Science.gov

Sample records for overhead ground wires

  1. Development of new low lift snow-retardant insulated wire for overhead distribution line

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, S.; Hamada, Y. ); Kawachi, K.; Fujino, Y. ); Inoue, Y.; Suzuki, T. ); Nakada, T.; Sugizaki, T. )

    1993-10-01

    Recently in the snowfall area, northern part of Japan, snow-retardant insulated wire with two fins structure has been used for 600 V and 6.6 kV class overhead distribution lines for protection against snow damage. These two fins are placed longitudinally on the insulation at an angle 180[degree], and these height and width of the furs are 1 mm and 1.5 mm respectively. Although the snow-retardant insulated wire has good performance against snow damage, violent vibration of the snow-retardant insulated wire was observed several times under a strong wind. Fatigue of the conductor occurred from repeated high stress vibration at the wire supports. Therefore some theoretical aerodynamic analyses were conducted using the results of various wind tunnel tests along with computerized simulations in order to make the vibration mechanism clear. In this paper the aerodynamic vibration occurrence mechanism for the snow-retardant insulated wire and the measures for the vibration suppression are discussed.

  2. Determining damping characteristics of railway-overhead-wire system for finite-element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Dong; Zhang, Wei Hua; Li, Rui Ping; Zhou, Ning; Mei, Gui Ming

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the damping characteristics of railway-overhead-wire systems, we propose herein an approach based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and two existing formulas concerning Rayleigh damping coefficients (RDCs). In the proposed process, the displacement histories of a real catenary are first obtained by using a set of noncontact photogrammetric devices, following which an exclusive catenary damping ratio related to the first dominant modal component in the catenary response is identified through a complex Morlet CWT. Thereafter, iterative finite-element analysis is conducted to find the optimal RDCs, which involves using two related formulas and the similarity between the catenary displacements obtained by simulation and experimentation. The results of our study demonstrate that this combined approach is constructive, especially for structures with closely spaced modes, such as catenaries. For the case studied herein, the catenary modal damping ratio at 1.19 Hz is approximately 1%, and the mass and stiffness proportional Rayleigh damping coefficients are approximately 0.02845 and 0.00274, respectively.

  3. 30 CFR 77.705 - Guy wires; grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guy wires; grounding. 77.705 Section 77.705 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.705 Guy wires; grounding. Guy...

  4. 30 CFR 77.705 - Guy wires; grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.705 Guy wires; grounding. Guy wires from poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall...

  5. 30 CFR 75.902-4 - Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires to equipment frames; use of separate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires to equipment frames; use of separate connections. 75.902-4 Section 75.902-4 Mineral... § 75.902-4 Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires to equipment frames; use of...

  6. 30 CFR 77.902-3 - Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires to equipment frames; use of separate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires to equipment frames; use of separate connections. 77.902-3 Section 77.902-3 Mineral...-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.902-3 Attachment of ground conductors and ground check wires...

  7. 30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Underground Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.906 Trailing cables for mobile equipment... September 30, 1970, an insulated conductor for the ground continuity check circuit or other no less... provide continuity of all components....

  8. Optical ground wire for Hydro-Quebec`s telecommunication network

    SciTech Connect

    Ghannoum, E.; Chouteau, J.P.; Miron, M.; Yaacoub, S.; Yoshida, K.

    1995-10-01

    An extensive telecommunication network of 6,000 km of Optical Ground Wire (OPGW) is currently planned by Hydro-Quebec for progressive installation from 1992 to 2004. By 1994, about 1,600 km of OPGW have already been purchased and installed mostly on new 735 kV lines. This document provides information relative to the OPGW selection, characteristics, design, fabrication, and testing. Other sections are devoted to the installation experience, description of current and future R and D OPGW projects, and Authors` biography.

  9. 30 CFR 77.704-11 - Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of grounded messenger wires; ungrounded systems. 77.704-11 Section 77.704-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding...

  10. Transient corona effects on a wire over the ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear EMP effect on VLF/trailing wire antennas is investigated in relation to new features of corona effects. Previous experimental results on transmission lines with corona under E 80 kV/cm recorded in the nanosecond time frame are analyzed. A nonlinear macroscopic model which describes a transmission line with corona is discussed. The model not only accounts for overall waveform, but also describes the sharp changes in the waveform associated with the corona onset.

  11. HF wire antennas over real ground: Computer simulation and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belrose, John S.; Royer, G. M.; Petrie, L. E.

    1989-09-01

    The considerable combined experience with numerical and experimental modeling, with fabricating, with measuring performance of and with using practical HF antennas for the low HF band (2 to 8 MHz) is examined. The antenna poses a particularly difficult problem for this frequency band, particularly if a broad-band antenna is wanted for frequency agile systems, because of the four-to-one change in wavelength over the band. A further complication is that as the frequency is reduced so is the electrical height of the antenna above the ground, and since the ground is an imperfect conductor, the finite conductivity of the ground introduces loss of gain, and detuning. There is great concern with antennas at low (electrical) heights, even with antennas very near to or actually lying on the ground. Antennas lying on or near the ground are of particular interest for military tactical communicators, since low profile antenna systems that require no support mast or masts are operationally and logistically an advantage for use in a tactical environment. HF radio operators in the Canadian north have frequently reported success with using HF dipoles lying on the ground. The reason that antennas perform at all under the circumstances is because of the very low ground conductivities found in the Canadian north. It is shown what gain to expect under such circumstances. The comparison between computer simulation with measurement is emphasized, and with the application of computers for both numerical modeling, measurement, and data analysis and presentation.

  12. Development of a positive corona from a long grounded wire in a growing thunderstorm field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrov, M. S.; Raizer, Yu P.; Bazelyan, E. M.

    2013-11-01

    The properties of a non-stationary corona initiated from a long grounded wire suspended horizontally above the ground and coronating in a slowly varying thundercloud electric field are studied. A two-dimensional (2D) model of the corona is developed. On the basis of this model, characteristics of the corona produced by a lightning protection wire are calculated under thunderstorm conditions. The corona characteristics are also found by using approximate analytical and quasi-one-dimensional numerical models. The results of these models agree reasonably well with those obtained from the 2D simulation. This allows one to estimate the corona parameters without recourse to the cumbersome simulation. This work was performed with a view to study the efficiency of lightning protection wires later on.

  13. 30 CFR 77.902-2 - Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires. 77.902-2 Section 77.902-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND...

  14. 30 CFR 77.902-2 - Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires. 77.902-2 Section 77.902-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND...

  15. 30 CFR 77.902-2 - Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires. 77.902-2 Section 77.902-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND...

  16. 30 CFR 77.902-2 - Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires. 77.902-2 Section 77.902-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND...

  17. 30 CFR 77.902-2 - Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved ground check systems not employing pilot check wires. 77.902-2 Section 77.902-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND...

  18. Hybrid modelling of near-field coupling onto grounded wire under ultra-short duration perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo, B.; Liu, Y.

    2014-10-01

    A time-frequency (TF) hybrid model (HM) for investigating the interaction between EM near-field (NF) aggression and grounded wire is addressed. The HM is based on the combination of techniques for extracting the EM NF radiated by electronic structures and the calculation of electrical disturbances across the wire due to EM coupling. The computation method is fundamentally inspired from transmission line (TL) theory under EM illumination. The methodology including flow chart interpreting the routine algorithm based on the combination of frequency and time domain approaches is featured. An experimental result showing the EM coupling between patch antenna-wire from 1.5-3.5GHz reveals the efficiency of the HM in frequency domain. The relevance of this HM was illustrated with a structure comprised of 20cm aggressor and 5cm victim I-shaped wires placed above a planar ground plane. The aggressor was excited with 40ns duration perturbation signal. After Matlab implementation of the HM, the disturbance voltages across the extremity of the victim wire were extracted. This simple and fast HM is useful for the EMC engineering during the design and fabrication phases of electrical and electronic systems.

  19. Fatigue life improvements of the AISI 304 stainless steel ground surfaces by wire brushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Fredj, Nabil; Ben Nasr, Mohamed; Ben Rhouma, Amir; Sidhom, Habib; Braham, Chedly

    2004-10-01

    The surface and subsurface integrity of metallic ground components is usually characterized by an induced tensile residual stress, which has a detrimental effect on the fatigue life of these components. In particular, it tends to accelerate the initiation and growth of the fatigue cracks. In this investigation, to deliberately generate compressive residual stresses into the ground surfaces of the AISI 304 stainless steel (SS), wire brushing was applied. It was found that under the experimental conditions selected in this investigation, while the surface roughness was slightly improved by the brushing process, the surface residual stress shifted from a tensile stress (σ‖=+450 MPa) to a compressive stress (σ‖=-435 MPa). On the other hand, the work-hardened deformation layer was almost two times deeper after wire brushing. Concerning the fatigue life, an improvement of 26% in terms of endurance limit at 2×106 cycles was realized. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the fatigue fracture location and size were carried out to explain the fatigue life improvement. It was found that the enhancement of the fatigue strength could be correlated with the distribution and location of the fatigue fracture nucleation sites. Concerning the ground surfaces, it was seen that the fatigue cracks initiated at the bottom of the grinding grooves and were particularly long (150-200 µm). However, the fatigue cracks at the brushed surfaces were shorter (20-40 µm) and appeared to initiate sideways to the plowed material caused by the wire brushing. The results of the wire-brushed surface characterization have shown that significant advantages can be realized regarding surface integrity by the application of this low-cost process compared to shot peening.

  20. Experimentally verified inductance extraction and parameter study for superconductive integrated circuit wires crossing ground plane holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourie, Coenrad J.; Wetzstein, Olaf; Kunert, Juergen; Toepfer, Hannes; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2013-01-01

    As the complexity of rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) circuits increases, both current and power consumption of the circuits become important design criteria. Various new concepts such as inductive biasing for energy efficient RSFQ circuits and inductively coupled RSFQ cells for current recycling have been proposed to overcome increasingly severe design problems. Both of these techniques use ground plane holes to increase the inductance or coupling factor of superconducting integrated circuit wires. New design tools are consequently required to handle the new topographies. One important issue in such circuit design is the accurate calculation of networks of inductances even in the presence of finite holes in the ground plane. We show how a fast network extraction method using InductEx, which is a pre- and post-processor for the magnetoquasistatic field solver FastHenry, is used to calculate the inductances of a set of SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices) with ground plane holes of different sizes. The results are compared to measurements of physical structures fabricated with the IPHT Jena 1 kA cm-2 RSFQ niobium process to verify accuracy. We then do a parameter study and derive empirical equations for fast and useful estimation of the inductance of wires surrounded by ground plane holes. We also investigate practical circuits and show excellent accuracy.

  1. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambly, Gordon F.; Goldsmith, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a method of demonstrating the optical activity of glucose using an overhead projector and easily obtainable materials. Explores the difference between reflected and transmitted light (Tyndall Effect) using sodium thiosulfate, hydrochloric acid, and an overhead projector. (ML)

  2. Tunable Splitting of the Ground-State Degeneracy in 1D Parafermionic Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun; Burnell, Fiona

    Systems with topologically protected ground-state degeneracies are currently of great interest due to their potential applications in quantum computing. In practise this degeneracy is never exact, and the magnitude of the ground-state degeneracy splitting imposes constraints on the timescales over which information is topologically protected. In this Letter we use an instanton approach to evaluate the splitting of topological ground-state degeneracy in quasi-1D systems with parafermion zero modes, in the specific case where parafermions are realized by inducing a superconducting gap in pairs of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) edges. We show that, like 1D topological superconducting wires, this splitting has an oscillatory dependence on the chemical potential, which arises from an intrinsic Berry phase that produces interference between distinct instanton tunneling events. These Berry phases can be mapped to chiral phases in a (dual) quantum clock model using a Fradkin-Kadanoff transformation. Comparing our low-energy spectrum to that of phenomenological parafermion models allows us to evaluate the real and imaginary parts of the hopping integral between adjacent parafermionic zero modes as functions of the chemical potential.

  3. Computer Program for Thin Wire Antenna over a Perfectly Conducting Ground Plane. [using Galerkins method and sinusoidal bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is presented for a thin-wire antenna over a perfect ground plane. The analysis is performed in the frequency domain, and the exterior medium is free space. The antenna may have finite conductivity and lumped loads. The output data includes the current distribution, impedance, radiation efficiency, and gain. The program uses sinusoidal bases and Galerkin's method.

  4. 30 CFR 77.803-2 - Ground check systems not employing pilot check wires; approval by the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground check systems not employing pilot check wires; approval by the Secretary. 77.803-2 Section 77.803-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF...

  5. 30 CFR 75.803-2 - Ground check systems not employing pilot check wires; approval by the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground check systems not employing pilot check wires; approval by the Secretary. 75.803-2 Section 75.803-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground...

  6. Wire-grid electromagnetic modelling of metallic cylindrical objects with arbitrary section, for Ground Penetrating Radar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adabi, Saba; Pajewski, Lara

    2014-05-01

    This work deals with the electromagnetic wire-grid modelling of metallic cylindrical objects, buried in the ground or embedded in a structure, for example in a wall or in a concrete slab. Wire-grid modelling of conducting objects was introduced by Richmond in 1966 [1] and, since then, this method has been extensively used over the years to simulate arbitrarily-shaped objects and compute radiation patterns of antennas, as well as the electromagnetic field scattered by targets. For any wire-grid model, a fundamental question is the choice of the optimum wire radius and grid spacing. The most widely used criterion to fix the wire size is the so-called same-area rule [2], coming from empirical observation: the total surface area of the wires has to be equal to the surface area of the object being modelled. However, just few authors have investigated the validity of this criterion. Ludwig [3] studied the reliability of the rule by examining the canonical radiation problem of a transverse magnetic field by a circular cylinder fed with a uniform surface current, compared with a wire-grid model; he concluded that the same-area rule is optimum and that too thin wires are just as bad as too thick ones. Paknys [4] investigated the accuracy of the same-area rule for the modelling of a circular cylinder with a uniform current on it, continuing the study initiated in [3], or illuminated by a transverse magnetic monochromatic plane wave; he deduced that the same-area rule is optimal and that the field inside the cylinder is most sensitive to the wire radius than the field outside the object, so being a good error indicator. In [5], a circular cylinder was considered, embedded in a dielectric half-space and illuminated by a transverse magnetic monochromatic plane wave; the scattered near field was calculated by using the Cylindrical-Wave Approach and numerical results, obtained for different wire-grid models in the spectral domain, were compared with the exact solution. The

  7. Frequency and time domain three-dimensional inversion of electromagnetic data for a grounded-wire source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Yutaka; Yi, Myeong-Jong; Choi, Jihyang; Son, Jeong-Sul

    2015-01-01

    We present frequency- and time-domain three-dimensional (3-D) inversion approaches that can be applied to transient electromagnetic (TEM) data from a grounded-wire source using a PC. In the direct time-domain approach, the forward solution and sensitivity were obtained in the frequency domain using a finite-difference technique, and the frequency response was then Fourier-transformed using a digital filter technique. In the frequency-domain approach, TEM data were Fourier-transformed using a smooth-spectrum inversion method, and the recovered frequency response was then inverted. The synthetic examples show that for the time derivative of magnetic field, frequency-domain inversion of TEM data performs almost as well as time-domain inversion, with a significant reduction in computational time. In our synthetic studies, we also compared the resolution capabilities of the ground and airborne TEM and controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data resulting from a common grounded wire. An airborne TEM survey at 200-m elevation achieved a resolution for buried conductors almost comparable to that of the ground TEM method. It is also shown that the inversion of CSAMT data was able to detect a 3-D resistivity structure better than the TEM inversion, suggesting an advantage of electric-field measurements over magnetic-field-only measurements.

  8. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes several chemistry demonstrations that use an overhead projector. Some of the demonstrations deal with electrochemistry, and another deals with the reactions of nonvolatile immiscible liquid in water. (TW)

  9. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  10. 30 CFR 77.906 - Trailing cables supplying power to low-voltage mobile equipment; ground wires and ground check...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alternating Current Circuits § 77.906 Trailing cables supplying power to low-voltage mobile equipment; ground... conductor. Such trailing cables shall include an insulated conductor for the ground continuity check circuit... made in low-voltage trailing cables shall provide continuity of all components....

  11. The Computerized Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the design of a microcomputer-based system at the University of Ottawa which provides teachers with the capabilities of computerized slides and transparencies. The slides are texts created with word processors which are presented to the class via a large screen video projector, and software provides regular overhead projector functions.…

  12. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details two demonstrations for use with an overhead projector in a chemistry lecture. Includes "A Very Rapidly Growing Silicate Crystal" and "A Colorful Demonstration to Simulate Orbital Hybridization." The materials and directions for each demonstration are included as well as a brief explanation of the essential learning involved. (CW)

  13. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations using the overhead projector: (1) describes how to build a projecting voltmeter and presents uses for the classroom; and (2) investigates the color of fluorescent solutions by studying the absorption and transmission of light through the solutions. (MVL)

  14. 15. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CATWALKS AND OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CATWALKS AND OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  15. Rehabilitation for the overhead athlete.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, R; Hawkins, R; Dillman, C J; Atkins, J; Hagerman, G

    1993-08-01

    Rehabilitation of the shoulder of the overhead athlete has undergone significant changes during the past few years. This article illustrates shoulder problems related to repetitive overhead activities, such as throwing. Additionally, we present basic science contributions in this area, principles of shoulder rehabilitation, and a comprehensive rehabilitation program for the symptomatic or asymptomatic athlete based on these principles.

  16. OMB revises overhead rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    After pressure from university administrators, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has issued a new plan for saving money on research overhead costs, in place of a controversial proposal that was originally published in February 1986 (Eos, May 20, 1986, p. 481). The agency made the new plan more palatable to administrators and faculty by choosing to cap the rate of reimbursement for the activity that researchers say they find among the most difficult to document: the time they spend on administration of federally sponsored grants and contracts. An amendment to a bill signed by President Ronald Reagan on July 2 might force OMB to make additional concessions to colleges and universities.How much money the federal government would save under this policy is a matter of dispute. The agency's revisions to OMB Circular A-21, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions,” call for fixing the reimbursement rate at 3% of modified total direct costs for departmental administration work done by “department heads, directors of divisions faculty, and professional staff.” The 3% figure represents about half of the current national average rate of reimbursement for these costs and would lead to federal government savings of $100 million a year, according to OMB.

  17. 49 CFR 236.754 - Line, open wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Line, open wire. 236.754 Section 236.754 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Line, open wire. An overhead wire line consisting of single conductors as opposed to...

  18. 49 CFR 236.754 - Line, open wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line, open wire. 236.754 Section 236.754 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Line, open wire. An overhead wire line consisting of single conductors as opposed to...

  19. Predictive model of avian electrocution risk on overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J F; Harness, R E; Donohue, K

    2014-02-01

    Electrocution on overhead power structures negatively affects avian populations in diverse ecosystems worldwide, contributes to the endangerment of raptor populations in Europe and Africa, and is a major driver of legal action against electric utilities in North America. We investigated factors associated with avian electrocutions so poles that are likely to electrocute a bird can be identified and retrofitted prior to causing avian mortality. We used historical data from southern California to identify patterns of avian electrocution by voltage, month, and year to identify species most often killed by electrocution in our study area and to develop a predictive model that compared poles where an avian electrocution was known to have occurred (electrocution poles) with poles where no known electrocution occurred (comparison poles). We chose variables that could be quantified by personnel with little training in ornithology or electric systems. Electrocutions were more common at distribution voltages (≤ 33 kV) and during breeding seasons and were more commonly reported after a retrofitting program began. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n = 265) and American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (n = 258) were the most commonly electrocuted species. In the predictive model, 4 of 14 candidate variables were required to distinguish electrocution poles from comparison poles: number of jumpers (short wires connecting energized equipment), number of primary conductors, presence of grounding, and presence of unforested unpaved areas as the dominant nearby land cover. When tested against a sample of poles not used to build the model, our model distributed poles relatively normally across electrocution-risk values and identified the average risk as higher for electrocution poles relative to comparison poles. Our model can be used to reduce avian electrocutions through proactive identification and targeting of high-risk poles for retrofitting. PMID:24033371

  20. Predictive model of avian electrocution risk on overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J F; Harness, R E; Donohue, K

    2014-02-01

    Electrocution on overhead power structures negatively affects avian populations in diverse ecosystems worldwide, contributes to the endangerment of raptor populations in Europe and Africa, and is a major driver of legal action against electric utilities in North America. We investigated factors associated with avian electrocutions so poles that are likely to electrocute a bird can be identified and retrofitted prior to causing avian mortality. We used historical data from southern California to identify patterns of avian electrocution by voltage, month, and year to identify species most often killed by electrocution in our study area and to develop a predictive model that compared poles where an avian electrocution was known to have occurred (electrocution poles) with poles where no known electrocution occurred (comparison poles). We chose variables that could be quantified by personnel with little training in ornithology or electric systems. Electrocutions were more common at distribution voltages (≤ 33 kV) and during breeding seasons and were more commonly reported after a retrofitting program began. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n = 265) and American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (n = 258) were the most commonly electrocuted species. In the predictive model, 4 of 14 candidate variables were required to distinguish electrocution poles from comparison poles: number of jumpers (short wires connecting energized equipment), number of primary conductors, presence of grounding, and presence of unforested unpaved areas as the dominant nearby land cover. When tested against a sample of poles not used to build the model, our model distributed poles relatively normally across electrocution-risk values and identified the average risk as higher for electrocution poles relative to comparison poles. Our model can be used to reduce avian electrocutions through proactive identification and targeting of high-risk poles for retrofitting.

  1. The Overhead Projector = Le Retroprojecteur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babin, Patrick; And Others

    This guide is designed to provide educators with basic information on both the proper utilization of the overhead projector and the preparation of good visual materials. Focusing on the mechanical aspects, the first section briefly outlines how to handle problems with the projector lamp, and provides information on general maintenance, proper…

  2. Spectroscopy on the Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Any overhead projector easily can be converted into a simple spectrometer by placing a piece of diffraction grating over the projecting lens. A detailed description of the apparatus and suggested spectroscopy experiments are included. Demonstrations can utilize solutions of cobalt chloride, potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, or…

  3. Overhead View of Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Planimetric (overhead view) map of the landing site, to a distance of 20 meters from the spacecraft. North is at the top in this and Plates 3-5. To produce this map, images were geometrically projected onto an assumed mean surface representing the ground. Features above the ground plane (primarily rocks) therefore appear displaced radially outward; the amount of distortion increases systematically with distance. The upper surfaces of the lander and rover also appear enlarged and displaced because of their height. Primary grid (white) is based on the Landing Site Cartographic (LSC) coordinate system, defined with X eastward, Y north, and Z up, and origin located at the mean ground surface immediately beneath the deployed position of the IMP camera gimbal center. Secondary ticks (cyan) are based on the Mars local level (LL) frame, which has X north, Y east, Z down, with origin in the center of the lander baseplate. Rover positions (including APXS measurements) are commonly reported in the LL frame. Yellow grid shows polar coordinates based on the LSC system. Cartographic image processing by U.S. Geological Survey.

    NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

  5. Proximal Biceps in Overhead Athletes.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Peter N; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-01-01

    The proximal long head of the biceps tendon and its attachment at the superior glenoid tubercle and labrum are subject to a spectrum of disorders in overhead athletes. Biceps disorders are commonly characterized by intermittent anterior or deep-seated shoulder pain exacerbated by activity. Diagnosis is reached via various physical examination maneuvers; MRI can be uncertain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, targeted ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections, and supervised physical therapy are the mainstays of nonoperative treatment. Operative treatment, which remains controversial, provides reliable pain relief, restoration of function for activities of daily living, and low complication rates, but return to play can be unpredictable.

  6. Behavioral economics. Avoiding overhead aversion in charity.

    PubMed

    Gneezy, Uri; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Gneezy, Ayelet

    2014-10-31

    Donors tend to avoid charities that dedicate a high percentage of expenses to administrative and fundraising costs, limiting the ability of nonprofits to be effective. We propose a solution to this problem: Use donations from major philanthropists to cover overhead expenses and offer potential donors an overhead-free donation opportunity. A laboratory experiment testing this solution confirms that donations decrease when overhead increases, but only when donors pay for overhead themselves. In a field experiment with 40,000 potential donors, we compared the overhead-free solution with other common uses of initial donations. Consistent with prior research, informing donors that seed money has already been raised increases donations, as does a $1:$1 matching campaign. Our main result, however, clearly shows that informing potential donors that overhead costs are covered by an initial donation significantly increases the donation rate by 80% (or 94%) and total donations by 75% (or 89%) compared with the seed (or matching) approach. PMID:25359974

  7. Behavioral economics. Avoiding overhead aversion in charity.

    PubMed

    Gneezy, Uri; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Gneezy, Ayelet

    2014-10-31

    Donors tend to avoid charities that dedicate a high percentage of expenses to administrative and fundraising costs, limiting the ability of nonprofits to be effective. We propose a solution to this problem: Use donations from major philanthropists to cover overhead expenses and offer potential donors an overhead-free donation opportunity. A laboratory experiment testing this solution confirms that donations decrease when overhead increases, but only when donors pay for overhead themselves. In a field experiment with 40,000 potential donors, we compared the overhead-free solution with other common uses of initial donations. Consistent with prior research, informing donors that seed money has already been raised increases donations, as does a $1:$1 matching campaign. Our main result, however, clearly shows that informing potential donors that overhead costs are covered by an initial donation significantly increases the donation rate by 80% (or 94%) and total donations by 75% (or 89%) compared with the seed (or matching) approach.

  8. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground return circuit. Surface Only...

  9. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground return circuit. Surface Only...

  10. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground return circuit. Surface Only...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground return circuit. Surface Only...

  12. Limiting electric fields of HVDC overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of renewable energy and the now long distances between energy generation and consumption, in Europe, electric power transfer by high-voltage (HV) direct current (DC) overhead power lines gains increasing importance. Thousands of kilometers of them are going to be built within the next years. However, existing guidelines and regulations do not yet contain recommendations to limit static electric fields, which are one of the most important criteria for HVDC overhead power lines in terms of tower design, span width and ground clearance. Based on theoretical and experimental data, in this article, static electric fields associated with adverse health effects are analysed and various criteria are derived for limiting static electric field strengths.

  13. Limiting electric fields of HVDC overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of renewable energy and the now long distances between energy generation and consumption, in Europe, electric power transfer by high-voltage (HV) direct current (DC) overhead power lines gains increasing importance. Thousands of kilometers of them are going to be built within the next years. However, existing guidelines and regulations do not yet contain recommendations to limit static electric fields, which are one of the most important criteria for HVDC overhead power lines in terms of tower design, span width and ground clearance. Based on theoretical and experimental data, in this article, static electric fields associated with adverse health effects are analysed and various criteria are derived for limiting static electric field strengths. PMID:24573710

  14. Application of a relational data base for documenting the Ground Test Accelerator cable routing and wiring interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, D.B.; Rogers, W.L.; Brown, V.W.; Ekeroth, G.A.; McGill, T.O.

    1990-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) has many different types of equipment and interconnections to support the operation. Various functions are performed by these equipments such as signal generation, instrument control, and diagnostics. All of the thousands of signals must be routed from the protected tunnel area into the operational control area of the building. Tabulating the routing of these cables, interconnections, terminations, and even the installation status, results in an enormous amount of data collection and maintenance. A relational data base program called Wireflex was written to allow real-time storage, instant recall, and reporting of this information. The operational environment is the VAX network with password security to protect the integrity of the stored data. The format of the program data bases, with the relatioships and interchange of information, will be described. Examples of input forms will show the type of information being stored and the indexing for searching specific entries. Reports will also be included displaying the flexibility of types as well as the ability to recover specific entries or ranges of information.

  15. SLAP lesions in the overhead athlete.

    PubMed

    Rokito, Steven E; Myers, Kevin R; Ryu, Richard K N

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of SLAP lesions in the overhead athlete remains a challenge for the sports medicine specialist due to variable anatomy, changes with aging, concomitant pathology, lack of dependable physical findings on examination, and lack of sensitivity and specificity with imaging studies. This article presents a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, relevant anatomy, proposed pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, and outcomes of nonoperative and operative management of SLAP lesions in the overhead athlete.

  16. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  17. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  18. Wire insulation defect detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greulich, Owen R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Wiring defects are located by detecting a reflected signal that is developed when an arc occurs through the defect to a nearby ground. The time between the generation of the signal and the return of the reflected signal provides an indication of the distance of the arc (and therefore the defect) from the signal source. To ensure arcing, a signal is repeated at gradually increasing voltages while the wire being tested and a nearby ground are immersed in a conductive medium. In order to ensure that the arcing occurs at an identifiable time, the signal whose reflection is to be detected is always made to reach the highest potential yet seen by the system.

  19. Overhead-Aware-Best-Fit (OABF) Resource Allocation Algorithm for Minimizing VM Launching Overhead

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hao; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Ren, Shangping; Timm, Steven; Noh, Seo Young

    2014-11-11

    FermiCloud is a private cloud developed in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to provide elastic and on-demand resources for different scientific research experiments. The design goal of the FermiCloud is to automatically allocate resources for different scientific applications so that the QoS required by these applications is met and the operational cost of the FermiCloud is minimized. Our earlier research shows that VM launching overhead has large variations. If such variations are not taken into consideration when making resource allocation decisions, it may lead to poor performance and resource waste. In this paper, we show how we may use an VM launching overhead reference model to minimize VM launching overhead. In particular, we first present a training algorithm that automatically tunes a given refer- ence model to accurately reflect FermiCloud environment. Based on the tuned reference model for virtual machine launching overhead, we develop an overhead-aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm that decides where and when to allocate resources so that the average virtual machine launching overhead is minimized. The experimental results indicate that the developed overhead-aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm can significantly improved the VM launching time when large number of VMs are simultaneously launched.

  20. Ground and flight test experience with a triple redundant digital fly by wire control system. [installed in F-8C aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, C. R.; Szalai, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    A triplex digital fly by wire flight control system was developed and installed in an F-8C aircraft to provide fail operative, full authority control. Hardware and software redundancy management techniques were designed to detect and identify failures in the system. Control functions typical of those projected for future actively controlled vehicles were implemented.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.955 - Overhead lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead lines. 1926.955 Section 1926.955 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.955...

  2. 30 CFR 56.12045 - Overhead powerlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead powerlines. 56.12045 Section 56.12045 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  3. 30 CFR 56.12045 - Overhead powerlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead powerlines. 56.12045 Section 56.12045 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  4. 30 CFR 56.12045 - Overhead powerlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead powerlines. 56.12045 Section 56.12045 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  5. 30 CFR 56.12045 - Overhead powerlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead powerlines. 56.12045 Section 56.12045 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  6. 30 CFR 56.12045 - Overhead powerlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead powerlines. 56.12045 Section 56.12045 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.554 - Overhead hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead hoists. 1926.554 Section 1926.554 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.554 - Overhead hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead hoists. 1926.554 Section 1926.554 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.554 - Overhead hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead hoists. 1926.554 Section 1926.554 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.554 - Overhead hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead hoists. 1926.554 Section 1926.554 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.554 - Overhead hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead hoists. 1926.554 Section 1926.554 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  12. The Overhead Projector in the Mathematics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenchner, George

    The first section of this pamphlet illustrates and describes the overhead projector, and discusses several of its advantages over other projection devises, including its simplicity of operation, conservation of class time, dynamic effects, image size, etc. The second section describes in some detail materials and methods used to make visuals, then…

  13. Centripetal Force on an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheam, Harry

    1995-01-01

    Describes two simple demonstrations of an object moving in a straight line tangent to the circle if centripetal force is removed. Demonstrations use a pie plate and petri dish with ball bearings to illustrate the phenomena on an overhead projector. (LZ)

  14. Overhead Projection Cell for Streamline Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Harold M.

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and operation of an overhead projection apparatus designed to demonstrate streamline flow of a liquid. The apparatus consists of a Plexiglass tank containing water in which plates forming the cell are submerged, a constant level reservoir, an overflow device and a system for marking the flow lines with a dye. (LC)

  15. Clarify Drafting Concepts With an Overhead Projector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    Presents techniques for using the overhead projector to help beginning drafting students visualize concepts involving situations where the plane of projection is not parallel to the surface being considered, such as the circle as an ellipse, the true sizes of acute and right angles, and sizes and shapes of oblique surfaces. (TA)

  16. An Overhead Projection Demonstration of Optical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John W.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the use of two polarizing lenses, a yellow filter, an oatmeal bos, a piece of cardboard, a 1,000 ml beaker, and an overhead projector to demonstrate compound optical activity to large classes. Indicates the presence of an accuracy within 1-2 degrees of usually acceptable data. (CC)

  17. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  18. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  19. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  20. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  1. 30 CFR 220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 220.012 Section 220.012 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS...

  2. Viewing Vertical Objects with an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of an overhead projector for the deflection of a vertical image to a screen. Describes three demonstrations: magnetizing of a steel ball bearing and paper clip; convection currents of a hot liquid within a cold liquid; and oscillation of concentrated salt solution into fresh water. (YP)

  3. Wiring design for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George

    1995-01-01

    Wiring design is only one important aspect of EMI control. Other important areas for EMI are: circuit design, filtering, grounding, bonding, shielding, lighting, electrostatic discharge (ESD), transient suppression, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Topics covered include: wire magnetic field emissions at low frequencies; wire radiated magnetic field emissions at frequencies; wire design guidelines for EMI control; wire design guidelines for EMI control; high frequency emissions from cables; and pulse frequency spectra.

  4. No Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)

  5. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  6. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  7. 18 CFR 367.52 - Overhead construction costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of each overhead expenditure charged to each construction project and to each property account... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overhead construction... ACT Service Company Property Instructions § 367.52 Overhead construction costs. (a) All...

  8. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  9. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  10. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  11. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  12. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  13. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  14. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  15. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes...

  16. Effective Determination of Overhead Rates for Pricing Goods and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.

    This publication presents a system of gathering overhead data and describes several methods for assigning overhead costs to specific contract prices. It is intended to provide facility production supervisors with a means of ensuring adequate cost recovery in bid prices and gaining a measure of overhead cost control. The seven steps in the overhead…

  17. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  18. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  20. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  6. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.809 - Grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shall be grounded through the green-colored conductor in the supply cord or the feeder wiring to the... grounding means. (1) The green-colored grounding wire in the supply cord or permanent feeder wiring shall be... metallic roof and exterior covering shall be considered bonded if (i) the metal panels overlap one...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.809 - Grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shall be grounded through the green-colored conductor in the supply cord or the feeder wiring to the... grounding means. (1) The green-colored grounding wire in the supply cord or permanent feeder wiring shall be... metallic roof and exterior covering shall be considered bonded if (i) the metal panels overlap one...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.809 - Grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shall be grounded through the green-colored conductor in the supply cord or the feeder wiring to the... grounding means. (1) The green-colored grounding wire in the supply cord or permanent feeder wiring shall be... metallic roof and exterior covering shall be considered bonded if (i) the metal panels overlap one...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.809 - Grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shall be grounded through the green-colored conductor in the supply cord or the feeder wiring to the... grounding means. (1) The green-colored grounding wire in the supply cord or permanent feeder wiring shall be... metallic roof and exterior covering shall be considered bonded if (i) the metal panels overlap one...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.809 - Grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be grounded through the green-colored conductor in the supply cord or the feeder wiring to the... grounding means. (1) The green-colored grounding wire in the supply cord or permanent feeder wiring shall be... metallic roof and exterior covering shall be considered bonded if (i) the metal panels overlap one...

  12. Common conditions in the overhead athlete.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Eric W; Dengerink, Douglas D

    2014-04-01

    The overhead athlete is at unique risk for injury because of the mechanics associated with rapid shoulder elevation, abduction, and external rotation. Angulation of the humeral head against the posterosuperior glenoid can cause rotator cuff tendon and labral impingement. The throwing or striking motion of baseball, softball, water polo, tennis, racquetball, and volleyball may result in scapular dyskinesis, partial articular-sided supraspinatus avulsions, and posterosuperior labral tears. The SICK scapula syndrome (scapular malposition, inferior medial border prominence, coracoid pain and malposition, and dyskinesis of scapular movement) is thought to increase the risk of injury in the overhead athlete. Special physical examination maneuvers and magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful in diagnosing intra-articular pathology. Rehabilitation of injuries associated with internal impingement of the shoulder should include three basic components: strengthening, stretching, and sport-specific exercises. Arthroscopic surgery may be considered if symptoms do not improve after three months of conservative management. PMID:24695599

  13. Common conditions in the overhead athlete.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Eric W; Dengerink, Douglas D

    2014-04-01

    The overhead athlete is at unique risk for injury because of the mechanics associated with rapid shoulder elevation, abduction, and external rotation. Angulation of the humeral head against the posterosuperior glenoid can cause rotator cuff tendon and labral impingement. The throwing or striking motion of baseball, softball, water polo, tennis, racquetball, and volleyball may result in scapular dyskinesis, partial articular-sided supraspinatus avulsions, and posterosuperior labral tears. The SICK scapula syndrome (scapular malposition, inferior medial border prominence, coracoid pain and malposition, and dyskinesis of scapular movement) is thought to increase the risk of injury in the overhead athlete. Special physical examination maneuvers and magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful in diagnosing intra-articular pathology. Rehabilitation of injuries associated with internal impingement of the shoulder should include three basic components: strengthening, stretching, and sport-specific exercises. Arthroscopic surgery may be considered if symptoms do not improve after three months of conservative management.

  14. Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Overhead Cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Faith; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification. It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews.

  15. Supercooled liquid water content profiling case studies with a new vibrating wire sonde compared to a ground-based microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serke, David; Hall, Emrys; Bognar, John; Jordan, Allen; Abdo, Spencer; Baker, Kirstin; Seitel, Tom; Nelson, Marta; Ware, Randolph; McDonough, Frank; Politovich, Marcia

    2014-11-01

    An improved version of the vibrating wire sensor, used to measure supercooled cloud liquid water content, was developed by Anasphere Inc. and tested during early 2012. The sensor works on the principle that supercooled liquid will freeze to the vibrating wire and reduce the frequency at a known rate proportional to the liquid water content as the sensor rises through the cloud attached to a weather balloon and radiosonde. The disposable Anasphere sensor interfaces with an InterMet Systems iMet radiosonde. This updated sensor reduces the weight of the instrument while updating the technology when compared to the preceding balloon-borne sensor that was developed in the 1980's by Hill and Woffinden. Balloon-borne test flights were performed from Boulder, Colorado during February and March of 2012. These flights provided comparisons to integrated liquid water and profiles of liquid water content derived from a collocated multichannel microwave radiometer, built and operated by Radiometrics Corporation. Inter-comparison data such as these are invaluable for calibration, verification and validation of remote-sensing instruments. The data gathered from this sensor are potentially important to detection of icing hazards to aircraft, validation of microphysical output from numerical models, and calibrating remote sensors measuring supercooled liquid water.

  16. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  17. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  18. Microinstability and internal impingement in overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lauchlan; Altchek, David W

    2013-10-01

    A complex interplay exists between the static and dynamic stabilizers in the glenohumeral joint, especially in overheard athletes who need a shoulder hypermobile enough to perform overhead activity yet stable enough to prevent joint subluxation. Concomitant shoulder pathologies commonly occur in the setting of microinstability and internal impingement. Before any surgical intervention, a 3- to 6-month course of conservative measures should first be attempted, with exercises focused on rotator cuff and scapular stabilizer strengthening combined with posterior capsule stretching. If surgery is needed, arthroscopic suture plication with treatment of concomitant lesions has been shown to provide the best clinical outcomes.

  19. Electrical and mechanical design criteria for EHV and UHV: overhead transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The results are presented of a program devoted to the selection of electrical and mechanical design criteria and parameters for overhead power transmission lines for ac systems rated at from 345 to 1100 kV and for dc systems rated at from 600 to 1200 kV. Information is included on the environmental effects, i.e., audible noise and electric fields, of the lines, mechanical and economic requirements, safety, failures, grounding, and lightning protection. (LCL)

  20. Rapid Real-Time SpaceWire Emulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudie, Stephen; Parkes, Steve; Dunstan, Martin

    2015-09-01

    The SpaceWire Electronic Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) test and development unit from STAR-Dundee can be used to very rapidly emulate real-time behaviour of SpaceWire equipment. The behaviour of the equipment to emulate is described in a script using a SpaceWire specific scripting language. Once configured the SpaceWire EGSE unit operates independent of software. This paper describes three camera emulation scripts to demonstrate the rapid real-time SpaceWire emulation possible using the SpaceWire EGSE.

  1. Cost reduction and minimization of land based on an accurate determination of fault current distribution in shield wires and grounding systems

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W.K. ); Dawalibi, F. )

    1993-01-01

    Careful analysis of Fault Current Distribution in neutral metallic paths, Power System Protection requirements and Ground Potential Rise (GPR) evaluations were carried out at FPL's Lauderdale Power Plant and associated switchyard. These studies resulted in substantial cost savings and land utilization minimization for the power system expansions at Lauderdale Plant by confirming that the in-situ expansion and reconfiguration aimed at constructing two electrically independent substations sharing the same site and grounding system is a sound economical alternative to the construction of a new substation and associated significant site preparation and construction costs. This paper describes the methodology used to conduct this study.

  2. Mechanics and pathomechanics in the overhead athlete.

    PubMed

    Kibler, W Ben; Wilkes, Trevor; Sciascia, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    Optimal performance of the overhead throwing task requires precise mechanics that involve coordinated kinetic and kinematic chains to develop, transfer, and regulate the forces the body needs to withstand the inherent demands of the task and to allow optimal performance. These chains have been evaluated and the basic components, called nodes, have been identified. Impaired performance and/or injury, the DTS, is associated with alterations in the mechanics that are called pathomechanics. They can occur at multiple locations throughout the kinetic chain. They must be evaluated and treated as part of the overall problem. Observational analysis of the mechanics and pathomechanics using the node analysis method can be useful in highlighting areas of alteration that can be evaluated for anatomic injury or altered physiology. The comprehensive kinetic chain examination can evaluate sites of kinetic chain breakage, and a detailed shoulder examination can assess joint internal derangement of altered physiology that may contribute to the pathomechanics. Treatment of the DTS should be comprehensive, directed toward restoring physiology and mechanics and optimizing anatomy. This maximizes the body’s ability to develop normal mechanics to accomplish the overhead throwing task.

  3. Rehabilitation of the Overhead Athlete's Elbow.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R

    2012-09-01

    The activities required during overhead sports, particularly during baseball pitching, produce large forces at the elbow joint. Injuries to the elbow joint frequently occur in the overhead athlete because of the large amount of forces observed during the act of throwing, playing tennis, or playing golf. Injuries may result because of repetitive overuse, leading to tissue failure. Rehabilitation following injury or surgery to the throwing elbow is vital to fully restore normal function and return the athlete to competition as quickly and safely as possible. Rehabilitation of the elbow, whether following injury or postsurgical, must follow a progressive and sequential order, building on the previous phase, to ensure that healing tissues are not compromised. Emphasis is placed on restoring full motion, muscular strength, and neuromuscular control while gradually applying loads to healing tissue. In addition, when one is creating a rehabilitation plan for athletes, it is imperative to treat the entire upper extremity, core, and legs to create and dissipate the forces generated at each joint.

  4. Bandwidth improvement for germanium photodetector using wire bonding technology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Deng, Shupeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate an ultrahigh speed germanium photodetector by introducing gold wires into the discrete ground electrodes with standard wire bonding technology. To engineer the parasitic parameter, the physical dimension of the gold wire used for wire bonding is specially designed with an inductance of about 450 pH. Simulation and experimental results show that the bandwidth of the photodetector can be effectively extended from less than 30 GHz to over 60 GHz.

  5. 19. DETAIL, OVERHEAD CATWALK Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL, OVERHEAD CATWALK - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  6. Non-contact measurement of contact wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Ye, Xuemei; Li, Zhongke; Yue, Kaiduan

    2008-12-01

    The overhead contact system is the power supply unit of the electric locomotive. This article is to introduce our newly developed method to measure the height and pull out value of the contact wire. A carema dolly which can move on railway is applied to bear the weight of the measure equipment; two linear CCD cameras are installed on the dolly symmetrically about the midline of two rails. While the dolly move along the railway, two CCD cameras grasp the image synchronously, and a computer real-time process the images, the height and pull out value can be calculate out from the images.

  7. Mechanical behavior of a composite reinforced overhead conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawar, Ahmad

    A new type of overhead conductor with a polymer composite core is evaluated in terms of the mechanical properties and operating characteristics. The conductor is composed of trapezoidal O'-tempered aluminum wires helically wound around a hybrid glass/carbon composite core produced by pultrusion. The conductor is intended for electrical power transmission, and is designated ACCC/TW, for aluminum conductor composite core/trapezoidal wire. Measurements of core properties and conductor sag at high temperatures were compared to conventional ACSR (aluminum conductor, steel-reinforced) of the same diameter. The mechanical properties of ACCC/TW, such as the tensile strength, CTE and SAG performance, showed superiority to conventional ACSR. The ACCC/TW conductor also exhibited greater ampacity than ACSR conductor at all operating temperatures. A modification to a Numerical Sag Method for predicting conductor sag is presented that accurately predicts the observed bilinear sag behavior of composite conductors. The modified method is called the Hybrid Sag Method (HSM). It is used to predict the sag of conductors with conventional designs. The HSM predictions are compared with those obtained using a conventional graphical sag method. The HSM shows virtually the same accuracy as the graphical method for predicting sag for composite conductors operated under specific conditions. The HSM predictions of sag are validated by comparisons with experimental measurements. Tensile strength and storage modulus were measured to determine the temperature dependence of the composite core from 20°-200°C. The storage modulus was measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and showed temperature dependence nearly identical to the tensile strength for both composites. The correlation between storage modulus and tensile strength was analyzed in terms of the temperature-dependent matrix shear strength, and the storage modulus behavior is presented as a basis for projecting the strength

  8. Physical examination of the overhead athlete's shoulder.

    PubMed

    Sewick, Amy; Kelly, John D; Rubin, Ben

    2012-03-01

    Overhead athletes seek the services of an orthopedic surgeon because of pain and/or dysfunction. It is important to address the cause of the symptoms more so than the source of the patient's pain, so that treatment will eliminate the problem rather than merely ameliorate symptoms temporarily. In order to accomplish a thorough assessment of shoulder function, the examiner must expand his/her view from isolated assessment of the glenohumeral joint range of motion, stability, assessment of rotator cuff strength, palpation and provocative maneuvers, and add assessment of the shoulder in the context of the kinetic chain. The examination of the thrower's shoulder, coupled with a thorough history, will usually provide a solid functional diagnosis and provide a good idea as to the presence of structural damage. As a result, the value of rehabilitation and the benefit of surgical intervention are made more predictable.

  9. Reducing space overhead for independendent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Chung, Pi-Yu; Lin, In-Jen; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1992-01-01

    The main disadvantages of independent checkpointing are the possible domino effect and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints. In most previous work, it has been assumed that only the checkpoints older than the current global recovery line can be discarded. Here, we generalize a notion of recovery line to potential recovery line. Only the checkpoints belonging to at least one of the potential recovery lines cannot be discarded. By using the model of maximum-sized antichains on a partially ordered set, an efficient algorithm is developed for finding all non-discardable checkpoints, and we show that the number of non-discardable checkpoints cannot exceed N(N+1)/2, where N is the number of processors. Communication trace driven simulation for several hypercube programs is performed to show the benefit of the proposed algorithm for real applications.

  10. Physical examination of the overhead athlete's shoulder.

    PubMed

    Sewick, Amy; Kelly, John D; Rubin, Ben

    2012-03-01

    Overhead athletes seek the services of an orthopedic surgeon because of pain and/or dysfunction. It is important to address the cause of the symptoms more so than the source of the patient's pain, so that treatment will eliminate the problem rather than merely ameliorate symptoms temporarily. In order to accomplish a thorough assessment of shoulder function, the examiner must expand his/her view from isolated assessment of the glenohumeral joint range of motion, stability, assessment of rotator cuff strength, palpation and provocative maneuvers, and add assessment of the shoulder in the context of the kinetic chain. The examination of the thrower's shoulder, coupled with a thorough history, will usually provide a solid functional diagnosis and provide a good idea as to the presence of structural damage. As a result, the value of rehabilitation and the benefit of surgical intervention are made more predictable. PMID:22311287

  11. 1. EAST SIDE OF OVERHEAD BOMB TRANSPORT RACK, WITH BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST SIDE OF OVERHEAD BOMB TRANSPORT RACK, WITH BUILDING 343 AT LEFT AND BUILDING 328 AT RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Overhead Bomb Transport Rack, 1580 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 860 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. Geography via the Overhead Projector: Do It This Way, 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Thomas D.

    This booklet is designed to assist teachers in their use of overhead projectors when teaching geography. With the overhead technique, relationships among patterns can be suggested bit by bit on inexpensive, easily prepared overlays that are projected to sizes appropriate for a particular instructional situation. A general discussion of the…

  13. Current concepts for shoulder training in the overhead athlete.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David J; Visco, Christopher J; Press, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Nontraumatic shoulder pain in the adult overhead athlete is a common problem. The exact biomechanical adaptations that predispose the overhead athlete to injury can be multifactorial in nature, including range of motion deficits, muscular imbalances, and scapular dyskinesis. It is imperative that the rehabilitation professional not only correctly identify and treat the direct cause of the pain, but also initiate a rehabilitation program aimed at improvement of the underlying biomechanical deficits that predispose the overhead athlete to shoulder injury. This only can be accomplished through a better understanding of the most common biomechanical deficits that the overhead athlete develops and how to treat them. This article focuses primarily upon shoulder training in the adult baseball pitcher as a classic example of an overhead athlete.

  14. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  15. Comparison of Analysis, Simulation, and Measurement of Wire-to-Wire Crosstalk. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Yavoich, Brian James; Hodson, Shame M.; Godley, Richard Franklin

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, we compare crosstalk analysis, simulation, and measurement results for electrically short configurations. Methods include hand calculations, PSPICE simulations, Microstripes transient field solver, and empirical measurement. In total, four representative physical configurations are examined, including a single wire over a ground plane, a twisted pair over a ground plane, generator plus receptor wires inside a cylindrical conduit, and a single receptor wire inside a cylindrical conduit. Part 1 addresses the first two cases, and Part 2 addresses the final two. Agreement between the analysis, simulation, and test data is shown to be very good.

  16. Comparison of Analysis, Simulation, and Measurement of Wire-to-Wire Crosstalk. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Yavoich, Brian James; Hodson, Shane M.; Godley, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, we compare crosstalk analysis, simulation, and measurement results for electrically short configurations. Methods include hand calculations, PSPICE simulations, Microstripes transient field solver, and empirical measurement. In total, four representative physical configurations are examined, including a single wire over a ground plane, a twisted pair over a ground plane, generator plus receptor wires inside a cylindrical conduit, and a single receptor wire inside a cylindrical conduit. Part 1 addresses the first two cases, and Part 2 addresses the final two. Agreement between the analysis methods and test data is shown to be very good.

  17. Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.

    1998-12-10

    Wire-scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 {mu}m tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2x10{sup 7}particles/{mu}m{sup 2} (3C/m{sup 2}). We believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC (1), have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, we present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures.

  18. Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.

    1998-05-01

    Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 {micro}m tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2 x 10{sup 7} particles/{micro}m{sup 2} (3C/m{sup 2}). The authors believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC, have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, the authors present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures.

  19. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  20. Air-cooled overhead-valve engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, T.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes an air-cooled overhead-valve internal combustion engine. The engine is composed of a crankcase with a crankshaft, a cylinder block with a cylinder head and a combustion chamber mounted in the crankcase. At least a pair of intake and exhaust valves installed in intake and exhaust ports are formed in the cylinder head. A valve drive system mounted adjacent to the cylinder block drives the intake and exhaust valves through cam-driven push rods. An intake pipe is connected at one end of the intake port and at its opposite end to an air cleaner and a carburetor. An exhaust duct is connected at one end of the exhaust port. A flywheel is joined to the crankshaft at the other end of the output side end of the crankshaft and a cooling fan mounted on the flywheel. The improvements are where the cooling fan is housed, together with the crankcase and flywheel, in a fan casing having a pair of inlet and outlet openings bored in opposite walls. The inlet opening is located at the flywheel side of the crankshaft, while the outlet opening is located at the opposite side of the crankshaft from the flywheel. The cam-driven push rods are located in the crankcase on that side of the cylinder block far remote from where the intake pipe is connected to the intake port. The cooling fan is mounted in the fan casing in such a manner that the cooling air from the cooling fan is allowed to flow in a direction substantially parallel with the axis of the crankshaft, along the surface of the cylinder block and cylinder head.

  1. 14. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS AND OVERHEAD CATWALKS, FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS AND OVERHEAD CATWALKS, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  2. 17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING PADS, FACING EAST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  3. 13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE Delaware, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  4. Detail, east side, north end, showing door and overhead rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, east side, north end, showing door and overhead rail for refrigeration room. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Ice Plant, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Thirteenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. Overhead Projector Demonstrations: Tilted TOPS: Inclined Plane Projection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alyea, Hubert N.

    1989-01-01

    The construction and uses of a device to facilitate the use of an overhead projector to show chemical reactions is presented. Materials and instructions for construction as well as reactor vessels are discussed. (CW)

  6. 2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, AND 431, ON LEFT. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard & Aldrin Manufacturing, 1200 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. Interior view of main section of milk barn. Opening overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of main section of milk barn. Opening overhead leads to attic crawl space. Camera is pointed SW. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  8. 9. VIEW SOUTH OF TURBINE ROOM INTERIOR, WITH OVERHEAD CRANE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SOUTH OF TURBINE ROOM INTERIOR, WITH OVERHEAD CRANE; ABANDONED ARMATURES IN CENTER FOREGROUND; BUS PANEL REMAINS AT LOWER RIGHT CENTER - Turners Falls Power & Electric Company, Hampden Station, East bank of Connecticut River, Chicopee, Hampden County, MA

  9. New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw water tank T4. Distribution pump house can be seen at the center of building. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  10. Southeast corner with overhead crane in foreground Bureau of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast corner with overhead crane in foreground - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Development Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  11. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH OVERHEAD CRANE USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH OVERHEAD CRANE USED TO TRANSFER LARGE LADLES OF IRON FROM ONE LOCATION TO ANOTHER. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. 31. DETAIL OF OVERHEAD TENSIONER DEVICE LOCATED ABOVE SOUTHERN DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DETAIL OF OVERHEAD TENSIONER DEVICE LOCATED ABOVE SOUTHERN DOOR OF BUILDING 1. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  13. 15. SECOND FLOOR, PIER SHED LOOKING EAST, SHOWING ORIGINAL OVERHEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SECOND FLOOR, PIER SHED LOOKING EAST, SHOWING ORIGINAL OVERHEAD DOORS ABOVE TERRA COTTA/BRICK INFILL AND PLYWOOD AT WINDOWS, ADJACENT TO NEW DOORS-PIER 4 - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 4, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  14. INTERIOR VIEW, SETTING LARGE CORE WITH ASSISTANCE FROM THE OVERHEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, SETTING LARGE CORE WITH ASSISTANCE FROM THE OVERHEAD RAIL CRANE IN BOX FLOOR MOLD AREA (WORKERS: DAN T. WELLS AND TRUMAN CARLISLE). - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 59. SECOND FLOOR, STEEL OVERHEAD CONVEYOR SUPPORT FRAMEWORK ABUTTING FOOTBRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. SECOND FLOOR, STEEL OVERHEAD CONVEYOR SUPPORT FRAMEWORK ABUTTING FOOTBRIDGE, BAY 18, TO SOUTHEAST - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

  16. WEST ELEVATION, CAMERA FACING EAST. THE OVERHEAD PIPES ARE FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION, CAMERA FACING EAST. THE OVERHEAD PIPES ARE FOR DISTRIBUTING STEAM FROM THE NEARBY HEATING PLANT TO VARIOUS PARTS OF THE COMPLEX. - New Haven Rail Yard, Oil Storage Building, Vicinity of Union Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  17. Overhead Projector Demonstrations: A Classroom Demonstration of Aliphatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perina, Ivo; Mihanovic, Branka

    1989-01-01

    Presents a halogen substitution of an alkane using a compartmentalized Petri dish or Conway dish on an overhead projector. Provides methodology and several modifications for different reactions. Uses hexane, methyl orange, bromine, and silver nitrate. (MVL)

  18. 16. THE INSTALLATION OF CONVEYORS AND OVERHEAD RAILS ELIMINATED THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. THE INSTALLATION OF CONVEYORS AND OVERHEAD RAILS ELIMINATED THE NEED TO LAY MOLDS OUT ON FLOORS AND HAND-POUR THEM. INSTEAD, WORKERS PULLED LARGE LADLES ALONG OVERHEAD RAILS AND FILLED CONVEYOR-DRIVEN MOLDS WHILE THEY STOOD ON A MOVING PLATFORM THAT TRAVELED AT THE SAME SPEED AS THE MOLD CONVEYOR, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Shoulder problems in overhead sports. Part I - biomechanics of throwing.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Piotr Krzysztof; Lubiatowski, Przemysław; Cisowski, Paweł; Grygorowicz, Monika; Łepski, Marcin; Długosz, Jan; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Dudziński, Witold; Nowak, Maciej; Romanowski, Leszek

    2014-05-15

    The article discusses the biomechanical processes that occur during an overhead throw. This activity is highly specialized and requires full and proper function from the shoulder joint. It consists of active and passive stabilization and synchronous work of the accelerating and decelerating muscles. The process of the overhead throw can be divided into several phases that differ from each other in biomechanical parameters and involvement of specific muscles.

  20. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  1. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1999-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 degree C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire (2) bundle of 15 or more wires (3) 70 C environment (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  2. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  3. Computer-based mechanical design of overhead lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusinaru, D.; Bratu, C.; Dinu, R. C.; Manescu, L. G.

    2016-02-01

    Beside the performance, the safety level according to the actual standards is a compulsory condition for distribution grids’ operation. Some of the measures leading to improvement of the overhead lines reliability ask for installations’ modernization. The constraints imposed to the new lines components refer to the technical aspects as thermal stress or voltage drop, and look for economic efficiency, too. The mechanical sizing of the overhead lines is after all an optimization problem. More precisely, the task in designing of the overhead line profile is to size poles, cross-arms and stays and locate poles along a line route so that the total costs of the line's structure to be minimized and the technical and safety constraints to be fulfilled.The authors present in this paper an application for the Computer-Based Mechanical Design of the Overhead Lines and the features of the corresponding Visual Basic program, adjusted to the distribution lines. The constraints of the optimization problem are adjusted to the existing weather and loading conditions of Romania. The outputs of the software application for mechanical design of overhead lines are: the list of components chosen for the line: poles, cross-arms, stays; the list of conductor tension and forces for each pole, cross-arm and stay for different weather conditions; the line profile drawings.The main features of the mechanical overhead lines design software are interactivity, local optimization function and high-level user-interface

  4. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the shoulder in asymptomatic overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Ocguder, Durmus Ali; Tosun, Ozgur; Bektaser, Bulent; Cicek, Nuriye; Ipek, Ali; Bozkurt, Murat

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasonography (US) in the examination of soft tissue anatomical structures of the shoulder in overhead athletes. The study evaluated the shoulders of overhead elite premier league athletes involved in basketball, handball, volleyball, body building, and water polo. US examination of both shoulders was performed prospectively in 45 asymptomatic overhead athletes and 43 asymptomatic volunteers matched for age. On US examination, subacromial-subdeltoid bursa effusion was observed in 16 of the dominant shoulders and in 2 of the non-dominant shoulders of 45 overhead athletes and in none of the asymptomatic volunteers. The mean thickness of the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa was significantly larger in the dominant and non-dominant shoulders of the overhead athletes than in the asymptomatic volunteers (p < 0.001, p < 0.05 respectively). Ultrasonography appeared as an effective, convenient and non-invasive tool for the early diagnosis of shoulder pathologies occurring in overhead athletes, even in the asymptomatic stage.

  5. Wire harness twisting aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  6. 29 CFR 1926.955 - Overhead lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... being strung in or removed shall be kept under positive control by the use of adequate tension reels... adjacent to energized lines the tension stringing method or other methods which preclude unintentional... distances are not made less than the shortest distance between the energized part and a grounded...

  7. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  8. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  9. 29 CFR 1910.304 - Wiring design and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., including certain maintenance, remodeling, or repair activities, involving buildings, structures or... the permanent wiring of the building or structure and that are in use by personnel shall have ground...-, 20-, and 30-ampere receptacles that are not part of the permanent wiring of the building or...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.304 - Wiring design and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including certain maintenance, remodeling, or repair activities, involving buildings, structures or... the permanent wiring of the building or structure and that are in use by personnel shall have ground...-, 20-, and 30-ampere receptacles that are not part of the permanent wiring of the building or...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.304 - Wiring design and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., including certain maintenance, remodeling, or repair activities, involving buildings, structures or... the permanent wiring of the building or structure and that are in use by personnel shall have ground...-, 20-, and 30-ampere receptacles that are not part of the permanent wiring of the building or...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.304 - Wiring design and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., including certain maintenance, remodeling, or repair activities, involving buildings, structures or... the permanent wiring of the building or structure and that are in use by personnel shall have ground...-, 20-, and 30-ampere receptacles that are not part of the permanent wiring of the building or...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.304 - Wiring design and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., including certain maintenance, remodeling, or repair activities, involving buildings, structures or... the permanent wiring of the building or structure and that are in use by personnel shall have ground...-, 20-, and 30-ampere receptacles that are not part of the permanent wiring of the building or...

  14. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN SHOULDER EXAMINATION OF THE OVERHEAD ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbecker, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Examination of the shoulder complex has long been described as challenging. This is particularly true in the examination of the overhead athlete who has structural differences when compared to a shoulder patient who is a non‐athlete. Complexity with the examination is due to unique biomechanical and structural changes, multiple joint articulations, multiple pain patterns, and the potential of injury to structures both inside (intra‐articular) and outside (extra‐articular) the glenohumeral joint. Repetitive stresses placed on the shoulders of overhead athletes may affect range of motion, strength, scapular position, and ultimately, the integrity of soft tissue and bony structures in any of the joints that comprise the shoulder complex. Furthermore, many shoulder examination tests thought to be unique to a single structure, joint, or condition can be positive in multiple conditions. The examination of the overhead athletes shoulder, coupled with a thorough medical history will provide a solid foundation to allow a functional physical therapy diagnosis and provide clues as to the presence of the lesion (s) causing disability. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to assist the reader to understand the unique physical characteristics of the overhead athlete, which will lead to a more accurate and reproducible evaluation of athletes who sustain injuries while participating in overhead sports. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175138

  15. Report on Analyses of WAC Samples of Evaporator Overheads - 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L

    2005-03-18

    In November and December of 2004, the Tank Farm submitted annual samples from 2F, 2H and 3H Evaporator Overhead streams for characterization to verify compliance with the new Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and to look for organic species. With the exception of slightly high ammonia in the 2F evaporator overheads and high radiation control guide number for the 3H and 2F evaporator overhead samples, all the overheads samples were found to be in compliance with the Effluent Treatment Facility WAC. The ammonium concentration in the 2F-evaporator overhead, at 33 mg/L, was above the ETF waste water collection tank (WWCT) limits of 28 mg/L. The RCG Number for the 3H and 2F evaporator samples at, respectively, 1.38E-02 and 8.24E-03 were higher than the WWCT limit of 7.69E-03. The analytical detection limits for americium-241 and radium-226 in the evaporator samples were not consistently met because of low WWCT detection limits and insufficient evaporator samples.

  16. Biceps instability and Slap type II tear in overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Cheli, Andrea; Pari, Carlotta; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Type II lesions are common lesions encountered in overhead athletes with controversies arising in term of timing for treatment, surgical approach, rehabilitation and functional results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes, focusing on the time elapsed from diagnosis and treatment, time needed to return to sport, rate of return to sport and to previous level of performance, providing an overview concerning evidence for the effectiveness of different surgical approaches to type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes. A internet search on peer reviewed Journal from 1990, first descriprion of this pathology, to 2012, have been conducted evaluating the outcomes for both isolated Slap II tear overhead athletes and those who presented associated lesions treated. The results have been analyzed according to the scale reported focusing on return to sport and level of activity. Apart from a single study, non prospective level I and II studies were detected. Return to play at the same level ranged form 22% to 94% with different range of technique utilized with the majority of the authors recommending the fixation of these lesions but biceps tenodesis can lead to higher satisfaction racte when directly compated to the anchor fixation. Associated pathologies such as partial or full tickness rotator cuff tear did not clearly affect the outcomes and complications rate. There is no consensus regarding timing and treatment for type II SLAP, especially in overhead athletes who need to regain a high level of performance.

  17. Current concepts in the rehabilitation of the overhead throwing athlete.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Meister, Keith; Andrews, James R

    2002-01-01

    The overhead throwing motion is an extremely skillful and intricate movement that is very stressful on the shoulder joint complex. The overhead throwing athlete places extraordinary demands on this complex. Excessively high stresses are applied to the shoulder joint because of the tremendous forces generated by the thrower. The thrower's shoulder must be lax enough to allow excessive external rotation, but stable enough to prevent symptomatic humeral head subluxations, thus requiring a delicate balance between mobility and functional stability. We refer to this as the "thrower's paradox." This balance is frequently compromised, which leads to injury. Numerous types of injuries may occur to the surrounding tissues during overhead throwing. Frequently, injuries can be successfully treated with a well-structured and carefully implemented nonoperative rehabilitation program. The key to successful nonoperative treatment is a thorough clinical examination and accurate diagnosis. Athletes often exhibit numerous adaptive changes that develop from the repetitive microtraumatic stresses observed during overhead throwing. Treatment should focus on the restoration of these adaptations during the rehabilitation program. In this article, the typical musculoskeletal profile of the overhead thrower and various rehabilitation programs for specific injuries are discussed. Rehabilitation follows a structured, multiphase approach with emphasis on controlling inflammation, restoring muscle balance, improving soft tissue flexibility, enhancing proprioception and neuromuscular control, and efficiently returning the athlete to competitive throwing.

  18. 86. SITE INSTRUMENTATION: VIEW OF COMMUNICATIONS WIRING APPROXIMATELY THREE MILES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. SITE INSTRUMENTATION: VIEW OF COMMUNICATIONS WIRING APPROXIMATELY THREE MILES NORTH OF GROUND ZERO, LOOKING NORTH - White Sands Missile Range, Trinity Site, Vicinity of Routes 13 & 20, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  19. 30 CFR 75.516 - Power wires; support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... All power wires (except trailing cables on mobile equipment, specially designed cables conducting high-voltage power to underground rectifying equipment or transformers, or bare or insulated ground and...

  20. Ulnar collateral ligament in the overhead athlete: a current review.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Jeffrey; Chronister, Justin; Cain, E Lyle; Andrews, James R

    2014-09-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries are most commonly reported in baseball players (particularly in pitchers) but have also been observed in other overhead athletes including javelin, softball, tennis, volleyball, water polo, and gymnastics. Partial injuries have been successfully treated with appropriate nonoperative measures but complete tears and chronic injuries have shown less benefit from conservative measures. In these cases, surgical reconstruction has become the treatment modality for overhead athlete who wishes to continue to play. This article discusses the functional anatomy and biomechanics of the UCL as related to the pathophysiology of overhead throwing, as well as the important clinical methods needed to make accurate and timely diagnosis. It also gives an updated review of the current clinical outcomes and complications of surgical reconstruction.

  1. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  11. Lingual straight wire method.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kyoto; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, L U C A; Takemoto, Y U I

    2009-12-01

    The mushroom arch-wire is mainly used in lingual orthodontic treatment but the complicated wire bending it requires affects both the treatment results and the time spent at the chair. The author proposes a new lingual straight wire method (LSW) in order to facilitate arch coordination and simplify the mechanics. The attention paid to the set-up model and bracket positioning and bonding plus the use of the new LSW method will also improve patient comfort.

  12. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  13. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  14. Wire-inhomogeneity detector

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1982-08-31

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  15. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  16. Mechanism of wire breaking due to sparks in proportional or drift chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roderburg, E.; Walsh, S.

    1993-09-01

    The mechanism of wire breaking due to sparks is examined by a setup allowing for a fast change of mechanical wire tension and for optical and electronical registration of sparks. It is shown, that it is possible to choose a wire tension dependant on the capacitance (between the high voltage and ground) so that the wire will not be damaged by sparks. The effect of sparks to wires are compared between tungsten and steel wires and between two chamber gases (argon-methane and pure isobutane).

  17. VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  18. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  19. Modeling and measuring multiprogramming and system overheads on a shared-memory multiprocessor - Case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpsey, Robert T.; Iyer, Ravi K.

    1991-01-01

    The present discussion of methods for quantifying multiprogramming (MP) overhead on a computer system illustrates two such techniques, respectively for quantifying MP overheads' lower bound and determining the MP overload of real workloads, in light of the percentage of parallel processing time that is consumed by MP overhead on Alliant multiprocessors. Kernel lock spinning is found to be a major factor in MP overhead, which accounts for more than half of total system overhead. It is noted that parallel environments' MP overhead is not statistically dependent on the number of parallel jobs undergoing multiprogramming.

  20. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907 Section 140.907 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES... the railroad; (3) The costs are eligible in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48...

  1. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907 Section 140.907 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES... the railroad; (3) The costs are eligible in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48...

  2. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907 Section 140.907 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES... the railroad; (3) The costs are eligible in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48...

  3. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907 Section 140.907 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES... the railroad; (3) The costs are eligible in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48...

  4. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907 Section 140.907 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES... the railroad; (3) The costs are eligible in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48...

  5. 19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead door, dock no. 493. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. 13. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of overhead (fill) conveyor gallery bridge extending through tops of tanks just below roofs. Grain tripper straddles belt conveyor at mid-view. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  7. 12. OVERHEAD VIEW OF THE EVISCERATION AREA; LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OVERHEAD VIEW OF THE EVISCERATION AREA; LOOKING NORTH FROM THE VISITORS' GALLERY; NOTE THE RAISED CONCRETE PLATFORMS FOR WORKERS; VISCERA TABLE HAS BEEN REMOVED - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  8. GRINDING ROOM, LOOKING EAST. NOTE OVERHEAD BRIDGE CRANE RIDING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRINDING ROOM, LOOKING EAST. NOTE OVERHEAD BRIDGE CRANE RIDING ON STEEL RAILS SUPPORTED BY WOODEN BEAMS AND CYCLONE CLASSIFIER IN CENTER. AT RIGHT IS TOP PORTION OF FLASH FLOTATION CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A NEW DEVICE FOR OVERHEAD DRILLING

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, David M.; Star, Demetra; Gibbons, Billy; Barr, Alan; Janowitz, Ira

    2008-01-01

    Drilling overhead into concrete is a strenuous task that is associated with shoulder, arm, neck and back musculoskeletal disorders due to the forceful and awkward aspects of the work. This common task is done to hang pipes, ducts and trays and is performed by construction workers in the electrical, pipe fitting, sheet metal, ironwork and carpentry trades. In this project, alternative devices for overhead drilling were developed in order to reduce the high shoulder loads. The design premise for the alternative devices was adopted from interventions developed on construction sites. These devices were evaluated for usability, productivity, and fatigue in two rounds of testing by 30 construction workers performing their usual overhead drilling. After each round of testing the device designs were modified based on feedback. The final design was associated with much less arm fatigue but similar productivity compared to the usual method for overhead drilling. The feedback, design suggestions and field testing by experienced construction workers was vital to the successful development of these devices. Field testing were done with real tasks, in diverse field settings, with subjects familiar with the task. Multiple rounds of field testing and redesign can significantly improve the safety and usability of new tools. Having experienced workers accessing the new tools can help with determining if and how a new tool is compatible and beneficial to current work practices. PMID:19079737

  10. Communication overhead on the Intel iPSC-860 hypercube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Intel iPSC-860 hypercube in order to evaluate the overhead of interprocessor communication. It is demonstrated that: (1) contrary to popular belief, the distance between two communicating processors has a significant impact on communication time, (2) edge contention can increase communication time by a factor of more than 7, and (3) node contention has no measurable impact.

  11. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D

    2005-02-04

    Locating specific 3D objects in overhead images is an important problem in many remote sensing applications. 3D objects may contain either one connected component or multiple disconnected components. Solutions must accommodate images acquired with diverse sensors at various times of the day, in various seasons of the year, or under various weather conditions. Moreover, the physical manifestation of a 3D object with fixed physical dimensions in an overhead image is highly dependent on object physical dimensions, object position/orientation, image spatial resolution, and imaging geometry (e.g., obliqueness). This paper describes a two-stage computer-assisted approach for locating 3D objects in overhead images. In the matching stage, the computer matches models of 3D objects to overhead images. The strongest degree of match over all object orientations is computed at each pixel. Unambiguous local maxima in the degree of match as a function of pixel location are then found. In the cueing stage, the computer sorts image thumbnails in descending order of figure-of-merit and presents them to human analysts for visual inspection and interpretation. The figure-of-merit associated with an image thumbnail is computed from the degrees of match to a 3D object model associated with unambiguous local maxima that lie within the thumbnail. This form of computer assistance is invaluable when most of the relevant thumbnails are highly ranked, and the amount of inspection time needed is much less for the highly ranked thumbnails than for images as a whole.

  12. 18. PRIOR TO THE USE OF CONVEYORS AND OVERHEAD RAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. PRIOR TO THE USE OF CONVEYORS AND OVERHEAD RAILS, MOLDERS, USUALLY AFRICAN-AMERICAN, HAD TO INDIVIDUALLY HAND FILL MOLDS LAID OUT ON THE FLOOR, SUCH AS THESE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY IN 1923. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Overhead Projector Spectrum of Polymethine Dye: A Physical Chemistry Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu

    1995-01-01

    Encourages the incorporation into lecture of live experiments that can be predicted or interpreted with abstract models. A demonstration is described where the position of the predominant peak of 1,1'-diethyl-4,4'-cyanine iodide is measured in class using an overhead projector spectrometer, then predicted using the model of a particle in a…

  14. The Overhead Projector and the Teacher of English in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funck, Elvio Antonio

    This paper presents arguments for the consistent use of modern audiovisual aids in English classes, not as a complementary device, but as a fundamental aid. The intention of the thesis is to: (1) show that the overhead projector can be used to help students develop the four language skills; and (2) encourage English teachers, particularly in…

  15. Overhead throwing injuries of the shoulder and elbow.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark W; Alford, Bennett A

    2010-11-01

    Injuries to the shoulder and elbow are common in athletes involved in sporting activities that require overhead motion of the arm. An understanding of the forces involved in the throwing motion, the anatomic structures most at risk, and the magnetic resonance imaging appearances of the most common associated injuries can help to improve diagnostic accuracy when interpreting imaging studies in these patients. PMID:21094403

  16. Oblique view to the northwest detailing four overhead rolling doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to the northwest detailing four overhead rolling doors on the northeast elevation - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain Home Air Force Operations Building, On Desert Street at 9th Avenue Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  17. STOCK YARD LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING OVERHEAD YARD CRANE RAIL, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STOCK YARD LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING OVERHEAD YARD CRANE RAIL, THE MALLEABLE CUPOLAS AND EMISSION RECOVERY SYSTEM, OLD SHED ROOF THAT COVERED THE EARLIER MALLEABLE CUPOLA CHARGING CRANE, MALLEABLE FOUNDRY, AND POLLUTION CONTROL BAGHOUSE. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. 13. Emplacement no. 2, overhead view of counterweight well, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Emplacement no. 2, overhead view of counterweight well, showing channel for gun motor cable and bolt plates upon which base ring of gun carriage was mounted - Fort Wadsworth Battery Romeyn B. Ayers, South side of Ayers Road, Staten Island, Rosebank, Richmond County, NY

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1438 - Overhead & gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., except in 2-3.5.1(b), “29 CFR 1910.147” is substituted for “ANSI Z244.1.” ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead & gantry cranes. 1926.1438 Section 1926.1438 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1438 - Overhead & gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., except in 2-3.5.1(b), “29 CFR 1910.147” is substituted for “ANSI Z244.1.” ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead & gantry cranes. 1926.1438 Section 1926.1438 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  1. Conversion of Bench Demonstration Using the Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, A. H.; Al-Shuaili, Ali

    2001-01-01

    Presents a new technique for projecting science demonstrations, enabling a larger number of students to see the demonstration without scaling up the experiment. Describes innovative attachments that magnify projector images using mirrors, solutions to the problem of convergent test tubes, development of overhead projection experiments, necessary…

  2. 78 FR 77027 - Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Description of Petition for Rulemaking In its Petition for Rulemaking dated... meeting notice (78 FR 49543, 49544, August 14, 2013) and copy of Task 13-10, Recommendation to Establish... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 117, 161, and 164 46 CFR Part 4 Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft)...

  3. View, from south showing verticals, diagonals, and overhead bracing of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View, from south showing verticals, diagonals, and overhead bracing of south span Pratt through trusses, south portal of north span, pipe rails and posts, and concrete deck with bituminous wearing surface - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1438 - Overhead & gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1438... equipment when used in construction and permanently installed in a facility: overhead and gantry cranes, including semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and others having the...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1438 - Overhead & gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1438... equipment when used in construction and permanently installed in a facility: overhead and gantry cranes, including semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and others having the...

  6. MOBILE LADLES, ATTACHED TO OVERHEAD RAILS, ARE FILLED AT EITHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MOBILE LADLES, ATTACHED TO OVERHEAD RAILS, ARE FILLED AT EITHER THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY BULL LADLE OR ELECTRIC FURNACE BEFORE THEY TRANSPORT MOLTEN IRON TO MOLDS PREPARED BY DISAMATIC MOLDMAKING MACHINE OR ON ONE OF THE CONVEYORS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM TRAM TRESTLE, AND LOADING PLATFORM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE HOLE IN THE ORE BIN FLOOR CAN BE SEEN, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATION AT LOWER LEFT CORNER. SEE CA-291-13 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Simulation of Centrifugal Forces on an Overhead Projector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buvari, A.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of images on an overhead projector to explain concepts like centrifugal force and Cariolis force in such a way that students can realize that they are pseudo-forces, i.e., observations arising only from referring phenomena to an accelerating reference system. (MLH)

  9. Overhead throwing injuries of the shoulder and elbow.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark W; Alford, Bennett A

    2010-11-01

    Injuries to the shoulder and elbow are common in athletes involved in sporting activities that require overhead motion of the arm. An understanding of the forces involved in the throwing motion, the anatomic structures most at risk, and the magnetic resonance imaging appearances of the most common associated injuries can help to improve diagnostic accuracy when interpreting imaging studies in these patients.

  10. 30 CFR 77.1503 - Augering equipment; overhead protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1503 Augering equipment; overhead protection. (a) Auger machines which are exposed to highwall hazards, together with all those parts of any coal elevating conveyors... connecting or disconnecting auger sections under a highwall, at least one person shall be assigned to...

  11. Launcher and Transparent Air Table for Use with Overhead Projector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, H. Y.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes an apparatus designed for quantitative demonstrations of collision experiments. The apparatus consists of a transparent air table and a launching device for projecting two objects simultaneously. It may be used with an overhead projector. The apparatus won third prize in Demonstration Lecture Apparatus in the A.A.P.T. Apparatus…

  12. Overhead Projector Demonstrations: Some Ideas from the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris

    1987-01-01

    Describes nine chemistry demonstrations that can be done using an overhead projector. Includes demonstrations on common ion effect, crystal formation from supersaturated solutions, making iron positive with nitric acid, optical activity, carbon dioxide in human breath, amphoteric hydroxides, the surface tension of mercury, and natural acid-base…

  13. Dissolving Carboxylic Acids and Primary Amines on the Overhead Projector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid carboxylic acids (or primary amines) with limited solubility in water are dissolved by addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide (or hydrochloric acid) on the stage of an overhead projector using simple glassware and very small quantities of chemicals. This effective and colorful demonstration can be used to accompany discussions of the…

  14. 5. OVERHEAD VIEW OF GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTH. GENE PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OVERHEAD VIEW OF GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTH. GENE PUMP PLANT IS AT CENTER WITH ADMINISTRATIVE COMPLEX IN FOREGROUND AND RESIDENTIAL AREA BEYOND PLANT. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. The Overhead System: Production, Implementation and Utilization. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard E.; Pearson, Jerry D.

    This handbook is designed to help three groups: the administrator who does not have the services of a media specialist, the media specialist who wishes to expand his knowledge or skills, and the classroom teacher who recognizes the value of the overhead as a teaching tool and is looking for practical assistance. Guidelines are provided in 11…

  16. Prevalence of Scapular Dyskinesis in Overhead and Nonoverhead Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Matthew B.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Liberman, Shari R.; Harris, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scapular dyskinesis, or abnormal dynamic scapular control, is a condition that is commonly associated with shoulder pathology but is also present in asymptomatic individuals. Literature varies on whether it represents a cause or symptom of shoulder pathology, but it is believed to be a risk factor for further injury. Clinical identification focuses on visual observation and examination maneuvers. Treatment of altered scapular motion has been shown to improve shoulder symptoms. It is thought to be more common in overhead athletes due to their reliance on unilateral upper extremity function but the incidence within nonoverhead athletes is unknown. Hypothesis: Overhead athletes will have a greater prevalence of scapular dyskinesis when compared with nonoverhead athletes. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: After PROSPERO registration, a systematic review was performed using PRISMA guidelines through the PubMed database looking for studies published before October 2014. All studies containing the search terms scapular, scapulothoracic, dyskinesis, dyskinesia, shoulder athlete, or overhead athlete were included. Studies that did not include prevalence data for scapular dyskinesis were excluded. Study methodological quality was evaluated using the modified Coleman methodology score. Descriptive statistics and 2-proportion 2-tailed z-tests were used to compare the reported prevalence of scapular dyskinesis between overhead and nonoverhead athletes. Results: Twelve studies were analyzed including 1401 athletes (1257 overhead and 144 nonoverhead; mean age, 24.4 ± 7.1 years; 78% men). All the studies were evidence level 2 (33%) or level 3 (67%). The reported prevalence of scapular dyskinesis was significantly (P < .0001) higher in overhead athletes (61%) compared with nonoverhead athletes (33%). Conclusion: Scapular dyskinesis was found to have a greater reported prevalence (61%) in overhead athletes compared with nonoverhead athletes

  17. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  18. 2016 MOST WIRED.

    PubMed

    Barr, Paul; Butcher, Lola; Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2016-07-01

    This year's IT survey shows that hospitals are aggressively fighting cyber crime and looking for ways to use data to help in the transition to value-based care. Find out who made the 2016 lists of Most Wired, Most Advanced, Most Improved and Most Wired-Small and Rural. PMID:27526506

  19. 2016 MOST WIRED.

    PubMed

    Barr, Paul; Butcher, Lola; Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2016-07-01

    This year's IT survey shows that hospitals are aggressively fighting cyber crime and looking for ways to use data to help in the transition to value-based care. Find out who made the 2016 lists of Most Wired, Most Advanced, Most Improved and Most Wired-Small and Rural.

  20. Shoulder injuries in overhead athletes. The "dead arm" revisited.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, S S; Morgan, C D; Kibler, W B

    2000-01-01

    The following statements summarize this article: Three distinct categories of Type 2 SLAP lesions exist: (1) anterior, (2) posterior, and (3) combined anteroposterior. Posterior Type 2 SLAP lesions have distinct clinical and anatomic features that distinguish them from anterior Type 2 SLAP lesions. Posterior and combined Type 2 SLAP lesions can be disabling to overhead-throwing athletes because of posterosuperior instability and anteroinferior pseudolaxity. The Jobe relocation test is positive with posterosuperior pain in patients with posterior or combined anterior-posterior Type 2 SLAP lesions and is negative in patients with anterior Type 2 SLAP lesions. Rotator cuff tears are frequently associated with posterior or combined anterior-posterior SLAP lesions, are lesion-location specific, and typically begin from inside the joint as undersurface tears. Repair of posterior SLAP lesions can return overhead-throwing athletes to full overhead athletic functioning. The peel-back mechanism is a likely cause of posterior Type 2 SLAP lesions. To securely repair the posterosuperior labrum to resist torsional peel-back, sulure anchors must be placed posterior to the biceps at the corner of the glenoid. The repair must be protected against external rotation past 0 degree for 3 weeks to avoid undue premature torsional stresses on the repair from the peel-back mechanism. A tight posteroinferior capsule predisposes to Type 2 SLAP lesions in overhead athletes. Shoulders at risk for the dead arm syndrome have a marked loss of internal rotation caused by contracture of the posteroinferior capsule such that less than a 180 degrees arc of rotation is achieved with the arm abducted 90 degrees (the 180 degrees rule). Type 2 SLAP lesions that cause the dead arm syndrome in overhead-throwing athletes are most likely acceleration injuries that occur in late cocking rather than deceleration injuries in follow-through. Rehabilitation of athletes with the dead arm syndrome must include the

  1. Water Desalination with Wires.

    PubMed

    Porada, S; Sales, B B; Hamelers, H V M; Biesheuvel, P M

    2012-06-21

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode pairs in freshwater with and in brine without an applied cell voltage, we create an ion adsorption/desorption cycle. We show experimentally how in six subsequent cycles we can reduce the salinity of 20 mM feed (brackish) water by a factor of 3, while application of a cation exchange membrane on the cathode wires makes the desalination factor increase to 4. Theoretical modeling rationalizes the experimental findings, and predicts that system performance can be significantly enhanced by material modifications. To treat large volumes of water, multiple stacks of wire pairs can be used simultaneously in a "merry-go-round" operational mode.

  2. International space station wire program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd

    1995-01-01

    Hardware provider wire systems and current wire insulation issues for the International Space Station (ISS) program are discussed in this viewgraph presentation. Wire insulation issues include silicone wire contamination, Tefzel cold temperature flexibility, and Russian polyimide wire insulation. ISS is a complex program with hardware developed and managed by many countries and hundreds of contractors. Most of the obvious wire insulation issues are known by contractors and have been precluded by proper selection.

  3. Wire tension versus wire frequency: an experimental Ilizarov frame study.

    PubMed

    La Russa, Valentina; Skallerud, Bjørn; Klaksvik, Jomar; Foss, Olav A

    2010-08-26

    Stability of an Ilizarov frame highly depends on maintenance of adequate tension in the wires. Wire tension should be measured accurately in experimental laboratory studies when new types of wire fixators are tested. In this study, 20 wires were tested using two different wire fixators. The wires were sequentially tensioned from 0 to 1275 N in 50 N intervals. For each tension value, corresponding vibration frequency was recorded. We then described the relationship between wire tension and wire vibration frequency in an empirical equation (R(2)=99.8). Wire vibration frequency can also be described theoretically by the Euler-Bernoulli equation for a thin beam. Theoretical frequencies were calculated and compared with corresponding experimental frequencies. A close agreement was found (95% limits of agreement, +/-3.2 Hz). This empirical equation represents a simple tool, applicable when investigating the effect of new wire fixators, pre-tensioning and frame constructions on wire tension. PMID:20472242

  4. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  5. Premelting of thin wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülseren, O.; Ercolessi, F.; Tosatti, E.

    1995-03-01

    We have investigated the melting behavior of thin lead wires using molecular dynamics. We find that-in analogy with cluster melting-the melting temperature Tm(R) of a wire with radius R is lower than that of a bulk solid Tbm by Tm(R)=Tbm-c/R. Surface melting effects, with formation of a thin skin of highly diffusive atoms at the wire surface, are observed. The diffusivity is lower over (111)-oriented faces, and higher at (110) and (100) rounded areas. The possible relevance to recent results on nonrupturing thin necks between a scanning tunnel microscope tip and a warm surface is addressed.

  6. 30 CFR 56.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 56... Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with...

  7. 30 CFR 57.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 57... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided...

  8. 30 CFR 56.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 56... Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with...

  9. 30 CFR 56.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 56... Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with...

  10. 30 CFR 57.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 57... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided...

  11. 30 CFR 56.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 56... Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with...

  12. 30 CFR 57.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 57... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided...

  13. 30 CFR 57.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 57... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided...

  14. 30 CFR 56.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 56... Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with...

  15. 30 CFR 57.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 57... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided...

  16. SRTM is removed from Endeavour's payload bay to ease wiring inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Orbiter Processing Facility, workers observe as an overhead crane lowers the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) into a payload canister. The payload on mission STS-99, SRTM was removed from orbiter Endeavour's payload bay to allow technicians access to the orbiter's midbody for planned wiring inspections. The entire fleet of orbiters is being inspected for wiring abrasions after the problem was first discovered in Columbia. Shuttle managers are reviewing several manifest options and could establish new target launch dates for the balance of 1999 next week. Shuttle Endeavour currently remains slated for launch in early October.

  17. SRTM is removed from Endeavour's payload bay to ease wiring inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers inside orbiter Endeavour's payload bay observe as an overhead crane maneuvers to lift the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for its transfer out of the orbiter to a payload canister. The payload on mission STS-99, SRTM is being removed to allow technicians access to the orbiter's midbody for planned wiring inspections. Endeavour is in the Orbiter Processing Facility. The entire fleet of orbiters is being inspected for wiring abrasions after the problem was first discovered in Columbia. Shuttle managers are reviewing several manifest options and could establish new target launch dates for the balance of 1999 next week. Shuttle Endeavour currently remains slated for launch in early October.

  18. Electromyographic analysis of an ergonomic risk factor: overhead work

    PubMed Central

    Kinali, Gulsah; Kara, Sadık; Yıldırım, Mustafa Selman

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Repetitive upper extremity exercises result in overuse injuries. However, it is challenging to identify the specific causative movements. This study evaluated the effects of different shoulder positions on grip and electrophysiological activity of upper extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects ranging from 18 and 30 years of age were analyzed. Surface electromyography and hand grip strength were measured during a range of shoulder exercises and numerous signal processing methods were applied. [Results] The maximum electromyographic activity intensity was observed in the wrist extensors at various angles. Deltoid activity rose significantly during shoulder flexion. [Conclusion] Overhead work causes shoulder muscle fatigue and prevents effective hand function, which affects occupational health and efficiency. Overhead work involves a hazardous position and decreases efficiency. Ergonomic solutions should be developed to prevent muscle fatigue and decreased grip force. PMID:27390448

  19. Microinstability of the shoulder in the overhead athlete.

    PubMed

    Reinold, Michael M; Curtis, Alan S

    2013-10-01

    The overhead throwing athlete is an extremely challenging patient in sports medicine. The repetitive microtraumatic stresses and extreme ranges of motion observed within the athlete's shoulder joint complex during the throwing motion constantly place the athlete at risk for injury. While gross instability of the shoulder is possible, microinstability is seen far more frequently and is associated with a variety of different pathologies, including rotator cuff tendonitis, internal impingement, and labral lesions. Treatment of the overhead athlete requires the understanding of several principles based on the unique physical characteristics of this type of athlete and the demands placed upon the static stabilizing structures during the act of throwing. The purpose of this paper is to describe these principles and incorporate them into in a multi-phase progressive rehabilitation program designed to prevent injuries and rehabilitate the injured athlete, both non-operatively and postoperatively.

  20. MICROINSTABILITY OF THE SHOULDER IN THE OVERHEAD ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    The overhead throwing athlete is an extremely challenging patient in sports medicine. The repetitive microtraumatic stresses and extreme ranges of motion observed within the athlete’s shoulder joint complex during the throwing motion constantly place the athlete at risk for injury. While gross instability of the shoulder is possible, microinstability is seen far more frequently and is associated with a variety of different pathologies, including rotator cuff tendonitis, internal impingement, and labral lesions. Treatment of the overhead athlete requires the understanding of several principles based on the unique physical characteristics of this type of athlete and the demands placed upon the static stabilizing structures during the act of throwing. The purpose of this paper is to describe these principles and incorporate them into in a multi‐phase progressive rehabilitation program designed to prevent injuries and rehabilitate the injured athlete, both non‐operatively and postoperatively. PMID:24175140

  1. CLOMP: Accurately Characterizing OpenMP Application Overheads

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; Gyllenhaal, J; de Supinski, B

    2008-02-11

    Despite its ease of use, OpenMP has failed to gain widespread use on large scale systems, largely due to its failure to deliver sufficient performance. Our experience indicates that the cost of initiating OpenMP regions is simply too high for the desired OpenMP usage scenario of many applications. In this paper, we introduce CLOMP, a new benchmark to characterize this aspect of OpenMP implementations accurately. CLOMP complements the existing EPCC benchmark suite to provide simple, easy to understand measurements of OpenMP overheads in the context of application usage scenarios. Our results for several OpenMP implementations demonstrate that CLOMP identifies the amount of work required to compensate for the overheads observed with EPCC. Further, we show that CLOMP also captures limitations for OpenMP parallelization on NUMA systems.

  2. 4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridgeleft side) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridge-left side) and 1959 bridge (right side) across Carquinez Strait. Town of Crockett is on south bank (bottom of image). C&H sugar factory is along the strait to the east (right) side of the 1959 bridge. The toll plaza is at the top of the image on the 1959 bridge side. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. An estimation of lightning insulation level of overhead distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, P.B.; Grzybowski, S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Ross, E.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper develops a practical procedure for determining the total insulation strength of multiple or composite insulations most commonly used in the design of overhead distribution lines. Laboratory test data were obtained on a wide range of combinations and configurations utilizing porcelain, polymer and fiberglass insulators as well as wood poles and wood crossarms. Data were obtained for both dry and wet conditions with positive and negative polarities of the impulses.

  4. Four steps solve crude-tower overhead corrosion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, N.P. )

    1993-07-05

    Hydrochloric acid attack is one of the oldest and best-understood refinery process problems. This would lead one to think that preventing localized hydrochloric acid attack would also be well-understood. Experience, however, indicates that this is far from true. The problem originates with the presence of salt water in crude oils. Most of the salt content of the brine dispersed in crudes is in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl). About 10% of the salt, however, is present as magnesium chloride (MgCl[sub 2]) and calcium chloride (CaCl[sub 2]). In the presence of water and heat, these chloride salts hydrolyze to form HCI. The two-stage overhead system using the hot and cold drum is a design that, despite its widespread use, does not fulfill its objective of stopping crude-tower overhead corrosion. The following program is, in the opinion of the author, the only way to halt overhead corrosion in a crude tower: effective desalting that removes more than 60% of the MgCl[sub 2]; caustic injection down-stream of the desalter to control chlorides in the reflux-drum water draw-off boot; forced water condensation in the crude-tower overhead vapors; and sufficient addition of neutralizing amine to control water boot at a pH of about 6. Finally, there can never be a truly effective replacement for proper desalting. Process Improvement Engineering's experience has repeatedly proven that desalting is the most cost-effective method of controlling hydroscopic hydrochloric acid corrosion. When downstream resid-hydrotreating processes preclude the use of neutralizing caustic, the importance of the desalter is magnified even further.

  5. Modeling the Virtual Machine Launching Overhead under Fermicloud

    SciTech Connect

    Garzoglio, Gabriele; Wu, Hao; Ren, Shangping; Timm, Steven; Bernabeu, Gerard; Noh, Seo-Young

    2014-11-12

    FermiCloud is a private cloud developed by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory for scientific workflows. The Cloud Bursting module of the FermiCloud enables the FermiCloud, when more computational resources are needed, to automatically launch virtual machines to available resources such as public clouds. One of the main challenges in developing the cloud bursting module is to decide when and where to launch a VM so that all resources are most effectively and efficiently utilized and the system performance is optimized. However, based on FermiCloud’s system operational data, the VM launching overhead is not a constant. It varies with physical resource (CPU, memory, I/O device) utilization at the time when a VM is launched. Hence, to make judicious decisions as to when and where a VM should be launched, a VM launch overhead reference model is needed. The paper is to develop a VM launch overhead reference model based on operational data we have obtained on FermiCloud and uses the reference model to guide the cloud bursting process.

  6. Parallel garbage collection without synchronization overhead. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Incremental garbage-collection schemes incur substantial overhead that is directly translated as reduced execution efficiency for the user. Parallel garbage-collection schemes implemented via time-slicing on a serial processor also incur this overhead, which might even be aggravated due to context switching. It is useful, therefore, to examine the possibility of implementing a parallel garbage-collection algorithm using a separate processor operating asynchronously with the main-list processor. The overhead in such a scheme arises from the synchronization necessary to manage the two processors, maintaining memory consistency. In this paper, the authors present an architecture and supporting parallel garbage-collection algorithms designed for a virtual memory system with separate processors for list processing and for garbage collection. Each processor has its own primary memory; in addition, there is a small common memory which both processors may access. Individual memories swap off a common secondary memory, but no locking mechanism is required. In particular, a page may reside in both memories simultaneously, and indeed may be accessed and modified freely by each processor. A secondary memory controller ensures consistency without necessitating numerous lockouts on the pages.

  7. Changes in Acromion and Scapular Position after Short-term Overhead Work

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the changes in acromion and scapular position after short-term overhead work. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 20–27 years, were recruited. [Methods] We measured the acromial angle and scapular inferior distance using a palpation meter before and after overhead work. [Results] The acromion angle was significantly decreased after the overhead work compared to before. The scapular inferior distance was significantly increased after the overhead work compared to before. [Conclusion] Even though the overhead work was short-term work lasting less than one hour, it resulted in an abnormal scapular position. PMID:24259827

  8. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  9. Flashover failures from wet-wire arcing and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, F. J.

    1984-12-01

    Flashover failure occurs in a wire bundle as a high-energy surge between a bare conductor delivering power and a ground-plane (e.g., metal framework or wire shielding) as the conductive path across adjacent wires approaches zero resistance. It happens as a violent blazing flashover in which the copper of the bare wire melts and splatters - causing melting and burn-through of some of the adjacent wires in the bundle. Thus, it could produce the loss of a number of circuits at once. Under service stress conditions the process leading to a flashover could begin as the wire insulation initially deteriorates by cracking or chaffing and the surfaces of adjacent wires in the bundles become contaminated due to salt spray, mist, fog and high humidity. Under these conditions, typical of Naval aircraft service, arcing and tracking initiate and eventually localized spots extend into a continuous carbonaceous path, bridging the wires from the fault to ground. At some point the wetting is no longer necessary to sustain the current, and the flashover strikes. This phenomena is known to develop on the surfaces of polymeric materials that readily carbonize when pyrolized and the susceptibility to fail by this mechanism is characterized in standard arcing and tracking tests. The phenyl-containing polymeric materials fall into this class. Laboratory tests have demonstrated that flashover will occur on wires insulated with a hi-phenyl polyimide composite and also on wires insulated with a polyphenyl ketone polymer; whereas, two types of a polytetrafluoroethylene insulation did not carbonize or flashover in the test. These results are in agreement with other references on arcing and tracking studies.

  10. NASA/BAE SYSTEMS SpaceWire Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments of SpaceWire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements SpaceWire in Register Transfer Level (RTL) VHDL for a SpaceWire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the SpaceWire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for Spaceflight worthy FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented on their .25micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS drivers/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed SpaceWire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for SpaceWire has been identified by both NASA And ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach that works end-to-end. This layer needs to be implemented in hardware to prevent bottlenecks.

  11. Contamination source review for Building E3613, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Billmark, K.A.; Emken, M.E.; Muir-Ploense, K.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E3613 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the U.S. Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building, The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3613 (APG designation) is located in the Canal Creek Area of APG. The building was constructed in 1954 for use as a change house, office, and storage building in support of the white phosphorus smoke program. The building has not been used since 1988. During an inspection in 1988, asbestos was listed as the only potential contaminant. The physical inspection and photographic documentation of Building E3613 were completed in November 1994. At the time of the inspection, Building E3613 was inactive and in disrepair. The single-story, rectangular structure contains five rooms and measures 16 ft 2 in. by 32 ft. The building is wood frame construction with a gabled roof. The exterior walls and roof are constructed of wood covered with asphalt sheeting. The building rests on a concrete foundation. The interior walls are 6-in.-thick wood, and the ceiling is assumed to be white drywall nailed to a wooden frame. Overhead steam pipes supported by vertical pipes traverse the area. Two concrete footings for guy wires that support the overhead steam pipes are located north and west of the building. Four additional vertical pipes exit the ground east of the building.

  12. Liquid ``Wires" for Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellis, Nathan; Mazzeo, Aaron; Mazzeo, Brian

    2009-10-01

    We demonstrate liquid ``wires'' in a simple solution measurement device. This device highlights the possibility of fabricating liquid circuits. These ``wires'' were formed by filling micro-milled PMMA channels with 5M NaCl solution. Wires were connected to these salt solution channels; the impedance of a test channel filled with solution was measured by an HP 4294A Impedance Analyzer. Deionized water, 2-propanol, and 5M NaCl were measured. Numerical simulations were performed on the channel cross-section to determine the predicted impedance of the device. The simulated results were compared to the experimental data. Graphs of simulations and experiments are presented for the frequency range 1 KHz to 110 MHz. The data show electrode polarization at the electrode-electrolyte interface, as well as parasitic capacitance inherent in the experimental arrangement.

  13. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  14. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  15. Path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, John K.P.; Wang, Kai-Ting Amy; Yamashita, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaotong

    2014-07-22

    A mechanism is provided for path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads. The mechanism receives, in a compiler, program code to be compiled to form compiled code. The mechanism divides the code into basic blocks. The mechanism then determines a restore register set for each of the one or more basic blocks to form one or more restore register sets. The mechanism then stores the one or more register sets such that responsive to a rollback during execution of the compiled code. A rollback routine identifies a restore register set from the one or more restore register sets and restores registers identified in the identified restore register set.

  16. Generating Water-Soluble Noxious Gases: An Overhead Projector Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sally; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Hur, Chinhyu

    1998-12-01

    A simple, inexpensive apparatus to generate and collect water-soluble noxious gases as an overhead projector demonstration can be made from two small beakers and a Petri dish. The detection and generation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are described. Sulfur dioxide dissolved in water is detected using an acid-base indicator, decolorizing of anthocyanin, or reduction of permanganate. The SO2 is generated by addition of sulfite or bisulfite to a strong acid or by the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid to sugars. Nitrogen dioxide is generated by mixing copper and nitric acid and detected using an acid-base indicator.

  17. Evaluation of Impingement Syndromes in the Overhead-Throwing Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Christopher M.; Coen, Michael J.; Screnar, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Objective: We outline impingement entities, describe the history and physical examination, and provide an overview of treatment beyond that routinely used in glenohumeral and scapulothoracic dysfunction. Background: In the athlete, pain and dysfunction due to excessive overhead use or abnormal positioning of the shoulder is common and can result from multiple etiologies, including impingement syndromes. Primary, secondary, internal, and coracoid impingement have all been described. Description: These entities will be discussed, including pathology, evaluation, and treatment. Clinical Advantages: Incorporating a systematic evaluation and treatment of impingement syndromes optimizes care for the patient with shoulder pain. PMID:16558643

  18. Shoulder muscle imbalance and subacromial impingement syndrome in overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Page, Phil

    2011-03-01

    Subacromial impingement is a frequent and painful condition among athletes, particularly those involved in overhead sports such as baseball and swimming. There are generally two types of subacromial impingement: structural and functional. While structural impingement is caused by a physical loss of area in the subacromial space due to bony growth or inflammation, functional impingement is a relative loss of subacromial space secondary to altered scapulohumeral mechanics resulting from glenohumeral instability and muscle imbalance. The purpose of this review is to describe the role of muscle imbalance in subacromial impingement in order to guide sports physical therapy evaluation and interventions.

  19. 88. Overhead view of clear air station site at early ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. Overhead view of clear air station site at early stage of construction. View is from south 30 degrees west showing DR 3 in foreground with DR 2 in middle and DR 1 out of view. Official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photographer, 5 October, 1959, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. A-27. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  20. Thermal Testing and Integration: Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) Observatories with Digital 1-Wire Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solimani, Jason A.; Rosanova, Santino

    2015-01-01

    Thermocouples require two thin wires to be routed out of the spacecraft to connect to the ground support equipment used to monitor and record the temperature data. This large number of wires that exit the observatory complicates integration and creates an undesirable heat path during testing. These wires exiting the spacecraft need to be characterized as a thermal short that will not exist during flight. To minimize complexity and reduce thermal variables from these ground support equipment (GSE) wires, MMS pursued a hybrid path for temperature monitoring, utilizing thermocouples and digital 1-wire temperature sensors. Digital 1-wire sensors can greatly reduce harness mass, length and complexity as they can be spliced together. For MMS, 350 digital 1-wire sensors were installed on the spacecraft with only 18 wires exiting as opposed to a potential 700 thermocouple wires. Digital 1-wire sensors had not been used in such a large scale at NASAGSFC prior to the MMS mission. During the MMS thermal vacuum testing a lessons learned matrix was formulated that will assist future integration of 1-wires into thermal testing and one day into flight.

  1. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  2. CLOMP: Accurately Characterizing OpenMP Application Overheads

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; Gyllenhaal, J; de Supinski, B R

    2008-11-10

    Despite its ease of use, OpenMP has failed to gain widespread use on large scale systems, largely due to its failure to deliver sufficient performance. Our experience indicates that the cost of initiating OpenMP regions is simply too high for the desired OpenMP usage scenario of many applications. In this paper, we introduce CLOMP, a new benchmark to characterize this aspect of OpenMP implementations accurately. CLOMP complements the existing EPCC benchmark suite to provide simple, easy to understand measurements of OpenMP overheads in the context of application usage scenarios. Our results for several OpenMP implementations demonstrate that CLOMP identifies the amount of work required to compensate for the overheads observed with EPCC.We also show that CLOMP also captures limitations for OpenMP parallelization on SMT and NUMA systems. Finally, CLOMPI, our MPI extension of CLOMP, demonstrates which aspects of OpenMP interact poorly with MPI when MPI helper threads cannot run on the NIC.

  3. TAUOVERSUPERMON: LOW-OVERHEAD ONLINE PARALLEL PERFORMANCE MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    SOTTILE, MATTHEW JOSEPH; NATARAJ, AROON; MALONY, ALLEN; MORRIS, ALAN; SHENDE, SAMEER

    2007-01-30

    Online or Real-time application performance monitoring allows tracking performance characteristics during execution as opposed to doing so post-mortem. This opens up several possibilities otherwise unavailable such as real-time visualization and application performance steering that can be useful in the context of long-running applications. Two fundamental components that constitute such a performance monitor are the measurement and transport systems. The former captures performance metrics of individual contexts (processes, threads). The latter enables querying the parallel/distributed state from the different contexts and also allows measurement control. As HPC systems grow in size and complexity, the key challenge is to keep the online performance monitor scalable and low overhead while still providing a useful performance reporting capability. We adapt and combine two existing, mature systems - Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) and Supermon - to address this problem. Tau performs the measurement while Supermon is used to collect the distributed measurement state. Our experiments show that this novel approach of using a cluster-monitor, Supermon, as the transport for online performance data from Tau leads to very low-overhead application monitoring as well as other beneits unavailable from using a traditional transport such as NFS.

  4. Does scapular positioning predict shoulder pain in recreational overhead athletes?

    PubMed

    Struyf, F; Nijs, J; Meeus, M; Roussel, N A; Mottram, S; Truijen, S; Meeusen, R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study is to investigate possible scapular related risk factors for developing shoulder pain. Therefore, a 2-year follow-up study in a general community sports centre setting was conducted. A sample of convenience of 113 recreational overhead athletes (59 women and 54 men) with a mean age of 34 (17-64; SD 12) years were recruited. At baseline, visual observation for scapular dyskinesis, measured scapular protraction, upward scapular rotation and dynamic scapular control were evaluated. 22% (n=25) of all athletes developed shoulder pain during the 24 months following baseline assessment. The Mean Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ) score for the painful shoulders was 34.8 (6.3-62.5; SD 17.4). None of the scapular characteristics predicted the development of shoulder pain. However, the athletes that developed shoulder pain demonstrated significantly less upward scapular rotation at 45° (p=0.010) and 90° (p=0.016) of shoulder abduction in the frontal plane at baseline in comparison to the athletes that remained pain-free. In conclusion, although these scapular characteristics are not of predictive value for the development of shoulder pain, this study increases our understanding of the importance of a scapular upward rotation assessment among recreational overhead athletes.

  5. Steal Tree: Low-Overhead Tracing of Work Stealing Schedulers

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Kale, Laxmikant

    2013-06-16

    Work stealing is a popular approach to scheduling task-parallel programs. The flexibility inherent in work stealing when dealing with load imbalance results in seemingly irregular computation structures, complicating the study of its runtime behavior. In this paper, we present an approach to efficiently trace async-finish parallel programs scheduled using work stealing. We identify key properties that allow us to trace the execution of tasks with low time and space overheads. We also study the usefulness of the proposed schemes in supporting algorithms for data-race detection and retentive steal- ing presented in the literature. We demonstrate that the perturbation due to tracing is within the variation in the execution time with 99% confidence and the traces are concise, amounting to a few tens of kilobytes per thread in most cases. We also demonstrate that the traces enable significant reductions in the cost of detecting data races and result in low, stable space overheads in supporting retentive stealing for async-finish programs.

  6. Rehabilitation of the Overhead Athlete’s Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Macrina, Leonard C.; Cain, E. Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The activities required during overhead sports, particularly during baseball pitching, produce large forces at the elbow joint. Injuries to the elbow joint frequently occur in the overhead athlete because of the large amount of forces observed during the act of throwing, playing tennis, or playing golf. Injuries may result because of repetitive overuse, leading to tissue failure. Rehabilitation following injury or surgery to the throwing elbow is vital to fully restore normal function and return the athlete to competition as quickly and safely as possible. Rehabilitation of the elbow, whether following injury or postsurgical, must follow a progressive and sequential order, building on the previous phase, to ensure that healing tissues are not compromised. Emphasis is placed on restoring full motion, muscular strength, and neuromuscular control while gradually applying loads to healing tissue. In addition, when one is creating a rehabilitation plan for athletes, it is imperative to treat the entire upper extremity, core, and legs to create and dissipate the forces generated at each joint. PMID:23016113

  7. Wiring for space applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad

    1994-01-01

    The insulation testing and analysis consists of: identifying and prioritizing NASA wiring requirements; selecting candidate wiring constructions; developing test matrix and formulating test program; managing, coordinating, and conducting tests; and analyzing and documenting data, establishing guidelines and recommendations.

  8. One hundred angstrom niobium wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, H. E.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

    1968-01-01

    Composite of fine niobium wires in copper is used to study the size and proximity effects of a superconductor in a normal matrix. The niobium rod was drawn to a 100 angstrom diameter wire on a copper tubing.

  9. Wired To Flex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses wire and cable management solutions school construction committees can use that do not limit flexibility. Topics cover such areas as using perimeter raceways in classrooms, incorporating a flexible communications cabling infrastructure in to the initial design, and answering the question of how to meet future requirements and…

  10. Basic Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

  11. A World without Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  12. Residential Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

  13. Improved wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  14. NewsWire, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

  15. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  16. 1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

  17. A magnet-based vibrating wire sensor: design and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, Frédéric; Joly, Michel

    2005-02-01

    Vibrating strings help in measuring relative displacements in a mechanical system. Since the ground natural frequency of a string increases when it is stretched, monitoring the ground frequency yields the current length of the string. Therefore a wire able to vibrate between two anchor points of a system acts as a relative displacement sensor. Excitation is usually achieved by means of an active coil, which is very close to the vibrating iron wire. Vibrating wire sensors (VWS) based on this excitation may prove obtrusive and one is limited to wires of small length. The new VWS takes advantage of distributed passive magnets, which force the wire to vibrate mainly in its fundamental mode. The sensor proves scalable and much less obtrusive when fully embedded, since it can be made flat and very flexible. On the basis of a simplified electromechanical modelling of the measurement process, a suitable distribution of magnets is proposed, which is proved numerically and experimentally to make the measurement robust with respect to mechanical uncertainties. Moreover, numerical simulations suggest measuring not the voltage in the vibrating wire but the current in an auxiliary circuit.

  18. LANSCE wire scanner AFE: analysis, design, and fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Mike; Chacon, Phillip; Gilpatrick, John D; Martinez, Derwin; Power, John F; Smith, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the design LANSCE-R Wire-Scanner Analog Front-end Electronics is to develop a high-performance, dual-axis wire-scanner analog front-end system implemented in a single cRIO module. This new design accommodates macropulse widths as wide as 700 {mu}s at a maximum pulse rate of 120Hz. A lossey integrator is utilized as the integration element to eliminate the requirement for providing gating signals to each wire scanner. The long macropulse and the high repetition rate present conflicting requirements for the design of the integrator. The long macropulse requires a long integration time constant to assure minimum integrator droop for accurate charge integration, and the high repetition rate requires a short time constant to assure adequate integrator reset between macropulses. Also, grounding is a serious concern due to the small signal levels. This paper reviews the basic Wire Scanner AFE system design implemented in the cRIO-module form factor to capture the charge information from the wire sensors and the grounding topology to assure minimum noise contamination of the wire signals.

  19. Software in the DOE: The Hidden Overhead of''The Build''

    SciTech Connect

    Kumfert, G; Epperly, T

    2002-02-28

    ''The Build'' is the infrastructure needed to convert software from source code to usable form. It is intimately tied to the software it supports, knowing about every file and automating every transformation needed to produce a working program. Every developer knows that a project spends some labor overhead on ''the build.'' How big is this hidden overhead? According to 34 scientific software developers we surveyed at Lawrence Livermore National Labs, among colleagues at other DOE labs, and a handful of academics the ''perceived'' overhead averages around 12%. Individual cases of 20% to 30% were not uncommon. In one project claiming a 20% overhead, we found supporting evidence by combing through their CVS repository.

  20. Increased range of ultrasonic guided wave testing of overhead transmission line cables using dispersion compensation.

    PubMed

    Legg, Mathew; Yücel, Mehmet K; Kappatos, Vassilios; Selcuk, Cem; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2015-09-01

    Overhead Transmission Line (OVTL) cables can experience structural defects and are, therefore, inspected using Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques. Ultrasonic Guided Waves (UGW) is one NDT technique that has been investigated for inspection of these cables. For practical use, it is desirable to be able to inspect as long a section of cable as possible from a single location. This paper investigates increasing the UGW inspection range on Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cables by compensating for dispersion using dispersion curve data. For ACSR cables, it was considered to be difficult to obtain accurate dispersion curves using modelling due to the complex geometry and unknown coupling between wire strands. Group velocity dispersion curves were, therefore, measured experimentally on an untensioned, 26.5m long cable and a method of calculating theoretical dispersion curves was obtained. Attenuation and dispersion compensation were then performed for a broadband Maximum Length Sequence (MLS) excitation signal. An increase in the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of about 4-8dB compared to that of the dispersed signal was obtained. However, the main benefit was the increased ability to resolve the individual echoes from the end of the cable and an introduced defect in the form of a cut, which was 7 to at least 13dB greater than that of the dispersed signal. Five echoes were able to be clearly detected using MLS excitation signal, indicating the potential for an inspection range of up to 130m in each direction. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the longest inspection range for ACSR cables reported in the literature, where typically cables, which were only one or two meter long, have been investigated previously. Narrow band tone burst and Hann windowed tone burst excitation signal also showed increased SNR and ability to resolve closely spaced echoes. PMID:25991388

  1. 49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and... Inspections and Tests § 234.267 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation... thereafter. (b) Insulation resistance tests shall be made between all conductors and ground,...

  2. 49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and... Inspections and Tests § 234.267 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation... thereafter. (b) Insulation resistance tests shall be made between all conductors and ground,...

  3. 49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and... Inspections and Tests § 234.267 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation... thereafter. (b) Insulation resistance tests shall be made between all conductors and ground,...

  4. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W; Eppler, W G; Poland, D N

    2005-02-18

    A 3D solid model-aided object cueing method that matches phase angles of directional derivative vectors at image pixels to phase angles of vectors normal to projected model edges is described. It is intended for finding specific types of objects at arbitrary position and orientation in overhead images, independent of spatial resolution, obliqueness, acquisition conditions, and type of imaging sensor. It is shown that the phase similarity measure can be efficiently evaluated over all combinations of model position and orientation using the FFT. The highest degree of similarity over all model orientations is captured in a match surface of similarity values vs. model position. Unambiguous peaks in this surface are sorted in descending order of similarity value, and the small image thumbnails that contain them are presented to human analysts for inspection in sorted order.

  5. SHOULDER POSTERIOR INTERNAL IMPINGEMENT IN THE OVERHEAD ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Grant‐Nierman, Meggan; Lucas, Brennen

    2013-01-01

    Posterior internal impingement (PII) of the glenohumeral joint is a common cause of shoulder complex pain in the overhead athlete. This impingement is very different from standard outlet impingement seen in shoulder patients. Internal impingement is characterized by posterior shoulder pain when the athlete places the humerus in extreme external rotation and abduction as in the cocking phase of pitching or throwing. Impingement in this position occurs between the supraspinatus and or infraspinatus and the glenoid rim. Understanding regarding this pathology continues to evolve. Definitive understanding of precipitating factors, causes, presentation and methods of treatment have yet to be determined. A high index of suspicion should be used when attempting to make this diagnosis. This current concepts review presents the current thinking regarding pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of this condition. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23593557

  6. Performance degradation due to multiprogramming and system overheads in real workloads - Case study on a shared memory multiprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpsey, R. T.; Iyer, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The performance degradation due to the multiprogramming (MP) overhead in a parallel execution environment is quantified. In addition, total system overhead is also measured. A methodology, which estimates the MP overhead present in real workloads, is illustrated with real measurents. It is found that MP overhead usually consumes between 10 and 23 percent of the processing power available to parallel programs. The mean MP overhead is determined to be 16 percent which is well over half the total system overhead executed on the system (the mean system overhead is determined to be 24 percent of the processing power). It is found that MP overhead, total system overhead, and application completion time are all moderately correlated.

  7. Dental Arch Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  8. From wires to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Baumann, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  9. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  10. Superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  11. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  12. Magnetoconductance of quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Gerson J.; Sammarco, Filipe; Egues, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    At low temperatures the conductance of a quantum wires exhibit characteristic plate-aus due to the quantization of the transverse modes [1]. In the presence of high in-plane magnetic fields these spin-split transverse modes cross. Recently, these crossings were observed experimentally [2] via measurements of the differential conductance as a function of the gate voltage and the in-plane magnetic-field. These show structures described as either anti-crossings or magnetic phase transitions. Motivated by our previous works on magnetotransport in 2DEGs via the Spin Density Functional Theory (SDFT) [3], here we propose a similar model to investigate the magnetoconductance of quantum wires. We use (i) the SDFT via the Kohn-Sham self-consistent scheme within the local spin density approximation to obtain the electronic structure and (ii) the Landauer-Buettiker formalism to calculate the conductance of a quantum wire. Our results show qualitative agreement with the data of Ref. [2]. [1] B. J. van Wees et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 848 (1988). [2] A. C. Graham et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 226804 (2008). [3] H. J. P. Freire, and J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 026801 (2007); G. J. Ferreira, and J. Carlos Egues, J. Supercond. Nov. Mag., in press; G. J. Ferreira, H. J. P. Freire, J. Carlos Egues, submitted.

  13. Dual wire welding torch and method

    SciTech Connect

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  14. 75 FR 81661 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Overhead...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... information, see the related notice published in the Federal Register on July 28, 2010 (75 FR 44288...; Overhead and Gantry Cranes Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) hereby announces... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Overhead and Gantry Cranes Standard,'' to the Office of Management...

  15. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  16. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  17. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  18. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  19. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  20. How To Prepare Effective Overhead Projector Presentations: One Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audio-Visual Supply, East Rutherford, NJ.

    Designed to help create effective presentations, this guide describes the basic techniques and provides hints for producing professional, attention-getting overhead transparencies in a step-by-step procedure format. Eight topics are addressed in the guide: (1) eight steps to a successful meeting presentation; (2) advantages of overhead projection;…

  1. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  2. Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

  3. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  4. Excessive magnetic field flux density distribution from overhead isolated powerline conductors due to neutral line current.

    PubMed

    Netzer, Moshe

    2013-06-01

    Overhead isolated powerline conductors (hereinafter: "OIPLC") are the most compact form for distributing low voltage currents. From the known physics of magnetic field emission from 3-phase power lines, it is expected that excellent symmetry of the 120° shifted phase currents and where compact configuration of the 3-phase+neutral line exist, the phase current vectorial summation of the magnetic field flux density (MFFD) is expected to be extremely low. However, despite this estimation, an unexpectedly very high MFFD was found in at least three towns in Israel. This paper explains the reasons leading to high MFFD emissions from compact OIPLC and the proper technique to fix it. Analysis and measurement results had led to the failure hypothsis of neutral line poor connection design and poor grounding design of the HV-LV utility transformers. The paper elaborates on the low MFFD exposure level setup by the Israeli Environmental Protection Office which adopted a rather conservative precaution principal exposure level (2 mG averaged over 24 h).

  5. Review of wire chamber aging

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  7. Texture development in Galfenol wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

    2013-05-01

    Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong <110> (α) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

  8. 76 FR 44246 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... the Federal Register on May 10, 2011 (76 FR 26949). No comments were received and the special...; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... overhead flight attendant rest compartment. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not...

  9. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  10. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  11. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...

  12. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  13. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  14. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...

  15. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  16. Corrosion resistance of premodeled wires made of stainless steel used for heart electrotherapy leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; Młynarski, R.; Szatka, W.

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of X10CrNi18-8 stainless steel designed for use in cardiology treatment. The influence of strain formed in the premodeling process and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial plasma solution were analysed. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in the solution of artificial plasma. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of recorded curves of anodic polarization by means of potentiodynamic method. Potentiodynamic tests carried out enabled to determine how the resistance to pitting corrosion of wire changes, depending on strain formed in the premodeling process as well as on the method of wire surface preparation. For evaluation of phenomena occurring on the surface of tested steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied. Deterioration of corrosive properties of wire along with the increase in the formed strain hardening was observed.

  17. Reducing the overheads of hardware acceleration through datapath integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jääskeläinen, Pekka; Kultala, Heikki; Pitkänen, Teemu; Takala, Jarmo

    2008-02-01

    Hardware accelerators are used to speed up execution of specific tasks such as video coding. Often the purpose of hardware acceleration is to be able to use a cheaper or, for example, more energy economical processor for executing the majority of the application in software. However, when using hardware acceleration, new overheads are produced mainly due to the need to transfer data to and from the accelerator and signaling the readiness of the accelerator computation to the processor. We find the traditional mechanisms suboptimal for fine-grain hardware acceleration, especially when energy efficiency is important. This paper explores a technique unique to Transport Triggered Architectures to interface with hardware accelerators. The proposed technique places hardware accelerators to the processor data path, making them visible as regular function units to the programmer. This way communication costs are reduced as data can be transferred directly to the accelerator from other processor data path components and synchronization can be done by polling a simple ready flag in the accelerator function unit. Additionally, this setup enables the instruction scheduler of the compiler to schedule the hardware accelerator like any other operation, thus partially hide its latency with other program operations. The paper presents a case study with an audio decoder application in which fine-grain and coarse-grain hardware accelerators are integrated to the processor data path as function units. The case is used to study several different synchronization, communication, and latency-hiding techniques enabled by this kind of setup.

  18. Soft magnetic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the present state of the art on the preparation techniques, outstanding magnetic properties and applications of soft magnetic micro and nanowires is presented. Rapid solidification techniques (in-rotating-water quenching and drawing methods) to fabricate amorphous microwires with diameter in the range from 100 down to 1 μm are first described. Electrodeposition is also employed to prepare composite microtubes (magnetic coatings) and to fill porous membranes (diameter of the order of 0.1 μm). Magnetic behaviours of interest are related to the different hysteresis loops of samples: square-shaped loops typical of bistable behaviour, and nearly non-hysteretic loop with well-defined transverse anisotropy field. The role played by magnetic dipolar interactions in the magnetic behaviour of arrays of micro and nanowires is described. A particular analysis is done on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in the radio and microwave frequency ranges exhibited by ultrasoft microwires. Finally, a few examples of applications are introduced for magnetostrictive and non-magnetostrictive wires, they are: “magnetoelastic pens”, micromotors; DC current-sensors based on GMI, and sharpened amorphous wire tips in spin polarised scanning tunneling microscopy.

  19. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  20. Clinical concepts for treatment of the elbow in the adolescent overhead athlete.

    PubMed

    Ellenbecker, Todd S; Reinold, Michael; Nelson, Cory O

    2010-10-01

    Injuries to the adolescent elbow are common because of the repetitive overuse inherent in many overhead sport activities. The management of these patients is greatly facilitated through a greater understanding of the demands placed on the upper extremity kinetic chain during these overhead activities as well as a detailed examination and rehabilitation for the entire upper extremity kinetic chain. Particular emphasis on improving rotator cuff strength and muscular endurance, along with scapular stabilization, is a critical part of elbow rehabilitation in these patients. In addition, the use of a strategic and progressive interval sport return program is necessary to minimize reinjury and return the adolescent overhead athlete to full function.

  1. Current Concepts in the Evaluation and Treatment of the Shoulder in Overhead Throwing Athletes, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Reinold, Michael M.; Gill, Thomas J.; Wilk, Kevin E.; Andrews, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The overhead throwing athlete is an extremely challenging patient in sports medicine. The repetitive microtraumatic stresses imposed on the athlete’s shoulder joint complex during the throwing motion constantly place the athlete at risk for injury. Treatment of the overhead athlete requires the understanding of several principles based on the unique physical characteristics of the overhead athlete and the demands endured during the act of throwing. These principles are described and incorporated in a multiphase progressive rehabilitation program designed to prevent injuries and rehabilitate the injured athlete, both nonoperatively and postoperatively. PMID:23015928

  2. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  3. Most Wired 2006: measuring value.

    PubMed

    Solovy, Alden

    2006-07-01

    As the Most Wired hospitals incorporate information technology into their strategic plans, they combine a"balanced scorecard"approach with classic business analytics to measure how well IT delivers on their goals. To find out which organizations made this year's 100 Most Wired list, as well as those named in other survey categories, go to the foldout section.

  4. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  5. Most Wired 2006: measuring value.

    PubMed

    Solovy, Alden

    2006-07-01

    As the Most Wired hospitals incorporate information technology into their strategic plans, they combine a"balanced scorecard"approach with classic business analytics to measure how well IT delivers on their goals. To find out which organizations made this year's 100 Most Wired list, as well as those named in other survey categories, go to the foldout section. PMID:16915970

  6. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  7. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    PubMed

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances.

  8. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  9. Tungsten wire for incandescent lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, J.L.; Briant, C.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Tungsten wire for incandescent lamp filaments must operate at high temperatures and for long times. To meet these requirements, the grain morphology of the wire must be controlled to reduce the propensity for grain boundary sliding. The morphology is a function of the distribution of very small pockets of potassium in the wire and the mechanical processing from ingot to wire. The behavior of the filament is directly related to the grain morphology. This paper describes the mechanism by which the potassium is incorporated into and distributed in the ingot. The elongation and spheroidization of the bubbles during hot rolling and swaging is also examined and related to the grain morphology of wire. Some indications of the relationship between grain morphology and filament behavior are also given.

  10. Apollo experience report: Electrical wiring subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The general requirements of the electrical wiring subsystems and the problem areas and solutions that occurred during the major part of the Apollo Program are detailed in this report. The concepts and definitions of specific requirements for electrical wiring; wire-connecting devices; and wire-harness fabrication, checkout, and installation techniques are discussed. The design and development of electrical wiring and wire-connecting devices are described. Mission performance is discussed, and conclusions and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  11. Internal wire guide for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a filler metal wire guide positioned within the torch, and within the shielding gas nozzle. The wire guide is adjacent to the tungsten electrode and has a ceramic liner through which the wire is fed. This reduces the size of the torch and eliminates the outside clearance problems that exit with external wire guides. Additionally, since the wire is always within the shielding gas, oxidizing of the wire is eliminated.

  12. Electrode carrying wire for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a hollow tungsten electrode including a ceramic liner and forms the filler metal wire guide. The wire is fed through the tungsten electrode thereby reducing the size of the torch to eliminate clearance problems which exist with external wire guides. Since the wire is preheated from the tungsten more wire may be fed into the weld puddle, and the wire will not oxidize because it is always within the shielding gas.

  13. Predicting ice accretion and alleviating galloping on overhead power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mingliang

    2002-04-01

    Both the static and dynamic effects of an ice storm on an overhead power line are investigated fairly comprehensively in this thesis. To determine the static, extreme ice load as well as the combined ice and wind load, a systematic procedure is established based on extensive freezing rain experiments and a Monte Carlo simulation. On the other hand, a dynamic effect---galloping---is examined quite extensively with the objective of better understanding its behavior. A novel add-on device---the hybrid nutation damper (HND)---is proposed to control galloping. Its effectiveness is assessed numerically by using a modified, 3DOF based, galloping software. The present investigations lead to the following findings. (i) Goodwin's simple theoretical model surprisingly predicts, quite accurately, the temporally changing weight of not only a dry ice growth but also a wet ice growth for a fixed, unheated conductor sample. (ii) The maximum ice loading may vary significantly over a power line's planned lifetime because of the randomness of an ice storm and its characteristics as well as the uncertainty involved in identifying the extreme probability distribution of the ice loading. Consequently, backup protection is presently essential for a power line in an ice prone area. (iii) A conductor's torsional flexibility does not appear to affect the growth of the accreted ice weight but it modifies the ice shape significantly. (iv) Three representative ice shapes (a crescent, D-like and icicle pendant) can initiate galloping so that galloping may occur in any icing condition. (v) A noticeable swingback or twist appears to develop only when their respective natural frequencies coincide with the plunge's natural frequency. (vi) A hydraulic jump is the major source of energy dissipation in a nutation damper. A properly induced rotation can significantly enhance a nutation damper's performance. (vii) A hybrid nutation damper has been demonstrated to be a promising means of alleviating

  14. Nano-storage wires.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-08-27

    We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals.

  15. Sintered wire cathode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2009-06-09

    A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

  16. Steel tanks T5 and T4 with overhead pipeline between. Redwood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steel tanks T5 and T4 with overhead pipeline between. Redwood tanks seen in background - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  17. Research on the Size of Administrative Overhead and Productivity: Some Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogramaci, Ali

    1977-01-01

    The cause and effect relationship frequently assumed to exist between administrative overhead and industrial production levels is questioned, and deficiencies and contradictions in theories about that relationship are illustrated. (Author)

  18. Detail, cyclops 15ton overhead traveling crane and rails running the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, cyclops 15-ton overhead traveling crane and rails running the length of the building - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  19. 15. VIEW OF THE ORIGINAL 10TON OVERHEAD NILES TRAVELING CRANE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF THE ORIGINAL 10-TON OVERHEAD NILES TRAVELING CRANE. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  20. Wire Electrical Discharge Truing of Metal Bond Diamond Grinding Wheels

    SciTech Connect

    McSpadden, SB

    2002-01-24

    Cylindrical wire EDM profile truing of the metal bond diamond wheel for precision form grinding of ceramics is presented in this report. First a corrosion-resistant, precise spindle with the high-electrical current capability for wire EDM truing of grinding wheel was fabricated. An arc profile was adopted in order to determine form tolerances capabilities of this process. Results show the wire EDM process can generate {micro}m-scale precision form on the diamond wheel efficiently. The wheel, after truing, was used to grind silicon nitride. Grinding forces, surface finish of ground components, and wheel wear were measured. The EDM trued wheel showed a reduction in grinding force from that of the stick dressed wheel. Surface finishes between the two truing methods were similar. In the beginning of the grinding, significant wheel wear rate was identified. The subsequent wheel wear rate stabilized and became considerably lower.

  1. CCD Photometry of bright stars using objective wire mesh

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiński, Krzysztof; Zgórz, Marika; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, Aleksander

    2014-06-01

    Obtaining accurate photometry of bright stars from the ground remains problematic due to the danger of overexposing the target and/or the lack of suitable nearby comparison stars. The century-old method of using objective wire mesh to produce multiple stellar images seems promising for the precise CCD photometry of such stars. Furthermore, our tests on β Cep and its comparison star, differing by 5 mag, are very encouraging. Using a CCD camera and a 20 cm telescope with the objective covered by a plastic wire mesh, in poor weather conditions, we obtained differential photometry with a precision of 4.5 mmag per two minute exposure. Our technique is flexible and may be tuned to cover a range as big as 6-8 mag. We discuss the possibility of installing a wire mesh directly in the filter wheel.

  2. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  3. Adaptations of the Shoulder to Overhead Throwing in Youth Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Astolfi, Matthew Michael; Struminger, Aaron H.; Royer, Todd D.; Kaminski, Thomas W.; Swanik,, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    Context The high number of repetitions and high forces associated with overhead throwing lead to anatomical adaptations, such as humeral retrotorsion and posterior-capsule thickness, in elite and professional baseball athletes. However, little is known about the origin and progression of these changes that may account for the increasing trend of chronic shoulder injuries in youth baseball and precipitate subsequent pathologic conditions throughout a young athlete's lifetime. Objective To investigate the relationship of age and upper extremity dominance on humeral retrotorsion, posterior-capsule thickness, and glenohumeral range of motion. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Research laboratory, local baseball fields, and training facilities. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-six boys (mean age = 10.94 ± 1.34 years, height = 151.31 ± 12.17 cm, mass = 42.51 ± 10.32 kg) ranging in age from 8 to 12 years and involved in organized youth baseball. Main Outcome Measure(s) Diagnostic ultrasound was used to determine humeral retrotorsion and posterior-capsule thickness. Glenohumeral internal rotation and external rotation were measured using a handheld inclinometer. We used 2 × 2 mixed-model analyses of variance to compare the influence of limb dominance and age on the dependent variables of humeral retrotorsion, posterior-capsule thickness, internal rotation, and external rotation. Results The dominant shoulders of youth throwers exhibited less glenohumeral internal rotation but greater humeral retrotorsion, posterior-capsule thickness, and glenohumeral external rotation than the nondominant shoulders. Dominant internal rotation was greater in the 8- to 10-year-old group than in the 11- to 12-year-old group, and results trended toward a difference (F1,33 = 4.12, P = .05). Correlations existed between humeral retrotorsion and range of motion (P < .05). Conclusions The structural adaptations in the dominant shoulders of younger baseball players were similar to

  4. Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

  5. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  6. Spring control of wire harness loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curcio, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Negator spring control guides wire harness between movable and fixed structure. It prevents electrical wire harness loop from jamming or being severed as wire moves in response to changes in position of aircraft rudder. Spring-loaded coiled cable controls wire loop regardless of rudder movement.

  7. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    SciTech Connect

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  8. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2016-07-12

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  9. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  10. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  11. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  12. Transient current pulses in rocket-extended wires used to trigger lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, C. J.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Rakov, V. A.; Jordan, D. M.

    2012-04-01

    We analyze current, electric field, and optical signatures of the sudden electrical breakdown processes (precursors) that occur at the top of the upward extending, grounded, Kevlar-covered copper wires used to artificially trigger lightning. For one launch, before the sustained upward positive leader initiated, we estimate that up to 10,000 precursors occurred (one every few hundred microseconds) with peak currents from 1 to more than 100 A. Luminosity at the wire tip was observed for 339 of 410 precursors examined in detail and, in seven cases, discharge channels developed to lengths of 3 to 8 m over times of several hundred microseconds. The measured propagation speeds of current pulses on the triggering wires were less than the speed of light, and decreased from about 2.8 × 108 m s-1 to about 2.3 × 108 m s-1with increasing wire-top heights from about 80 m to about 340 m. The triggering wire and its grounding system are modeled as uniform transmission lines with model predictions that are consistent with the measured wire-base precursor current signatures. The modeling shows that (1) the characteristic impedance of the triggering wire, the ratio of the propagating precursor voltage pulse to its associated current pulse, is between 600 and 800 Ω; (2) the 25 m ground rod grounding impedance for the peak precursor current is about 100 Ω, while the DC grounding resistance is 20 Ω; and (3) the current reflection coefficient at ground for peak precursor current is ˜0.9.

  13. Experimental Results for Space-Wire-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; Gibson, David; Ferrer, Albert

    2015-09-01

    SpaceWire-D is a deterministic extension to SpaceWire that uses time-division multiplexing to schedule traffic within time-slots. It allows a single SpaceWire network to be used for both time-critical avionics control applications and asynchronous payload data-handling simultaneously using existing SpaceWire technology. In this paper we describe the services of SpaceWire-D and present experimental results for each service.

  14. Fabrication of Pd-Cr wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, Sidney; Leach, Dennen M.

    1989-01-01

    Fabrication of Pd-13 percent Cr alloy wires is described. Melting, casting, swaging and annealing processes are discussed. Drawing to reach two diameters (0.003 inch and 0.00176 inch) of wire is described. Representative micrographs of the Pd-Cr alloy at selected stages during wire fabrication are included. The resistance of the wire was somewhat lower, by about 15 to 20 percent, than comparable wire of other alloys used for strain gages.

  15. Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

  16. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  17. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  18. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  19. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  20. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  1. Improved Method of Locating Defects in Wiring Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greulich, Owen R.

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of locating small breaches in insulation on electrical wires combines aspects of the prior dielectric withstand voltage (DWV) and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) methods. The method was invented to satisfy a need for reliably and quickly locating insulation defects in spacecraft, aircraft, ships, and other complex systems that contain large amounts of wiring, much of it enclosed in structures that make it difficult to inspect. In the DWV method, one applies a predetermined potential (usually 1.5 kV DC) to the wiring and notes whether the voltage causes any arcing between the wiring and ground. The DWV method does not provide an indication of the location of the defect (unless, in an exceptional case, the arc happens to be visible). In addition, if there is no electrically conductive component at ground potential within about 0.010 in. (approximately equal to 0.254 mm) of the wire at the location of an insulation defect, then the DWV method does not provide an indication of the defect. Moreover, one does not have the option to raise the potential in an effort to increase the detectability of such a defect because doing so can harm previously undamaged insulation. In the TDR method as practiced heretofore, one applies a pulse of electricity having an amplitude of less than 25 V to a wire and measures the round-trip travel time for the reflection of the pulse from a defect. The distance along the wire from the point of application of the pulse to the defect is then calculated as the product of half the round-trip travel time and the characteristic speed of a propagation of an electromagnetic signal in the wire. While the TDR method as practiced heretofore can be used to locate a short or open circuit, it does not ordinarily enable one to locate a small breach in insulation because the pulse voltage is too low to cause arcing and thus too low to induce an impedance discontinuity large enough to generate a measurable reflection. The present improved

  2. Overhead drilling: Comparing three bases for aligning a drilling jig to vertical

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, David; Star, Demetra; Barr, Alan; Janowitz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Problem Drilling overhead into concrete or metal ceilings is a strenuous task done by construction workers to hang ductwork, piping, and electrical equipment. The task is associated with upper body pain and musculoskeletal disorders. Previously, we described a field usability evaluation of a foot lever and inverted drill press intervention devices that were compared to the usual method for overhead drilling. Both interventions were rated as inferior to the usual method based on poor setup time and mobility. Method Three new interventions, which differed on the design used for aligning the drilling column to vertical, were compared to the usual method for overhead drilling by commercial construction workers (n=16). Results The usual method was associated with the highest levels of regional body fatigue and the poorest usability ratings when compared to the three interventions. Conclusion Overall, the ‘Collar Base’ intervention design received the best usability ratings. Impact on Industry Intervention designs developed for overhead drilling may reduce shoulder fatigue and prevent subsequent musculoskeletal disorders. These designs may also be useful for other overhead work such as lifting and supporting materials (e.g., piping, ducts) that are installed near the ceiling. Workplace health and safety interventions may require multiple rounds of field-testing prior to achieving acceptable usability ratings by the end users. PMID:20630276

  3. Effects of overhead work configuration on muscle activity during a simulated drilling task.

    PubMed

    Maciukiewicz, Jacquelyn M; Cudlip, Alan C; Chopp-Hurley, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

    2016-03-01

    Overhead work is a known catalyst for occupational shoulder injury. Industrial workers must often adopt awkward overhead postures and loading profiles to complete required tasks, potentially elevating injury risk. This research examined the combined influence of multiple overhead working parameters on upper extremity muscular demands for an industrial drilling application. Twenty-two right-handed males completed 24 unilateral and bilateral overhead work exertions stratified by direction (upward, forward), point of force application (15, 30 and 45 cm in front of the body), and whole-body posture (seated, standing). The dependency of electromyographic (EMG) activity on several factors was established. Significant two-way interactions existed between point of force application and direction (p < 0.0001) and direction and whole body posture (p < 0.0001). An average increase in muscular activity of 6.5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) occurred for the contralateral limb when the bilateral task was completed, compared to unilateral tasks, with less than a 1% MVC increase for the active limb. These findings assist evidence-based approaches to overhead tasks, specifically in the construction industry. A bilateral task configuration is recommended to reduce glenohumeral stability demands. As well, particularly for tasks with a far reach distance, design tasks to promote a forward directed exertion. The considerable inter-subject variability suggests that fixed heights are not ideal, and should be avoided, and where this is not possible reaches should be reduced. PMID:26674399

  4. Terahertz radiation from a wire target irradiated by an ultra-intense laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhichao; Zheng Jian

    2007-05-15

    When an ultra-intense laser pulse impacts the tip of a wire whose other end is grounded, a strong return current can be driven along the wire because some energetic electrons generated in ultra-intense laser matter interaction can escape from the target and an electric field builds up. The wire then behaves like a current-carrying antenna that can emit electromagnetic radiations. If the duration of the driving pulse is several tens of femtoseconds, the radiation spectrum reaches a maximum at terahertz region, and the radiation power per solid angle could be as high as 10{sup 9} W/rad.

  5. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOEpatents

    Hooper, Frederick M

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  6. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Jon D.

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  7. Characteristics of Parallel Streamer Discharges between Wire and Plane Electrodes in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, Sunao; Abou-Ghazala, Amr; Schoenbach, Karl; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2001-10-01

    Streamer discharges in tap water and distilled water have been generated by applying a voltage pulse from 120 to 175 kV amplitude and 500 ns duration to a wire-plane electrode configuration immersed in water. A fast ICCD camera was employed to observe their temporal behavior in detail under several different conditions. With the wire serving as anode, multiple, parallel streamer discharges were generated. The number density of these streamers along the wire decreases with decreasing the electric field on the surface of the wire, which is determined by applied voltage and electrode geometry. The dependence of the streamer density on electric field indicates the role of field enhancement at inhomogeneous microstructure along the wire as streamer initiation mechanism. With the wire serving as cathode, only a weak light emission from the area close to the wire, and streamer did not appear under the same voltage amplitude as positive polarity. The appearance of the discharge was different for tap and distilled water. However, the average streamer propagation velocities from the wire anode to the grounded plane electrode, measured as 32 mm/µs, were independent of the conductivity of the water and the applied voltage. This suggests the existence of a self-sustained electric field at the streamer head. This work supported by a grant from AFOSR.

  8. Communication overhead on the Intel Paragon, IBM SP2 and Meiko CS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.

    1995-01-01

    Interprocessor communication overhead is a crucial measure of the power of parallel computing systems-its impact can severely limit the performance of parallel programs. This report presents measurements of communication overhead on three contemporary commercial multicomputer systems: the Intel Paragon, the IBM SP2 and the Meiko CS-2. In each case the time to communicate between processors is presented as a function of message length. The time for global synchronization and memory access is discussed. The performance of these machines in emulating hypercubes and executing random pairwise exchanges is also investigated. It is shown that the interprocessor communication time depends heavily on the specific communication pattern required. These observations contradict the commonly held belief that communication overhead on contemporary machines is independent of the placement of tasks on processors. The information presented in this report permits the evaluation of the efficiency of parallel algorithm implementations against standard baselines.

  9. Lazy Checkpointing : Exploiting Temporal Locality in Failures to Mitigate Checkpointing Overheads on Extreme-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Devesh; Gupta, Saurabh; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

    2014-01-01

    Continuing increase in the computational power of supercomputers has enabled large-scale scientific applications in the areas of astrophysics, fusion, climate and combustion to run larger and longer-running simulations, facilitating deeper scientific insights. However, these long-running simulations are often interrupted by multiple system failures. Therefore, these applications rely on ``checkpointing'' as a resilience mechanism to store application state to permanent storage and recover from failures. \\\\ \\indent Unfortunately, checkpointing incurs excessive I/O overhead on supercomputers due to large size of checkpoints, resulting in a sub-optimal performance and resource utilization. In this paper, we devise novel mechanisms to show how checkpointing overhead can be mitigated significantly by exploiting the temporal characteristics of system failures. We provide new insights and detailed quantitative understanding of the checkpointing overheads and trade-offs on large-scale machines. Our prototype implementation shows the viability of our approach on extreme-scale machines.

  10. A Testing Platform for Validation of Overhead Conductor Aging Models and Understanding Thermal Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Irminger, Philip; Starke, Michael R; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Young II, Marcus Aaron; Rizy, D Tom; Stovall, John P; Overholt, Philip N

    2014-01-01

    Power system equipment manufacturers and researchers continue to experiment with novel overhead electric conductor designs that support better conductor performance and address congestion issues. To address the technology gap in testing these novel designs, Oak Ridge National Laboratory constructed the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) facility to evaluate the performance of novel overhead conductors in an accelerated fashion in a field environment. Additionally, PCAT has the capability to test advanced sensors and measurement methods for accessing overhead conductor performance and condition. Equipped with extensive measurement and monitoring devices, PCAT provides a platform to improve/validate conductor computer models and assess the performance of novel conductors. The PCAT facility and its testing capabilities are described in this paper.

  11. Nitrate leaching beneath a containerized nursery crop receiving trickle or overhead irrigation.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, D J; Brand, M H

    2001-01-01

    Container production of nursery crops is intensive and a potential source of nitrogen release to the environment. This study was conducted to determine if trickle irrigation could be used by container nursery producers as an alternative to standard overhead irrigation to reduce nitrogen release into the environment. The effect of overhead irrigation and trickle irrigation on leachate nitrate N concentration, flow-weighted nitrate N concentration, leachate volume, and plant growth was investigated using containerized rhododendron (Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. 'Album') supplied with a controlled-release fertilizer and grown outdoors on top of soil-monolith lysimeters. Leachate was collected over two growing seasons and overwinter periods, and natural precipitation was allowed as a component of the system. Precipitation accounted for 69% of the water entering the overhead-irrigated system and 80% of the water entering the trickle-irrigated system. Leachate from fertilized plants exceeded the USEPA limit of 10 mg L(-1) at several times and reached a maximum of 26 mg L(-1) with trickle irrigation. Average annual loss of nitrate N in leachate for fertilized treatments was 51.8 and 60.5 kg ha(-1) for the overhead and trickle treatments, respectively. Average annual flow-weighted concentration of nitrate N in leachate of fertilized plants was 7.2 mg L(-1) for overhead irrigation and 12.7 mg L(-1) for trickle irrigation. Trickle irrigation did not reduce the amount of nitrate N leached from nursery containers when compared with overhead irrigation because precipitation nullified the potential benefits of reduced leaching fractions and irrigation inputs provided under trickle irrigation. PMID:11577861

  12. Nitrate leaching beneath a containerized nursery crop receiving trickle or overhead irrigation.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, D J; Brand, M H

    2001-01-01

    Container production of nursery crops is intensive and a potential source of nitrogen release to the environment. This study was conducted to determine if trickle irrigation could be used by container nursery producers as an alternative to standard overhead irrigation to reduce nitrogen release into the environment. The effect of overhead irrigation and trickle irrigation on leachate nitrate N concentration, flow-weighted nitrate N concentration, leachate volume, and plant growth was investigated using containerized rhododendron (Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. 'Album') supplied with a controlled-release fertilizer and grown outdoors on top of soil-monolith lysimeters. Leachate was collected over two growing seasons and overwinter periods, and natural precipitation was allowed as a component of the system. Precipitation accounted for 69% of the water entering the overhead-irrigated system and 80% of the water entering the trickle-irrigated system. Leachate from fertilized plants exceeded the USEPA limit of 10 mg L(-1) at several times and reached a maximum of 26 mg L(-1) with trickle irrigation. Average annual loss of nitrate N in leachate for fertilized treatments was 51.8 and 60.5 kg ha(-1) for the overhead and trickle treatments, respectively. Average annual flow-weighted concentration of nitrate N in leachate of fertilized plants was 7.2 mg L(-1) for overhead irrigation and 12.7 mg L(-1) for trickle irrigation. Trickle irrigation did not reduce the amount of nitrate N leached from nursery containers when compared with overhead irrigation because precipitation nullified the potential benefits of reduced leaching fractions and irrigation inputs provided under trickle irrigation.

  13. Vertical jumping height and horizontal overhead throwing velocity in young male athletes.

    PubMed

    Viitasalo, J T; Rahkila, P; Osterback, L; Alén, M

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of calendar and skeletal age, anthropometric dimensions, training history and their interactions on vertical jumping height and horizontal overhead throwing velocity in a cross-section of 318 young male athletes (age range 9-16 years) participating in cross-country skiing (n = 70), basketball (n = 40), apparatus gymnastics (n = 19), ice hockey (n = 50), track and field (n = 89) and wrestling (n = 50). Vertical jumping height was measured with four different loads held on the shoulders and then interpolated for loads representing 0 and 40% body mass. Horizontal overhead throwing velocity using both hands was determined for seven balls of different weights and then interpolated for weights representing 1 and 5% body mass. Both vertical jumping height and overhead throwing velocity were found to increase (P < 0.01) from the skeletally youngest to the oldest cohort when the effects of body height and mass were controlled. The inter-event comparisons did not reveal statistically significant differences in respect of vertical jumping height. Also in the overhead throwing tests, the inter-event differences were small, although the analysis of variance revealed statistically significant (P < 0.001) differences for the skeletal age cohorts of 13 and 14 years. While the quantity of training had no effect on vertical jumping height, it explained the results in the overhead throwing test. The effects of training on vertical jumping and horizontal overhead throwing among adolescent athletes were considered to be small, while maturational processes and anthropometric development followed by increase in calendar age were deemed to be of greater importance.

  14. Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia I.

    2002-01-01

    In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. Since they are very thin, their detection early enough so that the pilot has enough time to take evasive action is difficult, as their images can be less than one or two pixels wide. Two approaches were explored for this purpose. The first approach involved a technique for sub-pixel edge detection and subsequent post processing, in order to reduce the false alarms. After reviewing the line detection literature, an algorithm for sub-pixel edge detection proposed by Steger was identified as having good potential to solve the considered task. The algorithm was tested using a set of images synthetically generated by combining real outdoor images with computer generated wire images. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated both, at the pixel and the wire levels. It was observed that the algorithm performs well, provided that the wires are not too thin (or distant) and that some post processing is performed to remove false alarms due to clutter. The second approach involved the use of an example-based learning scheme namely, Support Vector Machines. The purpose of this approach was to explore the feasibility of an example-based learning based approach for the task of detecting wires from their images. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have emerged as a promising pattern classification tool and have been used in various applications. It was found that this approach is not suitable for very thin wires and of course, not suitable at all for sub-pixel thick wires. High dimensionality of the data as such does not present a major problem for SVMs. However it is desirable to have a large number of training examples especially for high dimensional data. The main difficulty in using SVMs (or any other example-based learning

  15. Designing potentials by sculpturing wires

    SciTech Connect

    Della Pietra, Leonardo; Aigner, Simon; Groth, Soenke; Hagen, Christoph von; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Bar-Joseph, Israel; Lezec, Henri J.

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic trapping potentials for atoms on atom chips are determined by the current flow in the chip wires. By modifying the shape of the conductor we can realize specialized current flow patterns and therefore microdesign the trapping potentials. We have demonstrated this by nano-machining an atom chip using the focused ion beam technique. We built a trap, a barrier, and using a Bose-Einstein Condensate as a probe we showed that by polishing the conductor edge the potential roughness on the selected wire can be reduced. Furthermore, we give different other designs and discuss the creation of a one-dimensional magnetic lattice on an atom chip.

  16. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the... “Safety Rules for the Installation and Maintenance of Electric Supply and Communication Lines”...

  17. Anode wire aging tests with selected gases

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyk, J.; Wise, J.; Hess, D.; Williams, M. )

    1990-04-01

    As a continuation of earlier wire aging investigations, additional candidates for wire chamber gas and wire have been tested. These include the gases: argon/ethane, HRS gas, dimethyl ether, carbon dioxide/ethane, and carbon tetrafluoride/isobutane. Wires used were: gold- plated tungsten, Stablohm, Nicotin, and Stainless Steel. Measurements were made of the effects upon wire aging of impurities from plumbing materials or contamination from various types of oil. Attempts were made to induce wire aging by adding measured amounts of oxygen and halogen (methyl chloride) with negative results. In this paper, the possible role of electronegativity in the wire aging process is discussed, and measurements of electronegativity are made with several single carbon Freons, using both an electron capture detector and a wire chamber operating with dimethyl ether.

  18. Wire Capture Programs for Macintosh and IBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Gale

    1989-01-01

    Discusses wire capture programs (computer programs which gather and process wire services such as the Associated Press or United Press) for computer labs in journalism departments. Describes details of such programs for Macintosh, IBM, and IBM clones. (SR)

  19. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor, Trailer, and Motor Coach Wiring, October 1981, except the jumper cable plug and receptacle need...

  20. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor, Trailer, and Motor Coach Wiring, October 1981, except the jumper cable plug and receptacle need...

  1. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor, Trailer, and Motor Coach Wiring, October 1981, except the jumper cable plug and receptacle need...

  2. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor, Trailer, and Motor Coach Wiring, October 1981, except the jumper cable plug and receptacle need...

  3. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  4. Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Bich, George J.; Gupta, Tapan K.

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

  5. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  6. Technique for stripping Teflon insulated wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, B. D.

    1967-01-01

    Cryogenic stripping of Teflon insulated wire leaves no residue and produces no physical damage. After the wire is immersed in liquid nitrogen, bent slightly, and returned to room temperature, the Teflon is removed by fingernails or flat-nosed pliers.

  7. Regeneration: New Neurons Wire Up.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Pamela A

    2016-09-12

    Functional repair of damage in the nervous system requires re-establishment of precise patterns of synaptic connectivity. A new study shows that after selective ablation, zebrafish retinal neurons regenerate and reconstruct some, although not all, of their stereotypic wiring. PMID:27623258

  8. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  9. Ultrasonic Calibration Wire Test Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Fisher, K A; Werve, M; Chambers, D H

    2004-09-24

    We designed and built a phantom consisting of vertical wires maintained under tension to be used as an ultrasonic test, calibration, and reconstruction object for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory annular array scanner. We provide a description of the phantom, present example data sets, preliminary reconstructions, example metadata, and MATLAB codes to read the data.

  10. Troubleshooting plated-wire memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. M.; Bright, T. M.; Constable, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Faults in plated wire memories are identified and located from outside of system by applying electrical impulses and analyzing their reflectance in technique of Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR). Intermittent faults are easier to find because memory system is not disturbed by probing or disassembly.

  11. Flexible substrate for printed wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

  12. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  13. NEMA wire and cable standards development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

  14. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  15. 49 CFR 214.515 - Overhead covers for existing on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maintenance machines. 214.515 Section 214.515 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.515 Overhead covers for existing on-track roadway maintenance machines. (a) For those existing on-track roadway maintenance machines either currently...

  16. 49 CFR 214.515 - Overhead covers for existing on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... maintenance machines. 214.515 Section 214.515 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.515 Overhead covers for existing on-track roadway maintenance machines. (a) For those existing on-track roadway maintenance machines either currently...

  17. 49 CFR 214.515 - Overhead covers for existing on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... maintenance machines. 214.515 Section 214.515 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.515 Overhead covers for existing on-track roadway maintenance machines. (a) For those existing on-track roadway maintenance machines either currently...

  18. 49 CFR 214.515 - Overhead covers for existing on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... maintenance machines. 214.515 Section 214.515 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.515 Overhead covers for existing on-track roadway maintenance machines. (a) For those existing on-track roadway maintenance machines either currently...

  19. 49 CFR 214.515 - Overhead covers for existing on-track roadway maintenance machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintenance machines. 214.515 Section 214.515 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.515 Overhead covers for existing on-track roadway maintenance machines. (a) For those existing on-track roadway maintenance machines either currently...

  20. Redesigning the rural health center: high tech, high touch, and low overhead.

    PubMed

    Crane, Steven

    2011-01-01

    To attract new physicians to rural primary care, new models of care are needed that are more effective, more sustainable, and replicable in smaller communities. This commentary provides a brief description of preliminary findings associated with a radically redesigned, low-overhead patient-centered medical-home practice model in North Carolina.

  1. 48 CFR 3452.216-71 - Negotiated overhead rates-fixed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiated overhead rates-fixed. 3452.216-71 Section 3452.216-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions...

  2. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN PROTECTING FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC...

  3. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN PROTECTING FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC...

  4. Demonstrating Heat Changes on the Overhead Projector with a Projecting Thermometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Chinhyu; Solomon, Sally; Wetzel, Christy

    1998-01-01

    Heat changes in a lecture setting can be safely shown on an overhead projector using a simple and inexpensive apparatus. Heat evolution can be observed on a projector with adapted digital thermometers or by illuminating the red fluid in nonmercury thermometers. Describes a setup for doing this as well as a collection of demonstrations involving…

  5. 75 FR 81 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Flightcrew Rest Compartment Occupiable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead... conditions for the Boeing Model 787-8 airplane. This airplane will have novel or unusual design features... for other novel or unusual design features of the Boeing Model 787-8 airplanes. DATES: We must...

  6. Using the Overhead Projector as a Light Source for Physics Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Se-Yuen

    2006-01-01

    This article illustrates how the overhead projector can be used as a light source in some peculiar ways for physics demonstrations. Five examples are included: (1) Study of chromatic aberration; (2) Making giant Newton's rings; (3) Comparison of the rate of heat absorption by different surfaces; (4) Demonstration of greenhouse effect; and (5)…

  7. Demonstrating Biological Principles Efficiently and Effectively: The Overhead Is More than Just a Lighted Chalkboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden-Gabbei, Laura M.

    2006-01-01

    The overhead projector is an excellent tool for teachers at both the high school and college level. Teachers often use it to display class notes as they monitor students' actions and reactions to the concepts being presented and discussed, to display diagrams and figures too complex to draw on the chalkboard, and more recently to display computer…

  8. Cost Analysis and Overhead Charges at a Major Research University. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael E.; Geason, Ronald W.

    The development of a cost allocation model at Ohio State University is discussed. The model was designed to measure the direct, indirect, and total operating costs of university operations and to recover general fund overhead costs associated with unrestricted general fund support of auxiliary enterprises and revenue-generating activities. The…

  9. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Volumes I-II and Overhead Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallek, Max

    This two-volume textbook and collection of overhead transparency masters is intended for use in a course in setting up a small business. The following topics are covered in the first volume: getting off to a good start, doing market research, forecasting sales, financing a small business, understanding the different legal needs of different types…

  10. DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN. CONVEYOR PLATFORM,TRAM TRESTLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN. CONVEYOR PLATFORM,TRAM TRESTLE, AND LOADING PLATFORM. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE HOLE IN THE ORE BIN FLOOR CAN BE SEEN, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATION AT LOWER LEFT CORNER. SEE CA-291-47(CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. 33 CFR 165.T09-0971 - Safety zone; overhead cable replacement, Maumee River, Toledo, OH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... replacement, Maumee River, Toledo, OH. 165.T09-0971 Section 165.T09-0971 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.T09-0971 Safety zone; overhead cable replacement, Maumee River, Toledo, OH. (a..., Toledo, OH, starting from the CSX Railroad Bridge at River Mile Marker 1.07 and ending 700 feet...

  12. 33 CFR 165.T09-0971 - Safety zone; overhead cable replacement, Maumee River, Toledo, OH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... replacement, Maumee River, Toledo, OH. 165.T09-0971 Section 165.T09-0971 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.T09-0971 Safety zone; overhead cable replacement, Maumee River, Toledo, OH. (a..., Toledo, OH, starting from the CSX Railroad Bridge at River Mile Marker 1.07 and ending 700 feet...

  13. 93. 22'X34' original blueprint, VariableAngle Launcher, 'OVERHEAD CAMERA SUSPENSION SYSTEM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. 22'X34' original blueprint, Variable-Angle Launcher, 'OVERHEAD CAMERA SUSPENSION SYSTEM, TOWER STAY CABLES' drawn at 3/4'=1'-0'. (BUORD Sketch # 208783). - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 45. DETAIL OF OVERHEAD SERVICE CRANE (5TON CRANE MANUFACTURED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. DETAIL OF OVERHEAD SERVICE CRANE (5-TON CRANE MANUFACTURED BY ARMINGTON CARRIAGE; 3-TON HOIST MANUFACTURED BY WRIGHT HOIST COMPANY) IN VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2. VIEW TO EAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  15. Marangoni Flowers and the Evil Eye: Overhead Presentations of Marangoni Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundell, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    Intermolecular forces and surface tension gradients in solutions lead to remarkable flows, known as Marangoni flows, where liquid flows from a region of low surface tension towards higher surface tension. Details of these flows, not visible to the naked eye, are made visible on an overhead projector owing to variation in the index of refraction.…

  16. 78 FR 68477 - Overhead and Gantry Cranes; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 1-2012 (77 FR 3912). Signed at... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Overhead and Gantry Cranes; Extension of the Office of Management...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Overhead and Gantry...

  17. 75 FR 44288 - Overhead and Gantry Cranes; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Secretary of Labor's Order No. 5-2007 (72 FR 31160). Signed at Washington, DC, on July 22, 2010. David... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Overhead and Gantry Cranes; Extension of the Office of Management...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Overhead and Gantry...

  18. The Use of Probability Theory as a Basis for Planning and Controlling Overhead Costs in Education and Industry. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinson, R. B.

    In this report, the author suggests changes in the treatment of overhead costs by hypothesizing that "the effectiveness of standard costing in planning and controlling overhead costs can be increased through the use of probability theory and associated statistical techniques." To test the hypothesis, the author (1) presents an overview of the…

  19. 76 FR 26949 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... installation of an overhead flight attendant rest compartment. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not... Electric GEnx-2B67 engines. The Model 747-8 will have two flight crew and the capacity to carry...

  20. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  1. 49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire, shunt. 236.838 Section 236.838 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt circuit....

  2. Return to Preinjury Levels of Participation After Superior Labral Repair in Overhead Athletes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sciascia, Aaron; Myers, Natalie; Kibler, W. Ben; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Context Athletes often preoperatively weigh the risks and benefits of electing to undergo an orthopaedic procedure to repair damaged tissue. A common concern for athletes is being able to return to their maximum levels of competition after shoulder surgery, whereas clinicians struggle with the ability to provide a consistent prognosis of successful return to participation after surgery. The variation in study details and rates of return in the existing literature have not supplied clinicians with enough evidence to give overhead athletes adequate information regarding successful return to participation when deciding to undergo shoulder surgery. Objective To investigate the odds of overhead athletes returning to preinjury levels of participation after arthroscopic superior labral repair. Data Sources The CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus databases from 1972 to 2013. Study Selection The criteria for article selection were (1) The study was written in English. (2) The study reported surgical repair of an isolated superior labral injury or a superior labral injury with soft tissue debridement. (3) The study involved overhead athletes equal to or less than 40 years of age. (4) The study assessed return to the preinjury level of participation. Data Extraction We critically reviewed articles for quality and bias and calculated and compared odds ratios for return to full participation for dichotomous populations or surgical procedures. Data Synthesis Of 215 identified articles, 11 were retained: 5 articles about isolated superior labral repair and 6 articles about labral repair with soft tissue debridement. The quality range was 11 to 17 (42% to 70%) of a possible 24 points. Odds ratios could be generated for 8 of 11 studies. Nonbaseball, nonoverhead, and nonthrowing athletes had a 2.3 to 5.8 times greater chance of full return to participation than overhead/throwing athletes after isolated superior labral repair. Similarly, nonoverhead athletes had 1.5 to 3.5 times greater

  3. Comparison of the thoracic flexion relaxation ratio and pressure pain threshold after overhead assembly work and below knee assembly work

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the thoracic flexion relaxation ratio following overhead work and below-knee work. [Subjects and Methods] Ten men (20–30 years) were recruited to this study. The thoracic flexion relaxation ratio and pressure pain threshold was measured after both overhead work and below-knee work. [Results] The pressure-pain thresholds of the thoracic erector spinae muscle decreased significantly from initial, to overhead, to below-knee work. Similarly, the thoracic flexion relaxation ratio decreased significantly from initial, to overhead, to below-knee work. [Conclusion] Below-knee work results in greater thoracic pain than overhead work. Future studies should investigate below-knee work in detail. This study confirmed the thoracic relaxation phenomenon in the mid-position of the thoracic erector spinae. PMID:26957744

  4. Lightning and surge protection of large ground facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringfellow, Michael F.

    1988-04-01

    The vulnerability of large ground facilities to direct lightning strikes and to lightning-induced overvoltages on the power distribution, telephone and data communication lines are discussed. Advanced electrogeometric modeling is used for the calculation of direct strikes to overhead power lines, buildings, vehicles and objects within the facility. Possible modes of damage, injury and loss are discussed. Some appropriate protection methods for overhead power lines, structures, vehicles and aircraft are suggested. Methods to mitigate the effects of transients on overhead and underground power systems as well as within buildings and other structures are recommended. The specification and location of low-voltage surge suppressors for the protection of vulnerable hardware such as computers, telecommunication equipment and radar installations are considered. The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used grounding techniques, such as single point, multiple and isolated grounds are compared. An example is given of the expected distribution of lightning flashes to a large airport, its buildings, structures and facilities, as well as to vehicles on the ground.

  5. Measurements and simulations of the ablation stage of wire arrays with different initial wire sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Sinars, D.B.; Cuneo, M.E.; Yu, E.P.; Jones, B.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Porter, J.L.; Wenger, D.F.; Lebedev, S.V.; Cochrane, K.R.; MacFarlane, J.J.

    2006-04-15

    Comparisons of 20 mm diameter, 300-wire tungsten arrays with different initial wire sizes were made on the 20 MA Sandia Z facility. Radiographic measurements of each wire array, taken at the same point in the current during the wire ablation stage, show systematic differences. A detailed comparison of the radiography and self-emission data with simulations and analytic models suggests that a variation in the mass ablation rate with wire size may be responsible.

  6. Ground effects on Loran-C signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, D. C.; Walker, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    In conjunction with the test and evaluation of the position fixing capabilities of the Army Manpack Loran Receiver AN/PSN-6, an extensive series of time difference and signal amplitude measurements were made within a 100 km map grid square encompassing Fort Monmouth, New Jersey. The test location is within the coverage area of the East Coast Loran-C Chain. The data were used to develop a simple smooth-earth model for the test area as well as to estimate the magnitude and distributions of deviations from this model. Local propagation processes associated with topographic features and the grid of overhead wires in the test area are shown to contribute to the deviations from the model.

  7. Dimensioning of nearby substations interconnected ground system

    SciTech Connect

    Sobral, S.T. ); Costa, V.S. ); Campos, M.S.; Goldman, B. ); Mukhedkar, D. )

    1988-10-01

    This paper deals with the ground mat dimensioning of two or more neighbor interconnected substations, a situation that is very common in the Electrical Industry. The paper recalls that the external ground circuits connected to the ground grid of each substation can drastically reduce the percentage of total ground current injected into the soil through the mat (from 40% up to 2% of the total fault current). The paper presents a set of specific calculation procedures to deal with nearby interconnected ground mats. These procedures correspond to a particular illustration of the general ''Decoupled Method'' (3,4,5), showing how to apply its 8 sequencial steps to solve this type of circuit. The paper shows that the electric neighborhood of nearby substations depends on the ''Space Constant'' (or ''Characteristic Length'') of the ground circuits interconnecting them such as transmission line ground-wires, power cable sheaths, etc. This paper complements also Ref. (3,4), introducing the complete derivation of useful expressions used to solve lumped parameter ladder circuits of any size (from one pi to an infinite number of pis). The derivation of these expressions also used in (3,4) were not included in these References due to lack of space. In the paper it is also shown a simple procedure to determine the suitable number of ACSR ground-wire spans near a substation necessary to allow a reduction of the ground grid conductor extension.

  8. New concepts on MV distribution from insulated shield wires of HV lines

    SciTech Connect

    Iliceto, F. ); Cinieri, E. . Ist. di Fisica); Casely-Hayford, L. )

    1989-10-01

    The paper deals with the problem of the most cost effective power supply to the villages and communities of developing countries, located along the route of HV lines, up to 100 km distant from the HV/MV transformer stations. In the first part of the paper a novel solution is presented. This consists of: (i) insulation of the shield wire(s) of an HV line, and wire(s) energization at MV (10 to 34.5 kV) from the closest transformer station; (ii) supply of villages along the line route by means of standard MV/LV distribution transformers connected between the shield wire(s) and ground. Four different schemes are presented, two of them suitable for single-phase distribution, the others for 3-phase supply. The behaviour in steady-state and in transient conditions is analyzed. The second part of the paper reports the positive results of 33 months of operation of an experimental scheme tested in Ghana for supply of single-phase and 3-phase loads from the two insulated shield wires of a 161 kV line. Finally the paper describes the distribution schemes along 407 km of new 161 kV lines in Northern Ghana, where the novel solution is applied to supply power to both domestic and industrial loads in 12 small towns with a design aggregate load of 5000 kW.

  9. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  10. Infrared spectral marker bands characterizing a transient water wire inside a hydrophobic membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Steffen; Gerwert, Klaus; Freier, Erik; Cui, Qiang

    2014-12-14

    Proton conduction along protein-bound “water wires” is an essential feature in membrane proteins. Here, we analyze in detail a transient water wire, which conducts protons via a hydrophobic barrier within a membrane protein to create a proton gradient. It is formed only for a millisecond out of three water molecules distributed at inactive positions in a polar environment in the ground state. The movement into a hydrophobic environment causes characteristic shifts of the water bands reflecting their different chemical properties. These band shifts are identified by time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared difference spectroscopy and analyzed by biomolecular Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical simulations. A non-hydrogen bonded (“dangling”) O–H stretching vibration band and a broad continuum absorbance caused by a combined vibration along the water wire are identified as characteristic marker bands of such water wires in a hydrophobic environment. The results provide a basic understanding of water wires in hydrophobic environments.

  11. Grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  12. SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S.; Parkes, S. M.; O'Gribin, N.

    2007-08-01

    The SpaceWire standard was published in 2003 with the aim of providing a standard for onboard communications, defining the physical and data link layers of an interconnection, in order to improve reusability, reliability and to reduce the cost of mission development. The many benefits which it provides mean that it has already been used in a number of missions, both in Europe and throughout the world. Recent work by the SpaceWire community has included the development of higher level protocols for SpaceWire, such as the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) which can be used for many purposes, including the configuration of SpaceWire devices. Although SpaceWire has become very popular, the various ways in which it can be used are still being discovered, as are the most efficient ways to use it. At the same time, some in the space industry are not even aware of SpaceWire's existence. This paper describes the SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System that has been developed by the University of Dundee. This system simulates an onboard data handling network based on SpaceWire. It uses RMAP for all communication, and so demonstrates how SpaceWire and standardised higher level protocols can be used onboard a spacecraft. The system is not only a good advert for those who are unfamiliar with the benefits of SpaceWire, it is also a useful tool for those using SpaceWire to test ideas.

  13. Simulation of corona at lightning-triggering wire: Current, charge transfer, and the field-reduction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2011-11-01

    We have examined, using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for solving discretized Maxwell's equations, the effect of upward extending wire, used for artificial lightning initiation from natural thunderclouds, and corona space charge emanated from this wire on the close ground-level electric field (prior to lightning initiation). The wire current and charge transfer are also estimated. The lightning-triggering wire is assumed to be perfectly conducting and extending vertically upward with a constant speed of v = 150 m/s. Owing to the limitations of the FDTD method, the wire radius is set to r = 0.27 m, larger than the actual radius (0.1 mm), but the results are not expected to be much influenced by this assumption. The corona space charge that emanated from the wire surface is represented by a conducting cylindrical sheath of outer radius r = 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, coaxial with the wire (the dynamics of corona discharge are not considered here). Other geometries of the corona space charge sheath are considered as well. It has been found that the results presented here are insensitive to the value of corona sheath conductivity ranging from 10-8 S/m to infinity. The corona space charge layer at the ground is simulated by perfectly conducting cylindrical tubes placed on the ground surface, coaxial with the upward extending conductor. The quasi-static electric field between the thundercloud charge source and the ground is simulated by creating a quasi-uniform, upward directed electric field of 43 kV/m between two parallel conducting plates limiting the FDTD computational domain. The simulated corona space charge at the ground reduced the electric field at the ground surface to 5.5 kV/m, a typical value at the time of rocket launch. The upward directed electric field Ez on the ground surface in the vicinity of triggering wire decreases with increasing the altitude of the wire top. When the wire-top altitude is 200 m, the reduction of Ez at horizontal distance d

  14. Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

  15. Composite wire plasma formation and evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The detailed understanding of the formation and evolution of plasma from rapidly heated metallic wires is a long-standing challenge in the field of plasma physics and in exploding wire engineering. This physical process is made even more complicated if the wire material is composed of a number of individual layers. The authors have successfully developed both optical and x-ray backlighting diagnostics. In particular, the x-ray backlighting technique has demonstrated the capability for quantitative determination of the plasma density over a wide range of densities. This diagnostic capability shows that the process of plasma formation is composed of two separate phases: first, current is passed through a cold wire and the wire is heated ohmically, and, second, the heated wire evolves gases that break down and forms a low-density plasma surrounding the wire.

  16. NASA wiring for space applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

  17. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutunian, S. G.; Dobrovolski, N. M.; Mailian, M. R.; Sinenko, I. G.; Vasiniuk, I. E.

    1999-12-01

    A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance) of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles) extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets) be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys). A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10-5 during several days at a relative resolution of 10-6. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  18. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  19. The transmaxillary K-wire.

    PubMed Central

    Silverton, J. S.; Bostwick, J.; Jurkiewicz, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The transmaxillary K-wire is a simple, fast, safe, and effective technique for the fixation of unstable tractured malar bones. Combined with other techniques such as interdental fixation it simplifies and provides the fixation of the Le Fort II fracture or osteotomy and certain osteotomies used for facial advancement. The technique of insertion is described and illustrated. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:666241

  20. Reduced-Wiring Tactile Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohm, Timothy R.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed tactile sensor on robot finger puts out multiplexed analog signals transmitted to control computer on fewer wires than needed to transmit equivalent digital signals. Analog output represents data on contact area of object being gripped, on position of object, and on direction and rate of slippage if any. Consists of chains of normally open switches and resistors on surface of finger. Each resistance double preceding resistance in each chain. Constant-current sources supply power to chains.

  1. Method and apparatus for laying wire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Horowitz, Seymour M.; Nesbitt, Dale D.

    1986-01-01

    Wire arrays (11) having a continuous wire (12) which is formed into a predetermined pattern and adhered to a backing material or substrate (13) are fabricated by applying adhesive material (16a, 16b) along opposite edge portions (17, 18) of the substrate, positioning a row of winding spools (21) along each of the edge portions and repeatedly extending the wire between and around successive spools at the opposite edge portions. The wound wire is then traveled along each spool toward the substrate and into contact with the adhesive. The spools are then removed and a coating of hardenable material (54) is applied to secure the wound wire to the substrate. Tension in the wire is relieved prior to contact of the wire with the adhesive and a small amount of slack is introduced into the wire before the final coating step. Mechanism (32) is provided for lifting the spools away from the substrate without disturbing the wound wire. The method and apparatus enable manufacture of precisely configured wire arrays without complex or costly equipment and do not require structural alterations in the substrate for the purpose of accommodating to fabrication equipment.

  2. Analysis of Conical Wire Array Z-Pinch Stability with a Center Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, D.; Presura, R.; Wright, S.; Plechaty, C.; Neff, S.; Wanex, L.; Ampleford, D. J.

    2009-01-21

    Adding a center wire on the axis of a conical wire array produces conditions suitable for studying shear flow stabilization of the Z-pinch. The conical wire array produces and axial plasma flow while the center wire introduces a radial variation of the axial velocity. Experiments of this array configuration were preformed on the 1 MA Zebra Z-pinch generator and showed stabilization of the kink instability when a center wire was present. Comparison with equivalent cylindrical wire arrays indicates that the shear flow stabilization plays a role in the stabilization of the kink instability.

  3. Evaluation of overhead guide sign sheeting materials to increase visibility and safety for drivers.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Mohammed Said; Rys, Malgorzata J; Rys, Andrew; Du, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Overhead guide sign visibility must increase to improve driver safety on roadways. Two methods increase overhead guide sign visibility: sign illumination and use of retroreflective sheeting materials. This paper compares three types of retroreflective sheeting: Engineering Grade (type I), Diamond Grade (type XI), and High Intensity (type IV). A field experiment was conducted at night using licensed drivers to determine the optimum retroreflective sheeting material that increases sign visibility and legibility. Results showed that, of the three types of retroreflective sheeting, Diamond Grade (type XI) sheeting requires minimum illuminance to be visible, followed by High Intensity (type IV) sheeting. Cost analysis, including labor, maintenance, and material cost components of the three retroreflective sheeting materials, showed that High Intensity (type IV) could increase sign visibility and legibility at night for Departments of Transportation with limited budgets, consequently increasing driver safety on roadways. PMID:27184321

  4. Comparison of Surgical Techniques for Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Overhead Athletes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward S; Dodson, Christopher C; Ciccotti, Michael G

    2016-03-01

    Several surgical techniques and modifications for ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction have been proposed since this procedure was first performed in 1974. The goal of these techniques has been restoration of stability to the medial elbow with minimal alteration to the surrounding anatomy. Outcome studies and systematic reviews on modified techniques for UCL reconstruction have shown a trend toward increased return to play in patients, particularly overhead athletes. Abandonment of flexor pronator mass detachment in favor of a muscle-splitting or muscle-elevating approach, minimal handling of the ulnar nerve, and the docking technique may result in improved outcomes and decreased complications without diminished performance. Several biomechanical studies have compared the structural properties of these techniques with those of the native UCL. However, a clear, concise surgical algorithm for UCL reconstruction is lacking. Additional studies that use sport-specific outcome measures and performance metrics may better demonstrate the true return to preinjury performance after UCL reconstruction in overhead athletes.

  5. Reducing latency overhead caused by using LDPC codes in NAND flash memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenzhe; Dong, Guiqiang; Sun, Hongbin; Zheng, Nanning; Zhang, Tong

    2012-12-01

    Semiconductor technology scaling makes NAND flash memory subject to continuous raw storage reliability degradation, leading to the demand for more and more powerful error correction codes. This inevitable trend makes conventional BCH code increasingly inadequate, and iterative coding solutions such as low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes become very natural alternative options. However, fine-grained soft-decision memory sensing must be used in order to fully leverage the strong error correction capability of LDPC codes, which results in significant data access latency overhead. This article presents a simple design technique that can reduce such latency overhead. The key is to cohesively exploit the NAND flash memory wear-out dynamics and impact of LDPC code structure on decoding performance. Based upon detailed memory device modeling and ASIC design, we carried out simulations to demonstrate the potential effectiveness of this design method and evaluate the involved trade-offs.

  6. REPORT ON THE ANALYSIS OF WAC SAMPLES FROM EVAPORATOR OVERHEADS FOR 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A.

    2012-03-29

    This report tabulates the chemical analysis of the 3H, 2H and 2F evaporator overhead samples including the inorganic, organic, and radionuclide species according the ETP WAC (rev.4). In addition, the physical properties including pH, total suspended solids, and average particle size are listed for each sample. The report identifies all sample receipt dates, preparation methods, and analyses completed to accumulate these values. All values were found to be within the ETP WAC specifications for WWCT except for the {sup 137}Cs concentration for the 2F sample which was slightly above the limit ({approx}5%). However, tank farm personnel sample each tank overhead for beta/gamma prior to transfer using a pulse height analyzer and these field readings were all well within limits. Additional actions will be taken to help understand the reason in the discrepancy of the field measurement versus laboratory analysis.

  7. A Hybrid Method for Evaluating of Lightning Performance of Overhead Lines based on Monte Carlo Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatinasab, Reza; Tadayon, Pooya; Ametani, Akihiro

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid method for calculating lightning performance of overhead lines caused by direct strokes by combining Lattice diagram together with the Monte Carlo method. In order to go through this, firstly, the proper analytical relations for overvoltages calculation are established based on Lattice diagram. Then, the Monte Carlo procedure is applied to the obtained analytical relations. The aim of the presented method that will be called `ML method' is simply estimation of the lightning performance of the overhead lines and performing the risk analysis of power apparatus with retaining the acceptable accuracy. To confirm the accuracy, the calculated results of the presented ML method are compared with those calculated by the EMTP/ATP simulation.

  8. Current concepts in the evaluation and treatment of the shoulder in overhead throwing athletes, part 2: injury prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Reinold, Michael M; Gill, Thomas J; Wilk, Kevin E; Andrews, James R

    2010-03-01

    The overhead throwing athlete is an extremely challenging patient in sports medicine. The repetitive microtraumatic stresses imposed on the athlete's shoulder joint complex during the throwing motion constantly place the athlete at risk for injury. Treatment of the overhead athlete requires the understanding of several principles based on the unique physical characteristics of the overhead athlete and the demands endured during the act of throwing. These principles are described and incorporated in a multiphase progressive rehabilitation program designed to prevent injuries and rehabilitate the injured athlete, both nonoperatively and postoperatively.

  9. Experimental Studies about Transient Characteristics of a Deeply Buried Grounding Electrode and a Grounding Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yanagawa, Shunichi; Sekioka, Shozo

    When lightning strikes the tower of a cellular phone base station or other such facilities, power and communication equipments in the vicinity of the tower may suffer extensive damages due to the lightning current flowing backward from the grounding system of the tower. The use of a deeply buried grounding electrode has been proposed recently to suppress such back flow current and a potential rise in the vicinity of the tower. The deeply buried grounding electrode is a bare conductor buried deep in the ground that is connected to a lightning rod on the ground by an insulated wire. When lightning strikes the lightning rod, the lightning current is directed to the electrode from which it diffuses to the ground. The deeply buried grounding electrodes have been installed in cellular phone base stations and other such facilities to solve such problems caused by the back flow current and the potential rise. A grounding mesh is usually laid around such base stations as a grounding system for the facilities on the ground. Therefore, it is important to understand the interactions between the deeply buried grounding electrode and the grounding mesh. In this study, experiments on the interactions between a grounding mesh and a deeply buried grounding electrode have been carried out. Additionally, the transient characteristics of the mesh grounding have researched.

  10. Grounded cognition.

    PubMed

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  11. Scapular Bracing and Alteration of Posture and Muscle Activity in Overhead Athletes With Poor Posture

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Ashley K; McGrath, Melanie L; Harrington, Shana E; Padua, Darin A; Rucinski, Terri J; Prentice, William E

    2013-01-01

    Context Overhead athletes commonly have poor posture. Commercial braces are used to improve posture and function, but few researchers have examined the effects of shoulder or scapular bracing on posture and scapular muscle activity. Objective To examine whether a scapular stabilization brace acutely alters posture and scapular muscle activity in healthy overhead athletes with forward-head, rounded-shoulder posture (FHRSP). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Applied biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-eight healthy overhead athletes with FHRSP. Intervention(s) Participants were assigned randomly to 2 groups: compression shirt with no strap tension (S) and compression shirt with the straps fully tensioned (S + T). Posture was measured using lateral-view photography with retroreflective markers. Electromyography (EMG) of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) in the dominant upper extremity was measured during 4 exercises (scapular punches, W's, Y's, T's) and 2 glenohumeral motions (forward flexion, shoulder extension). Posture and exercise EMG measurements were taken with and without the brace applied. Main Outcome Measure(s) Head and shoulder angles were measured from lateral-view digital photographs. Normalized surface EMG was used to assess mean muscle activation of the UT, MT, LT, and SA. Results Application of the brace decreased forward shoulder angle in the S + T condition. Brace application also caused a small increase in LT EMG during forward flexion and Y's and a small decrease in UT and MT EMG during shoulder extension. Brace application in the S + T group decreased UT EMG during W's, whereas UT EMG increased during W's in the S group. Conclusions Application of the scapular brace improved shoulder posture and scapular muscle activity, but EMG changes were highly variable. Use of a scapular brace might improve shoulder posture and muscle activity in

  12. Electric overhead traveling cranes: procedures for certification, inspection, and preventive maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this procedure is to describe the overhead crane maintenance, inspection, and certification procedures in sufficient detail so that an experienced craftsman can perform the required work efficiently and safely. It is expected that job procedures will be standardized, that criteria for satisfactory job performance will be provided, and that responsibilities will be established. Applicable sections of safety standards and codes are given to assist with their compliance and to make possible the use of safe work practices.

  13. STS-30 aft flight deck onboard view of overhead window, Earth limb, cow photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Since the beginning of manned space travel, astronauts have taken onboard with them items of person sentiment. During STS-30 onboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist Mark C. Lee brought along a photograph of a cow. The photo testifies to his background as one reared on a Wisconsin farm and is displayed on aft flight deck alongside an overhead window. Outside the window, some 160 nautical miles away, is the cloud-covered Earth surface.

  14. GAMMA FACILITY, TRA611, INTERIOR. WITH HELP OF OVERHEAD CHAIN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GAMMA FACILITY, TRA-611, INTERIOR. WITH HELP OF OVERHEAD CHAIN AND HOOK, SCIENTIST GUIDES METAL CONTAINER (HOLDING POTATOES, IN THIS CASE) INTO RECEIVING "COLUMN" IN THE GAMMA CANAL. NOTE OTHER COLUMNS AT RIGHT AND LEFT WALLS OF CANAL. NEAR BOTTOM OF CANAL, SPENT MTR FUEL WILL IRRADIATE POTATOES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-439. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 2/8/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Characterization Results For The 2013 HTF 3H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II

    2013-12-04

    This report tabulates the radiochemical analysis of the 3H evaporator overhead sample for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 129}I to meet the requirements in the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) (rev. 6). This report identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. All data was found to be within the ETP WAC (rev. 6) specification for the Waste Water Collection Tanks (WWCT).

  16. Allocating physicians' overhead costs to services: an econometric/accounting-activity based-approach.

    PubMed

    Peden, Al; Baker, Judith J

    2002-01-01

    Using the optimizing properties of econometric analysis, this study analyzes how physician overhead costs (OC) can be allocated to multiple activities to maximize precision in reimbursing the costs of services. Drawing on work by Leibenstein and Friedman, the analysis also shows that allocating OC to multiple activities unbiased by revenue requires controlling for revenue when making the estimates. Further econometric analysis shows that it is possible to save about 10 percent of OC by paying only for those that are necessary.

  17. The quantitative overhead analysis for effective task migration in biosensor networks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung-Min; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Eom, Jung-Ho; Chung, Tai-Myoung

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative overhead analysis for effective task migration in biosensor networks. A biosensor network is the key technology which can automatically provide accurate and specific parameters of a human in real time. Biosensor nodes are typically very small devices, so the use of computing resources is restricted. Due to the limitation of nodes, the biosensor network is vulnerable to an external attack against a system for exhausting system availability. Since biosensor nodes generally deal with sensitive and privacy data, their malfunction can bring unexpected damage to system. Therefore, we have to use a task migration process to avoid the malfunction of particular biosensor nodes. Also, it is essential to accurately analyze overhead to apply a proper migration process. In this paper, we calculated task processing time of nodes to analyze system overhead and compared the task processing time applied to a migration process and a general method. We focused on a cluster ratio and different processing time between biosensor nodes in our simulation environment. The results of performance evaluation show that task execution time is greatly influenced by a cluster ratio and different processing time of biosensor nodes. In the results, the proposed algorithm reduces total task execution time in a migration process.

  18. Fiber Bragg grating sensor for fault detection in high voltage overhead transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadas, Amin

    2011-12-01

    A fiber optic based sensor capable of fault detection in both radial and network overhead transmission power line systems is investigated. Bragg wavelength shift is used to measure the fault current and detect fault in power systems. Magnetic fields generated by currents in the overhead transmission lines cause a strain in magnetostrictive material which is then detected by fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The Fiber Bragg interrogator senses the reflected FBG signals, and the Bragg wavelength shift is calculated and the signals are processed. A broadband light source in the control room scans the shift in the reflected signals. Any surge in the magnetic field relates to an increased fault current at a certain location. Also, fault location can be precisely defined with an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. This algorithm can be easily coordinated with other protective devices. It is shown that the faults in the overhead transmission line cause a detectable wavelength shift on the reflected signal of FBG sensors and can be used to detect and classify different kind of faults. The proposed method has been extensively tested by simulation and results confirm that the proposed scheme is able to detect different kinds of fault in both radial and network system.

  19. Comparison of charged nanoparticle concentrations near busy roads and overhead high-voltage power lines.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; Ling, X; Morawska, L

    2015-09-01

    Overhead high-voltage power lines are known sources of corona ions. These ions rapidly attach to aerosols to form charged particles in the environment. Although the effect of ions and charged particles on human health is largely unknown, much attention has focused on the increasing exposure as a result of the expanding power network in urban residential areas. However, it is not widely known that a large number of charged particles in urban environments originate from motor vehicle emissions. In this study, for the first time, we compare the concentrations of charged nanoparticles near busy roads and overhead power lines. We show that large concentrations of both positive and negative charged nanoparticles are present near busy roadways and that these concentrations commonly exceed those under high-voltage power lines. We estimate that the concentration of charged nanoparticles found near two freeways carrying around 120 vehicles per minute exceeded the corresponding maximum concentrations under two corona-emitting overhead power lines by as much as a factor of 5. The difference was most pronounced when a significant fraction of traffic consisted of heavy-duty diesel vehicles which typically have high particle and charge emission rates.

  20. Comparison of charged nanoparticle concentrations near busy roads and overhead high-voltage power lines.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; Ling, X; Morawska, L

    2015-09-01

    Overhead high-voltage power lines are known sources of corona ions. These ions rapidly attach to aerosols to form charged particles in the environment. Although the effect of ions and charged particles on human health is largely unknown, much attention has focused on the increasing exposure as a result of the expanding power network in urban residential areas. However, it is not widely known that a large number of charged particles in urban environments originate from motor vehicle emissions. In this study, for the first time, we compare the concentrations of charged nanoparticles near busy roads and overhead power lines. We show that large concentrations of both positive and negative charged nanoparticles are present near busy roadways and that these concentrations commonly exceed those under high-voltage power lines. We estimate that the concentration of charged nanoparticles found near two freeways carrying around 120 vehicles per minute exceeded the corresponding maximum concentrations under two corona-emitting overhead power lines by as much as a factor of 5. The difference was most pronounced when a significant fraction of traffic consisted of heavy-duty diesel vehicles which typically have high particle and charge emission rates. PMID:25917858

  1. A Novel Transient Fault Current Sensor Based on the PCB Rogowski Coil for Overhead Transmission Lines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2016-01-01

    The accurate detection of high-frequency transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines is the basis of malfunction detection and diagnosis. This paper proposes a novel differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil for the detection of transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines. The interference mechanism of the sensor surrounding the overhead transmission line is analyzed and the guideline for the interference elimination is obtained, and then a differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil is proposed, where the branch and return line of the PCB coil were designed to be strictly symmetrical by using a joining structure of two semi-rings and collinear twisted pair differential windings in each semi-ring. A serial test is conducted, including the frequency response, linearity, and anti-interference performance as well as a comparison with commercial sensors. Results show that a PCB Rogowski coil has good linearity and resistance to various external magnetic field interferences, thus enabling it to be widely applied in fault-current-collecting devices. PMID:27213402

  2. Uptake and Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals in Lettuce Under Surface and Overhead Irrigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalsod, G.; Chuang, Y. H.; Jeon, S.; Gui, W.; Li, H.; Guber, A.; Zhang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being widely detected in wastewater and surface waters. As fresh water becomes scarcer, interests in using reclaimed water for crop irrigation is intensified. Since reclaimed waters often carry trace levels of pharmaceuticals, accumulation of pharmaceuticals in food crops could increase the risk of human exposure. This study aims to investigate uptake and accumulations of pharmaceuticals in greenhouse-grown lettuce under contrasting irrigation practices (i.e., overhead and surface irrigations). Lettuce was irrigated with water spiked with 11 commonly used pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, carbadox, trimethoprim, lincomycin hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, monensin sodium, and tylosin). Weekly sampling of lettuce roots, shoots, and soils were continued for 5 weeks, and the samples were freeze dried, extracted for pharmaceuticals and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Preliminary results indicate that higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals were found in overhead irrigated lettuce compared to surface irrigated lettuce. For carbamezapine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, and monensin sodium, their concentrations generally increased in lettuce shoots in the overhead treatment over time. However, acetaminophen was found at higher concentrations in both shoots and roots, indicating that acetaminophen can be easily transported in the plant system. This study provides insight on developing better strategies for using reclaimed water for crop irrigations, while minimizing the potential risks of pharmaceutical contamination of vegetables.

  3. Isokinetic performance at diagonal pattern and shoulder mobility in elite overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, Gul; Tunay, Volga Bayrakci

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure isokinetically glenohumeral joint movement peak torque and work in professional basketball, volleyball, handball and baseball players and determine whether significant differences exist between the dominant and non-dominant extremity in athletes and controls. Eighty healthy professional overhead athletes (basketball, volleyball, handball and baseball players) and 20 controls were tested bilaterally on a CYBEX 6000 isokinetic dynamometer at 60 degrees and 180 degrees s(-1) for diagonal pattern of the glenohumeral joint. A standardized protocol and testing guidelines were strictly followed. The range of motion of internal rotation (IR) on the dominant side of baseball players was significantly smaller than those on the dominant side of basketball, handball and volleyball players, and controls (P<0.01). Flexion/abduction/external rotation were consistently higher on the dominant arm (8.5%) for peak torque at 60 degrees s(-1) in baseball players, and bilateral ratios were lower on the dominant arm (14.8%) for peak torque at 180 degrees s(-1) in basketball players. The results of this study are important for the application and interpretation of isokinetic data and flexibility and mobility characteristics on unilaterally dominant overhead athletes. Functional weakness in external rotators, mobility impairments in IR and muscle imbalance have been shown in the dominant arm of these overhead athletes.

  4. A Novel Transient Fault Current Sensor Based on the PCB Rogowski Coil for Overhead Transmission Lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2016-05-21

    The accurate detection of high-frequency transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines is the basis of malfunction detection and diagnosis. This paper proposes a novel differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil for the detection of transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines. The interference mechanism of the sensor surrounding the overhead transmission line is analyzed and the guideline for the interference elimination is obtained, and then a differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil is proposed, where the branch and return line of the PCB coil were designed to be strictly symmetrical by using a joining structure of two semi-rings and collinear twisted pair differential windings in each semi-ring. A serial test is conducted, including the frequency response, linearity, and anti-interference performance as well as a comparison with commercial sensors. Results show that a PCB Rogowski coil has good linearity and resistance to various external magnetic field interferences, thus enabling it to be widely applied in fault-current-collecting devices.

  5. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  6. Tensile deformation of NiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Gall, Ken; Tyber, Jeff; Brice, Valerie; Frick, Carl P; Maier, Hans J; Morgan, Neil

    2005-12-15

    We examine the structure and properties of cold drawn Ti-50.1 at % Ni and Ti-50.9 at % Ni shape memory alloy wires. Wires with both compositions possess a strong <111> fiber texture in the wire drawing direction, a grain size on the order of micrometers, and a high dislocation density. The more Ni rich wires contain fine second phase precipitates, while the wires with lower Ni content are relatively free of precipitates. The wire stress-strain response depends strongly on composition through operant deformation mechanisms, and cannot be explained based solely on measured differences in the transformation temperatures. We provide fundamental connections between the material structure, deformation mechanisms, and resulting stress-strain responses. The results help clarify some inconsistencies and common misconceptions in the literature. Ramifications on materials selection and design for emerging biomedical applications of NiTi shape memory alloys are discussed.

  7. Wire codes, magnetic fields, and childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, L.I.; Kavet, R.; Sussman, S.S.

    1997-05-01

    Childhood cancer has been modestly associated with wire codes, an exposure surrogate for power frequency magnetic fields, but less consistently with measured fields. The authors analyzed data on the population distribution of wire codes and their relationship with several measured magnetic field metrics. In a given geographic area, there is a marked trend for decreased prevalence from low to high wire code categories, but there are differences between areas. For average measured fields, there is a positive relationship between the mean of the distributions and wire codes but a large overlap among the categories. Better discrimination is obtained for the extremes of the measurement values when comparing the highest and the lowest wire code categories. Instability of measurements, intermittent fields, or other exposure conditions do not appear to provide a viable explanation for the differences between wire codes and magnetic fields with respect to the strength and consistency of their respective association with childhood cancer.

  8. Wire frame to MOVIE. BYU transfer program

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D.; Byers, L.D.; Benner, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    At SNLA, the primary computer-aided drafting tool is the Applicon Graphics System (AGS). The data base for mechanical parts on the AGS is a wire frame model. This report summarizes a method of adding surface information to the wire frame and passing this information up stream to MOVIE.BYU which is on a VAX computer and is used to produce shaded graphics pictures of the AGS wire frame model on a RAMTEK 9400 display terminal.

  9. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  10. Space Shuttle Columbia Aging Wiring Failure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniels, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Columbia main engine controller 14 AWG wire short circuited during the launch of STS-93. Post-flight examination divulged that the wire had electrically arced against the head of a nearby bolt. More extensive inspection revealed additional damage to the subject wire, and to other wires as well from the mid-body of Columbia. The shorted wire was to have been constructed from nickel-plated copper conductors surrounded by the polyimide insulation Kapton, top-coated with an aromatic polyimide resin. The wires were analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the polyimide. Exemplar testing under laboratory conditions was performed to replicate the mechanical damage characteristics evident on the failed wires. The exemplar testing included a step test, where, as the name implies, a person stepped on a simulated wire bundle that rested upon a bolt head. Likewise, a shear test that forced a bolt head and a torque tip against a wire was performed to attempt to damage the insulation and conductor. Additionally, a vibration test was performed to determine if a wire bundle would abrade when vibrated against the head of a bolt. Also, an abrasion test was undertaken to determine if the polyimide of the wire could be damaged by rubbing against convolex helical tubing. Finally, an impact test was performed to ascertain if the use of the tubing would protect the wire from the strike of a foreign object.

  11. Thin-wire scatterers in chiral media.

    PubMed

    Jaggard, D L; Liu, J C; Grot, A; Pelet, P

    1991-06-01

    The effect of the handedness of chiral materials on the differential scattering cross section of embedded conducting wires is examined. The bow-tie-shaped induced current distributions and the resulting forbidden zone of radiation are explained through fundamental physical principles. We find that thin-wire scatterers can be divided into subchiral, chiral, and superchiral classes according to the degree of chirality of the host material and the electromagnetic length of the wire.

  12. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  13. Development of the Axial Instability in Low Wire Number Wire Array Z-Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, P. F.; Bell, K. S.; Blesener, I. C.; Chalenski, D. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Martin, M. R.; McBride, R. D.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Hall, G. N.

    2009-01-21

    We are investigating the development of the axial instability, a modulation of the size of the coronal plasma that develops around each wire in wire-array Z-pinches. The modulation is a result of nonuniform ablation of material from the relatively cold wire core. It has long been known that the wavelength of this modulation is constant late in time and, since it is unique to different materials, it has come to be known as the fundamental mode. In these experiments we imaged individual wires with laser shadowgraphy early in time primarily in low wire number, large wire diameter aluminum arrays for ease of viewing. We Observe the development of this modulation from the time of initiation of coronal plasma, obtaining its dominant wavelength and amplitude growth as a function of time. We also studied the instability on coiled wires, which modify the wire ablation mechanism and completely suppress the fundamental mode[Hall2008]. time is discussed.

  14. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  15. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  16. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  17. Acromiohumeral Distance and 3-Dimensional Scapular Position Change After Overhead Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Maenhout, Annelies; Dhooge, Famke; Van Herzeele, Maarten; Palmans, Tanneke; Cools, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Context: Muscle fatigue due to repetitive and prolonged overhead sports activity is considered an important factor contributing to impingement-related rotator cuff pathologic conditions in overhead athletes. The evidence on scapular and glenohumeral kinematic changes after fatigue is contradicting and prohibits conclusions about how shoulder muscle fatigue affects acromiohumeral distance. Objective: To investigate the effect of a fatigue protocol resembling overhead sports activity on acromiohumeral distance and 3-dimensional scapular position in overhead athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Institutional laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 29 healthy recreational overhead athletes (14 men, 15 women; age = 22.23 ± 2.82 years, height = 178.3 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 9.5 kg). Intervention(s) The athletes were tested before and after a shoulder muscle-fatiguing protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s) Acromiohumeral distance was measured using ultrasound, and scapular position was determined with an electromagnetic motion-tracking system. Both measurements were performed at 3 elevation positions (0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction). We used a 3-factor mixed model for data analysis. Results: After fatigue, the acromiohumeral distance increased when the upper extremity was actively positioned at 45° (Δ = 0.78 ± 0.24 mm, P = .002) or 60° (Δ = 0.58 ± 0.23 mm, P = .02) of abduction. Scapular position changed after fatigue to a more externally rotated position at 45° (Δ = 4.97° ± 1.13°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 4.61° ± 1.90°, P = .001) of abduction, a more upwardly rotated position at 45° (Δ = 6.10° ± 1.30°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 7.20° ± 1.65°, P < .001) of abduction, and a more posteriorly tilted position at 0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction (Δ = 1.98° ± 0.41°, P < .001). Conclusions: After a fatiguing protocol, we found changes in acromiohumeral distance and scapular position that corresponded with an impingement

  18. Wired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Aaron R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses technology's impact on scoreboard design: the development of the light-emitting diode (LED) display. How the LED system works is explained, as are the advantages and disadvantages of LED compared with incandescent lamp boards. Final comments address deciding on materials for scoreboard casings. (GR)

  19. Wired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Every American grade school and library ought to have free access to the Internet, and universities and institutions ought to have better access, according to the Clinton Administration.In an October 10 speech in Knoxville, Tennessee, President Clinton proposed that all of the nation's 100,000 public schools and 9,000 libraries receive a two-tiered E-rate (education rate) for access to Internet services. All schools and libraries should receive basic connections for free, as well as deep discounts on video conferencing and highspeed connections (with prices influenced by how much the school can afford to pay). The basic connections (and part of the cost of the more sophisticated connections) would be paid from a special federal fund that currently provides below-cost phone service to households in poor and rural areas. That fund is currently drawn from fees assessed on local and long-distance telephone providers; the Clinton Administration would have cable operators and cellular service providers contribute as well. Companies that provide Internet services would be paid at the best available commercial rate.

  20. A deployable .015 inch diameter wire antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibiasi, L.

    1979-01-01

    This mechanism was developed to dispense a small diameter wire which serves as a receiving antenna for electric field measurements on an Earth orbiting satellite. The antenna is deployed radially from a spinning satellite. A brushless dc motor drives a storage spool to dispense the wire at a controlled rate. Centrifugal force, acting on a mass attached to the end of the wire, keeps the wire in the radial position. The mechanism design, testing, and performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, operational data of the mechanism while in orbit are presented.