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Sample records for overexpressing cell death

  1. Cell cycle inhibition and retinoblastoma protein overexpression prevent Purkinje cell death in organotypic slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Jaya; Brown, Kristy; Shelanski, Michael L

    2007-05-01

    Purkinje cells are vulnerable to a number of physical, chemical, and genetic insults during development and maturity. Normal development of these cells depends on the cell-cell interactions between granule and astroglial cell populations. Apoptotic death in Purkinje neurons had been shown to be associated with cell cycle activation, and new DNA synthesis is associated with Purkinje cell death in staggerer and lurcher mutant mice. Here using an in vitro organotypic slice culture model from 9 (P9) and 4 days (P4) old postnatal rats we show that the cyclin dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors (roscovitine, olomoucine, and flavopiridol) protect the Purkinje cells from cell death. The results are more pronounced in the cerebellar sections from P4 rats. Analysis of Purkinje neurons in sections from P4 rats after 1 week of culturing showed that while there were very limited calbindin positive neurons in the untreated sections the cdk inhibitor treated sections had a notably higher number. Although treatment with cdk inhibitors inhibited Purkinje cell loss significantly, the morphology of these neurons was abnormal, with stunted dendrites and axons. Since the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is the major pocket protein involved in determining the differentiated state of neurons we examined the effect of over-expressing Rb in the organotypic cultures. Rb overexpression significantly inhibited the Purkinje cell death and these neurons maintained their normal morphology. Thus our studies show that the cell death in Purkinje neurons observed in organotypic cultures is cell cycle dependent and the optimal survival requires Rb.

  2. Mitigated NSAID-induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death with Smad7 overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Jae; Park, Jong Min; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2017-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs damaged gastrointestinal mucosa in cyclooxygenase-dependent and -independent pathway, among which apopototic or autophagic cell death in gastrointestinal cells might be one of key cytotoxic mechanisms responsible for NSAID-induced damages. Therefore, alleviating this cell death after NSAIDs can be a rescuing strategy. In this study, we explored the role of Smad7 on NSAID-induced cytotoxicity in gastric epithelial cells. Using RGM1 cells, we have compared biological changes between mock-transfected and Smad7-overexpressed cells. As results, significantly decreased cytotoxicity accompanied with decreased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax, and autophagic vesicles concurrent with decreased expressions of autophagy protein 5 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B-II were noted in Smad7-overexpressed cells with indomethacin administration compared to mock-transfected cells. Contrast to mitigated apoptotic execution, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 were significantly increased in Smad7-overexpressed cells compared to mock-transfected cells. Smad7 siRNA significantly reversed these protective actions of Smad7 against indomethacin, in which p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was significantly intervened. Furthermore, indomethacin-induced Smad7 degradation through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was relevant to increased cytotoxicity, while chloroquine as autophagy inhibitor significantly attenuated indomethacin-induced cytotoxicity through Smad7 preservation via repressed ubiquitination. Conclusively, either genetic overexpression or pharmacological induction of Smad7 significantly attenuated indomethacin-induced gastric cell damages. PMID:28163383

  3. Overexpression of BAK1 causes salicylic acid accumulation and deregulation of cell death control genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Young; Shang, Yun; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Ki; Nam, Kyoung Hee

    2017-03-18

    Since the BRI1-Associated Receptor Kinase 1 (BAK1) was firstly identified as a co-receptor of BRI1 that mediates brassinosteroids (BR) signaling, the functional roles of BAK1, as a versatile co-receptor for various ligand-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing receptor-like kinase (RLKs), are being extended to involvement with plant immunity, cell death, stomatal development and ABA signaling in plants. During more than a decade of research on the BAK1, it has been known that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BAK1 tagged with various reporters do not fully represent its natural functions. Therefore, in this study, we characterized the transgenic plants in which native BAK1 is overexpressed driven by its own promoter. We found that those transgenic plants were more sensitive to BR signaling but showed reduced growth patterns accompanied with spontaneous cell death features that are different from those seen in BR-related mutants. We demonstrated that more salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide were accumulated and that expressions of the genes that are known to regulate cell death, such as BONs, BIRs, and SOBIR, were increased in the BAK1-overexpressing transgenic plants. These results suggest that pleiotropic phenotypic alterations shown in the BAK1- overexpressing transgenic plants result from the constitutive activation of SA-mediated defense responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. bcl-2 Overexpression Reduces Apoptotic Photoreceptor Cell Death in Three Different Retinal Degenerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeannie; Flannery, John G.; Lavail, Matthew M.; Steinberg, Roy H.; Xu, Jun; Simon, Melvin I.

    1996-07-01

    Apoptosis of photoreceptors occurs infrequently in adult retina but can be triggered in inherited and environmentally induced retinal degenerations. The protooncogene bcl-2 is known to be a potent regulator of cell survival in neurons. We created lines of transgenic mice overexpressing bcl-2 to test for its ability to increase photoreceptor survival. Bcl-2 increased photoreceptor survival in mice with retinal degeneration caused by a defective opsin or cGMP phosphodiesterase. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in normal photoreceptors also decreased the damaging effects of constant light exposure. Apoptosis was induced in normal photoreceptors by very high levels of bcl-2. We conclude that bcl-2 is an important regulator of photoreceptor cell death in retinal degenerations.

  5. Over-expression of mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 suppresses programmed cell death in rice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yaocheng; Wang, Hongjuan; Zou, Yu; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Yanqi; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-03

    In this study, we identified and functionally characterized the mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (mtHsp70). Over-expression of mtHsp70 suppressed heat- and H(2)O(2)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in rice protoplasts, as reflected by higher cell viability, decreased DNA laddering and chromatin condensation. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)) after heat shock was destroyed gradually in protoplasts, but mtHsp70 over-expression showed higher Δψ(m) relative to the vector control cells, and partially inhibited cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol. Heat treatment also significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, a phenomenon not observed in protoplasts over-expressing mtHsp70. Together, these results suggest that mtHsp70 may suppress PCD in rice protoplasts by maintaining mitochondrial Δψ(m) and inhibiting the amplification of ROS. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Overexpression of Arabidopsis Ceramide Synthases Differentially Affects Growth, Sphingolipid Metabolism, Programmed Cell Death, and Mycotoxin Resistance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Luttgeharm, Kyle D.; Chen, Ming; Mehra, Amit; Cahoon, Rebecca E.; Markham, Jonathan E.; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide synthases catalyze an N-acyltransferase reaction using fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and long-chain base (LCB) substrates to form the sphingolipid ceramide backbone and are targets for inhibition by the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three genes encoding ceramide synthases with distinct substrate specificities: LONGEVITY ASSURANCE GENE ONE HOMOLOG1 (LOH1; At3g25540)- and LOH3 (At1g19260)-encoded ceramide synthases use very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and trihydroxy LCB substrates, and LOH2 (At3g19260)-encoded ceramide synthase uses palmitoyl-CoA and dihydroxy LCB substrates. In this study, complementary DNAs for each gene were overexpressed to determine the role of individual isoforms in physiology and sphingolipid metabolism. Differences were observed in growth resulting from LOH1 and LOH3 overexpression compared with LOH2 overexpression. LOH1- and LOH3-overexpressing plants had enhanced biomass relative to wild-type plants, due in part to increased cell division, suggesting that enhanced synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acid/trihydroxy LCB ceramides promotes cell division and growth. Conversely, LOH2 overexpression resulted in dwarfing. LOH2 overexpression also resulted in the accumulation of sphingolipids with C16 fatty acid/dihydroxy LCB ceramides, constitutive induction of programmed cell death, and accumulation of salicylic acid, closely mimicking phenotypes observed previously in LCB C-4 hydroxylase mutants defective in trihydroxy LCB synthesis. In addition, LOH2- and LOH3-overexpressing plants acquired increased resistance to FB1, whereas LOH1-overexpressing plants showed no increase in FB1 resistance, compared with wild-type plants, indicating that LOH1 ceramide synthase is most strongly inhibited by FB1. Overall, the findings described here demonstrate that overexpression of Arabidopsis ceramide synthases results in strongly divergent physiological and metabolic phenotypes, some of which have significance

  7. Overexpression of Bcl-2–Associated Death Inhibits A549 Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Na; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Dan; Li, Ya-Lun; Chen, Bo-Jiang; He, Yan-Qi; Liu, Kun; Mo, Xian-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The importance of apoptosis during the process of inhibiting tumorigenesis has been recognized. The role of BH3-only proapoptotic protein Bcl-2–associated death (BAD) in tumor growth remains controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the role of BAD in lung cancer cells. Our study showed that expression of BAD was upregulated in A549 cells by a recombinant lentivirus overexpressing BAD. In vitro, BAD overexpression significantly inhibited A549 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in cell proliferation and apoptosis assays, respectively. The effect of BAD on A549 cells was studied in tumor xenograft of nude mice and the results showed that the tumor volume in the experimental group was smaller than the control groups. Further, immunohistochemical technique was used to determine the cell proliferation and apoptosis status of the lung tumor xenograft cells. This demonstrated that the in vivo and in vitro results were consistent. Taken together, our results indicate that overexpression of BAD inhibits the growth of A549 cells in vitro and in vivo, through inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Thus, BAD could be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:22011203

  8. Targeting a G-protein-coupled receptor overexpressed in endocrine tumors by magnetic nanoparticles to induce cell death.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Claire; El Hajj Diab, Darine; Connord, Vincent; Clerc, Pascal; Meunier, Etienne; Pipy, Bernard; Payré, Bruno; Tan, Reasmey P; Gougeon, Michel; Carrey, Julian; Gigoux, Véronique; Fourmy, Daniel

    2014-02-25

    Nanotherapy using targeted magnetic nanoparticles grafted with peptidic ligands of receptors overexpressed in cancers is a promising therapeutic strategy. However, nanoconjugation of peptides can dramatically affect their properties with respect to receptor recognition, mechanism of internalization, intracellular trafficking, and fate. Furthermore, investigations are needed to better understand the mechanism whereby application of an alternating magnetic field to cells containing targeted nanoparticles induces cell death. Here, we designed a nanoplatform (termed MG-IONP-DY647) composed of an iron oxide nanocrystal decorated with a ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor, the cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) that is overexpressed in several malignant cancers. MG-IONP-DY647 did not stimulate inflammasome of Raw 264.7 macrophages. They recognized cells expressing CCK2R with a high specificity, subsequently internalized via a mechanism involving recruitment of β-arrestins, clathrin-coated pits, and dynamin and were directed to lysosomes. Binding and internalization of MG-IONP-DY647 were dependent on the density of the ligand at the nanoparticle surface and were slowed down relative to free ligand. Trafficking of CCK2R internalized with the nanoparticles was slightly modified relative to CCK2R internalized in response to free ligand. Application of an alternating magnetic field to cells containing MG-IONP-DY647 induced apoptosis and cell death through a lysosomal death pathway, demonstrating that cell death is triggered even though nanoparticles of low thermal power are internalized in minute amounts by the cells. Together with pioneer findings using iron oxide nanoparticles targeting tumoral cells expressing epidermal growth factor receptor, these data represent a solid basis for future studies aiming at establishing the proof-of-concept of nanotherapy of cancers using ligand-grafted magnetic nanoparticles specifically internalized via cell surface receptors.

  9. Neonatal motoneurons overexpressing the bcl-2 protooncogene in transgenic mice are protected from axotomy-induced cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois-Dauphin, M; Frankowski, H; Tsujimoto, Y; Huarte, J; Martinou, J C

    1994-01-01

    In vitro, the overexpression of the bcl-2 protooncogene in cultured neurons has been shown to prevent apoptosis induced by neurotrophic factor deprivation. We have generated transgenic mice overexpressing the Bcl-2 protein in neurons, including motoneurons of the facial nucleus. We have tested whether Bcl-2 could protect these motoneurons from experimentally induced cell death in new born mice. To address this question, we performed unilateral lesion of the facial nerve of wild-type and transgenic 2-day-old mice. In wild-type mice, the lesioned nerve and the corresponding motoneuron cell bodies in the facial nucleus underwent rapid degeneration. In contrast, in transgenic mice, facial motoneurons survived axotomy. Not only their cell bodies but also their axons were protected up to the lesion site. These results demonstrate that in vivo Bcl-2 protects neonatal motoneurons from degeneration after axonal injury. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which Bcl-2 prevents neuronal cell death in vivo could lead to the development of strategies for the treatment of motoneuron degenerative diseases. Images PMID:8159744

  10. Hyaluronan activates Hyal-2/WWOX/Smad4 signaling and causes bubbling cell death when the signaling complex is overexpressed.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Jin; Hong, Qunying; Chen, Shur-Tzu; Kuo, Hsiang-Lin; Schultz, Lori; Heath, John; Lin, Sing-Ru; Lee, Ming-Hui; Li, Dong-Zhang; Li, Zih-Ling; Cheng, Hui-Ching; Armand, Gerard; Chang, Nan-Shan

    2016-11-10

    Malignant cancer cells frequently secrete significant amounts of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), hyaluronan (HA) and hyaluronidases to facilitate metastasizing to target organs. In a non-canonical signaling, TGF-β binds membrane hyaluronidase Hyal-2 for recruiting tumor suppressors WWOX and Smad4, and the resulting Hyal-2/WWOX/Smad4 complex is accumulated in the nucleus to enhance SMAD-promoter dependent transcriptional activity. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that WWOX acts as a bridge to bind both Hyal-2 and Smad4. When WWOX-expressing cells were stimulated with high molecular weight HA, an increased formation of endogenous Hyal-2/WWOX/Smad4 complex occurred rapidly, followed by relocating to the nuclei in 20-40 min. In WWOX-deficient cells, HA failed to induce Smad2/3/4 relocation to the nucleus. To prove the signaling event, we designed a real time tri-molecular FRET analysis and revealed that HA induces the signaling pathway from ectopic Smad4 to WWOX and finally to p53, as well as from Smad4 to Hyal-2 and then to WWOX. An increased binding of the Smad4/Hyal-2/WWOX complex occurs with time in the nucleus that leads to bubbling cell death. In contrast, HA increases the binding of Smad4/WWOX/p53, which causes membrane blebbing but without cell death. In traumatic brain injury-induced neuronal death, the Hyal-2/WWOX complex was accumulated in the apoptotic nuclei of neurons in the rat brains in 24 hr post injury, as determined by immunoelectron microscopy. Together, HA activates the Hyal-2/WWOX/Smad4 signaling and causes bubbling cell death when the signaling complex is overexpressed.

  11. Apolipoprotein CIII Overexpression-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia Increases Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Association with Inflammation and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Adriene A.; Raposo, Helena F.; Wanschel, Amarylis C. B. A.; Nardelli, Tarlliza R.

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the principal manifestation of liver disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. By comparing hypertriglyceridemic transgenic mice expressing apolipoprotein (apo) CIII with control nontransgenic (NTg) littermates, we demonstrated that overexpression of apoCIII, independent of a high-fat diet (HFD), produces NAFLD-like features, including increased liver lipid content; decreased antioxidant power; increased expression of TNFα, TNFα receptor, cleaved caspase-1, and interleukin-1β; decreased expression of adiponectin receptor-2; and increased cell death. This phenotype is aggravated and additional NAFLD features are differentially induced in apoCIII mice fed a HFD. HFD induced glucose intolerance together with increased gluconeogenesis, indicating hepatic insulin resistance. Additionally, the HFD led to marked increases in plasma TNFα (8-fold) and IL-6 (60%) in apoCIII mice. Cell death signaling (Bax/Bcl2), effector (caspase-3), and apoptosis were augmented in apoCIII mice regardless of whether a HFD or a low-fat diet was provided. Fenofibrate treatment reversed several of the effects associated with diet and apoCIII expression but did not normalize inflammatory traits even when liver lipid content was fully corrected. These results indicate that apoCIII and/or hypertriglyceridemia plays a major role in liver inflammation and cell death, which in turn increases susceptibility to and the severity of diet-induced NAFLD. PMID:28163820

  12. Overexpression of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE1a alleviates mitochondria-dependent programmed cell death induced by aluminium phytotoxicity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Li, Zhe; Wang, Yongqiang; Xing, Da

    2014-08-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a terminal oxidase found in all plants, and functions to maintain the electron flux and reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our previous study demonstrated that aluminium (Al) treatment could induce increased expression of the AOX1a gene, but the mechanism of how AOX1a participates in the regulation of Al-induced programmed cell death (PCD) is still not clear. To investigate the possible mechanism, mitochondrial ROS production and the behaviour of mitochondria, as well as caspase-3-like activation were monitored under Al treatment in wild-type (WT), AOX1a-lacking (aox1a), and AOX1a-overexpressing (AOX1a-OE) Arabidopsis. Our results showed that Al treatment increased the expression of AOX1a at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Overexpression of AOX1a reduced mitochondrial ROS production by maintaining the mitochondrial electron flux, and alleviated subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-3-like activation in Al-induced PCD. Moreover, it was found that a change in AOX1a level could influence the expression levels of downstream functional genes that play protective roles in Al-induced PCD. Experiments using mutants and inhibitors demonstrated that superoxide anion (O2 (-)) derived from mitochondria was involved in Al-induced upregulation of AOX1a gene expression. Taken together, these results indicated that overexpression of AOX1a alleviated Al-induced PCD by maintaining mitochondrial function and promoting the expression of protective functional genes, providing new insights into the signalling cascades that modulate the Al phytotoxicity mechanism.

  13. GILZ overexpression attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cell death via the activation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    André, Fanny; Corazao-Rozas, Paola; Idziorek, Thierry; Quesnel, Bruno; Kluza, Jérome; Marchetti, Philippe

    2016-09-16

    The Glucocorticoïd-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) protein has profound anti-inflammatory activities in haematopoietic cells. GILZ regulates numerous signal transduction pathways involved in proliferation and survival of normal and neoplastic cells. Here, we have demonstrated the potential of GILZ in alleviating apoptosis induced by ER stress inducers. Whereas the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, protects from tunicamycin-induced cell death, silencing endogeneous GILZ in dexamethasone-treated cancer cells alter the capacity of glucocorticoids to protect from tunicamycin-mediated apoptosis. Under ER stress conditions, overexpression of GILZ significantly reduced activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by maintaining Bcl-xl level. GILZ protein affects the UPR signaling shifting the balance towards pro-survival signals as judged by down-regulation of CHOP, ATF4, XBP1s mRNA and increase in GRP78 protein level. Interestingly, GILZ sustains high mitochondrial OXPHOS during ER stress and cytoprotection mediated by GILZ is abolished in cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA, which are OXPHOS-deficient. These findings reveal a new role of GILZ, which acts as a cytoprotector against ER stress through a pathway involving mitochondrial OXPHOS.

  14. Overexpression of alpha-synuclein at non-toxic levels increases dopaminergic cell death induced by copper exposure via modulation of protein degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Bohovych, Iryna; Griggs, Amy M; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M; Seravalli, Javier; Stanciu, Lia A; Lee, Jaekwon; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Franco, Rodrigo

    2015-09-01

    Gene multiplications or point mutations in alpha (α)-synuclein are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). An increase in copper (Cu) levels has been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of PD patients, while occupational exposure to Cu has been suggested to augment the risk to develop PD. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which α-synuclein and Cu regulate dopaminergic cell death. Short-term overexpression of wild type (WT) or mutant A53T α-synuclein had no toxic effect in human dopaminergic cells and primary midbrain cultures, but it exerted a synergistic effect on Cu-induced cell death. Cell death induced by Cu was potentiated by overexpression of the Cu transporter protein 1 (Ctr1) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) indicating that the toxic effects of Cu are linked to alterations in its intracellular homeostasis. Using the redox sensor roGFP, we demonstrated that Cu-induced oxidative stress was primarily localized in the cytosol and not in the mitochondria. However, α-synuclein overexpression had no effect on Cu-induced oxidative stress. WT or A53T α-synuclein overexpression exacerbated Cu toxicity in dopaminergic and yeast cells in the absence of α-synuclein aggregation. Cu increased autophagic flux and protein ubiquitination. Impairment of autophagy by overexpression of a dominant negative Atg5 form or inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) with MG132 enhanced Cu-induced cell death. However, only inhibition of the UPS stimulated the synergistic toxic effects of Cu and α-synuclein overexpression. Our results demonstrate that α-synuclein stimulates Cu toxicity in dopaminergic cells independent from its aggregation via modulation of protein degradation pathways.

  15. Overexpression of alpha-synuclein at non-toxic levels increases dopaminergic cell death induced by copper exposure via modulation of protein degradation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Bohovych, Iryna; Griggs, Amy M.; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M.; Seravalli, Javier; Stanciu, Lia A.; Lee, Jaekwon; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Franco, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Gene multiplications or point mutations in alpha (α)-synuclein are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD). An increase in copper (Cu) levels has been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of PD patients, while occupational exposure to Cu has been suggested to augment the risk to develop PD. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which α-synuclein and Cu regulate dopaminergic cell death. Short-term overexpression of WT or A53T α-synuclein had no toxic effect in human dopaminergic cells and primary midbrain cultures, but it exerted a synergistic effect on Cu-induced cell death. Cell death induced by Cu was potentiated by overexpression of the Cu transporter protein 1 (Ctr1) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) indicating that the toxic effects of Cu are linked to alterations in its intracellular homeostasis. Using the redox sensor roGFP, we demonstrated that Cu-induced oxidative stress was primarily localized in the cytosol and not in the mitochondria. However, α-synuclein overexpression had no effect on Cu-induced oxidative stress. WT or A53T α-synuclein overexpression exacerbated Cu toxicity in dopaminergic cells and yeast in the absence of α-synuclein aggregation. Cu increased autophagic flux and protein ubiquitination. Impairment of autophagy by overexpression of a dominant negative Atg5 form or inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) with MG132 enhanced Cu-induced cell death. However, only inhibition of the UPS stimulated the synergistic toxic effects of Cu and α-synuclein overexpression. Our results demonstrate that α-synuclein stimulates Cu toxicity in dopaminergic cells independent from its aggregation via modulation of protein degradation pathways. PMID:25497688

  16. Mitochondrial superoxide radicals mediate programmed cell death in Trypanosoma cruzi: cytoprotective action of mitochondrial iron superoxide dismutase overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Piacenza, Lucía; Irigoín, Florencia; Alvarez, María Noel; Peluffo, Gonzalo; Taylor, Martin C.; Kelly, John M.; Wilkinson, Shane R.; Radi, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi undergo PCD (programmed cell death) under appropriate stimuli, the mechanisms of which remain to be established. In the present study, we show that stimulation of PCD in T. cruzi epimastigotes by FHS (fresh human serum) results in rapid (<1 h) externalization of phosphatidylserine and depletion of the low molecular mass thiols dihydrotrypanothione and glutathione. Concomitantly, enhanced generation of oxidants was established by EPR and immuno-spin trapping of radicals using DMPO (5,5-dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide) and augmentation of the glucose flux through the pentose phosphate pathway. In the early period (<20 min), changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibition of respiration, probably due to the impairment of ADP/ATP exchange with the cytosol, were observed, conditions that favour the generation of O2•−. Accelerated rates of mitochondrial O2•− production were detected by the inactivation of the redox-sensitive mitochondrial aconitase and by oxidation of a mitochondrial-targeted probe (MitoSOX). Importantly, parasites overexpressing mitochondrial FeSOD (iron superoxide dismutase) were more resistant to the PCD stimulus, unambiguously indicating the participation of mitochondrial O2•− in the signalling process. In summary, FHS-induced PCD in T. cruzi involves mitochondrial dysfunction that causes enhanced O2•− formation, which leads to cellular oxidative stress conditions that trigger the initiation of PCD cascades; moreover, overexpression of mitochondrial FeSOD, which is also observed during metacyclogenesis, resulted in cytoprotective effects. PMID:17168856

  17. Dieldrin induces ubiquitin-proteasome dysfunction in alpha-synuclein overexpressing dopaminergic neuronal cells and enhances susceptibility to apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Sun, Faneng; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2005-10-01

    Exposure to pesticides is implicated in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The organochlorine pesticide dieldrin is one of the environmental chemicals potentially linked to PD. Because recent evidence indicates that abnormal accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction can contribute to the degenerative processes of PD, in the present study we examined whether the environmental pesticide dieldrin impairs proteasomal function and subsequently promotes apoptotic cell death in rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells overexpressing human alpha-synuclein. Overexpression of wild-type alpha-synuclein significantly reduced the proteasomal activity. Dieldrin exposure dose-dependently (0-70 microM) decreased proteasomal activity, and 30 microM dieldrin inhibited activity by more than 60% in alpha-synuclein cells. Confocal microscopic analysis of dieldrin-treated alpha-synuclein cells revealed that alpha-synuclein-positive protein aggregates colocalized with ubiquitin protein. Further characterization of the aggregates with the autophagosomal marker mondansyl cadaverine and the lysosomal marker and dot-blot analysis revealed that these protein oligomeric aggregates were distinct from autophagosomes and lysosomes. The dieldrin-induced proteasomal dysfunction in alpha-synuclein cells was also confirmed by significant accumulation of ubiquitin protein conjugates in the detergent-insoluble fraction. We found that proteasomal inhibition preceded cell death after dieldrin treatment and that alpha-synuclein cells were more sensitive than vector cells to the toxicity. Furthermore, measurement of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation confirmed the enhanced sensitivity of alpha-synuclein cells to dieldrin-induced apoptosis. Together, our results suggest that increased expression of alpha-synuclein predisposes dopaminergic cells to proteasomal dysfunction, which can be further exacerbated by environmental exposure to certain

  18. Overexpression of glutamate–cysteine ligase protects human COV434 granulosa tumour cells against oxidative and γ-radiation-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Wanstreet, Mabel M.; Giedzinski, Erich; Limoli, Charles L.; Luderer, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is toxic to ovarian follicles and can cause infertility. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the toxicity of ionizing radiation in several cell types. We have shown that depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) sensitizes follicles and granulosa cells to toxicant-induced apoptosis and that supplementation of GSH is protective. The rate-limiting reaction in GSH biosynthesis is catalysed by glutamate–cysteine ligase (GCL), which consists of a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a regulatory subunit (GCLM). We hypothesized that overexpression of Gclc or Gclm to increase GSH synthesis would protect granulosa cells against oxidant- and radiation-induced cell death. The COV434 line of human granulosa tumour cells was stably transfected with vectors designed for the constitutive expression of Gclc, Gclm, both Gclc and Gclm or empty vector. GCL protein and enzymatic activity and total GSH levels were significantly increased in the GCL subunit-transfected cells. GCL-transfected cells were resistant to cell killing by treatment with hydrogen peroxide compared to control cells. Cell viability declined less in all the GCL subunit-transfected cell lines 1–8 h after 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide treatment than in control cells. We next examined the effects of GCL overexpression on responses to ionizing radiation. ROS were measured using a redox-sensitive fluorogenic dye in cells irradiated with 0, 1 or 5 Gy of γ-rays. There was a dose-dependent increase in ROS within 30 min in all cell lines, an effect that was significantly attenuated in Gcl-transfected cells. Apoptosis, assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling and activated caspase-3 immunoblotting, was significantly decreased in irradiated Gclc-transfected cells compared to irradiated control cells. Suppression of GSH synthesis in Gclc-transfected cells reversed resistance to radiation. These findings show that

  19. c-CBL E3 Ubiquitin Ligase is Over-Expressed in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: Its Inhibition Promotes Activation Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianqiang; Salva, Katrin A.; Wood, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary syndrome (SS) are two major forms of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) characterized by resistance to apoptosis. A central pathway for T-cell apoptosis is activation-induced cell death (AICD) which is triggered through the T-cell receptor (TCR). This results in upregulation of FAS-ligand (FASL) and subsequent apoptosis through the FAS death receptor pathway. It has been known for more than a decade that TCR signaling is defective in CTCL; however, the underlying mechanism has not been apparent. In this report, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase, c-CBL, is over-expressed in CTCL and that its knockdown overcomes defective TCR signaling resulting in phosphorylation of PLCg1, calcium influx, ROS generation, up-regulation of FASL and extrinsic pathway apoptosis in CTCL cells expressing adequate FAS. In CTCL cells with suboptimal FAS expression, FAS can be upregulated epigenetically by derepression of the FAS promoter using methotrexate (MTX) which we showed previously has activity as a DNA methylation inhibitor. Using these combined strategies, FAS-low as well as FAS-high CTCL cells can be killed effectively. PMID:25140833

  20. Sialomucin expression is associated with erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression, early recurrence, and cancer death in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, C J; Shun, C T; Yang, P C; Lee, Y C; Shew, J Y; Kuo, S H; Luh, K T

    1997-04-01

    Mucin production, when heavily sialylated, can promote cancer cell invasion and metastasis, and modulate the immune recognition system of the host. To explore the prognostic implication of sialomucin expression in lung cancer, we studied 116 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tumor specimens were stained immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mucin glycoprotein (17Q2, HMFG2, SM3), and histochemically with periodic acid-Schiff/alcian blue to differentiate neutral mucin from acid mucin, and with high-iron diamine/alcian blue to differentiate sialomucin from sulfomucin. The expression status of two established molecular prognostic factors, the p53 and erbB-2 oncoproteins, were evaluated immunohistochemically. The staining was performed on two separately archived, paraffin-embedded tumor blocks for each patient, with normal lung as a control. Correlations were subsequently made among stains and various clinicopathologic factors. All analyses were blinded, and included Kaplan-Meier survival estimates with Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Associations were established among adenocarcinoma histotype and erbB-2 overexpression, sialomucin expression, and 17Q2 and HMFG2 immunohistochemical positivity (p < 0.05). Sialomucin expression was closely linked to erbB-2 overexpression (p = 0.01). Significant univariate predictors (p < 0.05) of recurrence and cancer death were surgical stage, p53 expression, erbB-2 overexpression, and sialomucin expression. These four factors remained as independent predictors of early recurrence (p < 0.05) after multivariate analysis. For cancer death prediction, p53 and sialomucin expression had a marginal effect. We concluded that sialomucin expression is also a poor indicator of prognosis, which is associated with erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression, early postoperative recurrence, and cancer death in NSCLC.

  1. Suppression of MAPK attenuates neuronal cell death induced by activated glia-conditioned medium in alpha-synuclein overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yshii, Lidia M; Denadai-Souza, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Andrea R; Avellar, Maria Christina W; Scavone, Cristoforo

    2015-10-26

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with characteristics and symptoms that are well defined. Nevertheless, its aetiology remains unknown. PD is characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies inside neurons. α-Synuclein (α-syn) is a soluble protein present in the pre-synaptic terminal of neurons. Evidence suggests that α-syn has a fundamental role in PD pathogenesis, given that it is an important component of Lewy bodies localized in the dopaminergic neurons of PD patients. In the present study, we investigated the influence of wild type (WT) and A30P α-syn overexpression on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y toxicity induced by the conditioned medium (CM) from primary cultures of glia challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli. We observed that SH-SY5Y cells transduced with α-syn (WT or A30P) and treated with CM from LPS-activated glia cells show evidence of cell death, which is not reverted by NF-κB inhibition by sodium salicylate or by blockage of P50 (NF-κB subunit). Furthermore, the expression of A30P α-syn in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y decreases the cell death triggered by the CM of activated glia versus WT α-syn or control group. This effect of A30P α-syn may be due to the low MAPK42/44 phosphorylation. This finding is substantiated by MEK1 inhibition by PD98059, decreasing LDH release by CM in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results suggest that SH-SY5Y cells transduced with α-syn (WT or A30P) and treated with CM from LPS-activated glia cells show cell death, which is not reverted by NF-κB blockage. Additionally, the expression of A30P α-syn on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y leads to decreased cell death triggered by the CM of activated glia, when compared to WT α-syn or control group. The mechanism underlying this process remains to be completely elucidated, but the present data suggest that MAPK42/44 phosphorylation plays an important role in this process. CRD42015020829.

  2. Development of salinity tolerance in rice by constitutive-overexpression of genes involved in the regulation of programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thi M L; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Williams, Brett; Khanna, Harjeet; Dale, James; Mundree, Sagadevan G

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors contribute to over 70% of crop yield losses worldwide. Of these drought and salinity are the most significant causes of crop yield reduction. Rice is an important staple crop that feeds more than half of the world's population. However among the agronomically important cereals rice is the most sensitive to salinity. In the present study we show that exogenous expression of anti-apoptotic genes from diverse origins, AtBAG4 (Arabidopsis), Hsp70 (Citrus tristeza virus) and p35 (Baculovirus), significantly improves salinity tolerance in rice at the whole plant level. Physiological, biochemical and agronomical analyses of transgenic rice expressing each of the anti-apoptotic genes subjected to salinity treatment demonstrated traits associated with tolerant varieties including, improved photosynthesis, membrane integrity, ion and ROS maintenance systems, growth rate, and yield components. Moreover, FTIR analysis showed that the chemical composition of salinity-treated transgenic plants is reminiscent of non-treated, unstressed controls. In contrast, wild type and vector control plants displayed hallmark features of stress, including pectin degradation upon subjection to salinity treatment. Interestingly, despite their diverse origins, transgenic plants expressing the anti-apoptotic genes assessed in this study displayed similar physiological and biochemical characteristics during salinity treatment thus providing further evidence that cell death pathways are conserved across broad evolutionary kingdoms. Our results reveal that anti-apoptotic genes facilitate maintenance of metabolic activity at the whole plant level to create favorable conditions for cellular survival. It is these conditions that are crucial and conducive to the plants ability to tolerate/adapt to extreme environments.

  3. Adenovirus vector-mediated FAM176A overexpression induces cell death in human H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; Hu, Jia; Pan, Huan; Lou, Yaxin; Lv, Ping; Chen, Yingyu

    2014-02-01

    FAM176A (family with sequence similarity 176 member A) is a novel molecule related to programmed cell death. A decreased expression of FAM176A has been found in several types of human tumors in including lung cancers. In the present study, we investigated the biological activities of FAM176A on the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line H1299 cells. We constructed a recombinant adenovirus 5-FAM176A vector (Ad5-FAM176A) and evaluated the expression and anti-tumor activities in vitro. Cell viability analysis revealed that the adenovirus-mediated increase of FAM176A inhibited the growth of the tumor cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect was mediated by both autophagy and apoptosis that involved caspase activation. In addition, cell cycle analysis suggested that Ad5-FAM176A could induce cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, all of which suggested that adenovirus-mediated FAM176A gene transfer might present a new therapeutic approach for lung cancer treatment.

  4. Nonlethal dose of silver nanoparticles attenuates TNF-α-induced hepatic epithelial cell death through HSP70 overexpression.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsen-Ni; Lee, Tzu-Ying; Liu, Maw-Shung; Ho, Jia-Jing; Huang, Li-Ju; Liu, Chia-Jen; Chen, Tsan-Ju; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2015-06-15

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-nps) have been widely used in various biomedical products. Compared with its hazardous effects extensively being studied, rare attention has been paid to the potential protective effect of Ag-nps to human health. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Ag-nps and heat shock treatment on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced cell damage in Clone 9 cells. Clone 9 cells were pretreated with nonlethal concentration of Ag-nps (1 μg/ml) or heat shock, and then cell damages were induced by TNF-α (1 ng/ml). Protective effects of Ag-nps administration or heat shock treatment were determined by examining the TNF-α-induced changes in cell viabilities. The results showed that the intensity of cytotoxicity produced by TNF-α was alleviated upon treatment with nonlethal concentration of Ag-nps (1 μg/ml). Similar protective effects were also found upon heat shock treatment. These data demonstrate that Ag-nps and heat shock treatment were equally capable of inducing heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) protein expression in Clone 9 cells. The results suggest that clinically Ag-nps administration is a viable strategy to induce endogenous HSP70 expression instead of applying heat shock. In conclusion, our study for the first time provides evidence that Ag-nps may act as a viable alternative for HSP70 induction clinically.

  5. Nonlethal dose of silver nanoparticles attenuates TNF-α-induced hepatic epithelial cell death through HSP70 overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsen-Ni; Lee, Tzu-Ying; Liu, Maw-Shung; Ho, Jia-Jing; Huang, Li-Ju; Liu, Chia-Jen; Chen, Tsan-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-nps) have been widely used in various biomedical products. Compared with its hazardous effects extensively being studied, rare attention has been paid to the potential protective effect of Ag-nps to human health. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Ag-nps and heat shock treatment on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced cell damage in Clone 9 cells. Clone 9 cells were pretreated with nonlethal concentration of Ag-nps (1 μg/ml) or heat shock, and then cell damages were induced by TNF-α (1 ng/ml). Protective effects of Ag-nps administration or heat shock treatment were determined by examining the TNF-α-induced changes in cell viabilities. The results showed that the intensity of cytotoxicity produced by TNF-α was alleviated upon treatment with nonlethal concentration of Ag-nps (1 μg/ml). Similar protective effects were also found upon heat shock treatment. These data demonstrate that Ag-nps and heat shock treatment were equally capable of inducing heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) protein expression in Clone 9 cells. The results suggest that clinically Ag-nps administration is a viable strategy to induce endogenous HSP70 expression instead of applying heat shock. In conclusion, our study for the first time provides evidence that Ag-nps may act as a viable alternative for HSP70 induction clinically. PMID:25877698

  6. bcl-2 overexpression inhibits cell death and promotes the morphogenesis, but not tumorigenesis of human mammary epithelial cells [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1995 Nov;131(4):following 1121

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Overexpression of the B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (bcl-2) gene has been shown to confer a survival advantage on cells by inhibiting apoptosis. In epithelia, the bcl-2 gene is also related to development and differentiation, and the protein is strongly expressed in the embryo in the epithelial cells of the developing mammary gland. To investigate directly the effect of bcl-2 on human epithelial cells, we used an amphotropic recombinant retrovirus to introduce the gene into nontumorigenic cell lines developed from luminal epithelial cells cultured from milk. Here we demonstrate that while bcl-2 overexpression does not directly induce the tumorigenic phenotype, it provides a survival advantage to the mammary epithelial cells by inhibiting cell death at confluence or under conditions of serum starvation, bcl-2 can also affect the phenotype of the original epithelial cells, and promote epithelial-mesenchymal conversion, accompanied by loss of the cell adhesion molecules E-cadherin and alpha 2 beta 1 integrin. The extent of the epithelial-mesenchymal conversion varies with small differences in the phenotype of the parental line and with the level of expression of Bcl-2 and in some cases cell lines emerge with a mixed phenotype. The increased survival of Bcl-2-expressing cells at confluence results in multilayering, and the development of three- dimensional structures. Where a mixed phenotype is observed these structures consist of an outer layer of polarized epithelial cells separated by a basement membrane-like layer from an inner mass of fibroblastoid cells. Branching morphogenesis of bcl-2 transfectants is also observed in collagen gels (in the absence of fibroblast growth factors). The results strongly indicate that by increasing their survival under restrictive growth conditions, and by modifying the epithelial phenotype, bcl-2 can influence the specific morphogenetic behavior of mammary epithelial cells. PMID:7775580

  7. Metabolic rewiring in cancer cells overexpressing the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ): Activation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and sensitization to oxidative cell death induced by mitochondrial targeted drugs.

    PubMed

    André, Fanny; Trinh, Anne; Balayssac, Stéphane; Maboudou, Patrice; Dekiouk, Salim; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Quesnel, Bruno; Idziorek, Thierry; Kluza, Jérome; Marchetti, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cell metabolism is largely controlled by oncogenic signals and nutrient availability. Here, we highlighted that the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), an intracellular protein influencing many signaling pathways, reprograms cancer cell metabolism to promote proliferation. We provided evidence that GILZ overexpression induced a significant increase of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation as evidenced by the augmentation in basal respiration, ATP-linked respiration as well as respiratory capacity. Pharmacological inhibition of glucose, glutamine and fatty acid oxidation reduced the activation of GILZ-induced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. At glycolysis level, GILZ-overexpressing cells enhanced the expression of glucose transporters in their plasmatic membrane and showed higher glycolytic reserve. (1)H NMR metabolites quantification showed an up-regulation of amino acid biosynthesis. The GILZ-induced metabolic reprograming is present in various cancer cell lines regardless of their driver mutations status and is associated with higher proliferation rates persisting under metabolic stress conditions. Interestingly, high levels of OXPHOS made GILZ-overexpressing cells vulnerable to cell death induced by mitochondrial pro-oxidants. Altogether, these data indicate that GILZ reprograms cancer metabolism towards mitochondrial OXPHOS and sensitizes cancer cells to mitochondria-targeted drugs with pro-oxidant activities.

  8. Anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL overexpression can block iridovirus serine/threonine kinase-induced Bax/mitochondria-mediated cell death in GF-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Reshi, Latif; Wang, Hua-Ven; Hui, Cho-Fat; Su, Yu-Chin; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2017-02-01

    Although serine/threonine (ST) kinase is known to induce host cell death in GF-1 cells, it remains unclear how ST kinase induces mitochondrial function loss. In the present study, we addressed the issue of mitochondrial function loss by determining whether the Bcl-2 family members Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL can prevent ST kinase-induced cell death activity via interacting with the pro-apoptotic gene Bax. Grouper fin cells (GF-1) carrying EGFP-Bal-xL and EGFP-Bcl-2 fused genes were selected, established in cell culture, and used to examine the involvement of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL overexpression in protection of GF-1 cells from the effects of the giant sea perch iridovirus (GSIV) ST kinase gene. Using the TUNEL assay, we found that EGFP-Bcl-2 and EGFP-Bcl-xL reduced GSIV ST kinase-induced apoptosis to 20% all at 24 h and 48 h post-transfection (pt). Also, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL substantially reduced the percentage of cells with GSIV ST kinase-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψps) at 24 and 48 hpt, respectively, and this reduction correlated with a 30% and 50% enhancement of host cell viability at 24 and 48 hpt as compared with vector control. Moreover, analysis of the effect of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL interaction with Bax targeted to mitochondria during ST kinase expression at 48 hpt found that Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL also interacted with Bax to block cytochrome c release. Finally, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL overexpression caused blockage of ST kinase function at 48 hpt, which was correlated with preventing caspase-9 and -3 cleavage and activation, thereby blocking downstream death signaling events. Taken together, our results suggest that the ST kinase-induced Bax/mitochondria-mediated cell death pathway can be blocked by the interaction of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL with Bax to inhibit cytochrome c release during MMP loss. This rescue activity also correlated with inhibition of caspase-9 and -3 activation, thereby enhancing cell viability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Motor neuron cell death in wobbler mutant mice follows overexpression of the G-protein-coupled, protease-activated receptor for thrombin.

    PubMed Central

    Festoff, B. W.; D'Andrea, M. R.; Citron, B. A.; Salcedo, R. M.; Smirnova, I. V.; Andrade-Gordon, P.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration are actively sought for new therapeutic strategies. Transgenic, knockout and genetic mouse models greatly aid our understanding of the mechanisms for neuronal cell death. A naturally occurring, autosomal recessive mutant, known as wobbler, and mice transgenic for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 mutations are available, but the molecular mechanisms remain equally unknown. Both phenotypes are detectable after birth. Wobbler is detectable in the third week of life, when homozygotes (wr/wr) exhibit prominent gliosis and significant motor neuron loss in the cervical, but not in lumbar, spinal cord segments. To address molecular mechanisms, we evaluated "death signals" associated with the multifunctional serine protease, thrombin, which leads to apoptotic motor neuronal cell death in culture by cleavage of a G-protein coupled, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thrombin activities were determined with chromogenic substrate assays, Western immunoblots and immunohistochemistry were performed with anti-PAR-1 to observe localizations of the receptor and anti-GFAP staining was used to monitor astrocytosis. PAR-1 mRNA levels and locations were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridizations. Cell death was monitored with in situ DNA fragmentation assays. RESULTS: In preliminary studies we found a 5-fold increase in PAR-1 mRNA in cervical spinal cords from wr/wr, compared with wild-type (wt) littermates. Our current studies suggested that reactive astrocytosis and motor neuron cell death were causally linked with alterations in thrombin signaling. PAR-1 protein expression was increased, as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and confirmed with in situ hybridization, in phenotypic wr/wr motor neurons, compared with wt, but not in astrocytes. This increase was much greater in cervical, compared with lumbar

  10. Non-apoptotic programmed cell death with paraptotic-like features in bleomycin-treated plant cells is suppressed by inhibition of ATM/ATR pathways or NtE2F overexpression.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Ondřej; Široký, Jiří; Houlné, Guy; Opatrný, Zdeněk; Chabouté, Marie-Edith

    2012-04-01

    In plants, different forms of programmed cell death (PCD) have been identified, but they only partially correspond to those described for animals, which is most probably due to structural differences between animal and plant cells. Here, the results show that in tobacco BY-2 cells, bleomycin (BLM), an inducer of double-strand breaks (DSBs), triggers a novel type of non-apoptotic PCD with paraptotic-like features. Analysis of numerous PCD markers revealed an extensive vacuolization, vacuolar rupture, and chromatin condensation, but no apoptotic DNA fragmentation, fragmentation of the nuclei, or sensitivity to caspase inhibitors. BLM-induced PCD was cell cycle regulated, occurring predominantly upon G(2)/M cell cycle checkpoint activation. In addition, this paraptotic-like PCD was at least partially inhibited by caffeine, a known inhibitor of DNA damage sensor kinases ATM and ATR. Interestingly, overexpression of one NtE2F transcriptional factor, whose homologues play a dual role in animal apoptosis and DNA repair, reduced PCD induction and modulated G(2)/M checkpoint activation in BY-2 cells. These observations provide a solid ground for further investigations into the paraptotic-like PCD in plants, which might represent an ancestral non-apoptotic form of PCD conserved among animals, protists, and plants.

  11. Dictyostelium cell death

    PubMed Central

    Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Adam, Myriam; Luciani, Marie-Françoise; de Chastellier, Chantal; Blanton, Richard L.; Golstein, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Cell death in the stalk of Dictyostelium discoideum, a prototypic vacuolar cell death, can be studied in vitro using cells differentiating as a monolayer. To identify early events, we examined potentially dying cells at a time when the classical signs of Dictyostelium cell death, such as heavy vacuolization and membrane lesions, were not yet apparent. We observed that most cells proceeded through a stereotyped series of differentiation stages, including the emergence of “paddle” cells showing high motility and strikingly marked subcellular compartmentalization with actin segregation. Paddle cell emergence and subsequent demise with paddle-to-round cell transition may be critical to the cell death process, as they were contemporary with irreversibility assessed through time-lapse videos and clonogenicity tests. Paddle cell demise was not related to formation of the cellulose shell because cells where the cellulose-synthase gene had been inactivated underwent death indistinguishable from that of parental cells. A major subcellular alteration at the paddle-to-round cell transition was the disappearance of F-actin. The Dictyostelium vacuolar cell death pathway thus does not require cellulose synthesis and includes early actin rearrangements (F-actin segregation, then depolymerization), contemporary with irreversibility, corresponding to the emergence and demise of highly polarized paddle cells. PMID:12654899

  12. Cardiac Muscarinic Receptor Overexpression in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Livolsi, Angelo; Niederhoffer, Nathalie; Dali-Youcef, Nassim; Rambaud, Caroline; Olexa, Catherine; Mokni, Walid; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Bousquet, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Background Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the leading cause of death among infants less than 1 year of age. Disturbed expression of some neurotransmitters and their receptors has been shown in the central nervous system of SIDS victims but no biological abnormality of the peripheral vago-cardiac system has been demonstrated to date. The present study aimed to seek vago-cardiac abnormalities in SIDS victims. The cardiac level of expression of muscarinic receptors, as well as acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity were investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings Left ventricular samples and blood samples were obtained from autopsies of SIDS and children deceased from non cardiac causes. Binding experiments performed with [3H]NMS, a selective muscarinic ligand, in cardiac membrane preparations showed that the density of cardiac muscarinic receptors was increased as shown by a more than doubled Bmax value in SIDS (n = 9 SIDS versus 8 controls). On average, the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity was also significantly increased (n = 9 SIDS versus 11 controls). Conclusions In the present study, it has been shown for the first time that cardiac muscarinic receptor overexpression is associated with SIDS. The increase of acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity appears as a possible regulatory mechanism. PMID:20209124

  13. Programmed cell death

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  14. Overexpression of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) prevents cognitive dysfunction and apoptotic neuronal cell death induced by amyloid-β (Aβ₁₋₄₀) administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Rial, D; Piermartiri, T C; Duarte, F S; Tasca, C I; Walz, R; Prediger, R D

    2012-07-26

    The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a neuronal-anchored glycoprotein that has been associated with several functions in the CNS such as synaptic plasticity, learning and memory and neuroprotection. There is great interest in understanding the role of PrP(C) in the deleterious effects induced by the central accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, but the existent results are still controversial. Here we compared the effects of a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of aggregated Aβ(1-40) peptide (400pmol/mouse) on the spatial learning and memory performance as well as hippocampal cell death biomarkers in adult wild type (Prnp(+/+)), PrP(C) knockout (Prnp(0/0)) and the PrP(C) overexpressing Tg-20 mice. Tg-20 mice, which present a fivefold increase in PrP(C) expression in comparison to wild type mice, were resistant to the Aβ(1-40)-induced spatial learning and memory impairments as indicated by reduced escape latencies to find the platform and higher percentage of time spent in the correct quadrant during training and probe test sessions of the water maze task. The protection against Aβ(1-40)-induced cognitive impairments observed in Tg-20 mice was accompanied by a significant decrease in the hippocampal expression of the activated caspase-3 protein and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as well as reduced hippocampal cell damage assessed by MTT and propidium iodide incorporation assays. These findings indicate that the overexpression of PrP(C) prevents Aβ(1-40)-induced spatial learning and memory deficits in mice and that this response is mediated, at least in part, by the modulation of programed cell death pathways. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influenza A induces dysfunctional immunity and death in MeCP2-overexpressing mice

    PubMed Central

    Cronk, James C.; Herz, Jasmin; Kim, Taeg S.; Louveau, Antoine; Moser, Emily K.; Smirnov, Igor; Tung, Kenneth S.; Braciale, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of function or overexpression of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) results in the severe neurodevelopmental disorders Rett syndrome and MeCP2 duplication syndrome, respectively. MeCP2 plays a critical role in neuronal function and the function of cells throughout the body. It has been previously demonstrated that MeCP2 regulates T cell function and macrophage response to multiple stimuli, and that immune-mediated rescue imparts significant benefit in Mecp2-null mice. Unlike Rett syndrome, MeCP2 duplication syndrome results in chronic, severe respiratory infections, which represent a significant cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Here, we demonstrate that MeCP2Tg3 mice, which overexpress MeCP2 at levels 3- to 5-fold higher than normal, are hypersensitive to influenza A/PR/8/34 infection. Prior to death, MeCP2Tg3 mice experienced a host of complications during infection, including neutrophilia, increased cytokine production, excessive corticosterone levels, defective adaptive immunity, and vascular pathology characterized by impaired perfusion and pulmonary hemorrhage. Importantly, we found that radioresistant cells are essential to infection-related death after bone marrow transplantation. In all, these results demonstrate that influenza A infection in MeCP2Tg3 mice results in pathology affecting both immune and nonhematopoietic cells, suggesting that failure to effectively respond and clear viral respiratory infection has a complex, multicompartment etiology in the context of MeCP2 overexpression. PMID:28138553

  16. Programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Samuilov, V D; Oleskin, A V; Lagunova, E M

    2000-08-01

    This paper reviews data on programmed cell death (apoptosis) in animals and plants. Necrosis is a pathological scenario of cell death, which entails an inflammatory response in animal tissues. Apoptosis results in the disintegration of animal/plant cells into membrane vesicles enclosing the intracellular content, which are thereupon engulfed by adjacent or specialized cells (phagocytes) in animals. Plants lack such specialized cells, and plant cell walls prevent phagocytosis. The paper considers the main molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in animals and the pathways of activation of caspases, evolutionarily conserved cysteine proteases. A self-contained section concerns itself with the process of programmed cell death (PCD) in microorganisms including: 1) cell death in the myxomycete Dictyostelium discoideum and the parasitic flagellate Trypanosoma cruzi; 2) PCD in genetically manipulated yeast expressing the proapoptotic Bax and Bak proteins; 3) the death of a part of a prokaryotic cell population upon the depletion of nutrient resources or under stress; 4) the elimination of cells after a loss of a plasmid encoding a stable cytotoxic agent in combination with an unstable antidote; and 5) PCD in phage-infected bacterial cells.

  17. Classification of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Vandenabeele, P; Abrams, J; Alnemri, ES; Baehrecke, EH; Blagosklonny, MV; El-Deiry, WS; Golstein, P; Green, DR; Hengartner, M; Knight, RA; Kumar, S; Lipton, SA; Malorni, W; Nuñez, G; Peter, ME; Tschopp, J; Yuan, J; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G

    2009-01-01

    Different types of cell death are often defined by morphological criteria, without a clear reference to precise biochemical mechanisms. The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposes unified criteria for the definition of cell death and of its different morphologies, while formulating several caveats against the misuse of words and concepts that slow down progress in the area of cell death research. Authors, reviewers and editors of scientific periodicals are invited to abandon expressions like ‘percentage apoptosis’ and to replace them with more accurate descriptions of the biochemical and cellular parameters that are actually measured. Moreover, at the present stage, it should be accepted that caspase-independent mechanisms can cooperate with (or substitute for) caspases in the execution of lethal signaling pathways and that ‘autophagic cell death’ is a type of cell death occurring together with (but not necessarily by) autophagic vacuolization. This study details the 2009 recommendations of the NCCD on the use of cell death-related terminology including ‘entosis’, ‘mitotic catastrophe’, ‘necrosis’, ‘necroptosis’ and ‘pyroptosis’. PMID:18846107

  18. Regulation of VDAC trafficking modulates cell death

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Ashvini K; Godbole, Ashwini; Mathew, M K

    2016-01-01

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and mitochondria-associated hexokinase (HxK) have crucial roles in both cell survival and death. Both the individual abundances and their ratio seem to influence the balance of survival and death and are thus critical in scenarios, such as neurodegeneration and cancer. Elevated levels of both VDAC and HxK have been reported in cancerous cells. Physical interaction is surmised and specific residues or regions involved have been identified, but details of the interaction and the mechanism by which it modulates survival are yet to be elucidated. We and others have shown that heterologous expression of VDAC can induce cell death, which can be mitigated by concomitant overexpression of HxK. We have also observed that upon overexpression, fluorescently tagged VDAC is distributed between the cytosol and mitochondria. In this study, we show that cell death ensues only when the protein, which is synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes, migrates to the mitochondrion. Further, coexpression of rat HxK II (rHxKII) can delay the translocation of human VDAC1 (hVDAC1) protein to mitochondria and thereby inhibit VDAC-induced cell death. Variation in the level of HxK protein as seen endogenously in different cell lines, or as experimentally manipulated by silencing and overexpression, can lead to differential VDAC translocation kinetics and related cell death. The N-terminal region of HxK and the Glu73 residue of hVDAC1, which have previously been implicated in a physical interaction, are required for cytosolic retention of VDAC. Finally, we show that, in otherwise unperturbed cells in culture, there is a small but significant amount of soluble VDAC in the cytosol present in a complex with HxK. This complex could well determine how a cell is poised with respect to incoming thanatopic signals, thereby tilting the survival/death balance in pharmacologically interesting situations, such as neurodegeneration and cancer. PMID:28028442

  19. Interleukin-8 enhances the effect of colchicine on cell death.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Chikako; Yajima, Chika; Machida, Tetsuro; Kawahito, Yuji; Uchida, Marie; Hisatomi, Hisashi

    2017-03-25

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines are known to be generated in tumors and play important roles in angiogenesis, mitosis, and tumor progression. However, few studies have investigated the synergistic effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines and anticancer drugs on cell death. In the present study, we examined the combined effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines and colchicine on cell death of cancer cells. Colchicine induces G2/M arrest in the cell cycle by binding to tubulin, one of the main constituents of microtubules. SUIT-2 human pancreatic cancer cell line cells overexpressing pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were treated with colchicine. The effect of colchicine on cell death was enhanced in cells overexpressing IL-8. Moreover, the effect of colchicine on cell death was enhanced in cells overexpressing two IL-8 up-regulators, NF-κB and IL-6, but not in cells overexpressing an IL-8 down-regulator, splicing factor proline/glutamine-rich (SFPQ). Synergistic effects of IL-8 and colchicine were also observed in cells overexpressing IL-8 isoforms lacking the signal peptide. Therefore, IL-8 appeared to function as an enhancer of cell death in cancer cells treated with colchicine. The present results suggest a new role for IL-8 related to cell death of cancer cells.

  20. Cell death and tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Wang, Min-Xia; Murrell, George A C

    2003-10-01

    Apoptosis and necrosis are presently recognized as the two major types of physiological and pathological cell death. Apoptosis is a tightly regulated cell deletion process that differs morphologically and biochemically from necrotic cell death. Tendinopathy is defined as a tendon injury that originates from intrinsic and extrinsic etiological factors. Excessive apoptosis has recently been described in degenerative tendon. The increased number of apoptotic tendon cells in degenerative tendon tissue could affect the rate of collagen synthesis and repair. Impaired or dysfunctional protein synthesis may lead to weaker tendon tissue and eventually increase the risk for tendon rupture. Clearly, there are many details to insert into this pathway, but there is hope that if the fine details of the pathway can be fleshed out, then strategies may be able to be developed to break the cycle at one or more points and prevent or treat tendinopathy more effectively.

  1. Immunogenic cell death.

    PubMed

    Garg, Abhishek D; Dudek-Peric, Aleksandra M; Romano, Erminia; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Currently, it is widely acknowledged that a proactive anticancer immunosurveillance mechanism takes part in the rejection of neoplastic lesions before they progress towards a benign or malignant tumour. However in cases of very aggressive neoplastic lesions consisting of cells with high mutational diversity, cancer cell variants might be formed that are capable of evading host defence systems against uncontrolled proliferation and anticancer immunosurveillance. This is mainly accomplished through the exhibition of low immunogenicity, which is a particularly important stumbling block in the revival of long-lasting as well as stable anticancer immunity. Recently, it has emerged emphatically that inciting a cancer cell death routine, associated with the activation of danger signalling pathways evoking emission of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), markedly increases the immunogenicity of dying cancer cells. This cell death pathway has been termed "immunogenic cell death" (ICD). In the present review we introduce this concept and discuss its characteristics in detail. We also discuss in detail the various molecular, immunological and operational determinants of ICD.

  2. Programmed cell death: Superman meets Dr Death.

    PubMed

    Meier, Pascal; Silke, John

    2003-12-01

    This year's Cold Spring Harbor meeting on programmed cell death (September 17-21, 2003), organised by Craig Thompson and Junying Yuan, was proof that the 'golden age' of research in this field is far from over. There was a flurry of fascinating insights into the regulation of diverse apoptotic pathways and unexpected non-apoptotic roles for some of the key apoptotic regulators and effectors. In addition to their role in cell death, components of the apoptotic molecular machinery are now known to also function in a variety of essential cellular processes, such as regulating glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation.

  3. Cell Proliferation, Cell Death, and Size Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    Cell Death , and Size Regulation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nicholas E. Baker, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cell Proliferation, Cell Death , and Size Regulation DAMD17-97-1-7034 6. AUTHOR(S) Nicholas E. Baker, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING...Contains unpublished data 5 CELL PROLIFERATION, CELL DEATH , AND SIZE REGULATION INTRODUCTION Cell proliferation and cell death come to attention through

  4. Dead Cert: Measuring Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Lisa C; Marfell, Brooke J; Scott, Adrian P; Boughaba, Jeanne A; Chojnowski, Grace; Christensen, Melinda E; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-12-01

    Many cells in the body die at specific times to facilitate healthy development or because they have become old, damaged, or infected. Defects in cells that result in their inappropriate survival or untimely death can negatively impact development or contribute to a variety of human pathologies, including cancer, AIDS, autoimmune disorders, and chronic infection. Cell death may also occur following exposure to environmental toxins or cytotoxic chemicals. Although this is often harmful, it can be beneficial in some cases, such as in the treatment of cancer. The ability to objectively measure cell death in a laboratory setting is therefore essential to understanding and investigating the causes and treatments of many human diseases and disorders. Often, it is sufficient to know the extent of cell death in a sample; however, the mechanism of death may also have implications for disease progression, treatment, and the outcomes of experimental investigations. There are a myriad of assays available for measuring the known forms of cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, necroptosis, anoikis, and pyroptosis. Here, we introduce a range of assays for measuring cell death in cultured cells, and we outline basic techniques for distinguishing healthy cells from apoptotic or necrotic cells-the two most common forms of cell death. We also provide personal insight into where these assays may be useful and how they may or may not be used to distinguish apoptotic cell death from other death modalities. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Cardiomyocyte overexpression of iNOS in mice results in peroxynitrite generation, heart block, and sudden death

    PubMed Central

    Mungrue, Imran N.; Gros, Robert; You, Xiaomang; Pirani, Asif; Azad, Azar; Csont, Tamas; Schulz, Richard; Butany, Jagdish; Stewart, Duncan J.; Husain, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression is a component of the immune response and has been demonstrated in cardiomyocytes in septic shock, myocarditis, transplant rejection, ischemia, and dilated cardiomyopathy. To explore whether the consequences of such expression are adaptive or pathogenic, we have generated a transgenic mouse model conditionally targeting the expression of a human iNOS cDNA to myocardium. Chronic cardiac-specific upregulation of iNOS in transgenic mice led to increased production of peroxynitrite. This was associated with a mild inflammatory cell infiltrate, cardiac fibrosis, hypertrophy, and dilatation. While iNOS-overexpressing mice infrequently developed overt heart failure, they displayed a high incidence of sudden cardiac death due to bradyarrhythmia. This dramatic cardiac phenotype was rescued by specific attenuation of transgene activity. These data implicate cardiomyocyte iNOS overexpression as sufficient to cause cardiomyopathy, bradyarrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death. PMID:11901182

  6. The Influenza Virus H5N1 Infection Can Induce ROS Production for Viral Replication and Host Cell Death in A549 Cells Modulated by Human Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) Overexpression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian; Wang, Ruifang; Zou, Wei; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaokun; Zhao, Lianzhong; Wang, Shengyu; Jin, Meilin

    2016-01-08

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 infections are often accompanied by excessive pro-inflammatory response, high viral titer, and apoptosis; as such, the efficient control of these infections poses a great challenge. The pathogenesis of influenza virus infection is also related to oxidative stress. However, the role of endogenic genes with antioxidant effect in the control of influenza viruses, especially H5N1 viruses, should be further investigated. In this study, the H5N1 infection in lung epithelial cells decreased Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) expression at mRNA and protein levels. Forced SOD1 expression significantly inhibited the H5N1-induced increase in reactive oxygen species, decreased pro-inflammatory response, prevented p65 and p38 phosphorylation, and impeded viral ribonucleoprotein nuclear export and viral replication. The SOD1 overexpression also rescued H5N1-induced cellular apoptosis and alleviated H5N1-caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, this study described the role of SOD1 in the replication of H5N1 influenza virus and emphasized the relevance of this enzyme in the control of H5N1 replication in epithelial cells. Pharmacological modulation or targeting SOD1 may open a new way to fight H5N1 influenza virus.

  7. Flavone-resistant Leishmania donovani overexpresses LdMRP2 transporter in the parasite and activates host MRP2 on macrophages to circumvent the flavone-mediated cell death.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sayan; Mukhopadhyay, Rupkatha; Saha, Sourav; Mishra, Amartya; Sengupta, Souvik; Roy, Syamal; Majumder, Hemanta K

    2014-06-06

    In parasites, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters represent an important family of proteins related to drug resistance and other biological activities. Resistance of leishmanial parasites to therapeutic drugs continues to escalate in developing countries, and in many instances, it is due to overexpressed ABC efflux pumps. Progressively adapted baicalein (BLN)-resistant parasites (pB(25)R) show overexpression of a novel ABC transporter, which was classified as ABCC2 or Leishmania donovani multidrug resistance protein 2 (LdMRP2). The protein is primarily localized in the flagellar pocket region and in internal vesicles. Overexpressed LdABCC2 confers substantial BLN resistance to the parasites by rapid drug efflux. The BLN-resistant promastigotes when transformed into amastigotes in macrophage cells cannot be cured by treatment of macrophages with BLN. Amastigote resistance is concomitant with the overexpression of macrophage MRP2 transporter. Reporter analysis and site-directed mutagenesis assays demonstrated that antioxidant response element 1 is activated upon infection. The expression of this phase II detoxifying gene is regulated by NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response element activation. In view of the fact that the signaling pathway of phosphoinositol 3-kinase controls microfilament rearrangement and translocation of actin-associated proteins, the current study correlates with the intricate pathway of phosphoinositol 3-kinase-mediated nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which activates MRP2 expression in macrophages upon infection by the parasites. In contrast, phalloidin, an agent that prevents depolymerization of actin filaments, inhibits Nrf2 translocation and Mrp2 gene activation by pB(25)R infection. Taken together, these results provide insight into the mechanisms by which resistant clinical isolates of L. donovani induce intracellular events relevant to drug resistance.

  8. Flavone-resistant Leishmania donovani Overexpresses LdMRP2 Transporter in the Parasite and Activates Host MRP2 on Macrophages to Circumvent the Flavone-mediated Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sayan; Mukhopadhyay, Rupkatha; Saha, Sourav; Mishra, Amartya; Sengupta, Souvik; Roy, Syamal; Majumder, Hemanta K.

    2014-01-01

    In parasites, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters represent an important family of proteins related to drug resistance and other biological activities. Resistance of leishmanial parasites to therapeutic drugs continues to escalate in developing countries, and in many instances, it is due to overexpressed ABC efflux pumps. Progressively adapted baicalein (BLN)-resistant parasites (pB25R) show overexpression of a novel ABC transporter, which was classified as ABCC2 or Leishmania donovani multidrug resistance protein 2 (LdMRP2). The protein is primarily localized in the flagellar pocket region and in internal vesicles. Overexpressed LdABCC2 confers substantial BLN resistance to the parasites by rapid drug efflux. The BLN-resistant promastigotes when transformed into amastigotes in macrophage cells cannot be cured by treatment of macrophages with BLN. Amastigote resistance is concomitant with the overexpression of macrophage MRP2 transporter. Reporter analysis and site-directed mutagenesis assays demonstrated that antioxidant response element 1 is activated upon infection. The expression of this phase II detoxifying gene is regulated by NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response element activation. In view of the fact that the signaling pathway of phosphoinositol 3-kinase controls microfilament rearrangement and translocation of actin-associated proteins, the current study correlates with the intricate pathway of phosphoinositol 3-kinase-mediated nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which activates MRP2 expression in macrophages upon infection by the parasites. In contrast, phalloidin, an agent that prevents depolymerization of actin filaments, inhibits Nrf2 translocation and Mrp2 gene activation by pB25R infection. Taken together, these results provide insight into the mechanisms by which resistant clinical isolates of L. donovani induce intracellular events relevant to drug resistance. PMID:24706751

  9. Glutathione Efflux and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Glutathione (GSH) depletion is a central signaling event that regulates the activation of cell death pathways. GSH depletion is often taken as a marker of oxidative stress and thus, as a consequence of its antioxidant properties scavenging reactive species of both oxygen and nitrogen (ROS/RNS). Recent Advances: There is increasing evidence demonstrating that GSH loss is an active phenomenon regulating the redox signaling events modulating cell death activation and progression. Critical Issues: In this work, we review the role of GSH depletion by its efflux, as an important event regulating alterations in the cellular redox balance during cell death independent from oxidative stress and ROS/RNS formation. We discuss the mechanisms involved in GSH efflux during cell death progression and the redox signaling events by which GSH depletion regulates the activation of the cell death machinery. Future Directions: The evidence summarized here clearly places GSH transport as a central mechanism mediating redox signaling during cell death progression. Future studies should be directed toward identifying the molecular identity of GSH transporters mediating GSH extrusion during cell death, and addressing the lack of sensitive approaches to quantify GSH efflux. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1694–1713. PMID:22656858

  10. Ceramide mediates caspase-independent programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Thon, Lutz; Möhlig, Heike; Mathieu, Sabine; Lange, Arne; Bulanova, Elena; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Schütze, Stefan; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia; Adam, Dieter

    2005-12-01

    Although numerous studies have implicated the sphingolipid ceramide in the induction of cell death, a causative function of ceramide in caspase-dependent apoptosis remains a highly debated issue. Here, we show that ceramide is a key mediator of a distinct route to programmed cell death (PCD), i.e., caspase-independent PCD. Under conditions where apoptosis is either not initiated or actively inhibited, TNF induces caspase-independent PCD in L929 fibrosarcoma cells, NIH3T3 fibroblasts, human leukemic Jurkat T cells, and lung fibroblasts by increasing intracellular ceramide levels prior to the onset of cell death. Survival is significantly enhanced when ceramide accumulation is prevented, as demonstrated in fibroblasts genetically deficient for acid sphingomyelinase, in L929 cells overexpressing acid ceramidase, by pharmacological intervention, or by RNA interference. Jurkat cells deficient for receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) do not accumulate ceramide and therefore are fully resistant to caspase-independent PCD whereas Jurkat cells overexpressing the mitochondrial protein Bcl-2 are partially protected, implicating RIP1 and mitochondria as components of the ceramide death pathway. Our data point to a role of caspases (but not cathepsins) in suppressing the ceramide death pathway under physiological conditions. Moreover, clonogenic survival of tumor cells is clearly reduced by induction of the ceramide death pathway, promising additional options for the development of novel tumor therapies.

  11. [Pathophysiologic programming of cell death].

    PubMed

    Dobryszycka, W

    1998-01-01

    In multicellular organisms homeostasis depends on a balance between cell proliferation and cell death. In this review principles of the physiology of programmed cell death (apoptosis), i.e. biochemical features, involved genes and proteolytic enzymes, are described. Alterations in apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, including cancer, viral infections, inflammation, hematopoietic and immunological system defects (e.g. AIDS), neurodegenerative disorders. Specific effect on regulation of apoptosis might lead to new possibilities for treatment. Methods of quantitative determinations of apoptosis are discussed.

  12. Pancreatic β Cell Mass Death

    PubMed Central

    Marrif, Husnia I.; Al-Sunousi, Salma I.

    2016-01-01

    Type two diabetes (T2D) is a challenging metabolic disorder for which a cure has not yet been found. Its etiology is associated with several phenomena, including significant loss of insulin-producing, beta cellcell) mass via progressive programmed cell death and disrupted cellular autophagy. In diabetes, the etiology of β cell death and the role of mitochondria are complex and involve several layers of mechanisms. Understanding the dynamics of those mechanisms could permit researchers to develop an intervention for the progressive loss of β cells. Currently, diabetes research has shifted toward rejuvenation and plasticity technology and away from the simplified approach of hormonal compensation. Diabetes research is currently challenged by questions such as how to enhance cell survival, decrease apoptosis and replenish β cell mass in diabetic patients. In this review, we discuss evidence that β cell development and mass formation are guided by specific signaling systems, particularly hormones, transcription factors, and growth factors, all of which could be manipulated to enhance mass growth. There is also strong evidence that β cells are dynamically active cells, which, under specific conditions such as obesity, can increase in size and subsequently increase insulin secretion. In certain cases of aggressive or advanced forms of T2D, β cells become markedly impaired, and the only alternatives for maintaining glucose homeostasis are through partial or complete cell grafting (the Edmonton protocol). In these cases, the harvesting of an enriched population of viable β cells is required for transplantation. This task necessitates a deep understanding of the pharmacological agents that affect β cell survival, mass, and function. The aim of this review is to initiate discussion about the important signals in pancreatic β cell development and mass formation and to highlight the process by which cell death occurs in diabetes. This review also examines the

  13. Mechanisms of AXL overexpression and function in Imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Dufies, Maeva; Jacquel, Arnaud; Belhacene, Nathalie; Robert, Guillaume; Cluzeau, Thomas; Luciano, Fréderic; Cassuto, Jill Patrice; Raynaud, Sophie; Auberger, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    AXL is a receptor tyrosine kinase of the TAM family, the function of which is poorly understood. We previously identified AXL overexpression in Imatinib (IM)-resistant CML cell lines and patients. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of AXL and the mechanisms underlying AXL overexpression in Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI)-resistant CML cells. We present evidence that high AXL expression level is a feature of TKI-resistant CML cells and knockdown of AXL sensitized TKI-resistant cells to IM. In addition, expression of wild-type AXL but not a dominant negative form of AXL confers IM-sensitive CML cells the capacity to resist IM effect. AXL overexpression required PKCα and β and constitutive activation of ERK1/2. Accordingly, GF109203X a PKC inhibitor, U0126 a MEK1 inhibitor and PKCα/β knockdown restore sensitivity to IM while PKCα or PKCβ overexpression in CML cells promotes protection against IM-induced cell death. Finally, using luciferase promoter activity assays we established that AXL is regulated transcriptionally through the AP1 transcription factor. Our findings reveal an unexpected role of AXL in resistance to TKI in CML cells, identify the molecular mechanisms involved in its overexpression and support the notion that AXL is a new marker of resistance to TKI in CML. PMID:22141136

  14. Cell Death in Chondrocytes, Osteoblasts, and Osteocytes

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Toshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Cell death in skeletal component cells, including chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, plays roles in skeletal development, maintenance, and repair as well as in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are important steps for endochondral ossification. Although the inactivation of P53 and RB is involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcomas, the deletion of p53 and inactivation of Rb are insufficient to enhance chondrocyte proliferation, indicating the presence of multiple inhibitory mechanisms against sarcomagenesis in chondrocytes. The inflammatory processes induced by mechanical injury and chondrocyte death through the release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. The overexpression of BCLXL increases bone volume with a normal structure and maintains bone during aging by inhibiting osteoblast apoptosis. p53 inhibits osteoblast proliferation and enhances osteoblast apoptosis, thereby reducing bone formation, but also exerts positive effects on osteoblast differentiation through the Akt–FoxOs pathway. Apoptotic osteocytes release ATP, which induces the receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (Rankl) expression and osteoclastogenesis, from pannexin 1 channels. Osteocyte death ultimately results in necrosis; DAMPs are released to the bone surface and promote the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which induce Rankl expression, and osteoclastogenesis is further enhanced. PMID:27929439

  15. CD147 overexpression promotes tumorigenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Yong, Yu-Le; Liao, Cheng-Gong; Wei, Ding; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Bian, Huijie

    2016-04-01

    CD147 overexpresses in many epithelium-originated tumors and plays an important role in tumor migration and invasion. Most studies aim at the role of CD147 in tumor progression using tumor cell models. However, the influence of abnormal overexpression of CD147 on neoplastic transformation of normal cells is unknown. Here, the role of CD147 in malignant phenotype transformation in CHO cells was investigated. Three CHO cell lines that stably overexpressed CD147 (CHO-CD147), EGFP-CD147 (CHO-EGFP-CD147), and EGFP (CHO-EGFP) were generated by transfection of plasmids containing human CD147, EGFP-human CD147, and EGFP genes into CHO cells. Cell migration and invasion were detected by wound healing and transwell matrix penetration assay. Trypan blue exclusion, MTT, cell cycle analysis, and BrdU cell proliferation assay were used to detect cell viability and cell proliferation. Annexin V-FITC analysis was performed to detect apoptosis. We found that CD147 overexpression promoted the migration and invasion of CHO cells. CD147 accelerated the G1 to S phase transition and enhanced the CHO cell proliferation. Overexpression of CD147 inhibited both early- and late-stages of apoptosis of CHO-CD147 cells, which is caused by serum deprivation. CHO-EGFP-CD147 cells showed an increased anchorage-independent growth compared with CHO-EGFP cells as detected by soft-agar colony formation assay. The tumors formed by CHO-CD147 cells in nude mice were larger and coupled with higher expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 than that of CHO cells. In conclusion, human CD147 overexpression induces malignant phenotype in CHO cells.

  16. Extrasynaptic NMDA receptor-induced tau overexpression mediates neuronal death through suppressing survival signaling ERK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xu-Ying; Tuo, Qing-Zhang; Liuyang, Zhen-Yu; Xie, Ao-Ji; Feng, Xiao-Long; Yan, Xiong; Qiu, Mei; Li, Shen; Wang, Xiu-Lian; Cao, Fu-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of the hyperphosphorylated tau is a pathological hallmark in the brain of Alzheimer disease. Activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (E-NMDARs) induces excitatory toxicity that is involved in Alzheimer's neurodegeneration. However, the intrinsic link between E-NMDARs and the tau-induced neuronal damage remains elusive. In the present study, we showed in cultured primary cortical neurons that activation of E-NMDA receptors but not synaptic NMDA receptors dramatically increased tau mRNA and protein levels, with a simultaneous neuronal degeneration and decreased neuronal survival. Memantine, a selective antagonist of E-NMDARs, reversed E-NMDARs-induced tau overexpression. Activation of E-NMDARs in wild-type mouse brains resulted in neuron loss in hippocampus, whereas tau deletion in neuronal cultures and in the mouse brains rescued the E-NMDARs-induced neuronal death and degeneration. The E-NMDARs-induced tau overexpression was correlated with a reduced ERK phosphorylation, whereas the increased MEK activity, decreased binding and activity of ERK phosphatase to ERK, and increased ERK phosphorylation were observed in tau knockout mice. On the contrary, addition of tau proteins promoted ERK dephosphorylation in vitro. Taking together, these results indicate that tau overexpression mediates the excitatory toxicity induced by E-NMDAR activation through inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. PMID:27809304

  17. Alternative Cell Death Pathways and Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Simone

    2013-01-01

    While necroptosis has for long been viewed as an accidental mode of cell death triggered by physical or chemical damage, it has become clear over the last years that necroptosis can also represent a programmed form of cell death in mammalian cells. Key discoveries in the field of cell death research, including the identification of critical components of the necroptotic machinery, led to a revised concept of cell death signaling programs. Several regulatory check and balances are in place in order to ensure that necroptosis is tightly controlled according to environmental cues and cellular needs. This network of regulatory mechanisms includes metabolic pathways, especially those linked to mitochondrial signaling events. A better understanding of these signal transduction mechanisms will likely contribute to open new avenues to exploit our knowledge on the regulation of necroptosis signaling for therapeutic application in the treatment of human diseases. PMID:23401689

  18. Overexpression of Nrf2 Protects Cerebral Cortical Neurons from Ethanol-Induced Apoptotic DeathS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Madhusudhanan; Mahimainathan, Lenin; Rathinam, Mary Latha; Riar, Amanjot Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol (ETOH) can cause apoptotic death of neurons by depleting GSH with an associated increase in oxidative stress. The current study illustrates a means to overcome this ETOH-induced neurotoxicity by enhancing GSH through boosting Nrf2, a transcription factor that controls GSH homeostasis. ETOH treatment caused a significant increase in Nrf2 protein, transcript expression, Nrf2-DNA binding activity, and expression of its transcriptional target, NQO1, in primary cortical neuron (PCNs). However, this increase in Nrf2 did not maintain GSH levels in response to ETOH, and apoptotic death still occurred. To elucidate this phenomenon, we silenced Nrf2 in neurons and found that ETOH-induced GSH depletion and the increase in superoxide levels were exacerbated. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05) caspase 3 activity and apoptosis. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nrf2 prevented ETOH-induced depletion of GSH from the medium and high GSH subpopulations and prevented ETOH-related apoptotic death. These studies illustrate the importance of Nrf2-dependent maintenance of GSH homeostasis in cerebral cortical neurons in the defense against oxidative stress and apoptotic death elicited by ETOH exposure. PMID:21873460

  19. Cell Proliferation, Cell Death, and Size Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    generated in part by apoptosis of excess cells during development. We identified a mutation named pineapple eye (pie ) that has too few cells in the...predicted to encode a novel 582 amino acid protein, perhaps interacting with molybdopterin. It is possible that the pie gene encodes a novel enzyme protecting against cell death during growth and development.

  20. Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    Programmed cell death , or apoptosis, is a genetically regulated process through which a cell is active in bringing about its own death for the sake...delays and inhibits the cell death response, so that the breast cancer cell lines are much less susceptible to thapsigargin-induced apoptosis than...lymphoid cell lines, an observation that parallels the differential susceptibility of breast cancer and lymphomas to chemotherapy-induced cell death in

  1. Nigericin-induced impairment of autophagic flux in neuronal cells is inhibited by overexpression of Bak.

    PubMed

    Lim, Junghyun; Lee, Yunsu; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Rhyu, Im Joo; Oh, Myung Sook; Youdim, Moussa B H; Yue, Zhenyu; Oh, Young J

    2012-07-06

    Bak is a prototypic pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Recent studies have revealed that Bcl-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis as well as autophagy. To investigate whether and how Bak exerts a regulatory role on autophagy-related events, we treated independent cell lines, including MN9D neuronal cells, with nigericin, a K(+)/H(+) ionophore. Treatment of MN9D cells with nigericin led to an increase of LC3-II and p62 levels with concomitant activation of caspase. Ultrastructural examination revealed accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and swollen vacuoles in nigericin-treated cells. We further found that the LC3-II accumulated as a consequence of impaired autophagic flux and the disrupted degradation of LC3-II in nigericin-treated cells. In this cell death paradigm, both transient and stable overexpression of various forms of Bak exerted a protective role, whereas it did not inhibit the extent of nigericin-mediated activation of caspase-3. Subsequent biochemical and electron microscopic studies revealed that overexpressed Bak maintained autophagic flux and reduced the area occupied by swollen vacuoles in nigericin-treated cells. Similar results were obtained in nigericin-treated non-neuronal cells and another proton ionophore-induced cell death paradigm. Taken together, our study indicates that a protective role for Bak during ionophore-induced cell death may be closely associated with its regulatory effect on maintenance of autophagic flux and vacuole homeostasis.

  2. Nigericin-induced Impairment of Autophagic Flux in Neuronal Cells Is Inhibited by Overexpression of Bak*

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Junghyun; Lee, Yunsu; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Rhyu, Im Joo; Oh, Myung Sook; Youdim, Moussa B. H.; Yue, Zhenyu; Oh, Young J.

    2012-01-01

    Bak is a prototypic pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Recent studies have revealed that Bcl-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis as well as autophagy. To investigate whether and how Bak exerts a regulatory role on autophagy-related events, we treated independent cell lines, including MN9D neuronal cells, with nigericin, a K+/H+ ionophore. Treatment of MN9D cells with nigericin led to an increase of LC3-II and p62 levels with concomitant activation of caspase. Ultrastructural examination revealed accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and swollen vacuoles in nigericin-treated cells. We further found that the LC3-II accumulated as a consequence of impaired autophagic flux and the disrupted degradation of LC3-II in nigericin-treated cells. In this cell death paradigm, both transient and stable overexpression of various forms of Bak exerted a protective role, whereas it did not inhibit the extent of nigericin-mediated activation of caspase-3. Subsequent biochemical and electron microscopic studies revealed that overexpressed Bak maintained autophagic flux and reduced the area occupied by swollen vacuoles in nigericin-treated cells. Similar results were obtained in nigericin-treated non-neuronal cells and another proton ionophore-induced cell death paradigm. Taken together, our study indicates that a protective role for Bak during ionophore-induced cell death may be closely associated with its regulatory effect on maintenance of autophagic flux and vacuole homeostasis. PMID:22493436

  3. RECK overexpression reduces invasive ability in ameloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi-xiang; Liang, Yan-can; Xu, Zhi-ying; Chen, Wei-liang; Xie, Hong-liang; Zhang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Ameloblastoma is a frequent odontogenic neoplasm characterized by local invasiveness and high risk of recurrence. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) is a tumor suppressor that inhibits metastasis and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of RECK overexpression on invasive potential in ameloblastoma cells. Lentiviral vectors containing human RECK gene were created and subsequently stably transfected into immortalized ameloblastoma cell line hTERT(+) -AM. Functional characteristics of hTERT(+) -AM cells with stable RECK overexpression included proliferation, migration, invasion, and regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-9 measured by zymography or commercially available assays. The stable and higher expression of RECK mRNA and protein (P < 0.01) was detected in RECK-transfected hTERT(+) -AM cells. RECK overexpression caused a decrease in migration and invasion (P < 0.01) for hTERT(+) -AM cells and a decrease in activity of MMP-2, MMP-9 (P < 0.01). Proliferation was not affected by RECK overexpression (P > 0.05). Overexpression of RECK gene significantly inhibited cell invasive ability of hTERT(+) -AM cells, suggesting RECK may be a new target for ameloblastoma treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lipid peroxidation in cell death.

    PubMed

    Gaschler, Michael M; Stockwell, Brent R

    2017-01-15

    Disruption of redox homeostasis is a key phenotype of many pathological conditions. Though multiple oxidizing compounds such as hydrogen peroxide are widely recognized as mediators and inducers of oxidative stress, increasingly, attention is focused on the role of lipid hydroperoxides as critical mediators of death and disease. As the main component of cellular membranes, lipids have an indispensible role in maintaining the structural integrity of cells. Excessive oxidation of lipids alters the physical properties of cellular membranes and can cause covalent modification of proteins and nucleic acids. This review discusses the synthesis, toxicity, degradation, and detection of lipid peroxides in biological systems. Additionally, the role of lipid peroxidation is highlighted in cell death and disease, and strategies to control the accumulation of lipid peroxides are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of cytotoxicity-sensitive human cells using overexpression of long non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Tani, Hidenori; Torimura, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    Biosensors using live cells are analytical devices that have the advantage of being highly sensitive for their targets. Although attention has primarily focused on reporter gene assays using functional promoters, cell viability assays are still efficient. We focus on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are involved in the molecular mechanisms associated with responses to cellular stresses as a new biological material. Here we have developed human live cells transfected with lncRNAs that can be used as an intelligent sensor of cytotoxicity for a broad range of environmental stresses. We identified three lncRNAs (GAS5, IDI2-AS1, and SNHG15) that responded to cycloheximide in HEK293 cells. Overexpression of these lncRNAs sensitized human cells to cell death in response to various stresses (cycloheximide, ultraviolet irradiation, mercury II chloride, or hydrogen peroxide). In particular, dual lncRNA (GAS5 plus IDI2-AS1, or GAS5 plus SNHG15) overexpression sensitized cells to cell death by more cellular stresses. We propose a method for highly sensitive biosensors using overexpression of lncRNAs that can potentially measure the cytotoxicity signals of various environmental stresses.

  6. Macrophages overexpressing Aire induce CD4+Foxp3+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jitong; Fu, Haiying; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Wufei; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Aire plays an important role in central immune tolerance by regulating the transcription of thousands of genes. However, the role of Aire in the peripheral immune system is poorly understood. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are considered essential for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, but the effect of Aire on Treg cells in the peripheral immune system is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of macrophages overexpressing Aire on CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells by co-culturing Aire-overexpressing RAW264.7 cells or their supernatant with splenocytes. The results show that macrophages overexpressing Aire enhanced the expression of Foxp3 mRNA and induced different subsets of Treg cells in splenocytes through cell-cell contact or a co-culture supernatants. TGF-β is a key molecule in the increases of CD4+CD45RA+Foxp3hi T cell and activating Treg (aTreg) levels observed following cell‑supernatant co-culturing. Subsets of Treg cells were induced by Aire-overexpressing macrophages, and the manipulation of Treg cells by the targeting of Aire may provide a method for the treatment of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases.

  7. SIRT6 overexpression induces massive apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells

    PubMed Central

    Van Meter, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) functions as a longevity assurance gene by promoting genomic stability, regulating metabolic processes and attenuating inflammation. Here, we examine the effect of SIRT6 activation on cancer cells. We show that SIRT6 overexpression induces massive apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines but not in normal, non-transformed cells. This cell death requires the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase but not the deacetylase activity of SIRT6 and is mediated by the activation of both the p53 and p73 apoptotic signaling cascades in cancer cells by SIRT6. These results suggest that SIRT6 is an attractive target for pharmacological activation in cancer treatment. PMID:21900744

  8. Matrix-Dependent Regulation of AKT in Hepsin-Overexpressing PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Wittig-Blaich, Stephanie M; Kacprzyk, Lukasz A; Eismann, Thorsten; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Kruse, Petra; Winkler, Eva; Strauss, Wolfgang S L; Hibst, Raimund; Steiner, Rudolf; Schrader, Mark; Mertens, Daniel; Sültmann, Holger; Wittig, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The serine-protease hepsin is one of the most prominently overexpressed genes in human prostate carcinoma. Forced expression of the enzyme in mice prostates is associated with matrix degradation, invasive growth, and prostate cancer progression. Conversely, hepsin overexpression in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines was reported to induce cell cycle arrest and reduction of invasive growth in vitro. We used a system for doxycycline (dox)-inducible target gene expression in metastasis-derived PC3 cells to analyze the effects of hepsin in a quantitative manner. Loss of viability and adhesion correlated with hepsin expression levels during anchorage-dependent but not anchorage-independent growth. Full expression of hepsin led to cell death and detachment and was specifically associated with reduced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, which was restored by growth on matrix derived from RWPE1 normal prostatic epithelial cells. In the chorioallantoic membrane xenograft model, hepsin overexpression in PC3 cells reduced the viability of tumors but did not suppress invasive growth. The data presented here provide evidence that elevated levels of hepsin interfere with cell adhesion and viability in the background of prostate cancer as well as other tissue types, the details of which depend on the microenvironment provided. Our findings suggest that overexpression of the enzyme in prostate carcinogenesis must be spatially and temporally restricted for the efficient development of tumors and metastases. PMID:21750652

  9. Programmed cell death in aging.

    PubMed

    Tower, John

    2015-09-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) pathways, including apoptosis and regulated necrosis, are required for normal cell turnover and tissue homeostasis. Mis-regulation of PCD is increasingly implicated in aging and aging-related disease. During aging the cell turnover rate declines for several highly-mitotic tissues. Aging-associated disruptions in systemic and inter-cell signaling combined with cell-autonomous damage and mitochondrial malfunction result in increased PCD in some cell types, and decreased PCD in other cell types. Increased PCD during aging is implicated in immune system decline, skeletal muscle wasting (sarcopenia), loss of cells in the heart, and neurodegenerative disease. In contrast, cancer cells and senescent cells are resistant to PCD, enabling them to increase in abundance during aging. PCD pathways limit life span in fungi, but whether PCD pathways normally limit adult metazoan life span is not yet clear. PCD is regulated by a balance of negative and positive factors, including the mitochondria, which are particularly subject to aging-associated malfunction.

  10. Programmed cell death in Giardia.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Susmita; Oniku, Abraham E; Topping, Kate; Mamhoud, Zahra N; Paget, Timothy A

    2012-06-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) has been observed in many unicellular eukaryotes; however, in very few cases have the pathways been described. Recently the early divergent amitochondrial eukaryote Giardia has been included in this group. In this paper we investigate the processes of PCD in Giardia. We performed a bioinformatics survey of Giardia genomes to identify genes associated with PCD alongside traditional methods for studying apoptosis and autophagy. Analysis of Giardia genomes failed to highlight any genes involved in apoptotic-like PCD; however, we were able to induce apoptotic-like morphological changes in response to oxidative stress (H2O2) and drugs (metronidazole). In addition we did not detect caspase activity in induced cells. Interestingly, we did observe changes resembling autophagy when cells were starved (staining with MDC) and genome analysis revealed some key genes associated with autophagy such as TOR, ATG1 and ATG 16. In organisms such as Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Blastocystis similar observations have been made but no genes have been identified. We propose that Giardia possess a pathway of autophagy and a form of apoptosis very different from the classical known mechanism; this may represent an early form of programmed cell death.

  11. Cell death in the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Bredesen, Dale E.; Rao, Rammohan V.; Mehlen, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease trigger neuronal cell death through endogenous suicide pathways. Surprisingly, although the cell death itself may occur relatively late in the course of the degenerative process, the mediators of the underlying cell-death pathways have shown promise as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:17051206

  12. Regulation of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation and apoptotic signaling by Sorafenib in hepatoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A; Navarro-Villarán, E; González, R; Pereira, S; Soriano-De Castro, L B; Sarrias-Giménez, A; Barrera-Pulido, L; Álamo-Martínez, J M; Serrablo-Requejo, A; Blanco-Fernández, G; Nogales-Muñoz, A; Gila-Bohórquez, A; Pacheco, D; Torres-Nieto, M A; Serrano-Díaz-Canedo, J; Suárez-Artacho, G; Bernal-Bellido, C; Marín-Gómez, L M; Barcena, J A; Gómez-Bravo, M A; Padilla, C A; Padillo, F J; Muntané, J

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a relevant role during cell death regulation in tumor cells. The overexpression of nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS-3) induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, p53 and cell death receptor expression and apoptosis in hepatoblastoma cells. S-nitrosylation of cell death receptor modulates apoptosis. Sorafenib is the unique recommended molecular-targeted drug for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study was addressed to elucidate the potential role of NO during Sorafenib-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. We determined the intra- and extracellular NO concentration, cell death receptor expression and their S-nitrosylation modifications, and apoptotic signaling in Sorafenib-treated HepG2 cells. The effect of NO donors on above parameters has also been determined. Sorafenib induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. However, low concentration of the drug (10nM) increased cell death receptor expression, as well as caspase-8 and -9 activation, but without activation of downstream apoptotic markers. In contrast, Sorafenib (10 µM) reduced upstream apoptotic parameters but increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells. The shift of cell death signaling pathway was associated with a reduction of S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors in Sorafenib-treated cells. The administration of NO donors increased S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors and overall induction of cell death markers in control and Sorafenib-treated cells. In conclusion, Sorafenib induced alteration of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation status which may have a relevant repercussion on cell death signaling in hepatoblastoma cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ayanin diacetate-induced cell death is amplified by TRAIL in human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, Maria Teresa; Estevez, Sara; Negrin, Gledy; Quintana, Jose; Leon, Francisco; Estevez, Francisco

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ayanin diacetate as apoptotic inducer in leukemia cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell death was prevented by caspase inhibitors and by the overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intrinsic and the extrinsic pathways are involved in the mechanism of action. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Death receptors are up-regulated and TRAIL enhances apoptotic cell death. -- Abstract: Here we demonstrate that the semi-synthetic flavonoid ayanin diacetate induces cell death selectively in leukemia cells without affecting the proliferation of normal lymphocytes. Incubation of human leukemia cells with ayanin diacetate induced G{sub 2}-M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis which was prevented by the non-specific caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk and reduced by the overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L}. Ayanin diacetate-induced cell death was found to be associated with: (i) loss of inner mitochondrial membrane potential, (ii) the release of cytochrome c, (iii) the activation of multiple caspases, (iv) cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and (v) the up-regulation of death receptors for TRAIL, DR4 and DR5. Moreover, the combined treatment with ayanin diacetate and TRAIL amplified cell death, compared to single treatments. These results provide a basis for further exploring the potential applications of this combination for the treatment of cancer.

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates erastin-induced ferroptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min-Young; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Seon-Jin; Chung, Su Wol

    2015-09-15

    The oncogenic RAS-selective lethal small molecule Erastin triggers a unique iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death termed ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is dependent upon the production of intracellular iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not other metals. However, key regulators remain unknown. The heme oxygenase (HO) is a major intracellular source of iron. In this study, the role of heme oxygenase in Erastin-triggered ferroptotic cancer cell death has been investigated. Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), a HO-1 inhibitor, prevented Erastin-triggered ferroptotic cancer cell death. Furthermore, Erastin induced the protein and mRNA levels of HO-1 in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells. HO-1+/+ and HO-1-/- fibroblast, HO-1 overexpression, and chycloheximide-treated experiments revealed that the expression of HO-1 has a decisive effects in Erastin-triggered cell death. Hemin and CO-releasing molecules (CORM) promote Erastin-induced ferroptotic cell death, not by biliverdin and bilirubin. In addition, hemin and CORM accelerate the HO-1 expression in the presence of Erastin and increase membranous lipid peroxidation. Thus, HO-1 is an essential enzyme for iron-dependent lipid peroxidation during ferroptotic cell death.

  15. BAX gene over-expression via nucleofection to induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanwen; Mo, Xiaofen; Luo, Yi; Lu, Yi

    2012-09-01

    Despite significant advances in cataract surgery techniques, posterior capsule opacification (PCO) remains a common complication. In PCO, remaining epithelial cells cloud the lens capsule and impair postoperative vision. This in vitro study was designed to investigate the potential of a gene-based approach, specifically over-expression of the proapoptotic BAX gene, to prevent PCO. Human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) were transfected by nucleofection with a plasmid encoding a fusion protein of green fluorescent protein and human BAX. The expression levels of BAX and its antiapoptotic counterpart BCL2 were determined by realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. BAX over-expression-induced cell death was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting using the Annexin V antibody. Fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to assess changes in morphology and ultrastructure. Differential expression of the downstream apoptosis-related factor, caspase 3, was detected by Western blotting. Nucleofection efficiency was high (nearly 80%). BAX-transfected HLECs showed remarkably enhanced BAX gene expression and BAX:BCL2 ratio, but relatively little change in endogenous BCL2 expression. BAX over-expression also led to significant cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis-related characteristics and activation of caspase 3. In conclusion, our results indicate that BAX gene over-expression can trigger cell death in HLECs via an apoptotic pathway. Thus, BAX may be a promising candidate for human gene therapy to treat PCO.

  16. Effects of HMGB-1 Overexpression on Cell-Cycle Progression in MCF-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sarah; Lee, Jin Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Bae, DukSoo

    2004-01-01

    High mobility group-1 (HMGB-1) enhances the DNA interactions and possesses a transcriptional activation potential for several families of sequence-specific transcriptional activators. In order to examine the effect of HMGB-1 on the cell cycle progression in MCF-7 cells, the HMGB-1 expression vector was transfected into synchronized MCF-7 cells, and the effect of HMGB-1 overexpression on the cell cycle was examined. The HMGB-1 protein level in the transfected cells increased 4.87-fold compared to the non-transfected cells. There were few changes in the cell cycle phase distribution after HMGB-1 overexpression in the MCF-7 cells. Following the estrogen treatment, the cell cycle progressed in both the HMGB-1 overexpressed MCF-7 and the mock-treated cells. However, a larger proportion of HMGB-1 overexpressing MCF-7 cells progressed to the either S or G2 phase than the mock-treated cells. The mRNA levels of the cell cycle regulators changed after being treated with estrogen in both the HMGB-1 overexpressing MCF-7 and the mock-treated cells, but the changes in the expression level of the cell cycle regulator genes were more prominent in the HMGB-1 overexpressing MCF-7 cells than in the mock-treated cells. In conclusion, HMGB-1 overexpression itself does not alter the MCF-7 cell cycle progression, but the addition of estrogen to the HMGB-1 overexpressing MCF-7 cells appears to accelerate the cell cycle progression. PMID:15201494

  17. Cell death in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Murray; Bennett, Martin; Littlewood, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    Cell death is important for both development and tissue homeostasis in the adult. As such, it is tightly controlled and deregulation is associated with diverse pathologies; for example, regulated cell death is involved in vessel remodelling during development or following injury, but deregulated death is implicated in pathologies such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm formation, ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathies and infarction. We describe the mechanisms of cell death and its role in the normal physiology and various pathologies of the cardiovascular system. PMID:16547202

  18. How cell death shapes cancer

    PubMed Central

    Labi, V; Erlacher, M

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis has been established as a mechanism of anti-cancer defense. Members of the BCL-2 family are critical mediators of apoptotic cell death in health and disease, often found to be deregulated in cancer and believed to lead to the survival of malignant clones. However, over the years, a number of studies pointed out that a model in which cell death resistance unambiguously acts as a barrier against malignant disease might be too simple. This is based on paradoxical observations made in tumor patients as well as mouse models indicating that apoptosis can indeed drive tumor formation, at least under certain circumstances. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that apoptosis can promote proliferation critically needed to compensate for cell loss, for example, upon therapy, and to restore tissue homeostasis. However, this, at the same time, can promote tumor development by allowing expansion of selected clones. Usually, tissue resident stem/progenitor cells are a major source for repopulation, some of them potentially carrying (age-, injury- or therapy-induced) genetic aberrations deleterious for the host. Thereby, apoptosis might drive genomic instability by facilitating the emergence of pathologic clones during phases of proliferation and subsequent replication stress-associated DNA damage. Tumorigenesis initiated by repeated cell attrition and repopulation, as confirmed in different genetic models, has parallels in human cancers, exemplified in therapy-induced secondary malignancies and myelodysplastic syndromes in patients with congenital bone marrow failure syndromes. Here, we aim to review evidence in support of the oncogenic role of stress-induced apoptosis. PMID:25741600

  19. Lethal activity of FADD death domain in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Justo, P; Sanz, A B; Lorz, C; Egido, J; Ortiz, A

    2006-06-01

    Fas-associated death domain (FADD) is an adaptor protein that is required for the transmission of the death signal from lethal receptors of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. FADD contains a death domain (DD) and a death effector domain (DED). As death receptors contribute to renal tubular injury and tubular cell FADD increases in acute renal failure, we have studied the function of FADD in tubular epithelium. FADD expression was studied in kidney samples from mice. In order to study the contribution of FADD to renal tubular cell survival, FADD or FADD-DD were overexpressed in murine tubular epithelium. FADD is expressed in renal tubules of the healthy kidney. Both FADD and FADD-DD induce apoptosis in primary cultures of murine tubular epithelium and in the murine cortical tubular cell line. Death induced by FADD-DD has apoptotic morphology, but differs from death receptor-induced apoptosis in that it is not blocked by inhibitors of caspases. Neither an inhibitor of serine proteases nor overexpression of antiapoptotic BclxL prevented cell death. However, the combination of caspase and serine protease inhibition was protective. FADD and FADD-DD overexpression decreased nuclear factor kappa B activity. These data suggest that FADD has a death regulatory function in renal tubular cells that is independent of death receptors. FADD-DD is sufficient to induce apoptosis in these cells. This information is relevant to understanding the role of FADD in tubular injury.

  20. Imaging cell death in vivo.

    PubMed

    Blankenberg, F; Mari, C; Strauss, H W

    2003-12-01

    A technique to image programmed cell death would be useful both in clinical care and in drug development. The most widely studied agent for the in vivo study of apoptosis is radiolabeled annexin V, an endogenous protein labeled with technectium-99m, now undergoing clinical trials in both Europe and the United States. While annexin V has been studied extensively in humans the precise mechanism(s) of uptake this agent in vivo is unclear and needs further study. Other agents are also under development, including radiolabeled forms of Z-VAD.fmk, a potent inhibitor of the enzymatic cascade intimately associated with apoptosis. In addition other technologies, such as diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance imaging with contrast agents, such as small paramagnetic iron oxide particles coated with peptides have also been advocated as methods to monitor apoptotic cell death. The potential applications of imaging apoptosis as a marker of early response to therapy in cancer, acute cerebral and myocardial ischemic injury and infarction, immune mediated inflammatory disease and transplant rejection are reviewed.

  1. Role of programmed cell death in development.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, R M; Nagashree, N R

    2001-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of both animal and plant development. In animals, model systems such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and mice have shown a general cell death profile of induction, caspase mediation, cell death, and phagocytosis. Tremendous strides have been made in cell death research in animals in the past decade. The ordering of the C. elegans genes Ced-3, 4 and 9, identification of caspase-activated DNase that degrades nuclear DNA during PCD, identification of signal transduction modules involving caspases as well as the caspase-independent pathway, and the involvement of mitochondria are some of the findings of immense value in understanding animal PCDs. Similarly, the caspase inactivation mechanisms of infecting viruses to stall host cell death give a new dimension to the viral infection process. However, plant cell death profiles provide an entirely different scenario. The presence of a cell wall that cannot be phagocytosed, absence of the hallmarks of animal PCDs such as DNA laddering, formation of apoptotic bodies, a cell-death-specific nuclease, a biochemical machinery of killer enzymes such as caspases all point to novel ways of cell elimination. Large gaps in our understanding of plant cell death have prompted speculative inferences and comparisons with animal cell death mechanisms. This paper deals with both animals and plants for a holistic view on cell death in eukaryotes.

  2. Cell death: a dynamic response concept.

    PubMed

    Loos, Benjamin; Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart

    2009-07-01

    Autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis have previously been described as distinct static processes that induce and execute cell death. Due to an increased use of novel techniques in mapping cellular death-techniques which allow for reporting of real-time data-the existence of "grey zones" between cell death modes and the existence of the "point of no return" within these have been revealed. This revelation demands the integration of new concepts in describing the cellular death process. Furthermore, since the contribution of autophagy in cell death or cell survival is still poorly understood, it is important to accurately describe its function within the dynamic framework of cell death. In this review cell death is viewed as a dynamic and integrative cellular response to ensure the highest likelihood of self-preservation. Suggestions are offered for conceptualizing cell death modes and their morphological features, both individually and in relation to one another. It addresses the need for distinguishing between dying cells and dead cells so as to better locate and control the onset of cell death. Most importantly, the fundamental role of autophagy, autophagic flux, and the effects of the intracellular metabolic environment on the kinetics of the cell death modes are stressed. It also contextualizes the kinetic dimension of cell death as a process and aims to contribute towards a better understanding of autophagy as a key mechanism within this process. Understanding the dynamic nature of the cell death process and autophagy's central role can reveal new insight for therapeutic intervention in preventing cell death.

  3. Metabolic Regulation of Ovarian Cancer Cell Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Following treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, responsive ovarian cancer cells undergo apoptotic cell death . Several groups have shown that the...apoptotic protease, caspase 2 (C2), is an essential activator of cell death in ovarian cancer cells treated with cisplatin and we have found, by knock

  4. Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    TITLE: Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Clark W. Distelhorst, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Case Western Reserve...Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J-4451 6. AUTHOR(S) Clark W. Distelhorst, M.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...cell death , apoptosis, in breast cancer cells has been developed. This model is based on induction of apoptosis by the selective endoplasmic reticulum

  5. Regulation of ferroptotic cancer cell death by GPX4.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan Seok; SriRamaratnam, Rohitha; Welsch, Matthew E; Shimada, Kenichi; Skouta, Rachid; Viswanathan, Vasanthi S; Cheah, Jaime H; Clemons, Paul A; Shamji, Alykhan F; Clish, Clary B; Brown, Lewis M; Girotti, Albert W; Cornish, Virginia W; Schreiber, Stuart L; Stockwell, Brent R

    2014-01-16

    Ferroptosis is a form of nonapoptotic cell death for which key regulators remain unknown. We sought a common mediator for the lethality of 12 ferroptosis-inducing small molecules. We used targeted metabolomic profiling to discover that depletion of glutathione causes inactivation of glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) in response to one class of compounds and a chemoproteomics strategy to discover that GPX4 is directly inhibited by a second class of compounds. GPX4 overexpression and knockdown modulated the lethality of 12 ferroptosis inducers, but not of 11 compounds with other lethal mechanisms. In addition, two representative ferroptosis inducers prevented tumor growth in xenograft mouse tumor models. Sensitivity profiling in 177 cancer cell lines revealed that diffuse large B cell lymphomas and renal cell carcinomas are particularly susceptible to GPX4-regulated ferroptosis. Thus, GPX4 is an essential regulator of ferroptotic cancer cell death.

  6. Molecular definitions of cell death subroutines: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2012

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, L; Vitale, I; Abrams, J M; Alnemri, E S; Baehrecke, E H; Blagosklonny, M V; Dawson, T M; Dawson, V L; El-Deiry, W S; Fulda, S; Gottlieb, E; Green, D R; Hengartner, M O; Kepp, O; Knight, R A; Kumar, S; Lipton, S A; Lu, X; Madeo, F; Malorni, W; Mehlen, P; Nuñez, G; Peter, M E; Piacentini, M; Rubinsztein, D C; Shi, Y; Simon, H-U; Vandenabeele, P; White, E; Yuan, J; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G; Kroemer, G

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposed a set of recommendations for the definition of distinct cell death morphologies and for the appropriate use of cell death-related terminology, including ‘apoptosis', ‘necrosis' and ‘mitotic catastrophe'. In view of the substantial progress in the biochemical and genetic exploration of cell death, time has come to switch from morphological to molecular definitions of cell death modalities. Here we propose a functional classification of cell death subroutines that applies to both in vitro and in vivo settings and includes extrinsic apoptosis, caspase-dependent or -independent intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death and mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, we discuss the utility of expressions indicating additional cell death modalities. On the basis of the new, revised NCCD classification, cell death subroutines are defined by a series of precise, measurable biochemical features. PMID:21760595

  7. Bcl-2 overexpression in type II epithelial cells does not prevent hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Métrailler-Ruchonnet, Isabelle; Pagano, Alessandra; Carnesecchi, Stéphanie; Khatib, Karim; Herrera, Pedro; Donati, Yves; Bron, Camille; Barazzone, Constance

    2010-09-01

    Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic molecule preventing oxidative stress damage and cell death. We have previously shown that Bcl-2 is able to prevent hyperoxia-induced cell death when overexpressed in a murine fibrosarcoma cell line L929. We hypothesized that its specific overexpression in pulmonary epithelial type II cells could prevent hyperoxia-induced lung injury by protecting the epithelial side of the alveolo-capillary barrier. In the present work, we first showed that in vitro Bcl-2 can rescue murine pulmonary epithelial cells (MLE12) from oxygen-induced cell apoptosis, as shown by analysis of LDH release, annexin V/propidium staining, and caspase-3 activity. We then generated transgenic mice overexpressing specifically Bcl-2 in lung epithelial type II cells under surfactant protein C (SP-C) promoter (Tg-Bcl-2) and exposed them to hyperoxia. Bcl-2 did not hinder hyperoxia-induced mitochondria and DNA oxidative damage of type II cell in vivo. Accordingly, lung damage was identical in both Tg-Bcl-2 and littermate mice strains, as measured by lung weight, bronchoalveolar lavage, and protein content. Nevertheless, we observed a significant lower number of TUNEL-positive cells in type II cells isolated from Tg-Bcl-2 mice exposed to hyperoxia compared with cells isolated from littermate mice. In summary, these results show that although Bcl-2 overexpression is able to prevent hyperoxia-induced cell death at single cell level in vitro and ex vivo, it is not sufficient to prevent cell death of parenchymal cells and to protect the lung from acute damage in mice.

  8. Overexpression of ankyrin1 promotes pancreatic cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Noriyuki; Mizuma, Masamichi; MacGregor, Anne; Hong, Seung-Mo; Ayars, Michael; Almario, Jose Alejandro; Borges, Michael; Kanda, Mitsuro; Li, Ang; Vincent, Audrey; Maitra, Anirban; Goggins, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The methylation status of a promoter influences gene expression and aberrant methylation during tumor development has important functional consequences for pancreatic and other cancers. Using methylated CpG island amplification and promoter microarrays, we identified ANK1 as hypomethylated in pancreatic cancers. Expression analysis determined ANK1 as commonly overexpressed in pancreatic cancers relative to normal pancreas. ANK1 was co-expressed with miR-486 in pancreatic cancer cells. Stable knockdown of ANK1 in the pancreatic cancer cell line AsPC1 led to changes in cell morphology, and decreases in colony formation. Stable knockdown of ANK1 also marked reduced the growth of tumors in athymic nude mice. Among patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, those with pancreatic cancers expressing ANK1 had a poorer prognosis than those without ANK1 expression. These findings indicate a role for ANK1 overexpression in mediating pancreatic cancer tumorigenicity. PMID:27144336

  9. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    PubMed

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  10. Overexpression of Lymphotoxin in T Cells Induces Fulminant Thymic Involution

    PubMed Central

    Heikenwalder, Mathias; Prinz, Marco; Zeller, Nicolas; Lang, Karl S.; Junt, Tobias; Rossi, Simona; Tumanov, Alexei; Schmidt, Hauke; Priller, Josef; Rülicke, Thomas; Macpherson, Andrew J.; Holländer, Georg A.; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2008-01-01

    Activated lymphocytes and lymphoid-tissue inducer cells express lymphotoxins (LTs), which are essential for the organogenesis and maintenance of lymphoreticular microenvironments. Here we describe that T-cell-restricted overexpression of LT induces fulminant thymic involution. This phenotype was prevented by ablation of the LT receptors tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 1 or LT beta receptor (LTβR), representing two non-redundant pathways. Multiple lines of transgenic Ltαβ and Ltα mice show such a phenotype, which was not observed on overexpression of LTβ alone. Reciprocal bone marrow transfers between LT-overexpressing and receptor-ablated mice show that involution was not due to a T cell-autonomous defect but was triggered by TNFR1 and LTβR signaling to radioresistant stromal cells. Thymic involution was partially prevented by the removal of one allele of LTβR but not of TNFR1, establishing a hierarchy in these signaling events. Infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus triggered a similar thymic pathology in wt, but not in Tnfr1−/− mice. These mice displayed elevated TNFα in both thymus and plasma, as well as increased LTs on both CD8+ and CD4−CD8− thymocytes. These findings suggest that enhanced T cell-derived LT expression helps to control the physiological size of the thymic stroma and accelerates its involution via TNFR1/LTβR signaling in pathological conditions and possibly also in normal aging. PMID:18483211

  11. Neuroligin-1 Overexpression in Newborn Granule Cells In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Eric; Bensen, AeSoon L.; Washburn, Eric K.; Westbrook, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Adult-born dentate granule cells integrate into the hippocampal network, extend neurites and form synapses in otherwise mature tissue. Excitatory and inhibitory inputs innervate these new granule cells in a stereotyped, temporally segregated manner, which presents a unique opportunity to study synapse development in the adult brain. To examine the role of neuroligins as synapse-inducing molecules in vivo, we infected dividing neural precursors in adult mice with a retroviral construct that increased neuroligin-1 levels during granule cell differentiation. By 21 days post-mitosis, exogenous neuroligin-1 was expressed at the tips of dendritic spines and increased the number of dendritic spines. Neuroligin-1-overexpressing cells showed a selective increase in functional excitatory synapses and connection multiplicity by single afferent fibers, as well as an increase in the synaptic AMPA/NMDA receptor ratio. In contrast to its synapse-inducing ability in vitro, neuroligin-1 overexpression did not induce precocious synapse formation in adult-born neurons. However, the dendrites of neuroligin-1-overexpressing cells did have more thin protrusions during an early period of dendritic outgrowth, suggesting enhanced filopodium formation or stabilization. Our results indicate that neuroligin-1 expression selectively increases the degree, but not the onset, of excitatory synapse formation in adult-born neurons. PMID:23110172

  12. Analysis of mitochondrial dysfunction during cell death.

    PubMed

    Gogvadze, Vladimir; Orrenius, Sten; Zhivotovsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in various modes of cell death. Analysis of mitochondrial dysfunction and the release of proteins from the intermembrane space of mitochondria represent essential tools in cell death investigation. Here we describe how to evaluate release of intermembrane space proteins during apoptosis, alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential, and oxygen consumption in apoptotic cells.

  13. Killing Breast Cancer Cells With a VEGF-Triggered Cell Death Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    patients. We are pursuing a totally different approach to targeting VEGF: rather than inhibit VEGF our goal is to convert VEGF to act as a cell death factor...cell lines in vitro. These studies suggest that a receptor such as R2Fas which converts VEGF to act as a cell death factor could yield a new and more aggressive approach to targeting overexpressed VEGF in breast cancer....Toward this aim we created a chimeric receptor (R2Fas) composed of domains from VEGF receptor 2 fused to the intracellular domain of the Fas cell

  14. Acetaminophen Induces Human Neuroblastoma Cell Death through NFKB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Posadas, Inmaculada; Santos, Pablo; Ceña, Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma resistance to apoptosis may contribute to the aggressive behavior of this tumor. Therefore, it would be relevant to activate endogenous cellular death mechanisms as a way to improve neuroblastoma therapy. We used the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line as a model to study the mechanisms involved in acetaminophen (AAP)-mediated toxicity by measuring CYP2E1 enzymatic activity, NFkB p65 subunit activation and translocation to the nucleus, Bax accumulation into the mitochondria, cytochrome c release and caspase activation. AAP activates the intrinsic death pathway in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. AAP metabolism is partially responsible for this activation, because blockade of the cytochrome CYP2E1 significantly reduced but did not totally prevent, AAP-induced SH-SY5Y cell death. AAP also induced NFkB p65 activation by phosphorylation and its translocation to the nucleus, where NFkB p65 increased IL-1β production. This increase contributed to neuroblastoma cell death through a mechanism involving Bax accumulation into the mitochondria, cytochrome c release and caspase3 activation. Blockade of NFkB translocation to the nucleus by the peptide SN50 prevented AAP-mediated cell death and IL-1β production. Moreover, overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL did not decrease AAP-mediated IL-1β production, but prevented both AAP and IL-1β-mediated cell death. We also confirmed the AAP toxic actions on SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma and U87MG glioblastoma cell lines. The results presented here suggest that AAP activates the intrinsic death pathway in neuroblastoma cells through a mechanism involving NFkB and IL-1β. PMID:23166834

  15. Acetaminophen induces human neuroblastoma cell death through NFKB activation.

    PubMed

    Posadas, Inmaculada; Santos, Pablo; Ceña, Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma resistance to apoptosis may contribute to the aggressive behavior of this tumor. Therefore, it would be relevant to activate endogenous cellular death mechanisms as a way to improve neuroblastoma therapy. We used the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line as a model to study the mechanisms involved in acetaminophen (AAP)-mediated toxicity by measuring CYP2E1 enzymatic activity, NFkB p65 subunit activation and translocation to the nucleus, Bax accumulation into the mitochondria, cytochrome c release and caspase activation. AAP activates the intrinsic death pathway in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. AAP metabolism is partially responsible for this activation, because blockade of the cytochrome CYP2E1 significantly reduced but did not totally prevent, AAP-induced SH-SY5Y cell death. AAP also induced NFkB p65 activation by phosphorylation and its translocation to the nucleus, where NFkB p65 increased IL-1β production. This increase contributed to neuroblastoma cell death through a mechanism involving Bax accumulation into the mitochondria, cytochrome c release and caspase3 activation. Blockade of NFkB translocation to the nucleus by the peptide SN50 prevented AAP-mediated cell death and IL-1β production. Moreover, overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-x(L) did not decrease AAP-mediated IL-1β production, but prevented both AAP and IL-1β-mediated cell death. We also confirmed the AAP toxic actions on SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma and U87MG glioblastoma cell lines. The results presented here suggest that AAP activates the intrinsic death pathway in neuroblastoma cells through a mechanism involving NFkB and IL-1β.

  16. Inhibition of Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), overexpression of cholesterol transporter gene, and protection of amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers-induced neuronal cell death by tricyclic pyrone molecules.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Laxman; Maezawa, Izumi; Nguyen, Thi D T; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Jin, Lee-Way; Hua, Duy H

    2012-10-25

    A major effort in Alzheimer's disease therapeutic development has targeted Aβ and downstream events. We have synthesized a small library of tricyclic pyrone compounds. Their protective action in MC65 cells and inhibition of ACAT along with the upregulation of cholesterol transporter gene were investigated. Five active compounds exhibited potencies in the nanomolar ranges. The multiple effects of the compounds on Aβ and cellular cholesterol pathways could be potential mechanisms underlying the protective effects in vivo.

  17. SNEV overexpression extends the life span of human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Voglauer, Regina; Chang, Martina Wei-Fen; Dampier, Brigitta; Wieser, Matthias; Baumann, Kristin; Sterovsky, Thomas; Schreiber, Martin; Katinger, Hermann; Grillari, Johannes . E-mail: j.grillari@iam.boku.ac.at

    2006-04-01

    In a recent screening for genes downregulated in replicatively senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we have isolated the novel protein SNEV. Since then SNEV has proven as a multifaceted protein playing a role in pre-mRNA splicing, DNA repair, and the ubiquitin/proteosome system. Here, we report that SNEV mRNA decreases in various cell types during replicative senescence, and that it is increased in various immortalized cell lines, as well as in breast tumors, where SNEV transcript levels also correlate with the survival of breast cancer patients. Since these mRNA profiles suggested a role of SNEV in the regulation of cell proliferation, the effect of its overexpression was tested. Thereby, a significant extension of the cellular life span was observed, which was not caused by altered telomerase activity or telomere dynamics but rather by enhanced stress resistance. When SNEV overexpressing cells were treated with bleomycin or bleomycin combined with BSO, inducing DNA damage as well as reactive oxygen species, a significantly lower fraction of apoptotic cells was found in comparison to vector control cells. These data suggest that high levels of SNEV might extend the cellular life span by increasing the resistance to stress or by improving the DNA repair capacity of the cells.

  18. Anti-apoptotic effect of clusterin on cisplatin-induced cell death of retinoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Beom; Jun, Hyoung-Oh; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Yu, Young Suk; Kim, Kyu-Won; Min, Bon Hong; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2013-12-01

    Clusterin is a cytoprotective chaperone protein that is known to protect various retinal cells. It was also reported to be overexpressed in several types of malignant tumors, whose chemoresistance correlates with the expression of clusterin. Herein, we investigated the effect of clusterin on cisplatin-induced cell death of retinoblastoma cells. Firstly, evaluation of clusterin expression demonstrated that it was highly expressed in human retinoblastoma tissues and cell lines (SNUOT-Rb1 and Y79) particularly in the area between viable cells around vessels and necrotic zones in the relatively avascular area in human retinoblastoma tissues. Furthermore, the effects of cisplatin on retinoblastoma cells were evaluated. Cisplatin (1 µg/ml) significantly affected cell viability of SNUOT-Rb1 cells by inducing caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Notably, the cell death due to cisplatin was prevented by 5 µg/ml of clusterin administered 4 h prior to cisplatin treatment by inhibiting cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, overexpression of clusterin exerted its anti-apoptotic effect on cisplatin-induced apoptosis, and effectively prevented cisplatin-induced cell death. These data suggest that clusterin, found to be expressed in human retinoblastoma, may exert anti-apoptotic effects on cisplatin-induced apoptosis and prevent cell death. Therefore, clusterin can contribute to cisplatin resistance of retinoblastoma.

  19. Overexpression of neurofilament H disrupts normal cell structure and function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Smith, George M.; Li, Ping; Brady, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    Studying exogenously expressed tagged proteins in live cells has become a standard technique for evaluating protein distribution and function. Typically, expression levels of experimentally introduced proteins are not regulated, and high levels are often preferred to facilitate detection. However, overexpression of many proteins leads to mislocalization and pathologies. Therefore, for normative studies, moderate levels of expression may be more suitable. To understand better the dynamics of intermediate filament formation, transport, and stability in a healthy, living cell, we inserted neurofilament heavy chain (NFH)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion constructs in adenoviral vectors with tetracycline (tet)-regulated promoters. This system allows for turning on or off the synthesis of NFH-GFP at a selected time, for a defined period, in a dose-dependent manner. We used this inducible system for live cell imaging of changes in filament structure and cell shape, motility, and transport associated with increasing NFH-GFP expression. Cells with low to intermediate levels of NFH-GFP were structurally and functionally similar to neighboring, nonexpressing cells. In contrast, overexpression led to pathological alterations in both filament organization and cell function. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Overexpression of neurofilament H disrupts normal cell structure and function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Smith, George M.; Li, Ping; Brady, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    Studying exogenously expressed tagged proteins in live cells has become a standard technique for evaluating protein distribution and function. Typically, expression levels of experimentally introduced proteins are not regulated, and high levels are often preferred to facilitate detection. However, overexpression of many proteins leads to mislocalization and pathologies. Therefore, for normative studies, moderate levels of expression may be more suitable. To understand better the dynamics of intermediate filament formation, transport, and stability in a healthy, living cell, we inserted neurofilament heavy chain (NFH)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion constructs in adenoviral vectors with tetracycline (tet)-regulated promoters. This system allows for turning on or off the synthesis of NFH-GFP at a selected time, for a defined period, in a dose-dependent manner. We used this inducible system for live cell imaging of changes in filament structure and cell shape, motility, and transport associated with increasing NFH-GFP expression. Cells with low to intermediate levels of NFH-GFP were structurally and functionally similar to neighboring, nonexpressing cells. In contrast, overexpression led to pathological alterations in both filament organization and cell function. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Nonthermal-plasma-mediated animal cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood.

  2. Overexpression of Transcription Factor Sp1 Leads to Gene Expression Perturbations and Cell Cycle Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Deniaud, Emmanuelle; Baguet, Joël; Chalard, Roxane; Blanquier, Bariza; Brinza, Lilia; Meunier, Julien; Michallet, Marie-Cécile; Laugraud, Aurélie; Ah-Soon, Claudette; Wierinckx, Anne; Castellazzi, Marc; Lachuer, Joël; Gautier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background The ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1 regulates the expression of a vast number of genes involved in many cellular functions ranging from differentiation to proliferation and apoptosis. Sp1 expression levels show a dramatic increase during transformation and this could play a critical role for tumour development or maintenance. Although Sp1 deregulation might be beneficial for tumour cells, its overexpression induces apoptosis of untransformed cells. Here we further characterised the functional and transcriptional responses of untransformed cells following Sp1 overexpression. Methodology and Principal Findings We made use of wild-type and DNA-binding-deficient Sp1 to demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis by Sp1 is dependent on its capacity to bind DNA. Genome-wide expression profiling identified genes involved in cancer, cell death and cell cycle as being enriched among differentially expressed genes following Sp1 overexpression. In silico search to determine the presence of Sp1 binding sites in the promoter region of modulated genes was conducted. Genes that contained Sp1 binding sites in their promoters were enriched among down-regulated genes. The endogenous sp1 gene is one of the most down-regulated suggesting a negative feedback loop induced by overexpressed Sp1. In contrast, genes containing Sp1 binding sites in their promoters were not enriched among up-regulated genes. These results suggest that the transcriptional response involves both direct Sp1-driven transcription and indirect mechanisms. Finally, we show that Sp1 overexpression led to a modified expression of G1/S transition regulatory genes such as the down-regulation of cyclin D2 and the up-regulation of cyclin G2 and cdkn2c/p18 expression. The biological significance of these modifications was confirmed by showing that the cells accumulated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle before the onset of apoptosis. Conclusion This study shows that the binding to DNA of overexpressed Sp1

  3. Neural stem cells genetically modified to overexpress cu/zn-superoxide dismutase enhance amelioration of ischemic stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiroyuki; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Wakai, Takuma; Narasimhan, Purnima; Maier, Carolina M; Chan, Pak H

    2012-09-01

    The harsh host brain microenvironment caused by production of reactive oxygen species after ischemic reperfusion injury offers a significant challenge to survival of transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs) after ischemic stroke. Copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a specific antioxidant enzyme that counteracts superoxide anions. We have investigated whether genetic manipulation to overexpress SOD1 enhances survival of grafted stem cells and accelerates amelioration of ischemic stroke. NSCs genetically modified to overexpress or downexpress SOD1 were administered intracerebrally 2 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Histological and behavioral tests were examined from Days 0 to 28 after stroke. Overexpression of SOD1 suppressed production of superoxide anions after ischemic reperfusion injury and reduced NSC death after transplantation. In contrast, downexpression of SOD1 promoted superoxide generation and increased oxidative stress-mediated NSC death. Transplantation of SOD1-overexpressing NSCs enhanced angiogenesis in the ischemic border zone through upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor. Moreover, grafted SOD1-overexpressing NSCs reduced infarct size and improved behavioral performance compared with NSCs that were not genetically modified. Our findings reveal a strong involvement of SOD1 expression in NSC survival after ischemic reperfusion injury. We propose that conferring antioxidant properties on NSCs by genetic manipulation of SOD1 is a potential approach for enhancing the effectiveness of cell transplantation therapy in ischemic stroke.

  4. Molecular and cellular control of cell death and defense signaling in pepper.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) provides a good experimental system for studying the molecular and functional genomics underlying the ability of plants to defend themselves against microbial pathogens. Cell death is a genetically programmed response that requires specific host cellular factors. Hypersensitive response (HR) is defined as rapid cell death in response to a pathogen attack. Pepper plants respond to pathogen attacks by activating genetically controlled HR- or disease-associated cell death. HR cell death, specifically in incompatible interactions between pepper and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, is mediated by the molecular genetics and biochemical machinery that underlie pathogen-induced cell death in plants. Gene expression profiles during the HR-like cell death response, virus-induced gene silencing and transient and transgenic overexpression approaches are used to isolate and identify HR- or disease-associated cell death genes in pepper plants. Reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, cytosolic calcium ion and defense-related hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene and abscisic acid are involved in the execution of pathogen-induced cell death in plants. In this review, we summarize recent molecular and cellular studies of the pepper cell death-mediated defense response, highlighting the signaling events of cell death in disease-resistant pepper plants. Comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the cellular functions of pepper cell death response genes will aid the development of novel practical approaches to enhance disease resistance in pepper, thereby helping to secure the future supply of safe and nutritious pepper plants worldwide.

  5. RNAi and overexpression of genes in ovarian somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kuniaki

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that PIWI proteins, in collaboration with PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), play a critical role in retrotransposon silencing in Drosophila gonadal somatic and germ-line cells. The recent establishment of female germ-line stem cells/ovarian somatic sheet and its derivative cell line, ovarian somatic cells (OSCs), allows researchers to study the molecular functions of several protein factors involved in the primary piRNA pathway in Drosophila. Although transgene expression is difficult to achieve in gonad-derived cell lines, transfection of both expression vectors and knockdown reagents is highly effective in OSCs. Here, I focus on techniques that knockdown or overexpress genes of interest in OSCs.

  6. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Han, Deok-Jong; Choi, Eun Young

    2015-12-04

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  7. Over-Expression of Catalase in Myeloid Cells Confers Acute Protection Following Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cabigas, E. Bernadette; Somasuntharam, Inthirai; Brown, Milton E.; Che, Pao Lin; Pendergrass, Karl D.; Chiang, Bryce; Taylor, W. Robert; Davis, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and new treatment options are greatly needed. Oxidative stress is increased following myocardial infarction and levels of antioxidants decrease, causing imbalance that leads to dysfunction. Therapy involving catalase, the endogenous scavenger of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), has been met with mixed results. When over-expressed in cardiomyocytes from birth, catalase improves function following injury. When expressed in the same cells in an inducible manner, catalase showed a time-dependent response with no acute benefit, but a chronic benefit due to altered remodeling. In myeloid cells, catalase over-expression reduced angiogenesis during hindlimb ischemia and prevented monocyte migration. In the present study, due to the large inflammatory response following infarction, we examined myeloid-specific catalase over-expression on post-infarct healing. We found a significant increase in catalase levels following infarction that led to a decrease in H2O2 levels, leading to improved acute function. This increase in function could be attributed to reduced infarct size and improved angiogenesis. Despite these initial improvements, there was no improvement in chronic function, likely due to increased fibrosis. These data combined with what has been previously shown underscore the need for temporal, cell-specific catalase delivery as a potential therapeutic option. PMID:24853285

  8. Over-expression of catalase in myeloid cells confers acute protection following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cabigas, E Bernadette; Somasuntharam, Inthirai; Brown, Milton E; Che, Pao Lin; Pendergrass, Karl D; Chiang, Bryce; Taylor, W Robert; Davis, Michael E

    2014-05-21

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and new treatment options are greatly needed. Oxidative stress is increased following myocardial infarction and levels of antioxidants decrease, causing imbalance that leads to dysfunction. Therapy involving catalase, the endogenous scavenger of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), has been met with mixed results. When over-expressed in cardiomyocytes from birth, catalase improves function following injury. When expressed in the same cells in an inducible manner, catalase showed a time-dependent response with no acute benefit, but a chronic benefit due to altered remodeling. In myeloid cells, catalase over-expression reduced angiogenesis during hindlimb ischemia and prevented monocyte migration. In the present study, due to the large inflammatory response following infarction, we examined myeloid-specific catalase over-expression on post-infarct healing. We found a significant increase in catalase levels following infarction that led to a decrease in H2O2 levels, leading to improved acute function. This increase in function could be attributed to reduced infarct size and improved angiogenesis. Despite these initial improvements, there was no improvement in chronic function, likely due to increased fibrosis. These data combined with what has been previously shown underscore the need for temporal, cell-specific catalase delivery as a potential therapeutic option.

  9. IL-10-overexpressing B cells regulate innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Stanic, Barbara; van de Veen, Willem; Wirz, Oliver F; Rückert, Beate; Morita, Hideaki; Söllner, Stefan; Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2015-03-01

    Distinct human IL-10-producing B-cell subsets with immunoregulatory properties have been described. However, the broader spectrum of their direct cellular targets and suppressive mechanisms has not been extensively studied, particularly in relation to direct and indirect IL-10-mediated functions. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of IL-10 overexpression on the phenotype and immunoregulatory capacity of B cells. Primary human B cells were transfected with hIL-10, and IL-10-overexpressing B cells were characterized for cytokine and immunoglobulin production by means of specific ELISA and bead-based assays. Antigen presentation, costimulation capacity, and transcription factor signatures were analyzed by means of flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR. Effects of IL-10-overexpresing B cells on Toll-like receptor-triggered cytokine release from PBMCs, LPS-triggered maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and tetanus toxoid-induced PBMC proliferation were assessed in autologous cocultures. IL-10-overexpressing B cells acquired a prominent immunoregulatory profile comprising upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), the IL-2 receptor α chain (CD25), and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1). Concurrently, their secretion profile was characterized by a significant reduction in levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α) and augmented production of anti-inflammatory IL-1 receptor antagonist and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, IL-10 overexpression was associated with a decrease in costimulatory potential. IL-10-overexpressing B cells secreted less IgE and potently suppressed proinflammatory cytokines in PBMCs, maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (rendering their profile to regulatory phenotype), and antigen-specific proliferation in vitro. Our data demonstrate an essential role for IL-10 in inducing an

  10. TAK1 control of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Mihaly, S R; Ninomiya-Tsuji, J; Morioka, S

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death, a physiologic process for removing cells, is critically important in normal development and for elimination of damaged cells. Conversely, unattended cell death contributes to a variety of human disease pathogenesis. Thus, precise understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying control of cell death is important and relevant to public health. Recent studies emphasize that transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a central regulator of cell death and is activated through a diverse set of intra- and extracellular stimuli. The physiologic importance of TAK1 and TAK1-binding proteins in cell survival and death has been demonstrated using a number of genetically engineered mice. These studies uncover an indispensable role of TAK1 and its binding proteins for maintenance of cell viability and tissue homeostasis in a variety of organs. TAK1 is known to control cell viability and inflammation through activating downstream effectors such as NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). It is also emerging that TAK1 regulates cell survival not solely through NF-κB but also through NF-κB-independent pathways such as oxidative stress and receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) kinase activity-dependent pathway. Moreover, recent studies have identified TAK1's seemingly paradoxical role to induce programmed necrosis, also referred to as necroptosis. This review summarizes the consequences of TAK1 deficiency in different cell and tissue types from the perspective of cell death and also focuses on the mechanism by which TAK1 complex inhibits or promotes programmed cell death. This review serves to synthesize our current understanding of TAK1 in cell survival and death to identify promising directions for future research and TAK1's potential relevance to human disease pathogenesis. PMID:25146924

  11. Comprehensive profiling of metaplastic breast carcinomas reveals frequent overexpression of programmed death-ligand 1

    PubMed Central

    Joneja, Upasana; Vranic, Semir; Swensen, Jeffrey; Feldman, Rebecca; Chen, Wangjuh; Kimbrough, Jeffrey; Xiao, Nianqing; Reddy, Sandeep; Palazzo, Juan; Gatalica, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Aims Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare subtype of breast carcinoma less responsive to conventional chemotherapy than ductal carcinoma. In molecular terms, MBCs usually cluster with triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), but have a worse prognosis than TNBCs. Studies investigating MBCs for specific biomarkers of therapy response are rare and limited by the methodological approaches. The aim of the present study was to characterise MBCs on a molecular level and test programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) biomarker expression in MBCs for future therapeutic interventions. Methods We profiled 297 samples (MBC (n=75), TNBC (n=106), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers (n=32) and hormone-positive breast cancers (n=84)) by next-generation sequencing. Immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expression was performed using automated procedures. Results The most commonly mutated genes in MBCs included TP53 (56%) and PIK3CA (23%). Pathogenic mutations in other genes, including HRAS, FBXW7, PTEN, AKT1 and SMAD4, were rare. PD-L1 expression was detected in a significantly higher proportion of MBCs (46%) than in other subtypes (6% each in hormone-positive and HER2-positive breast cancers, and 9% in TNBC, not otherwise specified, p<0.001). PD-1-positive tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) varied greatly in MBCs. Conclusions Comprehensive profiling of a large cohort of this rare subtype of breast carcinoma highlighted the predominance of TP53 mutation and increased PD-L1 expression in carcinoma cells. These results can be exploited in clinical trials using immune checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:27531819

  12. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) Aggregation Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction during Oxidative Stress-induced Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Masanori; Kubo, Takeya; Kaneshige, Akihiro; Harada, Naoki; Izawa, Takeshi; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamaji, Ryouichi; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional protein that also mediates cell death under oxidative stress. We reported previously that the active-site cysteine (Cys-152) of GAPDH plays an essential role in oxidative stress-induced aggregation of GAPDH associated with cell death, and a C152A-GAPDH mutant rescues nitric oxide (NO)-induced cell death by interfering with the aggregation of wild type (WT)-GAPDH. However, the detailed mechanism underlying GAPDH aggregate-induced cell death remains elusive. Here we report that NO-induced GAPDH aggregation specifically causes mitochondrial dysfunction. First, we observed a correlation between NO-induced GAPDH aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction, when GAPDH aggregation occurred at mitochondria in SH-SY5Y cells. In isolated mitochondria, aggregates of WT-GAPDH directly induced mitochondrial swelling and depolarization, whereas mixtures containing aggregates of C152A-GAPDH reduced mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, treatment with cyclosporin A improved WT-GAPDH aggregate-induced swelling and depolarization. In doxycycline-inducible SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of WT-GAPDH augmented NO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and increased mitochondrial GAPDH aggregation, whereas induced overexpression of C152A-GAPDH significantly suppressed mitochondrial impairment. Further, NO-induced cytochrome c release into the cytosol and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria were both augmented in cells overexpressing WT-GAPDH but ameliorated in C152A-GAPDH-overexpressing cells. Interestingly, GAPDH aggregates induced necrotic cell death via a permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The expression of either WT- or C152A-GAPDH did not affect other cell death pathways associated with protein aggregation, such as proteasome inhibition, gene expression induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress, or autophagy. Collectively, these results suggest that NO-induced GAPDH

  13. Over-expression of Trxo1 increases the viability of tobacco BY-2 cells under H2O2 treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Locato, Vittoria; Camejo, Daymi; Schiermeyer, Andreas; De Gara, Laura; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide, play a critical role in the regulation of plant development and in the induction of plant defence responses during stress adaptation, as well as in plant cell death. The antioxidant system is responsible for controlling ROS levels in these processes but redox homeostasis is also a key factor in plant cell metabolism under normal and stress situations. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous small proteins found in different cell compartments, including mitochondria and nuclei (Trxo1), and are involved in the regulation of target proteins through reduction of disulphide bonds, although their role under oxidative stress has been less well studied. This study describes over-expression of a Trxo1 for the first time, using a cell-culture model subjected to an oxidative treatment provoked by H2O2. Methods Control and over-expressing PsTrxo1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells were treated with 35 mm H2O2 and the effects were analysed by studying the growth dynamics of the cultures together with oxidative stress parameters, as well as several components of the antioxidant systems involved in the metabolism of H2O2. Analysis of different hallmarks of programmed cell death was also carried out. Key Results Over-expression of PsTrxo1 caused significant differences in the response of TBY-2 cells to high concentrations of H2O2, namely higher and maintained viability in over-expressing cells, whilst the control line presented a severe decrease in viability and marked indications of oxidative stress, with generalized cell death after 3 d of treatment. In over-expressing cells, an increase in catalase activity, decreases in H2O2 and nitric oxide contents and maintenance of the glutathione redox state were observed. Conclusions A decreased content of endogenous H2O2 may be responsible in part for the delayed cell death found in over-expressing cells, in which changes in oxidative parameters and

  14. Programmed cell death 50 (and beyond)

    PubMed Central

    Lockshin, R A

    2016-01-01

    In the 50 years since we described cell death as ‘programmed,' we have come far, thanks to the efforts of many brilliant researchers, and we now understand the mechanics, the biochemistry, and the genetics of many of the ways in which cells can die. This knowledge gives us the resources to alter the fates of many cells. However, not all cells respond similarly to the same stimulus, in either sensitivity to the stimulus or timing of the response. Cells prevented from dying through one pathway may survive, survive in a crippled state, or die following a different pathway. To fully capitalize on our knowledge of cell death, we need to understand much more about how cells are targeted to die and what aspects of the history, metabolism, or resources available to individual cells determine how each cell reaches and crosses the threshold at which it commits to death. PMID:26564398

  15. Gangliosides induce autophagic cell death in astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jaegyu; Lee, Shinrye; Lee, Jung Tae; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Deok Ryong; Kim, Ho; Park, Hae-Chul; Suk, Kyoungho

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, abundant in brain, are involved in neuronal function and disease, but the precise molecular mechanisms underlying their physiological or pathological activities are poorly understood. In this study, the pathological role of gangliosides in the extracellular milieu with respect to glial cell death and lipid raft/membrane disruption was investigated. Experimental approach: We determined the effect of gangliosides on astrocyte death or survival using primary astrocyte cultures and astrocytoma/glioma cell lines as a model. Signalling pathways of ganglioside-induced autophagic cell death of astrocytes were examined using pharmacological inhibitors and biochemical and genetic assays. Key results: Gangliosides induced autophagic cell death in based on the following observations. Incubation of the cells with a mixture of gangliosides increased a punctate distribution of fluorescently labelled microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (GFP-LC3), the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I and LC3 flux. Gangliosides also increased the formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by monodansylcadaverine staining. Ganglioside-induced cell death was inhibited by either a knockdown of beclin-1/Atg-6 or Atg-7 gene expression or by 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in ganglioside-induced autophagic cell death of astrocytes, because gangliosides induced ROS production and ROS scavengers decreased autophagic cell death. In addition, lipid rafts played an important role in ganglioside-induced astrocyte death. Conclusions and implications: Gangliosides released under pathological conditions may induce autophagic cell death of astrocytes, identifying a neuropathological role for gangliosides. PMID:20067473

  16. Over-expression of tetraspanin 8 in malignant glioma regulates tumor cell progression

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Si-Jian; Wu, Yue-Bing; Cai, Shang; Pan, Yi-Xin; Liu, Wei; Bian, Liu-Guan; Sun, Bomin; Sun, Qing-Fang

    2015-03-13

    Tumor cell invasion and proliferation remain the overwhelming causes of death for malignant glioma patients. To establish effective therapeutic methods, new targets implied in these processes have to be identified. Tetraspanin 8 (Tspn8) forms complexes with a large variety of trans-membrane and/or cytosolic proteins to regulate several important cellular functions. In the current study, we found that Tspn8 was over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues, and its expression level correlated with the grade of tumors. Tspn8 expression in malignant glioma cells (U251MG and U87MG lines) is important for cell proliferation and migration. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Tspn8 markedly reduced in vitro proliferation and migration of U251MG and U87MG cells. Meanwhile, Tspn8 silencing also increased the sensitivity of temozolomide (TMZ), and significantly increased U251MG or U87MG cell death and apoptosis by TMZ were achieved with Tspn8 knockdown. We observed that Tspn8 formed a complex with activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in both human malignant glioma tissues and in above glioma cells. This complexation appeared required for FAK activation, since Tspn8 knockdown inhibited FAK activation in U251MG and U87MG cells. These results provide evidence that Tspn8 contributes to the pathogenesis of glioblastoma probably by promoting proliferation, migration and TMZ-resistance of glioma cells. Therefore, targeting Tspn8 may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for malignant glioma. - Highlights: • Tspn8 is over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues. • Tspn8 expression is correlated with the grade of malignant gliomas. • Tspn8 knockdown suppresses U251MG/U87MG proliferation and in vitro migration. • Tspn8 knockdown significantly increases TMZ sensitivity in U251MG/U87MG cells. • Tspn8 forms a complex with FAK, required for FAK activation.

  17. Arsenic treatment increase Aurora-A overexpression through E2F1 activation in bladder cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Ting; Wu, Chin-Han; Wu, Shan-Ying; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Tseng, Ya-Shih

    2017-04-18

    Arsenic is a widely distributed metalloid compound that has biphasic effects on cultured cells. In large doses, arsenic can be toxic enough to trigger cell death. In smaller amounts, non-toxic doses may promote cell proliferation and induces carcinogenesis. Aberration of chromosome is frequently detected in epithelial cells and lymphocytes of individuals from arsenic contaminated areas. Overexpression of Aurora-A, a mitotic kinase, results in chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We have reported that low concentration (≦1 μM) of arsenic treatment increases Aurora-A expression in immortalized bladder urothelial E7 cells. However, how arsenic induces carcinogenesis through Aurora-A activation remaining unclear. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) staining, MTT assay, and flow cytometry assay were conducted to determine cell proliferation. Messenger RNA and protein expression levels of Aurora-A were detected by reverse transcriptional-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Centrosome of cells was observed by immunofluorescent staining. The transcription factor of Aurora-A was investigated by promoter activity, chromosome immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and small interfering RNA (shRNA) assays. Mouse model was utilized to confirm the relationship between arsenic and Aurora-A. We reveal that low dosage of arsenic treatment increased cell proliferation is associated with accumulated cell population at S phase. We also detected increased Aurora-A expression at mRNA and protein levels in immortalized bladder urothelial E7 cells exposed to low doses of arsenic. Arsenic-treated cells displayed increased multiple centrosome which is resulted from overexpressed Aurora-A. Furthermore, the transcription factor, E2F1, is responsible for Aurora-A overexpression after arsenic treatment. We further disclosed that Aurora-A expression and cell proliferation were increased in bladder and uterus tissues of the BALB/c mice after long-term arsenic (1 mg/L) exposure for 2 months. We

  18. Cytoplasmic vacuolization in cell death and survival

    PubMed Central

    Komissarov, Alexey A.; Rafieva, Lola M.; Kostrov, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic vacuolization (also called cytoplasmic vacuolation) is a well-known morphological phenomenon observed in mammalian cells after exposure to bacterial or viral pathogens as well as to various natural and artificial low-molecular-weight compounds. Vacuolization often accompanies cell death; however, its role in cell death processes remains unclear. This can be attributed to studying vacuolization at the level of morphology for many years. At the same time, new data on the molecular mechanisms of the vacuole formation and structure have become available. In addition, numerous examples of the association between vacuolization and previously unknown cell death types have been reported. Here, we review these data to make a deeper insight into the role of cytoplasmic vacuolization in cell death and survival. PMID:27331412

  19. Functional inactivation of Rb sensitizes cancer cells to TSC2 inactivation induced cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Danos, Arpad M.; Liao, Yang; Li, Xuan; Du, Wei

    2012-01-01

    We showed previously that inactivation of TSC2 induces death in cancer cells lacking the Retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor under stress conditions, suggesting that inactivation of TSC2 can potentially be used as an approach to specifically kill cancers that have lost WT Rb. As Rb is often inactivated in cancers by overexpression of cyclin D1, loss of p16ink4a cdk inhibitor, or expression of viral oncoproteins, it will be interesting to determine if such functional inactivation of Rb would similarly sensitize cancer cells to TSC2 inactivation induced cell death. In addition, many cancers lack functional Pten, resulting in increased PI3K/Akt signaling that has been shown to modulate E2F-induced cell death. Therefore it will be interesting to test whether loss of Pten will affect TSC2 inactivation induced killing of Rb mutant cancer cells. Here, we show that overexpression of Cyclin D1 or the viral oncogene E1a sensitizes cancer cells to TSC2 knockdown induced cell death and growth inhibition. On the other hand, knockdown of p16ink4a sensitizes cancer cells to TSC2 knockdown induced cell death in a manner that is likely dependant on serum induction of Cyclin D1 to inactivate the Rb function. Additionally, we demonstrate that loss of Pten does not interfere with TSC2 knockdown induced cell death in Rb mutant cancer cells. Together, these results suggest that TSC2 is potentially a useful target for a large spectrum of cancer types with an inactivated Rb pathway. PMID:23022476

  20. Functional inactivation of Rb sensitizes cancer cells to TSC2 inactivation induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Danos, Arpad M; Liao, Yang; Li, Xuan; Du, Wei

    2013-01-01

    We showed previously that inactivation of TSC2 induces death in cancer cells lacking the Retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor under stress conditions, suggesting that inactivation of TSC2 can potentially be used as an approach to specifically kill cancers that have lost WT Rb. As Rb is often inactivated in cancers by overexpression of cyclin D1, loss of p16(ink4a) cdk inhibitor, or expression of viral oncoproteins, it will be interesting to determine if such functional inactivation of Rb would similarly sensitize cancer cells to TSC2 inactivation induced cell death. In addition, many cancers lack functional Pten, resulting in increased PI3K/Akt signaling that has been shown to modulate E2F-induced cell death. Therefore it will be interesting to test whether loss of Pten will affect TSC2 inactivation induced killing of Rb mutant cancer cells. Here, we show that overexpression of Cyclin D1 or the viral oncogene E1a sensitizes cancer cells to TSC2 knockdown induced cell death and growth inhibition. On the other hand, knockdown of p16(ink4a) sensitizes cancer cells to TSC2 knockdown induced cell death in a manner that is likely dependant on serum induction of Cyclin D1 to inactivate the Rb function. Additionally, we demonstrate that loss of Pten does not interfere with TSC2 knockdown induced cell death in Rb mutant cancer cells. Together, these results suggest that TSC2 is potentially a useful target for a large spectrum of cancer types with an inactivated Rb pathway.

  1. Regulation of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation and apoptotic signaling by Sorafenib in hepatoblastoma cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A.; Navarro-Villarán, E.; González, R.; Pereira, S.; Soriano-De Castro, L.B.; Sarrias-Giménez, A.; Barrera-Pulido, L.; Álamo-Martínez, J.M.; Serrablo-Requejo, A.; Blanco-Fernández, G.; Nogales-Muñoz, A.; Gila-Bohórquez, A.; Pacheco, D.; Torres-Nieto, M.A.; Serrano-Díaz-Canedo, J.; Suárez-Artacho, G.; Bernal-Bellido, C.; Marín-Gómez, L.M.; Barcena, J.A.; Gómez-Bravo, M.A.; Padilla, C.A.; Padillo, F.J.; Muntané, J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a relevant role during cell death regulation in tumor cells. The overexpression of nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS-3) induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, p53 and cell death receptor expression and apoptosis in hepatoblastoma cells. S-nitrosylation of cell death receptor modulates apoptosis. Sorafenib is the unique recommended molecular-targeted drug for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study was addressed to elucidate the potential role of NO during Sorafenib-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. We determined the intra- and extracellular NO concentration, cell death receptor expression and their S-nitrosylation modifications, and apoptotic signaling in Sorafenib-treated HepG2 cells. The effect of NO donors on above parameters has also been determined. Sorafenib induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. However, low concentration of the drug (10 nM) increased cell death receptor expression, as well as caspase-8 and -9 activation, but without activation of downstream apoptotic markers. In contrast, Sorafenib (10 µM) reduced upstream apoptotic parameters but increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells. The shift of cell death signaling pathway was associated with a reduction of S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors in Sorafenib-treated cells. The administration of NO donors increased S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors and overall induction of cell death markers in control and Sorafenib-treated cells. In conclusion, Sorafenib induced alteration of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation status which may have a relevant repercussion on cell death signaling in hepatoblastoma cells. PMID:26233703

  2. Over-expression of secreted proteins from mammalian cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Annamarie C; Barton, William A

    2014-01-01

    Secreted mammalian proteins require the development of robust protein over-expression systems for crystallographic and biophysical studies of protein function. Due to complex disulfide bonds and distinct glycosylation patterns preventing folding and expression in prokaryotic expression hosts, many secreted proteins necessitate production in more complex eukaryotic expression systems. Here, we elaborate on the methods used to obtain high yields of purified secreted proteins from transiently or stably transfected mammalian cell lines. Among the issues discussed are the selection of appropriate expression vectors, choice of signal sequences for protein secretion, availability of fusion tags for enhancing protein stability and purification, choice of cell line, and the large-scale growth of cells in a variety of formats. PMID:24510886

  3. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter silencing potentiates caspase-independent cell death in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, Merril C.; Peters, Amelia A.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Some clinical breast cancers are associated with MCU overexpression. •MCU silencing did not alter cell death initiated with the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-263. •MCU silencing potentiated caspase-independent cell death initiated by ionomycin. •MCU silencing promoted ionomycin-mediated cell death without changes in bulk Ca{sup 2+}. -- Abstract: The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) transports free ionic Ca{sup 2+} into the mitochondrial matrix. We assessed MCU expression in clinical breast cancer samples using microarray analysis and the consequences of MCU silencing in a breast cancer cell line. Our results indicate that estrogen receptor negative and basal-like breast cancers are characterized by elevated levels of MCU. Silencing of MCU expression in the basal-like MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line produced no change in proliferation or cell viability. However, distinct consequences of MCU silencing were seen on cell death pathways. Caspase-dependent cell death initiated by the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-263 was not altered by MCU silencing; whereas caspase-independent cell death induced by the calcium ionophore ionomycin was potentiated by MCU silencing. Measurement of cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} levels showed that the promotion of ionomycin-induced cell death by MCU silencing occurs independently of changes in bulk cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} levels. This study demonstrates that MCU overexpression is a feature of some breast cancers and that MCU overexpression may offer a survival advantage against some cell death pathways. MCU inhibitors may be a strategy to increase the effectiveness of therapies that act through the induction of caspase-independent cell death pathways in estrogen receptor negative and basal-like breast cancers.

  4. Programmed cell death in plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wu, H M; Cheun, A Y

    2000-10-01

    Reproductive development is a rich arena to showcase programmed cell death in plants. After floral induction, the first act of reproductive development in some plants is the selective killing of cells destined to differentiate into an unwanted sexual organ. Production of functional pollen grains relies significantly on deterioration and death of the anther tapetum, a tissue whose main function appears to nurture and decorate the pollen grains with critical surface molecules. Degeneration and death in a number of anther tissues result ultimately in anther rupture and dispersal of pollen grains. Female sporogenesis frequently begins with the death of all but one of the meiotic derivatives, with surrounding nucellar cells degenerating in concert with embryo sac expansion. Female tissues that interact with pollen undergo dramatic degeneration, including death, to ensure the encounter of compatible male and female gametes. Pollen and pistil interact to kill invading pollen from an incompatible source. Most observations on cell death in reproductive tissues have been on the histological and cytological levels. We discuss various cell death phenomena in reproductive development with a view towards understanding the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes.

  5. Cell Cycle Regulators and Cell Death in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zebell, Sophia G.; Dong, Xinnian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Various cell death mechanisms are integral to host defense in both plants and mammals. Plant defense against biotrophic pathogens is associated with programmed cell death (PCD) of the infected cell. This effector-triggered PCD is partly analogous to pyroptosis, an inflammatory host cell death process that plays a crucial role in defense against microbial infections in mammals. Plant effector-triggered PCD also shares with mammalian apoptosis the involvement of cell cycle regulators as signaling components. Here we explore the similarities between these different cell death programs as they relate to host defense and their relationship to the cell-cycle. PMID:26468745

  6. Cell-Cycle Regulators and Cell Death in Immunity.

    PubMed

    Zebell, Sophia G; Dong, Xinnian

    2015-10-14

    Various cell death mechanisms are integral to host defense in both plants and mammals. Plant defense against biotrophic pathogens is associated with programmed cell death (PCD) of the infected cell. This effector-triggered PCD is partly analogous to pyroptosis, an inflammatory host cell death process that plays a crucial role in defense against microbial infections in mammals. Plant effector-triggered PCD also shares with mammalian apoptosis the involvement of cell-cycle regulators as signaling components. Here we explore the similarities between these different cell death programs as they relate to host defense and their relationship to the cell cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Argos induces programmed cell death in the developing Drosophila eye by inhibition of the Ras pathway.

    PubMed

    Sawamoto, K; Taguchi, A; Hirota, Y; Yamada, C; Jin, M H; Okano, H

    1998-04-01

    We studied the role of Ras signaling in the regulation of cell death during Drosophila eye development. Overexpression of Argos, a diffusible inhibitor of the EGF receptor and Ras signaling, caused excessive cell death in developing eyes at pupal stages. The Argos-induced cell death was suppressed by coexpression of the anti-apoptotic genes p35, diap1, or diap2 in the eye as well as by the Df(3L)H99 chromosomal deletion that lacks three apoptosis-inducing genes, reaper, head involution defective (hid) and grim. Transient misexpression of the activated Ras1 protein (Ras1V12) later in pupal development suppressed the Argos-induced cell death. Thus, Argos-induced cell death seemed to have resulted from the suppression of the anti-apoptotic function of Ras. Conversely, cell death induced by overexpression of Hid was suppressed by gain-of-function mutations of the genes coding for MEK and ERK. These results support the idea that Ras signaling functions in two distinct processes during eye development, first triggering the recruitment of cells and later negatively regulating cell death.

  8. Immune activation: death, danger and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Pulendran, Bali

    2004-01-06

    Dendritic cells are critical for host immunity, and sense microbes with pathogen recognition receptors. New evidence indicates that these cells also sense uric acid crystals in dead cells, suggesting that the immune system is conscious not only of pathogens, but also of death and danger.

  9. Inhibition of telomerase causes vulnerability to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Toru; Nakatsu, Kanako; Shimamoto, Akira; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2016-08-26

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the possible involvement of telomerase in ER stress-induced cell death. ER stress-induced cell death was ameliorated in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) over-expressing MCF7 cells (MCF7-TERT cell). Telomerase specific inhibitor, BIBR1532, reversed the inhibitory effect of TERT on ER stress-induced cell death in MCF7-TERT cells. These findings suggest that BIBR1532 may specifically inhibit telomerase activity, thereby inducing cell death in ER stress-exposed cells. TERT was expressed in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. To analyze the possible involvement of telomerase in ER stress-induced neuronal cell death, we treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with BIBR1532 and analyzed ER stress-induced cell death. We found that BIBR1532 significantly enhanced the ER stress-induced neuronal cell death. These findings suggest that inhibition of telomerase activity may enhance vulnerability to neuronal cell death caused by ER stress.

  10. Neuroprotection by GH against excitotoxic-induced cell death in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ávila-Mendoza, José; Wu, Yilun; Arellanes-Licea, Elvira Del Carmen; Louie, Marcela; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos; Harvey, Steve

    2016-08-01

    Retinal growth hormone (GH) has been shown to promote cell survival in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) during developmental waves of apoptosis during chicken embryonic development. The possibility that it might also against excitotoxicity-induced cell death was therefore examined in the present study, which utilized quail-derived QNR/D cells as an in vitro RGC model. QNR/D cell death was induced by glutamate in the presence of BSO (buthionine sulfoxamide) (an enhancer of oxidative stress), but this was significantly reduced (P<0.01) in the presence of exogenous recombinant chicken GH (rcGH). Similarly, QNR/D cells that had been prior transfected with a GH plasmid to overexpress secreted and non-secreted GH. This treatment reduced the number of TUNEL-labeled cells and blocked their release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In a further experiment with dissected neuroretinal explants from ED (embryonic day) 10 embryos, rcGH treatment of the explants also reduced (P<0.01) the number of glutamate-BSO-induced apoptotic cells and blocked the explant release of LDH. This neuroprotective action was likely mediated by increased STAT5 phosphorylation and increased bcl-2 production, as induced by exogenous rcGH treatment and the media from GH-overexpressing QNR/D cells. As rcGH treatment and GH-overexpression cells also increased the content of IGF-1 and IGF-1 mRNA this neuroprotective action of GH is likely to be mediated, at least partially, through an IGF-1 mechanism. This possibility is supported by the fact that the siRNA knockdown of GH or IGF-1 significantly reduced QNR/D cell viability, as did the immunoneutralization of IGF-1. GH is therefore neuroprotective against excitotoxicity-induced RGC cell death by anti-apoptotic actions involving IGF-1 stimulation.

  11. Amphiregulin impairs apoptosis-stimulating protein 2 of p53 overexpression-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Lin, Dongdong; Ouyang, Yabo; Pang, Lijun; Guo, Xianghua; Wang, Shanshan; Zang, Yunjin; Chen, Dexi

    2017-03-01

    Overexpression of apoptosis-stimulating protein 2 of p53 (ASPP2) induces apoptotic cell death in hepatoma cells (e.g. HepG2 cells) by enhancing the transactivation activity of p53, but long-term ASPP2 overexpression fails to induce more apoptosis since activation of the epidermal growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor/SOS1 pathway impairs the pro-apoptotic role of ASPP2. In this study, in recombinant adenovirus-ASPP2-infected HepG2 cells, ASPP2 overexpression induces amphiregulin expression in a p53-dependent manner. Although amphiregulin initially contributes to ASPP2-induced apoptosis, it eventually impairs the pro-apoptotic function of ASPP2 by activating the epidermal growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor/SOS1 pathway, leading to apoptosis resistance. Moreover, blocking soluble amphiregulin with a neutralizing antibody also significantly increased apoptotic cell death of HepG2 cells due to treatment with methyl methanesulfonate, cisplatin, or a recombinant p53 adenovirus, suggesting that the function of amphiregulin involved in inhibiting apoptosis may be a common mechanism by which hepatoma cells escape from stimulus-induced apoptosis. Thus, our data elucidate an apoptosis-evasion mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma and have potential implications for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

  12. Deferasirox-induced iron depletion promotes BclxL downregulation and death of proximal tubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Sanchez, Diego; Gallegos-Villalobos, Angel; Fontecha-Barriuso, Miguel; Carrasco, Susana; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco J; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana Belén

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency has been associated with kidney injury. Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator used to treat blood transfusion-related iron overload. Nephrotoxicity is the most serious and common adverse effect of deferasirox and may present as an acute or chronic kidney disease. However, scarce data are available on the molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity. We explored the therapeutic modulation of deferasirox-induced proximal tubular cell death in culture. Deferasirox induced dose-dependent tubular cell death and AnexxinV/7AAD staining showed features of apoptosis and necrosis. However, despite inhibiting caspase-3 activation, the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk failed to prevent deferasirox-induced cell death. Moreover, zVAD increased deferasirox-induced cell death, a feature sometimes found in necroptosis. Electron microscopy identified mitochondrial injury and features of necrosis. However, neither necrostatin-1 nor RIP3 knockdown prevented deferasirox-induced cell death. Deferasirox caused BclxL depletion and BclxL overexpression was protective. Preventing iron depletion protected from BclxL downregulation and deferasirox cytotoxicity. In conclusion, deferasirox promoted iron depletion-dependent cell death characterized by BclxL downregulation. BclxL overexpression was protective, suggesting a role for BclxL downregulation in iron depletion-induced cell death. This information may be used to develop novel nephroprotective strategies. Furthermore, it supports the concept that monitoring kidney tissue iron depletion may decrease the risk of deferasirox nephrotoxicity. PMID:28139717

  13. Deferasirox-induced iron depletion promotes BclxL downregulation and death of proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanchez, Diego; Gallegos-Villalobos, Angel; Fontecha-Barriuso, Miguel; Carrasco, Susana; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco J; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana Belén

    2017-01-31

    Iron deficiency has been associated with kidney injury. Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator used to treat blood transfusion-related iron overload. Nephrotoxicity is the most serious and common adverse effect of deferasirox and may present as an acute or chronic kidney disease. However, scarce data are available on the molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity. We explored the therapeutic modulation of deferasirox-induced proximal tubular cell death in culture. Deferasirox induced dose-dependent tubular cell death and AnexxinV/7AAD staining showed features of apoptosis and necrosis. However, despite inhibiting caspase-3 activation, the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk failed to prevent deferasirox-induced cell death. Moreover, zVAD increased deferasirox-induced cell death, a feature sometimes found in necroptosis. Electron microscopy identified mitochondrial injury and features of necrosis. However, neither necrostatin-1 nor RIP3 knockdown prevented deferasirox-induced cell death. Deferasirox caused BclxL depletion and BclxL overexpression was protective. Preventing iron depletion protected from BclxL downregulation and deferasirox cytotoxicity. In conclusion, deferasirox promoted iron depletion-dependent cell death characterized by BclxL downregulation. BclxL overexpression was protective, suggesting a role for BclxL downregulation in iron depletion-induced cell death. This information may be used to develop novel nephroprotective strategies. Furthermore, it supports the concept that monitoring kidney tissue iron depletion may decrease the risk of deferasirox nephrotoxicity.

  14. Calpain-3 Impairs Cell Proliferation and Stimulates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Cell Death in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Daniele; Del Bello, Barbara; Allavena, Giulia; Corti, Alessandro; Signorini, Cinzia; Maellaro, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Calpain-3 is an intracellular cysteine protease, belonging to Calpain superfamily and predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. In human melanoma cell lines and biopsies, we previously identified two novel splicing variants (hMp78 and hMp84) of Calpain-3 gene (CAPN3), which have a significant lower expression in vertical growth phase melanomas and, even lower, in metastases, compared to benign nevi. In the present study, in order to investigate the pathophysiological role played by the longer Calpain-3 variant, hMp84, in melanoma cells, we over-expressed it in A375 and HT-144 cells. In A375 cells, the enforced expression of hMp84 induces p53 stabilization, and modulates the expression of a few p53- and oxidative stress-related genes. Consistently, hMp84 increases the intracellular production of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), which lead to oxidative modification of phospholipids (formation of F2-isoprostanes) and DNA damage. Such events culminate in an adverse cell fate, as indicated by the decrease of cell proliferation and by cell death. To a different extent, either the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the p53 inhibitor, Pifithrin-α, recover cell viability and decrease ROS formation. Similarly to A375 cells, hMp84 over-expression causes inhibition of cell proliferation, cell death, and increase of both ROS levels and F2-isoprostanes also in HT-144 cells. However, in these cells no p53 accumulation occurs. In both cell lines, no significant change of cell proliferation and cell damage is observed in cells over-expressing the mutant hMp84C42S devoid of its enzymatic activity, suggesting that the catalytic activity of hMp84 is required for its detrimental effects. Since a more aggressive phenotype is expected to benefit from down-regulation of mechanisms impairing cell growth and survival, we envisage that Calpain-3 down-regulation can be regarded as a novel mechanism contributing to melanoma progression. PMID:25658320

  15. Cytolethal distending toxin induces caspase-dependent and -independent cell death in MOLT-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Masaru; Hayashi, Tomonori; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei; Fujiwara, Tamaki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2008-10-01

    Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) induces apoptosis using the caspase-dependent classical pathway in the majority of human leukemic T cells (MOLT-4). However, we found the process to cell death is only partially inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with a general caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk. Flow cytometric analysis using annexin V and propidium iodide showed that a 48-h CDT treatment decreased the living cell population by 35% even in the presence of z-VAD-fmk. z-VAD-fmk completely inhibited caspase activity in 24 h CDT-intoxicated cells. Further, CDT with z-VAD-fmk treatment clearly increased the cell population that had a low level of intracellular reactive oxygen. This is a characteristic opposite to that of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Overexpression of bcl2 almost completely inhibited cell death using CDT treatment in the presence of z-VAD-fmk. The data suggest there are at least two different pathways used in CDT-induced cell death: conventional caspase-dependent (early) apoptotic cell death and caspase-independent (late) death. Both occur via the mitochondrial membrane disruption pathway.

  16. Epidermal cell death in frogs with chytridiomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alexandra A.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Berger, Lee

    2017-01-01

    Background Amphibians are declining at an alarming rate, and one of the major causes of decline is the infectious disease chytridiomycosis. Parasitic fungal sporangia occur within epidermal cells causing epidermal disruption, but these changes have not been well characterised. Apoptosis (planned cell death) can be a damaging response to the host but may alternatively be a mechanism of pathogen removal for some intracellular infections. Methods In this study we experimentally infected two endangered amphibian species Pseudophryne corroboree and Litoria verreauxii alpina with the causal agent of chytridiomycosis. We quantified cell death in the epidermis through two assays: terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) and caspase 3/7. Results Cell death was positively associated with infection load and morbidity of clinically infected animals. In infected amphibians, TUNEL positive cells were concentrated in epidermal layers, correlating to the localisation of infection within the skin. Caspase activity was stable and low in early infection, where pathogen loads were light but increasing. In animals that recovered from infection, caspase activity gradually returned to normal as the infection cleared. Whereas, in amphibians that did not recover, caspase activity increased dramatically when infection loads peaked. Discussion Increased cell death may be a pathology of the fungal parasite, likely contributing to loss of skin homeostatic functions, but it is also possible that apoptosis suppression may be used initially by the pathogen to help establish infection. Further research should explore the specific mechanisms of cell death and more specifically apoptosis regulation during fungal infection. PMID:28168107

  17. Cell death and cell death responses in liver disease: mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Luedde, Tom; Kaplowitz, Neil; Schwabe, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    Hepatocellular death is present in almost all types of human liver disease and is used as a sensitive parameter for the detection of acute and chronic liver disease of viral, toxic, metabolic, or autoimmune origin. Clinical data and animal models suggest that hepatocyte death is the key trigger of liver disease progression, manifested by the subsequent development of inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Modes of hepatocellular death differ substantially between liver diseases. Different modes of cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, and necroptosis trigger specific cell death responses and promote progression of liver disease through distinct mechanisms. In this review, we first discuss molecular mechanisms by which different modes of cell death, damage-associated molecular patterns, and specific cell death responses contribute to the development of liver disease. We then review the clinical relevance of cell death, focusing on biomarkers; the contribution of cell death to drug-induced, viral, and fatty liver disease and liver cancer; and evidence for cell death pathways as therapeutic targets.

  18. Cell Death and Cell Death Responses in Liver Disease: Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Luedde, Tom; Kaplowitz, Neil; Schwabe, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatocellular death is present in almost all types of human liver disease and is used as a sensitive parameter for the detection of acute and chronic liver disease of viral, toxic, metabolic, or autoimmune origin. Clinical data and animal models suggest that hepatocyte death is the key trigger of liver disease progression, manifested by the subsequent development of inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Modes of hepatocellular death differ substantially between liver diseases. Different modes of cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, and necroptosis trigger specific cell death responses and promote progression of liver disease through distinct mechanisms. In this review, we first discuss molecular mechanisms by which different modes of cell death, damage-associated molecular patterns, and specific cell death responses contribute to the development of liver disease. We then review the clinical relevance of cell death, focusing on biomarkers; the contribution of cell death to drug-induced, viral, and fatty liver disease and liver cancer; and evidence for cell death pathways as therapeutic targets. PMID:25046161

  19. Calcium imaging in neuron cell death.

    PubMed

    Calvo, María; Villalobos, Carlos; Núñez, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ is involved in control of a large variety of cell functions including apoptosis and neuron cell death. For example, intracellular Ca2+ overload is critical in neuron cell death induced by excitotoxicity. Thus, single cell monitoring of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt ) in neurons concurrently with apoptosis and neuron cell death is widely required. Procedures for culture and preparation of primary cultures of hippocampal rat neurons and fluorescence imaging of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in Fura2/AM -loaded neurons are described. We also describe a method for apoptosis detection by immunofluorescence imaging. Finally, a simple method for concurrent measurements of [Ca2+]cyt and apoptosis in the same neurons is described.

  20. Peripherin-mediated death of motor neurons rescued by overexpression of neurofilament NF-H proteins.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Julien, Jean-Pierre

    2003-04-01

    In previous studies, we showed that overexpression of peripherin, a neuronal intermediate filament (IF) protein, in mice deficient for neurofilament light (NF-L) subunits induced a progressive adult-onset degeneration of spinal motor neurons characterized by the presence of IF inclusion bodies reminiscent of axonal spheroids found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In contrast, the overexpression of human neurofilament heavy (NF-H) proteins provoked the formation of massive perikaryal IF protein accumulations with no loss of motor neurons. To further investigate the toxic properties of IF protein inclusions, we generated NF-L null mice that co-express both peripherin and NF-H transgenes. The axonal count in L5 ventral roots from 6 and 8-month-old transgenic mice showed that NF-H overexpression rescued the peripherin-mediated degeneration of motor neurons. Our analysis suggests that the protective effect of extra NF-H proteins is related to the sequestration of peripherin into the perikaryon of motor neurons, thereby abolishing the development of axonal IF inclusions that might block transport. These findings illustrate the importance of IF protein stoichiometry in formation, localization and toxicity of neuronal inclusion bodies.

  1. Multidrug-resistant hela cells overexpressing MRP1 exhibit sensitivity to cell killing by hyperthermia: Interactions with etoposide

    SciTech Connect

    Souslova, Tatiana; Averill-Bates, Diana A. . E-mail: averill.diana@uqam.ca

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of the primary obstacles in cancer chemotherapy and often involves overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1). Regional hyperthermia is undergoing clinical investigation in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. This study evaluates whether hyperthermia can reverse MDR mediated by MRP1 in human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells. Methods and materials: Cytotoxicity of hyperthermia and/or etoposide was evaluated using sulforhodamine-B in HeLa cells overexpressing MRP1 and their drug-sensitive counterparts. Glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were quantified by spectrophotometry. GST isoenzymes were quantified by immunodetection. Caspase activation was evaluated by fluorometry and chromatin condensation by fluorescence microscopy using Hoechst 33258. Necrosis was determined using propidium iodide. Results: The major finding is that HeLa and HeLaMRP cells are both sensitive to cytotoxicity of hyperthermia (41-45 deg C). Hyperthermia induced activation of caspase 3 and chromatin condensation. Although total levels of cell killing were similar, there was a switch from apoptotic to necrotic cell death in MDR cells. This could be explained by decreased glutathione and GPx in MDR cells. MDR cells also contained very low levels of GST and were resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis. Hyperthermia caused a modest increase in etoposide-induced apoptosis in HeLa and HeLaMRP cells, which required appropriate heat-drug scheduling. Conclusions: Hyperthermia could be useful in eliminating MDR cells that overexpress MRP1.

  2. Soluble extracellular Klotho decreases sensitivity to cigarette smoke induced cell death in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Blake, David J; Reese, Caitlyn M; Garcia, Mario; Dahlmann, Elizabeth A; Dean, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the third leading cause of death in the US and is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response to cigarette smoke (CS). Exposure to CS induces oxidative stress and can result in cellular senescence in the lung. Cellular senescence can then lead to decreased proliferation of epithelial cells, the destruction of alveolar structure and pulmonary emphysema. The anti-aging gene, klotho, encodes a membrane bound protein that has been shown to be a key regulator of oxidative stress and cellular senescence. In this study the role of Klotho (KL) with regard to oxidative stress and cellular senescence was investigated in human pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke. Individual clones that stably overexpress Klotho were generated through retroviral transfection and geneticin selection. Klotho overexpression was confirmed through RT-qPCR, Western blotting and ELISA. Compared to control cells, constitutive Klotho overexpression resulted in decreased sensitivity to cigarette smoke induced cell death in vitro via a reduction of reactive oxygen species and a decrease in the expression of p21. Our results suggest that increasing Klotho level in pulmonary epithelial cells may be a promising strategy to reduce cellular senescence and mitigate the risk for the development of COPD.

  3. Resveratrol induces cell death and inhibits human herpesvirus 8 replication in primary effusion lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng-Yi; Chen, Chang-Yu; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Hong, Shin; Chen, Hung-Ming; Chiou, Yee-Hsuan; Lin, Kuan-Hua; Chou, Miao-Chen; Wang, Lin-Yu; Wang, Yi-Fen

    2015-12-05

    Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) has been reported to inhibit proliferation of various cancer cells. However, the effects of resveratrol on the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) harboring primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells remains unclear. The anti-proliferation effects and possible mechanisms of resveratrol in the HHV8 harboring PEL cells were examined in this study. Results showed that resveratrol induced caspase-3 activation and the formation of acidic vacuoles in the HHV8 harboring PEL cells, indicating resveratrol treatment could cause apoptosis and autophagy in PEL cells. In addition, resveratrol treatment increased ROS generation but did not lead to HHV8 reactivation. ROS scavenger (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC) could attenuate both the resveratrol induced caspase-3 activity and the formation of acidic vacuoles, but failed to attenuate resveratrol induced PEL cell death. Caspase inhibitor, autophagy inhibitors and necroptosis inhibitor could not block resveratrol induced PEL cell death. Moreover, resveratrol disrupted HHV8 latent infection, inhibited HHV8 lytic gene expression and decreased virus progeny production. Overexpression of HHV8-encoded viral FLICE inhibitory protein (vFLIP) could partially block resveratrol induced cell death in PEL cells. These data suggest that resveratrol-induced cell death in PEL cells may be mediated by disruption of HHV8 replication. Resveratrol may be a potential anti-HHV8 drug and an effective treatment for HHV8-related tumors.

  4. Chorein addiction in VPS13A overexpressing rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Honisch, Sabina; Yu, Willi; Liu, Guilai; Alesutan, Ioana; Towhid, Syeda T.; Tsapara, Anna; Schleicher, Sabine; Handgretinger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Chorein encoded by VPS13A (vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 13A) is defective in chorea-acanthocytosis. Chorein fosters neuronal cell survival, cortical actin polymerization and cell stiffness. In view of its anti-apoptotic effect in neurons, we explored whether chorein is expressed in cancer cells and influences cancer cell survival. RT-PCR was employed to determine transcript levels, specific siRNA to silence chorein, FACS analysis to follow apoptosis and Western blotting to quantify protein abundance. Chorein transcripts were detected in various cancer cell types. The mRNA coding for chorein and chorein protein were most abundant in drug resistant, poorly differentiated human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Chorein silencing significantly reduced the ratio of phosphorylated (and thus activated) to total phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI-3K), pointing to inactivation of this crucial pro-survival signaling molecule. Moreover, chorein silencing diminished transcript levels and protein expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 and enhanced transcript levels of pro-apoptotic Bax. Silencing of chorein in rhabdomyosarcoma cells was followed by mitochondrial depolarization, caspase 3 activation and stimulation of early and late apoptosis. In conclusion, chorein is expressed in various cancer cells. In cells with high chorein expression levels chorein silencing promotes apoptotic cell death, an effect paralleled by down-regulation of PI-3K activity and BCL-2/Bax expression ratio. PMID:25871399

  5. Cell death in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jeremy S; Thompson, Lyndal S; James, Sally; Charlton, Tim; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Koch, Birgit; Givskov, Michael; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2003-08-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms often develop multicellular, three-dimensional structures known as microcolonies. Complex differentiation within biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, leading to the creation of voids inside microcolonies and to the dispersal of cells from within these voids. However, key developmental processes regulating these events are poorly understood. A normal component of multicellular development is cell death. Here we report that a repeatable pattern of cell death and lysis occurs in biofilms of P. aeruginosa during the normal course of development. Cell death occurred with temporal and spatial organization within biofilms, inside microcolonies, when the biofilms were allowed to develop in continuous-culture flow cells. A subpopulation of viable cells was always observed in these regions. During the onset of biofilm killing and during biofilm development thereafter, a bacteriophage capable of superinfecting and lysing the P. aeruginosa parent strain was detected in the fluid effluent from the biofilm. The bacteriophage implicated in biofilm killing was closely related to the filamentous phage Pf1 and existed as a prophage within the genome of P. aeruginosa. We propose that prophage-mediated cell death is an important mechanism of differentiation inside microcolonies that facilitates dispersal of a subpopulation of surviving cells.

  6. Cell Death in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Development

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Jeremy S.; Thompson, Lyndal S.; James, Sally; Charlton, Tim; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Koch, Birgit; Givskov, Michael; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms often develop multicellular, three-dimensional structures known as microcolonies. Complex differentiation within biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, leading to the creation of voids inside microcolonies and to the dispersal of cells from within these voids. However, key developmental processes regulating these events are poorly understood. A normal component of multicellular development is cell death. Here we report that a repeatable pattern of cell death and lysis occurs in biofilms of P. aeruginosa during the normal course of development. Cell death occurred with temporal and spatial organization within biofilms, inside microcolonies, when the biofilms were allowed to develop in continuous-culture flow cells. A subpopulation of viable cells was always observed in these regions. During the onset of biofilm killing and during biofilm development thereafter, a bacteriophage capable of superinfecting and lysing the P. aeruginosa parent strain was detected in the fluid effluent from the biofilm. The bacteriophage implicated in biofilm killing was closely related to the filamentous phage Pf1 and existed as a prophage within the genome of P. aeruginosa. We propose that prophage-mediated cell death is an important mechanism of differentiation inside microcolonies that facilitates dispersal of a subpopulation of surviving cells. PMID:12867469

  7. MK2 balances inflammation and cell death.

    PubMed

    Oberst, Andrew

    2017-09-29

    The cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and the toll-like receptors (TLRs) coordinate immune responses by activating inflammatory transcriptional programs, but these signals can also trigger cell death. Recent studies identify the MAP kinase substrate MK2 as a key player in determining whether cells live or die in response to TNF and TLR signalling.

  8. Parvovirus infection-induced cell death and cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aaron Yun; Qiu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    The cytopathic effects induced during parvovirus infection have been widely documented. Parvovirus infection-induced cell death is often directly associated with disease outcomes (e.g., anemia resulting from loss of erythroid progenitors during parvovirus B19 infection). Apoptosis is the major form of cell death induced by parvovirus infection. However, nonapoptotic cell death, namely necrosis, has also been reported during infection of the minute virus of mice, parvovirus H-1 and bovine parvovirus. Recent studies have revealed multiple mechanisms underlying the cell death during parvovirus infection. These mechanisms vary in different parvoviruses, although the large nonstructural protein (NS)1 and the small NS proteins (e.g., the 11 kDa of parvovirus B19), as well as replication of the viral genome, are responsible for causing infection-induced cell death. Cell cycle arrest is also common, and contributes to the cytopathic effects induced during parvovirus infection. While viral NS proteins have been indicated to induce cell cycle arrest, increasing evidence suggests that a cellular DNA damage response triggered by an invading single-stranded parvoviral genome is the major inducer of cell cycle arrest in parvovirus-infected cells. Apparently, in response to infection, cell death and cell cycle arrest of parvovirus-infected cells are beneficial to the viral cell lifecycle (e.g., viral DNA replication and virus egress). In this article, we will discuss recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying parvovirus infection-induced cell death and cell cycle arrest. PMID:21331319

  9. Bcl2-negative MCF7 cells overexpress p53: implications for the cell cycle and sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs.

    PubMed

    Poliseno, Laura; Mariani, Laura; Collecchi, Paola; Piras, Antonio; Zaccaro, Lucia; Rainaldi, Giuseppe

    2002-08-01

    Bcl2 is a mitochondrial protein endowed with cytostatic and antiapoptotic activities. In this work we studied the effects of the lack of Bcl2 in MCF7 cells. The breast cancer cell line MCF7 (Bcl2-positive) and its derivative MCF7/50B (Bcl2-negative) were compared in terms of the level of p53 expression, doubling time and distribution of cells among the cycle phases. Sensitivities to the proapoptotic drugs cisplatinum and staurosporine were measured using a clonogenic assay and the contribution of apoptosis to cytotoxicity was determined with a mitochondrial membrane potential-sensitive dye. Relative to MCF7, MCF7/50B cells overexpressed p53 and slowly proliferated with a significant accumulation at G(0)/G(1) and depletion in S phase. The cytotoxicity of the DNA-damaging agent cisplatinum was decreased, while that of the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine was increased. The induced cytotoxicity was essentially due to apoptosis and necrosis, respectively. These results suggest that the lack of Bcl2 accompanied by p53 overexpression affects the distribution of cells among the cell cycle phases and modifies the sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs and the type of cell death.

  10. Wnt-11 overexpression promoting the invasion of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Heng; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Shizhuo; Pang, Xiaoao; Zhang, Shulan

    2016-09-01

    Wnt-11 is a positive regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. However, Wnt-11 expression in cervical cancer has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Wnt-11 in cervical tumor proliferation and invasion. This study examined 24 normal cervical squamous epithelia, 29 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 78 cervical cancer samples. The expression of Wnt-11 was investigated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of the high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) E6 oncoprotein was also investigated by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the expression of Wnt-11, HR-HPV E6, JNK-1, phosphorylated JNK-1(P-JNK1), and β-catenin was examined by western blot analysis following Wnt-11 knockdown or overexpression in HeLa or SiHa cells, respectively. The promotion of cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion was investigated using the cell counting kit-8 and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. Wnt-11 and HR-HPV E6 expression increased in a manner that corresponded with the progression of cervical cancer and was significantly correlated with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics cancer stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and HPV infection. Wnt-11 protein expression was positively associated with HR-HPV E6 protein expression in all 78 cervical cancer samples (P < 0.001). Furthermore, Wnt-11 was positively associated with P-JNK1 expression and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion. These observations suggest that the increased Wnt-11 expression observed in cervical cancer cells may lead to the phosphorylation and activation of JNK-1 and significantly promote tumor cell proliferation and cell migration/invasion through activation of the Wnt/JNK pathway. Consequently, Wnt-11 may serve as a novel target for cervical cancer therapy.

  11. Cholesteatoma Fibroblasts Promote Epithelial Cell Proliferation through Overexpression of Epiregulin

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Mamoru; Kojima, Hiromi; Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Okada, Naoko; Saito, Hirohisa; Moriyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether keratinocytes proliferate in response to epiregulin produced by subepithelial fibroblasts derived from middle ear cholesteatoma. Tissue samples were obtained from patients undergoing tympanoplasty. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine epiregulin expression and localization in cholesteatoma tissues and retroauricular skin tissues. Fibroblasts were cultured from cholesteatoma tissues and from normal retroauricular skin. These fibroblasts were used as feeder cells for culture with a human keratinocyte cell line (PHK16-0b). To investigate the role of epiregulin in colony formation by PHK16-0b cells, epiregulin mRNA expression was knocked down in fibroblasts by using short interfering RNA and epiregulin protein was blocked with a neutralizing antibody. Epiregulin mRNA expression was significantly elevated in cholesteatoma tissues compared with that in normal retroauricular skin. Staining for epiregulin was more intense in the epithelial cells and subepithelial fibroblasts of cholesteatoma tissues than in retroauricular skin. When PHK16-0b cells were cultured with cholesteatoma fibroblasts, their colony-forming efficiency was 50% higher than when these cells were cultured with normal skin fibroblasts. Also, knockdown of epiregulin mRNA in cholesteatoma fibroblasts led to greater suppression of colony formation than knockdown in skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, the colony-forming efficiency of PHK16-0b cells was significantly reduced after treatment with an epiregulin neutralizing antibody in co-culture with cholesteatoma fibroblasts, but not in co-culture with skin fibroblasts. These results suggest that keratinocyte hyperproliferation in cholesteatoma is promoted through overexpression of epiregulin by subepithelial fibroblasts via epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, which may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of middle ear cholesteatoma. PMID:23826119

  12. Role of reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation in 3-bromopyruvate induced cell death in hepatoma cells : ROS-mediated cell death by 3-BrPA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Su; Ahn, Keun Jae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Hye Mi; Lee, Jong Doo; Lee, Jae Myun; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Jeon Han

    2008-12-01

    Hexokinase type II (HK II) is the key enzyme for maintaining increased glycolysis in cancer cells where it is overexpressed. 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), an inhibitor of HK II, induces cell death in cancer cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of 3-BrPA-induced cell death, we used the hepatoma cell lines SNU449 (low expression of HKII) and Hep3B (high expression of HKII). 3-BrPA induced ATP depletion-dependent necrosis and apoptosis in both cell lines. 3-BrPA increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to mitochondrial dysregulation. NAC (N-acetyl-L: -cysteine), an antioxidant, blocked 3-BrPA-induced ROS production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cell death. 3-BrPA-mediated oxidative stress not only activated poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) but also translocated AIF from the mitochondria to the nucleus. Taken together, 3-BrPA induced ATP depletion-dependent necrosis and apoptosis and mitochondrial dysregulation due to ROS production are involved in 3-BrPA-induced cell death in hepatoma cells.

  13. Overexpression of Selenoprotein SelK in BGC-823 Cells Inhibits Cell Adhesion and Migration.

    PubMed

    Ben, S B; Peng, B; Wang, G C; Li, C; Gu, H F; Jiang, H; Meng, X L; Lee, B J; Chen, C L

    2015-10-01

    Effects of human selenoprotein SelK on the adhesion and migration ability of human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells using Matrigel adhesion and transwell migration assays, respectively, were investigated in this study. The Matrigel adhesion ability of BGC-823 cells that overexpressed SelK declined extremely significantly (p < 0.01) compared with that of the cells not expressing the protein. The migration ability of BGC-823 cells that overexpressed SelK also declined extremely significantly (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the Matrigel adhesion ability and migration ability of the cells that overexpressed C-terminally truncated SelK did not decline significantly. The Matrigel adhesion ability and migration ability of human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells that overexpressed SelK did not show significant change (p > 0.05) with the cells that overexpressed the C-terminally truncated protein. In addition to the effect on Matrigel adhesion and migration, the overexpression of SelK also caused a loss in cell viability (as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay) and induced apoptosis as shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The cytosolic free Ca2+ level of these cells was significantly increased as detected by flow cytometry. But the overexpression of SelK in HEK-293 cells caused neither significant loss in cell viability nor apoptosis induction. Only the elevation of cytosolic free Ca2+ level in these cells was significant. Taken together, the results suggest that the overexpression of SelK can inhibit human cancer cell Matrigel adhesion and migration and cause both the loss in cell viability and induction of apoptosis. The release of intracellular Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum might be a mechanism whereby the protein exerted its impact. Furthermore, only the full-length protein, but not C-terminally truncated form, was capable of producing such impact. The embryonic cells were not influenced by the

  14. Cell death pathways of particulate matter toxicity.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Milena Simões; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2017-08-22

    Humans are exposed to various complex mixtures of particulate matter (PM) from different sources. Long-term exposure to high levels of these particulates has been linked to a diverse range of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases that have resulted in hospital admission. The evaluation of the effects of PM exposure on the mechanisms related to cell death has been a challenge for many researchers. Therefore, in this review, we have discussed the effects of airborne PM exposure on mechanisms related to cell death. For this purpose, we have compiled literature data on PM sources, the effects of exposure, and the assays and models used for evaluation, in order to establish comparisons between various studies. The analysis of this collected data suggested divergent responses to PM exposure that resulted in different cell death types (apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis). In addition, PM induced oxidative stress within cells, which appeared to be an important factor in the determination of cell fate. When the levels of reactive oxygen species were overpowering, the cellular fate was directed toward cell death. This may be the underlying mechanism of the development or exacerbation of respiratory diseases, such as emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. In addition, PM was shown to cause DNA damage and the resulting mutations increased the risk of cancer. Furthermore, several conditions should be considered in the assessment of cell death in PM-exposed models, including the cell culture line, PM composition, and the interaction of the different cells types in in vivo models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. USP30 deubiquitylates mitochondrial Parkin substrates and restricts apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin-Rui; Martinez, Aitor; Lane, Jon D; Mayor, Ugo; Clague, Michael J; Urbé, Sylvie

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondria play a pivotal role in the orchestration of cell death pathways. Here, we show that the control of ubiquitin dynamics at mitochondria contributes to the regulation of apoptotic cell death. The unique mitochondrial deubiquitylase, USP30, opposes Parkin-dependent ubiquitylation of TOM20, and its depletion enhances depolarization-induced cell death in Parkin-overexpressing cells. Importantly, USP30 also regulates BAX/BAK-dependent apoptosis, and its depletion sensitizes cancer cells to BH3-mimetics. These results provide the first evidence for a fundamental role of USP30 in determining the threshold for mitochondrial cell death and suggest USP30 as a potential target for combinatorial anti-cancer therapy. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. Viral subversion of immunogenic cell death.

    PubMed

    Kepp, Oliver; Senovilla, Laura; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Panaretakis, Theocharis; Tesniere, Antoine; Schlemmer, Frederic; Madeo, Frank; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2009-03-15

    While physiological cell death is non-immunogenic, pathogen induced cell death can be immunogenic and hence stimulate an immune response against antigens that derive from dying cells and are presented by dendritic cells (DCs). The obligate immunogenic "eat-me" signal generated by dying cells consists in the exposure of calreticulin (CRT) at the cell surface. This particular "eat-me" signal, which facilitates engulfment by DCs, can only be found on cells that succumb to immunogenic apoptosis, while it is not present on cells dying in an immunologically silent fashion. CRT normally resides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), yet can translocate to the plasma membrane surface through a complex pathway that involves elements of the ER stress response (e.g., the eIF2alpha-phosphorylating kinase PERK), the apoptotic machinery (e.g., caspase-8 and its substrate BAP31, Bax, Bak), the anterograde transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus, and SNARE-dependent exocytosis. A large panoply of viruses encodes proteins that inhibit eIF2alpha kinases, catalyze the dephosphorylation of eIF2alpha, bind to caspase-8, Bap31, Bax or Bak, or perturb exocytosis. We therefore postulate that obligate intracellular pathogens have developed a variety of strategies to subvert CRT exposure, thereby avoiding immunogenic cell death.

  17. Training in Support of Research Project Entitled "Genetic Regulation of the Bcl-2/Bax Cell Death Pathway".

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    programmed cell death in mammals, Bcl-2 family proteins can also induce or prevent cell death in the unicellular yeast; overexpression of Bax causes lethality...in both S. cerevisiae and S. pombe, and co-expression of either Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL can protect yeast against Bax-caused cell death . On the basis of these...observations, we have developed a functional screen and have identified two human genes, BI-1 and BI-2, which inhibit Bax-induced cell death in yeast

  18. BAD induces apoptosis in cells over-expressing Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL without loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Schimmer, A D; Hedley, D W; Pham, N A; Chow, S; Minden, M D

    2001-07-01

    Inhibitors of Bcl-2 may be useful therapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies including leukemia. A potential prototype of such a compound is the endogenous Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL binding protein BAD. Previous reports indicate that BAD can overcome the anti-apoptotic effect of Bcl-xL but not Bcl-2. If BAD cannot induce apoptosis in cells over-expressing Bcl-2, it would limit the application of molecules like BAD as novel anti-tumor agents. We report that transient transfection of BAD induced cell death in cells with and without over-expression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Forty-eight hours after transfection, BAD increased cell death in COS, COS Bcl-2, and COS Bcl-xL cells as demonstrated by decreased GFP expression, and an increase in the number of number of floating cells. In addition, BAD induced cell death in leukemic cell lines over-expressing Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as determined by changes in luciferase activity. BAD-induced apoptosis was not accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Therefore, we conclude that transient transfection of BAD directly induces apoptosis in cells over-expressing Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL and validates the pursuit of molecules like BAD as novel therapeutic agents.

  19. Mitochondrial control of cell death induced by hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Criollo, Alfredo; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Maiuri, M Chiara; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Lavandero, Sergio; Kroemer, Guido

    2007-01-01

    HeLa and HCT116 cells respond differentially to sorbitol, an osmolyte able to induce hypertonic stress. In these models, sorbitol promoted the phenotypic manifestations of early apoptosis followed by complete loss of viability in a time-, dose-, and cell type-specific fashion, by eliciting distinct yet partially overlapping molecular pathways. In HCT116 but not in HeLa cells, sorbitol caused the mitochondrial release of the caspase-independent death effector AIF, whereas in both cell lines cytochrome c was retained in mitochondria. Despite cytochrome c retention, HeLa cells exhibited the progressive activation of caspase-3, presumably due to the prior activation of caspase-8. Accordingly, caspase inhibition prevented sorbitol-induced killing in HeLa, but only partially in HCT116 cells. Both the knock-out of Bax in HCT116 cells and the knock-down of Bax in A549 cells by RNA interference reduced the AIF release and/or the mitochondrial alterations. While the knock-down of Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) sensitized to sorbitol-induced killing, overexpression of a Bcl-2 variant that specifically localizes to mitochondria (but not of the wild-type nor of a endoplasmic reticulum-targeted form) strongly inhibited sorbitol effects. Thus, hyperosmotic stress kills cells by triggering different molecular pathways, which converge at mitochondria where pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family exert their control.

  20. Reduced viability of neuronal cells after overexpression of protein histidine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Krieglstein, Josef; Lehmann, Martina; Mäurer, Anette; Gudermann, Thomas; Pinkenburg, Olaf; Wieland, Thomas; Litterscheid, Sarah; Klumpp, Susanne

    2008-11-01

    Protein histidine phosphatase (PHP) has just recently been discovered in eukaryotes and ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) was shown to be one of its substrates. Since ACL is crucial for cellular energy and fat metabolism we made an attempt to study the influence of PHP on cell viability. Using an adenoviral vector PHP was overexpressed in SN56 cholinergic murine neuroblastoma cells and in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons obtained from embryonic rats (E18). Overexpression of PHP in these cells caused a decrease in ACL activity and consequently impaired viability. To be sure that the reduced cellular viability was achieved by overexpression of PHP we also downregulated ACL in SN56 cells using RNAi-technology. Downregulation of ACL was harmful to the cells similar to what was observed upon overexpression of PHP. Taken together, it is concluded that overexpression of PHP results in increased dephosphorylation with concomitant inactivation of ACL, thus finally leading to cell damage.

  1. The deaths of a cell: how language and metaphor influence the science of cell death.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew S

    2014-12-01

    Multicellular development and tissue maintenance involve the regular elimination of damaged and healthy cells. The science of this genetically regulated cell death is particularly rich in metaphors: 'programmed cell death' or 'cell suicide' is considered an 'altruistic' act on the part of a cell for the benefit of the organism as a whole. It is also considered a form of 'social control' exerted by the body/organism over its component cells. This paper analyzes the various functions of these metaphors and critical discussion about them within the scientific community. Bodies such as the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) have been charged with bringing order to the language of cell death to facilitate scientific progress. While the NCCD recommends adopting more objective biochemical terminology to describe the mechanisms of cell death, the metaphors in question retain an important function by highlighting the broader context within which cell death occurs. Scientific metaphors act as conceptual 'tools' which fulfill various roles, from highlighting a phenomenon as of particular interest, situating it in a particular context, or suggesting explanatory causal mechanisms.

  2. Cell death pathways associated with PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Reiners, John J., Jr.

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy leads to both direct and indirect tumor cell death. The latter also involves the consequences of vascular shut-down and immunologic effects. While these factors are a major factor in tumor eradication, there is usually an element of direct cell killing that can reduce the cell population by as much as 2-3 logs. Necrosis was initially believed to represent the predominant PDT death mechanism. An apoptotic response to PDT was first reported by Oleinick in 1991, using a sensitizer that targets the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Apoptosis leads to fragmentation of DNA and of cells into apoptotic bodies that are removed by phagocytosis. Inflammatory effects are minimized, and the auto- catalytic elements of the process can amplify the death signal. In this study, we examined consequences of Bcl-2 photodamage by a porphycene sensitizer that targets the ER and causes photodamage to the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Death patterns after Bcl-2 inactivation by a small-molecular antagonist were also assessed. In addition to apoptosis, we also characterized a hitherto undescribed PDT effect, the initiation of autophagy. Autophagy was initially identified as a cell survival pathway, allowing the recycling of components as nutrients become scarce. We propose that autophagy can also represent both a potential survival pathway after PDT damage to cellular organelles, as well as a cell-death pathway. Recent literature reports indicate that autophagy, as well as apoptosis, can be evoked after down-regulation of Bcl-2, a result consistent with results reported here.

  3. Nanomaterials Toxicity and Cell Death Modalities

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Daniela; Carnuccio, Rosa; Maiuri, Maria Chiara

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, the nanotechnology advancement has developed a plethora of novel and intriguing nanomaterial application in many sectors, including research and medicine. However, many risks have been highlighted in their use, particularly related to their unexpected toxicity in vitro and in vivo experimental models. This paper proposes an overview concerning the cell death modalities induced by the major nanomaterials. PMID:23304518

  4. Programmed cell death in seeds of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara

    2015-12-01

    During the diversification of angiosperms, seeds have evolved structural, chemical, molecular and physiologically developing changes that specially affect the nucellus and endosperm. All through seed evolution, programmed cell death (PCD) has played a fundamental role. However, examples of PCD during seed development are limited. The present review examines PCD in integuments, nucellus, suspensor and endosperm in those representative examples of seeds studied to date.

  5. Lipids and cell death in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Büttner, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Understanding lipid-induced malfunction represents a major challenge of today's biomedical research. The connection of lipids to cellular and organ dysfunction, cell death, and disease (often referred to as lipotoxicity) is more complex than the sole lipotoxic effects of excess free fatty acids and requires genetically tractable model systems for mechanistic investigation. We herein summarize recent advances in the field of lipid-induced toxicity that employ the established model system for cell death and aging research of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies in yeast have shed light on various aspects of lipotoxicity, including free fatty acid toxicity, sphingolipid-modulated cell death as well as the involvement of cardiolipin and lipid peroxidation in the mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis. Regimens used range from exogenously applied lipids, genetic modulation of lipolysis and triacylglyceride synthesis, variations in sphingolipid/ceramide metabolism as well as changes in peroxisome function by either genetic or pharmacological means. In future, the yeast model of programmed cell death will further contribute to the clarification of crucial questions of lipid-associated malfunction. PMID:24119111

  6. Classification of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2009.

    PubMed

    Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Vandenabeele, P; Abrams, J; Alnemri, E S; Baehrecke, E H; Blagosklonny, M V; El-Deiry, W S; Golstein, P; Green, D R; Hengartner, M; Knight, R A; Kumar, S; Lipton, S A; Malorni, W; Nuñez, G; Peter, M E; Tschopp, J; Yuan, J; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G

    2009-01-01

    Different types of cell death are often defined by morphological criteria, without a clear reference to precise biochemical mechanisms. The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposes unified criteria for the definition of cell death and of its different morphologies, while formulating several caveats against the misuse of words and concepts that slow down progress in the area of cell death research. Authors, reviewers and editors of scientific periodicals are invited to abandon expressions like 'percentage apoptosis' and to replace them with more accurate descriptions of the biochemical and cellular parameters that are actually measured. Moreover, at the present stage, it should be accepted that caspase-independent mechanisms can cooperate with (or substitute for) caspases in the execution of lethal signaling pathways and that 'autophagic cell death' is a type of cell death occurring together with (but not necessarily by) autophagic vacuolization. This study details the 2009 recommendations of the NCCD on the use of cell death-related terminology including 'entosis', 'mitotic catastrophe', 'necrosis', 'necroptosis' and 'pyroptosis'.

  7. Lysosomal cell death mechanisms in aging.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sintes, Raquel; Ledesma, María Dolores; Boya, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Lysosomes are degradative organelles essential for cell homeostasis that regulate a variety of processes, from calcium signaling and nutrient responses to autophagic degradation of intracellular components. Lysosomal cell death is mediated by the lethal effects of cathepsins, which are released into the cytoplasm following lysosomal damage. This process of lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin release is observed in several physiopathological conditions and plays a role in tissue remodeling, the immune response to intracellular pathogens and neurodegenerative diseases. Many evidences indicate that aging strongly influences lysosomal activity by altering the physical and chemical properties of these organelles, rendering them more sensitive to stress. In this review we focus on how aging alters lysosomal function and increases cell sensitivity to lysosomal membrane permeabilization and lysosomal cell death, both in physiological conditions and age-related pathologies.

  8. Hemoglobins, programmed cell death and somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert D; Huang, Shuanglong; Stasolla, Claudio

    2013-10-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a universal process in all multicellular organisms. It is a critical component in a diverse number of processes ranging from growth and differentiation to response to stress. Somatic embryogenesis is one such process where PCD is significantly involved. Nitric oxide is increasingly being recognized as playing a significant role in regulating PCD in both mammalian and plant systems. Plant hemoglobins scavenge NO, and evidence is accumulating that events that modify NO levels in plants also affect hemoglobin expression. Here, we review the process of PCD, describing the involvement of NO and plant hemoglobins in the process. NO is an effector of cell death in both plants and vertebrates, triggering the cascade of events leading to targeted cell death that is a part of an organism's response to stress or to tissue differentiation and development. Expression of specific hemoglobins can alter this response in plants by scavenging the NO, thus, interrupting the death process. Somatic embryogenesis is used as a model system to demonstrate how cell-specific expression of different classes of hemoglobins can alter the embryogenic process, affecting hormone synthesis, cell metabolite levels and genes associated with PCD and embryogenic competence. We propose that plant hemoglobins influence somatic embryogenesis and PCD through cell-specific expression of a distinct plant hemoglobin. It is based on the premise that both embryogenic competence and PCD are strongly influenced by cellular NO levels. Increases in cellular NO levels result in elevated Zn(2+) and reactive-oxygen species associated with PCD, but they also result in decreased expression of MYC2, a transcription factor that is a negative effector of indoleacetic acid synthesis, a hormone that positively influences embryogenic competence. Cell-specific hemoglobin expression reduces NO levels as a result of NO scavenging, resulting in cell survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  9. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-09-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway.

  10. DRONC coordinates cell death and compensatory proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shu; Senoo-Matsuda, Nanami; Hiromi, Yasushi; Miura, Masayuki

    2006-10-01

    Accidental cell death often leads to compensatory proliferation. In Drosophila imaginal discs, for example, gamma-irradiation induces extensive cell death, which is rapidly compensated by elevated proliferation. Excessive compensatory proliferation can be artificially induced by "undead cells" that are kept alive by inhibition of effector caspases in the presence of apoptotic stimuli. This suggests that compensatory proliferation is induced by dying cells as part of the apoptosis program. Here, we provide genetic evidence that the Drosophila initiator caspase DRONC governs both apoptosis execution and subsequent compensatory proliferation. We examined mutants of five Drosophila caspases and identified the initiator caspase DRONC and the effector caspase DRICE as crucial executioners of apoptosis. Artificial compensatory proliferation induced by coexpression of Reaper and p35 was completely suppressed in dronc mutants. Moreover, compensatory proliferation after gamma-irradiation was enhanced in drice mutants, in which DRONC is activated but the cells remain alive. These results show that the apoptotic pathway bifurcates at DRONC and that DRONC coordinates the execution of cell death and compensatory proliferation.

  11. Expression profiling of TCR-engineered T cells demonstrates overexpression of multiple inhibitory receptors in persisting lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Abate-Daga, Daniel; Hanada, Ken-ichi; Davis, Jeremy L.; Yang, James C.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the development of adoptive cell-transfer therapies (ACTs) using gene-engineered T cells, little is known about the fate of cells following infusion. To address that, we performed a comparative analysis of gene expression between T-cell receptor–engineered lymphocytes persisting in the circulation 1 month after administration and the product that was infused. We observed that 156 genes related to immune function were differentially expressed, including underexpression of stimulators of lymphocyte function and overexpression of inhibitory genes in postinfusion cells. Of genes overexpressed postinfusion, the product of programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1), coinhibitory receptor PD-1, was expressed at a higher percentage in postinfusion lymphocytes than in the infusion product. This was associated with a higher sensitivity to inhibition of cytokine production by interaction with its ligand PD-L1. Coinhibitory receptor CD160 was also overexpressed in persisting cells, and its expression was associated with decreased reactivity, which surprisingly was found to be ligand-independent. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of the properties of transgenic lymphocytes used to treat human malignancies and may provide a rationale for the development of combination therapies as a method to improve ACT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00509288, #NCT00923195, and #NCT01273181. PMID:23861247

  12. Overexpression of calmodulin in pancreatic beta cells induces diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Yuzawa, Yukio; Niki, Ichiro; Kosugi, Tomoki; Maruyama, Shoichi; Yoshida, Futoshi; Takeda, Motohiro; Tagawa, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Yukiko; Kimura, Toshihide; Kato, Noritoshi; Yamamoto, Jyunichiro; Sato, Waichi; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2008-09-01

    Recently, endothelial dysfunction induced by an uncoupling of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Investigating the pathogenesis of DN has been limited, however, because of the lack of animal models that mimic the human disease. In this report, pancreatic beta cell-specific calmodulin-overexpressing transgenic (CaMTg) mice, a potential new model of DN, are characterized with particular emphasis on VEGF and related molecules. CaMTg mice developed hyperglycemia at 3 wk and persistent proteinuria by 3 mo. Morphometric analysis showed considerable increases in the glomerular and mesangial areas with deposition of type IV collagen. Moreover, the pathologic hallmarks of human DN (mesangiolysis, Kimmelstiel-Wilson-like nodular lesions, exudative lesions, and hyalinosis of afferent and efferent arteries with neovascularization) were observed. In addition, increased VEGF expression was associated with an increased number of peritubular capillaries. Expression of endothelial nitric oxidase synthase was reduced and that of VEGF was markedly elevated in CaMTg mice kidney compared with nontransgenic mice. No differences in VEGF receptor-1 or VEGF receptor-2 expression were observed between CaMTg mice and nontransgenic kidneys. In summary, CaMTg mice develop most of the distinguishing lesions of human DN, and the elevated VEGF expression in the setting of diminished endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression may lead to endothelial proliferation and dysfunction. This model may prove useful in the study of the pathogenesis and treatment of DN.

  13. Ion Channels, Cell Volume, Cell Proliferation and Apoptotic Cell Death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Florian; Gulbins, Erich; Szabo, Ildiko; Vereninov, Alexey; Huber, Stephan M.

    At some stage cell proliferation requires an increase in cell volume and a typical hallmark of apoptotic cell death is cell shrinkage. The respective alterations of cell volume are accomplished by altered regulation of ion transport including ion channels. Thus, cell proliferation and apoptosis are both paralleled by altered activity of ion channels, which play an active part in these fundamental cellular mechanisms. Activation of anion channels allows exit of Cl?, osmolyte and HCO3 ? leading to cell shrinkage and acidification of the cytosol. K+ exit through K+ channels leads to cell shrinkage and a decrease in intracellular K+ concentration. K+ channel activity is further important for maintenance of the cell membrane potential - a critical determinant of Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ channels. Cytosolic Ca2+ may both activate mechanisms required for cell proliferation and stimulate enzymes executing apoptosis. The effect of enhanced cytosolic Ca2+ activity depends on the magnitude and temporal organisation of Ca2+ entry. Moreover, a given ion channel may support both cell proliferation and apoptosis, and specific ion channel blockers may abrogate both fundamental cellular mechanisms, depending on cell type, regulatory environment and condition of the cell. Clearly, further experimental effort is needed to clarify the role of ion channels in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  14. Blocking CD147 induces cell death in cancer cells through impairment of glycolytic energy metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Miyako Inoue, Masahiro; Itoh, Kazuyuki; Nishizawa, Yasuko

    2008-09-12

    CD147 is a multifunctional transmembrane protein and promotes cancer progression. We found that the anti-human CD147 mouse monoclonal antibody MEM-M6/1 strongly induces necrosis-like cell death in LoVo, HT-29, WiDr, and SW620 colon cancer cells and A2058 melanoma cells, but not in WI-38 and TIG-113 normal fibroblasts. Silencing or overexpression of CD147 in LoVo cells enhanced or decreased the MEM-M6/1 induced cell death, respectively. CD147 is known to form complex with proton-linked monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), which is critical for lactate transport and intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis. In LoVo cells, CD147 and MCT-1 co-localized on the cell surface, and MEM-M6/1 inhibited the association of these molecules. MEM-M6/1 inhibited lactate uptake, lactate release, and reduced pHi. Further, the induction of acidification was parallel to the decrease of the glycolytic flux and intracellular ATP levels. These effects were not found in the normal fibroblasts. As cancer cells depend on glycolysis for their energy production, CD147 inhibition might induce cell death specific to cancer cells.

  15. HAMLET triggers apoptosis but tumor cell death is independent of caspases, Bcl-2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, O; Gustafsson, L; Irjala, H; Selivanova, G; Orrenius, S; Svanborg, C

    2006-02-01

    HAMLET (Human alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor cells) triggers selective tumor cell death in vitro and limits tumor progression in vivo. Dying cells show features of apoptosis but it is not clear if the apoptotic response explains tumor cell death. This study examined the contribution of apoptosis to cell death in response to HAMLET. Apoptotic changes like caspase activation, phosphatidyl serine externalization, chromatin condensation were detected in HAMLET-treated tumor cells, but caspase inhibition or Bcl-2 over-expression did not prolong cell survival and the caspase response was Bcl-2 independent. HAMLET translocates to the nuclei and binds directly to chromatin, but the death response was unrelated to the p53 status of the tumor cells. p53 deletions or gain of function mutations did not influence the HAMLET sensitivity of tumor cells. Chromatin condensation was partly caspase dependent, but apoptosis-like marginalization of chromatin was also observed. The results show that tumor cell death in response to HAMLET is independent of caspases, p53 and Bcl-2 even though HAMLET activates an apoptotic response. The use of other cell death pathways allows HAMLET to successfully circumvent fundamental anti-apoptotic strategies that are present in many tumor cells.

  16. Paraptosis-like cell death in Wistar rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ramírez, Nayeli; Escobar, María L; Vázquez-Nin, Gerardo H; Ortiz, Rosario; Echeverría, Olga M

    2016-10-01

    Follicular atresia, a common process present in all mammals, involves apoptotic and autophagic cell death. However, the participation of paraptosis, a type of caspase-independent cell death, during follicular atresia is unknown. This study found swollen endoplasmic reticulum in the granulosa cells of adult Wistar rats. Calnexin was used as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum at the ultrastructural and optical levels. The cells with swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum were negative to the TUNEL assay and active caspase-3 immunodetection, indicating that this swelling is not part of any apoptotic or autophagic process. Additionally, immunodetection of the CHOP protein was used as a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and this confirmed the presence of the paraptosis process. These data suggest that paraptosis-like cell death is associated with the death of granulosa cells during follicular atresia in adult Wistar rats.

  17. ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Renata; Reed, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. In cases where ER stress cannot be reversed, cellular functions deteriorate, often leading to cell death. Accumulating evidence implicates ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction and cell death as major contributors to many diseases, making modulators of ER stress pathways potentially attractive targets for therapeutics discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the diversity of molecular mechanisms that govern ER stress signaling in health and disease. PMID:23850759

  18. Cell Death and Autophagy in TB

    PubMed Central

    Moraco, Andrew H.; Kornfeld, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has succeeded in infecting one third of the human race though inhibition or evasion of innate and adaptive immunity. The pathogen is a facultative intracellular parasite that uses the niche provided by mononuclear phagocytes for its advantage. Complex interactions determine whether the bacillus will or will not be delivered to acidified lysosomes, whether the host phagocyte will survive infection or die, and whether the timing and mode of cell death works to the advantage of the host or the pathogen. Here we discuss cell death and autophagy in TB. These fundamental processes of cell biology feature in all aspects of TB pathogenesis and may be exploited to the treatment or prevention of TB disease. PMID:25453227

  19. DRONC Coordinates Cell Death and Compensatory Proliferation‡

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Shu; Senoo-Matsuda, Nanami; Hiromi, Yasushi; Miura, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    Accidental cell death often leads to compensatory proliferation. In Drosophila imaginal discs, for example, γ-irradiation induces extensive cell death, which is rapidly compensated by elevated proliferation. Excessive compensatory proliferation can be artificially induced by “undead cells” that are kept alive by inhibition of effector caspases in the presence of apoptotic stimuli. This suggests that compensatory proliferation is induced by dying cells as part of the apoptosis program. Here, we provide genetic evidence that the Drosophila initiator caspase DRONC governs both apoptosis execution and subsequent compensatory proliferation. We examined mutants of five Drosophila caspases and identified the initiator caspase DRONC and the effector caspase DRICE as crucial executioners of apoptosis. Artificial compensatory proliferation induced by coexpression of Reaper and p35 was completely suppressed in dronc mutants. Moreover, compensatory proliferation after γ-irradiation was enhanced in drice mutants, in which DRONC is activated but the cells remain alive. These results show that the apoptotic pathway bifurcates at DRONC and that DRONC coordinates the execution of cell death and compensatory proliferation. PMID:16980627

  20. Cell death-independent activities of the death receptors CD95, TRAILR1, and TRAILR2.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Daniela; Lang, Isabell; Wajant, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Since their identification more than 20 years ago, the death receptors CD95, TRAILR1, and TRAILR2 have been intensively studied with respect to their cell death-inducing activities. These receptors, however, can also trigger a variety of cell death-independent cellular responses reaching from the activation of proinflammatory gene transcription programs over the stimulation of proliferation and differentiation to induction of cell migration. The cell death-inducing signaling mechanisms of CD95 and the TRAIL death receptors are well understood. In contrast, despite the increasing recognition of the biological and pathophysiological relevance of the cell death-independent activities of CD95, TRAILR1, and TRAILR2, the corresponding signaling mechanisms are less understood and give no fully coherent picture. This review is focused on the cell death-independent activities of CD95 and the TRAIL death receptors and addresses mainly three questions: (a) how are these receptors linked to noncell death pathways at the molecular level, (b) which factors determine the balance of cell death and cell death-independent activities of CD95 and the TRAIL death receptors at the cellular level, and (c) what are the consequences of the cell death-independent functions of these receptors for their role in cancer and inflammatory diseases. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. Tumor cell "dead or alive": caspase and survivin regulate cell death, cell cycle and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, A; Shiraki, K

    2001-04-01

    Cell death and cell cycle progression are two sides of the same coin, and these two different phenomenons are regulated moderately to maintain the cellular homeostasis. Tumor is one of the disease states produced as a result of the disintegrated regulation and is characterized as cells showing an irreversible progression of cell cycle and a resistance to cell death signaling. Several investigations have been performed for the understanding of cell death or cell cycle, and cell death research has remarkably progressed in these 10 years. Caspase is a nomenclature referring to ICE/CED-3 cysteine proteinase family and plays a central role during cell death. Recently, several investigations raised some possible hypotheses that caspase is also involved in cell cycle regulation. In this issue, therefore, we review the molecular basis of cell death and cell cycle regulated by caspase in tumor, especially hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  2. USP7 overexpression predicts a poor prognosis in lung squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang-Yin; Lin, Zong-Wu; Lu, Chun-Lai; Gu, Jie; Yuan, Yun-Feng; Xu, Feng-Kai; Liu, Rong-Hua; Ge, Di; Ding, Jian-Yong

    2015-03-01

    In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), both USP7 expression and p53 gene status were reported to be an indicator of poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma patients; however, its roles and mechanisms in lung squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma need to be clarified. The USP7 expression was examined in NSCLC tumors (excluding adenocarcinoma), their corresponding non-tumorous tissues, and NSCLC cells. Then, the prognostic role of USP7 was analyzed in 110 NSCLC samples (excluding the adenocarcinoma). Finally, the roles and mechanisms of USP7 in the proliferation, metastasis, and invasion of a NSCLC cell were assessed using a specific vshRNA. The USP7 expression was higher in NSCLC tissues compared to non-tumorous samples, accordingly, the high level of USP7 was detected in NSCLC cell lines compared with HBE cell. After the USP7 downregulation, the H460 cells exhibited decreased metastasis/invasion in vitro and in vivo. The preliminary mechanism study indicated overexpression of USP7 might regulate the p53-MDM2 pathway by inducing the MDM2 de-ubiquitination and subsequent stabilization, which resulted in the upregulation of the Bad phosphorylation. Additionally, we also found that USP7 might induce cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition to enhance the cell invasive ability. Clinically, USP7 overexpression significantly correlated with malignant phenotype. Furthermore, the 5-year overall survival in patients with USP7(low) was higher than that of USP7(high). Multivariate analysis showed USP7 overexpression was an independent prognostic marker for these cancers. USP7 overexpression may regulate the survival and invasive properties of squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma cells, and may serve as a molecular target.

  3. Programmed cell death in the plant immune system.

    PubMed

    Coll, N S; Epple, P; Dangl, J L

    2011-08-01

    Cell death has a central role in innate immune responses in both plants and animals. Besides sharing striking convergences and similarities in the overall evolutionary organization of their innate immune systems, both plants and animals can respond to infection and pathogen recognition with programmed cell death. The fact that plant and animal pathogens have evolved strategies to subvert specific cell death modalities emphasizes the essential role of cell death during immune responses. The hypersensitive response (HR) cell death in plants displays morphological features, molecular architectures and mechanisms reminiscent of different inflammatory cell death types in animals (pyroptosis and necroptosis). In this review, we describe the molecular pathways leading to cell death during innate immune responses. Additionally, we present recently discovered caspase and caspase-like networks regulating cell death that have revealed fascinating analogies between cell death control across both kingdoms.

  4. Overexpression of LMO4 induces mammary hyperplasia, promotes cell invasion, and is a predictor of poor outcome in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sum, Eleanor Y. M.; Segara, Davendra; Duscio, Belinda; Bath, Mary L.; Field, Andrew S.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Visvader, Jane E.

    2005-01-01

    The zinc finger protein LMO4 is overexpressed in a high proportion of breast carcinomas. Here, we report that overexpression of a mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Lmo4 transgene in the mouse mammary gland elicits hyperplasia and mammary intraepithelial neoplasia or adenosquamous carcinoma in two transgenic strains with a tumor latency of 13–18 months. To investigate cellular processes controlled by LMO4 and those that may be deregulated during oncogenesis, we used RNA interference. Down-regulation of LMO4 expression reduced proliferation of human breast cancer cells and increased differentiation of mouse mammary epithelial cells. Furthermore, small-interfering-RNA-transfected breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) had a reduced capacity to migrate and invade an extracellular matrix. Conversely, overexpression of LMO4 in noninvasive, immortalized human MCF10A cells promoted cell motility and invasion. Significantly, in a cohort of 159 primary breast cancers, high nuclear levels of LMO4 were an independent predictor of death from breast cancer. Together, these findings suggest that deregulation of LMO4 in breast epithelium contributes directly to breast neoplasia by altering the rate of cellular proliferation and promoting cell invasion. PMID:15897450

  5. RSL3 and Erastin differentially regulate redox signaling to promote Smac mimetic-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Dächert, Jasmin; Schoeneberger, Hannah; Rohde, Katharina; Fulda, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Redox mechanisms play an important role in the control of various signaling pathways. Here, we report that Second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic-induced cell death is regulated by redox signaling. We show that RSL3, a glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (GPX) 4 inhibitor, or Erastin, an inhibitor of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, cooperate with the Smac mimetic BV6 to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Addition of the caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) fails to rescue ROS-induced cell death, demonstrating that RSL3/BV6- or Erastin/BV6-induced cell death occurs in a caspase-independent manner. Interestingly, the iron chelator Deferoxamine (DFO) significantly inhibits RSL3/BV6-induced cell death, whereas it is unable to rescue cell death by Erastin/BV6, showing that RSL3/BV6-, but not Erastin/BV6-mediated cell death depends on iron. ROS production is required for both RSL3/BV6- and Erastin/BV6-induced cell death, since the ROS scavenger α-tocopherol (α-Toc) rescues RSL3/BV6- and Erastin/BV6-induced cell death. By comparison, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of lipid peroxidation by GPX4 overexpression or ferrostatin (Fer)-1 significantly decreases RSL3/BV6-, but not Erastin/BV6-induced cell death, despite inhibition of lipid peroxidation upon exposure to RSL3/BV6 or Erastin/BV6. Of note, inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Fer-1 protects from RSL3/BV6-, but not from Erastin/BV6-stimulated ROS production, indicating that other forms of ROS besides lipophilic ROS occur during Erastin/BV6-induced cell death. Taken together, RSL3/BV6 and Erastin/BV6 differentially regulate redox signaling and cell death in ALL cells. While RSL3/BV6 cotreatment induces ferroptotic cell death, Erastin/BV6 stimulates oxidative cell death independently of iron. These findings have important implications for the therapeutic targeting of redox signaling to

  6. Programmed cell death during quinoa perisperm development.

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara

    2013-08-01

    At seed maturity, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) perisperm consists of uniform, non-living, thin-walled cells full of starch grains. The objective of the present study was to study quinoa perisperm development and describe the programme of cell death that affects the entire tissue. A number of parameters typically measured during programmed cell death (PCD), such as cellular morphological changes in nuclei and cytoplasm, endoreduplication, DNA fragmentation, and the participation of nucleases and caspase-like proteases in nucleus dismantling, were evaluated; morphological changes in cytoplasm included subcellular aspects related to starch accumulation. This study proved that, following fertilization, the perisperm of quinoa simultaneously accumulates storage reserves and degenerates, both processes mediated by a programme of developmentally controlled cell death. The novel findings regarding perisperm development provide a starting point for further research in the Amaranthaceae genera, such as comparing seeds with and without perisperm, and specifying phylogeny and evolution within this taxon. Wherever possible and appropriate, differences between quinoa perisperm and grass starchy endosperm--a morphologically and functionally similar, although genetically different tissue--were highlighted and discussed.

  7. Programmed cell death during quinoa perisperm development

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Sara

    2013-01-01

    At seed maturity, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) perisperm consists of uniform, non-living, thin-walled cells full of starch grains. The objective of the present study was to study quinoa perisperm development and describe the programme of cell death that affects the entire tissue. A number of parameters typically measured during programmed cell death (PCD), such as cellular morphological changes in nuclei and cytoplasm, endoreduplication, DNA fragmentation, and the participation of nucleases and caspase-like proteases in nucleus dismantling, were evaluated; morphological changes in cytoplasm included subcellular aspects related to starch accumulation. This study proved that, following fertilization, the perisperm of quinoa simultaneously accumulates storage reserves and degenerates, both processes mediated by a programme of developmentally controlled cell death. The novel findings regarding perisperm development provide a starting point for further research in the Amaranthaceae genera, such as comparing seeds with and without perisperm, and specifying phylogeny and evolution within this taxon. Wherever possible and appropriate, differences between quinoa perisperm and grass starchy endosperm—a morphologically and functionally similar, although genetically different tissue—were highlighted and discussed. PMID:23833197

  8. Role of polyphenols in cell death control.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Claudio; Masella, Roberta

    2012-05-01

    Dietary consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, and olive oil has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on human health. This finding may be due to the high content of antioxidant compounds including polyphenols. Current evidence strongly supports a contribution of polyphenols to the prevention of several chronic degenerative diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system disorders, as well as aging. Apoptosis is a genetically controlled and evolutionarily conserved form of cell death of critical importance for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis in the adult organism. The malfunction of the death machinery may play a primary role in various pathologic processes, leading to proliferative or degenerative diseases. Polyphenols can interact with specific steps and/or proteins regulating the apoptotic process in different ways depending on their concentration, the cell system, the type or stage of the pathological process. Because of their ability to modulate cell death, polyphenols have been proposed as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. This paper reviews and discusses the last 3-year findings related to the principal molecular mechanisms involved in the control of the balance between apoptosis and cell proliferation exerted by polyphenols.

  9. UV-Induced Cell Death in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Nawkar, Ganesh M.; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280–320 nm) and UV-A (320–390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:23344059

  10. UV-Induced cell death in plants.

    PubMed

    Nawkar, Ganesh M; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-14

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD).

  11. Bax accelerates staurosporine-induced but suppresses nigericin-induced neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Oh, J H; O'Malley, K L; Krajewski, S; Reed, J C; Oh, Y J

    1997-05-27

    Bax, a member of the Bcl-2 multigene family, is known to promote apoptosis. To investigate the role of Bax in an experimentally induced cell death of the murine dopaminergic neuronal cell line (MN9D), we established MN9D cells stably over-expressing murine Bax (MN9D/ Bax) or vector alone (MN9D/Neo). In MN9D/Neo cells treated with either 1 microM staurosporine or 0.1 microM nigericin, a ladder pattern of DNA fragmentation was induced. As expected, over-expression of Bax in MN9D cells accelerated staurosporine-induced cell death as measured by the MTT reduction assay (62.3% survival in MN9D/Neo vs 27.0% survival in MN9D/Bax). Surprizingly, both nigericin-induced cell death and its accompanying DNA fragmentation were largely attenuated in MN9D/Bax cells (22.0% survival in MN9D/Neo vs 86.7% survival in MN9D/Bax). Similar patterns were observed in two other MN9D/Bax cell lines. Cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase caused by nigericin was greatly attenuated in MN9D/Bax cells suggesting that, like Bcl-2, Bax suppresses nigericin-induced cell death by inhibiting the activation of cysteine proteases. Thus, our data imply that Bax acts as a negative or positive regulator of cell death depending on the type of death stimulus applied to the cell.

  12. Effect of glutamine limitation on the death of attached Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfeliu, A.; Stephanopoulos, G. )

    1999-07-05

    The effect of glutamine depletion on the death of attached Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was investigated. Experiments were performed using an anchorage dependent CHO cell line expressing [gamma]-IFN and a second cell line obtained by transfection of that cell line with the human bcl-2 (hbcl-2). Either cell line could grow in media devoid of glutamine with minimal cell death due to endogenous glutamine synthetase activity that allowed cells to synthesize glutamine from glutamic acid in the medium. However, compared to control cultures in glutamine-containing media, the cell growth rate in glutamine-free media was slower with an increased fraction of cells distributed in the G[sub 0]/G[sub 1] phase. The slower rate of cell cycling apparently protected the cells from entering apoptosis when they were stimulated to proliferate in an environment devoid of other protective factors, such as serum or over-expressed hbcl-2. The depletion of both glutamine and glutamic acid did cause cell death, which could be mitigated by hbcl-2 over-expression.

  13. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jung Ar; Chung, Jin Sil; Cho, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Young Do

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

  14. Overexpression of Aurora-A kinase promotes tumor cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Xia; Liu, Rong; Jin, Shun Qian; Fan, Fei Yue; Zhan, Qi Min

    2006-04-01

    Aurora-A kinase, a serine/threonine protein kinase, is a potential oncogene. Amplification and overexpression of Aurora-A have been found in several types of human tumors, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). It has been demonstrated that cells overexpressing Aurora-A are more resistant to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects remain largely unknown. In this report, we showed that overexpression of Aurora-A through stable transfection of pEGFP-Aurora-A in human ESCC KYSE150 cells significantly promoted cell proliferation and inhibited cisplatin- or UV irradiation-induced apoptosis. Cleavages of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in Aurora-A overexpressing cells were substantially reduced after cisplatin or UV treatment. Furthermore, we found that silencing of endogenous Aurora-A kinase with siRNA substantially enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin- or UV-induced apoptosis in human ESCC EC9706 cells. In parallel, overexpression of Aurora-A potently upregulated the expression of Bcl-2. Moreover, the knockdown of Bcl-2 by siRNA abrogated the Aurora-A's effect on inhibiting apoptosis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that Aurora-A overexpression promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis, suggesting a novel mechanism that is closely related to malignant phenotype and anti-cancer drugs resistance of ESCC cells.

  15. Ferroptosis is an autophagic cell death process.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minghui; Monian, Prashant; Pan, Qiuhui; Zhang, Wei; Xiang, Jenny; Jiang, Xuejun

    2016-09-01

    Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of regulated necrosis. It is implicated in various human diseases, including ischemic organ damage and cancer. Here, we report the crucial role of autophagy, particularly autophagic degradation of cellular iron storage proteins (a process known as ferritinophagy), in ferroptosis. Using RNAi screening coupled with subsequent genetic analysis, we identified multiple autophagy-related genes as positive regulators of ferroptosis. Ferroptosis induction led to autophagy activation and consequent degradation of ferritin and ferritinophagy cargo receptor NCOA4. Consistently, inhibition of ferritinophagy by blockage of autophagy or knockdown of NCOA4 abrogated the accumulation of ferroptosis-associated cellular labile iron and reactive oxygen species, as well as eventual ferroptotic cell death. Therefore, ferroptosis is an autophagic cell death process, and NCOA4-mediated ferritinophagy supports ferroptosis by controlling cellular iron homeostasis.

  16. Tomato MAPKKKε is a positive regulator of cell-death signaling networks associated with plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Melech-Bonfil, Shiri; Sessa, Guido

    2010-11-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades are fundamental components of the signaling pathways associated with plant immunity. Despite the large number of MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKK) encoded in the plant genome, only very few of them have an assigned function. Here, we identified MAPKKK gene of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), SIMAPKKKε, which is required for hypersensitive response cell death and disease resistance against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Silencing of SIMAPKKKε compromised tomato resistance to Xanthomonas campestris and Pseudomonas syringae strains, resulting in the appearance of disease symptoms and enhanced bacterial growth. In addition, silencing of NbMAPKKKε in Nicotiana benthamiana plants significantly inhibited the cell death triggered by expression of different R gene/effector gene pairs. Conversely, overexpression of either the full-length SIMAPKKKε gene or its kinase domain in N. benthamiana leaves caused pathogen-independent activation of cell death that required an intact kinase catalytic domain. Moreover, by suppressing the expression of various MAPKK and MAPK genes and overexpressing the SIMAPKKKε kinase domain, we identified a signaling cascade acting downstream of SIMAPKKKε that includes MEK2, WIPK and SIPK. Additional epistasis experiments revealed that SIPKK functions as a negative regulator of SIMAPKKKε-mediated cell death. Our results provide evidence that SIMAPKKKε is a signaling molecule that positively regulates cell death networks associated with plant immunity.

  17. E4F1 deficiency results in oxidative stress–mediated cell death of leukemic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatchi, Elodie; Rodier, Genevieve; Lacroix, Matthieu; Caramel, Julie; Kirsh, Olivier; Jacquet, Chantal; Schrepfer, Emilie; Lagarrigue, Sylviane; Linares, Laetitia Karine; Lledo, Gwendaline; Tondeur, Sylvie; Dubus, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The multifunctional E4F1 protein was originally discovered as a target of the E1A viral oncoprotein. Growing evidence indicates that E4F1 is involved in key signaling pathways commonly deregulated during cell transformation. In this study, we investigate the influence of E4F1 on tumorigenesis. Wild-type mice injected with fetal liver cells from mice lacking CDKN2A, the gene encoding Ink4a/Arf, developed histiocytic sarcomas (HSs), a tumor originating from the monocytic/macrophagic lineage. Cre-mediated deletion of E4F1 resulted in the death of HS cells and tumor regression in vivo and extended the lifespan of recipient animals. In murine and human HS cell lines, E4F1 inactivation resulted in mitochondrial defects and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that triggered massive cell death. Notably, these defects of E4F1 depletion were observed in HS cells but not healthy primary macrophages. Short hairpin RNA–mediated depletion of E4F1 induced mitochondrial defects and ROS-mediated death in several human myeloid leukemia cell lines. E4F1 protein is overexpressed in a large subset of human acute myeloid leukemia samples. Together, these data reveal a role for E4F1 in the survival of myeloid leukemic cells and support the notion that targeting E4F1 activities might have therapeutic interest. PMID:21708927

  18. E4F1 deficiency results in oxidative stress-mediated cell death of leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Hatchi, Elodie; Rodier, Genevieve; Lacroix, Matthieu; Caramel, Julie; Kirsh, Olivier; Jacquet, Chantal; Schrepfer, Emilie; Lagarrigue, Sylviane; Linares, Laetitia Karine; Lledo, Gwendaline; Tondeur, Sylvie; Dubus, Pierre; Sardet, Claude; Le Cam, Laurent

    2011-07-04

    The multifunctional E4F1 protein was originally discovered as a target of the E1A viral oncoprotein. Growing evidence indicates that E4F1 is involved in key signaling pathways commonly deregulated during cell transformation. In this study, we investigate the influence of E4F1 on tumorigenesis. Wild-type mice injected with fetal liver cells from mice lacking CDKN2A, the gene encoding Ink4a/Arf, developed histiocytic sarcomas (HSs), a tumor originating from the monocytic/macrophagic lineage. Cre-mediated deletion of E4F1 resulted in the death of HS cells and tumor regression in vivo and extended the lifespan of recipient animals. In murine and human HS cell lines, E4F1 inactivation resulted in mitochondrial defects and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that triggered massive cell death. Notably, these defects of E4F1 depletion were observed in HS cells but not healthy primary macrophages. Short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of E4F1 induced mitochondrial defects and ROS-mediated death in several human myeloid leukemia cell lines. E4F1 protein is overexpressed in a large subset of human acute myeloid leukemia samples. Together, these data reveal a role for E4F1 in the survival of myeloid leukemic cells and support the notion that targeting E4F1 activities might have therapeutic interest.

  19. The effects of bufadienolides on HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianjiao; Mu, Lin; Jin, Haifeng; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yueyue; Ma, Xiaochi; Pan, Jinjin; Miao, Jian; Yuan, Yuhui

    2016-06-01

    HER2 is a proto-oncogene frequently amplified in human breast cancer, its overexpression is correlated with tamoxifen resistance and decreased recurrence-free survival. Arenobufagin and bufalin are homogeneous bufadienolides of cardiac glycosides agents. In this research, we studied the effects of arenobufagin and bufalin on cellular survival and proliferation of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells and the mechanism under the results including the direct effect on HER2 downstream pathways. Our results showed that arenobufagin and bufalin could significantly inhibit the proliferation and survival of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells, along with the declination of SRC-1, SRC-3, nuclear transcription factor E2F1, phosphorylated AKT, and ERK. And the combination of each bufadienolide in low dose with tamoxifen could significantly enhance the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. All above suggest that arenobufagin and bufalin may be potential therapy adjuvants for HER2 overexpressing breast cancer therapy.

  20. Metabolic Regulation of Ovarian Cancer Cell Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    2013 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Metabolic Regulation of Ovarian Cancer cell death 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1...Introduction 3 2. Keywords 3 3. Overall Project Summary 3-6 4 . Key Research Accomplishments 6-7 5. Conclusion 7 6. Publications, Abstracts, and...synthase inhibitors Fig. 4 ). We were slightly delayed in submitting this work for publication as the first author had to finish his PhD thesis and

  1. Death by Protein Damage in Irradiated Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this article in press as: M.J. Daly, Death by protein damage in irradiated cells, DNA Repair (2011), doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2011.10.024...ARTICLE IN PRESSG ModelDNAREP-1629; No. of Pages 10 DNA Repair (2011) – Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect DNA Repair jo u...oxidation Carbonylation DNA double strand break (DSB) repair Manganese (II) antioxidant complexes Reactive oxygen species (ROS) Metabolite accumulation

  2. Metabolism of anandamide by COX-2 is necessary for endocannabinoid-induced cell death in tumorigenic keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Van Dross, Rukiyah T

    2009-08-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the United States with approximately 1.25 million new cases diagnosed each year. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is commonly elevated in these and other epithelial tumors. Cyclooxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, which promote growth and survival of tumor cells. COX-2 also metabolizes endocannabinoids forming prostaglandin-ethanolamides (PG-EA); however, the role of these lipid molecules in tumor cell survival is unclear. The goal of this research is to determine if the metabolic products of COX-2 contribute to endocannabinoid-induced cell death. Anandamide [also known as arachidonyl ethanolamide (AEA)] induced cell death in the COX-2 overexpressing squamous carcinoma cell line JWF2. In contrast, AEA did not initiate cell death in HaCaT keratinocytes, which express low basal levels of COX-2. Resistance to AEA-mediated cell death in HaCaT cells was reversed by overexpressing COX-2 in these cells. Next, ELISA assays were carried out to identify prostaglandins involved in AEA-mediated cell death. D-type prostaglandins were predominantly formed in AEA-exposed JWF2 cells although significant increases in E- and F-type prostaglandins were also seen. Cells were then treated with various prostaglandins or PG-EA to determine the contribution of each to AEA-induced cell death. PGD(2) and PGD(2)-EA were found to be cytotoxic to JWF2 keratinocytes and the PGD(2) dehydration products, PGJ(2) and 15-deoxy Delta(12,14) PGJ(2), were also potent inducers of cell death. These results suggest that AEA selectively induces cell death in tumorigenic keratinocytes due to COX-2 overexpression and the resulting metabolism of AEA to cytotoxic prostaglandins.

  3. CPT1{alpha} over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jambor de Sousa, Ulrike L.; Koss, Michael D.; Fillies, Marion; Gahl, Anja; Scheeder, Martin R.L.; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Geary, Nori; Langhans, Wolfgang; Leonhardt, Monika . E-mail: monika.leonhardt@inw.agrl.ethz.ch

    2005-12-16

    To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1{alpha} (CPT1{alpha}). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1{alpha} transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty acid oxidation was measured by determining the conversion of supplemented, synthetic cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n-7) to C15:ln-7. CPT1{alpha} over-expression increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation about 6-fold. Addition of palmitic acid (PA) decreased viability of CPT1{alpha} over-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, PA and CPT1{alpha} over-expression increased cell death. Interestingly, PA reduced total cell number only in cells over-expressing CPT1{alpha}, suggesting an effect on cell proliferation that requires PA translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This inducible expression system should be well suited to study the roles of CPT1 and fatty acid oxidation in lipotoxicity and metabolism in vivo.

  4. Programmed Cell Death of Dendritic Cells in Immune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Wang, Jin

    2010-01-01

    Summary Programmed cell death is essential for the maintenance of lymphocyte homeostasis and immune tolerance. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most efficient antigen presenting cells, represent a small cell population in the immune system. However, DCs play major roles in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Programmed cell death in DCs is essential for regulating DC homeostasis and consequently, the scope of immune responses. Interestingly, different DC subsets show varied turnover rates in vivo. The conventional DCs are relatively short-lived in most lymphoid organs, while plasmacytoid DCs are long-lived cells. Mitochondrion-dependent programmed cell death plays an important role in regulating spontaneous DC turnover. Antigen-specific T cells are also capable of killing DCs, thereby providing a mechanism for negative feedback regulation of immune responses. It has been shown that a surplus of DCs due to defects in programmed cell death leads to overactivation of lymphocytes and the onset of autoimmunity. Studying programmed cell death in DCs will shed light on the roles for DC turnover in the regulation of the duration and magnitude of immune responses in vivo, and in the maintenance of immune tolerance. PMID:20636805

  5. Effect of Heat Shock Protein 72 Expression on Etoposide-induced Cell Death of Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Seongsoo; Im, Ji-Eun; Kim, Tae Eun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether the expression of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) protects rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) from apoptotic cell death. Methods Hsp72 expression in RGC-5 cells transduced with replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus was analyzed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. The effect of Hsp72 expression on etoposide-induced apoptotic cell death was examined by microscopic analysis and confirmed by cell proliferation assay. Results Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence clearly showed adenovirus-mediated Hsp72 expression in RGC-5 cells. Treatment with etoposide resulted in the death of a proportion of the cells by apoptosis. However, this apoptotic cell death was significantly reduced in cells expressing Hsp72, with the reduction in cell death correlating to the level of Hsp72 expression. Conclusions Over-expression of Hsp72 alone is sufficient to rescue neuronal cells from apoptotic cell death, suggesting that fine-tuning its expression may be an effective neuroprotective approach in retinal degenerative disease. PMID:23372380

  6. BNip3 is a mediator of TNF-induced necrotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Kim, Yong-Jun; Lee, Sun; Park, Jae-Hoon

    2011-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in immune modulation, inflammatory reactions, and target cell death in many pathologic conditions. The cell death pathways triggered by TNF include the caspase-8/Bid-dependent apoptotic pathway and the caspase-independent necrosis pathway (necroptosis). While the signaling pathways activated after binding of TNF to the TNF receptor (TNFR) and subsequent insertion of Bid/Bax/Bik into the outer mitochondrial membrane are relatively well known, other cell death pathways and the participating signaling molecules remain to be clarified. BNip3 is a pro-death protein and a member of the BH3-only Bcl-2 family. When ectopically overexpressed or induced by hypoxia, BNip3 induces various types of cell death via mitochondrial or non-mitochondrial death cascades. In this study using A549 alveolar epithelial cells of the lung, we show that BNip3 is transcriptionally and translationally upregulated by TNF, and its expression level determines the sensitivity to necroptosis induced by TNF. However, BNip3 does not appear to be involved in caspase-8/Bid-dependent apoptotic cell death in these alveolar lung cells. Finally, we show that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for mitochondrial insertion of BNip3, which is an important step in BNip3-induced mitochondrial catastrophe. Our results indicate that BNip3 is a candidate therapeutic target in pathologic conditions in which TNF causes tissue damage.

  7. Cell Death and Deubiquitinases: Perspectives in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Seemana

    2014-01-01

    The process of cell death has important physiological implications. At the organism level it is mostly involved in maintenance of tissue homeostasis. At the cellular level, the strategies of cell death may be categorized as either suicide or sabotage. The mere fact that many of these processes are programmed and that these are often deregulated in pathological conditions is seed to thought. The various players that are involved in these pathways are highly regulated. One of the modes of regulation is via post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination and deubiquitination. In this review, we have first dealt with the different modes and pathways involved in cell death and then we have focused on the regulation of several proteins in these signaling cascades by the different deubiquitinating enzymes, in the perspective of cancer. The study of deubiquitinases is currently in a rather nascent stage with limited knowledge both in vitro and in vivo, but the emerging roles of the deubiquitinases in various processes and their specificity have implicated them as potential targets from the therapeutic point of view. This review throws light on another aspect of cancer therapeutics by targeting the deubiquitinating enzymes. PMID:25121098

  8. Neuronal cell death in hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, Roger F

    2007-12-01

    It is generally assumed that neuronal cell death is minimal in liver failure and is insufficient to account for the neuropsychiatric symptoms characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy. However, contrary to this assumption, neuronal cell damage and death are well documented in liver failure patients, taking the form of several distinct clinical entities namely acquired (non-Wilsonian) hepatocerebral degeneration, cirrhosis-related Parkinsonism, post-shunt myelopathy and cerebellar degeneration. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that liver failure contributes to the severity of neuronal loss in Wernicke's encephalopathy. The long-standing nature of the thalamic and cerebellar lesions, over 80% of which are missed by routine clinical evaluation, together with the probability that they are nutritional in origin, underscores the need for careful nutritional management (adequate dietary protein, Vitamin B(1)) in liver failure patients. Mechanisms identified with the potential to cause neuronal cell death in liver failure include NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity, lactic acidosis, oxidative/nitrosative stress and the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The extent of neuronal damage in liver failure may be attenuated by compensatory mechanisms that include down-regulation of NMDA receptors, hypothermia and the presence of neuroprotective steroids such as allopregnanolone. These findings suggest that some of the purported "sequelae" of liver transplantation (gait ataxia, memory loss, confusion) could reflect preexisting neuropathology.

  9. FGF-2 Overexpression Increases Excitability and Seizure Susceptibility but Decreases Seizure-Induced Cell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Zucchini, Silvia; Buzzi, Andrea; Barbieri, Mario; Rodi, Donata; Paradiso, Beatrice; Binaschi, Anna; Coffin, J. Douglas; Marzola, Andrea; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Belluzzi, Ottorino

    2008-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) has multiple, pleiotropic effects on the nervous system that include neurogenesis, neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. Thus, alteration in FGF-2 expression patterns may have a profound impact in brain function, both in normal physiology and in pathology. Here, we used FGF-2 transgenic mice (TgFGF2) to study the effects of endogenous FGF-2 overexpression on susceptibility to seizures and to the pathological consequences of seizures. TgFGF2 mice display increased FGF-2 expression in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and dentate granule cells. Increased density of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles was observed in the hippocampus of TgFGF2 mice, and electrophysiological data (input/output curves and patch-clamp recordings in CA1) confirmed an increase in excitatory inputs in CA1, suggesting the presence of a latent hyperexcitability. Indeed, TgFGF2 mice displayed increased susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, in that latency to generalized seizure onset was reduced, whereas behavioral seizure scores and lethality were increased. Finally, WT and TgFGF2 mice with similar seizure scores were used for examining seizure-induced cellular consequences. Neurogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting were not significantly different between the two groups. In contrast, cell damage (assessed with Fluoro-Jade B, silver impregnation and anti-caspase 3 immunohistochemistry) was significantly lower in TgFGF2 mice, especially in the areas of overexpression (CA1 and CA3), indicating reduction of seizure-induced necrosis and apoptosis. These data suggest that FGF-2 may be implicated in seizure susceptibility and in seizure-induced plasticity, exerting different, and apparently contrasting effects: favoring ictogenesis but reducing seizure-induced cell death. PMID:19052202

  10. Establishment and initial characterization of SOX2-overexpressing NT2/D1 cell clones.

    PubMed

    Drakulic, D; Krstic, A; Stevanovic, M

    2012-05-15

    SOX2, a universal marker of pluripotent stem cells, is a transcription factor that helps control embryonic development in vertebrates; its expression persists in neural stem/progenitor cells into adulthood. Considering the critical role of the SOX2 transcription factor in the regulation of genes required for self-renewal and pluripotency of stem cells, we developed and characterized SOX2-overexpressing NT2/D1 cell clones. Using Southern blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed integration and expression of exogenous SOX2 in three NT2/D1 cell clones. Overexpression of the SOX2 gene was detected in two of these clones. SOX2 overexpression in NT2/D1 cell clones resulted in altered expression of key pluripotency genes OCT4 and NANOG. Furthermore, SOX2-overexpressing NT2/D1 cell clones entered into retinoic acid-dependent neural differentiation, even when there was elevated SOX2 expression. After 21 days of induction by retinoic acid, expression of neural markers (neuroD1 and synaptophysin) was higher in induced cell clones than in induced parental cells. The cell clone with SOX2 overexpression had an approximately 1.3-fold higher growth rate compared to parental cells. SOX2 overexpression did not increase the population of cells undergoing apoptosis. Taken together, we developed two SOX2-overexpressing cell clones, with constitutive SOX2 expression after three weeks of retinoic acid treatment. SOX2 overexpression resulted in altered expression of pluripotency-related genes, increased proliferation, and altered expression of neural markers after three weeks of retinoic acid treatment.

  11. Cell type-dependent pathogenic functions of overexpressed human cathepsin B in murine breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Bengsch, F; Buck, A; Günther, SC; Seiz, JR; Tacke, M; Pfeifer, D; von Elverfeldt, D; Sevenich, L; Hillebrand, LE; Kern, U; Sameni, M; Peters, C; Sloane, BF; Reinheckel, T

    2014-01-01

    The cysteine protease cathepsin B (CTSB) is frequently overexpressed in human breast cancer and correlated with a poor prognosis. Genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of CTSB attenuates tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in mouse models of human cancers. CTSB is expressed in both cancer cells and cells of the tumor stroma, in particular in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). In order to evaluate the impact of tumor- or stromal cell-derived CTSB on Polyoma Middle T (PyMT)-induced breast cancer progression, we used in vivo and in vitro approaches to induce human CTSB overexpression in PyMT cancer cells or stromal cells alone or in combination. Orthotopic transplantation experiments revealed that CTSB overexpression in cancer cells rather than in the stroma affects PyMT tumor progression. In 3D cultures, primary PyMT tumor cells showed higher extracellular matrix proteolysis and enhanced collective cell invasion when CTSB was overexpressed and proteolytically active. Coculture of PyMT cells with bone marrow-derived macrophages induced a TAM-like macrophage phenotype in vitro, and the presence of such M2-polarized macrophages in 3D cultures enhanced sprouting of tumor spheroids. We employed a doxycycline (DOX)-inducible CTSB expression system to selectively overexpress human CTSB either in cancer cells or in macrophages in 3D cocultures. Tumor spheroid invasiveness was only enhanced when CTSB was overexpressed in cancer cells, whereas CTSB expression in macrophages alone did not further promote invasiveness of tumor spheroids. We conclude that CTSB overexpression in the PyMT mouse model promotes tumor progression not by a stromal effect, but by a direct, cancer cell-inherent mode of action: CTSB overexpression renders the PyMT cancers more invasive by increasing proteolytic extracellular matrix protein degradation fostering collective cell invasion into adjacent tissue. PMID:24077280

  12. Overexpression of Numb suppresses growth, migration, and invasion of human clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sima, Jin; Zhang, Bao; Yu, Yuanzi; Sima, Xinyuan; Mao, Yanxin

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of Numb on cell growth, cell migration, and invasion in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Endogenous expression of Numb was evaluated in the ccRCC cell lines (786-O, Caki-1, and Caki-2) and control reference human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Numb expression was decreased in the ccRCC cells compared with the control cells (P < 0.01). Then, 786-O and Caki-1 cells described as suitable transfection hosts were used in transfection to carry out biological function studies. The three experimental groups were as follows: Numb-ORF (transfected with Numb-ORF plasmid), blank-vector (transfected with pCMV6-entry), and cell-alone group (no DNA). Numb expression in the Numb-ORF groups was significantly higher than that in the controls (P < 0.01). Cell growth was remarkably reduced (P < 0.01), and the number of migrating or invading cells was reduced (P < 0.01) in the Numb-ORF groups compared with controls. Furthermore, the ratio of G0/G1 phase in the Numb-ORF group of 786-O cells was increased, and the S phase fraction and proliferation index was decreased (P < 0.01). Cyclin D1 and MMP-9 expression was reduced in the Numb-ORF groups compared with controls. Here, we have provided data for attenuated Numb expression in the ccRCC cells. Overexpression of Numb could induce G0/G1 phase arrest and inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The suppressive effects might be due to downregulation of cyclin D1 or MMP-9 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that Numb may possibly function as a tumor suppressor involved in the carcinogenesis of ccRCC.

  13. Winter wheat cells subjected to freezing temperature undergo death process with features of programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Lyubushkina, Irina V; Grabelnych, Olga I; Pobezhimova, Tamara P; Stepanov, Aleksey V; Fedyaeva, Anna V; Fedoseeva, Irina V; Voinikov, Victor K

    2014-05-01

    Programmed cell death is a process defined as genetically regulated self-destruction or cell suicide. It can be activated by different internal and external factors, but few studies have investigated whether this process occurs under cold and freezing temperatures. In this study, a freezing treatment (-8 °C for 6 h) induced cell death with features of programmed cell death in suspension cultures of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This process occurred for 10 days after cold exposure. The death of cells in culture was slow and prolonged, and was accompanied by protoplast shrinkage, DNA fragmentation, and an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species. Other changes observed after the freezing treatment included an increase in the respiration rate, changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (∆Ψ m ), and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol. These findings indicated that mitochondria are involved in the cell death process that occurs after a freezing treatment in cells of winter wheat.

  14. BCL-W is a regulator of microtubule inhibitor-induced mitotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shan; Tang, Rui; Randy, Y.C. Poon

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule inhibitors including taxanes and vinca alkaloids are among the most widely used anticancer agents. Disrupting the microtubules activates the spindle-assembly checkpoint and traps cells in mitosis. Whether cells subsequently undergo mitotic cell death is an important factor for the effectiveness of the anticancer agents. Given that apoptosis accounts for the majority of mitotic cell death induced by microtubule inhibitors, we performed a systematic study to determine which members of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family are involved in determining the duration of mitotic block before cell death or slippage. Depletion of several anti-apoptotic BCL-2-like proteins significantly shortened the time before apoptosis. Among these proteins, BCL-W has not been previously characterized to play a role in mitotic cell death. Although the expression of BCL-W remained constant during mitotic block, it varied significantly between different cell lines. Knockdown of BCL-W with siRNA or disruption of the BCL-W gene with CRISPR-Cas9 speeded up mitotic cell death. Conversely, overexpression of BCL-W delayed mitotic cell death, extending the mitotic block to allow mitotic slippage. Taken together, these results showed that BCL-W contributes to the threshold of anti-apoptotic activity during mitosis. PMID:27231850

  15. Molecular Theories of Cell Life and Death.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-27

    AD-A195 524 MOLECULAR THEORIES OF CELL LIFE AND DETH(U) RUTGERS - / TH STATE UNIV PI CATAWAY NJ DEPT OF PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY S JI 27 JUL 87...6448 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO0. 61102F 2312 A5 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) M0=M2UAR THEORIES OF CM IFE= AND DEATH 12. PERSONAL...7/27I49 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION The lectures given in the symposium are being assembled into a book entitled, "Molecular Theories of Cell Life and

  16. RNASET2 is required for ROS propagation during oxidative stress-mediated cell death

    PubMed Central

    Caputa, G; Zhao, S; Criado, A E G; Ory, D S; Duncan, J G; Schaffer, J E

    2016-01-01

    RNASET2 is a ubiquitously expressed acidic ribonuclease that has been implicated in diverse pathophysiological processes including tumorigeneis, vitiligo, asthenozoospermia, and neurodegeneration. Prior studies indicate that RNASET2 is induced in response to oxidative stress and that overexpression of RNASET2 sensitizes cells to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cell death through a mechanism that is independent of catalytic activity. Herein, we report a loss-of-function genetic screen that identified RNASET2 as an essential gene for lipotoxic cell death. Haploinsufficiency of RNASET2 confers increased antioxidant capacity and generalized resistance to oxidative stress-mediated cell death in cultured cells. This function is critically dependent on catalytic activity. Furthermore, knockdown of RNASET2 in the Drosophila fat body confers increased survival in the setting of oxidative stress inducers. Together, these findings demonstrate that RNASET2 regulates antioxidant tone and is required for physiological ROS responses. PMID:26206090

  17. Death by a thousand cuts: granzyme pathways of programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Lieberman, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The granzymes are cell death-inducing enzymes, stored in the cytotoxic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, that are released during granule exocytosis when a specific virus-infected or transformed target cell is marked for elimination. Recent work suggests that this homologous family of serine esterases can activate at least three distinct pathways of cell death. This redundancy likely evolved to provide protection against pathogens and tumors with diverse strategies for evading cell death. This review discusses what is known about granzyme-mediated pathways of cell death as well as recent studies that implicate granzymes in immune regulation and extracellular proteolytic functions in inflammation.

  18. Integral membrane protease fibroblast activation protein sensitizes fibrosarcoma to chemotherapy and alters cell death mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Baird, Sarah K; Rigopoulos, Angela; Cao, Diana; Allan, Laura; Renner, Christoph; Scott, Fiona E; Scott, Andrew M

    2015-11-01

    Fibroblast activation protein (FAP), an integral membrane serine protease, is found on fibro- and osteo-sarcoma and on myofibroblasts in epithelial carcinoma, but rarely on other adult tissue. FAP has been demonstrated to be an excellent target for tumor imaging in clinical trials, and antibodies and other FAP-targeting drugs are in development. Here we have shown that FAP overexpression increased the growth of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and found that the expression of FAP affects response to chemotherapy. When treated with doxorubicin, expression of FAP increased susceptibility to the drug. In spite of this, FAP-HT1080 cells had fewer markers of classical apoptosis than HT1080 cells and neither necrosis nor necroptosis were enhanced. However, levels of early mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane permeability markers were increased, and autophagy switched from a protective function in HT1080 cells to part of the cell death mechanism with FAP expression. Therefore, FAP may affect how the tumor responds to chemotherapeutic drugs overall, which should be considered in targeted drug development. The overexpression of FAP also alters cell signaling and responses to the environment in this cell line. This includes cell death mechanisms, changing the response of HT1080 cells to doxorubicin from classical apoptosis to an organelle membrane permeability-dependent form of cell death.

  19. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) overexpression downregulates MV3 melanoma cell proliferation, migration and adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Takabe, Piia; Bart, Geneviève; Ropponen, Antti; Rilla, Kirsi; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna

    2015-09-10

    Malignant skin melanoma is one of the most deadly human cancers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the growth of malignant tumors by modulating tumor cells adhesion and migration. Hyaluronan is an essential component of the ECM, and its amount is altered in many tumors, suggesting an important role for hyaluronan in tumorigenesis. Nonetheless its role in melanomagenesis is not understood. In this study we produced a MV3 melanoma cell line with inducible expression of the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) and studied its effect on the behavior of the melanoma cells. HAS3 overexpression expanded the cell surface hyaluronan coat and decreased melanoma cell adhesion, migration and proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1/G0. Melanoma cell migration was restored by removal of cell surface hyaluronan by Streptomyces hyaluronidase and by receptor blocking with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, while the effect on cell proliferation was receptor independent. Overexpression of HAS3 decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that inhibition of MAP-kinase signaling was responsible for these suppressive effects on the malignant phenotype of MV3 melanoma cells. - Highlights: • Inducible HAS3-MV3 melanoma cell line was generated using Lentiviral transduction. • HAS3 overexpression inhibits MV3 cell migration via hyaluronan–receptor interaction. • HAS3 overexpression decreases MV3 melanoma cell proliferation and adhesion. • ERK1/2 phosphorylation is downregulated by 50% in HAS3 overexpressing cells. • The results suggest that hyaluronan has anti-cancer like effects in melanoma.

  20. Cell Death Control by Matrix Metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Dirk; Gomez-Barrera, Juan A; Pasule, Christian; Brack-Frick, Ursula B; Sieferer, Elke; Nicholson, Tim M; Pfannstiel, Jens; Stintzi, Annick; Schaller, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that play important roles in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix in animals, the proteases responsible for dynamic modifications of the plant cell wall are largely unknown. A possible involvement of MMPs was addressed by cloning and functional characterization of Sl2-MMP and Sl3-MMP from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The two tomato MMPs were found to resemble mammalian homologs with respect to gelatinolytic activity, substrate preference for hydrophobic amino acids on both sides of the scissile bond, and catalytic properties. In transgenic tomato seedlings silenced for Sl2/3-MMP expression, necrotic lesions were observed at the base of the hypocotyl. Cell death initiated in the epidermis and proceeded to include outer cortical cell layers. In later developmental stages, necrosis spread, covering the entire stem and extending into the leaves of MMP-silenced plants. The subtilisin-like protease P69B was identified as a substrate of Sl2- and Sl3-MMP. P69B was shown to colocalize with Sl-MMPs in the apoplast of the tomato hypocotyl, it exhibited increased stability in transgenic plants silenced for Sl-MMP activity, and it was cleaved and inactivated by Sl-MMPs in vitro. The induction of cell death in Sl2/3-MMP-silenced plants depended on P69B, indicating that Sl2- and Sl3-MMP act upstream of P69B in an extracellular proteolytic cascade that contributes to the regulation of cell death in tomato. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Current and Emerging Biomarkers of Cell Death in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kongning; Wu, Deng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Ying; Miao, Zhengqiang; Jin, Nana; Bi, Xiaoman; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Cell death is a critical biological process, serving many important functions within multicellular organisms. Aberrations in cell death can contribute to the pathology of human diseases. Significant progress made in the research area enormously speeds up our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cell death. According to the distinct morphological and biochemical characteristics, cell death can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death, and mitotic catastrophe. Nevertheless, the realization that all of these efforts seek to pursue an effective treatment and cure for the disease has spurred a significant interest in the development of promising biomarkers of cell death to early diagnose disease and accurately predict disease progression and outcome. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about cell death, survey current and emerging biomarkers of cell death, and discuss the relationship with human diseases. PMID:24949464

  2. Apoptotic cell death and efferocytosis in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Van Vré, Emily A; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Tedgui, Alain; Mallat, Ziad

    2012-04-01

    Apoptotic cell death is an important feature of atherosclerotic plaques, and it seems to exert both beneficial and detrimental effects depending on the cell type and plaque stage. Because late apoptotic cells can launch proatherogenic inflammatory responses, adequate engulfment of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) by macrophages is important to withstand atherosclerosis progression. Several efferocytosis systems, composed of different phagocytic receptors, apoptotic ligands, and bridging molecules, can be distinguished. Because phagocytes in atherosclerotic plaques are very much solicited, a fully operative efferocytosis system seems to be an absolute requisite. Indeed, recent studies demonstrate that deletion of just 1 of the efferocytosis pathways aggravates atherosclerosis. This review discusses the role of apoptosis in atherosclerosis and general mechanisms of efferocytosis, to end with indirect and direct indications of the significance of effective efferocytosis in atherosclerosis.

  3. Cell death paradigms in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Parandhaman, Dinesh Kumar; Narayanan, Sujatha

    2014-01-01

    Cell death or senescence is a fundamental event that helps maintain cellular homeostasis, shapes the growth of organism, and provides protective immunity against invading pathogens. Decreased or increased cell death is detrimental both in infectious and non-infectious diseases. Cell death is executed both by regulated enzymic reactions and non-enzymic sudden collapse. In this brief review we have tried to summarize various cell death modalities and their impact on the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24634891

  4. Cell death paradigms in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Parandhaman, Dinesh Kumar; Narayanan, Sujatha

    2014-01-01

    Cell death or senescence is a fundamental event that helps maintain cellular homeostasis, shapes the growth of organism, and provides protective immunity against invading pathogens. Decreased or increased cell death is detrimental both in infectious and non-infectious diseases. Cell death is executed both by regulated enzymic reactions and non-enzymic sudden collapse. In this brief review we have tried to summarize various cell death modalities and their impact on the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  5. Cell death goes LIVE: technological advances in real-time tracking of cell death.

    PubMed

    Skommer, Joanna; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2010-06-15

    Cell population can be viewed as a quantum system, which like Schrödinger's cat exists as a combination of survival- and death-allowing states. Tracking and understanding cell-to-cell variability in processes of high spatio-temporal complexity such as cell death is at the core of current systems biology approaches. As probabilistic modeling tools attempt to impute information inaccessible by current experimental approaches, advances in technologies for single-cell imaging and omics (proteomics, genomics, metabolomics) should go hand in hand with the computational efforts. Over the last few years we have made exciting technological advances that allow studies of cell death dynamically in real-time and with the unprecedented accuracy. These approaches are based on innovative fluorescent assays and recombinant proteins, bioelectrical properties of cells, and more recently also on state-of-the-art optical spectroscopy. Here, we review current status of the most innovative analytical technologies for dynamic tracking of cell death, and address the interdisciplinary promises and future challenges of these methods.

  6. Autophagic cell death: Loch Ness monster or endangered species?

    PubMed

    Shen, Han-Ming; Codogno, Patrice

    2011-05-01

    The concept of autophagic cell death was first established based on observations of increased autophagic markers in dying cells. The major limitation of such a morphology-based definition of autophagic cell death is that it fails to establish the functional role of autophagy in the cell death process, and thus contributes to the confusion in the literature regarding the role of autophagy in cell death and cell survival. Here we propose to define autophagic cell death as a modality of non-apoptotic or necrotic programmed cell death in which autophagy serves as a cell death mechanism, upon meeting the following set of criteria: (i) cell death occurs without the involvement of apoptosis; (ii) there is an increase of autophagic flux, and not just an increase of the autophagic markers, in the dying cells; and (iii) suppression of autophagy via both pharmacological inhibitors and genetic approaches is able to rescue or prevent cell death. In light of this new definition, we will discuss some of the common problems and difficulties in the study of autophagic cell death and also revisit some well-reported cases of autophagic cell death, aiming to achieve a better understanding of whether autophagy is a real killer, an accomplice or just an innocent bystander in the course of cell death. At present, the physiological relevance of autophagic cell death is mainly observed in lower eukaryotes and invertebrates such as Dictyostelium discoideum and Drosophila melanogaster. We believe that such a clear definition of autophagic cell death will help us study and understand the physiological or pathological relevance of autophagic cell death in mammals.

  7. Overexpression of methionine sulfoxide reductases A and B2 protects MOLT-4 cells against zinc-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Cabreiro, Filipe; Picot, Cĕdric R; Perichon, Martine; Friguet, Bertrand; Petropoulos, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    Among the amino acids, methionine is the most susceptible to oxidation, and methionine sulfoxide can be catalytically reduced within proteins by methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) and B (MsrB). As one of the very few repair systems for oxidized proteins, MsrA and MsrB enzymes play a major role in protein homeostasis during aging and have also been involved in cellular defenses against oxidative stress, by scavenging reactive oxygen species. To elucidate the role of zinc on the Msr system, the effects of zinc treatment on control and stably overexpressing MsrA and MsrB2 MOLT-4 leukemia cells have been analyzed. Here we show that zinc treatment has a pro-antioxidant effect in MOLT-4 cells by inducing the transcription of metallothioneins and positively modulating the activity of the Msr enzymes. In contrast, due to its pro-oxidant effect, zinc also led to increased cell death, reactive oxygen species production, and protein damage. Our results indicate that overexpression of the Msr enzymes, due to their antioxidant properties, counteracts the pro-oxidant effects of zinc treatment, which lead to a cellular protection against protein oxidative damage and cell death, by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species.

  8. C/EBP-β Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Triggered Cell Death in Mouse and Human Models

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Ofir; Dvash, Efrat; Werman, Ariel; Rubinstein, Menachem

    2010-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicits the unfolded protein response (UPR), initially aimed at coping with the stress, but triggering cell death upon further stress. ER stress induces the C/EBP-® variant Liver-enriched Activating Protein (LAP), followed by the dominant-negative variant, Liver Inhibitory Protein (LIP). However, the distinct role of LAP and LIP in ER stress is unknown. We found that the kinetics of the ER stress-induced expression of LIP overlapped with that of the cell death in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, inducible over-expression of LIP augmented ER stress-triggered cell death whereas over-expression of LAP attenuated cell death. Similar results were obtained in human 293T cells. Limited vasculature in tumors triggers hypoxia, nutrient shortage and accumulation of toxic metabolites, all of which eliciting continuous ER stress. We found that LAP promoted and LIP inhibited B16 melanoma tumor progression without affecting angiogenesis or accelerating the cell cycle. Rather, LAP attenuated, whereas LIP augmented tumor ER stress. We therefore suggest that C/EBP-® regulates the transition from the protective to the death–promoting phase of the UPR. We further suggest that the over-expression of LAP observed in many solid tumors promotes tumor progression by attenuating ER stress–triggered tumor cell death. PMID:20209087

  9. Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

  10. Mechanisms Involved in Virus-Induced Neural Cell Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    We are using experimental infection with reoviruses as a model to study how viruses induce cell death (apoptosis) and cause dysregulation of the cell...and their ligand (TRAIL). Apoptosis involves both death-receptor (DR) and mitochondrial-associated cell death pathways, and leads to the early

  11. Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

  12. How Heme Oxygenase-1 Prevents Heme-Induced Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Lanceta, Lilibeth; Mattingly, Jacob M; Li, Chi; Eaton, John W

    2015-01-01

    Earlier observations indicate that free heme is selectively toxic to cells lacking heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) but how this enzyme prevents heme toxicity remains unexplained. Here, using A549 (human lung cancer) and immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells incubated with exogenous heme, we find knock-down of HO-1 using siRNA does promote the accumulation of cell-associated heme and heme-induced cell death. However, it appears that the toxic effects of heme are exerted by "loose" (probably intralysosomal) iron because cytotoxic effects of heme are lessened by pre-incubation of HO-1 deficient cells with desferrioxamine (which localizes preferentially in the lysosomal compartment). Desferrioxamine also decreases lysosomal rupture promoted by intracellularly generated hydrogen peroxide. Supporting the importance of endogenous oxidant production, both chemical and siRNA inhibition of catalase activity predisposes HO-1 deficient cells to heme-mediated killing. Importantly, it appears that HO-1 deficiency somehow blocks the induction of ferritin; control cells exposed to heme show ~10-fold increases in ferritin heavy chain expression whereas in heme-exposed HO-1 deficient cells ferritin expression is unchanged. Finally, overexpression of ferritin H chain in HO-1 deficient cells completely prevents heme-induced cytotoxicity. Although two other products of HO-1 activity--CO and bilirubin--have been invoked to explain HO-1-mediated cytoprotection, we conclude that, at least in this experimental system, HO-1 activity triggers the induction of ferritin and the latter is actually responsible for the cytoprotective effects of HO-1 activity.

  13. Overexpression of Galectin-7, A Myoepithelial Cell Marker, Enhances Spontaneous Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Demers, Mélanie; Rose, April A.N.; Grosset, Andrée-Anne; Biron-Pain, Katherine; Gaboury, Louis; Siegel, Peter M.; St-Pierre, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Galectins are members of a family of β-galactosides-binding proteins that have recently emerged as novel modulators in different aspects of cancer. The expression of galectins in tumors and/or the tissue surrounding them has been well documented. Since galectin-7 expression has been associated with epithelial tissues and varies significantly in various types of cancer, we have investigated for the first time its role in breast cancer. Using two preclinical mouse models, high levels of galectin-7 expression in breast cancer cells drastically increased their ability to metastasize to lungs and bones. Significant increases in the number of pulmonary metastases and osteolytic lesions were induced by overexpression of galectin-7 compared with control cells. In human tissues, galectin-7 was specifically found in myoepithelial cells of normal human breast tissue, but not in luminal cells. Its expression was severely altered in breast carcinoma, many samples showing greater than 70% of galectin-7 positive cells. High expression levels of galectin-7 were restricted to high-grade breast carcinomas, including HER2 overexpressing and basal-like groups. In HER2 overexpressing cases, galectin-7 expression was associated with lymph node axillary metastasis. Taken together, our results indicate that galectin-7 may represent a potential target for both specific detection and therapeutic inhibition of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:20382700

  14. Inhibition of caspases prevents ototoxic and ongoing hair cell death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Jonathan I.; Ogilvie, Judith M.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory hair cells die after acoustic trauma or ototoxic insults, but the signal transduction pathways that mediate hair cell death are not known. Here we identify several important signaling events that regulate the death of vestibular hair cells. Chick utricles were cultured in media supplemented with the ototoxic antibiotic neomycin and selected pharmacological agents that influence signaling molecules in cell death pathways. Hair cells that were treated with neomycin exhibited classically defined apoptotic morphologies such as condensed nuclei and fragmented DNA. Inhibition of protein synthesis (via treatment with cycloheximide) increased hair cell survival after treatment with neomycin, suggesting that hair cell death requires de novo protein synthesis. Finally, the inhibition of caspases promoted hair cell survival after neomycin treatment. Sensory hair cells in avian vestibular organs also undergo continual cell death and replacement throughout mature life. It is unclear whether the loss of hair cells stimulates the proliferation of supporting cells or whether the production of new cells triggers the death of hair cells. We examined the effects of caspase inhibition on spontaneous hair cell death in the chick utricle. Caspase inhibitors reduced the amount of ongoing hair cell death and ongoing supporting cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated sensory epithelia, however, caspase inhibitors did not affect supporting cell proliferation directly. Our data indicate that ongoing hair cell death stimulates supporting cell proliferation in the mature utricle.

  15. Inhibition of caspases prevents ototoxic and ongoing hair cell death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Jonathan I.; Ogilvie, Judith M.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory hair cells die after acoustic trauma or ototoxic insults, but the signal transduction pathways that mediate hair cell death are not known. Here we identify several important signaling events that regulate the death of vestibular hair cells. Chick utricles were cultured in media supplemented with the ototoxic antibiotic neomycin and selected pharmacological agents that influence signaling molecules in cell death pathways. Hair cells that were treated with neomycin exhibited classically defined apoptotic morphologies such as condensed nuclei and fragmented DNA. Inhibition of protein synthesis (via treatment with cycloheximide) increased hair cell survival after treatment with neomycin, suggesting that hair cell death requires de novo protein synthesis. Finally, the inhibition of caspases promoted hair cell survival after neomycin treatment. Sensory hair cells in avian vestibular organs also undergo continual cell death and replacement throughout mature life. It is unclear whether the loss of hair cells stimulates the proliferation of supporting cells or whether the production of new cells triggers the death of hair cells. We examined the effects of caspase inhibition on spontaneous hair cell death in the chick utricle. Caspase inhibitors reduced the amount of ongoing hair cell death and ongoing supporting cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated sensory epithelia, however, caspase inhibitors did not affect supporting cell proliferation directly. Our data indicate that ongoing hair cell death stimulates supporting cell proliferation in the mature utricle.

  16. Inhibition of caspases prevents ototoxic and ongoing hair cell death.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Jonathan I; Ogilvie, Judith M; Warchol, Mark E

    2002-02-15

    Sensory hair cells die after acoustic trauma or ototoxic insults, but the signal transduction pathways that mediate hair cell death are not known. Here we identify several important signaling events that regulate the death of vestibular hair cells. Chick utricles were cultured in media supplemented with the ototoxic antibiotic neomycin and selected pharmacological agents that influence signaling molecules in cell death pathways. Hair cells that were treated with neomycin exhibited classically defined apoptotic morphologies such as condensed nuclei and fragmented DNA. Inhibition of protein synthesis (via treatment with cycloheximide) increased hair cell survival after treatment with neomycin, suggesting that hair cell death requires de novo protein synthesis. Finally, the inhibition of caspases promoted hair cell survival after neomycin treatment. Sensory hair cells in avian vestibular organs also undergo continual cell death and replacement throughout mature life. It is unclear whether the loss of hair cells stimulates the proliferation of supporting cells or whether the production of new cells triggers the death of hair cells. We examined the effects of caspase inhibition on spontaneous hair cell death in the chick utricle. Caspase inhibitors reduced the amount of ongoing hair cell death and ongoing supporting cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated sensory epithelia, however, caspase inhibitors did not affect supporting cell proliferation directly. Our data indicate that ongoing hair cell death stimulates supporting cell proliferation in the mature utricle.

  17. Taip2 is a novel cell death-related gene expressed in the brain during development

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Kazumi; Akiyama, Nobutake; Yamada, Shuichi; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Saito, Saburo; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2008-05-02

    TAIP2 was isolated as one of the homologous genes of TAIP3 (TGF-{beta}-up-regulated apoptosis-inducing-protein chromosome 3). The transcript of the mouse counterpart of TAIP2, designated mTaip2, was detected in several tissue specimens from embryos to adults, while mTaip2 was dominantly expressed in the embryonic brain. The overexpression of the full-length mTaip2 induced cell death in various cell lines. An analysis of mTaip2 deletion mutants revealed that the N-terminal half of mTaip2, but not the C-terminal half, had nuclear localization and cell death-inducing activities. The results indicate that mTaip2 is a novel cell death-related gene dominantly expressed in the embryonic brain, thus suggesting that mTaip2 may play a role in development of the brain.

  18. Determinative Developmental Cell Lineages Are Robust to Cell Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Rong; Ruan, Shuxiang; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2014-01-01

    All forms of life are confronted with environmental and genetic perturbations, making phenotypic robustness an important characteristic of life. Although development has long been viewed as a key component of phenotypic robustness, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we report that the determinative developmental cell lineages of two protostomes and one deuterostome are structured such that the resulting cellular compositions of the organisms are only modestly affected by cell deaths. Several features of the cell lineages, including their shallowness, topology, early ontogenic appearances of rare cells, and non-clonality of most cell types, underlie the robustness. Simple simulations of cell lineage evolution demonstrate the possibility that the observed robustness arose as an adaptation in the face of random cell deaths in development. These results reveal general organizing principles of determinative developmental cell lineages and a conceptually new mechanism of phenotypic robustness, both of which have important implications for development and evolution. PMID:25058586

  19. SET overexpression in HEK293 cells regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins levels within a mitochondrial fission/reduced autophagic flux scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Luciana O.; Goto, Renata N.; Neto, Marinaldo P.C.; Sousa, Lucas O.; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andréia M.

    2015-03-06

    We hypothesized that SET, a protein accumulated in some cancer types and Alzheimer disease, is involved in cell death through mitochondrial mechanisms. We addressed the mRNA and protein levels of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 (S and L isoforms) by quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence as well as other mitochondrial involvements, in HEK293 cells overexpressing the SET protein (HEK293/SET), either in the presence or absence of oxidative stress induced by the pro-oxidant t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). SET overexpression in HEK293 cells decreased UCP1 and increased UCP2 and UCP3 (S/L) mRNA and protein levels, whilst also preventing lipid peroxidation and decreasing the content of cellular ATP. SET overexpression also (i) decreased the area of mitochondria and increased the number of organelles and lysosomes, (ii) increased mitochondrial fission, as demonstrated by increased FIS1 mRNA and FIS-1 protein levels, an apparent accumulation of DRP-1 protein, and an increase in the VDAC protein level, and (iii) reduced autophagic flux, as demonstrated by a decrease in LC3B lipidation (LC3B-II) in the presence of chloroquine. Therefore, SET overexpression in HEK293 cells promotes mitochondrial fission and reduces autophagic flux in apparent association with up-regulation of UCP2 and UCP3; this implies a potential involvement in cellular processes that are deregulated such as in Alzheimer's disease and cancer. - Highlights: • SET, UCPs and autophagy prevention are correlated. • SET action has mitochondrial involvement. • UCP2/3 may reduce ROS and prevent autophagy. • SET protects cell from ROS via UCP2/3.

  20. β-Lapachone-containing PEG-PLA Polymer Micelles as Novel Nanotherapeutics against NQO1-Overexpressing Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Elvin; Bey, Erik A.; Dong, Ying; Weinberg, Brent D.; Sutton, Damon M.; Boothman, David A.; Gao, Jinming

    2007-01-01

    β-Lapachone (β-lap) is a novel anticancer agent that is bioactivated by NADP(H): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), an enzyme overexpressed in a variety of tumors. Despite its therapeutic promise, the poor aqueous solubility of β-lap hinders its preclinical evaluation and clinical translation. Our objective was to develop β-lap-containing poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) (PEG-PLA) polymer micelles for the treatment of NQO1-overexpressing tumors. Several micelle fabrication strategies were examined to maximize drug loading. A film sonication method yielded β-lap micelles with relatively high loading density (4.7 ± 1.0% to 6.5 ± 1.0%) and optimal size (29.6 ± 1.5 nm). Release studies in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) showed the time (t1/2) for 50% of drug release at 18 h. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed in NQO1-overexpressing (NQO1+) and NQO1-null (NQO1-) H596 lung, DU-145 prostate, and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Cytotoxicity data showed that after a 2 h incubation with β-lap micelles, a marked increase in toxicity was shown in NQO1+ cells over NQO1- cells, resembling free drug both in efficacy and mechanism of cell death. In summary, these data demonstrate the potential of β-lap micelles as an effective therapeutic strategy against NQO1-overexpressing tumor cells. PMID:17574288

  1. Sensitization of Cells Overexpressing Multidrug Resistant Proteins by Pluronic P85

    PubMed Central

    Batrakova, Elena V.; Li, Shu; Alakhov, Valery Yu.; Elmquist, William F.; Miller, Donald W.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the chemosensitizing effects of Pluronic P85 (P85) on the cells expressing multidrug resistance-associated proteins, MRP1 and MRP2. Methods Cell models included MRP1- and MRP2-transfected MDCKII cells, as well as doxorubicin-selected COR-L23/R cells overexpressing MRP1. Effects of P85 on cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of vinblastine and doxorubicin were determined. Mechanistic studies characterized the effects of P85 on ATP and reduced glutathione (GSH) intracellular levels as well as MRPs ATPase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in these cells. Results Considerable increases of vinblastine and doxorubicin accumulation in the cells overexpressing MRP1 and MRP2 in the presence of P85 were observed, while no statistically significant changes in the drug accumulation in the parental cells were found. P85 treatment caused an inhibition of MRPs ATPase activity. Furthermore, P85 induced ATP depletion in these cells similar to that previously reported for Pgp-overexpressing cells. In addition, reduction of GSH intracellular levels and decrease of GST activity following P85 treatment were observed. Finally, significant enhancement of cytotoxicity of vinblastine and doxorubicin by P85 in MRPs -overexpressing cells was demonstrated. Conclusions This study suggests that P85 can sensitize cells overexpressing MRP1 and MRP2, which could be useful for chemotherapy of cancers that display these resistant mechanisms. PMID:14620511

  2. Targeting TRPM2 Channels Impairs Radiation-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest and Fosters Cell Death of T Cell Leukemia Cells in a Bcl-2-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Dominik; Misovic, Milan; Szteyn, Kalina; Shumilina, Ekaterina; Rudner, Justine; Huber, Stephan M.

    2016-01-01

    Messenger RNA data of lymphohematopoietic cancer lines suggest a correlation between expression of the cation channel TRPM2 and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. The latter is overexpressed in various tumor entities and mediates therapy resistance. Here, we analyzed the crosstalk between Bcl-2 and TRPM2 channels in T cell leukemia cells during oxidative stress as conferred by ionizing radiation (IR). To this end, the effects of TRPM2 inhibition or knock-down on plasma membrane currents, Ca2+ signaling, mitochondrial superoxide anion formation, and cell cycle progression were compared between irradiated (0–10 Gy) Bcl-2-overexpressing and empty vector-transfected Jurkat cells. As a result, IR stimulated a TRPM2-mediated Ca2+-entry, which was higher in Bcl-2-overexpressing than in control cells and which contributed to IR-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. TRPM2 inhibition induced a release from G2/M arrest resulting in cell death. Collectively, this data suggests a pivotal function of TRPM2 in the DNA damage response of T cell leukemia cells. Apoptosis-resistant Bcl-2-overexpressing cells even can afford higher TRPM2 activity without risking a hazardous Ca2+-overload-induced mitochondrial superoxide anion formation. PMID:26839633

  3. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1995-01-01

    The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

  4. Programmed Cell Death in Unicellular Phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Bidle, Kay D

    2016-07-11

    Unicellular, planktonic, prokaryotic and eukaryotic photoautotrophs (phytoplankton) have an ancient evolutionary history on Earth during which time they have played key roles in the regulation of marine food webs, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. Since they represent the basis of aquatic ecosystems, the manner in which phytoplankton die critically determines the flow and fate of photosynthetically fixed organic matter (and associated elements), ultimately constraining nutrient flow. Programmed cell death (PCD) and associated pathway genes, which are triggered by a variety of abiotic (nutrient, light, osmotic) and biotic (virus infection, allelopathy) environmental stresses, have an integral grip on cell fate, and have shaped the ecological success and evolutionary trajectory of diverse phytoplankton lineages. A combination of physiological, biochemical, and genetic techniques in model algal systems has demonstrated a conserved molecular and mechanistic framework of stress surveillance, signaling, and death activation pathways, involving collective and coordinated participation of organelles, redox enzymes, metabolites, and caspase-like proteases. This mechanistic understanding has provided insight into the integration of sensing and transduction of stress signals into cellular responses, and the mechanistic interfaces between PCD, cell stress and virus infection pathways. It has also provided insight into the evolution of PCD in unicellular photoautotrophs, the impact of PCD on the fate of natural phytoplankton assemblages and its role in aquatic biogeochemical cycles.

  5. Antioxidant gene therapy against neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Annadurai, Anandhan; Wang, Fang; Skotak, Maciej; Chandra, Namas; Li, Ming; Pappa, Aglaia; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Razo, Luz Maria Del; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Franco, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common hallmark of neuronal cell death associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, as well as brain stroke/ischemia and traumatic brain injury. Increased accumulation of reactive species of both oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) has been implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction, energy impairment, alterations in metal homeostasis and accumulation of aggregated proteins observed in neurodegenerative disorders, which lead to the activation/modulation of cell death mechanisms that include apoptotic, necrotic and autophagic pathways. Thus, the design of novel antioxidant strategies to selectively target oxidative stress and redox imbalance might represent important therapeutic approaches against neurological disorders. This work reviews the evidence demonstrating the ability of genetically encoded antioxidant systems to selectively counteract neuronal cell loss in neurodegenerative diseases and ischemic brain damage. Because gene therapy approaches to treat inherited and acquired disorders offer many unique advantages over conventional therapeutic approaches, we discussed basic research/clinical evidence and the potential of virus-mediated gene delivery techniques for antioxidant gene therapy. PMID:24333264

  6. Interdigital cell death function and regulation: new insights on an old programmed cell death model.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Rocío; Covarrubias, Luis

    2011-02-01

    Interdigital cell death (ICD) is the oldest and best-studied model of programmed cell death (PCD) in vertebrates. The classical view of ICD function is the separation of digits by promotion of tissue regression. However, in addition, ICD can contribute to digit individualization by restricting interdigital tissue growth. Depending on the species, the relative contribution of either regression or growth-restricting functions of ICD to limb morphogenesis may differ. Under normal conditions, most cells appear to die by apoptosis during ICD. Accordingly, components of the apoptotic machinery are found in the interdigits, though their role in the initiation and execution of cell death is yet to be defined. Fgf8 has been identified as a survival factor for the distal mesenchymal cells of the limb such that ICD can initiate following specific downregulation of Fgf8 expression in the ectoderm overlying the interdigital tissue. On the other hand, Bmps may promote cell death directly by acting on the interdigital tissue, or indirectly by downregulating Fgf8 expression in the ectoderm. In addition, retinoic acid can activate ICD directly or through a Bmp-mediated mechanism. Interactions at different levels between these factors establish the spatiotemporal patterning of ICD activation. Defining the regulatory network behind ICD activation will greatly advance our understanding of the mechanisms controlling PCD in general.

  7. Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Neuronal Cell Death: Potential Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ted M; Dawson, Valina L

    2017-01-06

    Mitochondria lie at the crossroads of neuronal survival and cell death. They play important roles in cellular bioenergetics, control intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, and participate in key metabolic pathways. Mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial quality control cause a myriad of neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria have evolved strategies to kill cells when they are not able to continue their vital functions. This review provides an overview of the role of mitochondria in neurologic disease and the cell death pathways that are mediated through mitochondria, including their role in accidental cell death, the regulated cell death pathways of apoptosis and parthanatos, and programmed cell death. It details the current state of parthanatic cell death and discusses potential therapeutic strategies targeting initiators and effectors of mitochondrial-mediated cell death in neurologic disorders.

  8. Cell death in mammalian cell culture: molecular mechanisms and cell line engineering strategies

    PubMed Central

    Krampe, Britta

    2010-01-01

    Cell death is a fundamentally important problem in cell lines used by the biopharmaceutical industry. Environmental stress, which can result from nutrient depletion, by-product accumulation and chemical agents, activates through signalling cascades regulators that promote death. The best known key regulators of death process are the Bcl-2 family proteins which constitute a critical intracellular checkpoint of apoptosis cell death within a common death pathway. Engineering of several members of the anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 family genes in several cell types has extended the knowledge of their molecular function and interaction with other proteins, and their regulation of cell death. In this review, we describe the various modes of cell death and their death pathways at molecular and organelle level and discuss the relevance of the growing knowledge of anti-apoptotic engineering strategies to inhibit cell death and increase productivity in mammalian cell culture. PMID:20502964

  9. Ameliorating replicative senescence of human bone marrow stromal cells by PSMB5 overexpression

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Li; Song, Hui-Fang; Wei, Jiao-Long; Liu, Xue-Qin; Song, Wen-Hui; Yan, Ba-Yi; Yang, Gui-Jiao; Li, Ang; Yang, Wu-Lin

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • PSMB5 overexpression restores the differentiation potential of aged hBMSCs. • PSMB5 overexpression enhances the proteasomal activity of late-stage hBMSCs. • PSMB5 overexpression inhibits replicative senescence and improved cell viability. • PSMB5 overexpression promotes cell growth by upregulating the Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex. - Abstract: Multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) potentially serve as a source for cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine. However, in vitro expansion was inescapably accompanied with cell senescence, characterized by inhibited proliferation and compromised pluripotency. We have previously demonstrated that this aging process is closely associated with reduced 20S proteasomal activity, with down-regulation of rate-limiting catalytic β-subunits particularly evident. In the present study, we confirmed that proteasomal activity directly contributes to senescence of hBMSCs, which could be reversed by overexpression of the β5-subunit (PSMB5). Knocking down PSMB5 led to decreased proteasomal activity concurrent with reduced cell proliferation in early-stage hBMSCs, which is similar to the senescent phenotype observed in late-stage cells. In contrast, overexpressing PSMB5 in late-stage cells efficiently restored the normal activity of 20S proteasomes and promoted cell growth, possibly via upregulating the Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex. Additionally, PSMB5 could enhance cell resistance to oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increased cell survival upon exposing senescent hBMSCs to hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, PSMB5 overexpression retained the pluripotency of late-stage hBMSCs by facilitating their neural differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our work reveals a critical role of PSMB5 in 20S proteasome-mediated protection against replicative senescence, pointing to a possible strategy for maintaining the integrity of culture-expanded hBMSCs by manipulating the expression of PSMB5.

  10. Metabolic regulation of the PMCA: Role in cell death and survival.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jason I E

    2017-06-08

    The plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) is a ubiquitously expressed, ATP-driven Ca(2+) pump that is critical for maintaining low resting cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) in all eukaryotic cells. Since cytotoxic Ca(2+) overload has such a central role in cell death, the PMCA represents an essential "linchpin" for the delicate balance between cell survival and cell death. In general, impaired PMCA activity and reduced PMCA expression leads to cytotoxic Ca(2+) overload and Ca(2+) dependent cell death, both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas maintenance of PMCA activity or PMCA overexpression is generally accepted as being cytoprotective. However, the PMCA has a paradoxical role in cell death depending on the cell type and cellular context. The PMCA can be differentially regulated by Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis, can be maintained by a localised glycolytic ATP supply, even in the face of global ATP depletion, and can be profoundly affected by the specific phospholipid environment that it sits within the membrane. The major focus of this review is to highlight some of the controversies surrounding the paradoxical role of the PMCA in cell death and survival, challenging the conventional view of ATP-dependent regulation of the PMCA and how this might influence cell fate. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. β-Cell-Specific Mafk Overexpression Impairs Pancreatic Endocrine Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Abdellatif, Ahmed M.; Oishi, Hisashi; Itagaki, Takahiro; Jung, Yunshin; Shawki, Hossam H.; Okita, Yukari; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; El-Morsy, Salah E.; El-Sayed, Mesbah A.; Shoaib, Mahmoud B.; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    The MAF family transcription factors are homologs of v-Maf, the oncogenic component of the avian retrovirus AS42. They are subdivided into 2 groups, small and large MAF proteins, according to their structure, function, and molecular size. MAFK is a member of the small MAF family and acts as a dominant negative form of large MAFs. In previous research we generated transgenic mice that overexpress MAFK in order to suppress the function of large MAF proteins in pancreatic β-cells. These mice developed hyperglycemia in adulthood due to impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The aim of the current study is to examine the effects of β-cell-specific Mafk overexpression in endocrine cell development. The developing islets of Mafk-transgenic embryos appeared to be disorganized with an inversion of total numbers of insulin+ and glucagon+ cells due to reduced β-cell proliferation. Gene expression analysis by quantitative RT-PCR revealed decreased levels of β-cell-related genes whose expressions are known to be controlled by large MAF proteins. Additionally, these changes were accompanied with a significant increase in key β-cell transcription factors likely due to compensatory mechanisms that might have been activated in response to the β-cell loss. Finally, microarray comparison of gene expression profiles between wild-type and transgenic pancreata revealed alteration of some uncharacterized genes including Pcbd1, Fam132a, Cryba2, and Npy, which might play important roles during pancreatic endocrine development. Taken together, these results suggest that Mafk overexpression impairs endocrine development through a regulation of numerous β-cell-related genes. The microarray analysis provided a unique data set of differentially expressed genes that might contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis that governs the development and function of endocrine pancreas. PMID:26901059

  12. Normal development, oncogenesis and programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Liebermann, D A

    1998-09-10

    Meeting's Report -- June 2, 1998, Sugarload Estate Conference Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. A symposium on Normal Development, Oncogenesis and Programmed Cell Death, was held at the Sugarload Estate Conference Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA sponsored by the Fels Cancer Institute, Temple University School of Medicine, with the support of the Alliance Pharmaceutical Corporation. The symposium was organized by Drs Dan A Liebermann and Barbara Hoffman at the Fels. Invited speakers included: Dr Andrei V Gudkov (University of Illinois) who started the symposium talking about 'New cellular factors modulating the tumor suppressor function of p53'; Dr Yuri Lazebnik (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories) spoke about 'Caspases considered as enemies within'; Dr E Premkumar Reddy (Fels Institute, Temple University) talked about recent exciting findings in his laboratory regarding 'JAK-STATs dedicated signaling pathways'; Dr Michael Greenberg (Harvard University) spoke about 'Signal transduction pathways that regulate differentiation and survival in the developing nervous system'; Dr Richard Kolesnick's (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center) talk has been focused at 'Stress signals for apoptosis, including Ceramide and c-Jun Kinase/Stress-activated Protein Kinase'; Dr Barbara Hoffman (Fels Institute, Temple University) described research, conducted in collaboration with Dr Dan A Liebermann, aimed at deciphering the roles of 'myc, myb, and E2F as negative regulators of terminal differentiation', using hematopoietic cells as model system. Dr Daniel G Tenen (Harvard Medical School), described studies aimed at understanding the 'Regulation of hematopoietic cell development by lineage specific transcription regulators'. Dr George C Prendergast (The Wistar Institute) talked about the 'Myc-Bin1 signaling pathway in cell death and differentiation. Dr Ruth J Muschel (University of Pennsylvania) spoke about work, conducted in collaboration with Dr WG McKenna, aimed at

  13. Overexpression of IL-1 receptor accessory protein in stem and progenitor cells and outcome correlation in AML and MDS

    PubMed Central

    Barreyro, Laura; Will, Britta; Bartholdy, Boris; Zhou, Li; Todorova, Tihomira I.; Stanley, Robert F.; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Montagna, Cristina; Parekh, Samir; Pellagatti, Andrea; Boultwood, Jacqueline; Paietta, Elisabeth; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Cripe, Larry; Fernandez, Hugo F.; Greenberg, Peter L.; Tallman, Martin S.; Steidl, Christian; Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Verma, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Cellular and interpatient heterogeneity and the involvement of different stem and progenitor compartments in leukemogenesis are challenges for the identification of common pathways contributing to the initiation and maintenance of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we used a strategy of parallel transcriptional analysis of phenotypic long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), short-term HSCs, and granulocyte-monocyte progenitors from individuals with high-risk (−7/7q−) AML and compared them with the corresponding cell populations from healthy controls. This analysis revealed dysregulated expression of 11 genes, including IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), in all leukemic stem and progenitor cell compartments. IL1RAP protein was found to be overexpressed on the surface of HSCs of AML patients, and marked cells with the −7/7q− anomaly. IL1RAP was also overexpressed on HSCs of patients with normal karyotype AML and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, suggesting a pervasive role in different disease subtypes. High IL1RAP expression was independently associated with poor overall survival in 3 independent cohorts of AML patients (P = 2.2 × 10−7). Knockdown of IL1RAP decreased clonogenicity and increased cell death of AML cells. Our study identified genes dysregulated in stem and progenitor cells in −7/7q− AML, and suggests that IL1RAP may be a promising therapeutic and prognostic target in AML and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. PMID:22723552

  14. Overexpression of IL-1 receptor accessory protein in stem and progenitor cells and outcome correlation in AML and MDS.

    PubMed

    Barreyro, Laura; Will, Britta; Bartholdy, Boris; Zhou, Li; Todorova, Tihomira I; Stanley, Robert F; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Montagna, Cristina; Parekh, Samir; Pellagatti, Andrea; Boultwood, Jacqueline; Paietta, Elisabeth; Ketterling, Rhett P; Cripe, Larry; Fernandez, Hugo F; Greenberg, Peter L; Tallman, Martin S; Steidl, Christian; Mitsiades, Constantine S; Verma, Amit; Steidl, Ulrich

    2012-08-09

    Cellular and interpatient heterogeneity and the involvement of different stem and progenitor compartments in leukemogenesis are challenges for the identification of common pathways contributing to the initiation and maintenance of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we used a strategy of parallel transcriptional analysis of phenotypic long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), short-term HSCs, and granulocyte-monocyte progenitors from individuals with high-risk (-7/7q-) AML and compared them with the corresponding cell populations from healthy controls. This analysis revealed dysregulated expression of 11 genes, including IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), in all leukemic stem and progenitor cell compartments. IL1RAP protein was found to be overexpressed on the surface of HSCs of AML patients, and marked cells with the -7/7q- anomaly. IL1RAP was also overexpressed on HSCs of patients with normal karyotype AML and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, suggesting a pervasive role in different disease subtypes. High IL1RAP expression was independently associated with poor overall survival in 3 independent cohorts of AML patients (P = 2.2 × 10(-7)). Knockdown of IL1RAP decreased clonogenicity and increased cell death of AML cells. Our study identified genes dysregulated in stem and progenitor cells in -7/7q- AML, and suggests that IL1RAP may be a promising therapeutic and prognostic target in AML and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

  15. Overexpression of Kinase-Negative Protein Kinase Cδ in Pancreatic β-Cells Protects Mice From Diet-Induced Glucose Intolerance and β-Cell Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hennige, Anita M.; Ranta, Felicia; Heinzelmann, Isabel; Düfer, Martina; Michael, Diana; Braumüller, Heidi; Lutz, Stefan Z.; Lammers, Reiner; Drews, Gisela; Bosch, Fatima; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Ullrich, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In vitro models suggest that free fatty acid–induced apoptotic β-cell death is mediated through protein kinase C (PKC)δ. To examine the role of PKCδ signaling in vivo, transgenic mice overexpressing a kinase-negative PKCδ (PKCδKN) selectively in β-cells were generated and analyzed for glucose homeostasis and β-cell survival. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mice were fed a standard or high-fat diet (HFD). Blood glucose and insulin levels were determined after glucose loads. Islet size, cleaved caspase-3, and PKCδ expression were estimated by immunohistochemistry. In isolated islet cells apoptosis was assessed with TUNEL/TO-PRO3 DNA staining and the mitochondrial potential by rhodamine-123 staining. Changes in phosphorylation and subcellular distribution of forkhead box class O1 (FOXO1) were analyzed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS PKCδKN mice were protected from HFD-induced glucose intolerance. This was accompanied by increased insulin levels in vivo, by an increased islet size, and by a reduced staining of β-cells for cleaved caspase-3 compared with wild-type littermates. In accordance, long-term treatment with palmitate increased apoptotic cell death of isolated islet cells from wild-type but not from PKCδKN mice. PKCδKN overexpression protected islet cells from palmitate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibited nuclear accumulation of FOXO1 in mouse islet and INS-1E cells. The inhibition of nuclear accumulation of FOXO1 by PKCδKN was accompanied by an increased phosphorylation of FOXO1 at Ser256 and a significant reduction of FOXO1 protein. CONCLUSIONS Overexpression of PKCδKN in β-cells protects from HFD-induced β-cell failure in vivo by a mechanism that involves inhibition of fatty acid–mediated apoptosis, inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction, and inhibition of FOXO1 activation. PMID:19826167

  16. Zinc induces cell death in immortalized embryonic hippocampal cells via activation of Akt-GSK-3beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Min, Young Kyu; Lee, Jong Eun; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2007-01-15

    Zinc is an essential catalytic and structural element of many proteins and a signaling messenger that is released by neuronal activity at many central excitatory synapses. Excessive synaptic release of zinc followed by entry into vulnerable neurons contributes severe neuronal cell death. We have previously observed that zinc-induced neuronal cell death is accompanied by Akt activation in embryonic hippocampal progenitor (H19-7) cells. In the present study, we examined the role of Akt activation and its downstream signaling events during extracellular zinc-induced neuronal cell death. Treatment of H19-7 cells with 10 microM of zinc plus zinc ionophore, pyrithione, led to increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser-473/Thr-308 and increased Akt kinase activity. Zinc-induced Akt activation was accompanied by increased Tyr-phosphorylated GSK-3beta as well as increased GSK-3beta kinase activity. Transient overexpression of a kinase-deficient Akt mutant remarkably suppressed GSK-3beta activation and cell death. Furthermore, tau phosphorylation, but not the degradation of beta-catenin, was dependent upon zinc-induced GSK-3beta activation and contributed to cell death. The current data suggest that, following exposure to zinc, the sequential activation of Akt and GSK-3beta plays an important role directing hippocampal neural precursor cell death.

  17. Establishment of human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells with overexpressed human hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Cheng, Hongjing; Liu, Jinyu; Zhang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Chronic liver disease has become a major health problem that causes serious damage to human health. Since the existing treatment effect was not ideal, we need to seek new treatment methods. We utilized the gene recombination technology to obtain the human hair mesenchymal stem cells which overexpression of human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF). Furthermore, we verified the property of transfected cells through detecting surface marker by flow cytometry. We show here establishment of the hHGF-overexpressing lentivirus vector, and successfully transfection to human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells. The verified experiments could demonstrate the human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells which have been transfected still have the properties of stem cells. We successfully constructed human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells which overexpression hHGF, and maintain the same properties compared with pro-transfected cells.

  18. Developmental regulation of the Bcl-2 protein and susceptibility to cell death in B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Merino, R; Ding, L; Veis, D J; Korsmeyer, S J; Nuñez, G

    1994-01-01

    Cell death is a prominent feature of B cell development. For example, a large population of B cells dies at the pre-B cell stage presumably due to the failure to express a functional immunoglobulin receptor. In addition, developing B cells expressing antigen receptors for self are selectively eliminated at the immature B cell stage. The molecular signals that control B cell survival are largely unknown. The product of the bcl-2 proto-oncogene may be involved as its overexpression inhibits apoptotic cell death in a variety of biological systems. However, the physiological role of the endogenous Bcl-2 protein during B cell development is undetermined. Here we show a striking developmental regulation of the Bcl-2 protein in B lymphocytes. Bcl-2 is highly expressed in CD43+ B cell precursors (pro-B cells) and mature B cells but downregulated at the pre-B and immature B cell stages of development. We found that Bcl-2 expressed by B cells is a long-lived protein with a half-life of approximately 10 h. Importantly, susceptibility to apoptosis mediated by the glucocorticoid hormone dexamethasone is stage-dependent in developing B cells and correlates with the levels of Bcl-2 protein. Furthermore, expression of a bcl-2 transgene rescued pre-B and immature B cells from dexamethasone-induced cell death, indicating that Bcl-2 can inhibit the apoptotic cell death of progenitors and early B cells. Taken together, these findings argue that Bcl-2 is a physiological signal controlling cell death during B cell development. Images PMID:8313913

  19. Pepper mitochondrial FORMATE DEHYDROGENASE1 regulates cell death and defense responses against bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Choi, Du Seok; Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2014-11-01

    Formate dehydrogenase (FDH; EC 1.2.1.2) is an NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide. Here, we report the identification and characterization of pepper (Capsicum annuum) mitochondrial FDH1 as a positive regulator of cell death and defense responses. Transient expression of FDH1 caused hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death in pepper and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The D-isomer -: specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase signatures of FDH1 were required for the induction of HR-like cell death and FDH activity. FDH1 contained a mitochondrial targeting sequence at the N-terminal region; however, mitochondrial localization of FDH1 was not essential for the induction of HR-like cell death and FDH activity. FDH1 silencing in pepper significantly attenuated the cell death response and salicylic acid levels but stimulated growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria. By contrast, transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) overexpressing FDH1 exhibited greater resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato in a salicylic acid-dependent manner. Arabidopsis transfer DNA insertion mutant analysis indicated that AtFDH1 expression is required for basal defense and resistance gene-mediated resistance to P. syringae pv tomato infection. Taken together, these data suggest that FDH1 has an important role in HR-like cell death and defense responses to bacterial pathogens. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. SET overexpression in HEK293 cells regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins levels within a mitochondrial fission/reduced autophagic flux scenario.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luciana O; Goto, Renata N; Neto, Marinaldo P C; Sousa, Lucas O; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andréia M

    2015-03-06

    We hypothesized that SET, a protein accumulated in some cancer types and Alzheimer disease, is involved in cell death through mitochondrial mechanisms. We addressed the mRNA and protein levels of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 (S and L isoforms) by quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence as well as other mitochondrial involvements, in HEK293 cells overexpressing the SET protein (HEK293/SET), either in the presence or absence of oxidative stress induced by the pro-oxidant t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). SET overexpression in HEK293 cells decreased UCP1 and increased UCP2 and UCP3 (S/L) mRNA and protein levels, whilst also preventing lipid peroxidation and decreasing the content of cellular ATP. SET overexpression also (i) decreased the area of mitochondria and increased the number of organelles and lysosomes, (ii) increased mitochondrial fission, as demonstrated by increased FIS1 mRNA and FIS-1 protein levels, an apparent accumulation of DRP-1 protein, and an increase in the VDAC protein level, and (iii) reduced autophagic flux, as demonstrated by a decrease in LC3B lipidation (LC3B-II) in the presence of chloroquine. Therefore, SET overexpression in HEK293 cells promotes mitochondrial fission and reduces autophagic flux in apparent association with up-regulation of UCP2 and UCP3; this implies a potential involvement in cellular processes that are deregulated such as in Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Armet, a UPR-upregulated protein, inhibits cell proliferation and ER stress-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolou, Andria; Shen Yuxian; Liang Yan; Luo Jun; Fang Shengyun

    2008-08-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress that initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR activates both adaptive and apoptotic pathways, which contribute differently to disease pathogenesis. To further understand the functional mechanisms of UPR, we identified 12 commonly UPR-upregulated genes by expression microarray analysis. Here, we describe characterization of Armet/MANF, one of the 12 genes whose function was not clear. We demonstrated that the Armet/MANF protein was upregulated by various forms of ER stress in several cell lines as well as by cerebral ischemia of rat. Armet/MANF was localized in the ER and Golgi and was also a secreted protein. Silencing Armet/MANF by siRNA oligos in HeLa cells rendered cells more susceptible to ER stress-induced death, but surprisingly increased cell proliferation and reduced cell size. Overexpression of Armet/MANF inhibited cell proliferation and improved cell viability under glucose-free conditions and tunicamycin treatment. Based on its inhibitory properties for both proliferation and cell death we have demonstrated, Armet is, thus, a novel secreted mediator of the adaptive pathway of UPR.

  2. Hypermutator Salmonella Heidelberg induces an early cell death in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Zenbaa, Neila; Bouchard, Damien; Lavault, Marie-Thérèse; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Bousarghin, Latifa

    2015-10-22

    We have previously described that a strain of Salmonella Heidelberg with a hypermutator phenotype, B182, adhered strongly to HeLa cells. In this work, we showed that this hypermutator Salmonella strain invaded HeLa epithelial cells and induced cytoskeleton alteration. Those changes lead to HeLa cell death which was characteristic of apoptosis. For the first time, we showed that this hypermutator strain induced apoptosis associated with the activation of caspases 2, 9 and 3. Complementation of B182 strain showed a decrease in cells death induction. In the presence of other Salmonella Heidelberg with a normomutator phenotype, such as WT and SL486, cell death and caspase 3 were undetectable. These results suggested that early apoptosis and caspase 3 activation were specific to B182. Besides, B182 induced LDH release and caspase 3 activation in CaCo-2 and HCT116 cells. Heat-treated B182 and diffusible products failed to induce this phenotype. Epithelial cells treatment with cytochalasin D caused the inhibition of B182 internalisation and caspase 3 activation. These results showed that this cell death required active S. Heidelberg B182 protein synthesis and bacterial internalisation. However sipB and sopB, usually involved in apoptosis induced by Salmonella were not overexpressed in B182, contrary to fimA and fliC. Comparative genome analysis showed numerous mutations as in rpoS which would be more investigated. The role of the hypermutator phenotype might be suspected to be implicated in these specific features. This result expands our knowledge about strong mutators frequently found in bacterial organisms isolated from clinical specimens.

  3. Apoptosis and tumor cell death in response to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells).

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Oskar; Aits, Sonja; Brest, Patrick; Gustafsson, Lotta; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Wullt, Björn; Svanborg, Catharina

    2008-01-01

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a molecular complex derived from human milk that kills tumor cells by a process resembling programmed cell death. The complex consists of partially unfolded alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid, and both the protein and the fatty acid are required for cell death. HAMLET has broad antitumor activity in vitro, and its therapeutic effect has been confirmed in vivo in a human glioblastoma rat xenograft model, in patients with skin papillomas and in patients with bladder cancer. The mechanisms of tumor cell death remain unclear, however. Immediately after the encounter with tumor cells, HAMLET invades the cells and causes mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, phosphatidyl serine exposure, and a low caspase response. A fraction of the cells undergoes morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, but caspase inhibition does not rescue the cells and Bcl-2 overexpression or altered p53 status does not influence the sensitivity of tumor cells to HAMLET. HAMLET also creates a state of unfolded protein overload and activates 20S proteasomes, which contributes to cell death. In parallel, HAMLET translocates to tumor cell nuclei, where high-affinity interactions with histones cause chromatin disruption, loss of transcription, and nuclear condensation. The dying cells also show morphological changes compatible with macroautophagy, and recent studies indicate that macroautophagy is involved in the cell death response to HAMLET. The results suggest that HAMLET, like a hydra with many heads, may interact with several crucial cellular organelles, thereby activating several forms of cell death, in parallel. This complexity might underlie the rapid death response of tumor cells and the broad antitumor activity of HAMLET.

  4. Inhibition of Cdk5 induces cell death of tumor-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Mandl, Melanie M; Zhang, Siwei; Ulrich, Melanie; Schmoeckel, Elisa; Mayr, Doris; Vollmar, Angelika M; Liebl, Johanna

    2017-03-28

    Tumour-initiating cells (TICs) account for chemoresistance, tumour recurrence and metastasis, and therefore represent a major problem in tumour therapy. However, strategies to address TICs are limited. Recent studies indicate Cdk5 as a promising target for anti-cancer therapy and Cdk5 has recently been associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, a role of Cdk5 in TICs has not been described yet. Expression of Cdk5 in human cancer tissue was analysed by staining of a human tissue microarray (TMA). Functional effects of Cdk5 overexpression, genetic knockdown by siRNA and shRNA, and pharmacologic inhibition by the small molecule roscovitine were tested in migration, invasion, cell death, and tumorsphere assays and in tumour establishment in vivo. For mechanistic studies, molecular biology methods were applied. In fact, here we pin down a novel function of Cdk5 in TICs: knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of Cdk5 impaired tumorsphere formation and reduced tumour establishment in vivo. Conversely, Cdk5 overexpression promoted tumorsphere formation which was in line with increased expression of Cdk5 in human breast cancer tissues as shown by staining of a human TMA. In order to understand how Cdk5 inhibition affects tumorsphere formation, we identify a role of Cdk5 in detachment-induced cell death: Cdk5 inhibition induced apoptosis in tumorspheres by stabilizing the transcription factor Foxo1 which results in increased levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim. In summary, our study elucidates a Cdk5-Foxo1-Bim pathway in cell death in tumorspheres and suggests Cdk5 as a potential target to address TICs.

  5. Antagonic activities of Trypanosoma cruzi metacaspases affect the balance between cell proliferation, death and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Laverrière, M; Cazzulo, J J; Alvarez, V E

    2012-08-01

    Metacaspases are distant relatives of animal caspases present in plants, fungi and protozoa. At variance with caspases, metacaspases exhibit stringent specificity for basic amino-acid residues and are absolutely dependent on millimolar concentrations of calcium. In the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, metacaspases have been suggested to be involved in an apoptosis-like phenomenon upon exposure of the parasite to fresh human serum (FHS). Nuclear relocalization of metacaspases was observed after FHS treatment and overexpression of metacaspase-5 led to enhanced sensitivity to this stimulus. Here we report some biochemical properties of T. cruzi metacaspases. Performing fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of epimastigotes inducibly overexpressing metacaspase-3, we demonstrate a role for this metacaspase in cell cycle progression, protection of epimastigotes from naturally occurring cell death and differentiation to infective metacyclic trypomastigotes. We also show that regulation of metacaspase-3 activity is important for cell cycle completion inside the mammalian host. On the other hand, inducible overexpression of metacaspase-5 lacking its C-terminal domain caused an apoptotic-like response. These results suggest that the two T. cruzi metacaspases could play an important role in the life cycle and bring to light the close relationship between cell division, death and differentiation in this ancient unicellular eukaryote.

  6. Mitochondrial oxidant stress triggers cell death in simulated ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Loor, Gabriel; Kondapalli, Jyothisri; Iwase, Hirotaro; Chandel, Navdeep S; Waypa, Gregory B; Guzy, Robert D; Vanden Hoek, Terry L; Schumacker, Paul T

    2011-07-01

    To clarify the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), we studied cell death mechanisms in a cellular model of I/R. Oxidant stress during simulated ischemia was detected in the mitochondrial matrix using mito-roGFP, a ratiometric redox sensor, and by Mito-Sox Red oxidation. Reperfusion-induced death was attenuated by over-expression of Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) or mitochondrial phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (mito-PHGPx), but not by catalase, mitochondria-targeted catalase, or Cu,Zn-SOD. Protection was also conferred by chemically distinct antioxidant compounds, and mito-roGFP oxidation was attenuated by NAC, or by scavenging of residual O(2) during the ischemia (anoxic ischemia). Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) oscillation/opening was monitored by real-time imaging of mitochondrial calcein fluorescence. Oxidant stress caused release of calcein to the cytosol during ischemia, a response that was inhibited by chemically diverse antioxidants, anoxia, or over-expression of Mn-SOD or mito-PHGPx. These findings suggest that mitochondrial oxidant stress causes oscillation of the mPTP prior to reperfusion. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol was not detected until after reperfusion, and was inhibited by anoxic ischemia or antioxidant administration during ischemia. Although DNA fragmentation was detected after I/R, no evidence of Bax activation was detected. Over-expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-X(L) in cardiomyocytes did not confer protection against I/R-induced cell death. Moreover, murine embryonic fibroblasts with genetic depletion of Bax and Bak, or over-expression of Bcl-X(L), failed to show protection against I/R. These findings indicate that mitochondrial ROS during ischemia triggers mPTP activation, mitochondrial depolarization, and cell death during reperfusion through a Bax/Bak-independent cell death pathway. Therefore

  7. Cell death signaling and anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Vacchelli, Erika; Kroemer, Guido

    2011-01-01

    For a long time, it was commonly believed that efficient anticancer regimens would either trigger the apoptotic demise of tumor cells or induce a permanent arrest in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, i.e., senescence. The recent discovery that necrosis can occur in a regulated fashion and the increasingly more precise characterization of the underlying molecular mechanisms have raised great interest, as non-apoptotic pathways might be instrumental to circumvent the resistance of cancer cells to conventional, pro-apoptotic therapeutic regimens. Moreover, it has been shown that some anticancer regimens engage lethal signaling cascades that can ignite multiple oncosuppressive mechanisms, including apoptosis, necrosis, and senescence. Among these signaling pathways is mitotic catastrophe, whose role as a bona fide cell death mechanism has recently been reconsidered. Thus, anticancer regimens get ever more sophisticated, and often distinct strategies are combined to maximize efficacy and minimize side effects. In this review, we will discuss the importance of apoptosis, necrosis, and mitotic catastrophe in the response of tumor cells to the most common clinically employed and experimental anticancer agents.

  8. Cell Death Signaling and Anticancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Vacchelli, Erika; Kroemer, Guido

    2011-01-01

    For a long time, it was commonly believed that efficient anticancer regimens would either trigger the apoptotic demise of tumor cells or induce a permanent arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, i.e., senescence. The recent discovery that necrosis can occur in a regulated fashion and the increasingly more precise characterization of the underlying molecular mechanisms have raised great interest, as non-apoptotic pathways might be instrumental to circumvent the resistance of cancer cells to conventional, pro-apoptotic therapeutic regimens. Moreover, it has been shown that some anticancer regimens engage lethal signaling cascades that can ignite multiple oncosuppressive mechanisms, including apoptosis, necrosis, and senescence. Among these signaling pathways is mitotic catastrophe, whose role as a bona fide cell death mechanism has recently been reconsidered. Thus, anticancer regimens get ever more sophisticated, and often distinct strategies are combined to maximize efficacy and minimize side effects. In this review, we will discuss the importance of apoptosis, necrosis, and mitotic catastrophe in the response of tumor cells to the most common clinically employed and experimental anticancer agents. PMID:22655227

  9. RB mutation and RAS overexpression induce resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Morales, Mario; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier; Golán-Cancela, Irene; Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Costoya, Jose A; de la Cruz, Verónica Pérez; Moreno-Jiménez, Sergio; Sotelo, Julio; Pineda, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Several theories aim to explain the malignant transformation of cells, including the mutation of tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes. Deletion of Rb (a tumor suppressor), overexpression of mutated Ras (a proto-oncogene), or both, are sufficient for in vitro gliomagenesis, and these genetic traits are associated with their proliferative capacity. An emerging hallmark of cancer is the ability of tumor cells to evade the immune system. Whether specific mutations are related with this, remains to be analyzed. To address this issue, three transformed glioma cell lines were obtained (Rb(-/-), Ras(V12), and Rb(-/-)/Ras(V12)) by in vitro retroviral transformation of astrocytes, as previously reported. In addition, Ras(V12) and Rb(-/-)/Ras(V12) transformed cells were injected into SCID mice and after tumor growth two stable glioma cell lines were derived. All these cells were characterized in terms of Rb and Ras gene expression, morphology, proliferative capacity, expression of MHC I, Rae1δ, and Rae1αβγδε, mult1, H60a, H60b, H60c, as ligands for NK cell receptors, and their susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Our results show that transformation of astrocytes (Rb loss, Ras overexpression, or both) induced phenotypical and functional changes associated with resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, the transfer of cell lines of transformed astrocytes into SCID mice increased resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, thus suggesting that specific changes in a tumor suppressor (Rb) and a proto-oncogene (Ras) are enough to confer resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in glioma cells and therefore provide some insight into the ability of tumor cells to evade immune responses.

  10. Inhibition of cell growth by BrMC through inactivation of Akt in HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    CAO, XIAO-ZHENG; XIANG, HONG-LIN; QUAN, MEI-FANG; HE, LI-HUA

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that chrysin (ChR) and its analogs induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human estrogen receptor-positive/-negative breast cancer cells. However, it was unknown whether 8-bromo-7-methoxychrysin (BrMC), a novel synthetic ChR analog, inhibited the cell growth of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)/neu-overexpressing breast cancers. In the present study, it was demonstrated that BrMC preferentially inhibited the cell viability of HER-2/neu-overexpressing MDA-MB-453 and BT-474 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that HER-2/neu expression and tyrosine phosphorylation were inhibited by BrMC in a concentration-dependent manner; whereas the proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, significantly prevented BrMC-induced HER-2/neu depletion and cell death in MDA-MB-453 cells. This directly indicated that BrMC-induced HER-2/neu depletion and cell growth inhibition was mediated by a proteasomal pathway. BrMC significantly downregulated the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDK4, followed by the suppression of protein kinase B phosphorylation and downstream effectors, GSK-3β and β-catenin. A colony formation assay also confirmed the growth-inhibitory effects of BrMC. Thus, these findings clearly demonstrate the anticancer activity of BrMC against human HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Thus, these findings clearly demonstrate the anticancer activity of BrMC against human HER 2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells, and highlight BrMC as a promising candidate for breast cancer therapy. PMID:24765191

  11. S100A4 is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells and promotes cell growth and cell motility

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Na; Sato, Daisuke; Saiki, Yuriko; Sunamura, Makoto; Fukushige, Shinichi; Horii, Akira

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • We observed frequent overexpression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines. • Knockdown of S100A4 suppressed proliferation in lung cancer cells. • Forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility in lung cancer cells. • PRDM2 was found to be one of the downstream suppressed genes of S100A4. - Abstract: S100A4, a small calcium-binding protein belonging to the S100 protein family, is commonly overexpressed in a variety of tumor types and is widely accepted to associate with metastasis by regulating the motility and invasiveness of cancer cells. However, its biological role in lung carcinogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we found that S100A4 was frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells, irrespective of histological subtype. Then we performed knockdown and forced expression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines and found that specific knockdown of S100A4 effectively suppressed cell proliferation only in lung cancer cells with S100A4-overexpression; forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility only in S100A4 low-expressing lung cancer cells. PRDM2 and VASH1, identified as novel upregulated genes by microarray after specific knockdown of S100A4 in pancreatic cancer, were also analyzed, and we found that PRDM2 was significantly upregulated after S100A4-knockdown in one of two analyzed S100A4-overexpressing lung cancer cells. Our present results suggest that S100A4 plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis by means of cell proliferation and motility by a pathway similar to that in pancreatic cancer.

  12. Invariant NKT cells increase drug-induced osteosarcoma cell death

    PubMed Central

    Fallarini, S; Paoletti, T; Orsi Battaglini, N; Lombardi, G

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In osteosarcoma (OS) patients, only a limited number of drugs are active and the regimens currently in use include a combination of at least two of these drugs: doxorubicin, cisplatin, methotrexate and ifosfamide. Today, 30–40% of patients still die of OS highlighting the urgent need for new treatments. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a lymphocyte lineage with features of both T and NK cells, playing important roles in tumour suppression. Our aim was to test whether the cytoxicity induced by cisplatin, doxorubicin and methotrexate against OS cells can be enhanced by iNKT cell treatment. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH iNKT cells were purified from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by cell sorting (Vα24Vβ11+ cells) and used as effector cells against OS cells (U2-OS, HOS, MG-63). Cell death (calcein-AM method), perforin/granzyme B and Fas/FasL expressions were determined by flow cytometry. CD1d expression was analysed at both the gene and protein level. KEY RESULTS iNKT cells were cytotoxic against OS cells through a CD1d-dependent mechanism. This activity was specific for tumour cells, because human CD1d+ mesenchymal stem cells and CD1d- osteoblasts were not affected. iNKT cell treatment enhanced drug-induced OS cell death in a concentration-dependent manner and this effect was reduced in CD1d-silenced OS cells. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS iNKT cells kill malignant, but not non-malignant, cells. iNKT cell treatment enhances the cytotoxicity of anti-neoplastic drugs against OS cells in a CD1d-dependent manner. The present data encourage further studies on the use of iNKT cells in OS therapy. PMID:22817659

  13. SrrAB Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Cell Death through Regulation of cidABC Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Windham, Ian H.; Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Bose, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Vinai C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The death and lysis of a subpopulation in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm cells are thought to benefit the surviving population by releasing extracellular DNA, a critical component of the biofilm extracellular matrix. Although the means by which S. aureus controls cell death and lysis is not understood, studies implicate the role of the cidABC and lrgAB operons in this process. Recently, disruption of the srrAB regulatory locus was found to cause increased cell death during biofilm development, likely as a result of the sensitivity of this mutant to hypoxic growth. In the current study, we extended these findings by demonstrating that cell death in the ΔsrrAB mutant is dependent on expression of the cidABC operon. The effect of cidABC expression resulted in the generation of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and was independent of acetate production. Interestingly, consistently with previous studies, cidC-encoded pyruvate oxidase was found to be important for the generation of acetic acid, which initiates the cell death process. However, these studies also revealed for the first time an important role of the cidB gene in cell death, as disruption of cidB in the ΔsrrAB mutant background decreased ROS generation and cell death in a cidC-independent manner. The cidB mutation also caused decreased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, which suggests a complex role for this system in ROS metabolism. Overall, the results of this study provide further insight into the function of the cidABC operon in cell death and reveal its contribution to the oxidative stress response. IMPORTANCE The manuscript focuses on cell death mechanisms in Staphylococcus aureus and provides important new insights into the genes involved in this ill-defined process. By exploring the cause of increased stationary-phase death in an S. aureus ΔsrrAB regulatory mutant, we found that the decreased viability of this mutant was a consequence of the overexpression of the cid

  14. Elisidepsin Interacts Directly with Glycosylceramides in the Plasma Membrane of Tumor Cells to Induce Necrotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Guijarro, José Manuel; García, Carolina; Macías, Álvaro; García-Fernández, Luis Francisco; Moreno, Cristina; Reyes, Fernando; Martínez-Leal, Juan Fernando; Fernández, Rogelio; Martínez, Valentín; Valenzuela, Carmen; Lillo, M. Pilar; Galmarini, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane integrity is essential for cell life. Any major break on it immediately induces the death of the affected cell. Different molecules were described as disrupting this cell structure and thus showing antitumor activity. We have previously defined that elisidepsin (Irvalec®, PM02734) inserts and self-organizes in the plasma membrane of tumor cells, inducing a rapid loss of membrane integrity, cell permeabilization and necrotic death. Here we show that, in sensitive HCT-116 colorectal cells, all these effects are consequence of the interaction of elisidepsin with glycosylceramides in the cell membrane. Of note, an elisidepsin-resistant subline (HCT-116-Irv) presented reduced levels of glycosylceramides and no accumulation of elisidepsin in the plasma membrane. Consequently, drug treatment did not induce the characteristic necrotic cell death. Furthermore, GM95, a mutant derivative from B16 mouse melanoma cells lacking ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG) activity and thus the synthesis of glycosylceramides, was also resistant to elisidepsin. Over-expression of UGCG gene in these deficient cells restored glycosylceramides synthesis, rendering them sensitive to elisidepsin, at a similar level than parental B16 cells. These results indicate that glycosylceramides act as membrane targets of elisidepsin, facilitating its insertion in the plasma membrane and the subsequent membrane permeabilization that leads to drug-induced cell death. They also indicate that cell membrane lipids are a plausible target for antineoplastic therapy. PMID:26474061

  15. Prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition attenuates the toxicity of a proteasomal inhibitor, lactacystin, in the alpha-synuclein overexpressing cell culture.

    PubMed

    Myöhänen, Timo T; Norrbacka, Susanna; Savolainen, Mari H

    2017-01-01

    Lewy bodies, the histopathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), contain insoluble and aggregated α-synuclein (aSyn) and many other proteins, proposing a role for failure in protein degradation system in the PD pathogenesis. Proteasomal dysfunction has indeed been linked to PD and aSyn oligomers have been shown to inhibit proteasomes and autophagy. Our recent studies have shown that inhibitors of prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) can prevent the aggregation and enhance the clearance of accumulated aSyn, and therefore, we wanted to study if PREP inhibition can overcome the aSyn aggregation and toxicity induced by lactacystin, a proteasomal inhibitor. The cells overexpressing human A30P or A53T mutated aSyn were incubated with lactacystin and a PREP inhibitor, KYP-2047, for 48h. Theafter, the cells were fractioned, and the effects of lactacystin with/without 1μM KYP-2047 on aSyn aggregation and ubiquitin accumulation, cell viability and on autophagic markers (p62, Beclin1 and LC3BII) were studied. We found that KYP-2047 attenuated lactacystin-induced cell death in mutant aSyn overexpressing cells but not in non-overexpressing control cells. KYP-2047 reduced significantly SDS-insoluble high-molecular-weight aSyn oligomers that were in line with the cell viability results. In addition, significant reduction in protein accumulation marker, p62, was seen in SDS fraction while LC3BII, a marker for autophagosome formation, was increased, indicating to enhanced autophagy. Our results further streghten the possibilities for PREP inhibitors as a potential drug therapy against synucleinopathies and other protein aggregating diseases.

  16. Effect of G Protein–Coupled Receptor Kinase 1 (Grk1) Overexpression on Rod Photoreceptor Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Tiffany; Sakurai, Keisuke; Brown, Bruce M.; Young, Joyce E.; Sheflin, Lowell; Dlugos, Cynthia; Craft, Cheryl M.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Photoreceptor rhodopsin kinase (Rk, G protein–dependent receptor kinase 1 [Grk1]) phosphorylates light-activated opsins and channels them into an inactive complex with visual arrestins. Grk1 deficiency leads to human retinopathy and heightened susceptibility to light-induced photoreceptor cell death in the mouse. The goal of this study was to determine whether excess Grk1 activity is protective against photoreceptor cell death. Methods. Grk1-overexpressing transgenic mice (Grk1+) were generated by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) construct containing mouse Grk1, along with its flanking sequences. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblot analysis, immunostaining, and activity assays were combined with electrophysiology and morphometric analysis, to evaluate Grk1 overexpression and its effect on physiologic and morphologic retinal integrity. Morphometry and nucleosome release assays measured differences in resistance to photoreceptor cell loss between control and transgenic mice exposed to intense light. Results. Compared with control animals, the Grk1+ transgenic line had approximately a threefold increase in Grk1 transcript and immunoreactive protein. Phosphorylated opsin immunochemical staining and in vitro phosphorylation assays confirmed proportionately higher Grk1 enzyme activity. Grk1+ mice retained normal rod function, normal retinal appearance, and lacked evidence of spontaneous apoptosis when reared in cyclic light. In intense light, Grk1+ mice showed photoreceptor damage, and their susceptibility was more pronounced than that of control mice with prolonged exposure times. Conclusions. Enhancing visual pigment deactivation does not appear to protect against apoptosis; however, excess flow of opsin into the deactivation pathway may actually increase susceptibility to stress-induced cell death similar to some forms of retinal degeneration. PMID:19834036

  17. Implication of different domains of the Leishmania major metacaspase in cell death and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Casanova, M; Gonzalez, I J; Sprissler, C; Zalila, H; Dacher, M; Basmaciyan, L; Späth, G F; Azas, N; Fasel, N

    2015-10-22

    Metacaspases (MCAs) are cysteine peptidases expressed in plants, fungi and protozoa, with a caspase-like histidine-cysteine catalytic dyad, but differing from caspases, for example, in their substrate specificity. The role of MCAs is subject to debate: roles in cell cycle control, in cell death or even in cell survival have been suggested. In this study, using a Leishmania major MCA-deficient strain, we showed that L. major MCA (LmjMCA) not only had a role similar to caspases in cell death but also in autophagy and this through different domains. Upon cell death induction by miltefosine or H2O2, LmjMCA is processed, releasing the catalytic domain, which activated substrates via its catalytic dyad His/Cys and a proline-rich C-terminal domain. The C-terminal domain interacted with proteins, notably proteins involved in stress regulation, such as the MAP kinase LmaMPK7 or programmed cell death like the calpain-like cysteine peptidase. We also showed a new role of LmjMCA in autophagy, acting on or upstream of ATG8, involving Lmjmca gene overexpression and interaction of the C-terminal domain of LmjMCA with itself and other proteins. These results allowed us to propose two models, showing the role of LmjMCA in the cell death and also in the autophagy pathway, implicating different protein domains.

  18. Implication of different domains of the Leishmania major metacaspase in cell death and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, M; Gonzalez, I J; Sprissler, C; Zalila, H; Dacher, M; Basmaciyan, L; Späth, G F; Azas, N; Fasel, N

    2015-01-01

    Metacaspases (MCAs) are cysteine peptidases expressed in plants, fungi and protozoa, with a caspase-like histidine–cysteine catalytic dyad, but differing from caspases, for example, in their substrate specificity. The role of MCAs is subject to debate: roles in cell cycle control, in cell death or even in cell survival have been suggested. In this study, using a Leishmania major MCA-deficient strain, we showed that L. major MCA (LmjMCA) not only had a role similar to caspases in cell death but also in autophagy and this through different domains. Upon cell death induction by miltefosine or H2O2, LmjMCA is processed, releasing the catalytic domain, which activated substrates via its catalytic dyad His/Cys and a proline-rich C-terminal domain. The C-terminal domain interacted with proteins, notably proteins involved in stress regulation, such as the MAP kinase LmaMPK7 or programmed cell death like the calpain-like cysteine peptidase. We also showed a new role of LmjMCA in autophagy, acting on or upstream of ATG8, involving Lmjmca gene overexpression and interaction of the C-terminal domain of LmjMCA with itself and other proteins. These results allowed us to propose two models, showing the role of LmjMCA in the cell death and also in the autophagy pathway, implicating different protein domains. PMID:26492367

  19. Nitric oxide during ischemia attenuates oxidant stress and cell death during ischemia and reperfusion in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Hirotaro; Robin, Emmanuel; Guzy, Robert D; Mungai, Paul T; Vanden Hoek, Terry L; Chandel, Navdeep S; Levraut, Jacques; Schumacker, Paul T

    2007-08-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as a cardioprotective agent during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), but the mechanism of protection is unknown. Oxidant stress contributes to cell death in I/R, so we tested whether NO protects by attenuating oxidant stress. Cardiomyocytes and murine embryonic fibroblasts were administered NO (10-1200 nM) during simulated ischemia, and cell death was assessed during reperfusion without NO. In each case, NO abrogated cell death during reperfusion. Cells overexpressing endothelial NO synthase (NOS) exhibited a similar protection, which was abolished by the NOS inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. Protection was not mediated by guanylate cyclase or the mitochondrial K(ATP) channel, as inhibitors of these systems failed to abolish protection. NO did not prevent decreases in mitochondrial potential, but cells protected with NO demonstrated recovery of potential at reperfusion. Measurements using C11-BODIPY reveal that NO attenuates lipid peroxidation during ischemia and reperfusion. Measurements of oxidant stress using the ratiometric redox sensor HSP-FRET demonstrate that NO attenuates protein oxidation during ischemia. These findings reveal that physiological levels of NO during ischemia can attenuate oxidant stress both during ischemia and during reperfusion. This response is associated with a remarkable attenuation of cell death, suggesting that ischemic cell death may be a regulated event.

  20. Redox regulation in plant programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    De Pinto, M C; Locato, V; De Gara, L

    2012-02-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically controlled process described both in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Even if it is clear that PCD occurs in plants, in response to various developmental and environmental stimuli, the signalling pathways involved in the triggering of this cell suicide remain to be characterized. In this review, the main similarities and differences in the players involved in plant and animal PCD are outlined. Particular attention is paid to the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as key inducers of PCD in plants. The involvement of different kinds of ROS, different sites of ROS production, as well as their interaction with other molecules, is crucial in activating PCD in response to specific stimuli. Moreover, the importance is stressed on the balance between ROS production and scavenging, in various cell compartments, for the activation of specific steps in the signalling pathways triggering this cell suicide process. The review focuses on the complexity of the interplay between ROS and antioxidant molecules and enzymes in determining the most suitable redox environment required for the occurrence of different forms of PCD. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Sulfur dioxide induced programmed cell death in Vicia guard cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Huilan; Yin, Jingjing; Liu, Xin; Jing, Xiuqing; Fan, Sanhong; Zhang, Hufang

    2012-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) induced nuclear condensation and nuclear fragmentation and rapid loss of guard cell viability in detached epidermis of Vicia leaves at concentrations of 1 mM and higher (3 h exposure). Caspase inhibitors Z-Asp-CH(2)-DCB (0.1 mM) and TLCK (0.1 mM) markedly suppressed SO(2)-induced cell death. The typical nuclear morphological changes and the inhibition effects of caspase inhibitors suggest the activation of a programmed cell death (PCD) pathway. SO(2)-induced cell death can be blocked by either antioxidants (0.1 mM AsA or 200 U/mL CAT) or Ca(2+) antagonists (0.1mM EGTA or LaCl(3)). AsA and CAT also blocked SO(2)-induced ROS production and [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase. However, EGTA and LaCl(3) can inhibit SO(2)-induced [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase, but cannot suppress SO(2)-induced ROS production. Our results indicate that high concentrations of SO(2) induce guard cell death via a PCD pathway through ROS mediating [Ca(2+)](cyt) elevation, which causes harmful effects to plants.

  2. RASSF4 Overexpression Inhibits the Proliferation, Invasion, EMT, and Wnt Signaling Pathway in Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minglei; Wang, Dapeng; Zhu, Tongtong; Yin, Ruofeng

    2017-01-02

    RASSF4, a member of the RASSF family, is broadly expressed in normal tissues but often inactivated in human cancers. Despite various studies on RASSF4, its role in osteosarcoma remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of RASSF4 expression on osteosarcoma cells and explored the underlying mechanism. The results of our study showed that RASSF4 was lowly expressed in osteosarcoma tissues and cells. RASSF4 overexpression significantly inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion as well as the EMT process in osteosarcoma cells. Meanwhile, we found that RASSF4 overexpression markedly decreased the protein expression of β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc in osteosarcoma cells. In conclusion, our findings showed that RASSF4 overexpression inhibits proliferation, invasion, EMT, and Wnt signaling pathway in osteosarcoma cells. Thus, RASSF4 may be considered a novel target for osteosarcoma treatment.

  3. Cell death pathways in directly irradiated cells and cells exposed to medium from irradiated cells.

    PubMed

    Jella, Kishore Kumar; Garcia, Amaya; McClean, Brendan; Byrne, Hugh J; Lyng, Fiona M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare levels of apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic cell death and senescence after treatment with both direct radiation and irradiated cell conditioned medium. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line) were irradiated (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 Gy) using a cobalt 60 teletherapy unit. For bystander experiments, the medium was harvested from donor HaCaT cells 1 hour after irradiation and transferred to recipient HaCaT cells. Clonogenic assay, apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic cell death, senescence and cell cycle analysis were measured in both directly irradiated cells and bystander cells A reduction in cell survival was observed for both directly irradiated cells and irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM)-treated cells. Early apoptosis and necrosis was observed predominantly after direct irradiation. An increase in the number of cells in G2/M phase was observed at 6 and 12 h which led to mitotic cell death after 72 h following direct irradiation and ICCM treatment. No senescence was observed in the HaCaT cell line following either direct irradiation or treatment with ICCM. This study has shown that directly irradiated cells undergo apoptosis, necrosis and mitotic cell death whereas ICCM-treated cells predominantly undergo mitotic cell death.

  4. Cracking open cell death in the Drosophila ovary

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Tracy L.; Tanner, Elizabeth A.; McCall, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful yet simple system with only a few cell types. Cell death in the ovary can be induced in response to multiple developmental and environmental signals. These cell deaths occur at distinct stages of oogenesis and involve unique mechanisms utilizing apoptotic, autophagic and perhaps necrotic processes. In this review, we summarize recent progress characterizing cell death mechanisms in the fly ovary. PMID:19533361

  5. Activating Cell Death Ligand Signaling Through Proteasome Inhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Activating Cell Death Ligand Signaling Through Proteasome Inhibition PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Steven R Schwarze...SUBTITLE Activating Cell Death Ligand Signaling Through 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Proteasome Inhibition 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0392 5c...proteasome inhibition can act as an anti-neoplastic agent in vivo by sensitizing cancer cells to cell death ligands in the tumor microenvironment

  6. Fetal PGC-1α Overexpression Programs Adult Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Valtat, Bérengère; Riveline, Jean-Pierre; Zhang, Ping; Singh-Estivalet, Amrit; Armanet, Mathieu; Venteclef, Nicolas; Besseiche, Adrien; Kelly, Daniel P.; Tronche, François; Ferré, Pascal; Gautier, Jean-François; Bréant, Bernadette; Blondeau, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Adult β-cell dysfunction, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, can be programmed by adverse fetal environment. We have shown that fetal glucocorticoids (GCs) participate in this programming through inhibition of β-cell development. Here we have investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. We showed that GCs stimulate the expression of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a coregulator of the GCs receptor (GR), and that the overexpression of PGC-1α represses genes important for β-cell development and function. More precisely, PGC-1α inhibited the expression of the key β-cell transcription factor pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1). This repression required the GR and was mediated through binding of a GR/PGC-1α complex to the Pdx1 promoter. To explore PGC-1α function, we generated mice with inducible β-cell PGC-1α overexpression. Mice overexpressing PGC-1α exhibited at adult age impaired glucose tolerance associated with reduced insulin secretion, decreased β-cell mass, and β-cell hypotrophy. Interestingly, PGC-1α expression in fetal life only was sufficient to impair adult β-cell function whereas β-cell PGC-1α overexpression from adult age had no consequence on β-cell function. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the GR and PGC-1α participate in the fetal programming of adult β-cell function through inhibition of Pdx1 expression. PMID:23274887

  7. The Phosphatase PHLPP1 Regulates Akt2, Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Cell Death, and Inhibits Tumor Formation

    PubMed Central

    NITSCHE, CLAUDIA; EDDERKAOUI, MOUAD; MOORE, RYAN M.; EIBL, GUIDO; KASAHARA, NORIYUKI; TREGER, JANET; GRIPPO, PAUL J.; MAYERLE, JULIA; LERCH, MARKUS M.; GUKOVSKAYA, ANNA S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The kinase Akt mediates resistance of pancreatic cancer (PaCa) cells to death and is constitutively active (phosphorylated) in cancer cells. Whereas the kinases that activate Akt are well characterized, less is known about phosphatases that dephosporylate and thereby inactivate it. We investigated regulation of Akt activity and cell death by the phosphatases PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 in PaCa cells, mouse models of PaCa, and human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS We measured the effects of PHLPP overexpression or knockdown with small interfering RNAs on Akt activation and cell death. We examined regulation of PHLPPs by growth factors and reactive oxygen species, as well as associations between PHLPPs and tumorigenesis. RESULTS PHLPP overexpression inactivated Akt, whereas PHLPP knockdown increased phosphorylation of Akt in PaCa cells. Levels of PHLPPs were greatly reduced in human PDAC and in mouse genetic and xenograft models of PaCa. PHLPP activities in PaCa cells were down-regulated by growth factors and Nox4 reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. PHLPP1 selectively dephosphorylated Akt2, whereas PHLPP2 selectively dephosphorylated Akt1. Akt2, but not Akt1, was up-regulated in PDAC, and Akt2 levels correlated with mortality. Consistent with these results, high levels of PHLPP1, which dephosphorylates Akt2 (but not PHLPP2, which dephosphorylates Akt1), correlated with longer survival times of patients with PDAC. In mice, xenograft tumors derived from PaCa cells that overexpress PHLPP1 (but not PHLPP2) had inactivated Akt, greater extent of apoptosis, and smaller size. CONCLUSIONS PHLPP1 has tumor suppressive activity and might represent a therapeutic or diagnostic tool for PDAC. PMID:22044669

  8. Can deaths in police cells be prevented? Experience from Norway and death rates in other countries.

    PubMed

    Aasebø, Willy; Orskaug, Gunnar; Erikssen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To describe the changes in death rates and causes of deaths in Norwegian police cells during the last 2 decades. To review reports on death rates in police cells that have been published in medical journals and elsewhere, and discuss the difficulties of comparing death rates between countries. Data on deaths in Norwegian police cells were collected retrospectively in 2002 and 2012 for two time periods: 1993-2001 (period 1) and 2003-2012 (period 2). Several databases were searched to find reports on deaths in police cells from as many countries as possible. The death rates in Norwegian police cells reduced significantly from 0.83 deaths per year per million inhabitants (DYM) in period 1 to 0.22 DYM in period 2 (p < 0.05). The most common cause of death in period 1 was alcohol intoxication including intracranial bleeding in persons with high blood alcohol levels, and the number declined from 16 persons in period 1 to 1 person in period 2 (p = 0.032). The median death rate in the surveyed Western countries was 0.44 DYM (range: 0.14-1.46 DYM). The number of deaths in Norwegian police cells reduced by about 75% over a period of approximately 10 years. This is probably mainly due to individuals with severe alcohol intoxication no longer being placed in police cells. However, there remain large methodology difficulties in comparing deaths rates between countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Prostate Tumor Overexpressed-1 (PTOV1) promotes docetaxel-resistance and survival of castration resistant prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Cánovas, Verónica; Puñal, Yolanda; Maggio, Valentina; Redondo, Enric; Marín, Mercedes; Mellado, Begoña; Olivan, Mireia; Lleonart, Matilde; Planas, Jacques; Morote, Juan; Paciucci, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is presently incurable. The oncogenic protein PTOV1, first described in prostate cancer, was reported as overexpressed and significantly correlated with poor survival in numerous tumors. Here, we investigated the role of PTOV1 in prostate cancer survival to docetaxel and self-renewal ability. Transduction of PTOV1 in docetaxel-sensitive Du145 and PC3 cells significantly increased cell survival after docetaxel exposure and induced docetaxel-resistance genes expression (ABCB1, CCNG2 and TUBB2B). In addition, PTOV1 induced prostatospheres formation and self-renewal genes expression (ALDH1A1, LIN28A, MYC and NANOG). In contrast, Du145 and PC3 cells knockdown for PTOV1 significantly accumulated in the G2/M phase, presented a concomitant increased subG1 peak, and cell death by apoptosis. These effects were enhanced in docetaxel-resistant cells. Analyses of tumor datasets show that PTOV1 expression significantly correlated with prostate tumor grade, drug resistance (CCNG2) and self-renewal (ALDH1A1, MYC) markers. These genes are concurrently overexpressed in most metastatic lesions. Metastases also show PTOV1 genomic amplification in significant co-occurrence with docetaxel-resistance and self-renewal genes. Our findings identify PTOV1 as a promoter of docetaxel-resistance and self-renewal characteristics for castration resistant prostate cancer. The concomitant increased expression of PTOV1, ALDH1A1 and CCNG2 in primary tumors, may predict metastasis and bad prognosis. PMID:28938627

  10. Xylem cell death: emerging understanding of regulation and function.

    PubMed

    Bollhöner, Benjamin; Prestele, Jakob; Tuominen, Hannele

    2012-02-01

    Evolutionary, as well as genetic, evidence suggests that vascular development evolved originally as a cell death programme that allowed enhanced movement of water in the extinct protracheophytes, and that secondary wall formation in the water-conducting cells evolved afterwards, providing mechanical support for effective long-distance transport of water. The extant vascular plants possess a common regulatory network to coordinate the different phases of xylem maturation, including secondary wall formation, cell death, and finally autolysis of the cell contents, by the action of recently identified NAC domain transcription factors. Consequently, xylem cell death is an inseparable part of the xylem maturation programme, making it difficult to uncouple cell death mechanistically from secondary wall formation, and thus identify the key factors specifically involved in regulation of cell death. Current knowledge suggests that the necessary components for xylem cell death are produced early during xylem differentiation, and cell death is prevented through the action of inhibitors and storage of hydrolytic enzymes in inactive forms in compartments such as the vacuole. Bursting of the central vacuole triggers autolytic hydrolysis of the cell contents, which ultimately leads to cell death. This cascade of events varies between the different xylem cell types. The water-transporting tracheary elements rely on a rapid cell death programme, with hydrolysis of cell contents taking place for the most part, if not entirely, after vacuolar bursting, while the xylem fibres disintegrate cellular contents at a slower pace, well before cell death. This review includes a detailed description of cell morphology, function of plant growth regulators, such as ethylene and thermospermine, and the action of hydrolytic nucleases and proteases during cell death of the different xylem cell types.

  11. E4F1 dysfunction results in autophagic cell death in myeloid leukemic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatchi, Elodie; Rodier, Geneviève; Sardet, Claude

    2011-01-01

    The multifunctional E4F1 protein was originally identified as a cellular target of the E1A adenoviral oncoprotein. Although E4F1 is implicated in several key oncogenic pathways, its roles in tumorigenesis remain unclear. Using a genetically engineered mouse model of myeloid leukemia (histiocytic sarcomas, HS) based on the genetic inactivation of the tumor suppressor Ink4a/Arf locus, we have recently unraveled an unsuspected function of E4F1 in the survival of leukemic cells. In vivo, genetic ablation of E4F1 in established myeloid tumors results in tumor regression. E4F1 inactivation results in a cascade of alterations originating from dysfunctional mitochondria that induce increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and ends in massive autophagic cell death in HS transformed, but not normal myeloid cells. E4F1 depletion also induces cell death in various human myeloid leukemic cell lines, including acute myeloid leukemic (AML) cell lines. Interestingly, the E4F1 protein is overexpressed in a large proportion of human AML samples. These data provide new insights into E4F1-associated survival functions implicated in tumorigenesis and could open the path for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:22024746

  12. E4F1 dysfunction results in autophagic cell death in myeloid leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Hatchi, Elodie; Rodier, Geneviève; Sardet, Claude; Le Cam, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    The multifunctional E4F1 protein was originally identified as a cellular target of the E1A adenoviral oncoprotein. Although E4F1 is implicated in several key oncogenic pathways, its roles in tumorigenesis remain unclear. Using a genetically engineered mouse model of myeloid leukemia (histiocytic sarcomas, HS) based on the genetic inactivation of the tumor suppressor Ink4a/Arf locus, we have recently unraveled an unsuspected function of E4F1 in the survival of leukemic cells. In vivo, genetic ablation of E4F1 in established myeloid tumors results in tumor regression. E4F1 inactivation results in a cascade of alterations originating from dysfunctional mitochondria that induce increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and ends in massive autophagic cell death in HS transformed, but not normal myeloid cells. E4F1 depletion also induces cell death in various human myeloid leukemic cell lines, including acute myeloid leukemic (AML) cell lines. Interestingly, the E4F1 protein is overexpressed in a large proportion of human AML samples. These data provide new insights into E4F1-associated survival functions implicated in tumorigenesis and could open the path for new therapeutic strategies.

  13. Parasitic inhibition of cell death facilitates symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Pannebakker, Bart A; Loppin, Benjamin; Elemans, Coen P H; Humblot, Lionel; Vavre, Fabrice

    2007-01-02

    Symbiotic microorganisms have had a large impact on eukaryotic evolution, with effects ranging from parasitic to mutualistic. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are prime examples of symbiotic microorganisms that have become obligate for their hosts, allowing for a dramatic extension of suitable habitats for life. Out of the extraordinary diversity of bacterial endosymbionts in insects, most are facultative for their hosts, such as the ubiquitous Wolbachia, which manipulates host reproduction. Some endosymbionts, however, have become obligatory for host reproduction and/or survival. In the parasitoid wasp Asobara tabida the presence of Wolbachia is necessary for host oogenesis, but the mechanism involved is yet unknown. We show that Wolbachia influences programmed cell death processes (a host regulatory feature typically targeted by pathogens) in A. tabida, making its presence essential for the wasps' oocytes to mature. This suggests that parasite strategies, such as bacterial regulation of host apoptosis, can drive the evolution of host dependence, allowing for a swift transition from parasitism to mutualism.

  14. Nuclear localized protein-1 (Nulp1) increases cell death of human osteosarcoma cells and binds the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, Hakan; Lindholm, Dan

    2008-02-08

    Nuclear localized protein-1 (Nulp1) is a recently identified gene expressed in mouse and human tissues particularly during embryonic development. Nulp1 belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins that are important in development. The precise function of Nulp1 in cells is however not known. We observed that overexpression of Nulp1 induces a large increase in cell death of human osteosarcoma Saos2 cells with DNA fragmentation. In mouse N2A neuroblastoma cells Nulp1 affected cell proliferation and sensitized cells towards death induced by staurosporine. Staining using a novel antibody localized Nulp1 mainly to the cell nucleus and to some extent to the cytoplasm. Nulp1 binds the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and this interaction was increased during cell death. These results indicate that Nulp1 plays a role in cell death control and may influence tumor growth.

  15. Methods for assessing autophagy and autophagic cell death.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Ezgi; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Maiuri, M Chiara; Criollo, Alfredo; Vitale, Ilio; Hangen, Emilie; Modjtahedi, Nazanine; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Autophagic (or type 2) cell death is characterized by the massive accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (autophagosomes) in the cytoplasm of cells that lack signs of apoptosis (type 1 cell death). Here we detail and critically assess a series of methods to promote and inhibit autophagy via pharmacological and genetic manipulations. We also review the techniques currently available to detect autophagy, including transmission electron microscopy, half-life assessments of long-lived proteins, detection of LC3 maturation/aggregation, fluorescence microscopy, and colocalization of mitochondrion- or endoplasmic reticulum-specific markers with lysosomal proteins. Massive autophagic vacuolization may cause cellular stress and represent a frustrated attempt of adaptation. In this case, cell death occurs with (or in spite of) autophagy. When cell death occurs through autophagy, on the contrary, the inhibition of the autophagic process should prevent cellular demise. Accordingly, we describe a strategy for discriminating cell death with autophagy from cell death through autophagy.

  16. Myc inhibits JNK-mediated cell death in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiuhong; Feng, Yu; Chen, Xinhong; Li, Wenzhe; Xue, Lei

    2017-04-01

    The proto-oncogene Myc is well known for its roles in promoting cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. However, in this study, we found from a genetic screen that Myc inhibits, rather than promotes, cell death triggered by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in Drosophila. Firstly, expression of Drosophila Myc (dMyc) suppresses, whereas loss of dMyc enhances, ectopically activated JNK signaling-induced cell death. Secondly, dMyc impedes physiologically activated JNK pathway-mediated cell death. Thirdly, loss of dMyc triggers JNK pathway activation and JNK-dependent cell death. Finally, the mammalian cMyc gene, when expressed in Drosophila, impedes activated JNK signaling-induced cell death. Thus, besides its well-studied apoptosis promoting function, Myc also antagonizes JNK-mediated cell death in Drosophila, and this function is likely conserved from fly to human.

  17. Geminin overexpression prevents the completion of topoisomerase IIα chromosome decatenation, leading to aneuploidy in human mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The nuclear enzyme topoisomerase IIα (TopoIIα) is able to cleave DNA in a reversible manner, making it a valuable target for agents such as etoposide that trap the enzyme in a covalent bond with the 5′ DNA end to which it cleaves. This prevents DNA religation and triggers cell death in cancer cells. However, development of resistance to these agents limits their therapeutic use. In this study, we examined the therapeutic targeting of geminin for improving the therapeutic potential of TopoIIα agents. Methods Human mammary epithelial (HME) cells and several breast cancer cell lines were used in this study. Geminin, TopoIIα and cell division cycle 7 (Cdc7) silencing were done using specific small interfering RNA. Transit or stable inducible overexpression of these proteins and casein kinase Iε (CKIε) were also used, as well as several pharmacological inhibitors that target TopoIIα, Cdc7 or CKIε. We manipulated HME cells that expressed H2B-GFP, or did not, to detect chromosome bridges. Immunoprecipitation and direct Western blot analysis were used to detect interactions between these proteins and their total expression, respectively, whereas interactions on chromosomal arms were detected using a trapped in agarose DNA immunostaining assay. TopoIIα phosphorylation by Cdc7 or CKIε was done using an in vitro kinase assay. The TopoGen decatenation kit was used to measure TopoIIα decatenation activity. Finally, a comet assay and metaphase chromosome spread were used to detect chromosome breakage and changes in chromosome condensation or numbers, respectively. Results We found that geminin and TopoIIα interact primarily in G2/M/early G1 cells on chromosomes, that geminin recruits TopoIIα to chromosomal decatenation sites or vice versa and that geminin silencing in HME cells triggers the formation of chromosome bridges by suppressing TopoIIα access to chromosomal arms. CKIε kinase phosphorylates and positively regulates TopoIIα chromosome

  18. Aire-Overexpressing Dendritic Cells Induce Peripheral CD4+ T Cell Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongbei; Li, Haijun; Fu, Haiying; Niu, Kunwei; Guo, Yantong; Guo, Chuan; Sun, Jitong; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune regulator (Aire) can promote the ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), which leads to the deletion of autoreactive T cells and consequently prevents autoimmune diseases. However, the functions of Aire in the periphery, such as in dendritic cells (DCs), remain unclear. This study’s aim was to investigate the effect of Aire-overexpressing DCs (Aire cells) on the functions of CD4+ T cells and the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We demonstrated that Aire cells upregulated the mRNA levels of the tolerance-related molecules CD73, Lag3, and FR4 and the apoptosis of CD4+ T cells in STZ-T1D mouse-derived splenocytes. Furthermore, following insulin stimulation, Aire cells decreased the number of CD4+ IFN-γ+ T cells in both STZ-T1D and WT mouse-derived splenocytes and reduced the expression levels of TCR signaling molecules (Ca2+ and p-ERK) in CD4+ T cells. We observed that Aire cells-induced CD4+ T cells could delay the development of T1D. In summary, Aire-expressing DCs inhibited TCR signaling pathways and decreased the quantity of CD4+IFN-γ+ autoreactive T cells. These data suggest a mechanism for Aire in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance and provide a potential method to control autoimmunity by targeting Aire. PMID:26729097

  19. Translational and posttranslational regulation of XIAP by eIF2α and ATF4 promotes ER stress–induced cell death during the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Messah, Carissa; Han, Jaeseok; LaVail, Matthew M.; Kaufman, Randal J.; Lin, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein misfolding activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to help cells cope with ER stress. If ER homeostasis is not restored, UPR promotes cell death. The mechanisms of UPR-mediated cell death are poorly understood. The PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) arm of the UPR is implicated in ER stress–induced cell death, in part through up-regulation of proapoptotic CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Chop−/− cells are partially resistant to ER stress–induced cell death, and CHOP overexpression alone does not induce cell death. These findings suggest that additional mechanisms regulate cell death downstream of PERK. Here we find dramatic suppression of antiapoptosis XIAP proteins in response to chronic ER stress. We find that PERK down-regulates XIAP synthesis through eIF2α and promotes XIAP degradation through ATF4. Of interest, PERK's down-regulation of XIAP occurs independently of CHOP activity. Loss of XIAP leads to increased cell death, whereas XIAP overexpression significantly enhances resistance to ER stress–induced cell death, even in the absence of CHOP. Our findings define a novel signaling circuit between PERK and XIAP that operates in parallel with PERK to CHOP induction to influence cell survival during ER stress. We propose a “two-hit” model of ER stress–induced cell death involving concomitant CHOP up-regulation and XIAP down-regulation both induced by PERK. PMID:24623724

  20. Anticancer metal drugs and immunogenic cell death.

    PubMed

    Terenzi, Alessio; Pirker, Christine; Keppler, Bernhard K; Berger, Walter

    2016-12-01

    Conventional chemotherapeutics, but also innovative precision anticancer compounds, are commonly perceived to target primarily the cancer cell compartment. However, recently it was discovered that some of these compounds can also exert immunomodulatory activities which might be exploited to synergistically enhance their anticancer effects. One specific phenomenon of the interplay between chemotherapy and the anticancer immune response is the so-called "immunogenic cell death" (ICD). ICD was discovered based on a vaccination effect exerted by cancer cells dying from pretreatment with certain chemotherapeutics, termed ICD inducers, in syngeneic transplantation mouse models. Interestingly, only a minority of drugs is able to trigger ICD without a clear-cut relation to chemical structures or their primary modes-of-action. Nevertheless, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are clearly linked to ICD. With regard to metal drugs, oxaliplatin but not cisplatin is considered a bona fide ICD inducer. Taken into account that several experimental metal compounds are efficient ROS and ER stress mediators, presence of potent ICD inducers within the plethora of novel metal complexes seems feasible and has occasionally been reported. In the light of recent successes in cancer immunotherapy, here we review existing literature regarding anticancer metal drugs and ICD induction. We recommend a more profound investigation of the immunogenic features of experimental anticancer metal drugs.

  1. Overexpression of CHOP in Myelinating Cells Does Not Confer a Significant Phenotype under Normal or Metabolic Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Southwood, Cherie M.; Fykkolodziej, Bozena; Maheras, Kathleen J.; Garshott, Danielle M.; Estill, Molly; Fribley, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    The PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) pathway of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is protective against toxic accumulations of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, but is thought to drive cell death via the transcription factor, CHOP. However, in many cell types, CHOP is an obligate step in the PERK pathway, which frames the conundrum of a prosurvival pathway that kills cells. Our laboratory and others have previously demonstrated the prosurvival activity of the PERK pathway in oligodendrocytes. In the current study, we constitutively overexpress CHOP in myelinating cells during development and into adulthood under normal or UPR conditions. We show that this transcription factor does not drive apoptosis. Indeed, we observe no detriment in mice at multiple levels from single cells to mouse behavior and life span. In light of these data and other studies, we reinterpret PERK pathway function in the context of a stochastic vulnerability model, which governs the likelihood that cells undergo cell death upon cessation of UPR protection and while attempting to restore homeostasis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Herein, we tackle the biggest controversy in the UPR literature: the function of the transcription factor CHOP as a protective or a prodeath factor. This manuscript is timely in light of the 2014 Lasker award for the UPR. Our in vivo data show that CHOP is not a prodeath protein, and we demonstrate that myelinating glial cells function normally in the presence of high CHOP expression from development to adulthood. Further, we propose a simplified view of UPR-mediated cell death after CHOP induction. We anticipate our work may turn the tide of the dogmatic view of CHOP and cause a reinvestigation of its function in different cell types. Accordingly, we believe our work will be a watershed for the UPR field. PMID:27335410

  2. Baicalein induces cell death in murine T cell lymphoma via inhibition of thioredoxin system.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Raghavendra S; Pal, Debojyoti; Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh K

    2017-08-31

    We have earlier demonstrated the radioprotective potential of baicalein using murine splenic lymphocytes. Here, we have studied the effect of baicalein on murine T cell lymphoma EL4 cells and investigated the underlying mechanism of action. We observed that baicalein induced a dose dependent cell death in EL4 cells in vitro and significantly reduced the frequency of cancer stem cells. Previously, we have reported that murine and human T cell lymphoma cells have increased oxidative stress tolerance capacity due to active thioredoxin system. Hence, we monitored the effect of baicalein on thioredoxin system in EL4 cells. Docking studies revealed that baicalein could bind to the active site of thioredoxin reductase. Baicalein treatment led to significant reduction in the activity of thioredoxin reductase and nuclear levels of thioredoxin-1 thereby increasing ASK1 levels and caspase-3 activity. Interestingly, CRISPR-Cas9 based knock-out of ASK1 or over-expression of thioredoxin-1 abolished anti-tumor effects of baicalein in EL4 cells. Further, baicalein administration significantly reduced intra-peritoneal tumor burden of EL4 cells in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, our study describes anti-tumor effects of baicalein in EL4 cells via inhibition of thioredoxin system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell death by autophagy: facts and apparent artefacts.

    PubMed

    Denton, D; Nicolson, S; Kumar, S

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy (the process of self-digestion by a cell through the action of enzymes originating within the lysosome of the same cell) is a catabolic process that is generally used by the cell as a mechanism for quality control and survival under nutrient stress conditions. As autophagy is often induced under conditions of stress that could also lead to cell death, there has been a propagation of the idea that autophagy can act as a cell death mechanism. Although there is growing evidence of cell death by autophagy, this type of cell death, often called autophagic cell death, remains poorly defined and somewhat controversial. Merely the presence of autophagic markers in a cell undergoing death does not necessarily equate to autophagic cell death. Nevertheless, studies involving genetic manipulation of autophagy in physiological settings provide evidence for a direct role of autophagy in specific scenarios. This article endeavours to summarise these physiological studies where autophagy has a clear role in mediating the death process and discusses the potential significance of cell death by autophagy.

  4. Endosulfan induced cell death in Sertoli-germ cells of male Wistar rat follows intrinsic mode of cell death.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Divya; Narayan, R; Saxena, D K; Chowdhuri, D Kar

    2014-01-01

    Health of germ cells may affect production of quality gametes either due to endogenous or exogenous factors. Pesticides are among the exogenous factors that can enter the organisms through various routes of exposure and also can affect the reproductive system of an organism. Endosulfan is an organochlorine cyclodiene pesticide used widely for controlling agricultural pests. It has been shown to induce reproductive dysfunctions such as sperm abnormalities, reduced intracellular spermatid count in exposed organisms. Germ cells being the progenitor cells for male gametes and Sertoli cells as their nourishing cells, we examined whether endosulfan induces cell death in Sertoli-germ cells of male rats. Sertoli-germ cells, isolated from 28 d old male Wistar rats, were exposed to endosulfan (2.0, 20.0 and 40.0 μg mL(-1)) for 24-72 h. Cytotoxicity, endosulfan concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, oxidative stress parameters were measured in these cells in the absence or presence of endosulfan for the above mentioned exposure periods and subsequently, cell death endpoints were measured. We detected endosulfan in the exposed cells and demonstrated increased cell death in exposed Sertoli-germ cells as evidenced by a significant increase in annexin-V staining, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, caspase-9 and -3 activities and BAD and PARP cleavage activities and DNA ladder formation along with non-significant increase in autophagic cell death. The study suggests that endosulfan can cause cell death in exposed Sertoli-germ cells due to higher oxidative damage with the activation of intrinsic cell death pathway which may eventually affect the production of quality gametes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pax3 overexpression induces cell aggregation and perturbs commissural axon projection during embryonic spinal cord development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Juntang; Fu, Sulei; Yang, Ciqing; Redies, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    Pax3 is a transcription factor that belongs to the paired box family. In the developing spinal cord it is expressed in the dorsal commissural neurons, which project ascending axons contralaterally to form proper spinal cord-brain circuitry. While it has been shown that Pax3 induces cell aggregation in vitro, little is known about the role of Pax3 in cell aggregation and spinal circuit formation in vivo. We have reported that Pax3 is involved in neuron differentiation and that its overexpression induces ectopic cadherin-7 expression. In this study we report that Pax3 overexpression also induces cell aggregation in vivo. Tissue sections and open book preparations revealed that Pax3 overexpression prevents commissural axons from projecting to the contralateral side of the spinal cord. Cells overexpressing Pax3 aggregated in cell clusters that contained shortened neurites with perturbed axon growth and elongation. Pax3-specific shRNA partially rescued the morphological change induced by Pax3 overexpression in vivo. Our results indicate that the normal expression of Pax3 is necessary for proper axonal pathway finding and commissural axon projection. In conclusion, Pax3 regulates neural circuit formation during embryonic development. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1618-1632, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cell lineage and cell death: Caenorhabditis elegans and cancer research.

    PubMed

    Potts, Malia B; Cameron, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease in which cells have circumvented normal restraints on tissue growth and have acquired complex abnormalities in their genomes, posing a considerable challenge to identifying the pathways and mechanisms that drive fundamental aspects of the malignant phenotype. Genetic analyses of the normal development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have revealed evolutionarily conserved mechanisms through which individual cells establish their fates, and how they make and execute the decision to survive or undergo programmed cell death. The pathways identified through these studies have mammalian counterparts that are co-opted by malignant cells. Effective cancer drugs now target some of these pathways, and more are likely to be discovered.

  7. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes tumor cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Chunyang; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zhou, Wuhua; Zhang, Wu; Ding, Songming; Wei, Bajin; Yu, Xiaobo; Su, Rong; Zheng, Shusen

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDKN3 is commonly overexpressed in HCC and is associated with poor clinical outcome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of CDKN3 could stimulate the proliferation of HCC cells by promoting G1/S transition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDKN3 could inhibit the expression of p21 in HCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of CDKN3 has no effect on apoptosis and invasion of HCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified 61 genes co-expressed with CDKN3, and BIRC5 was located at the center of the co-expression network. -- Abstract: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) belongs to the protein phosphatases family and has a dual function in cell cycling. The function of this gene has been studied in several kinds of cancers, but its role in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that CDKN3 was frequently overexpressed in both HCC cell lines and clinical samples, and this overexpression was correlated with poor tumor differentiation and advanced tumor stage. Functional studies showed that overexpression of CDKN3 could promote cell proliferation by stimulating G1-S transition but has no impact on cell apoptosis and invasion. Microarray-based co-expression analysis identified a total of 61 genes co-expressed with CDKN3, with most of them involved in cell proliferation, and BIRC5 was located at the center of CDKN3 co-expression network. These results suggest that CDKN3 acts as an oncogene in human hepatocellular carcinoma and antagonism of CDKN3 may be of interest for the treatment of HCC.

  8. Overexpression of Rac1 in leukemia patients and its role in leukemia cell migration and growth

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jiying; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wei, Hui; Xing, Haiyan; Liu, Hang; Wang, Yanzhong; Tang, Kejing; Peng, Leiwen; Tian, Zheng; Wang, Jianxiang

    2009-09-04

    Rac1 belongs to the Rho family that act as critical mediators of signaling pathways controlling cell migration and proliferation and contributes to the interactions of hematopoietic stem cells with their microenvironment. Alteration of Rac1 might result in unbalanced interactions and ultimately lead to leukemogenesis. In this study, we analyze the expression of Rac1 protein in leukemia patients and determine its role in the abnormal behaviours of leukemic cells. Rac1 protein is overexpressed in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells as compared to normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1 in leukemia cell lines induced inhibition of cell migration, proliferation, and colony formation. Additionally, blocking Rac1 activity by an inhibitor of Rac1-GTPase, NSC23766, suppressed cell migration and growth. We conclude that overexpression of Rac1 contributes to the accelerated migration and high proliferation potential of leukemia cells, which could be implicated in leukemia development and progression.

  9. Beclin1 overexpression inhibitis proliferation, invasion and migration of CaSki cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Liu, Jia-hua; Sui, Yu-xia; Jin, Long; Yang, Yin; Lin, Sai-mei; Shi, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the autophagy-related gene Beclin1 on proliferation, invasion and metastasis of the cervical cancer CaSki cells and its possible mechanism in vitro were here targeted. After the overexpression vector pcDNA3.1-Beclin1 and RNA interference vector pSUPER-Beclin1 were transfected into CaSki cells in vitro, stable expression cell lines demonstration Beclin1 expression was upregulated, and VEGF and MMP-9 expression were decreased, leading to cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. MTT assays further revealed proliferation of cells was significantly inhibited in Beclin1-overexpressing transfectant cells, with invasion and metastasis also being inhibited in Transwell chamber assays. The present results suggest that Beclin1 inhibits invasion and metastasis of cervical cancer CaSki cells in vitro. Mechanisms probably involve Beclin1 inhibition of cell proliferation, and decreased expression of VEGF and MMP-9 proteins.

  10. Die Another Day: Inhibition of Cell Death Pathways by Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Brune, Wolfram; Andoniou, Christopher E

    2017-09-02

    Multicellular organisms have evolved multiple genetically programmed cell death pathways that are essential for homeostasis. The finding that many viruses encode cell death inhibitors suggested that cellular suicide also functions as a first line of defence against invading pathogens. This theory was confirmed by studying viral mutants that lack certain cell death inhibitors. Cytomegaloviruses, a family of species-specific viruses, have proved particularly useful in this respect. Cytomegaloviruses are known to encode multiple death inhibitors that are required for efficient viral replication. Here, we outline the mechanisms used by the host cell to detect cytomegalovirus infection and discuss the methods employed by the cytomegalovirus family to prevent death of the host cell. In addition to enhancing our understanding of cytomegalovirus pathogenesis we detail how this research has provided significant insights into the cross-talk that exists between the various cell death pathways.

  11. Overexpressed active Notch1 induces cell growth arrest of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Qin, H; Chen, B; Xin, X; Li, J; Han, H

    2007-01-01

    Human cervical carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors, but the mechanisms that orchestrate the multiple oncogenic insults required for initiation and progression are not clear. Notch signaling plays a critical role in maintaining the balance between cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, but perturbed Notch signaling may contribute to tumorigenesis. We now show that Notch1 is detected in all cervical cancer, including advanced diseases. We also constitutively overexpressed active Notch1 in human cervical carcinoma to explore the effects of Notch1 signaling on human cervical carcinoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. The signaling may participate in the development of human cervical carcinoma cells, but overexpressed active Notch1 inhibits their growth through induction of cell cycle arrest. Increased Notch1 signaling induced a downmodulation of human papillomavirus transcription through suppression of activator protein (AP)-1 activity by upregulation of c-Jun and the decreased expression of c-Fos. Thus, Notch1 signaling plays a key role and exerts dual effects, functioning in context-specific manner.

  12. Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, facing north (note cell block fifteen to the right and cell block fourteen in the distance_ - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. iTRAQ analysis of colorectal cancer cell lines suggests Drebrin (DBN1) is overexpressed during liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qifeng; Tan, Hwee Tong; Lim, Teck Kwang; Khoo, Avery; Lim, Kiat Hon; Chung, Maxey C M

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third in cancer incidence worldwide and the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths. Mortality in colorectal cancer is often ascribed to liver metastasis. In an effort to elucidate the proteins involved in colorectal cancer liver metastasis, we compared the proteome profiles of the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 with its metastatic derivative E1, using the iTRAQ labelling technology, coupled to 2D-LC and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. A total of 547 proteins were identified, of which 31 of them were differentially expressed in the E1 cell line. Among these proteins, the differential expressions of translationally controlled tumour protein 1, A-kinase anchor protein 12 and Drebrin (DBN1) were validated using Western blot. In particular, DBN1, a protein not previously known to be involved in colorectal cancer metastasis, was found to be overexpressed in E1 as compared to HCT-116 cells. The overexpression of DBN1 was further validated using immunohistochemistry on colorectal cancer tissue sections with matched lymph node and liver metastasis tissues. DBN1 is currently believed to be involved in actin cytoskeleton reorganisation and suppresses actin filament cross-linking and bundling. Since actin reorganisation is an important process for tumour cell migration and invasion, DBN1 may have an important role during colorectal cancer metastasis.

  14. Artesunate induces cell death in human cancer cells via enhancing lysosomal function and lysosomal degradation of ferritin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nai-Di; Tan, Shi-Hao; Ng, Shukie; Shi, Yin; Zhou, Jing; Tan, Kevin Shyong Wei; Wong, Wai-Shiu Fred; Shen, Han-Ming

    2014-11-28

    Artesunate (ART) is an anti-malaria drug that has been shown to exhibit anti-tumor activity, and functional lysosomes are reported to be required for ART-induced cancer cell death, whereas the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying ART-induced cell death. We first confirmed that ART induces apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. Interestingly, we found that ART preferably accumulates in the lysosomes and is able to activate lysosomal function via promotion of lysosomal V-ATPase assembly. Furthermore, we found that lysosomes function upstream of mitochondria in reactive oxygen species production. Importantly, we provided evidence showing that lysosomal iron is required for the lysosomal activation and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production induced by ART. Finally, we showed that ART-induced cell death is mediated by the release of iron in the lysosomes, which results from the lysosomal degradation of ferritin, an iron storage protein. Meanwhile, overexpression of ferritin heavy chain significantly protected cells from ART-induced cell death. In addition, knockdown of nuclear receptor coactivator 4, the adaptor protein for ferritin degradation, was able to block ART-mediated ferritin degradation and rescue the ART-induced cell death. In summary, our study demonstrates that ART treatment activates lysosomal function and then promotes ferritin degradation, subsequently leading to the increase of lysosomal iron that is utilized by ART for its cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. Thus, our data reveal a new mechanistic action underlying ART-induced cell death in cancer cells.

  15. Artesunate Induces Cell Death in Human Cancer Cells via Enhancing Lysosomal Function and Lysosomal Degradation of Ferritin*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nai-Di; Tan, Shi-Hao; Ng, Shukie; Shi, Yin; Zhou, Jing; Tan, Kevin Shyong Wei; Wong, Wai-Shiu Fred; Shen, Han-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Artesunate (ART) is an anti-malaria drug that has been shown to exhibit anti-tumor activity, and functional lysosomes are reported to be required for ART-induced cancer cell death, whereas the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying ART-induced cell death. We first confirmed that ART induces apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. Interestingly, we found that ART preferably accumulates in the lysosomes and is able to activate lysosomal function via promotion of lysosomal V-ATPase assembly. Furthermore, we found that lysosomes function upstream of mitochondria in reactive oxygen species production. Importantly, we provided evidence showing that lysosomal iron is required for the lysosomal activation and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production induced by ART. Finally, we showed that ART-induced cell death is mediated by the release of iron in the lysosomes, which results from the lysosomal degradation of ferritin, an iron storage protein. Meanwhile, overexpression of ferritin heavy chain significantly protected cells from ART-induced cell death. In addition, knockdown of nuclear receptor coactivator 4, the adaptor protein for ferritin degradation, was able to block ART-mediated ferritin degradation and rescue the ART-induced cell death. In summary, our study demonstrates that ART treatment activates lysosomal function and then promotes ferritin degradation, subsequently leading to the increase of lysosomal iron that is utilized by ART for its cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. Thus, our data reveal a new mechanistic action underlying ART-induced cell death in cancer cells. PMID:25305013

  16. Copper Chelator ATN-224 Induces Peroxynitrite-Dependent Cell Death in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kristy; Briehl, Margaret M.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Reboucas, Julio S.; Glinsmann-Gibson, Betty; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Tome, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemoresistance, due to oxidative stress resistance or upregulation of Bcl-2, contributes to poor outcome in the treatment of hematological malignancies. In this study, we utilize the copper chelator drug, ATN-224 (choline tetrathiomolybdate), to induce cell death in oxidative stress resistant cells and cells overexpressing Bcl-2 by modulating the cellular redox environment and causing mitochondrial dysfunction. ATN-224 treatment decreases superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) activity, increases intracellular oxidants and induces peroxynitrite-dependent cell death. ATN-224 also targets the mitochondria, decreasing both cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX) activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). The concentration of ATN-224 required to induce cell death is proportional to SOD1 levels, but independent of Bcl-2 status. In combination with doxorubicin, ATN-224 enhances cell death. In primary B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patient samples, ATN-224 decreases the viable cell number. Our findings suggest that ATN-224’s dual targeting of SOD1 and CcOX is a promising approach for treatment of hematological malignancies either as an adjuvant or as a single agent. PMID:23416365

  17. In Vitro Brucella suis Infection Prevents the Programmed Cell Death of Human Monocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Antoine; Terraza, Annie; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Dornand, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    During the complex interaction between an infectious agent and a host organism, the pathogen can interfere with the host cell's programmed death to its own benefit. Induction or prevention of host cell apoptosis appears to be a critical step for determining the infection outcome. Members of the gram-negative bacterial genus Brucella are intracellular pathogens which preferentially invade monocytic cells and develop within these cells. We investigated the effect of Brucella suis infection on apoptosis of human monocytic phagocytes. The present study provides evidence that Brucella infection inhibited spontaneously occurring apoptosis in human monocytes. Prevention of monocyte apoptosis was not mediated by Brucella lipopolysaccharide and required bacterial survival within infected cells. Both invaded and noninvaded cells were protected, indicating that soluble mediators released during infection were involved in the phenomenon. Analysis of Brucella-infected monocytes revealed specific overexpression of the A1 gene, a member of the bcl-2 family implicated in the survival of hematopoietic cells. Brucella infection also rendered macrophage-like cells resistant to Fas ligand- or gamma interferon-induced apoptosis, suggesting that Brucella infection protected host cells from several cytotoxic processes occurring at different steps of the immune response. The present data clearly show that Brucella suis modulated the monocyte/macrophage's apoptotic response to the advantage of the pathogen, thus preventing host cell elimination. This might represent a strategy for Brucella development in infected hosts. PMID:10603407

  18. Understanding cell death in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jenner, P; Olanow, C W

    1998-09-01

    Current concepts of the cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) suggest a role for both genetic and environmental influences. Common to a variety of potential causes of nigral cell degeneration in PD is the involvement of oxidative stress. Postmortem analysis shows increased levels of iron, decreased complex I activity, and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. The decrease in GSH levels may be a particularly important component of the cascade of events leading to cell death because it occurs in the presymptomatic stage of PD and may directly induce nigral cell degeneration or render neurons susceptible to the actions of toxins. There is evidence suggesting that oxidative stress might originate in glial cells rather than in neurons, and alterations in glial function may be an important contributor to the pathologic process that occurs in PD. Oxidative damage occurs in the brain in PD, as shown by increased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the substantia nigra. Increased protein oxidation is also apparent, but this occurs in many areas of the brain and raises the specter of a more widespread pathologic process occurring in PD to which the substantia nigra is particularly vulnerable. The inability of the substantia nigra to handle damaged or mutant (eg, alpha-synuclein) proteins may lead to their aggregation and deposition and to the formation of Lewy bodies. Indeed, Lewy bodies stain for both alpha-synuclein and nitrated proteins. Current evidence enables us to hypothesize that a failure to process structurally modified proteins in regions of the brain exhibiting oxidative stress is a cause of both familial and sporadic PD.

  19. Bacterial Programmed Cell Death as a Population Phenomenon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-11

    Moving in for the kil:Activation of an endoribonuclease toxin by quorum sensing peptide, Molecular Cell, (03 2011): . doi: 06/11/2013 11.00...shown that E. coli mazEF-mediated cell death is a population phenomenon requiring the E. coli quorum sensing factor EDF (Extracellular Death Factor... quorum - sensing factor required for mazEF-mediated cell death in Escherichia coli. Science 318: 652-655. 7) Kolodkin-Gal I, Engelberg-Kulka, H (2008

  20. Mechanisms of Virus-Induced Neural Cell Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    We are using experimental infection with reoviruses to study how viruses induce cell death . (apoptosis), and the significance of apoptosis in the...pathogenesis of viral infection. We have developed one of the best-characterized experimental models for investigating and manipulating viral cell death pathways...We have shown that apoptosis is a major mechanism of reovirus-induced cell death in murine models of key human viral infections including

  1. Arabidopsis ACCELERATED CELL DEATH2 Modulates Programmed Cell DeathW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Nan; Greenberg, Jean T.

    2006-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast protein ACCELERATED CELL DEATH2 (ACD2) modulates the amount of programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by Pseudomonas syringae and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) treatment. In vitro, ACD2 can reduce red chlorophyll catabolite, a chlorophyll derivative. We find that ACD2 shields root protoplasts that lack chlorophyll from light- and PPIX-induced PCD. Thus, chlorophyll catabolism is not obligatory for ACD2 anti-PCD function. Upon P. syringae infection, ACD2 levels and localization change in cells undergoing PCD and in their close neighbors. Thus, ACD2 shifts from being largely in chloroplasts to partitioning to chloroplasts, mitochondria, and, to a small extent, cytosol. ACD2 protects cells from PCD that requires the early mitochondrial oxidative burst. Later, the chloroplasts of dying cells generate NO, which only slightly affects cell viability. Finally, the mitochondria in dying cells have dramatically altered movements and cellular distribution. Overproduction of both ACD2 (localized to mitochondria and chloroplasts) and ascorbate peroxidase (localized to chloroplasts) greatly reduces P. syringae–induced PCD, suggesting a pro-PCD role for mitochondrial and chloroplast events. During infection, ACD2 may bind to and/or reduce PCD-inducing porphyrin-related molecules in mitochondria and possibly chloroplasts that generate reactive oxygen species, cause altered organelle behavior, and activate a cascade of PCD-inducing events. PMID:16387834

  2. Thioredoxin reductase mediates cell death effects of the combination of beta interferon and retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, E R; Boyanapalli, M; Lindner, D J; Weihua, X; Hassel, B A; Jagus, R; Gutierrez, P L; Kalvakolanu, D V; Hofman, E R

    1998-11-01

    Interferons (IFNs) and retinoids are potent biological response modifiers. By using JAK-STAT pathways, IFNs regulate the expression of genes involved in antiviral, antitumor, and immunomodulatory actions. Retinoids exert their cell growth-regulatory effects via nuclear receptors, which also function as transcription factors. Although these ligands act through distinct mechanisms, several studies have shown that the combination of IFNs and retinoids synergistically inhibits cell growth. We have previously reported that IFN-beta-all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) combination is a more potent growth suppressor of human tumor xenografts in vivo than either agent alone. Furthermore, the IFN-RA combination causes cell death in several tumor cell lines in vitro. However, the molecular basis for these growth-suppressive actions is unknown. It has been suggested that certain gene products, which mediate the antiviral actions of IFNs, are also responsible for the antitumor actions of the IFN-RA combination. However, we did not find a correlation between their activities and cell death. Therefore, we have used an antisense knockout approach to directly identify the gene products that mediate cell death and have isolated several genes associated with retinoid-IFN-induced mortality (GRIM). In this investigation, we characterized one of the GRIM cDNAs, GRIM-12. Sequence analysis suggests that the GRIM-12 product is identical to human thioredoxin reductase (TR). TR is posttranscriptionally induced by the IFN-RA combination in human breast carcinoma cells. Overexpression of GRIM-12 causes a small amount of cell death and further enhances the susceptibility of cells to IFN-RA-induced death. Dominant negative inhibitors directed against TR inhibit its cell death-inducing functions. Interference with TR enzymatic activity led to growth promotion in the presence of the IFN-RA combination. Thus, these studies identify a novel function for TR in cell growth regulation.

  3. Improved antibody production in Chinese hamster ovary cells by ATF4 overexpression.

    PubMed

    Haredy, Ahmad M; Nishizawa, Akitoshi; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohya, Tomoshi; Ohtake, Hisao; Omasa, Takeshi

    2013-12-01

    To improve antibody production in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the humanized antibody-producing CHO DP-12-SF cell line was transfected with the gene encoding activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a central factor in the unfolded protein response. Overexpression of ATF4 significantly enhanced the production of antibody in the CHO DP-12-SF cell line. The specific IgG production rate of in the ATF4-overexpressing CHO-ATF4-16 cells was approximately 2.4 times that of the parental host cell line. Clone CHO-ATF4-16 did not show any change in growth rate compared with the parental cells or mock-transfected CHO-DP12-SF cells. The expression levels of mRNAs encoding both the antibody heavy and light chains in the CHO-ATF4-16 clone were analyzed. This analysis showed that ATF4 overexpression improved the total production and specific production rate of antibody without affecting the mRNA transcription level. These results indicate that ATF4 overexpression is a promising method for improving recombinant IgG production in CHO cells.

  4. Light regulation of cadmium-induced cell death in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sarah J; Wang, Yun; Slabas, Antoni R; Chivasa, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant with deleterious effects on both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In plants, the effects of cadmium toxicity are concentration dependent; lower doses destabilize many physiological processes and inhibit cell growth and multiplication, while higher doses evoke a more severe response that triggers activation of cell death. We recently investigated the effects of light on cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis using a cell suspension culture system. Although not affecting the inhibitory effects on cell multiplication, we found that light is a powerful regulator of Cd-induced cell death. A very specific proteomic response, which was clearly controlled by light, preceded cell death. Here we discuss the implications of these findings and highlight similarities between the regulation of cell death triggered by Cd and fumonisin B1. We consider how both compounds could be useful tools in dissecting plant cell death signaling. PMID:24398567

  5. Singlet Oxygen-Induced Membrane Disruption and Serpin-Protease Balance in Vacuolar-Driven Cell Death1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Carmieli, Raanan; Mor, Avishai; Fluhr, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Singlet oxygen plays a role in cellular stress either by providing direct toxicity or through signaling to initiate death programs. It was therefore of interest to examine cell death, as occurs in Arabidopsis, due to differentially localized singlet oxygen photosensitizers. The photosensitizers rose bengal (RB) and acridine orange (AO) were localized to the plasmalemma and vacuole, respectively. Their photoactivation led to cell death as measured by ion leakage. Cell death could be inhibited by the singlet oxygen scavenger histidine in treatments with AO but not with RB. In the case of AO treatment, the vacuolar membrane was observed to disintegrate. Concomitantly, a complex was formed between a vacuolar cell-death protease, RESPONSIVE TO DESSICATION-21 and its cognate cytoplasmic protease inhibitor ATSERPIN1. In the case of RB treatment, the tonoplast remained intact and no complex was formed. Over-expression of AtSerpin1 repressed cell death, only under AO photodynamic treatment. Interestingly, acute water stress showed accumulation of singlet oxygen as determined by fluorescence of Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green, by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and the induction of singlet oxygen marker genes. Cell death by acute water stress was inhibited by the singlet oxygen scavenger histidine and was accompanied by vacuolar collapse and the appearance of serpin-protease complex. Over-expression of AtSerpin1 also attenuated cell death under this mode of cell stress. Thus, acute water stress damage shows parallels to vacuole-mediated cell death where the generation of singlet oxygen may play a role. PMID:26884487

  6. Proteomic characterization of Her2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hexin; Pimienta, Genaro; Gu, Yiben; Sun, Xu; Hu, Jianjun; Kim, Min-Sik; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Gucek, Marjan; Cole, Robert N; Sukumar, Saraswati; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2010-11-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase HER2 is an oncogene amplified in invasive breast cancer and its overexpression in mammary epithelial cell lines is a strong determinant of a tumorigenic phenotype. Accordingly, HER2-overexpressing mammary tumors are commonly indicative of a poor prognosis in patients. Several quantitative proteomic studies have employed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with MS/MS, which provides only limited information about the molecular mechanisms underlying HER2/neu signaling. In the present study, we used a SILAC-based approach to compare the proteomic profile of normal breast epithelial cells with that of Her2/neu-overexpressing mammary epithelial cells, isolated from primary mammary tumors arising in mouse mammary tumor virus-Her2/neu transgenic mice. We identified 23 proteins with relevant annotated functions in breast cancer, showing a substantial differential expression. This included overexpression of creatine kinase, retinol-binding protein 1, thymosin 4 and tumor protein D52, which correlated with the tumorigenic phenotype of Her2-overexpressing cells. The differential expression pattern of two genes, gelsolin and retinol binding protein 1, was further validated in normal and tumor tissues. Finally, an in silico analysis of published cancer microarray data sets revealed a 23-gene signature, which can be used to predict the probability of metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients.

  7. Proteomic characterization of Her2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hexin; Pimienta, Genaro; Gu, Yiben; Sun, Xu; Hu, Jianjun; Kim, Min-Sik; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Gucek, Marjan; Cole, Robert N; Sukumar, Saraswati; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase HER2 is an oncogene amplified in invasive breast cancer and its overexpression in mammary epithelial cell lines is a strong determinant of a tumorigenic phenotype. Accordingly, HER2-overexpressing mammary tumors are commonly indicative of a poor prognosis in patients. Several quantitative proteomic studies have employed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with tandem mass spectrometry, which provides only limited information about the molecular mechanisms underlying HER2/neu signaling. In the present study, we used a SILAC-based approach to compare the proteomic profile of normal breast epithelial cells with that of Her2/neu-overexpressing mammary epithelial cells, isolated from primary mammary tumors arising in MMTV-Her2/neu transgenic mice. We identified 23 proteins with relevant annotated functions in breast cancer, showing a substantial differential expression. This included overexpression of creatine kinase, retinol-binding protein 1, thymosin beta 4 and tumor protein D52, which correlated with the tumorigenic phenotype of Her2-overexpressing cells. The differential expression pattern of two genes, gelsolin and retinol binding protein 1, was further validated in normal and tumor tissues. Finally, an in silico analysis of published cancer microarray datasets revealed a 23-gene signature which can be used to predict the probability of metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients. PMID:20960451

  8. Rsf-1 overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and cell proliferation in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuli; Dong, Qianze; Wang, Enhua

    2012-10-01

    Rsf-1 (HBXAP) was recently reported to be overexpressed in various cancers and associated with the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the expression of Rsf-1 and its biological roles in colon cancer have not been reported. The molecular mechanism of Rsf-1 in cancer aggressiveness remains ambiguous. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of Rsf-1 in colon cancer tissues and found that Rsf-1 was overexpressed in 50.4 % of colon cancer specimens. There was a significant association between Rsf-1 overexpression and TNM stage (p = 0.0205), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0025), and poor differentiation (p = 0.0235). Furthermore, Rsf-1 overexpression correlated with a poor prognosis in colon cancer patients (p = 0.0011). In addition, knockdown of Rsf-1 expression in HT29 and HCT116 cells with high endogenous Rsf-1 expression decrease cell proliferation and colony formation ability. Further analysis showed that Rsf-1 knockdown decreased cyclin E expression and phospho-Rb level. In conclusion, Rsf-1 is overexpressed in colon cancers and contributes to malignant cell growth by cyclin E and phospho-Rb modulation, which makes Rsf-1 a candidate therapeutic target in colon cancer.

  9. Predictive Efficacy Biomarkers of Programmed Cell Death 1/Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand Blockade Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiao-Na; Fu, Li-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of immune check-point molecule, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have attracted much attention in cancer immunotherapy recently due to their durable antitumor effects in various malignances, especially the advanced ones. Unfortunately, only a fraction of patients with advanced tumors could benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, while others still worsened. The key to this point is that there are no efficient biomarkers for screening anti-PD-1/PD-L1-sensitive patients. In this review, we aim at summarizing the latest advances of anti-PD-1/PDL1 immunotherapy and the potential predictive efficacy biomarkers to provide evidences for identifying anti-PD-1/PDL1- sensitive patients. The present article also includes the patent review coverage on this topic.

  10. Death of mitochondria during programmed cell death of leaf mesophyll cells.

    PubMed

    Selga, Tūrs; Selga, Maija; Pāvila, Vineta

    2005-12-01

    The role of plant mitochondria in the programmed cell death (PCD) is widely discussed. However, spectrum and sequence of mitochondrial structural changes during different types of PCD in leaves are poorly described. Pea, cucumber and rye plants were grown under controlled growing conditions. A part of them were sprinkled with ethylene releaser to accelerate cell death. During yellowing the palisade parenchyma mitochondria were attracted to nuclear envelope. Mitochondrial matrix became electron translucent. Mitochondria entered vacuole by invagination of tonoplast and formed multivesicular bodies. Ethephon treatment increased the frequency of sticking of mitochondria to the nuclear envelope or chloroplasts and peroxisomes. Mitochondria divided by different mechanisms and became enclosed in Golgi and ER derived authopagic vacuoles or in the central vacuole. Several fold increase of the diameter of cristae became typical. In all cases mitochondria were attached to nuclear envelope. It can be considered as structural mechanism of promoting of PCD.

  11. Programmed cell death for defense against anomaly and tumor formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Sohei; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Taisei

    1995-12-31

    Cell death after exposure to low-level radiation is often considered evidence that radiation is poisonous, however small the dose. Evidence has been accumulating to support the notion that cell death after low-level exposure to radiation results from activation of suicidal genes {open_quote}programmed cell death{close_quote} or {open_quote}apoptosis{close_quote} - for the health of the whole body. This paper gives experimental evidence that embryos of fruit flies and mouse fetuses have potent defense mechanisms against teratogenic or tumorigenic injury caused by radiation and carcinogens, which function through programmed cell death.

  12. Downregulation of B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 by overexpressed microRNA 34a enhanced titanium dioxide nanoparticle-induced autophagy in BEAS-2B cells

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Wenlin; Chen, Yujiao; Sun, Pengling; Gao, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (TNPs) are manufactured worldwide for a wide range of applications and the toxic effect of TNPs on biological systems is gaining attention. Autophagy is recognized as an emerging toxicity mechanism triggered by nanomaterials. MicroRNA 34a (miR34a) acts as a tumor suppressor gene by targeting many oncogenes, but how it affects autophagy induced by TNPs is not completely understood. Here, we observed the activation of TNP-induced autophagy through monodansylcadaverine staining and LC3-I/LC3-II conversion. Meanwhile, the transmission electron microscope ultrastructural analysis showed typical morphological characteristics in autophagy process. We detected the expression of miR34a and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2). In addition, the underlying mechanism of TNP-induced autophagy was performed using overexpression of miR34a by lentivirus vector transfection. Results showed that TNPs induced autophagy generation evidently. Typical morphological changes in the process of autophagy were observed by the transmission electron microscope ultrastructural analysis and LC3-I/LC3-II conversion increased significantly in TNP-treated cells. Meanwhile, TNPs induced the downregulation of miR34a and increased the expression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, overexpressed miR34a decreased the expression of Bcl-2 both in messenger RNA and protein level, following which the level of autophagy and cell death rate increased after the transfected cells were incubated with TNPs for 24 hours. These findings provide the first evidence that overexpressed miR34a enhanced TNP-induced autophagy and cell death through targeted downregulation of Bcl-2 in BEAS-2B cells. PMID:27226226

  13. Downregulation of B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 by overexpressed microRNA 34a enhanced titanium dioxide nanoparticle-induced autophagy in BEAS-2B cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wenlin; Chen, Yujiao; Sun, Pengling; Gao, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (TNPs) are manufactured worldwide for a wide range of applications and the toxic effect of TNPs on biological systems is gaining attention. Autophagy is recognized as an emerging toxicity mechanism triggered by nanomaterials. MicroRNA 34a (miR34a) acts as a tumor suppressor gene by targeting many oncogenes, but how it affects autophagy induced by TNPs is not completely understood. Here, we observed the activation of TNP-induced autophagy through monodansylcadaverine staining and LC3-I/LC3-II conversion. Meanwhile, the transmission electron microscope ultrastructural analysis showed typical morphological characteristics in autophagy process. We detected the expression of miR34a and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2). In addition, the underlying mechanism of TNP-induced autophagy was performed using overexpression of miR34a by lentivirus vector transfection. Results showed that TNPs induced autophagy generation evidently. Typical morphological changes in the process of autophagy were observed by the transmission electron microscope ultrastructural analysis and LC3-I/LC3-II conversion increased significantly in TNP-treated cells. Meanwhile, TNPs induced the downregulation of miR34a and increased the expression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, overexpressed miR34a decreased the expression of Bcl-2 both in messenger RNA and protein level, following which the level of autophagy and cell death rate increased after the transfected cells were incubated with TNPs for 24 hours. These findings provide the first evidence that overexpressed miR34a enhanced TNP-induced autophagy and cell death through targeted downregulation of Bcl-2 in BEAS-2B cells.

  14. Hydrogen Peroxide Removes TRPM4 Current Desensitization Conferring Increased Vulnerability to Necrotic Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Felipe; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Armisén, Ricardo; Riveros, Ana; Cerda, Oscar; Varela, Diego; Eguiguren, Ana Luisa; Olivero, Pablo; Stutzin, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Necrosis is associated with an increase in plasma membrane permeability, cell swelling, and loss of membrane integrity with subsequent release of cytoplasmic constituents. Severe redox imbalance by overproduction of reactive oxygen species is one of the main causes of necrosis. Here we demonstrate that H2O2 induces a sustained activity of TRPM4, a Ca2+-activated, Ca2+-impermeant nonselective cation channel resulting in an increased vulnerability to cell death. In HEK 293 cells overexpressing TRPM4, H2O2 was found to eliminate in a dose-dependent manner TRPM4 desensitization. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that the Cys1093 residue is crucial for the H2O2-mediated loss of desensitization. In HeLa cells, which endogenously express TRPM4, H2O2 elicited necrosis as well as apoptosis. H2O2-mediated necrosis but not apoptosis was abolished by replacement of external Na+ ions with sucrose or the non-permeant cation N-methyl-d-glucamine and by knocking down TRPM4 with a shRNA directed against TRPM4. Conversely, transient overexpression of TRPM4 in HeLa cells in which TRPM4 was previously silenced re-established vulnerability to H2O2-induced necrotic cell death. In addition, HeLa cells exposed to H2O2 displayed an irreversible loss of membrane potential, which was prevented by TRPM4 knockdown. PMID:20884614

  15. Photoreceptor cell death and rescue in retinal detachment and degenerations

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Yusuke; Notomi, Shoji; Hisatomi, Toshio; Nakazawa, Toru; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Miller, Joan W.; Vavvas, Demetrios G.

    2013-01-01

    Photoreceptor cell death is the ultimate cause of vision loss in various retinal disorders, including retinal detachment (RD). Photoreceptor cell death has been thought to occur mainly through apoptosis, which is the most characterized form of programmed cell death. The caspase family of cysteine proteases plays a central role for inducing apoptosis, and in experimental models of RD, dying photoreceptor cells exhibit caspase activation; however, there is a paradox that caspase inhibition alone does not provide a sufficient protection against photoreceptor cell loss, suggesting that other mechanisms of cell death are involved. Recent accumulating evidence demonstrates that non-apoptotic forms of cell death, such as autophagy and necrosis, are also regulated by specific molecular machinery, such as those mediated by autophagy-related proteins and receptor-interacting protein kinases, respectively. Here we summarize the current knowledge of cell death signaling and its roles in photoreceptor cell death after RD and other retinal degenerative diseases. A body of studies indicate that not only apoptotic but also autophagic and necrotic signaling are involved in photoreceptor cell death, and that combined targeting of these pathways may be an effective neuroprotective strategy for retinal diseases associated with photoreceptor cell loss. PMID:23994436

  16. Silencing overexpression of FXYD3 protein in breast cancer cells amplifies effects of doxorubicin and γ-radiation on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chi; Teh, Rachel; Mozar, Christine A; Baxter, Robert C; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2016-01-01

    FXYD3, also known as mammary tumor protein 8, is overexpressed in several common cancers, including in many breast cancers. We examined if such overexpression might protect Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cancer cells against the high levels of oxidative stress characteristic of many tumors and often induced by cancer treatments. We measured FXYD3 expression, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and glutathionylation of the β1 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, a reversible oxidative modification that inhibits the ATPase, in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Expression of FXYD3 was suppressed by transfection with FXYD3 siRNA. A colorimetric end-point assay was used to estimate cell viability. Apoptosis was estimated by caspase 3/7 (DEVDase) activation using a Caspase fluorogenic substrate kit. Expression of FXYD3 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells was ~eightfold and ~twofold higher than in non-cancer MCF-10A cells and MDA-MB-468 cancer cells, respectively. A ~50 % reduction in FXYD3 expression increased glutathionylation of the β1 Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunit and reduced Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity by ~50 %, consistent with the role of FXYD3 to facilitate reversal of glutathionylation of the β1 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and glutathionylation-induced inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB- 468 cells with doxorubicin or γ-radiation decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis. The treatments upregulated FXYD3 expression in MCF-7 but not in MDA-MB-468 cells and suppression of FXYD3 in MCF-7 but not in MDA-MB-468 cells amplified effects of treatments on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and treatment-induced cell death and apoptosis. Overexpression of FXYD3 may be a marker of resistance to cancer treatments and a potentially important therapeutic target.

  17. Cell death at the intestinal epithelial front line.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Maria Eugenia; Grabinger, Thomas; Brunner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents the largest epithelial surface in our body. This single-cell-layer epithelium mediates important functions in the absorption of nutrients and in the maintenance of barrier function, preventing luminal microorganisms from invading the body. Due to its constant regeneration the intestinal epithelium is a tissue not only with very high proliferation rates but also with very prominent physiological and pathophysiological cell death induction. The normal physiological differentiation and maturation of intestinal epithelial cells leads to their shedding and apoptotic cell death within a few days, without disturbing the epithelial barrier integrity. In contrast excessive intestinal epithelial cell death induced by irradiation, drugs and inflammation severely impairs the vital functions of this tissue. In this review we discuss cell death processes in the intestinal epithelium in health and disease, with special emphasis on cell death triggered by the tumour necrosis factor receptor family. © 2015 FEBS.

  18. Death-associated protein kinase-mediated cell death modulated by interaction with DANGER.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bingnan N; Ahmad, Abdullah S; Saleem, Sofiyan; Patterson, Randen L; Hester, Lynda; Doré, Sylvain; Snyder, Solomon H

    2010-01-06

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a key player in multiple cell death signaling pathways. We report that DAPK is regulated by DANGER, a partial MAB-21 domain-containing protein. DANGER binds directly to DAPK and inhibits DAPK catalytic activity. DANGER-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts and neurons exhibit greater DAPK activity and increased sensitivity to cell death stimuli than do wild-type control cells. In addition, DANGER-deficient mice manifest more severe brain damage after acute excitotoxicity and transient cerebral ischemia than do control mice. Accordingly, DANGER may physiologically regulate the viability of neurons and represent a potential therapeutic target for stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Cell-in-Cell Death Is Not Restricted by Caspase-3 Deficiency in MCF-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan; He, Meifang; Li, Linmei; Liang, Zhihua; Zou, Zehong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cell-in-cell structures are created by one living cell entering another homotypic or heterotypic living cell, which usually leads to the death of the internalized cell, specifically through caspase-dependent cell death (emperitosis) or lysosome-dependent cell death (entosis). Although entosis has attracted great attention, its occurrence is controversial, because one cell line used in its study (MCF-7) is deficient in caspase-3. Methods We investigated this issue using MCF-7 and A431 cell lines, which often display cell-in-cell invasion, and have different levels of caspase-3 expression. Cell-in-cell death morphology, microstructures, and signaling pathways were compared in the two cell lines. Results Our results confirmed that MCF-7 cells are caspase-3 deficient with a partial deletion in the CASP-3 gene. These cells underwent cell death that lacked typical apoptotic properties after staurosporine treatment, whereas caspase-3-sufficient A431 cells displayed typical apoptosis. The presence of caspase-3 was related neither to the lysosome-dependent nor to the caspase-dependent cell-in-cell death pathway. However, the existence of caspase-3 was associated with a switch from lysosome-dependent cell-in-cell death to the apoptotic cell-in-cell death pathway during entosis. Moreover, cellular hypoxia, mitochondrial swelling, release of cytochrome C, and autophagy were observed in internalized cells during entosis. Conclusion The occurrence of caspase-independent entosis is not a cell-specific process. In addition, entosis actually represents a cellular self-repair system, functioning through autophagy, to degrade damaged mitochondria resulting from cellular hypoxia in cell-in-cell structures. However, sustained autophagy-associated signal activation, without reduction in cellular hypoxia, eventually leads to lysosome-dependent intracellular cell death. PMID:27721872

  20. Patterns of cell death in the perinatal mouse forebrain.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Morgan; Shah, Charisma; Morse, Kiriana A; Miloro, Stephen A; Holmes, Melissa M; Ahern, Todd H; Forger, Nancy G

    2017-01-01

    The importance of cell death in brain development has long been appreciated, but many basic questions remain, such as what initiates or terminates the cell death period. One obstacle has been the lack of quantitative data defining exactly when cell death occurs. We recently created a "cell death atlas," using the detection of activated caspase-3 (AC3) to quantify apoptosis in the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, and found that the highest rates of cell death were seen at the earliest postnatal ages in most regions. Here we have extended these analyses to prenatal ages and additional brain regions. We quantified cell death in 16 forebrain regions across nine perinatal ages from embryonic day (E) 17 to postnatal day (P) 11 and found that cell death peaks just after birth in most regions. We found greater cell death in several regions in offspring delivered vaginally on the day of parturition compared with those of the same postconception age but still in utero at the time of collection. We also found massive cell death in the oriens layer of the hippocampus on P1 and in regions surrounding the anterior crossing of the corpus callosum on E18 as well as the persistence of large numbers of cells in those regions in adult mice lacking the pro-death Bax gene. Together these findings suggest that birth may be an important trigger of neuronal cell death and identify transient cell groups that may undergo wholesale elimination perinatally. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:47-64, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cell death programs in Yersinia immunity and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Naomi H.; Brodsky, Igor E.

    2012-01-01

    Cell death plays a central role in host-pathogen interactions, as it can eliminate the pathogen's replicative niche and provide pro-inflammatory signals necessary for an effective immune response; conversely, cell death can allow pathogens to eliminate immune cells and evade anti-microbial effector mechanisms. In response to developmental signals or cell-intrinsic stresses, the executioner caspases-3 and -7 mediate apoptotic cell death, which is generally viewed as immunologically silent or immunosuppressive. A proinflammatory form of cell death that requires caspase-1, termed pyroptosis, is activated in response to microbial products within the host cytosol or disruption of cellular membranes by microbial pathogens. Infection by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia has features of both apoptosis and pyroptosis. Cell death and caspase-1 processing in Yersinia-infected cells occur in response to inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling by the Yersinia virulence factor YopJ. However, the molecular basis of YopJ-induced cell death, and the role of different death pathways in anti-Yersinia immune responses remain enigmatic. Here, we discuss the role that cell death may play in inducing specific pro-inflammatory signals that shape innate and adaptive immune responses against Yersinia infection. PMID:23226685

  2. Cell death programs in Yersinia immunity and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Philip, Naomi H; Brodsky, Igor E

    2012-01-01

    Cell death plays a central role in host-pathogen interactions, as it can eliminate the pathogen's replicative niche and provide pro-inflammatory signals necessary for an effective immune response; conversely, cell death can allow pathogens to eliminate immune cells and evade anti-microbial effector mechanisms. In response to developmental signals or cell-intrinsic stresses, the executioner caspases-3 and -7 mediate apoptotic cell death, which is generally viewed as immunologically silent or immunosuppressive. A proinflammatory form of cell death that requires caspase-1, termed pyroptosis, is activated in response to microbial products within the host cytosol or disruption of cellular membranes by microbial pathogens. Infection by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia has features of both apoptosis and pyroptosis. Cell death and caspase-1 processing in Yersinia-infected cells occur in response to inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling by the Yersinia virulence factor YopJ. However, the molecular basis of YopJ-induced cell death, and the role of different death pathways in anti-Yersinia immune responses remain enigmatic. Here, we discuss the role that cell death may play in inducing specific pro-inflammatory signals that shape innate and adaptive immune responses against Yersinia infection.

  3. Gab3 overexpression in human glioma mediates Akt activation and tumor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weiting; Zhang, Weifeng

    2017-01-01

    This current study tested expression and potential biological functions of Gab3 in human glioma. Gab3 mRNA and protein expression was significantly elevated in human glioma tissues and glioma cells. Its level was however low in normal brain tissues and primary human astrocytes. In both established (U251MG cell line) and primary human glioma cells, Gab3 knockdown by shRNA/siRNA significantly inhibited Akt activation and cell proliferation. Reversely, forced Gab3 overexpression in U251MG cells promoted Akt activation and cell proliferation. In vivo, the growth of U251MG tumors in nude mice was inhibited following expressing Gab3 shRNA. Akt activation in cancer tissues was also suppressed by Gab3 shRNA. Together, we conclude that Gab3 overexpression in human glioma mediates Akt activation and cancer cell proliferation. PMID:28291820

  4. PGC-1β regulates HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells proliferation by metabolic and redox pathways.

    PubMed

    Victorino, Vanessa Jacob; Barroso, W A; Assunção, A K M; Cury, V; Jeremias, I C; Petroni, R; Chausse, B; Ariga, S K; Herrera, A C S A; Panis, C; Lima, T M; Souza, H P

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer is a prevalent neoplastic disease among women worldwide which treatments still present several side effects and resistance. Considering that cancer cells present derangements in their energetic homeostasis, and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- gamma coactivator 1 (PGC-1) is crucial for cellular metabolism and redox signaling, the main objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between PGC-1 expression, the proliferation of breast cancer cells and the mechanisms involved. We initially assessed PGC-1β expression in complementary DNA (cDNA) from breast tumor of patients bearing luminal A, luminal B, and HER2-overexpressed and triple negative tumors. Our data showed that PGC-1β expression is increased in patients bearing HER2-overexpressing tumors as compared to others subtypes. Using quantitative PCR and immunoblotting, we showed that breast cancer cells with HER2-amplification (SKBR-3) have greater expression of PGC-1β as compared to a non-tumorous breast cell (MCF-10A) and higher proliferation rate. PGC-1β expression was knocked down with short interfering RNA in HER2-overexpressing cells, and cells decreased proliferation. In these PGC-1β-inhibited cells, we found increased citrate synthase activity and no marked changes in mitochondrial respiration. Glycolytic pathway was decreased, characterized by lower intracellular lactate levels. In addition, after PGC-1β knockdown, SKBR-3 cells showed increased reactive oxygen species production, no changes in antioxidant activity, and decreased expression of ERRα, a modulator of metabolism. In conclusion, we show an association of HER2-overexpression and PGC-1β. PGC-1β knockdown impairs HER2-overexpressing cells proliferation acting on ERRα signaling, metabolism, and redox balance.

  5. Cytoplasmic PELP1 and ERRgamma Protect Human Mammary Epithelial Cells from Tam-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Brian J.; Regan Anderson, Tarah M.; Welch, Siya Lem; Nicely, Julie; Seewaldt, Victoria L.; Ostrander, Julie H.

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen (Tam) is the only FDA-approved chemoprevention agent for pre-menopausal women at high risk for developing breast cancer. While Tam reduces a woman's risk of developing estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms associated with risk reduction are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that cytoplasmic proline, glutamic acid and leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) promotes Tam resistance in breast cancer cell lines. Herein, we tested for PELP1 localization in breast epithelial cells from women at high risk for developing breast cancer and found that PELP1 was localized to the cytoplasm in 36% of samples. In vitro, immortalized HMECs expressing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) mutant of PELP1 (PELP1-cyto) were resistant to Tam-induced death. Furthermore, PELP1-cyto signaling through estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) promoted cell survival in the presence of Tam. Overexpression of ERRγ in immortalized HMECs protected cells from Tam-induced death, while knockdown of ERRγ sensitized PELP1-cyto expressing HMECs to Tam. Moreover, Tam-induced HMEC cell death was independent of apoptosis and involved accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II. Expression of PELP1-cyto and ERRγ reduced Tam-induced LC3-II accumulation, and knockdown of ERRγ increased LC3-II levels in response to Tam. Additionally, PELP1-cyto expression led to the upregulation of MMP-3 and MAOB, known PELP1 and ERRγ target genes, respectively. Our data indicate that cytoplasmic PELP1 induces signaling pathways that converge on ERRγ to promote cell survival in the presence of Tam. These data suggest that PELP1 localization and/or ERRγ activation could be developed as tissue biomarkers for Tam responsiveness. PMID:25789479

  6. Elucidation of a Novel Cell Death Mechanism in Prostate Epithelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    surface. Galectin-1 binds to saccharide ligands on susceptible LNCaP cells to trigger cell death . Susceptibility to galectin-1 appears to depend on the...induced LNCaP cell death . Resistance to galectin-1 induced death correlates with markedly decreased expression of a specific glycosyltransferase, the...galectin-1 induced death, indicating that a common glycosylation pathway may control cell death in epithelial and lymphoid cells. Identification of a

  7. Elucidation of a Novel Cell Death Mechanism in Prostate Epithelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    surface. Galectin-1 binds to saccharide ligands on suscepibel LNCaP cells to trigger cell death . Susceptibility to galectin-1 appears to depend on the...induced LNcaP cell death . Resistance to galectin-1 induced death correlates with markedly decreased expression of a specific glycosyltransferase, the...galectin-1 induced death, indicating that a common glycosylation pathway may control cell death in epithelial and lymphoid cells. Identification of a

  8. SOK1 translocates from the Golgi to the nucleus upon chemical anoxia and induces apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Emilio; Fidalgo, Miguel; Molnar, Arpad; Kyriakis, John; Force, Thomas; Zalvide, Juan; Pombo, Celia M

    2008-06-06

    SOK1 is a Ste20 protein kinase of the germinal center kinase (GCK) family that has been shown to be activated by oxidant stress and chemical anoxia, a cell culture model of ischemia. More recently, it has been shown to be localized to the Golgi apparatus, where it functions in a signaling pathway required for cell migration and polarization. Herein, we demonstrate that SOK1 regulates cell death after chemical anoxia, as its down-regulation by RNA interference enhances cell survival. Furthermore, expression of SOK1 elicits apoptotic cell death by activating the intrinsic pathway. We also find that a cleaved form of SOK1 translocates from the Golgi to the nucleus after chemical anoxia and that this translocation is dependent on both caspase activity and on amino acids 275-292, located immediately C-terminal to the SOK1 kinase domain. Furthermore, SOK1 entry into the nucleus is important for the cell death response since SOK1 mutants unable to enter the nucleus do not induce cell death. In summary, SOK1 is necessary to induce cell death and can induce death when overexpressed. Furthermore, SOK1 appears to play distinctly different roles in stressed versus non-stressed cells, regulating cell death in the former.

  9. Diversin Is Overexpressed in Breast Cancer and Accelerates Cell Proliferation and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinmiao; Wang, Minghao; Dong, Qianze; Jin, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Diversin was recently reported to play roles in Wnt and JNK pathways. However, the expression pattern and biological roles of diversin in human breast cancer have not been reported. In the present study, we found that diversin was overexpressed in breast cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Significant association was observed between diversin overexpression and TNM stage (p = 0.0036), nodal metastasis (p = 0.0033), negative estrogen receptor expression (p = 0.0012) and triple-negative status (p = 0.0017). Furthermore, colony formation assay and matrigel invasion assay showed that knockdown of diversin expression in MDA-MB-231 cell line with high endogenous expression decreased cell proliferation and cell invasion. Transfection of diversin plasmid in MCF-7 cell line increased cell proliferation and invasion. Further analysis showed that diversin depletion downregulated JNK phosphorylation while its overexpression upregulated JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that diversin was overexpressed in human breast cancers. Diversin could contribute to breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. PMID:24858714

  10. Necroptosis-like Neuronal Cell Death Caused by Cellular Cholesterol Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Takeshi; Aki, Toshihiko; Tajiri, Masateru; Unuma, Kana; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-11-25

    Aberrant cellular accumulation of cholesterol is associated with neuronal lysosomal storage disorders such as Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NPC). We have shown previously that l-norephedrine (l-Nor), a sympathomimetic amine, induces necrotic cell death associated with massive cytoplasmic vacuolation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. To reveal the molecular mechanism underling necrotic neuronal cell death caused by l-Nor, we examined alterations in the gene expression profile of cells during l-Nor exposure. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the gene levels for cholesterol transport (LDL receptor and NPC2) as well as cholesterol biosynthesis (mevalonate pathway enzymes) are increased after exposure to 3 mm l-Nor for ∼6 h. Concomitant with this observation, the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, SREBP-2, is activated by l-Nor. The increase in cholesterol uptake as well as biosynthesis is not accompanied by an increase in cholesterol in the plasma membrane, but rather by aberrant accumulation in cytoplasmic compartments. We also found that cell death by l-Nor can be suppressed by nec-1s, an inhibitor of a regulated form of necrosis, necroptosis. Abrogation of SREBP-2 activation by the small molecule inhibitor betulin or by overexpression of dominant-negative SREBP-2 efficiently reduces cell death by l-Nor. The mobilization of cellular cholesterol in the presence of cyclodextrin also suppresses cell death. These results were also observed in primary culture of striatum neurons. Taken together, our results indicate that the excessive uptake as well as synthesis of cholesterol should underlie neuronal cell death by l-Nor exposure, and suggest a possible link between lysosomal cholesterol storage disorders and the regulated form of necrosis in neuronal cells. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Over-expression of TSC-22 (TGF-beta stimulated clone-22) markedly enhances 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis in a human salivary gland cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Uchida, D; Kawamata, H; Omotehara, F; Miwa, Y; Hino, S; Begum, N M; Yoshida, H; Sato, M

    2000-06-01

    We have recently isolated TSC-22 (transforming growth factor-beta-stimulated clone-22) cDNA as an anticancer, drug-inducible (with vesnarinone) gene in a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. We have also reported that TSC-22 negatively regulates the growth of TYS cells and that down-regulation of TSC-22 in TYS cells plays a major role in salivary gland tumorigenesis (Nakashiro et al, 1998). In this study, we transfected TYS cells with an expression vector encoding the TSC-22-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein, and we established TSC-22-GFP-expressing TYS cell clones. Next, we examined (a) the subcellular localization of the fusion protein, (b) the sensitivity of the transfectants to several anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil, cis-diaminedichloroplatinum, peplomycin), and (c) induction of apoptotic cell death in the transfectants by 5-fluorouracil treatment. The TSC-22-GFP fusion protein was clearly localized to the cytoplasm, but not to the nucleus. Over-expression of the TSC-22-GFP fusion protein did not affect cell growth, but significantly increased the sensitivity of the cells to the anticancer drugs (p < 0.01; one-way ANOVA). Furthermore, over-expression of the TSC-22-GFP fusion protein markedly enhanced 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that over-expression of TSC-22-GFP protein in TYS cells enhances the chemosensitivity of the cells via induction of apoptosis.

  12. HSPB1 as a novel regulator of ferroptotic cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Ou, Z; Xie, M; Kang, R; Fan, Y; Niu, X; Wang, H; Cao, L; Tang, D

    2015-11-05

    Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of non-apoptotic cell death, but its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1) is a negative regulator of ferroptotic cancer cell death. Erastin, a specific ferroptosis-inducing compound, stimulates heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-dependent HSPB1 expression in cancer cells. Knockdown of HSF1 and HSPB1 enhances erastin-induced ferroptosis, whereas heat shock pretreatment and overexpression of HSPB1 inhibits erastin-induced ferroptosis. Protein kinase C-mediated HSPB1 phosphorylation confers protection against ferroptosis by reducing iron-mediated production of lipid reactive oxygen species. Moreover, inhibition of the HSF1-HSPB1 pathway and HSPB1 phosphorylation increases the anticancer activity of erastin in human xenograft mouse tumor models. Our findings reveal an essential role for HSPB1 in iron metabolism with important effects on ferroptosis-mediated cancer therapy.

  13. Actin as Deathly Switch? How Auxin Can Suppress Cell-Death Related Defence

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaoli; Riemann, Michael; Liu, Qiong; Nick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant innate immunity is composed of two layers – a basal immunity, and a specific effector-triggered immunity, which is often accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Initiation of cell death depends on a complex network of signalling pathways. The phytohormone auxin as central regulator of plant growth and development represents an important component for the modulation of plant defence. In our previous work, we showed that cell death is heralded by detachment of actin from the membrane. Both, actin response and cell death, are triggered by the bacterial elicitor harpin in grapevine cells. In this study we investigated, whether harpin-triggered actin bundling is necessary for harpin-triggered cell death. Since actin organisation is dependent upon auxin, we used different auxins to suppress actin bundling. Extracellular alkalinisation and transcription of defence genes as the basal immunity were examined as well as cell death. Furthermore, organisation of actin was observed in response to pharmacological manipulation of reactive oxygen species and phospholipase D. We find that induction of defence genes is independent of auxin. However, auxin can suppress harpin-induced cell death and also counteract actin bundling. We integrate our findings into a model, where harpin interferes with an auxin dependent pathway that sustains dynamic cortical actin through the activity of phospholipase D. The antagonism between growth and defence is explained by mutual competition for signal molecules such as superoxide and phosphatidic acid. Perturbations of the auxin-actin pathway might be used to detect disturbed integrity of the plasma membrane and channel defence signalling towards programmed cell death. PMID:25933033

  14. Actin as deathly switch? How auxin can suppress cell-death related defence.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaoli; Riemann, Michael; Liu, Qiong; Nick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant innate immunity is composed of two layers--a basal immunity, and a specific effector-triggered immunity, which is often accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Initiation of cell death depends on a complex network of signalling pathways. The phytohormone auxin as central regulator of plant growth and development represents an important component for the modulation of plant defence. In our previous work, we showed that cell death is heralded by detachment of actin from the membrane. Both, actin response and cell death, are triggered by the bacterial elicitor harpin in grapevine cells. In this study we investigated, whether harpin-triggered actin bundling is necessary for harpin-triggered cell death. Since actin organisation is dependent upon auxin, we used different auxins to suppress actin bundling. Extracellular alkalinisation and transcription of defence genes as the basal immunity were examined as well as cell death. Furthermore, organisation of actin was observed in response to pharmacological manipulation of reactive oxygen species and phospholipase D. We find that induction of defence genes is independent of auxin. However, auxin can suppress harpin-induced cell death and also counteract actin bundling. We integrate our findings into a model, where harpin interferes with an auxin dependent pathway that sustains dynamic cortical actin through the activity of phospholipase D. The antagonism between growth and defence is explained by mutual competition for signal molecules such as superoxide and phosphatidic acid. Perturbations of the auxin-actin pathway might be used to detect disturbed integrity of the plasma membrane and channel defence signalling towards programmed cell death.

  15. Cell division cycle 20 overexpression predicts poor prognosis for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Run; Sun, Qi; Sun, Jing; Wang, Xin; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Wang, Anpeng; Jiang, Feng; Xu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    The cell division cycle 20, a key component of spindle assembly checkpoint, is an essential activator of the anaphase-promoting complex. Aberrant expression of cell division cycle 20 has been detected in various human cancers. However, its clinical significance has never been deeply investigated in non-small-cell lung cancer. By analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas database and using some certain online databases, we validated overexpression of cell division cycle 20 in both messenger RNA and protein levels, explored its clinical significance, and evaluated the prognostic role of cell division cycle 20 in non-small-cell lung cancer. Cell division cycle 20 expression was significantly correlated with sex (p = 0.003), histological classification (p < 0.0001), and tumor size (p = 0.0116) in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. In lung adenocarcinoma patients, overexpression of cell division cycle 20 was significantly associated with bigger primary tumor size (p = 0.0023), higher MKI67 level (r = 0.7618, p < 0.0001), higher DNA ploidy level (p < 0.0001), and poor prognosis (hazard ratio = 2.39, confidence interval: 1.87-3.05, p < 0.0001). However, in lung squamous cell carcinoma patients, no significant association of cell division cycle 20 expression was observed with any clinical parameter or prognosis. Overexpression of cell division cycle 20 is associated with poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and its overexpression can also be used to identify high-risk groups. In conclusion, cell division cycle 20 might serve as a potential biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  16. Overexpression of VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase protects substantia nigra-derived cells against aminochrome neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Patricia; Paris, Irmgard; Sanders, Laurie H; Greenamyre, J Timothy; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2012-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that both VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase are an important cellular defense against aminochrome-dependent neurotoxicity during dopamine oxidation. A cell line with VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase over-expressed was created. The transfection of RCSN-3 cells with a bicistronic plasmid coding for VMAT-2 fused with GFP-IRES-DT-diaphorase cDNA induced a significant increase in protein expression of VMAT-2 (7-fold; P<0.001) and DT-diaphorase (9-fold; P<0.001), accompanied by a 4- and 5.5-fold significant increase in transport and enzyme activity, respectively. Studies with synaptic vesicles from rat substantia nigra revealed that VMAT-2 uptake of ³H-aminochrome 6.3 ± 0.4nmol/min/mg was similar to dopamine uptake 6.2 ± 0.3nmol/min/mg that which were dependent on ATP. Interestingly, aminochrome uptake was inhibited by 2μM lobeline but not reserpine (1 and 10μM). Incubation of cells overexpressing VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase with 20μM aminochrome resulted in (i) a significant decrease in cell death (6-fold, P<0.001); (ii) normal ultra structure determined by transmission electron microscopy contrasting with a significant increase of autophagosome and a dramatic remodeling of the mitochondrial inner membrane in wild type cells; (iii) normal level of ATP (256 ± 11μM) contrasting with a significant decrease in wild type cells (121±11μM, P<0.001); and (iv) a significant decrease in DNA laddering (21 ± 8pixels, P<0.001) cells in comparison with wild type cells treated with 20μM aminochrome (269 ± 9). These results support our hypothesis that VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase are an important defense system against aminochrome formed during dopamine oxidation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aire-Overexpressing Dendritic Cells Induce Peripheral CD4⁺ T Cell Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongbei; Li, Haijun; Fu, Haiying; Niu, Kunwei; Guo, Yantong; Guo, Chuan; Sun, Jitong; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei

    2015-12-29

    Autoimmune regulator (Aire) can promote the ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), which leads to the deletion of autoreactive T cells and consequently prevents autoimmune diseases. However, the functions of Aire in the periphery, such as in dendritic cells (DCs), remain unclear. This study's aim was to investigate the effect of Aire-overexpressing DCs (Aire cells) on the functions of CD4⁺ T cells and the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We demonstrated that Aire cells upregulated the mRNA levels of the tolerance-related molecules CD73, Lag3, and FR4 and the apoptosis of CD4⁺ T cells in STZ-T1D mouse-derived splenocytes. Furthermore, following insulin stimulation, Aire cells decreased the number of CD4⁺ IFN-γ⁺ T cells in both STZ-T1D and WT mouse-derived splenocytes and reduced the expression levels of TCR signaling molecules (Ca(2+) and p-ERK) in CD4⁺ T cells. We observed that Aire cells-induced CD4⁺ T cells could delay the development of T1D. In summary, Aire-expressing DCs inhibited TCR signaling pathways and decreased the quantity of CD4⁺IFN-γ⁺ autoreactive T cells. These data suggest a mechanism for Aire in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance and provide a potential method to control autoimmunity by targeting Aire.

  18. C/EBPalpha inactivation in FAK-overexpressed HL-60 cells impairs cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ken-ichiro; Sonoda, Yoshiko; Yamakado, Masakazu; Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Yoshida, Naomi; Rokudai, Akiko; Aizu-Yokota, Eriko; Kasahara, Tadashi

    2006-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-overexpressed (HL-60/FAK) cells have marked resistance against various apoptotic stimuli such as oxidative stress, ionizing radiation and TNF-receptor-induced ligand (TRAIL) compared with vector-transfected (HL-60/Vect) cells. Here, we show that HL-60/FAK cells are highly resistant to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced differentiation, whereas original HL-60 or HL-60/Vect cells are sensitive. Treatment with ATRA at 1 muM for 5 days markedly inhibited the proliferation and increased the expression of differentiation markers (CD38, CD11b) in HL-60/Vect cells, but showed no such effect in HL-60/FAK cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) using an oligonucleotide for the c/EBP consensus binding sequence showed that c/EBPalpha was activated in ATRA-treated HL-60/Vect cells but not in HL-60/FAK cells, indicating that c/EBPalpha activation by ATRA was impaired in HL-60/FAK cells. In addition, the association of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and c/EBPalpha after treatment with ATRA was seen in HL-60/Vect cells but not in HL-60/FAK cells. Further, hyperphosphorylation of pRb was observed in HL-60/FAK cells. Finally, the introduction of FAK siRNA into HL-60/FAK cells resulted in the recovery of sensitivity to ATRA-induced differentiation, confirming that the inhibition of HL-60/FAK differentiation resulted from both the induction of pRb hyperphosphorylation and the inhibition of association of pRb and c/EBPalpha.

  19. Overexpression of MCT8 enhances the differentiation of ES cells into neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Mika; Nagaoka, Masato; Yabuuchi, Hikaru; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2007-09-07

    Embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation is regulated by cytokines and growth factors, as well as small-compound chemicals incorporated into cells by transporter proteins. Little is known regarding the effect of transporters on ES cell differentiation. This study focused on the effect of transporters during the neural-lineage differentiation of ES cells. Among the 27 types of SLC family transporters, MCT8 expression was coincident with that of neural stem cell markers, and the overexpression of MCT8 accelerated the differentiation into neural cells. These results suggested that the transporters and their substrates also play a crucial role in the regulation of ES cell differentiation.

  20. NDRG1 overexpression promotes the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through modulating Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ai, Runna; Sun, Yulin; Guo, Zhimin; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Lanping; Liu, Fang; Hendricks, Denver T; Xu, Yang; Zhao, Xiaohang

    2016-09-01

    N-myc down-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) has been shown to regulate tumor growth and metastasis in various malignant tumors and also to be dysregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Here, we show that NDRG1 overexpression (91.9%, 79/86) in ESCC tumor tissues is associated with poor overall survival of esophageal cancer patients. When placed in stable transfectants of the KYSE 30 ESCC cell line generated by lentiviral transduction with the ectopic overexpression of NDRG1, the expression of transducin-like enhancer of Split 2 (TLE2) was decreased sharply, however β-catenin was increased. Mechanistically, NDRG1 physically associates with TLE2 and β-catenin to affect the Wnt pathway. RNA interference and TLE2 overexpression studies demonstrate that NDRG1 fails to active Wnt pathway compared with isogenic wild-type controls. Strikingly, NDRG1 overexpression induces the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) through activating the Wnt signaling pathway in ESCC cells, decreased the expression of E-cadherin and enhanced the expression of Snail. Our study elucidates a mechanism of NDRG1-regulated Wnt pathway activation and EMT via affecting TLE2 and  β-catenin expression in esophageal cancer cells. This indicates a pro-oncogenic role for NDRG1 in esophageal cancer cells whereby it modulates tumor progression.

  1. Wallenda regulates JNK-mediated cell death in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ma, X; Xu, W; Zhang, D; Yang, Y; Li, W; Xue, L

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway plays essential roles in regulating a variety of cellular processes including proliferation, migration and survival. Previous genetic studies in Drosophila have identified numerous cell death regulating genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms for related diseases. Despite the known role of the small GTPase Rac1 in regulating cell death, the downstream components and underlying mechanism remain largely elusive. Here, we show that Rac1 promotes JNK-dependent cell death through Wallenda (Wnd). In addition, we find that Wnd triggers JNK activation and cell death via its kinase domain. Moreover, we show that both MKK4 and Hep are critical for Wnd-induced cell death. Furthermore, Wnd is essential for ectopic Egr- or Rho1-induced JNK activation and cell death. Finally, Wnd is physiologically required for loss of scribble-induced JNK-dependent cell death. Thus, our data suggest that wnd encodes a novel essential cell death regulator in Drosophila. PMID:25950467

  2. Programmed cell death as a defence against infection.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Ine; Rayamajhi, Manira; Miao, Edward A

    2017-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells can die from physical trauma, which results in necrosis. Alternatively, they can die through programmed cell death upon the stimulation of specific signalling pathways. In this Review, we discuss the role of different cell death pathways in innate immune defence against bacterial and viral infection: apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis and NETosis. We describe the interactions that interweave different programmed cell death pathways, which create complex signalling networks that cross-guard each other in the evolutionary 'arms race' with pathogens. Finally, we describe how the resulting cell corpses - apoptotic bodies, pore-induced intracellular traps (PITs) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) - promote the clearance of infection.

  3. Overexpression of AKR1C3 significantly enhances human prostate cancer cells resistance to radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xian-Shu; Li, Yi; Yu, Hongliang; Xiong, Wei; Yu, Hao; Wang, Wen; Li, Yingbo; Teng, Yingqi; Zhou, Demin

    2016-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase 1C3(AKR1C3) is an enzyme involved in prostaglandins metabolism. Studies suggest that AKR1C3 has a pivotal role in the radioresistance of esophageal cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer, yet the role of AKR1C3 in prostate cancer cells radiation resistance has not yet been clarified. In our study, we established a stable overexpressing AKR1C3 cell line (AKR1C3-over) derived from the prostate cell line DU145 and its control cell line (Control). We conducted colony formation assay to determine the role of AKR1C3 in radioresistance and we used its chemical inhibitor to detect whether it can restored the sensitivity of the acquired tumor cells. Flow cytometry assay was carried out to detect IR-induced ROS accumulation. Elisa was adopted to dedect the concentration of PGF2α in the suspension of the cells after 6GY radiation. Western blotting was used to dedect the MAPK and PPAR γ. The results demonstrated that overexpression of AKR1C3 in prostate cancer can result in radioresistance and suppression of AKR1C3 via its chemical inhibitor indocin restored the sensitivity of the acquired tumor cells. According to the flow cytometry assay, ROS was decreased by 80% in DU145-over cells. Also overexpression of AKR1C3 could result in the accumulation of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), which can not only promote prostate cancer cell 's proliferation but also could enhance prostate cancer cells resistance to radiation and activated the MAPK pathway and inhibited the expression of PPARγ. In conclusion, we found that overexpression of AKR1C3 significantly enhanced human prostate cancer cells resistance to radiation through activation of MAPK pathway. PMID:27385003

  4. PTEN overexpression improves cisplatin-resistance of human ovarian cancer cells through upregulating KRT10 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huijuan; Wang, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Hao, Quan

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Overexpression of PTEN enhanced the sensitivity of C13K cells to cisplatin. • KRT10 is a downstream molecule of PTEN involved in the resistance-reversing effect. • Overexpression of KRT10 enhanced the chemosensitivity of C13K cells to cisplatin. - Abstract: Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a common cause of the failure of chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene, has been demonstrated to be able to reverse cisplatin-resistance in ovarian cancer cell line C13K. However, the downstream molecules of PTEN involved in the resistance-reversing effect have not been completely clarified. Therefore, we screened the downstream molecules of PTEN and studied their interactions in C13K ovarian cancer cells using a 3D culture model. Firstly, we constructed an ovarian cancer cell line stably expressing PTEN, C13K/PTEN. MTT assay showed that overexpression of PTEN enhanced the sensitivity of C13K cells to cisplatin, but not to paclitaxel. Then we examined the differently expressed proteins that interacted with PTEN in C13K/PTEN cells with or without cisplatin treatment by co-immunoprecipitation. KRT10 was identified as a differently expressed protein in cisplatin-treated C13K/PTEN cells. Further study confirmed that cisplatin could induce upregulation of KRT10 mRNA and protein in C13K/PTEN cells and there was a directly interaction between KRT10 and PTEN. Forced expression of KRT10 in C13K cells also enhanced cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of C13K cells. In addition, KRT10 siRNA blocked cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition of C13K/PTEN cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that KRT10 is a downstream molecule of PTEN which improves cisplatin-resistance of ovarian cancer and forced KRT10 overexpression may also act as a therapeutic method for overcoming MDR in ovarian cancer.

  5. BAD overexpression inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis via mitochondrial-dependent pathway in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Luo, Man; Liu, Dan; Chen, Bojiang; Zhang, Wen; Mai, Lin; Zeng, Jing; Huang, Na; Huang, Yi; Mo, Xianming; Li, Weimin

    2013-06-01

    The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein BAD initiated apoptosis in human cells and has been identified as a prognostic marker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we aimed to explore the functions of BAD in NSCLC. Overexpression of BAD was performed by transfecting different NSCLC cell lines with wild-type BAD. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and invasion were characterized in vitro. Tumorigenicity was analyzed in vivo. Western blot was performed to determine the effects of BAD overexpression on the Bcl-2 family proteins and apoptosis-related proteins. Overexpression of BAD significantly inhibited cell proliferation in H1299, H292, and SPC-A1 but not in SK-MES-1 and H460 cell lines in vitro. BAD overexpression also reduced the tumorigenicity of H1299/SPC-A1 cell in vivo. However, no appreciable effects on cell cycle distribution and invasion were observed in all these cell lines. BAD overexpression also induced apoptosis in all cell types, in which process expression of mitochondrial cytochrom c (cyto-c) and caspase 3 were increased, whereas Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase 8 expressions did not changed. These findings indicated that a mitochondrial pathway, in which process cyto-c was released from mitochondrial to activate caspase 3, was involved in BAD overexpression-mediated apoptosis. Our data suggested that increased expression of BAD enhance apoptosis and has negative influence on cell proliferation and tumor growth in NSCLC. Bad is a new potential target for tumor interventions.

  6. Ultra-violet B (UVB)-induced skin cell death occurs through a cyclophilin D intrinsic signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Chao; Yang, Bo; Yang, Zhi; Tu, Ying; Yang, Yan-li; He, Li; Bi, Zhi-Gang

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UVB radiated skin keratinocytes show cyclophilin D (Cyp-D) upregulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAC inhibits UVB induced Cyp-D expression, while H{sub 2}O{sub 2} facilitates it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyp-D-deficient cells are significantly less susceptible to UVB induced cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of Cyp-D causes spontaneous keratinocytes cell death. -- Abstract: UVB-induced skin cell damage involves the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), which leads to both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Cyclophilin D (Cyp-D) translocation to the inner membrane of mitochondrion acts as a key component to open the mPTP. Our Western-Blot results in primary cultured human skin keratinocytes and in HaCaT cell line demonstrated that UVB radiation and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) induced Cyp-D expression, which was inhibited by anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). We created a stable Cyp-D deficiency skin keratinocytes by expressing Cyp-D-shRNA through lentiviral infection. Cyp-D-deficient cells were significantly less susceptible than their counterparts to UVB- or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death. Further, cyclosporine A (Cs-A), a Cyp-D inhibitor, inhibited UVB- or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced keratinocytes cell death. Reversely, over-expression of Cyp-D in primary keratinocytes caused spontaneous keratinocytes cell death. These results suggest Cyp-D's critical role in UVB/oxidative stress-induced skin cell death.

  7. Non-Canonical Cell Death Induced by p53

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Atul; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death is a vital biological process for multicellular organisms to maintain cellular homeostasis, which is regulated in a complex manner. Over the past several years, apart from apoptosis, which is the principal mechanism of caspase-dependent cell death, research on non-apoptotic forms of programmed cell death has gained momentum. p53 is a well characterized tumor suppressor that controls cell proliferation and apoptosis and has also been linked to non-apoptotic, non-canonical cell death mechanisms. p53 impacts these non-canonical forms of cell death through transcriptional regulation of its downstream targets, as well as direct interactions with key players involved in these mechanisms, in a cell type- or tissue context-dependent manner. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the involvement of p53 in several non-canonical modes of cell death, including caspase-independent apoptosis (CIA), ferroptosis, necroptosis, autophagic cell death, mitotic catastrophe, paraptosis, and pyroptosis, as well as its role in efferocytosis which is the process of clearing dead or dying cells. PMID:27941671

  8. Non-Canonical Cell Death Induced by p53.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Atul; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2016-12-09

    Programmed cell death is a vital biological process for multicellular organisms to maintain cellular homeostasis, which is regulated in a complex manner. Over the past several years, apart from apoptosis, which is the principal mechanism of caspase-dependent cell death, research on non-apoptotic forms of programmed cell death has gained momentum. p53 is a well characterized tumor suppressor that controls cell proliferation and apoptosis and has also been linked to non-apoptotic, non-canonical cell death mechanisms. p53 impacts these non-canonical forms of cell death through transcriptional regulation of its downstream targets, as well as direct interactions with key players involved in these mechanisms, in a cell type- or tissue context-dependent manner. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the involvement of p53 in several non-canonical modes of cell death, including caspase-independent apoptosis (CIA), ferroptosis, necroptosis, autophagic cell death, mitotic catastrophe, paraptosis, and pyroptosis, as well as its role in efferocytosis which is the process of clearing dead or dying cells.

  9. Changing sensitivity to cell death during development of retinal photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Luciana B; Leal-Ferreira, Mona Lisa; de Freitas, Fabíola G; Linden, Rafael

    2003-12-15

    Photoreceptor cell death occurs during both normal and pathological retinal development. We tested for selective induction and blockade of cell death in either retinal photoreceptors or their precursors. Organotypical retinal explants from rats at postnatal days 3-11 were treated in vitro for 24 hr with thapsigargin, okadaic acid, etoposide, anisomycin, or forskolin. Explant sections were examined for cell death, and identification of either photoreceptors or proliferating/immediate postmitotic cells followed imunohistochemistry for either rhodopsin or bromodeoxyuridine and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively. Photoreceptor cell death was selectively induced by either thapsigargin or okadaic acid, whereas death of proliferating/immediate postmitotic cells was induced by etoposide. Prelabeling of proliferating precursors allowed direct demonstration of changing sensitivity of photoreceptors to various chemicals. Degeneration of both photoreceptors and proliferating/immediate postmitotic cells depended on protein synthesis. Increase of intracellular cyclic AMP blocked degeneration of postmitotic, but not of proliferating, photoreceptor precursors. The selective induction and blockade of cell death show that developing photoreceptors undergo progressive changes in mechanisms of programmed cell death associated with phenotypic differentiation.

  10. Heat stress induces ferroptosis-like cell death in plants.

    PubMed

    Distéfano, Ayelén Mariana; Martin, María Victoria; Córdoba, Juan Pablo; Bellido, Andrés Martín; D'Ippólito, Sebastián; Colman, Silvana Lorena; Soto, Débora; Roldán, Juan Alfredo; Bartoli, Carlos Guillermo; Zabaleta, Eduardo Julián; Fiol, Diego Fernando; Stockwell, Brent R; Dixon, Scott J; Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina

    2017-02-01

    In plants, regulated cell death (RCD) plays critical roles during development and is essential for plant-specific responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent, oxidative, nonapoptotic form of cell death recently described in animal cells. In animal cells, this process can be triggered by depletion of glutathione (GSH) and accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated whether a similar process could be relevant to cell death in plants. Remarkably, heat shock (HS)-induced RCD, but not reproductive or vascular development, was found to involve a ferroptosis-like cell death process. In root cells, HS triggered an iron-dependent cell death pathway that was characterized by depletion of GSH and ascorbic acid and accumulation of cytosolic and lipid ROS. These results suggest a physiological role for this lethal pathway in response to heat stress in Arabidopsis thaliana The similarity of ferroptosis in animal cells and ferroptosis-like death in plants suggests that oxidative, iron-dependent cell death programs may be evolutionarily ancient. © 2017 Distéfano et al.

  11. Heat stress induces ferroptosis-like cell death in plants

    PubMed Central

    D’Ippólito, Sebastián; Colman, Silvana Lorena; Soto, Débora; Bartoli, Carlos Guillermo; Fiol, Diego Fernando

    2017-01-01

    In plants, regulated cell death (RCD) plays critical roles during development and is essential for plant-specific responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent, oxidative, nonapoptotic form of cell death recently described in animal cells. In animal cells, this process can be triggered by depletion of glutathione (GSH) and accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated whether a similar process could be relevant to cell death in plants. Remarkably, heat shock (HS)–induced RCD, but not reproductive or vascular development, was found to involve a ferroptosis-like cell death process. In root cells, HS triggered an iron-dependent cell death pathway that was characterized by depletion of GSH and ascorbic acid and accumulation of cytosolic and lipid ROS. These results suggest a physiological role for this lethal pathway in response to heat stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. The similarity of ferroptosis in animal cells and ferroptosis-like death in plants suggests that oxidative, iron-dependent cell death programs may be evolutionarily ancient. PMID:28100685

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells with eNOS Over-Expression Enhance Cardiac Repair in Rats with Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leilei; Zhang, Yuan; Tao, Liangliang; Yang, Zhijian; Wang, Liansheng

    2017-02-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising therapeutic option for patients with acute myocardial infarction. We show here that the ectopic overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS), an endothelial form of NOS, could enhance the ability of MSCs in treating ischemic heart damage after the occlusion of the coronary artery. Adenoviral delivery of human eNOS gene into mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) conferred resistance to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death in vitro, and elevated the bioavailability of nitric oxide when injected into the myocardium in vivo. In a rat model of acute myocardial infarction, the transplantation of eNOS-overexpressing BM-MSCs significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, corrected hemodynamic parameters and increased capillary density. We also found that the synergistic effects were consistently better than either treatment alone. These findings reveal a positive role of elevated eNOS expression in cardiac repair, and suggest the combination of eNOS and MSC transplant therapy as a potential approach for treating myocardial infarction.

  13. Overexpression of Annexin II Receptor-Induced Autophagy Protects Against Apoptosis in Uveal Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuelu; Song, Hongyuan; Guo, Ting; Zhu, Yongzhe; Tang, Hailin; Qi, Zhongtian; Zhao, Ping; Zhao, Shihong

    2016-05-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor in adults and still lacks effective systemic therapies. Annexin A2 receptor (AXIIR), a receptor for Annexin II, was demonstrated to play an important role in multiple cells, but its role in uveal melanoma cells remains exclusive. Herein, the authors reported that overexpression of AXIIR was able to reduce cell viability and activate apoptosis apparently in the Mum2C uveal melanoma cell line. Meanwhile, overexpression of AXIIR could induce autophagy and increase autophagy flux. After autophagy was inhibited by chloroquine, enhanced apoptosis and cytotoxicity could be detected. In summary, these data highlighted the crucial role of AXIIR in reducing Mum2C cell viability through inducing apoptosis, while autophagy played a protective role in this process. Interference of this gene may be a promising method for uveal melanoma therapy and combination with specific inhibitor of autophagy may serve as a supplementary.

  14. The effect of moesin overexpression on ageing of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hee; Hong, In Ae; Oh, Sang Ho; Kwon, Yeon Sook; Cho, Soo Hyun; Lee, Kwang Hoon

    2009-11-01

    Senescence of microvascular endothelial cells is known to play an important role in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases related to ageing, but the accurate mechanism or related genes are not known. Moesin, a cytoskeletal protein and the most potent candidate as an ageing-related protein, showed obvious changes in expression when compared before and after ageing. In this study, a lentivirus was used to overexpress moesin in endothelial cells. The expression of cell cycle mediators such as p16, cyclin D1 and cdk4, which can be the markers of ageing, was compared by RNA and was shown to be suppressed in moesin overexpressed endothelial cells. In conclusion, it can be said that the expression of moesin delays senescence of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and this fundamental discovery can be used as a basis for understanding the mechanism of ageing and age-related diseases.

  15. Differential effect of H1 variant overexpression on cell cycle progression and gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D T; Alexander, B T; Sittman, D B

    1996-01-01

    To identify functional differences among non-allelic variants of the mammalian H1 linker histones a system for the overexpression of individual H1 variants in vivo was developed. Mouse 3T3 cells were transformed with an expression vector containing the coding regions for the H1c or H10 variant under the control of an inducible promoter. Stable, single colony transformants, in which the normal stoichiometry of H1 variants was perturbed, displayed normal viability, unaltered morphology and no long-term growth arrest. However, upon release from synchronization at different points in the cell cycle transformants significantly overproducing H10 exhibited transient inhibition of both G1 and S phase progression. Overexpression of H1c to comparable levels had no effect on cell cycle progression. Analysis of transcript levels for several cell cycle-regulated and housekeeping genes indicated that overexpression of H10 resulted in significantly reduced expression of all genes tested. Surprisingly, overexpression of H1c to comparable levels resulted in either a negligible effect or, in some cases, a dramatic increase in transcript levels. These results support the suggestion that functional differences exist among H1 variants. PMID:8602362

  16. EIF2C Is Overexpressed and Amplified in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Steven S.; Smith, Ian; Glazer, Chad; Hennessey, Patrick; Califano, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To discover putative oncogenes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by integrating data from whole-genome comparison of array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and expression microarray analysis of HNSCC. Methods We integrated published data defining regions of loss/gain identified from the profiling of 21 HNSCC using high-resolution (<1 Mb) CGH arrays and data from an mRNA expression microarray (approx. 12,000 genes) comparing 6 normal tissues and 8 HNSCC tumor tissues. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C subunit 2 (EIF2C2) was found to be the most significantly overexpressed gene by mRNA expression array, and corresponded to the most common region of amplification found by the CGH array described by Sparano et al. We validated EIF2C2 overexpression in primary tissue, overexpression and amplification in HNSCC lines (JHU-011, JHU-012, FADU) relative to a minimally transformed oral keratinocyte cell line (OKF6) and performed knockdown experiments. Results The tumor tissues had an average mRNA expression level of 123 (SD = 49) compared to the normal tissues (18.6, SD = 10) (p = 0.0005) by expression array. Quantitative RT-PCR validation of our expression arrays found that normal tissues had an average expression of 0.76 (SE = 0.08) and tumor tissues of 2.1 (SE = 0.35) (p = 0.0008). EIF2C2 was found to be amplified and overexpressed in 3 HNSCC cell lines. Knockdown of EIF2C2 in cell lines (JHU-012 and JHU-011) inhibited proliferation. Conclusion EIF2C2 is amplified and overexpressed in HNSCC cell lines and primary tumors and functionally significant in cell lines. PMID:20924207

  17. Synchronized renal tubular cell death involves ferroptosis.

    PubMed

    Linkermann, Andreas; Skouta, Rachid; Himmerkus, Nina; Mulay, Shrikant R; Dewitz, Christin; De Zen, Federica; Prokai, Agnes; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Krombach, Fritz; Welz, Patrick-Simon; Weinlich, Ricardo; Vanden Berghe, Tom; Vandenabeele, Peter; Pasparakis, Manolis; Bleich, Markus; Weinberg, Joel M; Reichel, Christoph A; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Stockwell, Brent R; Green, Douglas R; Krautwald, Stefan

    2014-11-25

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-mediated necroptosis is thought to be the pathophysiologically predominant pathway that leads to regulated necrosis of parenchymal cells in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), and loss of either Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) or caspase-8 is known to sensitize tissues to undergo spontaneous necroptosis. Here, we demonstrate that renal tubules do not undergo sensitization to necroptosis upon genetic ablation of either FADD or caspase-8 and that the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) does not protect freshly isolated tubules from hypoxic injury. In contrast, iron-dependent ferroptosis directly causes synchronized necrosis of renal tubules, as demonstrated by intravital microscopy in models of IRI and oxalate crystal-induced acute kidney injury. To suppress ferroptosis in vivo, we generated a novel third-generation ferrostatin (termed 16-86), which we demonstrate to be more stable, to metabolism and plasma, and more potent, compared with the first-in-class compound ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1). Even in conditions with extraordinarily severe IRI, 16-86 exerts strong protection to an extent which has not previously allowed survival in any murine setting. In addition, 16-86 further potentiates the strong protective effect on IRI mediated by combination therapy with necrostatins and compounds that inhibit mitochondrial permeability transition. Renal tubules thus represent a tissue that is not sensitized to necroptosis by loss of FADD or caspase-8. Finally, ferroptosis mediates postischemic and toxic renal necrosis, which may be therapeutically targeted by ferrostatins and by combination therapy.

  18. Ischaemia- and excitotoxicity-induced CaMKII-Mediated neuronal cell death: The relative roles of CaMKII autophosphorylation at T286 and T253.

    PubMed

    Rostas, John A P; Hoffman, Alexander; Murtha, Lucy A; Pepperall, Debbie; McLeod, Damian D; Dickson, Phillip W; Spratt, Neil J; Skelding, Kathryn A

    2017-03-01

    Ischaemia/excitotoxicity produces persistent activation of CaMKII (Ca(2+)-calmodulin stimulated protein kinase II) that initiates cell death. This study investigated the involvement of CaMKII phosphorylation at T286 and T253 in producing this persistent activation. In T286A-αCaMKII transgenic mice that lack the ability to phosphorylate αCaMKII at T286, transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 90 min resulted in no significant difference in infarct size compared to normal littermate controls. Overexpression of the phospho-mimic mutant T286D-αCaMKII in differentiated neuroblastoma cell lines did not enhance excitotoxicity-induced cell death compared to overexpression of wild type αCaMKII. By contrast, overexpression of the phospho-mimic mutant T253D-αCaMKII significantly enhanced excitotoxicity-induced cell death whereas overexpression of the phospho-null mutant T253V-αCaMKII produced no enhancement. These results indicate that T286 phosphorylation does not play a significant role in ischaemia/excitotoxicity induced CaMKII-mediated cell death and suggest that T253 phosphorylation is required to produce the persistent activation of CaMKII involved in ischaemia/excitotoxicity induced cell death.

  19. Untangling the Roles of Anti-Apoptosis in Regulating Programmed Cell Death using Humanized Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Caitlin; Portt, Liam; Khoury, Chamel; Sheibani, Sara; Eid, Rawan; Greenwood, Matthew; Vali, Hojatollah; Mandato, Craig A; Greenwood, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Genetically programmed cell death (PCD) mechanisms, including apoptosis, are important for the survival of metazoans since it allows, among things, the removal of damaged cells that interfere with normal function. Cell death due to PCD is observed in normal processes such as aging and in a number of pathophysiologies including hypoxia (common causes of heart attacks and strokes) and subsequent tissue reperfusion. Conversely, the loss of normal apoptotic responses is associated with the development of tumors. So far, limited success in preventing unwanted PCD has been reported with current therapeutic approaches despite the fact that inhibitors of key apoptotic inducers such as caspases have been developed. Alternative approaches have focused on mimicking anti-apoptotic processes observed in cells displaying increased resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Hormesis and pre-conditioning are commonly observed cellular strategies where sub-lethal levels of pro-apoptotic stimuli lead to increased resistance to higher or lethal levels of stress. Increased expression of anti-apoptotic sequences is a common mechanism mediating these protective effects. The relevance of the latter observation is exemplified by the observation that transgenic mice overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes show significant reductions in tissue damage following ischemia. Thus strategies aimed at increasing the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, using gene therapy or cell penetrating recombinant proteins are being evaluated as novel therapeutics to decrease cell death following acute periods of cell death inducing stress. In spite of its functional and therapeutic importance, more is known regarding the processes involved in apoptosis than anti-apoptosis. The genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has emerged as an exceptional model to study multiple aspects of PCD including the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis observed in metazoans. To increase our knowledge of the process of anti

  20. Untangling the Roles of Anti-Apoptosis in Regulating Programmed Cell Death using Humanized Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Caitlin; Portt, Liam; Khoury, Chamel; Sheibani, Sara; Eid, Rawan; Greenwood, Matthew; Vali, Hojatollah; Mandato, Craig A.; Greenwood, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Genetically programmed cell death (PCD) mechanisms, including apoptosis, are important for the survival of metazoans since it allows, among things, the removal of damaged cells that interfere with normal function. Cell death due to PCD is observed in normal processes such as aging and in a number of pathophysiologies including hypoxia (common causes of heart attacks and strokes) and subsequent tissue reperfusion. Conversely, the loss of normal apoptotic responses is associated with the development of tumors. So far, limited success in preventing unwanted PCD has been reported with current therapeutic approaches despite the fact that inhibitors of key apoptotic inducers such as caspases have been developed. Alternative approaches have focused on mimicking anti-apoptotic processes observed in cells displaying increased resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Hormesis and pre-conditioning are commonly observed cellular strategies where sub-lethal levels of pro-apoptotic stimuli lead to increased resistance to higher or lethal levels of stress. Increased expression of anti-apoptotic sequences is a common mechanism mediating these protective effects. The relevance of the latter observation is exemplified by the observation that transgenic mice overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes show significant reductions in tissue damage following ischemia. Thus strategies aimed at increasing the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, using gene therapy or cell penetrating recombinant proteins are being evaluated as novel therapeutics to decrease cell death following acute periods of cell death inducing stress. In spite of its functional and therapeutic importance, more is known regarding the processes involved in apoptosis than anti-apoptosis. The genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has emerged as an exceptional model to study multiple aspects of PCD including the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis observed in metazoans. To increase our knowledge of the process of anti

  1. Colourful death: six-parameter classification of cell death by flow cytometry--dead cells tell tales.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Luis E; Maueröder, Christian; Chaurio, Ricardo; Berens, Christian; Herrmann, Martin; Janko, Christina

    2013-08-01

    The response of the immune system against dying and dead cells strongly depends on the cell death phenotype. Beside other forms of cell death, two clearly distinct populations, early apoptotic and secondary necrotic cells, have been shown to induce anti-inflammation/tolerance and inflammation/immune priming, respectively. Cytofluorometry is a powerful technique to detect morphological and phenotypical changes occurring during cell death. Here, we describe a new technique using AnnexinA5, propidiumiodide, DiIC1(5) and Hoechst 33342 to sub-classify populations of apoptotic and/or necrotic cells. The method allows the fast and reliable identification of several different phases and pathways of cell death by analysing the following cell death associated changes in a single tube: cellular granularity and shrinkage, phosphatidylserine exposure, ion selectivity of the plasma membrane, mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA content. The clear characterisation of cell death is of major importance for instance in immunization studies, in experimental therapeutic settings, and in the exploration of cell-death associated diseases. It also enables the analysis of immunological properties of distinct populations of dying cells and the pathways involved in this process.

  2. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Jelinek, Anja; Laino, Vincenzo; Hoffmann, Lena; Eisenbach, Ina; Eying, Roman; Ganjam, Goutham K; Dolga, Amalia M; Oppermann, Sina; Culmsee, Carsten

    2017-03-09

    Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the Xc(-) system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation. In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by Xc(-) inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death.

  3. PMA and Ionomycin Induce Glioblastoma Cell Death: Activation-Induced Cell-Death-Like Phenomena Occur in Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sheng; Tie, Xinxin; Meng, Lingxuan; Wang, Yunjie; Wu, Anhua

    2013-01-01

    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (Io) can induce T cell activation and proliferation. Furthermore, they stimulate activation-induced cell death (AICD) in mature lymphocytes via Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) up-regulation. In this study, we explored the influence of PMA/Io treatment on glioblastoma cells, and found that AICD-like phenomena may also occur in glioma. Using the MTT assay and cell counting, we demonstrated that treatment of PMA/Io significantly inhibited the proliferation of glioma cell lines, U87 and U251. TUNEL assays and transmission electron microscopy revealed that PMA/Io markedly induced U87 and U251 cell apoptosis. Propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry showed that treatment with PMA/Io resulted in an arrestment of cell cycle and an increase in cell death. Using real-time PCR and western blot, we found that PMA/Io up-regulated the expression of Fas and FasL at both mRNA and protein level, which confirmed that PMA/Io induced glioma cell death. Specific knockdown of NFAT1 expression by small hairpin RNA greatly reduced the PMA/Io induced cell death and apoptosis by inhibition of FasL expression. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of NFAT1 significantly correlated with the expression of Fas. The coexistence of Fas with NFAT1 in vivo provides the background for AICD-like phenomena to occur in glioma. These findings demonstrate that PMA/Io can induce glioblastoma cell death through the NFAT1-Fas/FasL pathway. Glioma-related AICD-like phenomena may provide a novel avenue for glioma treatment. PMID:24130787

  4. Overexpression of IGF-I receptor in HeLa cells enhances in vivo radioresponse

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Haruna; Yu, Dong; Miura, Masahiko

    2007-11-30

    Insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase whose activation strongly promotes cell growth and survival. We previously reported that IGF-IR activity confers intrinsic radioresistance in mouse embryo fibroblasts in vitro. However, it is still unclear whether tumor cells overexpressing IGF-IR exhibit radioresistance in vivo. For this purpose, we established HeLa cells that overexpress IGF-IR (HeLa-R), subcutaneously transplanted these cells into nude mice, and examined radioresponse in the resulting solid tumors. HeLa-R cells exhibited typical in vitro phenotypes generally observed in IGF-IR-overexpressing cells, as well as significant intrinsic radioresistance in vitro compared with parent cells. As expected, the transplanted HeLa-R tumors grew at a remarkably higher rate than parent tumors. Histological analysis revealed that HeLa-R tumors expressed more VEGF and had a higher density of tumor vessels. Unexpectedly, a marked growth delay was observed in HeLa-R tumors following 10 Gy of X-irradiation. Immunostaining of HeLa-R tumors for the hypoxia marker pimonidazole revealed a significantly lower level of hypoxic cells. Moreover, clamp hypoxia significantly increased radioresistance in HeLa-R tumors. Tumor microenvironments in vivo generated by the IGF-IR expression thus could be a major factor in determining the tumor radioresponse in vivo.

  5. Conditional Cripto overexpression in satellite cells promotes myogenic commitment and enhances early regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Prezioso, Carolina; Iaconis, Salvatore; Andolfi, Gennaro; Zentilin, Lorena; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Guardiola, Ombretta; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. Despite extensive studies, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events associated with satellite cell activation and myogenic commitment in muscle regeneration remains still incomplete. Cripto is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration and a promising target for future therapy. Indeed, Cripto is expressed both in myogenic and inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle after acute injury and it is required in the satellite cell compartment to achieve effective muscle regeneration. A critical requirement to further explore the in vivo cellular contribution of Cripto in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration is the possibility to overexpress Cripto in its endogenous configuration and in a cell and time-specific manner. Here we report the generation and the functional characterization of a novel mouse model for conditional expression of Cripto, i.e., the Tg:DsRedloxP/loxPCripto-eGFP mice. Moreover, by using a satellite cell specific Cre-driver line we investigated the biological effect of Cripto overexpression in vivo, and provided evidence that overexpression of Cripto in the adult satellite cell compartment promotes myogenic commitment and differentiation, and enhances early regeneration in a mouse model of acute injury. PMID:26052513

  6. Conditional Cripto overexpression in satellite cells promotes myogenic commitment and enhances early regeneration.

    PubMed

    Prezioso, Carolina; Iaconis, Salvatore; Andolfi, Gennaro; Zentilin, Lorena; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Guardiola, Ombretta; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. Despite extensive studies, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events associated with satellite cell activation and myogenic commitment in muscle regeneration remains still incomplete. Cripto is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration and a promising target for future therapy. Indeed, Cripto is expressed both in myogenic and inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle after acute injury and it is required in the satellite cell compartment to achieve effective muscle regeneration. A critical requirement to further explore the in vivo cellular contribution of Cripto in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration is the possibility to overexpress Cripto in its endogenous configuration and in a cell and time-specific manner. Here we report the generation and the functional characterization of a novel mouse model for conditional expression of Cripto, i.e., the Tg:DsRed (loxP/loxP) Cripto-eGFP mice. Moreover, by using a satellite cell specific Cre-driver line we investigated the biological effect of Cripto overexpression in vivo, and provided evidence that overexpression of Cripto in the adult satellite cell compartment promotes myogenic commitment and differentiation, and enhances early regeneration in a mouse model of acute injury.

  7. Ferroptosis: an iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Scott J; Lemberg, Kathryn M; Lamprecht, Michael R; Skouta, Rachid; Zaitsev, Eleina M; Gleason, Caroline E; Patel, Darpan N; Bauer, Andras J; Cantley, Alexandra M; Yang, Wan Seok; Morrison, Barclay; Stockwell, Brent R

    2012-05-25

    Nonapoptotic forms of cell death may facilitate the selective elimination of some tumor cells or be activated in specific pathological states. The oncogenic RAS-selective lethal small molecule erastin triggers a unique iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death that we term ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is dependent upon intracellular iron, but not other metals, and is morphologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct from apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. We identify the small molecule ferrostatin-1 as a potent inhibitor of ferroptosis in cancer cells and glutamate-induced cell death in organotypic rat brain slices, suggesting similarities between these two processes. Indeed, erastin, like glutamate, inhibits cystine uptake by the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system x(c)(-)), creating a void in the antioxidant defenses of the cell and ultimately leading to iron-dependent, oxidative death. Thus, activation of ferroptosis results in the nonapoptotic destruction of certain cancer cells, whereas inhibition of this process may protect organisms from neurodegeneration.

  8. Independent controls for neocortical neuron production and histogenetic cell death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verney, C.; Takahashi, T.; Bhide, P. G.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the proportion of cells eliminated by histogenetic cell death during the first 2 postnatal weeks in areas 1, 3 and 40 of the mouse parietal neocortex. For each layer and for the subcortical white matter in each neocortical area, the number of dying cells per mm(2) was calculated and the proportionate cell death for each day of the 2-week interval was estimated. The data show that cell death proceeds essentially uniformly across the neocortical areas and layers and that it does not follow either the spatiotemporal gradient of cell cycle progression in the pseudostratified ventricular epithelium of the cerebral wall, the source of neocortical neurons, or the 'inside-out' neocortical neuronogenetic sequence. Therefore, we infer that the control mechanisms of neocortical histogenetic cell death are independent of mechanisms controlling neuronogenesis or neuronal migration but may be associated with the ingrowth, expansion and a system-wide matching of neuronal connectivity. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Independent controls for neocortical neuron production and histogenetic cell death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verney, C.; Takahashi, T.; Bhide, P. G.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the proportion of cells eliminated by histogenetic cell death during the first 2 postnatal weeks in areas 1, 3 and 40 of the mouse parietal neocortex. For each layer and for the subcortical white matter in each neocortical area, the number of dying cells per mm(2) was calculated and the proportionate cell death for each day of the 2-week interval was estimated. The data show that cell death proceeds essentially uniformly across the neocortical areas and layers and that it does not follow either the spatiotemporal gradient of cell cycle progression in the pseudostratified ventricular epithelium of the cerebral wall, the source of neocortical neurons, or the 'inside-out' neocortical neuronogenetic sequence. Therefore, we infer that the control mechanisms of neocortical histogenetic cell death are independent of mechanisms controlling neuronogenesis or neuronal migration but may be associated with the ingrowth, expansion and a system-wide matching of neuronal connectivity. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Overexpression of AQP3 Modifies the Cell Cycle and the Proliferation Rate of Mammalian Cells in Culture.

    PubMed

    Galán-Cobo, Ana; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serna, Ana; Echevarría, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal AQP3 overexpression in tumor cells of different origins has been reported and a role for this enhanced AQP3 expression in cell proliferation and tumor processess has been indicated. To further understand the role AQP3 plays in cell proliferation we explore the effect that stable over expression of AQP3 produces over the proliferation rate and cell cycle of mammalian cells. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) and the cell proliferation rate measured through cell counting and BrdU staining. Cells with overexpression of AQP3 (AQP3-o) showed higher proliferation rate and larger percentage of cells in phases S and G2/M, than wild type cells (wt). Evaluation of the cell response against arresting the cell cycle with Nocodazole showed that AQP3-o exhibited a less modified cell cycle pattern and lower Annexin V specific staining than wt, consistently with a higher resistance to apoptosis of AQP3-overexpressing cells. The cell volume and complexity were also larger in AQP3-o compared to wt cells. After transcriptomic analysis, RT-qPCR was performed to highlight key molecules implicated in cell proliferation which expression may be altered by overexpression of AQP3 and the comparative analysis between both type of cells showed significant changes in the expression of Zeb2, Jun, JunB, NF-kβ, Cxcl9, Cxcl10, TNF, and TNF receptors. We conclude that the role of AQP3 in cell proliferation seems to be connected to increments in the cell cycle turnover and changes in the expression levels of relevant genes for this process. Larger expression of AQP3 may confer to the cell a more tumor like phenotype and contributes to explain the presence of this protein in many different tumors.

  11. Overexpression of AQP3 Modifies the Cell Cycle and the Proliferation Rate of Mammalian Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Galán-Cobo, Ana; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serna, Ana; Echevarría, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal AQP3 overexpression in tumor cells of different origins has been reported and a role for this enhanced AQP3 expression in cell proliferation and tumor processess has been indicated. To further understand the role AQP3 plays in cell proliferation we explore the effect that stable over expression of AQP3 produces over the proliferation rate and cell cycle of mammalian cells. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) and the cell proliferation rate measured through cell counting and BrdU staining. Cells with overexpression of AQP3 (AQP3-o) showed higher proliferation rate and larger percentage of cells in phases S and G2/M, than wild type cells (wt). Evaluation of the cell response against arresting the cell cycle with Nocodazole showed that AQP3-o exhibited a less modified cell cycle pattern and lower Annexin V specific staining than wt, consistently with a higher resistance to apoptosis of AQP3-overexpressing cells. The cell volume and complexity were also larger in AQP3-o compared to wt cells. After transcriptomic analysis, RT-qPCR was performed to highlight key molecules implicated in cell proliferation which expression may be altered by overexpression of AQP3 and the comparative analysis between both type of cells showed significant changes in the expression of Zeb2, Jun, JunB, NF-kβ, Cxcl9, Cxcl10, TNF, and TNF receptors. We conclude that the role of AQP3 in cell proliferation seems to be connected to increments in the cell cycle turnover and changes in the expression levels of relevant genes for this process. Larger expression of AQP3 may confer to the cell a more tumor like phenotype and contributes to explain the presence of this protein in many different tumors. PMID:26367709

  12. Overexpression of LLT1 (OCIL, CLEC2D) on prostate cancer cells inhibits NK cell-mediated killing through LLT1-NKRP1A (CD161) interaction.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Stephen O; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Powers, Sheila B; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K; Mathew, Porunelloor A

    2016-10-18

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer diagnosed and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in American men. Natural Killer (NK) cells are the first line of defense against cancer and infections. NK cell function is regulated by a delicate balance between signals received through activating and inhibitory receptors. Previously, we identified Lectin-like transcript-1 (LLT1/OCIL/CLEC2D) as a counter-receptor for the NK cell inhibitory receptor NKRP1A (CD161). Interaction of LLT1 expressed on target cells with NKRP1A inhibits NK cell activation. In this study, we have found that LLT1 was overexpressed on prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) and in primary prostate cancer tissues both at the mRNA and protein level. We further showed that LLT1 is retained intracellularly in normal prostate cells with minimal cell surface expression. Blocking LLT1 interaction with NKRP1A by anti-LLT1 mAb on prostate cancer cells increased the NK-mediated cytotoxicity of prostate cancer cells. The results indicate that prostate cancer cells may evade immune attack by NK cells by expressing LLT1 to inhibit NK cell-mediated cytolytic activity through LLT1-NKRP1A interaction. Blocking LLT1-NKRP1A interaction will make prostate cancer cells susceptible to killing by NK cells and therefore may be a new therapeutic option for treatment of prostate cancer.

  13. Programmed Cell Death and Complexity in Microbial Systems.

    PubMed

    Durand, Pierre M; Sym, Stuart; Michod, Richard E

    2016-07-11

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is central to organism development and for a long time was considered a hallmark of multicellularity. Its discovery, therefore, in unicellular organisms presents compelling questions. Why did PCD evolve? What is its ecological effect on communities? To answer these questions, one is compelled to consider the impacts of PCD beyond the cell, for death obviously lowers the fitness of the cell. Here, we examine the ecological effects of PCD in different microbial scenarios and conclude that PCD can increase biological complexity. In mixed microbial communities, the mode of death affects the microenvironment, impacting the interactions between taxa. Where the population comprises groups of relatives, death has a more explicit effect. Death by lysis or other means can be harmful, while PCD can evolve by providing advantages to relatives. The synchronization of death between individuals suggests a group level property is being maintained and the mode of death also appears to have had an impact during the origin of multicellularity. PCD can result in the export of fitness from the cell to the group level via re-usable resources and PCD may also provide a mechanism for how groups beget new groups comprising kin. Furthermore, PCD is a means for solving a central problem of group living - the toxic effects of death - by making resources in dying cells beneficial to others. What emerges from the data reviewed here is that while PCD carries an obvious cost to the cell, it can be a driver of complexity in microbial communities.

  14. Stem cell death and survival in heart regeneration and repair

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelyte, Audrone; Stulpinas, Aurimas; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Foldes, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis disrupts cardiac function and leads to cardiac decompensation and terminal heart failure. Delineating the regulatory signaling pathways that orchestrate cell survival in the heart has significant therapeutic implications. Cardiac tissue has limited capacity to regenerate and repair. Stem cell therapy is a successful approach for repairing and regenerating ischemic cardiac tissue; however, transplanted cells display very high death percentage, a problem that affects success of tissue regeneration. Stem cells display multipotency or pluripotency and undergo self-renewal, however these events are negatively influenced by upregulation of cell death machinery that induces the significant decrease in survival and differentiation signals upon cardiovascular injury. While efforts to identify cell types and molecular pathways that promote cardiac tissue regeneration have been productive, studies that focus on blocking the extensive cell death after transplantation are limited. The control of cell death includes multiple networks rather than one crucial pathway, which underlies the challenge of identifying the interaction between various cellular and biochemical components. This review is aimed at exploiting the molecular mechanisms by which stem cells resist death signals to develop into mature and healthy cardiac cells. Specifically, we focus on a number of factors that control death and survival of stem cells upon transplantation and ultimately affect cardiac regeneration. We also discuss potential survival enhancing strategies and how they could be meaningful in the design of targeted therapies that improve cardiac function. PMID:26687129

  15. Overexpression of phytosulfokine-α induces male sterility and cell growth by regulating cell wall development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liangliang; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yumin; Li, Qiong; Tang, Guirong; Luo, Li

    2016-12-01

    Over-production of functional PSK-α in Arabidopsis caused increases in both plant cell growth and biomass and induced male sterility by regulating cell wall development. Phytosulfokine-α (PSK-α) is a novel disulfated pentapeptide hormone that is involved in promoting plant cell growth. Although a role for PSK-α in stimulating protoplast expansion has been suggested, how PSK-α regulates cell growth in planta remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that overexpression of the normal PSK-α precursor gene AtPSK4, which resulted in high levels of PSK-α, caused longer roots and larger leaves with enlarged cells. As expected, these changes were not observed in transgenic plants overexpressing mutated AtPSK4, which generated unsulfated PSK-α. These findings confirmed the role of PSK-α in promoting plant cell growth. Furthermore, we found that overexpressing AtPSK4, but not mutated AtPSK4, induced a phenotype of male sterility that resulted from the failure of fibrous cell wall development in the endothecium. In addition, overexpressing AtPSK4 enhanced expression of a number of genes encoding expansins, which are involved in cell wall loosening. Accordingly, in addition to its role in cell growth, we propose a novel function for PSK-α signaling in the modulation of plant male sterility via regulation of cell wall development.

  16. Isolation (from a basal cell carcinoma) of a functionally distinct fibroblast-like cell type that overexpresses Ptch.

    PubMed

    Dicker, Anthony J; Serewko, Magdalena M; Russell, Terry; Rothnagel, Joseph A; Strutton, Geoff M; Dahler, Alison L; Saunders, Nicholas A

    2002-05-01

    In this study we report on the isolation and characterization of a nonepithelial, nontumorigenic cell type (BCC1) derived from a basal cell carcinoma from a patient. The BCC1 cells share many characteristics with dermal fibroblasts, such as the expression of vimentin, lack of expression of cytokeratins, and insensitivity to agents that cause growth inhibition and differentiation of epithelial cells; however, significant differences between BCC1 cells and fibroblasts also exist. For example, BCC1 cells are stimulated to undergo DNA synthesis in response to interferon-gamma, whereas dermal fibroblasts are not. More over, BCC1 cells overexpress the basal cell carcinoma-specific genes ptch and ptch2. These data indicate that basal cell carcinomas are associated with a functionally distinct population of fibroblast-like cells that overexpress known tumor-specific markers (ptch and ptch2).

  17. Over-expression of CXCR4 on mesenchymal stem cells augments myoangiogenesis in the infarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Fan, Guo-Chang; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Tiemin; Pasha, Zeeshan; Xu, Meifeng; Zhu, Yi; Ashraf, Muhammad; Wang, Yigang

    2008-02-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) participate in myocardial repair following myocardial infarction. However, their in vivo reparative capability is limited due to lack of their survival in the infarcted myocardium. To overcome this limitation, we genetically engineered male rat MSCs overexpressing CXCR4 in order to maximize the effect of stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) for cell migration and regeneration. MSCs were isolated from adult male rats and cultured. Adenoviral transduction was carried out to over-express either CXCR4/green fluorescent protein (Ad-CXCR4/GFP) or Ad-null/GFP alone (control). Flow cytometry was used to identify and isolate GFP/CXCR4 over-expressing MSCs for transplantation. Female rats were assigned to one of four groups (n=8 each) to receive GFP-transduced male MSCs (2 x 10(6)) via tail vein injection 3 days after ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery: GFP-transduced MSCs (Ad-null/GFP-MSCs, group 1) or MSCs over-expressing CXCR4/GFP (Ad-CXCR4/GFP-MSCs, group 2), or Ad-CXCR4/GFP-MSCs plus SDF-1alpha (50 ng/microl) (Ad-CXCR4/GFP-MSCs/SDF-1alpha, group 3), or Ad-miRNA targeting CXCR4 plus SDF-1alpha (Ad-miRNA/GFP-MSCs+SDF-1alpha treatment, group 4). Cardiodynamic data were obtained 4 weeks after induction of regional myocardial infarction (MI) using echocardiography after which hearts were harvested for immunohistochemical studies. The migration of GFP and Y-chromosome positive cells increased significantly in the peri- and infarct areas of groups 2 and 3 compared to control group (p<0.05), or miRNA-CXCR4 group (p<0.01). The number of CXCR4 positive cells in groups 2, 3 was intimately associated with angiogenesis and myogenesis. MSCs engraftment was blocked by pretreatment with miRNA (group 4). Cardiac function was significantly improved in rats receiving MSCs over-expressing CXCR4 alone or with SDF-1alpha. The up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by CXCR4 overexpressing MSCs perhaps

  18. Gremlin is Overexpressed in Lung Adenocarcinoma and Increases Cell Growth and Proliferation in Normal Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sharon; Fang, Li Tai; Choi, Helen; Ray, Roshni; Kang, Hio Chung; Mao, Jian-Hua; Jablons, David; Kim, Il-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Gremlin, a member of the Dan family of BMP antagonists, is a glycosylated extracellular protein. Previously Gremlin has been shown to play a role in dorsal-ventral patterning, in tissue remodeling, and recently in angiogenesis. Evidence has previously been presented showing both over- and under-expression of Gremlin in different tumor tissues. Here, we sought to quantify expression of Gremlin in cancers of the lung and performed in vitro experiments to check whether Gremlin promotes cell growth and proliferation. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression of Gremlin in 161 matched tumor and normal lung cancer specimens is quantified by quantitative real-time PCR and protein level is measured by immunohistochemistry. GREM1 was transfected into lung fibroblast and epithelial cell lines to assess the impact of overexpression of Gremlin in vitro. Results Lung adenocarcinoma but not squamous cell carcinoma shows a significant increase in Gremlin expression by mRNA and protein level. Lung fibroblast and epithelial cell lines transfected with GREM1 show significantly increased cell proliferation. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that Gremlin acts in an oncogenic manner in lung adenocarcinoma and could hold promise as a new diagnostic marker or potential therapeutic target in lung AD or general thoracic malignancies. PMID:22870311

  19. Overexpression of chromokinesin KIF4 inhibits proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Sai, Ningning; Wang, Chengqin; Sheng, Xiehuang; Shao, Qianqian; Zhou, Chengjun; Shi, Yanqiu; Sun, Shanzhen; Qu, Xun; Zhu, Changjun

    2011-02-01

    Gastric carcinoma is a common type of malignant tumors and is associated with high death rates. The pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma is still unclear, and increasing evidence shows that many factors contribute to this process. Chromokinesin KIF4 is involved in multiple critical cellular processes. Recently, it has become apparent that KIF4 plays a crucial suppressive role in tumorigenesis. However, the role of KIF4 in human gastric cancer is still unclear. In this study, we examined expression profiles of KIF4 in gastric carcinoma specimens and generated gastric cancer cells that stably express GFP-KIF4 fusion protein (designated as BGC-GFP-KIF4 cells) followed by cell proliferation, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, and soft agar colony-formation assays. Simultaneously, we further examined the capability of tumor formation of BGC-GFP-KIF4 cells in nude mice. The results showed that among 23 gastric carcinoma specimens, 13 cases (56.6%) had lower expression of KIF4 compared with corresponding adjacent tissues. In addition, there was a significant correlation between low expression of KIF4 and poor differentiation of tumor (P = 0.024). Overexpression of KIF4 in BGC cells inhibited cell proliferation in vitro, as well as their ability to form tumors in vivo. Our findings suggest that human chromokinesin KIF4 functions as an inhibitor of gastric cancer cell proliferation and might serve as a novel biological target to cure human gastric carcinoma.

  20. [Effects of membrane protein ANO1 stable overexpression on laryngocarcinoma Hep-2 cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-dong

    2014-02-01

    To explore the effects of ANO1 overexpression on the proliferation, detachment, spreading, and migration of laryngocarcinoma Hep-2 cell line. ANO1-overexpressing Hep-2 cell line was selected as the assay group, and Hep-2 cell line with empty plasmid was selected as the control group. MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation abilities of Hep-2 cells in both two groups. Cell detachment assay and spreading assay were used to detect the detachment and spreading abilities of Hep-2 cells. Boyden chamber invasion assay, wound healing assay in vitro, and niflumic acid block chloride channel were used to detect the migration abilities of Hep-2 cells. All data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 software package. Cell proliferation assay by MTT showed that, compared with the control group, the optical density value of assay group was not significantly different (P=0.62). The results of cell detachment assay and cell spreading assay showed the cell detachment rates and cell spreading rates in assay group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.0001). The results of Boyden chamber invasion assay showed the percentages of cells migrating through the membrane in assay group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.0001). The results of in vitro wound healing experiments showed the wound area rate in assay group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.0001). The results of niflumic acid blocking chloride channel experiments showed the wound area rates in assay group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.0001). ANO1 overexpression does not remarkably alter the proliferation rate of cancer cells, but increases the migration, spreading, and detachment capacities of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. Creatine Kinase Brain Overexpression Protects Colorectal Cells From Various Metabolic and Non-Metabolic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Steven M.; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Williams, Brenten H.; Zeng, Yu; Christudass, Christhunesa S.; Li, Youqiang; Yin, Bo; Kulkarni, Prakash; Getzenberg, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine kinase brain (CKB) is one of three cytosolic isoforms of creatine kinase that is predominantly expressed in the brain. The enzyme is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers, with the exception of colon cancer, where it is downregulated. The significance of this downregulation remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of CKB-C283S, a dominant-negative construct that lacks the kinase function but retains its ability to dimerize, causes remarkable changes in cell shape, adhesion, and invasion. Furthermore, it results in increased expression of stromal cell markers such as PAGE4 and SNAIL, suggesting an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in these cells. In cells transfected with a CKB-expressing construct, CKB localizes not only to the cytosol but also to the nucleus, indicating a structural or kinase role unrelated to ATP storage. Furthermore, overexpression of CFP-tagged wild-type (WT) CKB in Caco-2 colon cancer cells dramatically increased the number of cells in G2/M but had little effect on cell proliferation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the downregulation of CKB may play an important role in colon cancer progression by promoting. PMID:21308735

  2. Overexpression of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy region gene 1 causes primary defects in myogenic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xynos, Alexandros; Neguembor, Maria Victoria; Caccia, Roberta; Licastro, Danilo; Nonis, Alessandro; Di Serio, Clelia; Stupka, Elia; Gabellini, Davide

    2013-05-15

    Overexpression of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy region gene 1 (FRG1) in mice, frogs and worms leads to muscular and vascular abnormalities. Nevertheless, the mechanism that follows FRG1 overexpression and finally leads to muscular defects is currently unknown. Here, we show that the earliest phenotype displayed by mice overexpressing FRG1 is a postnatal muscle-growth defect. Long before the development of muscular dystrophy, FRG1 mice also exhibit a muscle regeneration impairment. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments revealed that FRG1 overexpression causes myogenic stem cell activation and proliferative, clonogenic and differentiation defects. A comparative gene expression profiling of muscles from young pre-dystrophic wild-type and FRG1 mice identified differentially expressed genes in several gene categories and networks that could explain the emerging tissue and myogenic stem cell defects. Overall, our study provides new insights into the pathways regulated by FRG1 and suggests that muscle stem cell defects could contribute to the pathology of FRG1 mice.

  3. CEP55 overexpression predicts poor prognosis in patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenpeng; Wang, Zhou; Jia, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) involves alterations in multiple genes with corresponding proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated that centrosomal protein 55 (CEP55) shares certain features with oncogenes, and CEP55 overexpression is associated with the development and progression of malignant tumors. The present study aimed to analyze, for the first time, whether CEP55 expression is related to clinicopothalogic features in the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), as well as patient survival. A total of 110 patients with mid-thoracic ESCC who suffered from Ivor-Lewis were enrolled. The CEP55 expression profile of these patients in tumour tissues and corresponding healthy esophageal mucosa (CHEM) was detected by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Correlations between CEP55 expression and clinicopathological factors were analyzed using χ2 test. The log-rank test was employed to calculate survival rate. A Cox regression multivariate analysis was performed to determine independent prognostic factors. The results demonstrated that CEP55 expression in ESCC was significantly higher than that of CHEM (P<0.001). Overexpression of CEP55 was significantly associated with differentiation degree (P=0.022), T stage (P=0.019), lymph node metastasis (P=0.033), clinicopathological staging (P=0.002) and tumor recurrence (P=0.021) in locally advanced ESCC patients. In addition, CEP55 overexpression was significantly associated with reduced overall survival of patients after surgery (P=0.012). The 5-year survival rate of patients without CEP55 overexpression was significantly higher than that of patients with CEP55 overexpression (P=0.012). Therefore, these findings suggest that CEP55 overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in locally advanced ESCC patients. PMID:28123547

  4. The tubulin inhibitor MG-2477 induces autophagy-regulated cell death, ROS accumulation and activation of FOXO3 in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hagenbuchner, Judith; Lungkofler, Lorena; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Viola, Giampietro; Ferlin, Maria Grazia; Ausserlechner, Michael J.; Obexer, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extra-cranial solid tumor in children with still high mortality in stage M. Here we studied the tubulin-inhibitor MG-2477 as a possible therapeutic agent for neuroblastoma therapy and uncovered that MG-2477 induces death in neuroblastoma cells independent of PKB-activation status and stage. MG-2477 triggers within 30 minutes extensive autophagosome-formation that finally leads to cell death associated with mitotic catastrophe. Autophagy is critical for MG-2477-induced death and is regulated by the BH3-only protein PMAIP1/NOXA which sequesters the anti-apoptotic BCL2-protein BCLXL and thereby displaces and activates the autophagy-regulator BECN1/beclin1. Knockdown of NOXA or overexpression of its pro-survival binding partners MCL1 and BCLXL counteracts MG-2477-induced cell death. MG-2477 also rapidly induces the repression of the anti-apoptotic protein Survivin, which promotes autophagy and cell death. We further observed the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that triggers autophagy induction suggesting a change of the PI3 kinase-III/BECN1 complex and activates the transcription factor FOXO3, which contributes to final cell death induction. The combined data suggest that MG-2477 induces a sequential process of ROS-accumulation, autophagy and FOXO3-activation that leads to cell death in neuroblastoma cells. PMID:28415610

  5. Human lactoferrin triggers a mitochondrial- and caspase-dependent regulated cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Zaldívar, M; Andrés, M T; Rego, A; Pereira, C S; Fierro, J F; Côrte-Real, M

    2016-02-01

    We have previously shown that the antifungal activity of human lactoferrin (hLf) against Candida albicans relies on its ability to induce cell death associated with apoptotic markers. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying hLf-induced apoptosis, we characterized this cell death process in the well-established Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. Our results indicate that hLf induces cell death in S. cerevisiae in a manner that requires energy and de novo protein synthesis. Cell death is associated with nuclear chromatin condensation, preservation of plasma membrane integrity, and is Yca1p metacaspase-dependent. Lactoferrin also caused mitochondrial dysfunction associated with ROS accumulation and release of cytochrome c. Pre-incubation with oligomycin, an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, increased resistance to hLf and, accordingly, mutants deficient in the F1F0-ATP synthase complex were more resistant to death induced by hLf. This indicates that mitochondrial energetic metabolism plays a key role in the killing effect of hLf, though a direct role of F1F0-ATP synthase cannot be precluded. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL or pre-incubation with N-acetyl cysteine reduced the intracellular level of ROS and increased resistance to hLf, confirming a ROS-mediated mitochondrial cell death process. Mitochondrial involvement was further reinforced by the higher resistance of cells lacking mitochondrial DNA, or other known yeast mitochondrial apoptosis regulators, such as, Aif1p, Cyc3p and Aac1/2/3p. This study provides new insights into a detailed understanding at the molecular level of hLf-induced apoptosis, which may allow the design of new strategies to overcome the emergence of resistance of clinically relevant fungi to conventional antifungals.

  6. Ceramide mediates nanovesicle shedding and cell death in response to phosphatidylinositol ether lipid analogs and perifosine

    PubMed Central

    Gills, J J; Zhang, C; Abu-Asab, M S; Castillo, S S; Marceau, C; LoPiccolo, J; Kozikowski, A P; Tsokos, M; Goldkorn, T; Dennis, P A

    2012-01-01

    Anticancer phospholipids that inhibit Akt such as the alkylphospholipid perifosine (Per) and phosphatidylinositol ether lipid analogs (PIAs) promote cellular detachment and apoptosis and have a similar cytotoxicity profile against cancer cell lines in the NCI60 panel. While investigating the mechanism of Akt inhibition, we found that short-term incubation with these compounds induced rapid shedding of cellular nanovesicles containing EGFR, IGFR and p-Akt that occurred in vitro and in vivo, while prolonged incubation led to cell detachment and death that depended on sphingomyelinase-mediated generation of ceramide. Pretreatment with sphingomyelinase inhibitors blocked ceramide generation, decreases in phospho-Akt, nanovesicle release and cell detachment in response to alkylphospholipids and PIAs in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Similarly, exogenous ceramide also decreased active Akt and induced nanovesicle release. Knockdown of neutral sphingomyelinase decreased, whereas overexpression of neutral or acid sphingomyelinase increased cell detachment and death in response to the compounds. When transferred in vitro, PIA or Per-induced nanovesicles increased ceramide levels and death in recipient cells. These results indicate ceramide generation underlies the Akt inhibition and cytotoxicity of this group of agents, and suggests nanovesicle shedding and uptake might potentially propagate their cytotoxicity in vivo. PMID:22764099

  7. YM155 potently triggers cell death in breast cancer cells through an autophagy-NF-kB network.

    PubMed

    Véquaud, Eloïse; Séveno, Céline; Loussouarn, Delphine; Engelhart, Lucie; Campone, Mario; Juin, Philippe; Barillé-Nion, Sophie

    2015-05-30

    Specific overexpression in cancer cells and evidence of oncogenic functions make Survivin an attractive target in cancer therapy. The small molecule compound YM155 has been described as the first "Survivin suppressant" but molecular mechanisms involved in its biological activity and its clinical potential remain obscure. We herein show that YM155 exerts single agent toxicity on primary breast cancer cells grown in an ex vivo assay preserving tumor microenvironment. In vitro assays indicate that YM155 more efficiently triggers cell death in breast cancer cells (including these with stem-cell like properties) than in non tumorigenic mammary cells. YM155-induced cell death is critically dependent on autophagy and NF-kB but independent of p53 and it coïncides with DNA damage and a DNA damage response in p53-proficient cells. Our results point out a crosstalk between NF-kB and autophagy controlling YM155-induced death in breast cancer cells and argue for the potential use of YM155 as a genotoxic agent in breast cancer therapy.

  8. YM155 potently triggers cell death in breast cancer cells through an autophagy-NF-kB network

    PubMed Central

    Véquaud, Eloïse; Séveno, Céline; Loussouarn, Delphine; Engelhart, Lucie; Campone, Mario; Juin, Philippe; Barillé-Nion, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Specific overexpression in cancer cells and evidence of oncogenic functions make Survivin an attractive target in cancer tharapy. The small molecule compound YM155 has been described as the first “Survivin suppressant” but molecular mechanisms involved in its biological activity and its clinical potential remain obscure. We herein show that YM155 exerts single agent toxicity on primary breast cancer cells grown in an ex vivo assay preserving tumor microenvironment. In vitro assays indicate that YM155 more efficiently triggers cell death in breast cancer cells (including these with stem-cell like properties) than in non tumorigenic mammary cells. YM155-induced cell death is critically dependent on autophagy and NF-kB but independent of p53 and it coïncides with DNA damage an a DNA damage response in p53-proficient cells. Our results point out a crosstalk between NF-KB and autophagy controlling YM155-induced death in breast cancer cells and argue for the potential use of YM155 as a genotoxic agent in breast cancer therapy. PMID:25974963

  9. Hydrogen peroxide overload increases adriamycin-induced apoptosis of SaOS(2)FM, a manganese superoxide dismutase-overexpressing human osteosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yadi; Kuroda, Masahiro; Gao, Xian-Shu; Asaumi, Jun-Ichi; Shibuya, Kohichi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Akaki, Shiro; St Clair, Daret; Hiraki, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2005-05-01

    We previously developed a new microscopic observation system that enables time-lapse quantitative analysis of apoptosis and necrosis. With this system we quantitatively analyzed adriamycin (ADR)-induced cell death using manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)- and wild-type p53-gene transfectants on SaOS(2), a p53-deficient human osteosarcoma cell line. A highly MnSOD-overexpressing cell line, SaOS(2)FM(H), acquired ADR-tolerance compared to the parent cell line SaOS(2). The ADR-tolerance of SaOS(2)FM(H) diminished by L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO), which did not change ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2), to the similar ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2). A wild-type p53-expressing cell line, SaOS(2)wtp53, significantly increased in ADR-sensitivity compared to SaOS(2). This ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2)wtp53 was enhanced by BSO. When isosorbide 5-mononitrate was combined with BSO, isosorbide 5-mononitrate increased ADR sensitivity of a moderately MnSOD-overexpressing cell line, SaOS(2)FM(L), decreased that of SaOS(2) FM(H), and did not change those of SaOS(2) and SaOS(2)wtp53 compared to BSO alone. Time-lapse microscopic observations during ADR treatment for 24 h indicated that the most cells of each cell line underwent apoptosis, and a few cells (less than 11%) died by necrosis. When cells were treated with iso-concentration of ADR, apoptosis of SaOS(2)FM(H) was less than that of SaOS(2). BSO, which did not change ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2), increased appearance rate of ADR-induced apoptosis, but not necrosis of MnSOD-overexpressing cell lines. When iso-survival dose of ADR, which reduced surviving fraction to 0.01, was given for each cell line, no difference was observed in appearance of either apoptosis or necrosis between SaOS(2) and MnSOD-overexpressing cell lines. On the other hands, appearance of both apoptosis and the following secondary necrosis of SaOS(2) wtp53 was significantly accelerated compared to those of SaOS(2). These findings indicate that hydrogen peroxide

  10. Bcl-2 inhibitors potentiate the cytotoxic effects of radiation in Bcl-2 overexpressing radioresistant tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Takamitsu; Omura-Minamisawa, Motoko . E-mail: momuram@med.yokohama-cu.ac.jp; Chao Cheng; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Ito, Megumi; Inoue, Tomio

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: Bcl-2, an inhibitor of apoptosis frequently shows elevated expression in human tumors, thus resulting in resistance to radiation therapy. Therefore, inhibiting Bcl-2 function may enhance the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. Tetrocarcin A (TC-A) and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides exhibit antitumor activity by inhibiting Bcl-2 function and transcription, respectively. We investigated whether these antitumor agents would enhance the cytotoxic effects of radiation in tumor cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Methods and materials: We used HeLa/bcl-2 cells, a stable Bcl-2-expressing cell line derived from wild-type HeLa (HeLa/wt) cells. Cells were incubated with TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides for 24 h after irradiation, and cell viability was then determined. Apoptotic cells were quantified by flow cytometric assay. Results: The HeLa/bcl-2 cells were more resistant to radiation than HeLa/wt cells. At concentrations that are not inherently cytotoxic, both TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides increased the cytotoxic effects of radiation in HeLa/bcl-2 cells, but not in HeLa/wt cells. However, in HeLa/bcl-2 cells, additional treatment with TC-A in combination with radiation did not significantly increase apoptosis. Conclusions: The present results suggest that TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides reduce radioresistance of tumor cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Therefore, a combination of radiotherapy and Bcl-2 inhibitors may prove to be a useful therapeutic approach for treating tumors that overexpress Bcl-2.

  11. Overexpression of Serpinb1 in Chinese hamster ovary cells increases recombinant IgG productivity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan; Brooks, Jeanne; Sealover, Natalie; George, Henry J; Kayser, Kevin J

    2015-01-10

    We report the discovery and validation of a novel CHO cell engineering target for improving IgG expression, serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B, member 1 (Serpinb1). Transcriptomic studies using microarrays revealed that Serpinb1 was up-regulated in cultures with IgG heavy and light chain transcription transiently repressed compared with cultures treated with non-targeting siRNA. As proof of concept, a lentiviral vector was employed to overexpress the Chinese Hamster Serpinb1 in a CHOZN(®) Glutamine Synthetase (-/-) recombinant IgG producing CHO line. The lentiviral stable pool demonstrated 4.2-fold SERPINB1 overexpression compared with the non-transduced control. The peak viable cell density (VCD) and peak IgG volumetric productivity of the lentiviral stable pool increased 1.3 and 2.0 fold, respectively, compared with the non-transduced control. For host cell engineering, a plasmid encoding SERPINB1 was transfected into the CHOZN(®) GS (-/-) host cell line to create several stable pools. Single-cell clones isolated from the pools were characterized for their SERPINB1 expression levels and growth. The clone (SERPINB1_OE_27) with the highest SERPINB1 expression had decreased peak viable cell density and exponential phase growth rate. Selected SERPINB1 OE clones were subsequently evaluated for their IgG expression capabilities using GS selection. Clone SERPINB1_OE_42 with moderate SERPINB1 overexpression demonstrated increased IgG productivity in "bulk" selection. We conclude that manipulating Serpinb1 expression can lead to increased recombinant IgG productivity, but the effect in host cell lines may vary by clone and by overexpression level. This work represents the ongoing effort in applying "-omics" findings to novel CHO host cell line engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Linear correlation between bacterial overexpression of recombinant peptides and cell light scatter.

    PubMed Central

    Lavergne-Mazeau, F; Maftah, A; Cenatiempo, Y; Julien, R

    1996-01-01

    Fusion of multiple copies of a test peptide leads to insoluble inclusion bodies. Their presence within bacteria increases either forward-angle light scattering or, to a lesser extent, right-angle light scattering. A linear correlation has been established between cell forward-angle scattering and the level of overexpression of atrial natriuretic peptide. The correlation is valid only for unlysed cells and is protein product specific. PMID:8702299

  13. Loss of tolerance of anti-dsDNA B cells in mice overexpressing CD19.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Devon K; Ito, Emi; Thorn, Mitchell; Sundar, Krishnan; Tedder, Thomas; Spatz, Linda A

    2006-04-01

    Mice transgenic for the R4A-Cmu heavy chain of an anti-dsDNA antibody, maintain tolerance by anergy and deletion. In C57BL/6 mice overexpressing CD19, a molecule, which lowers the threshold for B cell activation, elevated levels of serum autoantibodies have been observed. In the present study, we wished to determine whether CD19 overexpression could alter the induction of tolerance in R4A-Cmu mice and lead to the secretion of transgenic anti-dsDNA antibodies. We, therefore, bred R4A-Cmu transgenic mice-to-mice transgenic for human CD19 (hCD19) and generated R4A-Cmu mice heterozygous and homozygous for hCD19. We, now report the spontaneous secretion of transgenic IgM anti-dsDNA antibody in the sera of R4A-Cmu mice overexpressing CD19, indicative of a loss of B cell tolerance. We observe that transgenic B cells secreting anti-dsDNA antibody in these mice are T independent and display a marginal zone like phenotype althought they do not reside in the MZ. In addition, they appear to be derived from the conventional B2 subset rather than the B1 subset. Interestingly, a subset of the anti-dsDNA B cells in these mice still display the phenotype and functional characteristics of anergic B cells. These B cells cannot be activated to secrete antibody following BCR crosslinking, however, they are hyper-responsive to activation by innate signaling mechanisms. This suggests that CD19 overexpression may promote anergic B cells to escape tolerance by converging with BCR independent pathways, thereby rendering these B cells hyper-responsive to innate signaling.

  14. Dendrosomal nanocurcumin and p53 overexpression synergistically trigger apoptosis in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Reihaneh; Bakhshinejad, Babak; Babashah, Sadegh; Baghi, Narges; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Glioblastoma is the most lethal tumor of the central nervous system. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous delivery of p53 and a nanoformulation of curcumin called dendrosomal curcumin (DNC), alone and in combination, on glioblastoma tumor cells. Materials and Methods: MTT assay was exploited to measure the viability of U87-MG cells against DNC treatment. Cells were separately subjected to DNC treatment and transfected with p53-containing vector and then were co-exposed to DNC and p53 overexpression[A GA1][B2]. Annexin-V-FLUOS staining followed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR were applied to examine apoptosis and analyze the expression levels of the genes involved in cell cycle and oncogenesis, respectively. Results: The results of cell viability assay through MTT indicated that DNC inhibits the proliferation of U87-MG cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis evaluation revealed that p53 overexpression accompanied by DNC treatment can act in a synergistic manner to significantly enhance the number of apoptotic cells (90%) compared with their application alone (15% and 38% for p53 overexpression and DNC, respectively). Also, real-time PCR data showed that the concomitant exposure of cells to both DNC and p53 overexpression leads to an enhanced expression of GADD45 and a reduced expression of NF-κB and c-Myc. Conclusion: The findings of the current study suggest that our combination strategy, which merges two detached gene (p53) and drug (curcumin) delivery systems into an integrated platform, may represent huge potential as a novel and efficient modality for glioblastoma treatment. PMID:28096969

  15. Imaging plant cell death: GFP-Nit1 aggregation marks an early step of wound and herbicide induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean R; Somerville, Chris R

    2005-01-01

    Background A great deal is known about the morphological endpoints of plant cell death, but relatively little is known about its sequence of events and / or its execution at the biochemical level. Live cell imaging using GFP-tagged markers is a powerful way to provide dynamic portraits of a cellular process that can in turn provide a descriptive foundation valuable for future biochemical and genetic investigations. Results While characterizing a collection of random GFP-protein fusion markers we discovered that mechanical wounding induces rapid aggregation of a GFP-Nitrilase 1 fusion protein in Arabidopsis cells directly abutting wound sites. Time-lapse imaging of this response shows that the aggregation occurs in cells that subsequently die 30 – 60 minutes post-wounding, indicating that GFP-Nit1 aggregation is an early marker of cell death at wound sites. Time-lapse confocal imaging was used to characterize wound-induced cell death using GFP-Nit1 and markers of the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. These analyses provide dynamic portraits of well-known death-associated responses such as nuclear contraction and cellular collapse and reveal novel features such as nuclear envelope separation, ER vesiculation and loss of nuclear-lumen contents. As a parallel system for imaging cell death, we developed a chemical method for rapidly triggering cell death using the herbicides bromoxynil or chloroxynil which cause rapid GFP-Nit1 aggregation, loss of nuclear contents and cellular collapse, but not nuclear contraction, separating this response from others during plant cell death. Conclusion Our observations place aggregation of Nitrilase 1 as one of the earliest events associated with wound and herbicide-induced cell death and highlight several novel cellular events that occur as plant cells die. Our data create a detailed descriptive framework for future investigations of plant cell death and provide new tools for both its cellular and biochemical analysis. PMID

  16. Fas Protects Breast Cancer Stem Cells from Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    sensitive to Fas-mediated apoptosis , while the BCSCs part is more sensitive to the death induced by the elimination of CD95 (a phenomenon we have recently...simultaneously inducing apoptosis and DICE in breast cancer cells, with many potential therapeutic applications. I could also demonstrate the involvement...published in conferences and scientific journals. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fas, FasL, Cancer, Cancer Stem cells, Apoptosis , miRNA, EMT, cell death. 16. SECURITY

  17. ENERGY REQUIREMENT FOR THYMINELESS DEATH IN CELLS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    FREIFELDER, D; MAALOE, O

    1964-10-01

    Freifelder, David (University of California, Berkeley), and Ole Maaløe. Energy requirement for thymineless death in cells of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:987-990. 1964.-Thymineless death in thymine-requiring Escherichia coli is arrested immediately and reversibly by nitrogenation if the bacterial population is growing in a medium containing a carbon source that can only be metabolized aerobically. The mechanism of death, therefore, involves a metabolic process.

  18. ENERGY REQUIREMENT FOR THYMINELESS DEATH IN CELLS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Freifelder, David; Maaløe, Ole

    1964-01-01

    Freifelder, David (University of California, Berkeley), and Ole Maaløe. Energy requirement for thymineless death in cells of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:987–990. 1964.—Thymineless death in thymine-requiring Escherichia coli is arrested immediately and reversibly by nitrogenation if the bacterial population is growing in a medium containing a carbon source that can only be metabolized aerobically. The mechanism of death, therefore, involves a metabolic process. PMID:14219063

  19. An association between overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 3B4 and clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, You; Sun, Liantao; Fong, Peter; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhuxia; Yin, Shuihui; Jiang, Shuyuan; Liu, Xiaolei; Ju, Hongge; Huang, Lihua; Bai, Jing; Gong, Kerui; Yan, Shaochun; Zhang, Chunyang; Shao, Guo

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that abnormal DNA methylations occur frequently in kidney cancer. However, it remains unclear exactly which types of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) contribute to the pathologies of kidney cancers. In order to determine the functions of DNA methyltransferase in kidney tumorigenesis on the molecular level, we examined the mRNA expression levels of DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and DNMT3B variants in renal cell carcinoma tissue. Both mRNA and protein levels of DNMT3B4, a splice variant of DNMT3B, were increased in renal cell carcinoma tissue compared with adjacent control tissues. Additionally, Alu elements and long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1) were hypomethylated in renal cell carcinoma tissue. Meanwhile, methylation of the promoter for RASSF1A, a tumor suppressor gene, was moderately increased in renal cell carcinoma tissue, while RASSF1A expression was decreased. Thus, our data suggest that the overexpression of DNMT3B4 may play an important role in human kidney tumorigenesis through chromosomal instability and methylation of RASSF1A.