the hospital, patient service load, and support for health workers. Regression analyses showed that public finance per health worker was negatively associated with the availability of medicines (p < 0.05), remuneration of prescribers was positively associated with higher performance in the rational use of medicines (p < 0.05), and drug sales were negatively associated with higher levels of drug expenditure (p < 0.01). In conclusion, irrational use of medicines remains a serious issue, although the financial barriers for gaining access to essential medicines may be less for prescribers and consumers. Limited public finance from local governments may reduce medicine stock lines of township hospitals and lead them to seek alternative sources of income

  13. Organizational barriers associated with the implementation of national essential medicines policy: A cross-sectional study of township hospitals in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lianping; Liu, Chaojie; Ferrier, J Adamm; Zhang, Xinping

    2015-11-01

    This study identifies potential organizational barriers associated with the implementation of the Chinese National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) in rural primary health care institutions. We used a multistage sampling strategy to select 90 township hospitals from six provinces, two from each of eastern, middle, and western China. Data relating to eight core NEMP indicators and institutional characteristics were collected from January to September 2011, using a questionnaire. Prescription-associated indicators were calculated from 9000 outpatient prescriptions selected at random. We categorized the eight NEMP indicators using an exploratory factor analysis, and performed linear regressions to determine the association between the factor scores and institution-level characteristics. The results identified three main factors. Overall, low levels of expenditure of medicines (F1) and poor performance in rational use of medicines (F2) were evident. The availability of medicines (F3) varied significantly across both hospitals and regions. Factor scores had no significant relationship with hospital size (in terms of number of beds and health workers); however, they were associated with revenue and structure of the hospital, patient service load, and support for health workers. Regression analyses showed that public finance per health worker was negatively associated with the availability of medicines (p < 0.05), remuneration of prescribers was positively associated with higher performance in the rational use of medicines (p < 0.05), and drug sales were negatively associated with higher levels of drug expenditure (p < 0.01). In conclusion, irrational use of medicines remains a serious issue, although the financial barriers for gaining access to essential medicines may be less for prescribers and consumers. Limited public finance from local governments may reduce medicine stock lines of township hospitals and lead them to seek alternative sources of income

  14. Tri-membrane nanoparticles produced by combining liposome fusion and a novel patchwork of bicelles to overcome endosomal and nuclear membrane barriers to cargo delivery.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Asako; Mitsueda, Asako; Hasan, Mahadi; Ueda, Miho; Hama, Susumu; Warashina, Shota; Nakamura, Takashi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2016-03-01

    Membrane fusion is a rational strategy for crossing intracellular membranes that present barriers to liposomal nanocarrier-mediated delivery of plasmid DNA into the nucleus of non-dividing cells, such as dendritic cells. Based on this strategy, we previously developed nanocarriers consisting of a nucleic acid core particle coated with four lipid membranes [Akita, et al., Biomaterials, 2009, 30, 2940-2949]. However, including the endosomal membrane and two nuclear membranes, cells possess three intracellular membranous barriers. Thus, after entering the nucleus, nanoparticles coated with four membranes would still have one lipid membrane remaining, and could impede cargo delivery. Until now, coating a core particle with an odd number of lipid membranes was challenging. To produce nanocarriers with an odd number of lipid membranes, we developed a novel coating method involving lipid nano-discs, also known as bicelles, as a material for packaging DNA in a carrier with an odd number of lipid membranes. In this procedure, bicelles fuse to form an outer coating that resembles a patchwork quilt, which allows the preparation of nanoparticles coated with only three lipid membranes. Moreover, the transfection activity of dendritic cells with these three-membrane nanoparticles was higher than that for nanoparticles coated with four lipid membranes. In summary, we developed novel nanoparticles coated with an odd number of lipid membranes using the novel "patchwork-packaging method" to deliver plasmid DNA into the nucleus via membrane fusion. PMID:26667208

  15. Tri-membrane nanoparticles produced by combining liposome fusion and a novel patchwork of bicelles to overcome endosomal and nuclear membrane barriers to cargo delivery.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Asako; Mitsueda, Asako; Hasan, Mahadi; Ueda, Miho; Hama, Susumu; Warashina, Shota; Nakamura, Takashi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2016-03-01

    Membrane fusion is a rational strategy for crossing intracellular membranes that present barriers to liposomal nanocarrier-mediated delivery of plasmid DNA into the nucleus of non-dividing cells, such as dendritic cells. Based on this strategy, we previously developed nanocarriers consisting of a nucleic acid core particle coated with four lipid membranes [Akita, et al., Biomaterials, 2009, 30, 2940-2949]. However, including the endosomal membrane and two nuclear membranes, cells possess three intracellular membranous barriers. Thus, after entering the nucleus, nanoparticles coated with four membranes would still have one lipid membrane remaining, and could impede cargo delivery. Until now, coating a core particle with an odd number of lipid membranes was challenging. To produce nanocarriers with an odd number of lipid membranes, we developed a novel coating method involving lipid nano-discs, also known as bicelles, as a material for packaging DNA in a carrier with an odd number of lipid membranes. In this procedure, bicelles fuse to form an outer coating that resembles a patchwork quilt, which allows the preparation of nanoparticles coated with only three lipid membranes. Moreover, the transfection activity of dendritic cells with these three-membrane nanoparticles was higher than that for nanoparticles coated with four lipid membranes. In summary, we developed novel nanoparticles coated with an odd number of lipid membranes using the novel "patchwork-packaging method" to deliver plasmid DNA into the nucleus via membrane fusion.

  16. Investigation of Functionalized Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-block-polystyrene Nanoparticles As Novel Drug Delivery System to Overcome the Blood-Brain Barrier In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Maria; Bertani, Daniela; Cazzaniga, Emanuela; Orlando, Antonina; Mauri, Michele; Bianchi, Alberto; Re, Francesca; Sesana, Silvia; Minniti, Stefania; Francolini, Maura; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Salmona, Mario; Nardo, Luca; Salerno, Domenico; Mantegazza, Francesco; Masserini, Massimo; Simonutti, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    In the search of new drug delivery carriers for the brain, self-assembled nanoparticles (NP) were prepared from poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-block-polystyrene polymer. NP displayed biocompatibility on cultured endothelial cells, macrophages and differentiated SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells. The surface-functionalization of NP with a modified fragment of human Apolipoprotein E (mApoE) enhanced the uptake of NP by cultured human brain capillary endothelial cells, as assessed by confocal microscopy, and their permeability through a Transwell Blood Brain Barrier model made with the same cells, as assessed by fluorescence. Finally, mApoE-NP embedding doxorubicin displayed an enhanced release of drug at low pH, suggesting the potential use of these NP for the treatment of brain tumors.

  17. Community-based antiretroviral therapy programs can overcome barriers to retention of patients and decongest health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Decroo, Tom; Rasschaert, Freya; Telfer, Barbara; Remartinez, Daniel; Laga, Marie; Ford, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa models of care need to adapt to support continued scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and retain millions in care. Task shifting, coupled with community participation has the potential to address the workforce gap, decongest health services, improve ART coverage, and to sustain retention of patients on ART over the long-term. The evidence supporting different models of community participation for ART care, or community-based ART, in sub-Saharan Africa, was reviewed. In Uganda and Kenya community health workers or volunteers delivered ART at home. In Mozambique people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) self-formed community-based ART groups to deliver ART in the community. These examples of community ART programs made treatment more accessible and affordable. However, to achieve success some major challenges need to be overcome: first, community programs need to be driven, owned by and embedded in the communities. Second, an enabling and supportive environment is needed to ensure that task shifting to lay staff and PLWHA is effective and quality services are provided. Finally, a long term vision and commitment from national governments and international donors is required. Exploration of the cost, effectiveness, and sustainability of the different community-based ART models in different contexts will be needed. PMID:24030268

  18. Organizational socialization of employees with disabilities: Critical issues and implications for workplace interventions.

    PubMed

    Colella, A

    1994-06-01

    Organizational socialization is the process whereby newcomers to work organizations become insiders. The socialization process has been linked to various outcomes including newcomer job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job knowledge and performance, promotion and advancement rate, salary, and turnover. The purpose of the present paper is threefold: (1) to examine issues facing persons with disabilities during organizational socialization in order to help guide future research on this topic; (2) to provide an awareness of potential aditional barriers (unrealistic newcomer expectations, interaction avoidance, "norm to be kind," low work group expectations) that face newcomers with disabilities as they begin jobs; and (3) to suggest some possible policies, programs, and interventions that might help persons with disabilities to overcome those barriers.

  19. Part I: Minicircle vector technology limits DNA size restrictions on ex vivo gene delivery using nanoparticle vectors: Overcoming a translational barrier in neural stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Alinda R; Chari, Divya M

    2016-09-28

    Genetically engineered neural stem cell (NSC) transplant populations offer key benefits in regenerative neurology, for release of therapeutic biomolecules in ex vivo gene therapy. NSCs are 'hard-to-transfect' but amenable to 'magnetofection'. Despite the high clinical potential of this approach, the low and transient transfection associated with the large size of therapeutic DNA constructs is a critical barrier to translation. We demonstrate for the first time that DNA minicircles (small DNA vectors encoding essential gene expression components but devoid of a bacterial backbone, thereby reducing construct size versus conventional plasmids) deployed with magnetofection achieve the highest, safe non-viral DNA transfection levels (up to 54%) reported so far for primary NSCs. Minicircle-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-mediated gene delivery also resulted in sustained gene expression for up to four weeks. All daughter cell types of engineered NSCs (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) were transfected (in contrast to conventional plasmids which usually yield transfected astrocytes only), offering advantages for targeted cell engineering. In addition to enhancing MNP functionality as gene delivery vectors, minicircle technology provides key benefits from safety/scale up perspectives. Therefore, we consider the proof-of-concept of fusion of technologies used here offers high potential as a clinically translatable genetic modification strategy for cell therapy.

  20. Adaptation to Ephemeral Habitat May Overcome Natural Barriers and Severe Habitat Fragmentation in a Fire-Dependent Species, the Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis)

    PubMed Central

    Cerame, Blain; Cox, James A.; Brumfield, Robb T.; Tucker, James W.; Taylor, Sabrina S.

    2014-01-01

    Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis) is a fire-dependent species that has undergone range-wide population declines in recent decades. We examined genetic diversity in Bachman's Sparrows to determine whether natural barriers have led to distinct population units and to assess the effect of anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation. Genetic diversity was examined across the geographic range by genotyping 226 individuals at 18 microsatellite loci and sequencing 48 individuals at mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Multiple analyses consistently demonstrated little genetic structure and high levels of genetic variation, suggesting that populations are panmictic. Based on these genetic data, separate management units/subspecies designations or translocations to promote gene flow among fragmented populations do not appear to be necessary. Panmixia in Bachman's Sparrow may be a consequence of an historical range expansion and retraction. Alternatively, high vagility in Bachman's Sparrow may be an adaptation to the ephemeral, fire-mediated habitat that this species prefers. In recent times, high vagility also appears to have offset inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity in highly fragmented habitat. PMID:25180939

  1. Screening for Asymptomatic Extragenital Gonorrhea and Chlamydia in Men Who Have Sex with Men: Significance, Recommendations, and Options for Overcoming Barriers to Testing.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Anthony R

    2015-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a disproportionately greater risk than other populations of acquiring Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC), the two most commonly reported notifiable diseases in the United States according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The presence of either of these diseases is a significant risk factor for the acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent studies have shown that significant rates of asymptomatic GC and CT infection are found at the extragenital oropharygeal and rectal sites in MSM, with or without concurrent urogenital infection. However, extragenital sites are not being routinely screened and, thus, many asymptomatic GC and CT infections at the oropharyngeal and rectal sites may go undiagnosed. This review will begin with the current evidence-based screening recommendations for extragenital GC and CT in MSM. This will be followed by recently reported extragenital GC and CT infection rates in asymptomatic MSM, and a discussion of the risks and potential implications of undiagnosed extragenital GC and CT infections. Finally, a discussion on the frequency of, and potential barriers to, screening will be presented with a summary of potential interventions for increasing screening frequency found in the literature. The scope of this review will focus primarily on U.S. recommendations, infection rates, and screening frequencies, with the inclusion of relevant international recommendations and studies for comparative and illustrative purposes. PMID:26790015

  2. Overcoming barriers to validation of non-animal partial replacement methods/Integrated Testing Strategies: the report of an EPAA-ECVAM workshop.

    PubMed

    Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Akkan, Zerrin; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Dal Negro, Gianni; De Bruijn, Jack; De Silva, Odile; Gribaldo, Laura; Griesinger, Claudius; Jaworska, Joanna; Kreysa, Joachim; Maxwell, Gavin; McNamee, Pauline; Price, Anna; Prieto, Pilar; Schubert, Roland; Tosti, Luca; Worth, Andrew; Zuang, Valerie

    2009-09-01

    The use of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) in toxicological hazard identification and characterisation is becoming increasingly common as a method for enabling the integration of diverse types of toxicology data. At present, there are no existing procedures and guidelines for the construction and validation of ITS, so a joint EPAA WG5-ECVAM workshop was held with the following objectives: a) to investigate the role of ITS and the need for validation of ITS in the different industry sectors (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, chemicals); b) to formulate a common definition of ITS applicable across different sectors; c) to explore how and when Three Rs methods are used within ITS; and d) to propose a validation rationale for ITS and for alternative methods that are foreseen to be used within ITS. The EPAA provided a platform for comparing experiences with ITS across different industry sectors. It became clear that every ITS has to be adapted to the product type, R&D stage, and regulatory context. However, common features of ITS were also identified, and this permitted the formulation of a general definition of ITS in a regulatory context. The definition served as a basis for discussing the needs, rationale and process of formal ITS validation. One of the main conclusions was that a formal validation should not be required, unless the strategy will serve as full replacement of an in vivo study used for regulatory purposes. Finally, several challenges and bottlenecks to the ITS validation were identified, and it was agreed that a roadmap on how to address these barriers would be established by the EPAA partners. PMID:19807215

  3. Barriers to improving primary care of depression: perspectives of medical group leaders.

    PubMed

    Whitebird, Robin R; Solberg, Leif I; Margolis, Karen L; Asche, Stephen E; Trangle, Michael A; Wineman, Arthur P

    2013-06-01

    Using clinical trials, researchers have demonstrated effective methods for treating depression in primary care, but improvements based on these trials are not being implemented. This might be because these improvements require more systematic organizational changes than can be made by individual physicians. We interviewed 82 physicians and administrative leaders of 41 medical groups to learn what is preventing those organizational changes. The identified barriers to improving care included external contextual problems (reimbursement, scarce resources, and access to/communication with specialty mental health), individual attitudes (physician and patient resistance), and internal care process barriers (organizational and condition complexity, difficulty standardizing and measuring care). Although many of these barriers are challenging, we can overcome them by setting clear priorities for change and allocating adequate resources. We must improve primary care of depression if we are to reduce its enormous adverse social and economic impacts. PMID:23515301

  4. Resistance to Self-Direction in Learning Can Be Overcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiemstra, Roger; Brockett, Ralph G.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes the special issue on resistance to self-direction in learning by enumerating sources of resistance (learners, facilitators, institutions) and presenting strategies for overcoming barriers. (SK)

  5. Overcoming Barriers to Classroom Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Technology-savvy teachers are often the "go to" staff members in schools for their colleagues' technology issues. These teachers are seen as leaders within their schools with respect to technology and often do not understand their peers' difficulties when bringing technology into the classroom. Understanding both the reasons teachers may…

  6. Childhood lymphoedema and 'Lymphaletics': overcoming barriers.

    PubMed

    Todd, Marie

    2016-07-14

    Primary lymphoedema is a complex condition that causes tissue swelling, usually in one or more of the limbs, but lymphatic drainage of the head, trunk or deeper organs may also be affected. It can manifest in swelling at any time from birth meaning there are a number of children affected by this condition. While it is rare in childhood there are too few professionals experienced in diagnosis and treatment, which results in delays in identification and referral to appropriate services for diagnosis and treatment. The Children's Lymphoedema Special Interest Group (CLSIG) was formed in 2010 by a group of lymphoedema specialists in a bid to raise awareness, improve service provision, and enhance practitioner knowledge. One of the aims of the group was to deliver a 'fun day' (Lymphaletics) for children with lymphoedema and their families to encourage physical activity and social interaction with children who have similar problems, and to provide a source of parent-to-parent support. This article discusses the issues for children and their families, and the aims and format of the event. PMID:27409777

  7. Overcoming language barriers when teaching interprofessional groups.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Jeanette

    2012-10-01

    The author of this article undertook a small qualitative study of the best way to prepare unscheduled care staff for team-based delivery of patient care. The study was intended to highlight problems in interprofessional training courses so that guidelines for the delivery of such courses can be developed. The findings show that trainers cannot assume that all participants in training courses understand the terminology used. This article discusses this finding further.

  8. Overcoming the cutaneous barrier with microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Luciana B

    2014-01-01

    Microemulsions are fluid and isotropic formulations that have been widely studied as delivery systems for a variety of routes, including the skin. In spite of what the name suggests, microemulsions are nanocarriers, and their use as topical delivery systems derives from their multiple advantages compared to other dermatological formulations, such as ease of preparation, thermodynamic stability and penetration-enhancing properties. Composition, charge and internal structure have been reported as determinant factors for the modulation of drug release and cutaneous and transdermal transport. This manuscript aims at reviewing how these and other characteristics affect delivery and make microemulsions appealing for topical and transdermal administration, as well as how they can be modulated during the formulation design to improve the potential and efficacy of the final system. PMID:24590260

  9. Overcoming Barriers to Progress in Exercise Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Claude

    2011-01-01

    This commentary focuses on the issues of statistical power, the usefulness of hypothesis-free approaches such as in genome-wide association explorations, the necessity of expanding the research beyond common DNA variants, the advantage of combining transcriptomics with genomics, and the complexities inherent to the search for links between genotype and phenotype in exercise genomics research. PMID:21697717

  10. Overcoming the barriers to effective clinical supervision.

    PubMed

    Bush, Tony

    Clinical supervision remains one of the most misunderstood practices in modern nursing. It provides a nurturing and supportive service for nurses, helping them to reflect critically on their actions in the provision of patient care. The aim of this article is to explore and examine the current role and status of clinical supervision in the NHS. PMID:15688921

  11. Overcoming Disaster Barriers To Service All Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    This paper contains an outline of a workshop designed for the disaster mental health worker. The goal of the workshop is to describe how disaster services are different from other mental health services and to provide suggestions on how to make these services more effective. The types of disasters, the anatomy of a disaster, and time phases of a…

  12. Overcoming the Cutaneous Barrier with Microemulsions

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Luciana B.

    2014-01-01

    Microemulsions are fluid and isotropic formulations that have been widely studied as delivery systems for a variety of routes, including the skin. In spite of what the name suggests, microemulsions are nanocarriers, and their use as topical delivery systems derives from their multiple advantages compared to other dermatological formulations, such as ease of preparation, thermodynamic stability and penetration-enhancing properties. Composition, charge and internal structure have been reported as determinant factors for the modulation of drug release and cutaneous and transdermal transport. This manuscript aims at reviewing how these and other characteristics affect delivery and make microemulsions appealing for topical and transdermal administration, as well as how they can be modulated during the formulation design to improve the potential and efficacy of the final system. PMID:24590260

  13. Overcoming Learning Barriers through Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dror, Itiel E.; Makany, Tamas; Kemp, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn highly depends on how knowledge is managed. Specifically, different techniques for note-taking utilize different cognitive processes and strategies. In this paper, we compared dyslexic and control participants when using linear and non-linear note-taking. All our participants were professionals working in the banking and…

  14. Overcoming the Adoption Barrier to Electric Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Nickol, Craig L.; Jones, Frank P.; Yasky, Richard J.; Woodham, Kurt; Fell, Jared S.; Litherland, Brandon L.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Samuel, Aamod G.

    2016-01-01

    Electrically-powered aircraft can enable dramatic increases in efficiency and reliability, reduced emissions, and reduced noise as compared to today's combustion-powered aircraft. This paper describes a novel flight demonstration concept that will enable the benefits of electric propulsion, while keeping the extraordinary convenience and utility of common fuels available at today's airports. A critical gap in airborne electric propulsion research is addressed by accommodating adoption at the integrated aircraft-airport systems level, using a confluence of innovative but proven concepts and technologies in power generation and electricity storage that need to reside only on the airframe. Technical discriminators of this demonstrator concept include (1) a novel, high-efficiency power system that utilizes advanced solid oxide fuel cells originally developed for ultra-long-endurance aircraft, coupled with (2) a high-efficiency, high-power electric propulsion system selected from mature products to reduce technical risk, assembled into (3) a modern, high-performance demonstration platform to provide useful and compelling data, both for the targeted early adopters and the eventual commercial market.

  15. Organizational Epistemology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Krogh, George; Roos, Johan

    This book is intended to give readers an observational scheme for understanding the process of organizational knowledge development at the individual and social levels. Chapter 1 examines devising a concept of organizational knowledge. In chapter 2, the place of epistemology within philosophy is discussed along with organizational, cognitivist,…

  16. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Susan K; Morris, Julie K; Sanders, J Scott; Wiley, Eugene N; Brooks, Michael; Bennetts, Robert E; Percival, H Franklin; Marynowski, Susan

    2006-10-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  17. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, S.K.; Morris, J.K.; Sanders, J.S.; Wiley, E.N.; Brooks, M.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.; Marynowski, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  18. Organizational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their…

  19. Organizational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beriwal, Madhu; Clegg, Stewart; Collopy, Fred; McDaniel, Reuben, Jr.; Morgan, Gareth; Sutcliffe, Kathleen; Kaufman, Roger; Marker, Anthony; Selwyn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of organizational science, broadly defined as including many fields--organizational behavior and development, management, workplace performance, and so on--were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might…

  20. Overcoming: A Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brush, Barbara L.; Kirk, Keri; Gultekin, Laura; Baiardi, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an operational definition of overcoming as a first step in the systematic analysis of the concept. Using the method described by Walker and Avant (2005), the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of overcoming and its theoretical and practical application to nursing. Sample cases from clinical research illustrate the concept further. Further nursing research needs to test the theoretical relationships between overcoming and outcome variables. PMID:21806626

  1. Understanding and Overcoming "Bottlenecks" in Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturts, Jill R.; Mowatt, Rasul A.

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogically, the term "bottleneck" refers to a moment when students may face barriers to understanding content in the process of learning. As instructors identify "bottlenecks" within their courses, they are faced with the challenge of how to best assist students in overcoming them. Further, most instructors want to know what selected teaching…

  2. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    MedlinePlus

    Plugged milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... oils can cause dry skin. Olive oil, expressed milk, and ointments containing lanolin can help soothe dry ...

  3. Overcoming Passive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Marilyn

    1986-01-01

    Passivity in learning disabled children is identified as either inborn or as "learned helplessness," and the role of the teacher in overcoming passivity is noted. Teachers can help students understand themselves, become active agents in learning, and use self monitoring devices. (CL)

  4. Cleanroom laboratory challenge overcome.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Ronan

    2010-10-01

    Ronan Quinn, managing director of interior construction specialist Ardmac, describes the challenges of building and fitting out a new cleanroom laboratory for blood and bone marrow therapeutic treatment at Our Lady's Children's Hospital Crumlin in Dublin. The "state-of-the-art" facility, which fully complies with the recent EU Directive concerning human tissues and cells, has been well received by the client and end-users alike, but, as he explains, there were many obstacles to overcome during its completion.

  5. Typologizing Organizational Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Rozhan; Hashim, Noor Azuan

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes that a major problem limiting an organization's ability to develop organizational learning capacity is of organizational amnesia. To understand organizational amnesia, it is necessary to look at the various ways that organizational learning is defined. Organizational learning is not merely the process of acquiring knowledge.…

  6. Organizational wisdom.

    PubMed

    Limas, Michael J; Hansson, Robert O

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, much theoretical and empirical attention has focused on wisdom as a psychological construct. The development of wisdom is viewed as a positive aspect of aging, but also has a complement to more traditionally-studied domains of intelligence. Two studies, involving a total of 327 adults, examined how our understanding of the construct might be furthered by its application into specific, problematic contexts, and by having its utility assessed. This involved: 1) development of an instrument that related the elements of wisdom to the context of work organizations; 2) identification of the primary ways in which wisdom contributes to well-being in work organizations; and 3) identification of types of organizations (organizational cultures) most likely to need and value wise persons of influence in their midst. Results suggest that wisdom is of greatest consequence when it fills an important gap in what is offered by the organization's (or society's) formal structure. Where the culture has developed more formal institutions, structure, and principles to guide its activities and ensure fairness in how people are treated, there may be less need for informal sources of organizational wisdom.

  7. Overcoming associative learning.

    PubMed

    Haselgrove, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Thorndike (1898, 1911) rejected the idea that animal behavior was the consequence of reasoning, and suggested instead that the gradual acquisition of associations formed the basis of behavior-a contention that has had a significant impact on the development of animal learning theory. Despite this, comparative psychology provides a number of examples of behaviors that have been considered to be above and beyond the explanation of associative-, or reinforcement-learning mechanisms. These behaviors have motivated some researchers to propose higher-order cognitive abilities in animals, including (but not limited to) reasoning, sensitivity to ambiguity, and metacognition. However, other authors have questioned this claim, and provided alternative explanations for these behaviors from an associative perspective. With relevant examples, the steps that must be taken in order to overcome an associative explanation of behavior are described. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986019

  8. Overcoming associative learning.

    PubMed

    Haselgrove, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Thorndike (1898, 1911) rejected the idea that animal behavior was the consequence of reasoning, and suggested instead that the gradual acquisition of associations formed the basis of behavior-a contention that has had a significant impact on the development of animal learning theory. Despite this, comparative psychology provides a number of examples of behaviors that have been considered to be above and beyond the explanation of associative-, or reinforcement-learning mechanisms. These behaviors have motivated some researchers to propose higher-order cognitive abilities in animals, including (but not limited to) reasoning, sensitivity to ambiguity, and metacognition. However, other authors have questioned this claim, and provided alternative explanations for these behaviors from an associative perspective. With relevant examples, the steps that must be taken in order to overcome an associative explanation of behavior are described. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Barriers to the acceptance of electronic medical records by physicians from systematic review to taxonomy and interventions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The main objective of this research is to identify, categorize, and analyze barriers perceived by physicians to the adoption of Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) in order to provide implementers with beneficial intervention options. Methods A systematic literature review, based on research papers from 1998 to 2009, concerning barriers to the acceptance of EMRs by physicians was conducted. Four databases, "Science", "EBSCO", "PubMed" and "The Cochrane Library", were used in the literature search. Studies were included in the analysis if they reported on physicians' perceived barriers to implementing and using electronic medical records. Electronic medical records are defined as computerized medical information systems that collect, store and display patient information. Results The study includes twenty-two articles that have considered barriers to EMR as perceived by physicians. Eight main categories of barriers, including a total of 31 sub-categories, were identified. These eight categories are: A) Financial, B) Technical, C) Time, D) Psychological, E) Social, F) Legal, G) Organizational, and H) Change Process. All these categories are interrelated with each other. In particular, Categories G (Organizational) and H (Change Process) seem to be mediating factors on other barriers. By adopting a change management perspective, we develop some barrier-related interventions that could overcome the identified barriers. Conclusions Despite the positive effects of EMR usage in medical practices, the adoption rate of such systems is still low and meets resistance from physicians. This systematic review reveals that physicians may face a range of barriers when they approach EMR implementation. We conclude that the process of EMR implementation should be treated as a change project, and led by implementers or change managers, in medical practices. The quality of change management plays an important role in the success of EMR implementation. The barriers and

  10. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the barriers'' literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  11. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the ``barriers`` literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  12. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  13. Impacts of organizational context on quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Justin M; Yano, Elizabeth M; Kaboli, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Variation in how hospitals perform on similar quality improvement (QI) efforts argues for a need to understand how different organizational characteristics affect QI performance. The objective of this study was to use data-mining methods to evaluate relationships between measures of organizational characteristics and hospital QI performance. Organizational characteristics were extracted from 2 surveys and analyzed in 3 separate decision-tree models. The decision trees did not find any predictive associations in this sample of 100 hospitals participating in a national QI collaborative. Further model review identified that measures of QI Experience were associated with an ability to make improvements, whereas measures of Staffing and Culture were associated with an ability to sustain improvements. A key area for future research is to understand the challenges faced as QI teams transition from improving care to sustaining quality and to ascertain what organizational characteristics can best overcome those challenges.

  14. Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

  15. Building change: Effects of professional culture and organizational context on energy efficiency adoption in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janda, Kathryn Bess

    1998-12-01

    Despite the apparent benefits of energy-efficient buildings, energy efficiency measures have not been widely adopted by the building industry. My dissertation addresses the question "If energy efficiency is such a good idea, why isn't there more of it?" by studying the two professional groups that have the most influence over building design: architects and engineers. My hypothesis is that the professional cultures and organizational contexts of building designers can and do influence the achievable potential for energy efficiency in buildings. "Professional culture" describes what architects and engineers are generally taught (both directly and indirectly) to want in a building. "Organizational context" refers to where and how an individual architect or engineer does his or her work. Two utility-funded demand-side management projects provide data for this effort. I use technologies, designers, and decisions from these projects to explore the effects of engineering-economic information, professional culture, and organizational context on energy efficiency adoption. My results show that even in situations where cost and information barriers are overcome, professional culture and organizational contexts affect energy efficiency adoption. My conclusions recommend treating energy efficiency in the built environment as a socio-technical problem, not an engineering-economic one. To improve energy efficiency adoption in the short term, efficiency advocates should focus on organizational context, matching efficient technologies with the firm types most likely to adopt them. To generate market transformation in the long term, efficiency advocates should focus on educating future generations of designers to include efficiency in their professional cultures.

  16. Nano- and microfabrication for overcoming drug delivery challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Kimberly R.

    2013-01-01

    This highlight article describes current nano- and microfabrication techniques for creating drug delivery devices. We first review the main physiological barriers to delivering therapeutic agents. Then, we describe how novel fabrication methods can be utilized to combine many features into a single physiologically relevant device to overcome drug delivery challenges. PMID:23730504

  17. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  18. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  19. Barriers to the implementation of green chemistry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Matus, Kira J M; Clark, William C; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2012-10-16

    This paper investigates the conditions under which firms are able to develop and implement innovations with sustainable development benefits. In particular, we examine "green chemistry" innovations in the United States. Via interviews with green chemistry leaders from industry, academia, nongovernmental institutions (NGOs), and government, we identified six major categories of challenges commonly confronted by innovators: (1) economic and financial, (2) regulatory, (3) technical, (4) organizational, (5) cultural, and (6) definition and metrics. Further analysis of these barriers shows that in the United States, two elements of these that are particular to the implementation of green chemistry innovations are the absence of clear definitions and metrics for use by researchers and decision makers, as well as the interdisciplinary demands of these innovations on researchers and management. Finally, we conclude with some of the strategies that have been successful thus far in overcoming these barriers, and the types of policies which could have positive impacts moving forward.

  20. Barriers to the implementation of green chemistry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Matus, Kira J M; Clark, William C; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2012-10-16

    This paper investigates the conditions under which firms are able to develop and implement innovations with sustainable development benefits. In particular, we examine "green chemistry" innovations in the United States. Via interviews with green chemistry leaders from industry, academia, nongovernmental institutions (NGOs), and government, we identified six major categories of challenges commonly confronted by innovators: (1) economic and financial, (2) regulatory, (3) technical, (4) organizational, (5) cultural, and (6) definition and metrics. Further analysis of these barriers shows that in the United States, two elements of these that are particular to the implementation of green chemistry innovations are the absence of clear definitions and metrics for use by researchers and decision makers, as well as the interdisciplinary demands of these innovations on researchers and management. Finally, we conclude with some of the strategies that have been successful thus far in overcoming these barriers, and the types of policies which could have positive impacts moving forward. PMID:22963612

  1. Overcoming cellular and tissue barriers to improve liposomal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Aditya G.

    Forty years of liposome research have demonstrated that the anti-tumor efficacy of liposomal therapies is, in part, driven by three parameters: 1) liposome formulation and lipid biophysics, 2) accumulation and distribution in the tumor, and 3) release of the payload at the site of interest. This thesis outlines three studies that improve on each of these delivery steps. In the first study, we engineer a novel class of zwitterlipids with an inverted headgroup architecture that have remarkable biophysical properties and may be useful for drug delivery applications. After intravenous administration, liposomes accumulate in the tumor by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, the tumor stroma often limits liposome efficacy by preventing distribution into the tumor. In the second study, we demonstrate that depletion of hyaluronan in the tumor stroma improves the distribution and efficacy of DoxilRTM in murine 4T1 tumors. Once a liposome has distributed to the therapeutic site, it must release its payload over the correct timescale. Few facile methods exist to quantify the release of liposome therapeutics in vivo. In the third study, we outline and validate a simple, robust, and quantitative method for tracking the rate and extent of release of liposome contents in vivo. This tool should facilitate a better understanding of the pharmacodynamics of liposome-encapsulated drugs in animals. This work highlights aspects of liposome behavior that have prevented successful clinical translation and proposes alternative approaches to improve liposome drug delivery.

  2. Overcoming Barriers: Engaging Younger Students in an Online Intercultural Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peiser, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale project involving an online school exchange between two classes of 12-/13-year olds located in the North of England and the Ruhr area of Germany. The overarching aim of the project was to develop intercultural understanding in foreign language learning through communication in an online environment. Analysing…

  3. Postsecondary Correctional Education: Recognizing and Overcoming Barriers to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Shelby M.

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary programs offering vocational training and college credit to eligible inmates have had difficulty finding a place in the U.S. correctional system. Politically motivated restrictions preventing inmates from receiving federal funds for college resulted in drastic program closures. Although new laws restored funding to select inmates,…

  4. Overcoming the Financial Aid Barrier for E-Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaloux, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Financial aid systems help make higher education available to all who can benefit. To "adjust" the existing financial aid system to make it more student friendly and open doors currently closed to many part-time learners and students with the greatest financial challenges, state policy changes and greater private sector initiatives targeted at…

  5. Overcoming Barriers for "Niche" Learners through Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lawrence G.; And Others

    For over 15 years, Tennessee's Chattanooga State Technical Community College has been offering non-traditional, distance education to reach "niches" of students who would otherwise find it difficult to attain a college education. Begun in 1979 with a laboratory-based independent study program offering a mix of purchased and locally-developed…

  6. Overcoming Barriers to Intercultural Relationships: A Culturally Competent Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osher, David; Mejia, Brenda

    1999-01-01

    Profiles programs of two youth centers that are successfully bridging cultural differences through the development of cultural competence. Both centers acknowledge that actualizing cross-cultural competency means providing a way for their ethnic groups to interact with the larger population without losing their cultural heritage. Programs include…

  7. Improving The Perfect Storm: Overcoming Barriers To Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillinger, D.

    2015-12-01

    Students and scientists are trained to speak different languages. Climate science, and the geosciences more broadly, are strictly classroom topics, not subjects appropriate for casual conversation, social media, or creative projects. When students are aware of climate change through the mainstream media, it is nearly always in a political or technological context rather than a scientific one. However, given the opportunity, students are perfectly capable of not only understanding the science behind climate change, but communicating it to their peers. At the American Museum of Natural History, a group of underprivileged high school students visited Nature's Fury: The Science of Natural Disasters to learn about volcanoes, earthquakes, and climate change impacts. They were then able to write pitches and develop trailers for scientifically accurate, but still compelling, disaster movies. Arts in Parts, a creative outreach group formed as a response to Hurricane Sandy, facilitated a workshop in which younger children made mobiles from beach debris they collected while learning about the the threat of sea level rise locally and globally. Participants in an undergraduate natural disasters class wrote guides to understanding climate change that remained factual while showing great creativity and reflecting the personality of each student. Art, humor, and popular culture are the languages that society chooses to use; scientific literacy might benefit from their inclusion.

  8. What Changes Education? An Action Research to Overcome Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskicioglu, Yeser Eroglu

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Disabled People Data Base within Ministry of Family and Social Policies (Özveri), there are 1.559.222 disabled people in Turkey. If this rate would be linked to the families of the disabled people, the number of people who spend time with disabled individuals would increase to 10 million. This number corresponds to 12.5%…

  9. Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Gerard; Bunting, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, Australia had little installed wind capacity, although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Formerly, state-owned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. This situation changed in the late 1990s: Installed wind capacity…

  10. Telecollaborative Networks in University Higher Education: Overcoming Barriers to Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dowd, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Foreign language telecollaboration refers to virtual intercultural interaction and exchange projects between classes of learners in geographically distant locations. While research findings on telecollaboration have confirmed its valuable contribution to students' foreign language, intercultural and electronic competences, a preliminary research…

  11. Overcoming Barriers for "Niche" Learners Through Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lawrence G.; Hyatt, Sue Y.; Brennan, Joyce; Bertani, Raymond; Trevor, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on students who fit into "niches," and discusses how the Chattanooga State Technical Community College's distance-learning program accommodates these learners. Describes five "niche" learner categories: students with disabilities, power-line maintenance technicians, emergency-service personnel, truckers, and industrial maintenance workers…

  12. Acceleration: Overcoming the Vector Barrier with Simple Practical Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitworth, R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes five basic concepts, such as displacement, velocity, momentum, force, and moment of force. Discusses an experimental model to improve the intuitive understanding of acceleration in a straight line and a non-linear situation. (YP)

  13. Overcoming the Database Vocabulary Barrier--A Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Niehoff, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the Vocabulary Switching System (VSS), an experimental, automated switching system, which specifically addresses the problems of heterogeneous database vocabularies and indexes and the difficulty these pose for users who wish to combine more than one database in a single online search. (CWM)

  14. CAI: Overcoming Attitude Barriers of Prospective Primary Teachers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kockler, Lois H.

    During each of two school quarters, approximately 60 college students enrolled in a mathematics course were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The control group received instruction by the lecture method only; the experimental group received the same instruction, except that six computer-assisted instruction (CAI) units…

  15. Enhanced Amendment Delivery to Overcome Subsurface Physical Remediation Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Truex, M. J.; Oostrom, M.; Szecsody, J. E.; Vermeul, V.; Li, X.

    2013-12-01

    Waste discharges can result in contamination of the unsaturated zone (vadose zone) and the water saturated zone (aquifer). To restore the environment, many in situ remediation technologies rely on delivery of remedial reagents (amendments) to the subsurface that treat or help remove contamination. However, through numerous remediation applications, the remediation industry has recognized that a major issue with in situ remediation is the difficulty in achieving an even spatial distribution of remedial amendments to the contamination zones in an aquifer or in the vadose zone. Poor amendment delivery leads to ineffective environmental restoration because some of the contaminants are not contacted by the amendment and, therefore, not treated or removed. This challenge often leads to a failure in environment restoration. Researches are being conducted to develop enhanced remediation amendment delivery approaches using shear thinning fluids (STFs) for aquifer and aqueous foams for vadose zone. STFs have properties that promote more uniform delivery of injected solutions so that amendments are able to reach low-permeability zones in an aquifer. These low-permeability zones are most difficult to reach with conventional delivery approaches, yet often contain the high contamination concentrations. Foam delivery is targeted for distribution of aqueous, gaseous amendments, and remedial nano-particles to the vadose zone. Foam transport in the vadose zone provides significant advantages for lateral distribution of amendments compared to aqueous-phase transport, improves uniformity of distribution compared to both aqueous- and gas-phase injection, and enables delivery of a broader range of remediation amendments than can be delivered in the gas phase.

  16. Approaches to Teaching Organizational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses fundamental problems in selecting an approach to organizational communications; the purpose of an organizational communication course; the structure and content of organizational communication coursework; and teaching strategies used in the basic course in organizational communication. (RS)

  17. Emerging Organizational Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carchidi, Daniel M.; Peterson, Marvin W.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of emerging higher educational organizational structures focuses on the increasing importance of distance education. Considers the emerging organizational landscape, three types of network organizations, six organization archetypes, organizational forms that support distance education, and implications for higher education planners. (DB)

  18. The Organizational Learning Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, R. Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Notes that organizational communication and organizational learning share a common focus on how message processing occurs in institutional settings and how they affect and are affected by people and relationships. Proposes that the assessment of organizational learning represents an assessment of a subset of communication processes in an…

  19. The social construction of occupational health and safety: barriers to environmental-labor health coalitions.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Heather M

    2009-01-01

    Occupational and environmental health advocates promote the potential of alliances between workers and community members to address shared health problems resulting from industrial processes. Advocates recognize the need to overcome job blackmail, which has successfully pitted these groups against one another by threatening job loss in the face of calls for improved standards. This strategic form of issue management represents a dualism between good health and clean environments on one hand and jobs and tax bases on the other. The author argues that overcoming job blackmail requires attention not only to this dualism, but to the broader social construction of occupational and environmental health. The article describes a series of oppositional constructions, in both strategic organizational rhetoric and everyday cultural discourse, which reinforces job blackmail and impedes the development of solidarity among workers, neighbors, and environmental advocates. These dualisms polarize our views of work and environment, science, and social identity, thereby producing barriers to coalition formation. Understanding these reifications helps to build an activist agenda and identify potential resources for organizing to overcome these barriers. PMID:19778829

  20. Comprehensive Examination of Barriers to Employment among Persons Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crudden, Adele; McBroom, Lynn W.; Skinner, Amy L.; Moore, J. Elton

    A survey of 166 employed persons with visual impairments investigated major barriers to employment, how these barriers were overcome, and their perceptions on why they were successful in overcoming barriers when many individuals are not successful. Results of the survey indicate that the primary barriers to employment were employer attitudes,…

  1. In Vivo Gene Delivery by Nonviral Vectors: Overcoming Hurdles?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Satterlee, Andrew; Huang, Leaf

    2012-01-01

    The promise of cancer gene therapeutics is hampered by difficulties in the in vivo delivery to the targeted tumor cells, and systemic delivery remains to be the biggest challenge to be overcome. Here, we concentrate on systemic in vivo gene delivery for cancer therapy using nonviral vectors. In this review, we summarize the existing delivery barriers together with the requirements and strategies to overcome these problems. We will also introduce the current progress in the design of nonviral vectors, and briefly discuss their safety issues. PMID:22525514

  2. Investigation of the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Pala, Adem; Kumartasli, Mehmet; Günel, Ilker; Duyan, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Organizational trust and organizational commitment are considered as the most important entraining factors for organizational success. The most important factor in the formation of organizational commitment is trust that employees have in their organizations. In this study, the relationship between organizational trust and organizational…

  3. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from 415 primary teachers…

  4. Improving organizational climate for excellence in patient care.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Managers in health care organizations today are expected to achieve higher-quality patient care at a lower cost. Developing and maintaining a positive organizational climate can help improve motivation and foster higher employee performance. In turn, this will help the organization deliver better patient care at a lower cost. This article offers metrics for assessing organizational climate, analyzes barriers to a positive climate, and explores strategies that managers can use to build the type of climate that fosters high performance. PMID:23903945

  5. Improving organizational climate for excellence in patient care.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Managers in health care organizations today are expected to achieve higher-quality patient care at a lower cost. Developing and maintaining a positive organizational climate can help improve motivation and foster higher employee performance. In turn, this will help the organization deliver better patient care at a lower cost. This article offers metrics for assessing organizational climate, analyzes barriers to a positive climate, and explores strategies that managers can use to build the type of climate that fosters high performance.

  6. Helping Young Children Overcome Shyness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John

    This paper examines shyness--its causes and its impact on children--and presents several strategies based on social learning theory for parents and teachers to help young children overcome shyness. The paper also describes a personal application of these strategies on a young girl. The strategies presented for parents and teachers are: (1) tell…

  7. Maximizing nurse practitioners' contributions to primary care through organizational changes.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, Lusine; Aiken, Linda H

    2015-01-01

    The nurse practitioner (NP) workforce represents a considerable supply of primary care providers able to contribute to meeting a growing demand for care. However, organizational barriers hinder their optimal use. This article presents reports from 592 NPs on their roles, organizational support available to them, relationships between NPs and administration, their job satisfaction, and intentions of leaving their jobs. Nurse practitioners reported deficits in organizational context of care, problematic deployment of resources, and unfavorable working relationships with administrators. Addressing these challenges and creating work environments conducive to NP practice are necessary to fully exploit the capacity of the NP workforce. PMID:25748259

  8. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  9. Women in Management: Strategies for Removing the Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirides, Ellyn; Cote, Andre

    1980-01-01

    Looks at the status of women in management and identifies barriers to the upward mobility of women workers, including sex-role stereotyping, hiring biases, organizational procedures, managers' attitudes, and women's own self-concepts. (Author/JM)

  10. Organizational Paradigm Shifts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This collection of essays explores a new paradigm of higher education. The first essay, "Beyond Re-engineering: Changing the Organizational Paradigm" (L. Edwin Coate), suggests a model of quality process management and a structure for managing organizational change. "Thinking About Consortia" (Mary Jo Maydew) discusses cooperative effort and…

  11. Organizational Learning? Look Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the growth in research on conditions for successful learning by organizations and the introduction of expanding practices and approaches, a progressive and shared understanding of the link between organizational learning and governance is currently missing. This paper aims to take a closer look at organizational learning from a…

  12. Overcoming Stereotypes, Discovering Hidden Capitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Lori; Wrigley, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a model of teacher research supported by academic partners to develop a better understanding of the barriers to education faced by young people growing up in poverty. It critiques politicians' demands for teachers to "close the gap" for ignoring the cumulative intergenerational effects of deprivation. The…

  13. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism

    PubMed Central

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  14. Organizational climate and culture.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H

    2013-01-01

    Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research.

  15. Strategies to overcome statin intolerance.

    PubMed

    Agouridis, Aris P; Nair, Devaki R; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2015-06-01

    This editorial discusses several options to overcome statin intolerance in clinical practice. For example, switching to a different statin, changing statin dosing, using lipid-lowering drugs other than statins (e.g., ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants and fibrates, alone or in combination), or combining statins with other lipid-lowering drugs. The authors focus on the potential mechanisms involved in statin-related myopathy. New lipid-lowering drugs currently in development (e.g., cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors [anacetrapib] and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 inhibitors) inhibitors may help in the management of statin intolerance while achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets as set out by the guidelines.

  16. Barriers to Physical Activity Among Gay Men.

    PubMed

    Cary, Miranda A; Brittain, Danielle R; Dinger, Mary K; Ford, Melissa L; Cain, Meagan; Sharp, Teresa A

    2016-09-01

    Gay men may not be physically active at recommended levels to achieve health benefits. Thus, a need exists to identify general (i.e., common across populations) and population-specific barriers that hinder or stop gay men from participating in physical activity (PA). Salient barriers may be identified through the extent each barrier limits PA (i.e., barrier limitation) and the level of one's confidence to overcome barriers and engage in PA (i.e., self-regulatory efficacy). The purposes of this study were to (1) provide a description of general and population-specific barriers to PA among sufficiently and insufficiently active gay men, (2) identify barrier limitation and self-regulatory efficacy for the reported barriers, and (3) examine the associations between meeting the current PA recommendation, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy. Participants were 108 self-identified gay males aged 21 to 64 years who completed a web-based survey. A total of 35 general barriers and no population-specific barriers were identified by the sufficiently and insufficiently active groups. The sufficiently active group reported higher self-regulatory efficacy and lower barrier limitation for nearly all reported barriers. A binary logistic regression used to examine the associations between PA, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy was statistically significant, χ(2)(2, N = 108) = 19.26, p < .0001, R(2) = .16. Only barrier limitation significantly contributed to the model. Future research should continue to examine barriers to PA among gay men to determine whether an intervention needs to be designed specifically for gay men or whether a one-size-fits-all intervention would be effective in helping all men overcome common barriers to engaging in PA.

  17. Overcoming Barriers to Leadership by Women--Identification of Barriers: A Psycho-Social Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoferek, Mary J.

    Recent data indicate that women are underutilized and underrepresented in leadership roles in physical education at the higher education level, that the degree of underutilization and underrepresentation increases with the degree of power associated with the role in question, and that this situation is typical also of higher education in general…

  18. Determining and Diagnosing Organizational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    1981-01-01

    Presents a method for holistic organizational analysis that provides developers with a rationale to obtain data and decision bases for successful internal and extraorganizational intervention and change. The analysis, based on the Organizational Elements Model, relates organizational resources, efforts, results, and organizational impact. Presents…

  19. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  20. Organizational leadership in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Longest, B B; Darr, K; Rakich, J S

    1993-01-01

    Hospitals face very dynamic environments and must meet diverse needs in the communities they serve and respond to multiple expectations imposed by their stakeholders. Coupled with these variables, the fact that leadership in these organizations is a shared phenomenon makes organizational leadership in them very complicated. An integrative overview of the organizational leadership role of CEOs in hospitals is presented, and determinants of success in playing this role are discussed.

  1. Organizational Change; How to Understand It and Deal with It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismer, Jack N.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an exercise to facilitate employee understanding and implementation of planned organizational change, along with techniques to introduce the concept of change into organization development workshops or supervisory training efforts. Describes barriers that stimulate resistance to change and ways to promote acceptance of organizational…

  2. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  3. Organizational Support of Technology Integration in One School in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zgheib, Rosine S.

    2013-01-01

    Technology has been at the center of heated debates in educational settings driving schools to compete for the best technological equipments. However, in Lebanon there is a lag in technology integration matching twenty first century advances. Several barriers related to teacher attitudes, lack of technical skills and organizational constraints to…

  4. Barriers to Asthma Management as Identified by School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaranta, Judith E.; Spencer, Gale A.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma rates are increasing in children. School nurses have opportunities to care for children with asthma but need to overcome barriers impacting their ability to manage asthma in the school setting. This study (a) assessed barriers present in the school setting, (b) determined the impact of barriers on performance of asthma management behaviors,…

  5. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  6. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.

    PubMed

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie

    2006-12-01

    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems. PMID:16987573

  7. Overcoming challenges in improvement work.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Helen

    2013-09-01

    The Health Foundation is an independent charity working to improve healthcare in the UK, so that we have a system of the highest possible quality-safe, effective, person-centred, timely, efficient and equitable. We believe that in order to achieve this, health services need to continually improve the way they work. The Foundation conducts research and evaluation, puts ideas into practice through improvement programmes, develops leaders and shares evidence to drive wider change. The work is a focused around two priority areas: patient safety and person-centred care. The Foundation has supported work to improve services for patients with kidney disease and, in common with other quality improvement projects, there have been challenges to overcome. Awareness of these common challenges can help others to be more prepared when planning service improvements.

  8. Overcoming "the Valley of Death".

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Robin A

    2014-01-01

    On a global level there are major challenges arising from climate change, resource use and changing age demographics. These issues have created a global marketplace for novel innovative products and solutions which can help to combat and overcome these challenges which have created significant commercial opportunities for companies, particularly for small and medium size enterprises or SMEs. Companies most likely to take advantage of these opportunities will be those which can innovate in a timely manner. Innovation significantly contributes to higher productivity and economic growth, and is core to a company's competitiveness within often challenging marketplaces. However, many factors can stifle innovation. Companies can struggle to identify finance for early-stage development, the returns can be difficult to predict, and the innovation 'landscape' is often complex and unclear. This brief review describes some of the main issues with commercialising innovative ideas and provides guidance with respect to the often complicated funding landscape both on a National and European level.

  9. Overcoming "the Valley of Death".

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Robin A

    2014-01-01

    On a global level there are major challenges arising from climate change, resource use and changing age demographics. These issues have created a global marketplace for novel innovative products and solutions which can help to combat and overcome these challenges which have created significant commercial opportunities for companies, particularly for small and medium size enterprises or SMEs. Companies most likely to take advantage of these opportunities will be those which can innovate in a timely manner. Innovation significantly contributes to higher productivity and economic growth, and is core to a company's competitiveness within often challenging marketplaces. However, many factors can stifle innovation. Companies can struggle to identify finance for early-stage development, the returns can be difficult to predict, and the innovation 'landscape' is often complex and unclear. This brief review describes some of the main issues with commercialising innovative ideas and provides guidance with respect to the often complicated funding landscape both on a National and European level. PMID:25549408

  10. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    PubMed

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics. PMID:19780367

  11. Microbial barriers.

    PubMed

    Gutwein, Luke G; Panigrahi, Mousumee; Schultz, Gregory S; Mast, Bruce A

    2012-07-01

    Barrier wound therapy is commonplace in the health care environment and functions to limit bacterial colonization and infection in both acute wounds and recalcitrant chronic wounds. This article reviews the nature of acute and chronic wounds and their available adjunctive barrier therapies.

  12. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    PubMed

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  13. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    PubMed

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research. PMID:26967029

  14. Organizational centralization in radiology.

    PubMed

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, hospitals have a radiology department, where images are taken and interpretation occurs. Teleradiology makes it possible to capture images in one location and transmit them elsewhere for interpretation. Organizational centralization of radiology interpretations is therefore of interest. Empirical data have been collected in qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons with substantial experience with picture archiving and communication systems and teleradiology, from 12 departments of radiology in Norway. The response rate was 90%. A total of 21 theoretically possible types of centralization of image interpretation were identified, representing combinations of three categories of geographical centralization, and seven categories of centralization according to function. Various advantages and disadvantages of centralization were identified. Organizational changes may be decisive for the future of teleradiology, but it may be wise to plan for change in small steps, since we know little about how broad future organizational changes based on teleradiology will be, or what will decide how far particular organizations will go. PMID:16438776

  15. Organizational Citizenship and Organizational Justice in Turkish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Tasdan, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine primary school teachers' perceptions regarding organizational citizenship and organizational justice. The study also aims to determine whether such perceptions vary depending on the variables of gender, field of study and seniority, and whether organizational citizenship behaviors and…

  16. Organizational Justice As a Predictor of Organizational Silence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Çetin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, relation between teachers' perception for organizational justice and their organizational silence was examined. Sample of this study consists of 300 teachers who work at elementary schools in Siirt. Relational Scanning model was utilized in performance of this study. In this study, Organizational Justice Scale and…

  17. Does Organizational Forgetting Matter? Organizational Survival for Life Coaching Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Erhan; Gormus, Alparslan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to determine the role of organizational forgetting in different type of coaching companies and to determine organizational survival based on both knowledge structure of coaching companies and organizational forgetting with core features of organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Within the context of…

  18. Organizational Adaptation and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    1984-01-01

    Organizational adaptation and types of adaptation needed in academe in the future are reviewed and major conceptual approaches to organizational adaptation are presented. The probable environment that institutions will face in the future that will require adaptation is discussed. (MLW)

  19. Organizational Learning and Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

  20. Organizational Performance and Customer Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald; Herbst, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    While behavior systems analysts have recognized the importance of the consumer of organizational products (i.e., receiving system) in developing models of organizational change, few have offered a systematic assessment of the relationship between consumer and organizational practices. In this article we will discuss how a behavior systems approach…

  1. Organizational Learning Theory in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauske, Janice R.; Raybould, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purposes are to establish organizational learning theory as evolving from the theoretical and empirical study of organizations and to build grounded theory explaining organizational learning in schools. Design/methodology/approach: Implementation of instructional technology as a process of organizational learning was explored…

  2. Organizational Theory and Leadership Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazer, S. David; Kruse, Sharon D.; Conley, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Teaching organizational theory in a way that bridges to leadership practice is vital to preparing deft educational leaders who understand the organizational behavior of schools and districts. Organizational theory guides understanding of the complexities of schools and districts and can be a basis for collaborative and effective decision making.…

  3. Simulation Gaming for Organizational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruohomaki, Virpi

    2003-01-01

    This article introduces development and design approaches to organizational change (DIL). Simulation games can be used for promoting organizational development. They offer an arena for organization members to analyze the present state of an organization and create new organizational solutions. The bridge between the present and future mode of…

  4. Organizational Learning: Leading Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinson, Vivienne; Cook, Tanya Fedoruk

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the interplay among the environment, learning, leaders, and innovations in school systems. Six conditions that, together, have potential to shape an environment that supports organizational learning are illustrated with data from two leaders of innovation: one in an environment that resisted change; the other in a supportive…

  5. Organizational Knowledge Management Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczak, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To propose and evaluate a novel management structure that encourages knowledge sharing across an organization. Design/methodology/approach: The extant literature on the impact of organizational culture and its link to management structure is examined and used to develop a new knowledge sharing management structure. Roadblocks to…

  6. Organizational Effectiveness of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil

    1982-01-01

    Because organizational effectiveness of schools is difficult to define, a model is needed to explain the complexities of the concept. Two models offer some promise. One is the goal model, which defines effectiveness as the degree to which organizations meet or surpass their goals (either official or operational). The other is the system resource…

  7. ORGANIZATIONAL RISK COMMUNICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ris communication tools in organizations differs in several ways from many of tools and techniques developed for public meetings. The traditional view of risk communication seeks to manage the public outrage ssociated with site-based issues. Organizational risk communication seek...

  8. Understanding Organizational Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer

    This guide, which is intended for workplace education providers, defines organizational culture, reviews selected techniques for reading a company's culture, and presents examples of ways in which organizations' culture can affect workplace education programs. An organization's culture is determined by: recognizing the company's philosophy…

  9. Teaching Organizational Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakunas, Boris; Holley, William

    2001-01-01

    Advocates teaching students organizational skills that lead to school success. Outlines seven such skills and how to teach them, including such things as bringing necessary supplies to class, organizing handouts and loose-leaf papers, taking and organizing notes, developing and following study plans, and planning and carrying out large projects.…

  10. Organizationally Sponsored Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Kenneth M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Institutionally sponsored mentoring programs benefit organizations by aiding retention of employees or students. A successful program must have endorsement from top administration and a designated coordinator who is sensitive to organizational goals and objectives as well as the varied needs of mentors and proteges. (SK)

  11. Math Is Like a Scary Movie? Helping Young People Overcome Math Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkin, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Afterschool teachers who tutor students or provide homework help have a unique opportunity to help students overcome the social or emotional barriers that so often block learning. They can embrace a creative and investigative approach to math learning. Margaret Kulkin's interest in being a math attitude "myth-buster" led her to apply to…

  12. Analyzing the nursing organizational structure and process from a scheduling perspective.

    PubMed

    Maenhout, Broos; Vanhoucke, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The efficient and effective management of nursing personnel is of critical importance in a hospital's environment comprising approximately 25 % of the hospital's operational costs. The nurse organizational structure and the organizational processes highly affect the nurses' working conditions and the provided quality of care. In this paper, we investigate the impact of different nurse organization structures and different organizational processes for a real-life situation in a Belgian university hospital. In order to make accurate nurse staffing decisions, the employed solution methodology incorporates shift scheduling characteristics in order to overcome the deficiencies of the many phase-specific methodologies that are proposed in the academic literature.

  13. Organizational Culture and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  14. Energy Organizational Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Gina C. Paradis; James Yockey; Tracey LeBeau

    2009-04-17

    As the Seneca Nation of Indians (SNI) continues to refine and finalize its Strategic Energy Plan, it became necessary to insure that a sustainable organization structure was developed through which the energy program and its initiatives could be nurtured and managed. To that end, SNI undertook a study to thoroughly evaluate the existing organizational structures and assess the requisite changes and/or additions to that framework that would complement the mission of the Strategic Plan. The goal of this study was to analyze, work with staff and leadership and recommend the most effective plan for the development of an organizational framework within which the Seneca could more effectively exercise energy sovereignty – control and manage their natural resource assets – i.e. develop its own energy resources, meet the current and projected energy needs of their community, and “sit at the table” with other regional energy providers to deal with issues on a peer-to-peer basis.

  15. [Hospital organizational structure].

    PubMed

    Bittar, O J

    1994-01-01

    The basic point for an Institution to work is the existence of a definite organizational structure that puts together similar areas allowing decisions and the operationalization of different tasks. Knowledge and analysis of structures of private and public hospitals and a bibliography review about the issue is the purpose of this paper. Suggestions are given about the elaboration of small structures and the utilization of matrix management in order to accomplish the hospitals objectives.

  16. Overcoming challenges to adoption of shared medical appointments.

    PubMed

    McCuistion, Mary Honodel; Stults, Cheryl D; Dohan, Daniel; Frosch, Dominick L; Hung, Dorothy Y; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2014-04-01

    Although research has shown many benefits of Shared Medical Appointments (SMAs) or group visits, uptake by physicians has been quite limited. The objective of this study was to explore the facilitators and barriers to implementing SMAs in a large multispecialty medical group. This was a comparative analysis of SMAs at 3 geographically distinct, semiautonomous divisions of the medical group based on qualitative themes identified in audio recorded key informant interviews with medical and administrative staff (n=12) involved with the implementation of SMAs. Data were collected by conducting key informant interviews focusing on the SMA implementation process, including motivations, history, barriers, and facilitators. Uptake at the 3 divisions was predicated by differing motivations, facilitators, and barriers. Divisions 1 and 2 allocated necessary resources including management support, a physician champion, expert consults, and support staff. These divisions also overcame physician reluctance and financial sustainability challenges. Despite early interest, Division 3 did not devote the time or resources to overcome initial resistance. Without the impetus of management mandate or a champion's enthusiasm, early attempts of SMA implementation faltered and were abandoned. In these cases, a physician champion, management support, and financial sustainability were judged to be the primary enablers of successful implementations of SMAs. Without these enablers and other contributing factors, implementing SMAs was challenging. PMID:24156662

  17. Barriers to HIV Cure.

    PubMed

    Stein, J; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, M; Streeck, H

    2016-10-01

    Since the beginning of the epidemic, more than 70 million people have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and about 38 million have died from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses. While the discovery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid 90's has saved millions of lives, a complete eradication of HIV is still not possible as HIV can persist for decades in a small reservoir of latently infected cells. Once reactivated, these latently infected cells can actively produce viral particles. Recent studies suggest that several sanctuaries exist within infected individuals where HIV can remain undetected by the immune system. These cellular, anatomical and microanatomical viral reservoirs represent a major obstacle for the eradication of HIV. Here we review recent findings on potential sanctuaries of HIV and address potential avenues to overcome these immunological barriers. PMID:27620852

  18. Barriers to Communication between Health Practitioners and Service Users Who Are Not Fluent in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Gilmartin, Jo

    2002-01-01

    Barriers to communication between health practitioners and clients not fluent in English include stereotyping, misinterpretation of meaning, and mismatching of beliefs and models of care. Organizational practices may deter or encourage transcultural communication. (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  19. Organisational Learning Barriers in Distributed Product Development: Observations from a Multinational Corporation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gieskes, Jose F. B.; Hyland, Paul W.; Magnusson, Mats G.

    2002-01-01

    Using the Continuous Improvement for Global Innovation Management model, organizational learning in a multinational corporation was investigated. Barriers included time pressures, cultural differences, and inflexible hierarchy. Units with different operational foci emphasized different types of learning. Participants represented different…

  20. Drivers and Barriers in Health IT Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Avgar, A.C.; Litwin, A.S.; Pronovost, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite near (and rare) consensus that the adoption and diffusion of health information technology (health IT) will bolster outcomes for organizations, individuals, and the healthcare system as a whole, there has been surprisingly little consideration of the structures and processes within organizations that might drive the adoption and effective use of the technology. Management research provides a useful lens through which to analyze both the determinants of investment and the benefits that can ultimately be derived from these investments. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding health IT adoption. In doing so, this paper highlights specific organizational barriers or enablers at different stages of the adoption process – investment, implementation, and use – and at different levels of organizational decision-making – strategic, operational, and frontline. This framework will aid both policymakers and organizational actors as they make sense of the transition from paper-based to electronic systems. PMID:23646093

  1. One School's Approach to Overcoming Resistance and Improving Appraisal: Organizational Learning in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the action research (AR) approach adopted by one New Zealand (NZ) primary school to review and improve its appraisal system. Historically the staff had demonstrated considerable negativity towards appraisal. The classic reconnaissance, implementation and evaluation phases of AR were adopted by the case study school as a…

  2. Barriers to Asthma Management as Identified by School Nurses.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Judith E; Spencer, Gale A

    2016-10-01

    Asthma rates are increasing in children. School nurses have opportunities to care for children with asthma but need to overcome barriers impacting their ability to manage asthma in the school setting. This study (a) assessed barriers present in the school setting, (b) determined the impact of barriers on performance of asthma management behaviors, and (c) determined the impact of barriers on importance ratings of asthma management behaviors, asthma self-efficacy, and asthma attitudes (N = 537). Results revealed 72% of the nurses reported at least one barrier. As numbers of barriers increased, performance of asthma management behaviors decreased. Significant relationships were found between specific asthma management behaviors and specific barriers. No significant relationships were found between barriers and asthma self-efficacy, asthma attitude, or importance ratings of asthma management behaviors. Removing barriers may allow the nurse to perform at greatest effectiveness, enhancing the positive outcomes that result from appropriate asthma management. PMID:27044669

  3. Exploring Organizational and Cultural Barriers to Developing Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadelman, Cindi A.

    2014-01-01

    Distance learning programs are being developed at many institutions of higher learning as a means of maintaining a competitive advantage. The problem is that college administrators have no reliable methods for predicting the likelihood of success or failure of these newly launched programs. There is a lack of information regarding attitudes and…

  4. Barriers vs Creativity in Translator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Mine

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses translation problems awaiting Turkish students as well as the creative solutions they develop in overcoming them. It consists of two parts; The first part studies the barriers concerning translation procedures from the perspective of translation theory and Turkish translation history; The second parts analyses the impact of…

  5. Penetrating the Barriers to Teaching Higher Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supon, Viola

    1998-01-01

    Considers five ways to overcome barriers teachers face when they attempt to create thinking classrooms: (1) acquisition of conscious commitment; (2) legitimization of students' experiences; (3) integration of visualizing into the curriculum; (4) use of reflective analysis; and (5) diversification of perspectives. (SR)

  6. Celebrating Change: Overcoming Resistance to Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golemo, Mary Beth

    1990-01-01

    College campus activities professionals implementing change need to simultaneously involve four elements in the organizational world: environment, people, structure, and purpose. Resistance to change can be countered by defusing resistance, developing a strategy, choosing leaders wisely, providing advance notice and information, and observing…

  7. Promoting Physical Activity: Addressing Barriers and Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Morrow, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The barriers that keep individuals from adopting and maintaining active lifestyles are very complex. Strategies for overcoming these barriers and to incentivize and assist inactive individuals to benefit from physical activity are necessary. In addition, it is important to examine the impact of public policy on active living. As youth physical…

  8. The Gendered International School: Barriers to Women Managers' Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Ruth Elizabeth; Whitehead, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers women identify to their promotion in international schools and also the ways in which women can overcome these barriers. Design/methodology/approach: The field of enquiry is international schools, with the study drawing on qualitative research. The researchers interviewed 11 women from…

  9. Barriers to automation in health care settings.

    PubMed

    Kunitz, S C

    1994-08-01

    Health information systems have changed little since the 1970s, and most are incapable of meeting the information demands of either their organization or outside organizations. Through literature reviews, interviews with staff in three hospitals, and a vendor study, the staff of Kunitz and Associates, Inc. examined barriers to implementing automated systems in hospitals. These barriers were found to be technical, organizational, and operational in nature and to involve issues of communication within the health care environment and between information system vendors and health care staff. Resolving these issues is dependent upon efforts by both the health care and technical communities.

  10. The Importance of Organizational Learning for Organizational Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This Special Issue is intended to heighten awareness of the importance of organizational learning in addressing the demands of organizational sustainability, and in particular triple bottom line (TBL) sustainability. A definition of TBL sustainability is provided, together with an exploration of the practical issues relevant to adopting…

  11. The Relationship between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Climate in Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Adela J.; Scott, D. R.; Pace, R. Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational climate. Subjects were chosen from three large Australian automotive component manufacturing companies. A questionnaire was administered to 1,413 employees from forty-two countries of origin. A 97.8 percent response rate yielded 1,382…

  12. The Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayir, Funda

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: It can be said that one of the key factors ensuring teachers adaptation to developments is teachers' level of commitment to their schools. In this commitment, the teacher is expected to internalize the organizational objectives. The teacher's perception of organizational support is important for him to internalize the…

  13. The Effects of Organizational Training on Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Cagri; Culha, Osman

    2010-01-01

    This empirical study investigated the impact of organizational training on employee commitment focusing on employees' emotional and affective responses towards their organization. Organizational training is conceptualized within a multidimensional framework consisting of motivation for training, access to training, benefits from training and…

  14. Viruses Challenge Selectivity Barrier of Nuclear Pores

    PubMed Central

    Labokha, Aksana A.; Fassati, Ariberto

    2013-01-01

    Exchange between the nucleus and the cytoplasm occurs through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the double membrane of the nuclear envelope. NPC permeability barrier restricts the entry of inert molecules larger than 5 nm in diameter but allows facilitated entry of selected cargos, whose size can reach up to 39 nm. The translocation of large molecules is facilitated by nuclear transport receptors (NTRs) that have affinity to proteins of NPC permeability barrier. Viruses that enter the nucleus replicate evolved strategies to overcome this barrier. In this review, we will discuss the functional principles of NPC barrier and nuclear transport machinery, as well as the various strategies viruses use to cross the selective barrier of NPCs. PMID:24084236

  15. Collective Efficacy, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and School Effectiveness in Alabama Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, J. Darrell

    2010-01-01

    For several decades, researchers have searched for school-level properties that can overcome the negative consequences of student SES on school effectiveness. Two promising constructs that have been identified are collective teacher efficacy (CE) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study examined the relationship between these two…

  16. Organizational Characteristics as Predictors of Personnel Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Susan E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between organizational context characteristics and personnel practices. Results from 267 organizations supported hypothesis that personnel practices vary as function of organizational characteristics (industry sector, pursuit of innovation as competitive strategy, manufacturing technology, organizational structure).…

  17. Challenges of organizational learning: perpetuation of discrimination against employees with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Lynn Perry; James, Erika Hayes

    2005-01-01

    This article examines why organizations struggle with learning how to prevent discrimination against their employees with disabilities. To explore this issue, qualitative archival data were collected and analyzed from 53 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) lawsuits filed against 44 organizations. Theoretical analysis of the qualitative data suggests that several organizationally based learning theories explain the difficulty organizations have with creating a disability-friendly work environment. These barriers to learning are embedded in complex defense mechanisms and discriminatory organizational routines. Furthermore, organizations have difficulties engaging in higher-order and vicarious learning. We conclude the article with examples of successful learning practices as they relate to barriers identified in the qualitative analysis.

  18. The Professional as Organizational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecke, David S.

    1973-01-01

    This study uses a sample of 56 ministers to assess the effect of professional and organizational perspectives on determining leadership effectiveness and work satisfaction. The organizational perspective was more important for determining effectiveness than the professional perspective. Both perspectives contributed to satisfaction. (Author/JH)

  19. Organizational Roles of University Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Walter C.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of relationships found empirically to hold among 20 organizational characteristics of university committees, two patterns are derived of the organizational roles which university committees play: the deliberative, collective decision-making role of member-dominated committees and the one-person advisory role of chairperson-dominated…

  20. Identifying and Clarifying Organizational Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda S.

    2000-01-01

    Of the 14 organizational values ranked by a majority of 146 New Mexico Cooperative Extension educators as extremely valued, 9 were extremely evident in organizational policies and procedures. A values audit such as this forms an important initial step in strategic planning. (SK)

  1. Organizational Learning through Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imran, Muhammad Kashif; Ilyas, Muhammad; Aslam, Usman; Ubaid-Ur-Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The transformation of firms from resource-based-view to knowledge-based-view has extended the importance of organizational learning. Thus, this study aims to develop an organizational learning model through transformational leadership with indirect effect of knowledge management process capability and interactive role of…

  2. Organizational Planning and Conventional Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Considers the elements of organizational effectiveness, the relationships between ends and means, and the nature of inputs necessary to the organization's survival. Presents hypotheses for industrial, educational, and military organizational planning processes and training technology, and suggests changing planning focus from inputs to outcomes.…

  3. Organizational Commitment as Symbolic Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda; Morrill, Calvin

    1995-01-01

    Offers a processual (sic) approach suited to the complex nature of organizational commitment during times of radical change. Emphasizes commitment as communication processes that are integrally tied to the creation of organizational cultures, involve identification via symbolic processes, and encompass various degrees of linkages between…

  4. Organizational Change as Paradigm Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Hasan; Louis, Karen Seashore

    1994-01-01

    A model of organizational change is applied to long-term planning at the University of Minnesota. Results suggest that, although planning began in the 1970s, the 1980s saw a model change that increased centralization in strategic orientation and a reduction in size and programs. Implications for organizational research are examined. (Author/MSE)

  5. "Leading Parts" and Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, L. Dave

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying organizational change and applies the framework to understanding organizational change. The main focus of the framework is the concept of "leading parts." Leading parts may be dominant or catalytic in their impact on systems; and understanding their operation requires analysis of the…

  6. The Nature of Organizational Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Belinda K.; Carpenter, D. Stanley

    1993-01-01

    Examines the role organizational politics play in student affairs. Sees background knowledge of politics as a concept critical to understanding idiosyncratic nature of any organization. Notes that both organizational conditions and individual behavior contribute to organization's political climate. Concludes that professionals who fail to…

  7. Organizational Climate and Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Stephen Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of school climate and teacher commitment in elementary schools in Alabama. A total of 67 elementary schools were surveyed and 1353 teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments used in this study were the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ).…

  8. Organizational Silence in Sports Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Gulsum; Pala, Adem; Yilmaz, Taner; Duyan, Mehdi; Gunel, Ilker

    2016-01-01

    Organizational silence can be defined as a way of behaviour belonging to men and women employees in the organization exhibited without reflecting their feelings, ideas, concerns and suggestions related with their workplaces, works for which they are responsible or other activities of the organization. In the period of organizational silence,…

  9. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees’ shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (Mage = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals’ perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  10. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  11. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work.

  12. Barrier Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Medina, J.F.; Sarvide, S.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Everts, V.; DenBesten, P.; Smith, C.E.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis is an irreversible structural enamel defect following exposure to supraoptimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. We hypothesized that fluorosis is associated with excess release of protons during formation of hypermineralized lines in the mineralizing enamel matrix. We tested this concept by analyzing fluorotic enamel defects in wild-type mice and mice deficient in anion exchanger-2a,b (Ae2a,b), a transmembrane protein in maturation ameloblasts that exchanges extracellular Cl− for bicarbonate. Defects were more pronounced in fluorotic Ae2a,b−/− mice than in fluorotic heterozygous or wild-type mice. Phenotypes included a hypermineralized surface, extensive subsurface hypomineralization, and multiple hypermineralized lines in deeper enamel. Mineral content decreased in all fluoride-exposed and Ae2a,b−/− mice and was strongly correlated with Cl−. Exposure of enamel surfaces underlying maturation-stage ameloblasts to pH indicator dyes suggested the presence of diffusion barriers in fluorotic enamel. These results support the concept that fluoride stimulates hypermineralization at the mineralization front. This causes increased release of protons, which ameloblasts respond to by secreting more bicarbonates at the expense of Cl− levels in enamel. The fluoride-induced hypermineralized lines may form barriers that impede diffusion of proteins and mineral ions into the subsurface layers, thereby delaying biomineralization and causing retention of enamel matrix proteins. PMID:24170372

  13. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  14. Organizational decentralization in radiology.

    PubMed

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    At present, most hospitals have a department of radiology where images are captured and interpreted. Decentralization is the opposite of centralization and means 'away from the centre'. With a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and broadband communications, transmitting radiology images between sites will be far easier than before. Qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons were performed in Norway. There was a response rate of 90%. Decentralization of radiology interpretations seems less relevant than centralization, but several forms of decentralization have a role to play. The respondents mentioned several advantages, including exploitation of capacity and competence. They also mentioned several disadvantages, including splitting professional communities and reduced contact between radiologists and clinicians. With the new technology decentralization and centralization of image interpretation are important possibilities in organizational change. This will be important for the future of teleradiology.

  15. Organizational decentralization in radiology.

    PubMed

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    At present, most hospitals have a department of radiology where images are captured and interpreted. Decentralization is the opposite of centralization and means 'away from the centre'. With a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and broadband communications, transmitting radiology images between sites will be far easier than before. Qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons were performed in Norway. There was a response rate of 90%. Decentralization of radiology interpretations seems less relevant than centralization, but several forms of decentralization have a role to play. The respondents mentioned several advantages, including exploitation of capacity and competence. They also mentioned several disadvantages, including splitting professional communities and reduced contact between radiologists and clinicians. With the new technology decentralization and centralization of image interpretation are important possibilities in organizational change. This will be important for the future of teleradiology. PMID:16884560

  16. Learn to Avoid or Overcome Leadership Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Auria, John

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is increasingly recognized as an important factor in moving schools forward, yet we have been relatively random in how we prepare and support them. Four obstacles often block or diminish their effectiveness. Avoiding or overcoming each of these requires an underlying set of skills and knowledge that we believe can be learned and…

  17. Students Write to Overcome Learning Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Dan; Backus, Ann

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the use of writing as a tool to monitor student growth and development. The value of writing to help overcome obstacles such as misconceptions and preconceptions is stressed. A concept map of a hierarchy of writing strategies is provided. Stressed is the value of writing in the development of process skills. (CW)

  18. First Davis Strait discovery overcomes offshore hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, R.G.

    1982-04-01

    In spite of icebergs umpredictable currents and brief drilling seasons, the first discovery well was completed recently in the Davis Strait. The success of this well, known as Hekja 0-71, has opened the waters off the northeastern coast of Canada to more exploration. A discussion is presented of how the well was drilled, the problems encountered and how they were overcome.

  19. Successful Writing: Five Roadblocks to Overcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathleen P.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides essential strategies to be more successful in one of the major roles in academia: writing. Most academics struggle with roadblocks in their writing process. We are forever battling to complete research articles, manuscripts, grant proposals or other documents. The strategies and perspective shared here help overcome several…

  20. Overcoming the Limitations of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David; Waters, Sandie; Dawson, Deonne; Lambert, Brent; Barclay, Matthew; Wade, David; Nelson, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    There are a number of issues that face individuals who would use learning objects for instructional purposes. These issues include problems with decontextualization, enabling meaningful reusability, and overcoming biases toward didactic approaches in the use of learning objects. We discuss these problems in some detail, and present a project-based…

  1. Exploring Effective Communication for Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Eric John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore experiences and perceptions of organizational leaders regarding organizational change communication to improve change results in an organizational setting. Building on a conceptual framework of organizational theory, 25 full-time online faculty at an institution of higher learning in the southwestern…

  2. Role of nanotechnology in HIV/AIDS treatment: potential to overcome the viral reservoir challenge.

    PubMed

    Amiji, Mansoor M; Vyas, Tushar K; Shah, Lipa K

    2006-08-01

    Insufficient concentrations and very short residence time of the anti-retroviral agents at the cellular and anatomical sites are among major factors that contribute to the failure of eradicating HIV from reservoirs and the development of multidrug resistance against antiretroviral agents. In recent years, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems have shown remarkable ability to overcome many of the same anatomical and physiological barriers and deliver the therapeutic agents locally at the site of systemic diseases such as cancer.

  3. Toward an organizational cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael J R; Senior, Carl

    2007-11-01

    The research strategy adopted in this article is to connect two different discourses and the ideas, methods, and outputs they contain-these being cognitive neuroscience and organization theory. The main contribution of the article is to present an agenda for the field of organizational cognitive neuroscience. We define what is meant by the term, outline its background, identify why it is important as a new research direction, and then conclude by drawing on Damasio's levels of life regulation as a framework to bind together existing organizational cognitive neuroscience. The article begins by setting the wider debate behind the emergence of organizational cognitive neuroscience by revisiting the nature-nurture debate and uses Pinker to demonstrate that the connection between mind and matter has not been resolved, that new directions are opening up to better understand human nature, and that organizational cognitive neuroscience is one fruitful path forward.

  4. Organizational Conditions of Teacher Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassler, Otto; Hoover-Dempsey, Kathy

    1986-01-01

    This research examined 1,213 elementary school teachers' perceptions of the school organizational conditions that provide the greatest opportunities for professional development. Ten workplace conditions were analyzed. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  5. Toward an organizational cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael J R; Senior, Carl

    2007-11-01

    The research strategy adopted in this article is to connect two different discourses and the ideas, methods, and outputs they contain-these being cognitive neuroscience and organization theory. The main contribution of the article is to present an agenda for the field of organizational cognitive neuroscience. We define what is meant by the term, outline its background, identify why it is important as a new research direction, and then conclude by drawing on Damasio's levels of life regulation as a framework to bind together existing organizational cognitive neuroscience. The article begins by setting the wider debate behind the emergence of organizational cognitive neuroscience by revisiting the nature-nurture debate and uses Pinker to demonstrate that the connection between mind and matter has not been resolved, that new directions are opening up to better understand human nature, and that organizational cognitive neuroscience is one fruitful path forward. PMID:17717101

  6. Building blocks for organizational change.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2014-05-01

    To understand the types of organizational change that will best help them meet strategic goals, hospitals and health systems are: Projecting their quality and savings goals for the coming years and weighing their ability to meet them. Looking for partner organizations that share their culture, goals, and capabilities. Assessing the types of organizational arrangements that will provide the desired benefits. Determining the key components needed to make the arrangement fit their goals and culture.

  7. Creating a winning organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Robert James

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the idea of how to create a winning organizational culture. By definition, a winning organizational culture is one that is able to make current innovations stick, while continuously changing based on the demands of the marketplace. More importantly, the article explores the notion that a winning organizational culture can have a profound impact on the conscious of the workforce, helping each individual to become a better, more productive person, who provides important services and products to the community. To form a basis toward defining the structure of what a winning organization culture looks like, 4 experts were asked 12 questions related to the development of an organizational culture. Three of the experts have worked intimately within the health care industry, while a fourth has been charged with turning around an organization that has had a losing culture for 17 years. The article provides insight into the role that values, norms, goals, leadership style, familiarity, and hiring practices play in developing a winning organizational culture. The article also emphasizes the important role that leaders perform in developing an organizational culture.

  8. Noncredit and Credit Divisions in Community Colleges: The Dilemma of Multiple Organizational Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palter Gill, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of effective linkages between credit and noncredit divisions, significant barriers interfere with and detract from these units working well together. Community college leaders are challenged to manage these multiple and sometimes competing organizational identities in a complex and rapidly-changing educational landscape.…

  9. The Effects of Organizational Culture on Mental Health Service Engagement of Transition Age Youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, HyunSoo; Tracy, Elizabeth M; Biegel, David E; Min, Meeyoung O; Munson, Michelle R

    2015-10-01

    Nationwide, there is a growing concern in understanding mental health service engagement among transition age youth. The ecological perspective suggests that there are multiple barriers to service engagement which exist on varying levels of the ecosystem. Based on the socio-technical theory and organizational culture theory, this study examined the impact of organization-level characteristics on perceived service engagement and the moderating role of organizational culture on practitioner-level characteristics affecting youth service engagement. A cross-sectional survey research design was used to address the research questions. The data were collected from 279 practitioners from 27 mental health service organizations representing three major metropolitan areas in Ohio. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to address a nested structure. Findings revealed that location of organization, service setting, and organizational culture had significant effects on the continuation of services. In addition, the relationship between service coordination and resource knowledge and service engagement was moderated by organizational culture.

  10. Immunobiological barriers to xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, David K C; Ekser, Burcin; Tector, A Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Binding of natural anti-pig antibodies in humans and nonhuman primates to carbohydrate antigens expressed on the transplanted pig organ, the most important of which is galactose-α1,3-galactose (Gal), activate the complement cascade, which results in destruction of the graft within minutes or hours, known as hyperacute rejection. Even if antibody is removed from the recipient's blood by plasmapheresis, recovery of antibody is associated with acute humoral xenograft rejection. If immunosuppressive therapy is inadequate, the development of high levels of T cell-dependent elicited anti-pig IgG similarly results in graft destruction, though classical acute cellular rejection is rarely seen. Vascular endothelial activation by low levels of anti-nonGal antibody, coupled with dysregulation of the coagulation-anticoagulation systems between pigs and primates, leads to a thrombotic microangiopathy in the graft that may be associated with a consumptive coagulopathy in the recipient. The most successful approach to overcoming these barriers is by genetically-engineering the pig to provide it with resistance to the human humoral and cellular immune responses and to correct the coagulation discrepancies between the two species. Organs and cells from pigs that (i) do not express the important Gal antigen, (ii) express a human complement-regulatory protein, and (iii) express a human coagulation-regulatory protein, when combined with an effective immunosuppressive regimen, have been associated with prolonged pig graft survival in nonhuman primates.

  11. Barriers to accessing surgical care in Pakistan: healthcare barrier model and quantitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Furqan B; Irfan, Bismah B; Spiegel, David A

    2012-07-01

    Inadequate access to surgical services results in increased morbidity and mortality from a spectrum of conditions in Pakistan. We employed a modification of Andersen's model of health services utilization and developed a 'Healthcare Barrier Model,' to characterize the barriers to accessing health care in developing countries, using surgical care in Pakistan as a case study. We performed a literature search from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Global Health Database, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and selected 64 of 3113 references for analysis. Patient-related variables included age (elderly), gender (female), preferential use of alternative health providers (Hakeem, traditional healers, others), personal perceptions regarding disease and potential for treatment, poverty, personal expenses for healthcare, lack of social support, geographic constraints to accessing a health facility, and compromised general health status as it relates to the development of surgical disease. Environmental barriers include deficiencies in governance, the burden of displaced or refugee populations, and aspects of the medicolegal system, which impact treatment and referral. Barriers relating to the health system include deficiencies in capacity (infrastructure, physical resources, human resources) and organization, and inadequate monitoring. Provider-related barriers include deficiencies in knowledge and skills (and ongoing educational opportunities), delays in referral, deficient communication, and deficient numbers of female health providers for female patients. The Healthcare Barrier model addresses this broad spectrum of barriers and is designed to help formulate a framework of healthcare barriers. To overcome these barriers will require a multidisciplinary, multisectoral effort aimed at strengthening the health system. PMID:22079839

  12. Sprache als Barriere (Language as a Barrier)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheier, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    The concept of language barrier has its derivations in the fields of dialectology, sociology and psychology. In contemporary usage however, the concept has two meanings i.e. regional-cultural barrier and socio-cultural barrier. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  13. Barriers and Promoters to Participation in the Era of Shared Treatment Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Sarah P; Tariman, Joseph D; Spawn, Nadia; Mehmeti, Enisa; Bishop-Royse, Jessica; Garcia, Ima; Hartle, Lisa; Szubski, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to identify the barriers and promoters for participation in cancer treatment decision in the era of shared decision-making (SDM) process. A qualitative design was utilized. Nineteen nurses and 11 nurse practitioners from oncology inpatient and outpatient settings participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using directed content analysis. The findings include practice barrier, patient barrier, institutional policy barrier, professional barrier, scope of practice barrier, insurance coverage barrier, and administrative barrier. Multidisciplinary team approach, having a nursing voice during SDM, high level of knowledge of the disease and treatment, and personal valuation of SDM participation were perceived as promoters. Oncology nurses and nurse practitioners face many barriers to their participation during SDM. Organizational support and system-wide culture of SDM are essential to achieve better cancer treatment decisions outcome. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors that can promote more participation among nurses and nurse practitioners.

  14. Barriers to working with sexual assault survivors: a qualitative study of rape crisis center workers.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Townsend, Stephanie M

    2007-04-01

    To better understand barriers service providers may face when advocating for survivors, a study using grounded theory and qualitative, semistructured interviews was conducted of rape victim advocates (N= 25) working in rape crisis centers in a large metropolitan area. Broader societal attitudes framed and were reflected in institutional responses to victims and in barriers faced by advocates working with survivors. Organizational barriers noted by advocates related to resources, environmental factors, professionalization, and racism. Staff burnout was a major barrier affecting advocates' ability to help survivors. Finally, the most salient direct service barrier was secondary victimization by criminal justice and medical or mental health systems.

  15. The School Counselor as Facilitator of Organizational Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, John H., Jr.; Fairman, Marvin

    1986-01-01

    Discusses ways school counselors can be agents of change in organizational behavior to promote organizational health in their schools. Defines organizational health and identifies 10 related dimensions. (ABB)

  16. Strategies to Overcome Heparins’ Low Oral Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Ana Rita; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena

    2016-01-01

    Even after a century, heparin is still the most effective anticoagulant available with few side effects. The poor oral absorption of heparins triggered the search for strategies to achieve oral bioavailability since this route has evident advantages over parenteral administration. Several approaches emerged, such as conjugation of heparins with bile acids and lipids, formulation with penetration enhancers, and encapsulation of heparins in micro and nanoparticles. Some of these strategies appear to have potential as good delivery systems to overcome heparin’s low oral bioavailability. Nevertheless, none have reached the market yet. Overall, this review aims to provide insights regarding the oral bioavailability of heparin. PMID:27367704

  17. Overcoming Challenges in Engineering the Genetic Code.

    PubMed

    Lajoie, M J; Söll, D; Church, G M

    2016-02-27

    Withstanding 3.5 billion years of genetic drift, the canonical genetic code remains such a fundamental foundation for the complexity of life that it is highly conserved across all three phylogenetic domains. Genome engineering technologies are now making it possible to rationally change the genetic code, offering resistance to viruses, genetic isolation from horizontal gene transfer, and prevention of environmental escape by genetically modified organisms. We discuss the biochemical, genetic, and technological challenges that must be overcome in order to engineer the genetic code. PMID:26348789

  18. Overcoming Resistance to β-Lactam Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Roberta J.; Melander, Christian

    2013-01-01

    β-Lactam antibiotics are one of the most important antibiotic classes but are plagued by problems of resistance and the development of new β-lactam antibiotics through side chain modification of existing β-lactam classes is not keeping pace with resistance development. In this perspective we summarize small molecule strategies to overcome resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. These approaches include the development of β-lactamase inhibitors and compounds that interfere with the ability of the bacteria to sense an antibiotic threat and activate their resistance mechanisms. PMID:23530949

  19. Overcoming Scalability Challenges for Tool Daemon Launching

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, D H; Arnold, D C; de Supinski, B R; Lee, G L; Miller, B P; Schulz, M

    2008-02-15

    Many tools that target parallel and distributed environments must co-locate a set of daemons with the distributed processes of the target application. However, efficient and portable deployment of these daemons on large scale systems is an unsolved problem. We overcome this gap with LaunchMON, a scalable, robust, portable, secure, and general purpose infrastructure for launching tool daemons. Its API allows tool builders to identify all processes of a target job, launch daemons on the relevant nodes and control daemon interaction. Our results show that Launch-MON scales to very large daemon counts and substantially enhances performance over existing ad hoc mechanisms.

  20. Overcoming Challenges in Engineering the Genetic Code.

    PubMed

    Lajoie, M J; Söll, D; Church, G M

    2016-02-27

    Withstanding 3.5 billion years of genetic drift, the canonical genetic code remains such a fundamental foundation for the complexity of life that it is highly conserved across all three phylogenetic domains. Genome engineering technologies are now making it possible to rationally change the genetic code, offering resistance to viruses, genetic isolation from horizontal gene transfer, and prevention of environmental escape by genetically modified organisms. We discuss the biochemical, genetic, and technological challenges that must be overcome in order to engineer the genetic code.

  1. Thermal barrier research

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, K.G.

    1990-03-07

    The thermal barrier region in the TARA device is a complex arrangement combining ion-plugging by sloshing ions with an ECRH-generated thermal barrier plasma. An axisymmetric, high-mirror-ratio magnetic field, adjacent to the central cell, provides the confinement of the thermal barrier plasma and sloshing ions. This paper discusses research being done in this thermal barrier region.

  2. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

    2015-03-28

    Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled.

  3. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

    2015-03-28

    Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled. PMID:25458715

  4. Productivity issues at organizational interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The need for close interdependence between large numbers of diverse and specialized work groups makes the Space Program extremely vulnerable to loss of productivity at organizational interfaces. Trends within the program also suggest that the number and diversity of interfaces will grow in the near term. Continued maintenance of R&D excellence will require that interface performance issues be included in any future productivity improvement effort. The types and characteristics of organizational interfaces are briefly presented, followed by a review of factors which impact their productivity. Approaches to assessing and improving interface effectiveness are also discussed.

  5. The Relationship between Organizational Trust and Organizational Silence with Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of the Employees of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fard, Parastoo Gashtasebi; Karimi, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the structural model between organizational trust and organizational silence with job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the employees of Islamic Azad University of Isfahan, (Khorasgan) branch. The study method is descriptive-correlation. The study population is the employees of Islamic Azad University of…

  6. Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational Instrumentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardador, M. Teresa; Dane, Erik; Pratt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an emerging interest in callings, researchers know little about whether calling orientations matter in the workplace. We explore the under-examined relationship between a calling orientation and employees' attachment to their organizations. Although some theory suggests that callings may be negatively related to organizational attachment,…

  7. Organizational Climate and Strategic Change in Higher Education: Organizational Insecurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, D. K.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the development of information strategies in 12 United Kingdom higher education institutions and highlighted the influence of different styles of management on organizational climate. Findings identify six issues that affect the climate of security or insecurity within different higher education institutions. (SLD)

  8. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  9. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  10. Disease management in Canada: surmounting barriers to adoption.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Christopher R; MacKinnon, Neil J; Sprague, Denise A

    2007-01-01

    Disease Management (DM) programs are used to optimize economic outcomes and improve patient outcomes. Despite this, relative to the United States, Canadian health care organizations have been slow to adopt them. The objective of this article is to examine the concept of DM programs, the existing evidence to support their use and the barriers to their adoption in Canada. Several solutions aimed at overcoming the barriers to DM in Canada are proposed.

  11. Using Policy to Drive Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsby, Eunice Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This chapter addresses recent changes in public policy and organizational practices that affect LGBTQ individuals and the role that organizational policy can play in establishing and maintaining respectful and inclusive workplaces.

  12. Barriers, Successes and Enabling Practices of Education for Sustainability in Far North Queensland Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Neus; Whitehouse, Hilary; Gooch, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    There are many documented barriers to implementing school-based sustainability. This article examines a) the barriers faced by principals and staff in two regional primary schools in Far North Queensland, Australia, well known for their exemplary practice, and b) ways the barriers were overcome. Through interviews conducted with principals and key…

  13. The Relationship between Work Engagement Behavior and Perceived Organizational Support and Organizational Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köse, Akif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between work engagement and perceived organizational support and organizational climate. The present study, in which quantitative methods have been used, is carried out in the relational screening model. Perceived organizational support scale, organizational climate scale, and work…

  14. The Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Organizational Cynicism of Research Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasalak, Gamze; Bilgin Aksu, Mualla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain to what extent organizational cynicism may be predicted based on the level of perceived organizational support by determining the relationship between research assistants' perceived organizational support and organizational cynicism. The population of the study consists of 214 research assistants…

  15. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with iron to overcome barriers for treatment of iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed; Hariri, Amani H; Hassan, Ali Habiballah

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 46% of the world’s children suffer from anemia, which is usually treated with iron supplements such as ferrous sulfate. The aim of this study was to prepare iron as solid lipid nanoparticles, in order to find an innovative way for alleviating the disadvantages associated with commercially available tablets. These limitations include adverse effects on the digestive system resulting in constipation and blood in the stool. The second drawback is the high variability in the absorption of iron and thus in its bioavailability. Iron solid lipid nanoparticles (Fe-SLNs) were prepared by hot homogenization/ultrasonication. Solubility of ferrous sulfate in different solid lipids was measured, and effects of process variables such as the surfactant type and concentration, homogenization and ultrasonication times, and charge-inducing agent on the particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency were determined. Furthermore, in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics were studied in rabbits. Results indicated that Fe-SLNs consisted of 3% Compritol 888 ATO, 1% Lecithin, 3% Poloxamer 188, and 0.2% dicetylphosphate, with an average particle size of 25 nm with 92.3% entrapment efficiency. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed more than fourfold enhanced bioavailability. In conclusion, Fe-SLNs could be a promising carrier for iron with enhanced oral bioavailability. PMID:25609917

  16. Overcoming the nail barrier: A systematic investigation of ungual chemical penetration enhancement.

    PubMed

    Brown, M B; Khengar, R H; Turner, R B; Forbes, B; Traynor, M J; Evans, C R G; Jones, S A

    2009-03-31

    This study investigated the in vitro nail permeability of penetrants of varying lipophilicity-caffeine (CF, logP -0.07), methylparaben (MP, logP 1.96) and terbinafine (TBF, logP 3.3) and the effect of 2 novel penetration enhancers (PEs), thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) on their permeation. Studies were conducted using full thickness human nail clippings and ChubTur((R)) diffusion cells and penetrants were applied as saturated solutions. The rank order of steady-state penetrant flux through nails without PE application (MP>CF>TBF) suggested a greater sensitivity to penetrant molecular weight rather than logP. TA increased the flux of CF and MP approximately 4- and approximately 2-fold, respectively, whilst urea H(2)O(2) proved ineffective at enhancing permeability. The sequential application of TA followed by urea H(2)O(2) increased TBF and CF flux ( approximately 19- and approximately 4-fold, respectively) but reversing the application order of the PEs was only mildly effective at increasing just MP flux ( approximately 2-fold). Both nail PEs are likely to function via disruption of keratin disulphide bonds and the associated formation of pores that provide more 'open' drug transport channels. Effects of the PEs were penetrant specific, but the use of a reducing agent (TA) followed by an oxidising agent (urea H(2)O(2)) dramatically improved human nail penetration. PMID:19071202

  17. Electrical and electronic waste management in China: progress and the barriers to overcome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianbing; Tanaka, Masaru; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2006-02-01

    Serious adverse impacts on the environment and human health from e-waste recycling have occurred in the past and continue to occur in China today, due to a lack of national management strategies. China has made great efforts to face the challenges of the approaching peak increase in the domestic generation of e-waste and the illegal shipment of e-waste from other countries. This study examined recent progress and analysed the main problems associated with this issue in China. It was found that the material and the financial flows of e-waste in China had their own specific characteristics. Nearly 60% of the generated e-wastes were sold to private individual collectors and passed into informal recycling processes. More than 90% of Chinese citizens are reluctant to pay for the recycling of their e-waste. This is due to their traditional understanding that there remained value in these end-of-life products. Regulations concerning e-waste in China have been drafted but their deficiencies are obvious. The extended producer responsibilities (EPR) have been introduced but are not well defined. Eight formal facilities have been planned and are under construction or are in operation along the eastern coast of China but it will be difficult for them to compete with the informal processes for the reasons identified during the study.

  18. Overcoming perceptions of financial barriers to rotavirus vaccine introduction in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, E Anthony S; de Quadros, Ciro A; Santosham, Mathuram; Parashar, Umesh D; Steele, A Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Despite a WHO recommendation in 2009, reaffirmed in 2013, that all countries should consider introducing rotavirus vaccines into their National Immunization Programs, as of June 2013 only 45 have done so. One major consideration appears to have been the costs of the vaccine to countries. Of concern, is that Asian countries have been slow to introduce rotavirus vaccines despite having robust data that could inform the decision-making process. Although decisions on new vaccine introduction are very complex and vary by country and region, economic evaluations are often pivotal once vaccine efficacy and safety has been established, and disease burden documented and communicated. Unfortunately, with private sector list prices of vaccines often used in economic evaluations, rather than a potential public health sector pricing structure, policy-makers may defer decisions on rotavirus vaccine introduction based on the belief that “the vaccine price is too high,” even though this might be based on erroneous data. The Pan American Health Organization’s Revolving Fund provides one example of how vaccine price can be made more competitive and transparent through a regional tendering process. Other mechanisms, such as tiered pricing and UNICEF procurement, also exist that could help Asian and other countries move forward more quickly with rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:23955246

  19. Women Community College Presidents: A Qualitative Approach to Exploring Leadership and Overcoming Potential Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Roark, Jordan J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the establishment of American higher education, the presidential profile for institutions has lacked the gender diversity in presidential leadership positions. Though women have taken positive strides as senior executive officers in higher education in the past quarter-century, the conventional post-secondary president is a white, married…

  20. Overcoming barriers to prevention, care, and treatment of hepatitis C in illicit drug users.

    PubMed

    Edlin, Brian R; Kresina, Thomas F; Raymond, Daniel B; Carden, Michael R; Gourevitch, Marc N; Rich, Josiah D; Cheever, Laura W; Cargill, Victoria A

    2005-04-15

    Injection drug use accounts for most of the incident infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States and other developed countries. HCV infection is a complex and challenging medical condition in injection drug users (IDUs). Elements of care for hepatitis C in illicit drug users include prevention counseling and education; screening for transmission risk behavior; testing for HCV and human immunodeficiency virus infection; vaccination against hepatitis A and B viruses; evaluation for comorbidities; coordination of substance-abuse treatment services, psychiatric care, and social support; evaluation of liver disease; and interferon-based treatment for HCV infection. Caring for patients who use illicit drugs presents challenges to the health-care team that require patience, experience, and an understanding of the dynamics of substance use and addiction. Nonetheless, programs are successfully integrating hepatitis C care for IDUs into health-care settings, including primary care, methadone treatment and other substance-abuse treatment programs, infectious disease clinics, and clinics in correctional facilities. PMID:15768335

  1. Overcoming Barriers to Improve Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy in Older Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beattie-Fairchild, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    A lack of breastfeeding has negative consequences on mother and infant by creating health disparities with a higher incidence of morbidity and mortality. Nationwide, fewer than 60% of mothers younger than age 20 years breastfed exclusively, while fewer than 20% did so in the community being studied. The purpose of this qualitative case study was…

  2. Overcoming Barriers in Oncolytic Virotherapy with HDAC Inhibitors and Immune Checkpoint Blockade.

    PubMed

    Marchini, Antonio; Scott, Eleanor M; Rommelaere, Jean

    2016-01-06

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) target and destroy cancer cells while sparing their normal counterparts. These viruses have been evaluated in numerous studies at both pre-clinical and clinical levels and the recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of an oncolytic herpesvirus-based treatment raises optimism that OVs will become a therapeutic option for cancer patients. However, to improve clinical outcome, there is a need to increase OV efficacy. In addition to killing cancer cells directly through lysis, OVs can stimulate the induction of anti-tumour immune responses. The host immune system thus represents a "double-edged sword" for oncolytic virotherapy: on the one hand, a robust anti-viral response will limit OV replication and spread; on the other hand, the immune-mediated component of OV therapy may be its most important anti-cancer mechanism. Although the relative contribution of direct viral oncolysis and indirect, immune-mediated oncosuppression to overall OV efficacy is unclear, it is likely that an initial period of vigorous OV multiplication and lytic activity will most optimally set the stage for subsequent adaptive anti-tumour immunity. In this review, we consider the use of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as a means of boosting virus replication and lessening the negative impact of innate immunity on the direct oncolytic effect. We also discuss an alternative approach, aimed at potentiating OV-elicited anti-tumour immunity through the blockade of immune checkpoints. We conclude by proposing a two-phase combinatorial strategy in which initial OV replication and spread is maximised through transient HDAC inhibition, with anti-tumour immune responses subsequently enhanced by immune checkpoint blockade.

  3. Understanding and overcoming barriers to timely discharge from the pediatric units

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Amira; Mahgoub, Samar

    2016-01-01

    Delays in the discharge of hospital patients cause a backlog for new admissions from the Emergency Departments (ED), outpatient clinics, and transfers from the Intensive Care Units (ICU). A variety of initiatives have been reported on previously which aim to tackle this problem with variable success. In this quality improvement project, we aimed to increase the proportion of discharged patients who leave the paediatric unit by 12:00 Noon from 7% to 30% by May 2015. A baseline discharge process map was studied to understand the possible causes of the delays. A survey was conducted to look for the most likely cause for the delay. A data collection tool was designed to record the various steps in the discharge process for the pre-and post-intervention phases. Using a series of PDSA cycles, interventions were introduced. The average time for the discharge process was two hours and the baseline average percent of patients discharged by 12:00 Noon was 7% of all discharges. The leading cause for the delayed discharges was late orders by the physicians. Post-intervention, there was increase in the percentage of patients discharged by 12:00 Noon from 7% to 34%. 42% of discharged patients had appropriate reasons for afternoon discharge. By excluding these patients, the percentage of adjusted timely morning discharge has increased from 36% to 70%. Continuous monitoring and engagement of teams with regular feedback were the most important factors in achieving and sustaining improvement in the timely morning discharge of patients from our paediatric units. PMID:27752313

  4. Evolving from academic to academic entrepreneur: overcoming barriers to scientific progress and finance.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    The overall goal of my career as an academic chemist has always been the design and creation of advanced therapeutics and diagnostics that address unmet medical need in the management of chronic diseases. Realising this goal has been an immensely difficult process involving multidisciplinary problem-driven research at the chemistry-biology-medicine interfaces. With success in the laboratory, I started seriously to question the value of remaining an academic whose career is spent in the pursuit of knowledge and understanding alone without making any significant effort to translate knowledge and understanding gained into products of genuine utility for public benefit. Therefore, I elected by choice to become an academic entrepreneur, seeking opportunities wherever possible for the translation of the best of my personal and collaborative academic research work into potentially valuable and useful products. This choice has brought with it many unexpected difficulties and challenges. Nevertheless, progress bas been made and sufficient learnt to suggest that this would be an appropriate moment to take stock and provide some personal reflections on what it takes to design and create advanced therapeutics and diagnostics in the laboratory then seek to develop, innovate and translate the best towards market.

  5. The Role of Identity Narratives in Overcoming Barriers to Parental Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naqvi, Rahat; Carey, Jennifer; Cummins, Jim; Altidor-Brooks, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study conducted over the course of one school year in an ethnically diverse school. Aimed at exploring the conditions under which parents of low socioeconomic status (SES) immigrant-background children will engage actively with the school, we involved parents and facilitators in story-telling sessions, sharing…

  6. Videos Bridging Asia and Africa: Overcoming Cultural and Institutional Barriers in Technology-Mediated Rural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mele, Paul; Wanvoeke, Jonas; Akakpo, Cyriaque; Dacko, Rosaline Maiga; Ceesay, Mustapha; Beavogui, Louis; Soumah, Malick; Anyang, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Will African farmers watch and learn from videos featuring farmers in Bangladesh? Learning videos on rice seed management were made with rural women in Bangladesh. By using a new approach, called zooming-in, zooming-out, the videos were of regional relevance and locally appropriate. When the Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) introduced them to…

  7. Sexual History-Taking: Using Educational Interventions to Overcome Barriers to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Ashini N.; Dennick, Reg

    2011-01-01

    Sexual history-taking is a basic medical skill that is traditionally taught poorly in medical school. Practising medical professionals have frequently reported feeling inadequately trained at taking these histories or discussing sexual risk. In order to promote and enhance the learning of this basic skill, those who teach sexual history-taking…

  8. Overcoming the Barrier of Low Efficiency during Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mitis

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Gabriela; Junges, Roger; Morrison, Donald A.; Petersen, Fernanda C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Streptococcus mitis is a predominant oral colonizer, but difficulties in genetic manipulation of this species have hampered our understanding of the mechanisms it uses for colonization of oral surfaces. The aim of this study was to reveal optimal conditions for natural genetic transformation in S. mitis and illustrate its application in direct genome editing. Methods: Luciferase reporter assays were used to assess gene expression of the alternative sigma factor (σX) in combination with natural transformation experiments to evaluate the efficiency by which S. mitis activates the competence system and incorporates exogenous DNA. Optimal amounts and sources of donor DNA (chromosomal, amplicon, or replicative plasmid), concentrations of synthetic competence-stimulating peptide, and transformation media were assessed. Results: A semi-defined medium showed much improved results for response to the competence stimulating peptide when compared to rich media. The use of a donor amplicon with large homology flanking regions also provided higher transformation rates. Overall, an increase of transformation efficiencies from 0.001% or less to over 30% was achieved with the developed protocol. We further describe the construction of a markerless mutant based on this high efficiency strategy. Conclusion: We optimized competence development in S. mitis, by use of semi-defined medium and appropriate concentrations of synthetic competence factor. Combined with the use of a large amplicon of donor DNA, this method allowed easy and direct editing of the S. mitis genome, broadening the spectrum of possible downstream applications of natural transformation in this species. PMID:27458432

  9. Overcoming Medicaid Reimbursement Barriers to Funding School Nursing Services for Low-Income Children with Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcarney, Mary-Beth; Horton, Katherine; Seiler, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background: School nurses can provide direct services for children with asthma, educate, and reinforce treatment recommendations to children and their families, and coordinate the school-wide response to students' asthma emergencies. Unfortunately, school-based health services today depend on an unreliable patchwork of funding. Limited state and…

  10. Overcoming the Barriers to Uptake: A Study of 6 Danish Health-Based Serious Games Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Damian

    2013-01-01

    Serious gaming for health benefits is moving out of the realm of being potentially interesting, and the authors are starting to see a growing maturity in the field. This study of six serious gaming projects based either wholly or partly in Denmark investigates the changes taking place in the healthcare area based on experiences with serious gaming…

  11. Using synthetic biology to distinguish and overcome regulatory and functional barriers related to nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Yang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Li; Wang, Ji-Long; Cheng, Qi; Dixon, Ray; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is a complex process requiring multiple genes working in concert. To date, the Klebsiella pneumoniae nif gene cluster, divided into seven operons, is one of the most studied systems. Its nitrogen fixation capacity is subject to complex cascade regulation and physiological limitations. In this report, the entire K. pneumoniae nif gene cluster was reassembled as operon-based BioBrick parts in Escherichia coli. It provided ~100% activity of native K. pneumoniae system. Based on the expression levels of these BioBrick parts, a T7 RNA polymerase-LacI expression system was used to replace the σ(54)-dependent promoters located upstream of nif operons. Expression patterns of nif operons were critical for the maximum activity of the recombinant system. By mimicking these expression levels with variable-strength T7-dependent promoters, ~42% of the nitrogenase activity of the σ(54)-dependent nif system was achieved in E. coli. When the newly constructed T7-dependent nif system was challenged with different genetic and physiological conditions, it bypassed the original complex regulatory circuits, with minor physiological limitations. Therefore, we have successfully replaced the nif regulatory elements with a simple expression system that may provide the first step for further research of introducing nif genes into eukaryotic organelles, which has considerable potentials in agro-biotechnology.

  12. Confidence-Based Learning CME: Overcoming Barriers in Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Brooks; Mitchner, Natasha A.; Ravyn, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Performance of health care professionals depends on both medical knowledge and the certainty with which they possess it. Conventional continuing medical education interventions assess the correctness of learners' responses but do not determine the degree of confidence with which they hold incorrect information. This study describes…

  13. Strategies for Overcoming Barriers Inherent in Cross-Cultural Research (Doing Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne A.

    1994-01-01

    Raises concerns about unexamined conceptual assumptions and over-generalizations of research findings in the comparative management area. Suggests two ways of combating these problems: collaboration and accounting for complexities of culture. (SR)

  14. FREESTYLE: Reducing Barriers to Personal Success by Overcoming Sex-Role Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, Pat

    "Freestyle," a new television series, is designed to expand career awareness of children ages 9 through 12 and reduce the limiting effects of sex role and ethnic stereotyping. The series is a product of the Television Career Awareness Project (TV CAP), a consortium of six agencies funded by a grant from the National Institute of Education (NIE).…

  15. Tropism-modified AAV Vectors Overcome Barriers to Successful Cutaneous Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sallach, Jessica; Di Pasquale, Giovanni; Larcher, Fernando; Niehoff, Nadine; Rübsam, Matthias; Huber, Anke; Chiorini, Jay; Almarza, David; Eming, Sabine A; Ulus, Hikmet; Nishimura, Stephen; Hacker, Ulrich T; Hallek, Michael; Niessen, Carien M; Büning, Hildegard

    2014-01-01

    Autologous human keratinocytes (HK) forming sheet grafts are approved as skin substitutes. Genetic engineering of HK represents a promising technique to improve engraftment and survival of transplants. Although efficacious in keratinocyte-directed gene transfer, retro-/lentiviral vectors may raise safety concerns when applied in regenerative medicine. We therefore optimized adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors of the serotype 2, characterized by an excellent safety profile, but lacking natural tropism for HK, through capsid engineering. Peptides, selected by AAV peptide display, engaged novel receptors that increased cell entry efficiency by up to 2,500-fold. The novel targeting vectors transduced HK with high efficiency and a remarkable specificity even in mixed cultures of HK and feeder cells. Moreover, differentiated keratinocytes in organotypic airlifted three-dimensional cultures were transduced following topical vector application. By exploiting comparative gene analysis we further succeeded in identifying αvβ8 integrin as a target receptor thus solving a major challenge of directed evolution approaches and describing a promising candidate receptor for cutaneous gene therapy. PMID:24468915

  16. Overcoming the nail barrier: A systematic investigation of ungual chemical penetration enhancement.

    PubMed

    Brown, M B; Khengar, R H; Turner, R B; Forbes, B; Traynor, M J; Evans, C R G; Jones, S A

    2009-03-31

    This study investigated the in vitro nail permeability of penetrants of varying lipophilicity-caffeine (CF, logP -0.07), methylparaben (MP, logP 1.96) and terbinafine (TBF, logP 3.3) and the effect of 2 novel penetration enhancers (PEs), thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) on their permeation. Studies were conducted using full thickness human nail clippings and ChubTur((R)) diffusion cells and penetrants were applied as saturated solutions. The rank order of steady-state penetrant flux through nails without PE application (MP>CF>TBF) suggested a greater sensitivity to penetrant molecular weight rather than logP. TA increased the flux of CF and MP approximately 4- and approximately 2-fold, respectively, whilst urea H(2)O(2) proved ineffective at enhancing permeability. The sequential application of TA followed by urea H(2)O(2) increased TBF and CF flux ( approximately 19- and approximately 4-fold, respectively) but reversing the application order of the PEs was only mildly effective at increasing just MP flux ( approximately 2-fold). Both nail PEs are likely to function via disruption of keratin disulphide bonds and the associated formation of pores that provide more 'open' drug transport channels. Effects of the PEs were penetrant specific, but the use of a reducing agent (TA) followed by an oxidising agent (urea H(2)O(2)) dramatically improved human nail penetration.

  17. Evolving from academic to academic entrepreneur: overcoming barriers to scientific progress and finance.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    The overall goal of my career as an academic chemist has always been the design and creation of advanced therapeutics and diagnostics that address unmet medical need in the management of chronic diseases. Realising this goal has been an immensely difficult process involving multidisciplinary problem-driven research at the chemistry-biology-medicine interfaces. With success in the laboratory, I started seriously to question the value of remaining an academic whose career is spent in the pursuit of knowledge and understanding alone without making any significant effort to translate knowledge and understanding gained into products of genuine utility for public benefit. Therefore, I elected by choice to become an academic entrepreneur, seeking opportunities wherever possible for the translation of the best of my personal and collaborative academic research work into potentially valuable and useful products. This choice has brought with it many unexpected difficulties and challenges. Nevertheless, progress bas been made and sufficient learnt to suggest that this would be an appropriate moment to take stock and provide some personal reflections on what it takes to design and create advanced therapeutics and diagnostics in the laboratory then seek to develop, innovate and translate the best towards market. PMID:27476702

  18. Informed Courage in Local Leadership: Essential in Overcoming Barriers to Change in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSciver, James H.

    Without fear, there is no courage, only ignorance of a situation's dynamics. Acknowledging a decision's liabilities promotes fear and forces the educational leader to exercise courage in formulating and carrying out a response to that situation. Courage alone is not enough, however, and could lead to professional suicide. Wisdom to marshal that…

  19. Mobile "Comfort" Zones: Overcoming Barriers to Enable Facilitated Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Debbie; Sentance, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The affordances of mobile technologies are well documented (Vavoula (2004); Wali (2008); Pachler et al (2010); Cook (2011); Sharples (2013). Linked with the rapid expansion of the "SMART" phones, where users access fast/high quality information, new opportunities are offered to engage students at a time/place of their own choosing. Our…

  20. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers in Safety and Health Training of Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Estrada, Jorge M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, “Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture,” is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the US to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309

  1. Overcoming Psychosocial Barriers to Maternal Exercise: Intervention Strategies to Improve Participation and Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Brad; Tiryaki-Sonmez, Gul

    2011-01-01

    Poor adherence to physical activity programmes during pregnancy is a serious national issue, one that has detrimental effects on a large percentage of the population. Not only does a lack of activity result in a decrease in quality of life for women during term, but the effects can carry over well after pregnancy, potentially leading to increased…

  2. Overcoming Barriers in Oncolytic Virotherapy with HDAC Inhibitors and Immune Checkpoint Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Marchini, Antonio; Scott, Eleanor M.; Rommelaere, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) target and destroy cancer cells while sparing their normal counterparts. These viruses have been evaluated in numerous studies at both pre-clinical and clinical levels and the recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of an oncolytic herpesvirus-based treatment raises optimism that OVs will become a therapeutic option for cancer patients. However, to improve clinical outcome, there is a need to increase OV efficacy. In addition to killing cancer cells directly through lysis, OVs can stimulate the induction of anti-tumour immune responses. The host immune system thus represents a “double-edged sword” for oncolytic virotherapy: on the one hand, a robust anti-viral response will limit OV replication and spread; on the other hand, the immune-mediated component of OV therapy may be its most important anti-cancer mechanism. Although the relative contribution of direct viral oncolysis and indirect, immune-mediated oncosuppression to overall OV efficacy is unclear, it is likely that an initial period of vigorous OV multiplication and lytic activity will most optimally set the stage for subsequent adaptive anti-tumour immunity. In this review, we consider the use of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as a means of boosting virus replication and lessening the negative impact of innate immunity on the direct oncolytic effect. We also discuss an alternative approach, aimed at potentiating OV-elicited anti-tumour immunity through the blockade of immune checkpoints. We conclude by proposing a two-phase combinatorial strategy in which initial OV replication and spread is maximised through transient HDAC inhibition, with anti-tumour immune responses subsequently enhanced by immune checkpoint blockade. PMID:26751469

  3. Identifying, Understanding, and Overcoming Barriers to the Use of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Pediatric Oncology

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-25

    B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Chemotherapy-Related Nausea and/or Vomiting; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Neoplasm; Febrile Neutropenia; Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipient; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  4. Education for All Aspects of the Industry: Overcoming Barriers to Broad-Based Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas; And Others

    This report is designed to help the educational community develop the "all aspects of the industry" (AAI) strategy promoted in the Perkins Vocational Education Act. The introduction describes the current status of AAI and elaborates on three arguments for it: (1) AAI is a pedagogic strategy that promotes more effective learning; (2) better…

  5. Overcoming language and literacy barriers in safety and health training of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Estrada, Jorge M; Quandt, Sara A

    2010-07-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the United States to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309

  6. Overcoming Language and Cultural Barriers in School: Helping Hispanic Students Acquire Success in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Pauline S.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that Hispanic second language students are not as successful as their English-speaking peers in school. The problem is in part due to several factors: curriculum deliverance in a foreign language, cultural differences, and family/school disconnect. Current census reports reveal that Hispanic populations in the United States, and…

  7. Advancing superwindows in the United States: overcoming technical and institutional barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasteh, Dariush

    1992-11-01

    Simulation studies have shown that windows with total U-values under 0.8 W/m2-C and solar heat gain coefficients greater than 0.5 will admit more useful solar heat gain than they will loose by conduction/convection and radiation in virtually all locations in the continental United States, independent of orientation. Such fenestration products, when used in typical homes, thus become net energy gainers. Laboratory and field testing/simulations conducted as part of LBL's superwindow research program have proven that glazing systems with three glazing layers, two low-emissivity coatings, and the appropriate low-conductivity gas-fill can achieve this performance level. Beginning in 1990 several U.S. manufacturers started to offer such products commercially. However, laboratory and field testing, as well as computer simulations, have also shown that existing frame/edge designs and materials significantly reduce the total performance of windows using such superglazings. Current research focuses on the use of simulation tools and a high resolution laboratory infrared thermography imaging system to work with manufacturers to develop highly insulating frames and edges.

  8. Registered Apprenticeships in Nontraditional Occupations for Florida's Women: Accessing Opportunities and Overcoming Barriers. 1998 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Central Florida, Orlando. Coll. of Education.

    During 1997-1998, the Florida Education and Employment Council for Women and Girls has continued an analysis of strategies to assist all Florida women in achieving self-sufficiency. As part of that effort, the council examined registered apprenticeship programs as an avenue of on-the-job training offering women, as well as men, high-skilled,…

  9. Overcoming Barriers: Tailoring Climate Education for Latino and non-Latino Citizen to Impact Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, M.; Boudrias, M. A.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Gershunov, A.; Anders, S.

    2013-12-01

    Culture has been shown to be an important determinant of Latino/Hispanic American environmental attitudes (Schultz, Unipan, & Gamba, 2000), which might help to explain the underrepresentation of Latinos in the U.S. 'environmental' movement. With shifting U.S. demographics, however, there is increased urgency to understand how Latinos integrate into the community that is concerned and literate about climate change. As part of the Climate Education Partners (CEP) work in San Diego, we investigated how to address this ethnic group disparity. In this paper, we describe a study of how climate change science knowledge relates to Latino and Non-Latino citizen (a) engagement in conservation behaviors and (b) more informed decision-making. Drawing upon previous work on the Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influence (TIMSI) (Estrada et al., 2011), we hypothesized that climate change knowledge that promotes efficacy (i.e., a sense that one can do something) would relate to greater engagement in conservation behaviors and more informed decision-making (both common of community members concerned about climate change). To test this model, 1001 San Diego residence participated in a telephone survey in which the attitudes towards climate change were assessed using '6 Americas' segmentation (Leiserowitz et al., 2011), in addition to climate change science knowledge, efficacy, values, and engagement in weekly and yearly climate change friendly behaviors (e.g., conservation, transportation, community engagement behaviors). Results showed that there were significant differences in the 6 America segmentation distributions, knowledge, efficacy and behavioral engagement with Latinos significantly more concerned than Non-Latinos, and reporting greater knowledge, efficacy and engagement in behaviors. However, data from both groups showed support for the TIMSI theoretical framework, such that efficacy mediated the relationship between climate change knowledge and behavior. Thus, for both groups, climate change science knowledge was more likely to result in behavioral engagement when the science knowledge was accompanied with the belief that one has the ability to engage in behaviors that mitigate or adapt to climate change (i.e., efficacy). Implications for how to improve both Latino and Non-Latino climate change education that results in informed decision-making and greater integration into the community concerned about climate change will be discussed.

  10. Overcoming the Language Barrier. Third European Congress on Information Systems and Networks, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    The papers presented here have a double objective: to give those responsible for the Action plan for the improvement of information transfer between European languages a good view of existing and developing systems and to make future users of EURONET acquainted with methods and tools that will soon be available. The papers are arranged under six…

  11. Overcoming Barriers to Prevention, Care, and Treatment of Hepatitis C in Illicit Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Edlin, Brian R.; Kresina, Thomas F.; Raymond, Daniel B.; Carden, Michael R.; Gourevitch, Marc N.; Rich, Josiah D.; Cheever, Laura W.; Cargill, Victoria A.

    2005-01-01

    Injection drug use accounts for most of the incident infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States and other developed countries. HCV infection is a complex and challenging medical condition in injection drug users (IDUs). Elements of care for hepatitis C in illicit drug users include prevention counseling and education; screening for transmission risk behavior; testing for HCV and human immunodeficiency virus infection; vaccination against hepatitis A and B viruses; evaluation for comorbidities; coordination of substance-abuse treatment services, psychiatric care, and social support; evaluation of liver disease; and interferon-based treatment for HCV infection. Caring for patients who use illicit drugs presents challenges to the health-care team that require patience, experience, and an understanding of the dynamics of substance use and addiction. Nonetheless, programs are successfully integrating hepatitis C care for IDUs into health-care settings, including primary care, methadone treatment and other substance-abuse treatment programs, infectious disease clinics, and clinics in correctional facilities. PMID:15768335

  12. Systems approach-based mitigation of postharvest diseases to overcome trade barriers for Washington apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by S. pyriputrescens were reported as new postharvest fruit rot diseases in Washington State in the mid-2000s. Both diseases can cause significant postharvest losses of fruit if left uncontrolled, and the two fungi have be...

  13. Working with Schools in Identifying and Overcoming Emotional Barriers to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Poppy; Schlösser, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a case study on working closely with a secondary school, to enhance understanding of disruptive behaviour, through the use of bespoke Continuing Professional Development (CPD) materials. This project evolved from the researchers' previous research on the extent to which teachers believe disruptive pupils can control their…

  14. Cargo surface hydrophobicity is sufficient to overcome the nuclear pore complex selectivity barrier.

    PubMed

    Naim, Bracha; Zbaida, David; Dagan, Shlomi; Kapon, Ruti; Reich, Ziv

    2009-09-16

    To fulfil their function, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) must discriminate between inert proteins and nuclear transport receptors (NTRs), admitting only the latter. This specific permeation is thought to depend on interactions between hydrophobic patches on NTRs and phenylalanine-glycine (FG) or related repeats that line the NPC. Here, we tested this premise directly by conjugating different hydrophobic amino-acid analogues to the surface of an inert protein and examining its ability to cross NPCs unassisted by NTRs. Conjugation of as few as four hydrophobic moieties was sufficient to enable passage of the protein through NPCs. Transport of the modified protein proceeded with rates comparable to those measured for the innate protein when bound to an NTR and was relatively insensitive both to the nature and density of the amino acids used to confer hydrophobicity. The latter observation suggests a non-specific, small, and plant interaction network between cargo and FG repeats.

  15. Older Teens in TANF Families: Overcoming Barriers to Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Older teens living in families receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) face serious sociodemographic disadvantages. When combined with the characteristic risk-taking behaviors of adolescence, these disadvantages pose a threat to TANF teens' immediate and future physical, psychological, and emotional health and to their long-term…

  16. Restaurant employees' perceptions of barriers to three food safety practices.

    PubMed

    Howells, Amber D; Roberts, Kevin R; Shanklin, Carol W; Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Barrett, Betsy B

    2008-08-01

    Limited research has been conducted to assess employees' perceptions of barriers to implementing food safety practices. Focus groups were conducted with two groups of restaurant employees to identify perceived barriers to implementing three food safety practices: handwashing, using thermometers, and cleaning work surfaces. Ten focus groups were conducted with 34 employees who did not receive training (Group A). Twenty focus groups were conducted with 125 employees after they had participated in a formal ServSafe training program (Group B). The following barriers were identified in at least one focus group in both Group A and Group B for all three practices: time constraints, inconvenience, inadequate training, and inadequate resources. In Group A, additional barriers identified most often were a lack of space and other tasks competing with cleaning work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and thermometers in inconvenient locations. Additional barriers identified most often by Group B were no incentive to do it and the manager not monitoring whether employees cleaned work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and manager not monitoring the use of thermometers. Results will be used to develop and implement interventions to overcome perceived barriers that training appears not to address. Knowledge of perceived barriers among employees can assist food and nutrition professionals in facilitating employees in overcoming these barriers and ultimately improve compliance with food safety practices.

  17. Restaurant employees' perceptions of barriers to three food safety practices.

    PubMed

    Howells, Amber D; Roberts, Kevin R; Shanklin, Carol W; Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Barrett, Betsy B

    2008-08-01

    Limited research has been conducted to assess employees' perceptions of barriers to implementing food safety practices. Focus groups were conducted with two groups of restaurant employees to identify perceived barriers to implementing three food safety practices: handwashing, using thermometers, and cleaning work surfaces. Ten focus groups were conducted with 34 employees who did not receive training (Group A). Twenty focus groups were conducted with 125 employees after they had participated in a formal ServSafe training program (Group B). The following barriers were identified in at least one focus group in both Group A and Group B for all three practices: time constraints, inconvenience, inadequate training, and inadequate resources. In Group A, additional barriers identified most often were a lack of space and other tasks competing with cleaning work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and thermometers in inconvenient locations. Additional barriers identified most often by Group B were no incentive to do it and the manager not monitoring whether employees cleaned work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and manager not monitoring the use of thermometers. Results will be used to develop and implement interventions to overcome perceived barriers that training appears not to address. Knowledge of perceived barriers among employees can assist food and nutrition professionals in facilitating employees in overcoming these barriers and ultimately improve compliance with food safety practices. PMID:18656574

  18. Organizational Change Processes: A Bibliography With Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldridge, J. Victor

    This bibliography deals with a wide variety of organizational dynamics and is related to the definition of organizational change developed by the Stanford Center's Organizational Change project. This definition, discussed in detail, focuses on deliberate change instituted to reformulate official policy. A topical outline of the bibliography is…

  19. 28 CFR 0.1 - Organizational units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Organizational units. 0.1 Section 0.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Organizational Structure of the Department of Justice § 0.1 Organizational units. The Department of Justice shall...

  20. The Organizational Values of "Gimnazija" in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung

    2006-01-01

    This article assesses the organizational values of "gimnazija" in Slovenia and examines the factors that contribute to the building of quality management. The theoretical framework is built on Schein's model of levels of culture, Sathe's interpretation of organizational culture and Getzels and Guba's model of organizational behaviour. Based on the…

  1. Organizational Communication: Research and Practice. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    In colleges and universities business students learn about organizational communication in order to function well in the business environment of which they will become a part. Although the organizational environment or culture is inextricably interwoven with the academic discipline of speech communication, the field of organizational communication…

  2. 28 CFR 0.1 - Organizational units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Organizational units. 0.1 Section 0.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Organizational Structure of the Department of Justice § 0.1 Organizational units. The Department of Justice shall...

  3. 15 CFR 923.46 - Organizational structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Authorities and Organization § 923.46 Organizational... describe the organizational structure that will be used to implement and administer the management program... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Organizational structure....

  4. Profiles of Organizational Culture and Effective Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    1993-01-01

    Investigates how school organizational culture is related to important organizational characteristics and how the profiles of strong culture-effective schools differ from those of weak culture-inefficient schools, in terms of organizational variables, teachers' job attitudes, and school effectiveness criteria. The survey of 54 randomly sampled…

  5. Conditioning Factors of an Organizational Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebelo, Teresa Manuela; Gomes, Adelino Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between some variables (organizational structure, organizational dimension and age, human resource characteristics, the external environment, strategy and quality) and organizational learning culture and evaluate the way they interact with this kind of culture.…

  6. Organizational Learning, Change and Socialization. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on organizational learning, change, and socialization. "A Study of the Organizational Learning Profile (OLP)" (Rae Dorai, Adela J. McMurray) reports findings that show the OLP (Pace et al. 1998) is a reliable instrument for measuring organizational learning and its content validity is high. "The Ability…

  7. School Shootings as Organizational Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Cybelle; Harding, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that rampage school shootings in American public schools can be understood as instances of organizational deviance, which occurs when events created by or in organizations do not conform to an organization's goals or expectations and produce unanticipated and harmful outcomes. Drawing on data from qualitative case studies of…

  8. Organizational Climate: Myth and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mailler, William D.

    The concept of organizational climate came from a desire to understand person-environment interactions. Most research has focused on the development of measuring instruments and much less has focused on development of a theory base. The small amount of existing theory has been used as a beginning for measurement activities. The lack of theory may…

  9. Dimensions of Organizational Task Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dess, Gregory G.; Beard, Donald W.

    1984-01-01

    Reducing Aldrich's codification of organizational task environments from six to three dimensions--munificence (capacity), complexity (homogeneity-heterogeneity, concentration-dispersion), and dynamism (stability-instability, turbulence), the authors use interim and factor analytical techniques to explore each dimension's viability and draw…

  10. Organizational change: Incentives and resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1992-01-01

    Topics concerning Space Exploration Initiative technical interchange are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: models of change, elements of the current period, the signs of change, leaders' contribution, paradigms - our worldview, paradigm change, the effects of revealing paradigms, a checklist for change, and organizational control.

  11. Communicating Change in Organizational Chaos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Kay E.

    A study examined the reactions of organizational members to ownership change. Participant observation during a 2-week stay in each of two national corporations, American Broadcasting Company (ABC) and Union Underwear, provided data in the study. Results showed different reactions to change illustrated through corporate differences in structure,…

  12. The Organizational Meaning of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adria, Marco; Boechler, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Practitioners and theorists have given attention recently to the role and status of research activities in Canadian university continuing education units. For individuals in units that are increasing the proportion of their organizational activities devoted to research, there will be an ongoing process of cognitive change and development as a new…

  13. The Virtues of Organizational Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the author begins by describing the organizational virtues that are associated with structural and ethical integrity. Virtues are the focus instead of behaviors, traits, or values, because virtues contain all these components: the stable characteristics of traits, the behaviors that are evidence of traits, and the values that…

  14. Structural Limits on Organizational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, George H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Organizational development practitioners tend to assume that all workplaces are pretty much alike, and that emotional health in all job situations can be described in approximately the same way. They have failed to recognize the sociological and structural/functional limitations of the workplace. (Author/JG)

  15. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on a contested area of shared governance, intercollegiate athletics. The researchers consider how faculty perceptions of organizational politics shape their orientations toward collaborative decision-making in this domain. The results provide insights into ways social cognitions about campus-level decision-making affect faculty…

  16. The Organizational Configurations of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is twofold: 1) To develop a framework and method for simultaneously examining many different school organizations and their relation to patterns of school change and 2) To utilize that framework to obtain a district-wide understanding of the organizational functioning and change patterns of Chicago Public School (CPS)…

  17. Discontinuous Change: Leading Organizational Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, David A.; And Others

    This book provides insights into the dynamics of organizational transformation and presents a diagnostic framework for leading organizations through periods of radical change. Part 1 provides a framework for looking at the different types of change and the action strategies for dealing with them. Chapters include: (1) "Change Leadership: Core…

  18. Reflections on Counselors' Organizational Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on dilemma of how counselors' organizational groups sometimes function contradictory to professional knowledge and ideals. Explores group theory, expectations of counselors, and coping strategies to articulate how counselors may better understand and manage in an uncomfortable and distressful work group. Includes 37 references. (Author/CRR)

  19. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND INTERORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AIKEN, MICHAEL; HAGE, JERALD

    IN A STUDY OF ORGANIZATIONAL INTERDEPENDENCE, INTERVIEW RESPONSE DATA WERE OBTAINED IN A LARGE MIDWEST CITY FROM 520 STAFF MEMBERS OF TEN PRIVATE AND SIX PUBLIC SOCIAL WELFARE AND HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS PROVIDING SPECIAL SERVICES FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED. INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM RESPONDENTS WAS POOLED TO REFLECT PROPERTIES OF THE 16…

  20. Organizational Costs of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, David E.

    1986-01-01

    Working women were surveyed regarding their probable initial reactions to different forms of sexual harassment. Many indicated they would either quit their jobs or report sexual harassment to external authorities. Discusses organizational costs of sexual harassment, ways of preventing such costs, and implications for employment counselors.…

  1. Idiosyncratic Deals and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. In particular, it examines how two individual differences which reflect self-worth (core self-evaluations and age) moderate that relationship. We predicted that employees with feelings of high self-worth will expect and will feel entitled to these…

  2. Linking Outcomes to Organizational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligon, Glynn; Jackson, Elaine

    Linking Outcomes to Organizational Planning (LOOP) was initiated during the 1984-85 school year in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District. LOOP was designed to ensure that evaluation, research, and informal findings became part of the instructional planning loop; to provide information to the Superintendent on progress toward priorities…

  3. Ghosts: Gateway to Organizational Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzel, Tim; Had, Gary

    2001-01-01

    "Ghosts" are elements that influence an organization's view of itself, its ways of working, and its culturally specific attitudes; they exert an indirect influence over everything that happens within an organization. Successful organizational change requires identifying and integrating these ghosts. (JOW)

  4. Organizational change: Incentives and resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    Topics concerning Space Exploration Initiative technical interchange are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: models of change, elements of the current period, the signs of change, leaders' contribution, paradigms - our worldview, paradigm change, the effects of revealing paradigms, a checklist for change, and organizational control.

  5. Keeping Score for Organizational Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Vana

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the balanced scorecard (BSC) as a performance management tool focuses on common mistakes and problems with implementing it. Topics include the need for intraorganizational communication and collaboration; strategic thinking; organizational goals; purposes of measurements; individual accountability; and setting priorities. (LRW)

  6. Organizational Climate Changes over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, John C.; Taylor, Thomas N.; Watkins, J. Foster

    1975-01-01

    As the basis for his doctoral dissertation, Taylor explored some of the conjectures advanced by Halpin and Croft relative to the possible directional changes in the organizational climate of schools over time. Taylor limited his study to elementary school based upon the question raised by Watkins in his dissertation relative to the validity of the…

  7. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moitra, Karobi

    2015-01-01

    The principle mechanism of protection of stem cells is through the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These transporters serve as the guardians of the stem cell population in the body. Unfortunately these very same ABC efflux pumps afford protection to cancer stem cells in tumors, shielding them from the adverse effects of chemotherapy. A number of strategies to circumvent the function of these transporters in cancer stem cells are currently under investigation. These strategies include the development of competitive and allosteric modulators, nanoparticle mediated delivery of inhibitors, targeted transcriptional regulation of ABC transporters, miRNA mediated inhibition, and targeting of signaling pathways that modulate ABC transporters. The role of ABC transporters in cancer stem cells will be explored in this paper and strategies aimed at overcoming drug resistance caused by these particular transporters will also be discussed. PMID:26649310

  8. T7 replisome directly overcomes DNA damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Pandey, Manjula; Inman, James T.; Yang, Yi; Kashlev, Mikhail; Patel, Smita S.; Wang, Michelle D.

    2015-12-01

    Cells and viruses possess several known `restart' pathways to overcome lesions during DNA replication. However, these `bypass' pathways leave a gap in replicated DNA or require recruitment of accessory proteins, resulting in significant delays to fork movement or even cell division arrest. Using single-molecule and ensemble methods, we demonstrate that the bacteriophage T7 replisome is able to directly replicate through a leading-strand cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) lesion. We show that when a replisome encounters the lesion, a substantial fraction of DNA polymerase (DNAP) and helicase stay together at the lesion, the replisome does not dissociate and the helicase does not move forward on its own. The DNAP is able to directly replicate through the lesion by working in conjunction with helicase through specific helicase-DNAP interactions. These observations suggest that the T7 replisome is fundamentally permissive of DNA lesions via pathways that do not require fork adjustment or replisome reassembly.

  9. T7 replisome directly overcomes DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Pandey, Manjula; Inman, James T.; Yang, Yi; Kashlev, Mikhail; Patel, Smita S.; Wang, Michelle D.

    2015-01-01

    Cells and viruses possess several known ‘restart' pathways to overcome lesions during DNA replication. However, these ‘bypass' pathways leave a gap in replicated DNA or require recruitment of accessory proteins, resulting in significant delays to fork movement or even cell division arrest. Using single-molecule and ensemble methods, we demonstrate that the bacteriophage T7 replisome is able to directly replicate through a leading-strand cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) lesion. We show that when a replisome encounters the lesion, a substantial fraction of DNA polymerase (DNAP) and helicase stay together at the lesion, the replisome does not dissociate and the helicase does not move forward on its own. The DNAP is able to directly replicate through the lesion by working in conjunction with helicase through specific helicase–DNAP interactions. These observations suggest that the T7 replisome is fundamentally permissive of DNA lesions via pathways that do not require fork adjustment or replisome reassembly. PMID:26675048

  10. Innovative Strategies to Overcome Biofilm Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Taraszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Fila, Grzegorz; Grinholc, Mariusz; Nakonieczna, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    We review the recent literature concerning the efficiency of antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation toward various microbial species in planktonic and biofilm cultures. The review is mainly focused on biofilm-growing microrganisms because this form of growth poses a threat to chronically infected or immunocompromised patients and is difficult to eradicate from medical devices. We discuss the biofilm formation process and mechanisms of its increased resistance to various antimicrobials. We present, based on data in the literature, strategies for overcoming the problem of biofilm resistance. Factors that have potential for use in increasing the efficiency of the killing of biofilm-forming bacteria include plant extracts, enzymes that disturb the biofilm structure, and other nonenzymatic molecules. We propose combining antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with various antimicrobial and antibiofilm approaches to obtain a synergistic effect to permit efficient microbial growth control at low photosensitizer doses. PMID:23509680

  11. Overcoming the effects of intentional forgetting.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Melissa; Malmberg, Kenneth J

    2011-02-01

    The long-term effects of the compartmentalization of task-irrelevant memories were investigated using a directed forgetting procedure. Many models tacitly assume the persistence of the costs and benefits of directed forgetting or otherwise fail to predict what factors might reduce or eliminate them. In contrast, a retrieving effectively from memory model (REM; Lehman & Malmberg, 2009) predicts that intentional forgetting should only be observed for free recall when temporal context is used to probe memory. By manipulating whether study lists were constructed from category exemplars or from a random set of words, and by either providing temporal or category cues at test, we tested the prediction. The effects of directed forgetting were eliminated when categorized lists were studied and category cues were provided. When categorized lists were used but category cues were not provided, the usual costs and benefits of directed forgetting were observed. These results specify the conditions under which the consequences of intentional forgetting can be overcome. PMID:21264615

  12. Barriers Preventing the Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Comparison of School Social Workers in Public and Private Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girgus, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Timely and accurate reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect is essential to protect victimized children; however, there are barriers to such reporting. The importance of barriers may be based on organizational theories that suggest structure has an impact on behavior independent of individual factors and on identity theory which suggests…

  13. Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Force, Crista Marie

    Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed

  14. The immunological barriers to xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Vadori, M; Cozzi, E

    2015-10-01

    The availability of cells, tissues and organs from a non-human species such as the pig could, at least in theory, meet the demand of organs necessary for clinical transplantation. At this stage, the important goal of getting over the first year of survival has been reported for both cellular and solid organ xenotransplantation in relevant preclinical primate models. In addition, xenotransplantation is already in the clinic as shown by the broad use of animal-derived medical devices, such as bioprosthetic heart valves and biological materials used for surgical tissue repair. At this stage, however, prior to starting a wide-scale clinical application of xenotransplantation of viable cells and organs, the important obstacle represented by the humoral immune response will need to be overcome. Likewise, the barriers posed by the activation of the innate immune system and coagulative pathway will have to be controlled. As far as xenogeneic nonviable xenografts, increasing evidence suggests that considerable immune reactions, mediated by both innate and adaptive immunity, take place and influence the long-term outcome of xenogeneic materials in patients, possibly precluding the use of bioprosthetic heart valves in young individuals. In this context, the present article provides an overview of current knowledge on the immune processes following xenotransplantation and on the possible therapeutic interventions to overcome the immunological drawbacks involved in xenotransplantation.

  15. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Ramsey, David R.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Macdonald, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  16. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

    1998-03-31

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

  17. Industry-College Cooperation: New Components, Barriers and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Richard L.

    A variety of linkage components that can help build and maintain effective relationships between the worlds of work and education are identified, and barriers to the development of such relationships and techniques for overcoming them are described in this report. The first section lists different forms of industry/education cooperation and their…

  18. Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

  19. Identifying barriers for implementation of computer based nursing documentation.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Anna-Maria; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Bürkle, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken in the planning phase for the introduction of a comprehensive computer based nursing documentation system at Erlangen University Hospital. There, we expect a wide range of difficult organizational changes, because the nurses currently neither used computer based nursing documentation nor did they follow strongly the nursing process model within paper based documentation. Thus we were eager to recognize potential pitfalls early and to identify potential barriers for digital nursing documentation. In a questionnaire study we surveyed all German university hospitals for their experience with the implementation of computer based nursing documentation implementation. We received answers from 11 of the 23 hospitals. Furthermore we performed a questionnaire study about expectations and fears among the nurses of four pilot wards of our hospital. Most respondents stated a positive attitude towards the nursing process documentation, but many respondents note technical (e.g. bad performance of the software) and organizational barriers (e.g. lack of time). PMID:24943530

  20. The Barriers Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confederation Coll. of Applied Arts and Technology, Thunder Bay (Ontario).

    In 1987, the Barriers Project was initiated by Confederation College of Applied Arts and Technology to engage 31 selected community colleges in Canada in an organized self-appraisal of institutional barriers to the enrollment of part-time credit students. From the outset, colleges were encouraged to limit their investigation to barriers over which…