Science.gov

Sample records for overlapping chromosomal regions

  1. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it

  2. Der(22) syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome share a 1.5-Mb region of overlap on chromosome 22q11.

    PubMed

    Funke, B; Edelmann, L; McCain, N; Pandita, R K; Ferreira, J; Merscher, S; Zohouri, M; Cannizzaro, L; Shanske, A; Morrow, B E

    1999-03-01

    Derivative 22 (der[22]) syndrome is a rare disorder associated with multiple congenital anomalies, including profound mental retardation, preauricular skin tags or pits, and conotruncal heart defects. It can occur in offspring of carriers of the constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11) translocation, owing to a 3:1 meiotic malsegregation event resulting in partial trisomy of chromosomes 11 and 22. The trisomic region on chromosome 22 overlaps the region hemizygously deleted in another congenital anomaly disorder, velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS). Most patients with VCFS/DGS have a similar 3-Mb deletion, whereas some have a nested distal deletion endpoint resulting in a 1.5-Mb deletion, and a few rare patients have unique deletions. To define the interval on 22q11 containing the t(11;22) breakpoint, haplotype analysis and FISH mapping were performed for five patients with der(22) syndrome. Analysis of all the patients was consistent with 3:1 meiotic malsegregation in the t(11;22) carrier parent. FISH-mapping studies showed that the t(11;22) breakpoint occurred in the same interval as the 1.5-Mb distal deletion breakpoint for VCFS. The deletion breakpoint of one VCFS patient with an unbalanced t(18;22) translocation also occurred in the same region. Hamster-human somatic hybrid cell lines from a patient with der(22) syndrome and a patient with VCFS showed that the breakpoints occurred in an interval containing low-copy repeats, distal to RANBP1 and proximal to ZNF74. The presence of low-copy repetitive sequences may confer susceptibility to chromosome rearrangements. A 1.5-Mb region of overlap on 22q11 in both syndromes suggests the presence of dosage-dependent genes in this interval.

  3. A novel approach for efficient extrication of overlapping chromosomes in automated karyotyping.

    PubMed

    Munot, Mousami V; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Joshi, Madhuri

    2013-12-01

    Since the introduction of the automated karyotyping systems, segmentation and classification of touching and overlapping chromosomes in the metaphase images are major challenges. The earlier reported techniques for disentangling the chromosome overlaps have limited success and use only color information in case of multispectral imaging. Most of them are restricted to separation of single overlap of two chromosomes. This paper introduces a novel algorithm to extricate overlapping chromosomes in a metaphase image. The proposed technique uses Delaunay triangulation to automatically identify the number of overlaps in a cluster followed by the detection of the appropriate cut-points. The banding information on the overlapped region further resolves the set of overlapping chromosomes with the identified cut-points. The proposed algorithm has been tested with four data sets of 60 overlapping cases, obtained from publically available databases and private genetic labs. The experimental results provide an overall accuracy of 75–100 % for resolving the cluster of 1–6 overlaps.

  4. Detection Of Amplified Or Deleted Chromosomal Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Stokke, Trond , Pinkel, Daniel , Gray, Joe W.

    1997-05-27

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  5. Detection of amplified or deleted chromosomal regions

    SciTech Connect

    Stokke, Trond; Pinkel, Daniel; Gray, Joe W.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  6. Detection of amplified or deleted chromosomal regions

    DOEpatents

    Stokke, T.; Pinkel, D.; Gray, J.W.

    1995-12-05

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20. 3 figs.

  7. The Hypermethylated Regions in Avian Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomal locations and amounts of 5-methylcytosine-rich chromosome regions were detected in the karyotypes of 13 bird species by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal anti-5-methylcytosine antibody. These species belong to 7 orders and 10 families of modern (Neognathae) and primitive (Palaeognathae) birds and are characterized by macro- and microchromosomes as well as ZW sex chromosomes. In all 13 species, the hypermethylated chromosome segments are confined to constitutive heterochromatin. The chromosomal locations of hypermethylated DNA regions in the karyotypes are constant and species-specific. There is no general rule with regard to the distribution of these hypermethylated chromosome regions in the genomes of birds. In most instances, hypermethylated segments are located in the centromeric regions of chromosomes, but in the sex chromosomes, these can also be found in telomeric and interstitial postitions. In most of the species studied, the centromeric heterochromatin in many, if not all, of the microchromosomes is hypermethylated. However, in one species, the only detectable hypermethylated heterochromatic regions are located in one pair of macroautosomes and in the Z sex chromosome, but none of the microchromosomes contains visible quantities of 5-methylcytosine. The analysis of 5-methylcytosine-rich chromosome regions can be very helpful for the comparative cytogenetics of closely related species or subspecies. It also reflects the dynamic evolutionary process operating in the highly repetitive DNA of eukaryotic chromosomes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Physical Map of the Linear Chromosome of Streptomyces hygroscopicus 10-22 Deduced by Analysis of Overlapping Large Chromosomal Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiuhua; Zhou, Xiufen; Sun, Yuhui; Deng, Zixin

    2002-01-01

    The chromosomal DNA of Streptomyces hygroscopicus 10-22, a derivative of strain 5102-6, was digested with several restriction endonucleases and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Digestions with AseI gave 11 fragments with a total length of ca. 7.36 Mb. The AseI sites were mapped by analysis of overlapping chromosomal deletions in different mutants and confirmed by Southern hybridizations using partially digested genome fragments and linking cosmids as probes. PFGE analysis of DNA with and without proteinase K treatment, together with the hybridization results, suggested a linear organization with terminal proteins and large terminal inverted repeats. Some deletion mutants had circular chromosomes. PMID:11889104

  9. Novel Chromosome Organization Pattern in Actinomycetales—Overlapping Replication Cycles Combined with Diploidy

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Kati; Meyer, Fabian; Rhomberg, Agata; Kalinowski, Jörn; Donovan, Catriona

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria regulate chromosome replication and segregation tightly with cell division to ensure faithful segregation of DNA to daughter generations. The underlying mechanisms have been addressed in several model species. It became apparent that bacteria have evolved quite different strategies to regulate DNA segregation and chromosomal organization. We have investigated here how the actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum organizes chromosome segregation and DNA replication. Unexpectedly, we found that C. glutamicum cells are at least diploid under all of the conditions tested and that these organisms have overlapping C periods during replication, with both origins initiating replication simultaneously. On the basis of experimental data, we propose growth rate-dependent cell cycle models for C. glutamicum. PMID:28588128

  10. [Impact of the Overlap Region Between Acoustic and Electric Stimulation].

    PubMed

    Baumann, Uwe; Mocka, Moritz

    2017-02-08

    Patients with residual hearing in the low frequencies and ski-slope hearing loss with partial deafness at medium and high frequencies receive a cochlear implant treatment with electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS, "hybrid" stimulation). In the border region between electric and acoustic stimulation a superposition of the 2 types of stimulation is expected. The area of overlap is determined by the insertion depth of the stimulating electrode and the lower starting point of signal transmission provided by the CI speech processor. The study examined the influence of the variation of the electric-acoustic overlap area on speech perception in noise, whereby the width of the "transmission gap" between the 2 different stimulus modalities was varied by 2 different methods. The results derived from 9 experienced users of the MED-EL Duet 2 speech processor show that the electric-acoustic overlapping area and with it the crossover frequency between the acoustic part and the CI should be adjusted individually. Overall, speech reception thresholds (SRT) showed a wide variation of results in between subjects. Further studies shall investigate whether generalized procedures about the setting of the overlap between electric and acoustic stimulation are reasonable, whereby an increased number of subjects and a longer period of acclimatization prior to the conduction of hearing tests deemed necessary.

  11. Detecting overlapping instances in microscopy images using extremal region trees.

    PubMed

    Arteta, Carlos; Lempitsky, Victor; Noble, J Alison; Zisserman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In many microscopy applications the images may contain both regions of low and high cell densities corresponding to different tissues or colonies at different stages of growth. This poses a challenge to most previously developed automated cell detection and counting methods, which are designed to handle either the low-density scenario (through cell detection) or the high-density scenario (through density estimation or texture analysis). The objective of this work is to detect all the instances of an object of interest in microscopy images. The instances may be partially overlapping and clustered. To this end we introduce a tree-structured discrete graphical model that is used to select and label a set of non-overlapping regions in the image by a global optimization of a classification score. Each region is labeled with the number of instances it contains - for example regions can be selected that contain two or three object instances, by defining separate classes for tuples of objects in the detection process. We show that this formulation can be learned within the structured output SVM framework and that the inference in such a model can be accomplished using dynamic programming on a tree structured region graph. Furthermore, the learning only requires weak annotations - a dot on each instance. The candidate regions for the selection are obtained as extremal region of a surface computed from the microscopy image, and we show that the performance of the model can be improved by considering a proxy problem for learning the surface that allows better selection of the extremal regions. Furthermore, we consider a number of variations for the loss function used in the structured output learning. The model is applied and evaluated over six quite disparate data sets of images covering: fluorescence microscopy, weak-fluorescence molecular images, phase contrast microscopy and histopathology images, and is shown to exceed the state of the art in performance.

  12. Detection of homologous recombination between yeast artificial chromosomes with overlapping inserts.

    PubMed Central

    Cellini, A; Lacatena, R M; Tocchini-Valentini, G P

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a system which facilitates the detection of recombination between Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YAC's) carrying homologous inserts. The system consists of a classical YAC vector, a new YAC vector and two appropriately labelled yeast strains of opposite mating type. The new YAC vector differs in markers from the canonical YAC vector. To test whether homologous recombination takes place, phage lambda DNA was cloned in the two vectors to provide a region of homology. The two constructs were then introduced into yeast strains of opposite mating type in which the endogenous genes for the selective markers present in the vectors are not expressed. Artificial chromosomes obtained by meiotic recombination are detected in the spores resulting from the mating. PMID:1826951

  13. CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

  14. Development and Evaluation of Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines Carrying Overlapping Chromosome Segments of the Whole Wild Rice Genome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dewei; Ye, Xinfu; Zheng, Xianghua; Cheng, Chaoping; Ye, Ning; Huang, Fenghuang

    2016-01-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) represents an important resource for rice improvement. Genetic populations provide the basis for a wide range of genetic and genomic studies. In particular, chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are most powerful tools for the detection and precise mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In this study, 146 CSSLs were produced; they were derived from the crossing and back-crossing of two rice cultivars: Dongnanihui 810 (Oryza sativa L.), an indica rice cultivar as the recipient, and ZhangPu wild rice, a wild rice cultivar as the donor. First, a physical map of the 146 CSSLs was constructed using 149 molecular markers. Based on this map, the total size of the 147 substituted segments in the population was 1145.65 Mb, or 3.04 times that of the rice genome. To further facilitate gene mapping, heterozygous chromosome segment substitution lines (HCSSLs) were also produced, which were heterozygous in the target regions. Second, a physical map of the 244 HCSSLs was produced using 149 molecular markers. Based on this map, the total length of substituted segments in the HCSSLs was 1683.75 Mb, or 4.47 times the total length of the rice genome. Third, using the 146 CSSLs, two QTLs for plant height, and one major QTL for apiculus coloration were identified. Using the two populations of HCSSLs, the qPa-6-2 gene was precisely mapped to an 88 kb region. These CSSLs and HCSSLs may, therefore, provide powerful tools for future whole genome large-scale gene discovery in wild rice, providing a foundation enabling the development of new rice varieties. This research will also facilitate fine mapping and cloning of quantitative trait genes, providing for the development of superior rice varieties. PMID:27933072

  15. Overlapping and non-overlapping brain regions for theory of mind and self reflection in individual subjects.

    PubMed

    Saxe, Rebecca; Moran, Joseph M; Scholz, Jonathan; Gabrieli, John

    2006-12-01

    When subjects are required to reason about someone's false belief, a consistent pattern of brain regions are recruited including the medial prefrontal cortex, medial precuneus and bilateral temporo-parietal junction. Previous group analyses suggest that the two medial regions, but not the lateral regions, are also recruited when subjects engage in self-reflection. The current study directly compared the results of the 'false belief' and 'self' tasks in individual subjects. Consistent with previous reports, the medial prefrontal and medial precuneus regions recruited by the two tasks significantly overlap in individual subjects, although there was also evidence for non-overlapping voxels in medial regions. The temporo-parietal regions are only recruited for the 'theory of mind' task. Six possible models of the relationship between theory of mind, self-reflection and autobiographical memory, all consistent with both neurobiological and developmental evidence to date, are discussed.

  16. Alu-primed polymerase chain reaction for regional assignment of 110 yeast artificial chromosome clones from the human X chromosome: Identification of clones associated with a disease locus

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.L.; Ballabio, A.; Victoria, M.F.; Pieretti, M.; Bies, R.D.; Gibbs, R.A.; Maley, J.A.; Chinault, A.C.; Webster, T.D.; Caskey, C.T. )

    1991-07-15

    Over 400 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones were isolated from the human X chromosome, and 110 of these were assigned to regions defined by chromosome translocation and deletion breakpoints. Polymerase chain reaction using Alu primers was applied to YAC clones in order to generate probes, to identify overlapping clones, and to derive fingerprints and sequence data directly from total yeast DNA. Several clones were identified in regions of medical interest. One set of three overlapping clones was found to cross a chromsomal translocation implicated in Lowe syndrome. The regional assignment of groups of YAC clones provides initiation points for further attempts to develop large cloned contiguous sequences, as well as material for investigation of regions involved in genetic diseases.

  17. Detection of multiple velocity components in partially overlapping emitting regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, F.; Lobanov, A. P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Velocity measurements made from multiple-epoch astronomical images of evolving objects with optically thin continuum emission (e.g. as relativistic jets or expanding supernova shells) may be confused as a result of the overlap of semi-transparent features moving at different speeds. Aims: Multi-scale wavelet decomposition can be effectively applied to identify and track such overlapping features, provided that their respective structural responses can be separated over the spatial scales used for the decomposition. Methods: We developed a new method that combines the stacked cross-correlation with the wavelet-based image segmentation and evaluation (WISE) technique of decomposition of two-dimensional structures, to separate and track dominant spatial responses of overlapping evolving features. Results: The method is tested on a set of simulated images of a stratified relativistic jet, demonstrating the robust detection of both the faster spine and the slower sheath speeds. The method is applied to mutliple-epoch images from the MOJAVE survey, revealing two different superluminal streams inside the jet in 3C 273 and the acceleration of the flow in 3C 120. Conclusions: The method can be applied to densely monitored objects with composite structural evolution such as the parsec-scale jet in M 87 or heavily resolved expanding supernova shells.

  18. "Replicated" genome wide association for dependence on illegal substances: genomic regions identified by overlapping clusters of nominally positive SNPs.

    PubMed

    Drgon, Tomas; Johnson, Catherine A; Nino, Michelle; Drgonova, Jana; Walther, Donna M; Uhl, George R

    2011-03-01

    Declaring "replication" from results of genome wide association (GWA) studies is straightforward when major gene effects provide genome-wide significance for association of the same allele of the same SNP in each of multiple independent samples. However, such unambiguous replication may be unlikely when phenotypes display polygenic genetic architecture, allelic heterogeneity, locus heterogeneity, and when different samples display linkage disequilibria with different fine structures. We seek chromosomal regions that are tagged by clustered SNPs that display nominally significant association in each of several independent samples. This approach provides one "nontemplate" approach to identifying overall replication of groups of GWA results in the face of difficult genetic architectures. We apply this strategy to 1 million (1M) SNP Affymetrix and Illumina GWA results for dependence on illegal substances. This approach provides high confidence in rejecting the null hypothesis that chance alone accounts for the extent to which clustered, nominally significant SNPs from samples of the same racial/ethnic background identify the same chromosomal regions. There is more modest confidence in: (a) identification of individual chromosomal regions and genes and (b) overlap between results from samples of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. The strong overlap identified among the samples with similar racial/ethnic backgrounds, together with prior work that identified overlapping results in samples of different racial/ethnic backgrounds, support contributions to individual differences in vulnerability to addictions that come from both relatively older allelic variants that are common in many current human populations and newer allelic variants that are common in fewer current human populations.

  19. Enhancement of multichannel chromosome classification using a region-based classifier and vector median filtering.

    PubMed

    Karvelis, Petros S; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Tsalikakis, Dimitrios G; Georgiou, Ioannis A

    2009-07-01

    Multichannel chromosome image acquisition is used for cancer diagnosis and research on genetic disorders. This type of imaging, apart from aiding the cytogeneticist in several ways, facilitates the visual detection of chromosome abnormalities. However, chromosome misclassification errors result from different factors, such as uneven hybridization, spectral overlap among fluors, and biochemical noise. In this paper, we enhance the chromosome classification accuracy by making use of a region Bayes classifier that increases the classification accuracy when compared to the already developed pixel-by-pixel classifier and by incorporating the vector median filtering approach for filtering of the image. The method is evaluated using a publicly available database that contains 183 six-channel chromosome sets of images. The overall improvement on the chromosome classification accuracy is 9.99%, compared to the pixel-by-pixel classifier without filtering. This improvement in the chromosome classification accuracy would allow subtle deoxyribonucleic acid abnormalities to be identified easily. The efficiency of the method might further improve by using features extracted from each region and a more sophisticated classifier.

  20. Regional mapping of loci from human chromosome 2q to sheep chromosome 2q

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, H.A.; Pearce, P.D.; Maher, D.W.; Malcolm, A.A.; Wood, N.J.; Phua, S.H.; Broad, T.E. )

    1994-03-01

    The human chromosome 2q loci, fibronectin 1 (FN1), the [alpha]1 chain of type III collagen (COL3A1), and the [delta] subunit of the muscle acetylcholine receptor (CHRND) have been regionally assigned to sheep chromosome 2q by in situ hybridization. COL3A1 is pericentromeric (2q12-q21), while FN1 and CHRND are in the subterminal region at 2q41-q44 and 2q42-qter, respectively. The mapping of FN1 assigns the sheep synthenic group U11, which contains FN1, villin 1 (VIL1), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), and [gamma] subunit of the muscle acetylcholine receptor (CHRNG), to sheep chromosome 2q. Inhibin-[alpha] (INHA) is also assigned to sheep chromosome 2q as FN1 and INHA compose sheep linkage group 3. These seven loci are members of a conserved chromosomal segment in human, mouse, and sheep. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Hypermethylated Chromosome Regions in Nine Fish Species with Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus; Yano, Cassia F; Cioffi, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    Sites and amounts of 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC)-rich chromosome regions were detected in the karyotypes of 9 Brazilian species of Characiformes fishes by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal anti-5-MeC antibody. These species, belonging to the genera Leporinus, Triportheus and Hoplias, are characterized by highly differentiated and heteromorphic ZW and XY sex chromosomes. In all species, the hypermethylated regions are confined to constitutive heterochromatin. The number and chromosome locations of hypermethylated heterochromatic regions in the karyotypes are constant and species-specific. Generally, heterochromatic regions that are darkly stained by the C-banding technique are distinctly hypermethylated, but several of the brightly fluorescing hypermethylated regions merely exhibit moderate or faint C-banding. The ZW and XY sex chromosomes of all 9 analyzed species also show species-specific heterochromatin hypermethylation patterns. The analysis of 5-MeC-rich chromosome regions contributes valuable data for comparative cytogenetics of closely related species and highlights the dynamic process of differentiation operating in the repetitive DNA fraction of sex chromosomes. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Gonadoblastoma: Molecular definition of the susceptibility region on the Y chromosome and role of TSPY

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, K.; Sultana, R.; Donlan, M.

    1994-09-01

    Gonadoblastomas are gonadal neoplasms that arise almost exclusively in the dysgenetic gonads of 46,XY sex-reversed females. The frequency of gonadoblastoma in patients who have dysgenetic gonads and a Y chromosome is at least 30%. In contrast 45,X Turner females who also have dysgenetic gonads do not develop this tumor. The high frequency of gonadoblastoma in sex-reversed females compared to Turner females has led to the hypothesis that there is a gene on the Y chromosome that is involved in the development of the tumor. This gene has been called the gonadoblastoma locus on the Y chromosome, or GBY. Deletion mapping of sex-reversed females with gonadoblastoma and partial Y chromosomes has previously localized the GBY gene to a region near the centromere. Using sequence-tagged sites, we have further sublocalized GBY in a patient with gonadoblastoma and a minute Y-derived marker chromosome. This region includes parts of intervals 3 and 4 of the Y chromosome. Based on the overlapping YAC contig map of the Y chromosome, this critical region is approximately 3 Mb. Using sex-reversed females with different deletions of Yp we have also localized the testis-specific protein, Y-encoded (TSPY) gene to interval 3D, which is within the gonadoblastoma critical region. TSPY consists of a repetitive gene family that is part of the DYZ5 locus. Expression of this gene has previously been shown to be limited to the testis. We have found expression of TSPY by RT-PCR in gonadoblastomas from two different individuals. In one of these patients, expression was observed in a unilateral gonadoblastoma, but not in the contralateral streak gonad. These findings suggest that TSPY may play a role in the development of gonadoblastomas.

  3. The X chromosome of monotremes shares a highly conserved region with the eutherian and marsupial X chromosomes despite the absence of X chromosome inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.M.; Spencer, J.A.; Graves, J.A.M. ); Riggs, A.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Eight genes, located on the long arm of the human X chromosome and present on the marsupial X chromosome, were mapped by in situ hybridization to the chromosomes of the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus, one of the three species of monotreme mammals. All were located on the X chromosome. The authors conclude that the long arm of the human X chromosome represents a highly conserved region that formed part of the X chromosome in a mammalian ancestor at least 150 million years ago. Since three of these genes are located on the long arm of the platypus X chromosome, which is G-band homologous to the Y chromosome and apparently exempt from X chromosome inactivation, the conservation of this region has evidently not depended on isolation by X-Y chromosome differentiation and X chromosome inactivation.

  4. Isolation and characterization of two overlapping cosmid clones from the 4q35 region, near the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy locus

    SciTech Connect

    Deidda, G.; Grisanti, P.; Vigneti, E.

    1994-09-01

    The gene for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) has been localized by linkage analysis to the 4q35 region. The most telomeric p13E-11 prove has been shown to detect 4q35 DNA rearrangements in both sporadic and familial cases of the disease. With the aim of constructing a detailed physical map of the 4q35 region and searching for the mutant gene, we used p13E-11 probe to isolate cosmid clones from a human genomic library in a pCos-EMBL 2 vector. Two positive clones were isolated, clones 3 and 5, which partially overlap and carry human genomic inserts of 42 and 45 kb, respectively. The cosmids share a common region containing the p13E-11 region and a stretch of KpnI units consisting of 3.2 kb tandemly repeated sequences (about 10). The restriction maps were constructed using the following enzymes: Bam HI, BgIII, Eco RI, EcoRV, KpnI and Sfi I. Clone 3 extends 4 kb upstream of C5 and stops within the Kpn repeats. Clone 5 extends 4 kb downstream from the Kpn repeats and it presents an additional EcoRI site. Clone 5 contains a stretch of Kpn sequences of nearly 32 kb, corresponding to 10 Kpn repeats; clone 3 contains a stretch of 29 kb corresponding to 9 Kpn repeats, as determined by PFGE analysis of partial digestion of the clones. Clone 5 seems to contain the entire Eco RI region prone to rearrangements in FSHD patients. From clone 5 several subclones were obtained, from the Kpn region and from the region spanning from the last Kpn repeat to the cloning site. No single copy sequences were detected. Subclones from the 3{prime} end region contain beta-satellite or Sau3A-like sequences. In situ hybridization with the whole C5 cosmid shows hybridization signals at the tip of chromosome 4 (4q35) and chromosome 10 (10q26), in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 1 (1q12) and in the p12 region of the acrocentric chromosomes (chr. 21, 22, 13, 14, 15).

  5. Cell Detection from Redundant Candidate Regions under Non-Overlapping Constraints.

    PubMed

    Bise, Ryoma; Sato, Yoichi

    2015-01-12

    Cell detection and segmentation in microscopy images are essential for automated cell behavior analysis including cell shape analysis and cell tracking. Robust cell detection in high-density and low-contrast images is still challenging since cells often touch and partially overlap, forming a cell cluster with blurry intercellular boundaries. In such cases, current methods tend to detect multiple cells as a cluster. If the control parameters are adjusted to separate the touching cells, other problems often occur: a single cell may be segmented into several regions, and cells in low-intensity regions may not be detected. To solve these problems, we first detect redundant candidate regions, which include many false positives but in turn very few false negatives, by allowing candidate regions to overlap with each other. Next, the score for how likely the candidate region contains the main part of a single cell is computed for each cell candidate using supervised learning. Then we select an optimal set of cell regions from the redundant regions under non-overlapping constraints, where each selected region looks like a single cell and the selected regions do not overlap. We formulate this problem of optimal region selection as a binary linear programming problem under non-overlapping constraints. This binary linear programming maximizes the sum of the weighted scores of the selected regions, where a region's score represents how likely it is that the region corresponds to a single cell as determined by using cell appearance features.We demonstrated the effectiveness of our method for several types of cells in microscopy images. Our method performed better than five representative methods, achieving an F-measure of over 0.9 for all data sets. Experimental application of the proposed method to 3D images demonstrated that also works well for 3D cell detection.

  6. A Syntenic Region Conserved from Fish to Mammalian X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Guijun; Yi, Meisheng; Kobayashi, Tohru; Hong, Yunhan; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Sex chromosomes bearing the sex-determining gene initiate development along the male or female pathway, no matter which sex is determined by XY male or ZW female heterogamety. Sex chromosomes originate from ancient autosomes but evolved rapidly after the acquisition of sex-determining factors which are highly divergent between species. In the heterogametic male system (XY system), the X chromosome is relatively evolutionary silent and maintains most of its ancestral genes, in contrast to its Y counterpart that has evolved rapidly and degenerated. Sex in a teleost fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is determined genetically via an XY system, in which an unpaired region is present in the largest chromosome pair. We defined the differences in DNA contents present in this chromosome with a two-color comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) approach in XY males. We further identified a syntenic segment within this region that is well conserved in several teleosts. Through comparative genome analysis, this syntenic segment was also shown to be present in mammalian X chromosomes, suggesting a common ancestral origin of vertebrate sex chromosomes. PMID:25506037

  7. Assignment of genes to regions of mouse chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, E M; Washburn, L L

    1978-01-01

    A genetic mapping procedure, called the duplication-deficiency method, is described. This method permits the genetic location of a translocation to be determined within a linkage group without the use of recombination. By utilizing the duplication-deficiency method to define the genetic breakpoints for a series of translocations involving a given chromosome and integrating this information with their cytological breakpoints, obtained by Giemsa banding, a genetic map of the chromosomes is constructed whereby groups of loci are assigned to banded regions. Duplication-deficiency mapping and Giemsa banding analysis of the T(X;7)1Ct and T(7;19)145H translocations together with information from the c25H deletion have permitted mouse chromosome 7 to be divided into six and chromosome 19 into two definable genetic regions. Images PMID:273256

  8. Evolution of the terminal regions of the Streptomyces linear chromosome.

    PubMed

    Choulet, Frédéric; Aigle, Bertrand; Gallois, Alexandre; Mangenot, Sophie; Gerbaud, Claude; Truong, Chantal; Francou, François-Xavier; Fourrier, Céline; Guérineau, Michel; Decaris, Bernard; Barbe, Valérie; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Leblond, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    Comparative analysis of the Streptomyces chromosome sequences, between Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces avermitilis, and Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 (whose partial sequence is released in this study), revealed a highly compartmentalized genetic organization of their genome. Indeed, despite the presence of specific genomic islands, the central part of the chromosome appears highly syntenic. In contrast, the chromosome of each species exhibits large species-specific terminal regions (from 753 to 1,393 kb), even when considering closely related species (S. ambofaciens and S. coelicolor). Interestingly, the size of the central conserved region between species decreases as the phylogenetic distance between them increases, whereas the specific terminal fraction reciprocally increases in size. Between highly syntenic central regions and species-specific chromosomal parts, there is a notable degeneration of synteny due to frequent insertions/deletions. This reveals a massive and constant genomic flux (from lateral gene transfer and DNA rearrangements) affecting the terminal contingency regions. We speculate that a gradient of recombination rate (i.e., insertion/deletion events) toward the extremities is the force driving the exclusion of essential genes from the terminal regions (i.e., chromosome compartmentalization) and generating a fast gene turnover for strong adaptation capabilities.

  9. Discovery of Eight z ∼ 6 Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Overlap Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan; Cai, Zheng; Clément, Benjamin; Wang, Ran; Fan, Zhou

    2015-06-01

    We present the discovery of eight quasars at z∼ 6 identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) overlap regions. Individual SDSS imaging runs have some overlap with each other, leading to repeat observations over an area spanning >4000 deg2 (more than one-fourth of the total footprint). These overlap regions provide a unique data set that allows us to select high-redshift quasars more than 0.5 mag fainter in the z band than those found with the SDSS single-epoch data. Our quasar candidates were first selected as i-band dropout objects in the SDSS imaging database. We then carried out a series of follow-up observations in the optical and near-IR to improve photometry, remove contaminants, and identify quasars. The eight quasars reported here were discovered in a pilot study utilizing the overlap regions at high galactic latitude (|b|\\gt 30{}^\\circ ). These quasars span a redshift range of 5.86\\lt z\\lt 6.06 and a flux range of 19.3\\lt {{z}AB}\\lt 20.6 mag. Five of them are fainter than {{z}AB}=20 mag, the typical magnitude limit of z∼ 6 quasars used for the SDSS single-epoch images. In addition, we recover eight previously known quasars at z∼ 6 that are located in the overlap regions. These results validate our procedure for selecting quasar candidates from the overlap regions and confirming them with follow-up observations, and they provide guidance to a future systematic survey over all SDSS imaging regions with repeat observations.

  10. [Fluorescence in situ hybridization with DNA probes derived from individual chromosomes and chromosome regions].

    PubMed

    Bogomolov, A G; Karamysheva, T V; Rubtsov, N B

    2014-01-01

    A significant part of the eukaryotic genomes consists of repetitive DNA, which can form large clusters or distributed along euchromatic chromosome regions. Repeats located in chromosomal regions make a problem in analysis and identification of the chromosomal material with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In most cases, the identification of chromosome regions using FISH requires detection of the signal produced with unique sequences. The feasibility, advantages and disadvantages of traditional methods of suppression of repetitive DNA hybridization, methods of repeats-free probe construction and methods of chromosome-specific DNA sequences visualization using image processing of multicolor FISH results are considered in the paper. The efficiency of different techniques for DNA probe generation, different FISH protocols, and image processing of obtained microscopic images depends on the genomic size and structure of analyzing species. This problem was discussed and different approaches were considered for the analysis of the species with very large genome, rare species and species which specimens are too small in size to obtain the amount of genomic and Cot-1 DNA required for suppression of repetitive DNA hybridization.

  11. Simultaneous Visualization of Covalent and Noncovalent Interactions Using Regions of Density Overlap.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Piotr; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2014-09-09

    We introduce a density-dependent bonding descriptor that enables simultaneous visualization of both covalent and noncovalent interactions. The proposed quantity is tailored to reveal the regions of space, where the total electron density results from a strong overlap of shell, atomic, or molecular densities. We show that this approach is successful in describing a variety of bonding patterns as well as nonbonding contacts. The Density Overlap Regions Indicator (DORI) analysis is also exploited to visualize and quantify the concept of electronic compactness in supramolecular chemistry. In particular, the scalar field is used to compare the compactness in molecular crystals, with a special emphasis on quaterthiophene derivatives with enhanced charge mobilities.

  12. Simultaneous Visualization of Covalent and Noncovalent Interactions Using Regions of Density Overlap

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a density-dependent bonding descriptor that enables simultaneous visualization of both covalent and noncovalent interactions. The proposed quantity is tailored to reveal the regions of space, where the total electron density results from a strong overlap of shell, atomic, or molecular densities. We show that this approach is successful in describing a variety of bonding patterns as well as nonbonding contacts. The Density Overlap Regions Indicator (DORI) analysis is also exploited to visualize and quantify the concept of electronic compactness in supramolecular chemistry. In particular, the scalar field is used to compare the compactness in molecular crystals, with a special emphasis on quaterthiophene derivatives with enhanced charge mobilities. PMID:25221443

  13. Is mammalian chromosomal evolution driven by regions of genome fragility?

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Castresana, Jose; Robinson, Terence J

    2006-01-01

    Background A fundamental question in comparative genomics concerns the identification of mechanisms that underpin chromosomal change. In an attempt to shed light on the dynamics of mammalian genome evolution, we analyzed the distribution of syntenic blocks, evolutionary breakpoint regions, and evolutionary breakpoints taken from public databases available for seven eutherian species (mouse, rat, cattle, dog, pig, cat, and horse) and the chicken, and examined these for correspondence with human fragile sites and tandem repeats. Results Our results confirm previous investigations that showed the presence of chromosomal regions in the human genome that have been repeatedly used as illustrated by a high breakpoint accumulation in certain chromosomes and chromosomal bands. We show, however, that there is a striking correspondence between fragile site location, the positions of evolutionary breakpoints, and the distribution of tandem repeats throughout the human genome, which similarly reflect a non-uniform pattern of occurrence. Conclusion These observations provide further evidence that certain chromosomal regions in the human genome have been repeatedly used in the evolutionary process. As a consequence, the genome is a composite of fragile regions prone to reorganization that have been conserved in different lineages, and genomic tracts that do not exhibit the same levels of evolutionary plasticity. PMID:17156441

  14. A physical map of the polytenized region (101EF-102F) of chromosome 4 in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Locke, J; Podemski, L; Aippersbach, N; Kemp, H; Hodgetts, R

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome 4, the smallest autosome ( approximately 5 Mb in length) in Drosophila melanogaster contains two major regions. The centromeric domain ( approximately 4 Mb) is heterochromatic and consists primarily of short, satellite repeats. The remaining approximately 1.2 Mb, which constitutes the banded region (101E-102F) on salivary gland polytene chromosomes and contains the identified genes, is the region mapped in this study. Chromosome walking was hindered by the abundance of moderately repeated sequences dispersed along the chromosome, so we used many entry points to recover overlapping cosmid and BAC clones. In situ hybridization of probes from the two ends of the map to polytene chromosomes confirmed that the cloned region had spanned the 101E-102F interval. Our BAC clones comprised three contigs; one gap was positioned distally in 102EF and the other was located proximally at 102B. Twenty-three genes, representing about half of our revised estimate of the total number of genes on chromosome 4, were positioned on the BAC contigs. A minimal tiling set of the clones we have mapped will facilitate both the assembly of the DNA sequence of the chromosome and a functional analysis of its genes. PMID:10880479

  15. A physical map of the polytenized region (101EF-102F) of chromosome 4 in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Locke, J; Podemski, L; Aippersbach, N; Kemp, H; Hodgetts, R

    2000-07-01

    Chromosome 4, the smallest autosome ( approximately 5 Mb in length) in Drosophila melanogaster contains two major regions. The centromeric domain ( approximately 4 Mb) is heterochromatic and consists primarily of short, satellite repeats. The remaining approximately 1.2 Mb, which constitutes the banded region (101E-102F) on salivary gland polytene chromosomes and contains the identified genes, is the region mapped in this study. Chromosome walking was hindered by the abundance of moderately repeated sequences dispersed along the chromosome, so we used many entry points to recover overlapping cosmid and BAC clones. In situ hybridization of probes from the two ends of the map to polytene chromosomes confirmed that the cloned region had spanned the 101E-102F interval. Our BAC clones comprised three contigs; one gap was positioned distally in 102EF and the other was located proximally at 102B. Twenty-three genes, representing about half of our revised estimate of the total number of genes on chromosome 4, were positioned on the BAC contigs. A minimal tiling set of the clones we have mapped will facilitate both the assembly of the DNA sequence of the chromosome and a functional analysis of its genes.

  16. Genetic variants associated with mosaic Y chromosome loss highlight cell cycle genes and overlap with cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel J; Day, Felix R; Kerrison, Nicola D; Zink, Florian; Cardona, Alexia; Sulem, Patrick; Thompson, Deborah J; Sigurjonsdottir, Svanhvit; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Helgason, Agnar; Chapman, J Ross; Jackson, Steve P; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Scott, Robert A; Thorsteindottir, Unnur; Ong, Ken K; Stefansson, Kari; Perry, John R B

    2017-03-27

    The Y chromosome is frequently lost in hematopoietic cells, which represents the most common somatic alteration in men. However, the mechanisms that regulate mosaic loss of chromosome Y (mLOY), and its clinical relevance, are unknown. We used genotype-array-intensity data and sequence reads from 85,542 men to identify 19 genomic regions (P < 5 × 10(-8)) that are associated with mLOY. Cumulatively, these loci also predicted X chromosome loss in women (n = 96,123; P = 4 × 10(-6)). Additional epigenome-wide methylation analyses using whole blood highlighted 36 differentially methylated sites associated with mLOY. The genes identified converge on aspects of cell proliferation and cell cycle regulation, including DNA synthesis (NPAT), DNA damage response (ATM), mitosis (PMF1, CENPN and MAD1L1) and apoptosis (TP53). We highlight the shared genetic architecture between mLOY and cancer susceptibility, in addition to inferring a causal effect of smoking on mLOY. Collectively, our results demonstrate that genotype-array-intensity data enables a measure of cell cycle efficiency at population scale and identifies genes implicated in aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer susceptibility.

  17. Bird and mammal sex-chromosome orthologs map to the same autosomal region in a salamander (ambystoma).

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeramiah J; Voss, S Randal

    2007-09-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the origin of bird and mammal sex chromosomes by mapping the location of amniote sex-chromosome loci in a salamander amphibian (Ambystoma). We found that ambystomatid orthologs of human X and chicken Z sex chromosomes map to neighboring regions of a common Ambystoma linkage group 2 (ALG2). We show statistically that the proportion of human X and chicken Z orthologs observed on ALG2 is significantly different from the proportion that would be expected by chance. We further show that conserved syntenies between ALG2 and amniote chromosomes are identified as overlapping conserved syntenies when all available chicken (N = 3120) and human (N = 14,922) RefSeq orthologs are reciprocally compared. In particular, the data suggest that chromosomal regions from chicken chromosomes (GGA) Z and 4 and from human chromosomes (HSA) 9, 4, X, 5, and 8 were linked ancestrally. A more distant outgroup comparison with the pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis reveals ALG2/GGAZ/HSAX syntenies among three pairs of ancestral chromosome duplicates. Overall, our results suggest that sex chromosomal regions of birds and mammals were recruited from a common ancestral chromosome, and thus our findings conflict with the currently accepted hypothesis of separate autosomal origins. We note that our results were obtained using the most immediate outgroup to the amniote clade (mammals, birds, and other reptiles) while the currently accepted hypothesis is primarily based upon conserved syntenies between in-group taxa (birds and mammals). Our study illustrates the importance of an amphibian outgroup perspective in identifying ancestral amniote gene orders and in reconstructing patterns of vertebrate sex-chromosome evolution.

  18. Transcriptional map of chromosome region 6q16-->q21.

    PubMed

    Karayianni, E; Magnanini, C; Orphanos, V; Negrini, M; Maniatis, G M; Spathas, D H; Barbanti-Brodano, G; Morelli, C

    1999-01-01

    We present the transcription map of chromosome region 6q16-->q21 by mapping fifteen known genes within this region. Five genes lay in the subregion containing a tumor suppressor gene, eight genes are located in the subregion harboring a senescence gene, and two genes are distal to the latter region. The precise location of the genes was obtained using a previously described translocation and deletion mouse/human hybrid panel. An even more accurate definition was possible for the genes spanning the senescence gene region, since a previously described YAC contig with its restriction map was available. From this transcription map it is possible to derive a large region of synteny with mouse chromosome 10.

  19. Regional Control of Chromosome Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lagage, Valentine

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome segregation in bacteria occurs concomitantly with DNA replication, and the duplicated regions containing the replication origin oriC are generally the first to separate and migrate to their final specific location inside the cell. In numerous bacterial species, a three-component partition machinery called the ParABS system is crucial for chromosome segregation. This is the case in the gammaproteobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, where impairing the ParABS system is very detrimental for growth, as it increases the generation time and leads to the formation of anucleate cells and to oriC mispositioning inside the cell. In this study, we investigate in vivo the ParABS system in P. aeruginosa. Using chromatin immuno-precipitation coupled with high throughput sequencing, we show that ParB binds to four parS site located within 15 kb of oriC in vivo, and that this binding promotes the formation of a high order nucleoprotein complex. We show that one parS site is enough to prevent anucleate cell formation, therefore for correct chromosome segregation. By displacing the parS site from its native position on the chromosome, we demonstrate that parS is the first chromosomal locus to be separated upon DNA replication, which indicates that it is the site of force exertion of the segregation process. We identify a region of approximatively 650 kb surrounding oriC in which the parS site must be positioned for chromosome segregation to proceed correctly, and we called it “competence zone” of the parS site. Mutant strains that have undergone specific genetic rearrangements allow us to propose that the distance between oriC and parS defines this “competence zone”. Implications for the control of chromosome segregation in P. aeruginosa are discussed. PMID:27820816

  20. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Fa-Ten.

    1992-08-01

    During the grant period progress has been made in the successful demonstration of regional mapping of microclones derived from microdissection libraries; successful demonstration of the feasibility of converting microclones with short inserts into yeast artificial chromosome clones with very large inserts for high resolution physical mapping of the dissected region; Successful demonstration of the usefulness of region-specific microclones to isolate region-specific cDNA clones as candidate genes to facilitate search for the crucial genes underlying genetic diseases assigned to the dissected region; and the successful construction of four region-specific microdissection libraries for human chromosome 2, including 2q35-q37, 2q33-q35, 2p23-p25 and 2p2l-p23. The 2q35-q37 library has been characterized in detail. The characterization of the other three libraries is in progress. These region-specific microdissection libraries and the unique sequence microclones derived from the libraries will be valuable resources for investigators engaged in high resolution physical mapping and isolation of disease-related genes residing in these chromosomal regions.

  1. Factors affecting the perception of luning in monocular regions of partial binocular overlap displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymenko, Victor; Verona, Robert W.; Martin, John S.; Beasley, Howard H.; McLean, William E.

    1994-08-01

    Luning is a detrimental visual effect characterized by a subjective darkening of the visual field in the monocular regions of partial binocular overlap displays. The effect of a number of factors on the magnitude of luning was investigated. These factors include: (1) the convergent versus the divergent display modes for presenting a partial binocular overlapping field-of-view; (2) the display luminance level; (3) the placement of either black or white contours versus no (null) contours on the binocular overlap border; and (4) the increasing or decreasing of the luminance of the monocular side regions relative to the binocular overlap region. Eighteen Army student aviators served as subjects in a repeated measures design. The percentage of time luning was seen was the measure of the degree of luning. The results indicated that the divergent display mode systematically induced more luning than the convergent display mode under the null contour condition. Adding black contours reduced luning in both the convergent and divergent display modes, where the convergent mode retained its relatively lower magnitude of luning. The display luminance level had no effect on luning for the null or black contour conditions.

  2. Rapid generation of region-specific probes by chromosome microdissection: Application to the identification of chromosomal rearrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, J.M.; Guan, X.Y.; Zang, J.; Meltzer, P.S. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors present results using a novel strategy for chromosome microdissection and direct in vitro amplification of specific chromosomal regions, to identify cryptic chromosome alterations, and to rapidly generate region-specific genomic probes. First, banded chromosomes are microdissected and directly PCR amplified by a procedure which eliminates microchemistry (Meltzer, et al., Nature Genetics, 1:24, 1992). The resulting PCR product can be used for several applications including direct labeling for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to normal metaphase chromosomes. A second application of this procedure is the extremely rapid generation of chromosome region-specific probes. This approach has been successfully used to determine the derivation of chromosome segments unidentifiable by standard chromosome banding analysis. In selected instances these probes have also been used on interphase nuclei and provides the potential for assessing chromosome abnormalities in a variety of cell lineages. The microdissection probes (which can be generated in <24 hours) have also been utilized in direct library screening and provide the possibility of acquiring a significant number of region-specific probes for any chromosome band. This procedure extends the limits of conventional cytogenetic analysis by providing an extremely rapid source of numerous band-specific probes, and by enabling the direct analysis of essentially any unknown chromosome region.

  3. Molecular definition of the smallest region of deletion overlap in the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Gandelman, K.Y.; Gibson, L.; Meyn, M.S.; Yang-Feng, T.L. )

    1992-09-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), associated with a deletion of chromosome 4p, is characterized by mental and growth retardation and typical dysmorphism. A girl with clinical features of WHS was found to carry a subtle deletion of chromosome 4p. Initially suggested by high-resolution chromosome analysis, her deletion was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with cosmid probes, E13, and Y2, of D4S113. To delineate this 4p deletion, the authors performed a series of FISH and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis by using probes from 4p16.3. A deletion of [approximately]2.5 Mb with the breakpoint at [approximately]80 kb distal to D4S43 was defined in this patient and appears to be the smallest WHS deletion so far identified. To further refine the WHS critical region, they have studied three unrelated patients with presumptive 4p deletions, two resulting from unbalanced segregations of parental chromosomal translocations and one resulting from an apparently de novo unbalanced translocation. Larger deletions were identified in two patients with WHS. One patient who did not clinically present with WHS had a smaller deletion that thus eliminates the distal 100-300 kb from the telomere as being part of the WHS region. This study has localized the WHS region to [approximately]2 MB between D4S43 and D4S142. 37 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. [Identification of chromosomal aberration in esophageal cancer cells by mixed BAC DNA probes of chromosome arms and regions].

    PubMed

    Jiajie, Hao; Chunli, Wang; Wenyue, Gu; Xiaoyu, Cheng; Yu, Zhang; Xin, Xu; Yan, Cai; Mingrong, Wang

    2014-06-01

    Chromosomal aberration is an important genetic feature of malignant tumor cells. This study aimed to clarify whether BAC DNA could be used to identify chromosome region and arm alterations. For each chromosome region, five to ten 1 Mb BAC DNA clones were selected to construct mixed BAC DNA clones for the particular region. All of the mixed clones from regions which could cover the whole chromosome arm were then mixed to construct mixed BAC DNA clones for the arms. Mixed BAC DNA probes of arms and regions were labeled by degenerate oligonucleotide primed PCR (DOP-PCR) and Nick translation techniques, respectively. The specificities of these probes were validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the metaphase chromosomes of normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes. FISH with arm-specific mixed BAC DNA probes showed that chromosomal rearrangements and involved chromosome arms were confirmed in several esophageal cancer cells. By using region-specific mixed probes, the breakpoint on 1q from the derivative chromosome t(1q;7q) was identified in 1q32-q41 in esophageal KYSE140 cells. In conclusion, we established an effective labeling method for 1 Mb BAC DNA mixed clone probes, and chromosome arm and region rearrangements could be identified in several esophageal cancer cells by using these probes. Our study provides a more precise method for identification of chromosomal aberration by M-FISH, and the established method may also be applied to the karyotype analysis of hematological malignancies and prenatal diagnosis.

  5. Overlapping Regions in HIV-1 Genome Act as Potential Sites for Host–Virus Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Deeya; Podder, Soumita; Ghosh, Tapash C.

    2016-01-01

    More than a decade, overlapping genes in RNA viruses became a subject of research which has explored various effect of gene overlapping on the evolution and function of viral genomes like genome size compaction. Additionally, overlapping regions (OVRs) are also reported to encode elevated degree of protein intrinsic disorder (PID) in unspliced RNA viruses. With the aim to explore the roles of OVRs in HIV-1 pathogenesis, we have carried out an in-depth analysis on the association of gene overlapping with PID in 35 HIV1- M subtypes. Our study reveals an over representation of PID in OVR of HIV-1 genomes. These disordered residues endure several vital, structural features like short linear motifs (SLiMs) and protein phosphorylation (PP) sites which are previously shown to be involved in massive host–virus interaction. Moreover, SLiMs in OVRs are noticed to be more functionally potential as compared to that of non-overlapping region. Although, density of experimentally verified SLiMs, resided in 9 HIV-1 genes, involved in host–virus interaction do not show any bias toward clustering into OVR, tat and rev two important proteins mediates host–pathogen interaction by their experimentally verified SLiMs, which are mostly localized in OVR. Finally, our analysis suggests that the acquisition of SLiMs in OVR is mutually exclusive of the occurrence of disordered residues, while the enrichment of PPs in OVR is solely dependent on PID and not on overlapping coding frames. Thus, OVRs of HIV-1 genomes could be demarcated as potential molecular recognition sites during host–virus interaction. PMID:27867372

  6. Defining the autism minimum candidate gene region on chromosome 7.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Holli B; Bradford, Y; Folstein, S E; Gardiner, M B; Santangelo, S L; Sutcliffe, J S; Haines, J L

    2003-02-01

    Previous genetic and cytogenetic studies provide evidence that points to one or more autism susceptibility genes residing on chromosome 7q (AUTS1, 115-149 cM on the Marshfield map). However, further localization using linkage analysis has proven difficult. To overcome this problem, we examined the Collaborative Linkage Study of Autism (CLSA) data-set to identify only the families potentially linked to chromosome 7. Out of 94, 47 families were identified and 17 markers were used to generate chromosomal haplotypes. We performed recombination breakpoint analysis to determine if any portion of the chromosome was predominately shared across families. The most commonly shared region spanned a 6 cM interval between D7S501 and D7S2847. Additional markers at 1 cM intervals within this region were genotyped and association and recombination breakpoint analysis was again performed. Although no significant allelic association was found, the recombination breakpoint data points to a shared region between D7S496-D7S2418 (120-123 cM) encompassing about 4.5 Mb of genomic DNA containing over 50 genes. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Chromosome Rearrangements That Involve the Nucleolus Organizer Region in Neurospora

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, D. D.; Raju, N. B.; Barry, E. G.; Butler, D. K.

    1995-01-01

    In ~3% of Neurospora crassa rearrangements, part of a chromosome arm becomes attached to the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) at one end of chromosome 2 (linkage group V). Investigations with one inversion and nine translocations of this type are reported here. They appear genetically to be nonreciprocal and terminal. When a rearrangement is heterozygous, about one-third of viable progeny are segmental aneuploids with the translocated segment present in two copies, one in normal position and one associated with the NOR. Duplications from many of the rearrangements are highly unstable, breaking down by loss of the NOR-attached segment to restore normal chromosome sequence. When most of the rearrangements are homozygous, attenuated strands can be seen extending through the unstained nucleolus at pachytene, joining the translocated distal segment to the remainder of chromosome 2. Although the rearrangements appear genetically to be nonreciprocal, molecular evidence shows that at least several of them are physically reciprocal, with a block of rDNA repeats translocated away from the NOR. Evidence that NOR-associated breakpoints are nonterminal is also provided by intercrosses between pairs of translocations that transfer different-length segments of the same donor-chromosome arm to the NOR. PMID:8582636

  8. Delineation and Analysis of Chromosomal Regions Specifying Yersinia pestis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Derbise, Anne; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Huon, Christèle; Fayolle, Corinne; Demeure, Christian E.; Chane-Woon-Ming, Béatrice; Médigue, Claudine; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, has recently diverged from the less virulent enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Its emergence has been characterized by massive genetic loss and inactivation and limited gene acquisition. The acquired genes include two plasmids, a filamentous phage, and a few chromosomal loci. The aim of this study was to characterize the chromosomal regions acquired by Y. pestis. Following in silico comparative analysis and PCR screening of 98 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis, we found that eight chromosomal loci (six regions [R1pe to R6pe] and two coding sequences [CDS1pe and CDS2pe]) specified Y. pestis. Signatures of integration by site specific or homologous recombination were identified for most of them. These acquisitions and the loss of ancestral DNA sequences were concentrated in a chromosomal region opposite to the origin of replication. The specific regions were acquired very early during Y. pestis evolution and were retained during its microevolution, suggesting that they might bring some selective advantages. Only one region (R3pe), predicted to carry a lambdoid prophage, is most likely no longer functional because of mutations. With the exception of R1pe and R2pe, which have the potential to encode a restriction/modification and a sugar transport system, respectively, no functions could be predicted for the other Y. pestis-specific loci. To determine the role of the eight chromosomal loci in the physiology and pathogenicity of the plague bacillus, each of them was individually deleted from the bacterial chromosome. None of the deletants exhibited defects during growth in vitro. Using the Xenopsylla cheopis flea model, all deletants retained the capacity to produce a stable and persistent infection and to block fleas. Similarly, none of the deletants caused any acute flea toxicity. In the mouse model of infection, all deletants were fully virulent upon subcutaneous or aerosol infections. Therefore

  9. Delineation and analysis of chromosomal regions specifying Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Derbise, Anne; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Huon, Christèle; Fayolle, Corinne; Demeure, Christian E; Chane-Woon-Ming, Béatrice; Médigue, Claudine; Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2010-09-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, has recently diverged from the less virulent enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Its emergence has been characterized by massive genetic loss and inactivation and limited gene acquisition. The acquired genes include two plasmids, a filamentous phage, and a few chromosomal loci. The aim of this study was to characterize the chromosomal regions acquired by Y. pestis. Following in silico comparative analysis and PCR screening of 98 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis, we found that eight chromosomal loci (six regions [R1pe to R6pe] and two coding sequences [CDS1pe and CDS2pe]) specified Y. pestis. Signatures of integration by site specific or homologous recombination were identified for most of them. These acquisitions and the loss of ancestral DNA sequences were concentrated in a chromosomal region opposite to the origin of replication. The specific regions were acquired very early during Y. pestis evolution and were retained during its microevolution, suggesting that they might bring some selective advantages. Only one region (R3pe), predicted to carry a lambdoid prophage, is most likely no longer functional because of mutations. With the exception of R1pe and R2pe, which have the potential to encode a restriction/modification and a sugar transport system, respectively, no functions could be predicted for the other Y. pestis-specific loci. To determine the role of the eight chromosomal loci in the physiology and pathogenicity of the plague bacillus, each of them was individually deleted from the bacterial chromosome. None of the deletants exhibited defects during growth in vitro. Using the Xenopsylla cheopis flea model, all deletants retained the capacity to produce a stable and persistent infection and to block fleas. Similarly, none of the deletants caused any acute flea toxicity. In the mouse model of infection, all deletants were fully virulent upon subcutaneous or aerosol infections. Therefore

  10. Overlapping loss of heterozygosity by mitotic recombination on mouse chromosome 7F1-ter in skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, A B; Navone, N M; Aldaz, C M; Conti, C J

    1991-01-01

    tumor suppressor gene linked to the Hbb locus in the 7F1-ter region of mouse chromosome 7, the functional inactivation of which may constitute a critical event in skin tumor progression, possibly during the malignant conversion stage. Images PMID:1909026

  11. Major factors influencing linkage disequilibrium by analysis of different chromosome regions in distinct populations: demography, chromosome recombination frequency and selection.

    PubMed

    Zavattari, P; Deidda, E; Whalen, M; Lampis, R; Mulargia, A; Loddo, M; Eaves, I; Mastio, G; Todd, J A; Cucca, F

    2000-12-12

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping of disease genes is complicated by population- and chromosome-region-specific factors. We have analysed demographic factors by contrasting intermarker LD results obtained in a large cosmopolitan population (UK), a large genetic isolate (Sardinia) and a subisolate (village of Gavoi) for two regions of the X chromosome. A dramatic increase of LD was found in the subisolate. Demographic history of populations therefore influences LD. Chromosome-region-specific effects, namely the pattern and frequency of homologous recombination, were next delineated by the analysis of chromosome 6p21, including the HLA region. Patterns of global LD in this region were very similar in the UK and Sardinian populations despite their entirely distinct demographies, and correlate well with the pattern of recombinations. Nevertheless, haplotypes extend across recombination hot spots indicative of selection of certain haplotypes. Subisolate aside, chromosome-region-specific differences in LD patterns appear to be more important than the differences in intermarker LD between distinct populations.

  12. Analysis of tandem gene copies in maize chromosomal regions reconstructed from long sequence reads.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiaqiang; Feng, Yaping; Kumar, Dibyendu; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Tingting; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Messing, Joachim

    2016-07-19

    Haplotype variation not only involves SNPs but also insertions and deletions, in particular gene copy number variations. However, comparisons of individual genomes have been difficult because traditional sequencing methods give too short reads to unambiguously reconstruct chromosomal regions containing repetitive DNA sequences. An example of such a case is the protein gene family in maize that acts as a sink for reduced nitrogen in the seed. Previously, 41-48 gene copies of the alpha zein gene family that spread over six loci spanning between 30- and 500-kb chromosomal regions have been described in two Iowa Stiff Stalk (SS) inbreds. Analyses of those regions were possible because of overlapping BAC clones, generated by an expensive and labor-intensive approach. Here we used single-molecule real-time (Pacific Biosciences) shotgun sequencing to assemble the six chromosomal regions from the Non-Stiff Stalk maize inbred W22 from a single DNA sequence dataset. To validate the reconstructed regions, we developed an optical map (BioNano genome map; BioNano Genomics) of W22 and found agreement between the two datasets. Using the sequences of full-length cDNAs from W22, we found that the error rate of PacBio sequencing seemed to be less than 0.1% after autocorrection and assembly. Expressed genes, some with premature stop codons, are interspersed with nonexpressed genes, giving rise to genotype-specific expression differences. Alignment of these regions with those from the previous analyzed regions of SS lines exhibits in part dramatic differences between these two heterotic groups.

  13. Mapping of partially overlapping de novo deletions across an autism susceptibility region (AUTS5) in two unrelated individuals affected by developmental delays with communication impairment.

    PubMed

    Newbury, Dianne F; Warburton, Pamela C; Wilson, Natalie; Bacchelli, Elena; Carone, Simona; Lamb, Janine A; Maestrini, Elena; Volpi, Emanuela V; Mohammed, Shehla; Baird, Gillian; Monaco, Anthony P

    2009-02-15

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in reciprocal social interaction and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interests. Previous genetic studies of autism have shown evidence of linkage to chromosomes 2q, 3q, 7q, 11p, 16p, and 17q. However, the complexity and heterogeneity of the disorder have limited the success of candidate gene studies. It is estimated that 5% of the autistic population carry structural chromosome abnormalities. This article describes the molecular cytogenetic characterization of two chromosome 2q deletions in unrelated individuals, one of whom lies in the autistic spectrum. Both patients are affected by developmental disorders with language delay and communication difficulties. Previous karyotype analyses described the deletions as [46,XX,del(2)(q24.1q24.2)dn]. Breakpoint refinement by FISH mapping revealed the two deletions to overlap by approximately 1.1Mb of chromosome 2q24.1, a region which contains just one gene--potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 3 (KCNJ3). However, a mutation screen of this gene in 47 autistic probands indicated that coding variants in this gene are unlikely to underlie the linkage between autism and chromosome 2q. Nevertheless, it remains possible that variants in the flanking genes may underlie evidence of linkage at this locus.

  14. Mapping of partially overlapping de novo deletions across an autism susceptibility region [AUTS5] in two unrelated individuals affected by developmental delays with communication impairment

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, Dianne F; Warburton, Pamela C; Wilson, Natalie; Bacchelli, Elena; Carone, Simona; Lamb, Janine A; Maestrini, Elena; Volpi, Emanuela V; Mohammed, Shehla; Baird, Gillian; Monaco, Anthony P

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in reciprocal social interaction and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interests. Previous genetic studies of autism have shown evidence of linkage to chromosomes 2q, 3q, 7q, 11p, 16p, and 17q. However, the complexity and heterogeneity of the disorder have limited the success of candidate gene studies. It is estimated that 5% of the autistic population carry structural chromosome abnormalities. This article describes the molecular cytogenetic characterization of two chromosome 2q deletions in unrelated individuals, one of whom lies in the autistic spectrum. Both patients are affected by developmental disorders with language delay and communication difficulties. Previous karyotype analyses described the deletions as [46,XX,del(2)(q24.1q24.2)dn]. Breakpoint refinement by FISH mapping revealed the two deletions to overlap by approximately 1.1Mb of chromosome 2q24.1, a region which contains just one gene—potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 3 (KCNJ3). However, a mutation screen of this gene in 47 autistic probands indicated that coding variants in this gene are unlikely to underlie the linkage between autism and chromosome 2q. Nevertheless, it remains possible that variants in the flanking genes may underlie evidence of linkage at this locus. PMID:19267418

  15. Construction of a yeast artifical chromosome contig spanning the spinal muscular atrophy disease gene region

    SciTech Connect

    Kleyn, P.W.; Wang, C.H.; Vitale, E.; Pan, J.; Ross, B.M.; Grunn, A.; Palmer, D.A.; Warburton, D.; Brzustowicz, L.M.; Gilliam, T.G. ); Lien, L.L.; Kunkel, L.M. )

    1993-07-15

    The childhood spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are the most common, serious neuromuscular disorders of childhood second to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A single locus for these disorders has been mapped by recombination events to a region of 0.7 centimorgan (range, 0.1-2.1 centimorgans) between loci D5S435 and MAP1B on chromosome 5q11.2-13.3. By using PCR amplification to screen yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) DNA pools and the PCR-vectorette method to amplify YAC ends, a YAC contig was constructed across the disease gene region. Nine walk steps identified 32 YACs, including a minimum of seven overlapping YAC clones (average size, 460 kb) that span the SMA region. The contig is characterized by a collection of 30 YAC-end sequence tag sites together with seven genetic markers. The entire YAC contig spans a minimum of 3.2 Mb; the SMA locus is confined to roughly half of this region. Microsatellite markers generated along the YAC contig segregate with the SMA locus in all families where the flanking markers (D5S435 and MAP1B) recombine. Construction of a YAC contig across the disease gene region is an essential step in isolation of the SMA-encoding gene. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Construction of a yeast artificial chromosome contig spanning the spinal muscular atrophy disease gene region.

    PubMed Central

    Kleyn, P W; Wang, C H; Lien, L L; Vitale, E; Pan, J; Ross, B M; Grunn, A; Palmer, D A; Warburton, D; Brzustowicz, L M

    1993-01-01

    The childhood spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are the most common, serious neuromuscular disorders of childhood second to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A single locus for these disorders has been mapped by recombination events to a region of 0.7 centimorgan (range, 0.1-2.1 centimorgans) between loci D5S435 and MAP1B on chromosome 5q11.2-13.3. By using PCR amplification to screen yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) DNA pools and the PCR-vectorette method to amplify YAC ends, a YAC contig was constructed across the disease gene region. Nine walk steps identified 32 YACs, including a minimum of seven overlapping YAC clones (average size, 460 kb) that span the SMA region. The contig is characterized by a collection of 30 YAC-end sequence tag sites together with seven genetic markers. The entire YAC contig spans a minimum of 3.2 Mb; the SMA locus is confined to roughly half of this region. Microsatellite markers generated along the YAC contig segregate with the SMA locus in all families where the flanking markers (D5S435 and MAP1B) recombine. Construction of a YAC contig across the disease gene region is an essential step in isolation of the SMA-encoding gene. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8341701

  17. Mapping overlapping functional elements embedded within the protein-coding regions of RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of the full complement of genes and other functional elements in any virus is crucial to fully understand its molecular biology and guide the development of effective control strategies. RNA viruses have compact multifunctional genomes that frequently contain overlapping genes and non-coding functional elements embedded within protein-coding sequences. Overlapping features often escape detection because it can be difficult to disentangle the multiple roles of the constituent nucleotides via mutational analyses, while high-throughput experimental techniques are often unable to distinguish functional elements from incidental features. However, RNA viruses evolve very rapidly so that, even within a single species, substitutions rapidly accumulate at neutral or near-neutral sites providing great potential for comparative genomics to distinguish the signature of purifying selection. Computationally identified features can then be efficiently targeted for experimental analysis. Here we analyze alignments of protein-coding virus sequences to identify regions where there is a statistically significant reduction in the degree of variability at synonymous sites, a characteristic signature of overlapping functional elements. Having previously tested this technique by experimental verification of discoveries in selected viruses, we now analyze sequence alignments for ∼700 RNA virus species to identify hundreds of such regions, many of which have not been previously described. PMID:25326325

  18. Identification of Matra Region and Overlapping Characters for OCR of Printed Bengali Scripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Subhra Sundar

    One of the important reasons for poor recognition rate in optical character recognition (OCR) system is the error in character segmentation. In case of Bangla scripts, the errors occur due to several reasons, which include incorrect detection of matra (headline), over-segmentation and under-segmentation. We have proposed a robust method for detecting the headline region. Existence of overlapping characters (in under-segmented parts) in scanned printed documents is a major problem in designing an effective character segmentation procedure for OCR systems. In this paper, a predictive algorithm is developed for effectively identifying overlapping characters and then selecting the cut-borders for segmentation. Our method can be successfully used in achieving high recognition result.

  19. Genetic mapping of the pericentric region of human chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, M.K.

    1994-12-31

    A genetic linkage map of the pericentric region of human chromosome 10 has been generated to better define the region containing the gene causing the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN-2A) disease, earlier limited to a 15.1 cM interval. 6 new markers have been added to this interval, where the markers are separated by an average of 2.65 cM. These new markers were used to evaluate three large MEN-3A families and did not reveal any recombinants that could better define the MEN-2A containing region. These families were used, however, to determine risks for individuals who were potential gene carriers. Six individuals were determined to be gene carriers and one individual, who had a thyroidectomy based on clinical testing results, was determined not to be a gene carrier. These results suggest that conventional clinical criteria need to be altered to include results from genetic testing. Since the map was generated, the RET proto-oncogene has been identified as the MEN-2A disease gene. The markers have been used to analyze familial and sporadic medullary thryoid carcinomas (MTCs). This analysis has determined one tumor (NL5) has retained heterozygosity for a limited region encompassing the RET region but has lost heterozygosity at all flanking loci on chromosome 10 tested, losing the allele which segregated with MEN-2A, suggesting a chromosomal rearrangement involving the RET locus. An analysis of sporadic and familial allelic instability with several dinucleotide repeat markers from chromosome 10 as well as other chromosomes. Similar results have been observed in colorectal cancer involving mutation in a mismatch repair enzyme (hMSH2). It is difficult to envision a direct role for the RET proto-oncogene in genetic instability, as seen in the colorectal tumors. Consequently, the genetic instability seen in the MEN-2A tumors, perhaps caused by mutations in the hMSH2 gene, may be the result of secondary effects developing independently from RET in MEN-2A tumors.

  20. Construction of a yeast artificial chromosome contig spanning the pseudoautosomal region and isolation of 25 new sequence-tagged sites

    SciTech Connect

    Slim, R. Laboratoire de Cytogenetique et Genetique Oncologiques, Villejuif ); Le Paslier, D.; Ougen, P.; Billault, A.; Cohen, D. ); Compain, S.; Levilliers, J.; Mintz, L.; Weissenbach, J.; Petit, C. )

    1993-06-01

    Thirty-one yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) from the human pseudoautosomal region were identified by a combination of sequence-tagged site (STS) screenings and colony hybridizations, using a subtelomeric interspersed repetitive element mapping predominantly to the pseudoautosomal region. Twenty-five new pseudoautosomal STSs were generated, of which 4 detected restriction fragment length polymorphisms. A total of 33 STSs were used to assemble the 31 YACs into a single contiguous set of overlapping DNA fragments spanning at least 2.3 megabases of the pseudoautosomal region. In addition, four pseudoautosomal genes including hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase have been positioned on this set of fragments. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Simultaneous localization of cosmids and chromosome R-banding by fluorescence microscopy: Application to regional mapping of human chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Cherif, D.; Derre, J.; Berger, R. ); Julier, C.; Lathrop, G.M. ); Delattre, O. )

    1990-09-01

    A technique for nonradioactive in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes has been developed to localize human cosmid clones. The simple procedure using two fluorescent dyes (fluorescein and propidium iodide) allows the simultaneous identification of chromosomal R-bands and hybridization signal in a single screening of the slides. This technique has been used for rapid correlation of the genetic and physical map of chromosome 11q13-qter in the region of genes responsible for ataxia-telangiectasia and tuberous sclerosis.

  2. Perfect Conserved Linkage Across the Entire Mouse Chromosome 10 Region Homologous to Human Chromosome 21

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, Tim; Pletcher, Mathew; Cole, Susan E.; Villanueva, Melissa; Birren, Bruce; Lehoczky, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; Reeves, Roger H.

    1999-01-01

    The distal end of human Chromosome (HSA) 21 from PDXK to the telomere shows perfect conserved linkage with mouse Chromosome (MMU) 10. This region is bounded on the proximal side by a segment of homology to HSA22q11.2, and on the distal side by a region of homology with HSA19p13.1. A high-resolution PAC-based physical map is described that spans 2.8 Mb, including the entire 2.1 Mb from Pdxk to Prmt2 corresponding to HSA21. Thirty-four expressed sequences are mapped, three of which were not mapped previously in any species and nine more that are mapped in mouse for the first time. These genes confirm and extend the conserved linkage between MMU10 and HSA21. The ordered PACs and dense STS map provide a clone resource for biological experiments, for rapid and accurate mapping, and for genomic sequencing. The new genes identified here may be involved in Down syndrome (DS) or in several genetic diseases that map to this conserved region of HSA21. PMID:10613844

  3. Cytogenetic Analysis of Chromosome Region 73ad of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Belote, J. M.; Hoffmann, F. M.; McKeown, M.; Chorsky, R. L.; Baker, B. S.

    1990-01-01

    The 73AD salivary chromosome region of Drosophila melanogaster was subjected to mutational analysis in order to (1) generate a collection of chromosome breakpoints that would allow a correlation between the genetic, cytological and molecular maps of the region and (2) define the number and gross organization of complementation groups within this interval. Eighteen complementation groups were defined and mapped to the 73A2-73B7 region, which is comprised of 17 polytene bands. These complementation groups include the previously known scarlet (st), transformer (tra) and Dominant temperature-sensitive lethal-5 (DTS-5) genes, as well as 13 new recessive lethal complementation groups and one male and female sterile locus. One of the newly identified lethal complementation groups corresponds to the molecularly identified abl locus, and another gene is defined by mutant alleles that exhibit an interaction with with the abl mutants. We also recovered several mutations in the 73C1-D1.2 interval, representing two lethal complementation groups, one new visible mutant, plucked (plk), and a previously known visible, dark body (db). There is no evidence of a complex of sex determination genes in the region near tra. PMID:2118870

  4. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    PubMed

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  5. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  6. The BOSS-WiggleZ overlap region - I. Baryon acoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, Florian; Blake, Chris; Koda, Jun; Marín, Felipe A.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    We study the large-scale clustering of galaxies in the overlap region of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) CMASS sample and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We calculate the auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions in the overlap region of the two data sets and detect a Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signal in each of them. The BAO measurement from the cross-correlation function represents the first such detection between two different galaxy surveys. After applying density-field reconstruction we report distance-scale measurements D_V r_s^fid / r_s = (1970 ± 45, 2132 ± 65, 2100 ± 200) Mpc from CMASS, the cross-correlation and WiggleZ, respectively. The distance scales derived from the two data sets are consistent, and are also robust against switching the displacement fields used for reconstruction between the two surveys. We use correlated mock realizations to calculate the covariance between the three BAO constraints. This approach can be used to construct a correlation matrix, permitting for the first time a rigorous combination of WiggleZ and CMASS BAO measurements. Using a volume-scaling technique, our result can also be used to combine WiggleZ and future CMASS DR12 results. Finally, we show that the relative velocity effect, a possible source of systematic uncertainty for the BAO technique, is consistent with zero for our samples.

  7. Amplifications of chromosomal region 20q13 as a prognostic indicator breast cancer

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Collins, Colin; Pinkel, Daniel; Kallioniemi, Olli-Pekka; Tanner, Minna M.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  8. Amplifications of chromosomal region 20q13 as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Collins, Colin; Pinkel, Daniel; Kallioniemi, Olli-Pekka; Tanner, Minna M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  9. ON MAGNETIC ACTIVITY BAND OVERLAP, INTERACTION, AND THE FORMATION OF COMPLEX SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Leamon, Robert J.

    2014-11-20

    Recent work has revealed a phenomenological picture of the how the ∼11 yr sunspot cycle of the Sun arises. The production and destruction of sunspots is a consequence of the latitudinal-temporal overlap and interaction of the toroidal magnetic flux systems that belong to the 22 yr magnetic activity cycle and are rooted deep in the Sun's convective interior. We present a conceptually simple extension of this work, presenting a hypothesis on how complex active regions can form as a direct consequence of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction taking place in the solar interior. Furthermore, during specific portions of the sunspot cycle, we anticipate that those complex active regions may be particularly susceptible to profoundly catastrophic breakdown, producing flares and coronal mass ejections of the most severe magnitude.

  10. Chromosomal localization of mouse bullous pemphigoid antigens, BPAG1 and BPAG2: Identification of a new region of homology between mouse and human chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J.; Jenkins, N.A. ); Li, K.; Sawamura, D.; Chu, Monli; Uitto, J. ); Giudice, G.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Two bullous pemphigoid antigens, BPAG1 and BPAG2, have been recently cloned and mapped to human chromosomes 6p12-p11 and 10q24.3, respectively. In this study, we localized the corresponding mouse genes by interspecific backcross analysis. Bpag-1 mapped to the proximal region of mouse chromosome 1, identifying a new region of homology between human chromosome 6 and mouse chromosome 1. Bpag-2 mapped to the distal end of mouse chromosome 19 in a region of homology to human chromosome 10q. These assignments confirm and extend the relationships between the human and the mouse chromosomes. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Identification of wheat chromosomal regions containing expressed resistance genes.

    PubMed Central

    Dilbirligi, Muharrem; Erayman, Mustafa; Sandhu, Devinder; Sidhu, Deepak; Gill, Kulvinder S

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to isolate and physically localize expressed resistance (R) genes on wheat chromosomes. Irrespective of the host or pest type, most of the 46 cloned R genes from 12 plant species share a strong sequence similarity, especially for protein domains and motifs. By utilizing this structural similarity to perform modified RNA fingerprinting and data mining, we identified 184 putative expressed R genes of wheat. These include 87 NB/LRR types, 16 receptor-like kinases, and 13 Pto-like kinases. The remaining were seven Hm1 and two Hs1(pro-1) homologs, 17 pathogenicity related, and 42 unique NB/kinases. About 76% of the expressed R-gene candidates were rare transcripts, including 42 novel sequences. Physical mapping of 121 candidate R-gene sequences using 339 deletion lines localized 310 loci to 26 chromosomal regions encompassing approximately 16% of the wheat genome. Five major R-gene clusters that spanned only approximately 3% of the wheat genome but contained approximately 47% of the candidate R genes were observed. Comparative mapping localized 91% (82 of 90) of the phenotypically characterized R genes to 18 regions where 118 of the R-gene sequences mapped. PMID:15020436

  12. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Fa-Ten.

    1991-01-01

    We have made important progress since the beginning of the current grant year. We have further developed the microdissection and PCR- assisted microcloning techniques using the linker-adaptor method. We have critically evaluated the microdissection libraries constructed by this microtechnology and proved that they are of high quality. We further demonstrated that these microdissection clones are useful in identifying corresponding YAC clones for a thousand-fold expansion of the genomic coverage and for contig construction. We are also improving the technique of cloning the dissected fragments in test tube by the TDT method. We are applying both of these PCR cloning technique to human chromosomes 2 and 5 to construct region-specific libraries for physical mapping purposes of LLNL and LANL. Finally, we are exploring efficient procedures to use unique sequence microclones to isolate cDNA clones from defined chromosomal regions as valuable resources for identifying expressed gene sequences in the human genome. We believe that we are making important progress under the auspices of this DOE human genome program grant and we will continue to make significant contributions in the coming year. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Centromere Destiny in Dicentric Chromosomes: New Insights from the Evolution of Human Chromosome 2 Ancestral Centromeric Region.

    PubMed

    Chiatante, Giorgia; Giannuzzi, Giuliana; Calabrese, Francesco Maria; Eichler, Evan E; Ventura, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Dicentric chromosomes are products of genomic rearrangements that place two centromeres on the same chromosome. Due to the presence of two primary constrictions, they are inherently unstable and overcome their instability by epigenetically inactivating and/or deleting one of the two centromeres, thus resulting in functionally monocentric chromosomes that segregate normally during cell division. Our understanding to date of dicentric chromosome formation, behavior and fate has been largely inferred from observational studies in plants and humans as well as artificially produced de novo dicentrics in yeast and in human cells. We investigate the most recent product of a chromosome fusion event fixed in the human lineage, human chromosome 2, whose stability was acquired by the suppression of one centromere, resulting in a unique difference in chromosome number between humans (46 chromosomes) and our most closely related ape relatives (48 chromosomes). Using molecular cytogenetics, sequencing, and comparative sequence data, we deeply characterize the relicts of the chromosome 2q ancestral centromere and its flanking regions, gaining insight into the ancestral organization that can be easily broadened to all acrocentric chromosome centromeres. Moreover, our analyses offered the opportunity to trace the evolutionary history of rDNA and satellite III sequences among great apes, thus suggesting a new hypothesis for the preferential inactivation of some human centromeres, including IIq. Our results suggest two possible centromere inactivation models to explain the evolutionarily stabilization of human chromosome 2 over the last 5-6 million years. Our results strongly favor centromere excision through a one-step process. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Yeast artificial chromosome and radiation hybrid map of loci in chromosome band 8p22, a common region of allelic loss in multiple human cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Bookstein, R.; Levy, A.; MacGrogan, D.

    1994-11-15

    Polymorphic alleles at loci such as LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and MSR (macrophage scavenger receptor) in chromosome band 8p22 are frequently lost during the genesis of several types of human cancer, including colorectal, non-small cell lung, hepatocellular, and prostatic carcinomas. A physical map of 31 published or novel probes and sequence-tagged sites in this genetic region was constructed using a radiation hybrid panel and the CEPH (Centre d`Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library. Thirty-six overlapping YACs defined a physical order for the following polymorphic markers: tel-D8S26-D8S511-D8S549-MSR-D8S254-D8S233-D8S261-D8S21-LPL-D8S2580 cen. These maps unify small consensus regions of allelic loss on chromosome 8p defined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms with more informative PCR-based polymorphisms and widely available YAC mapping resources. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Direct selection in the BRCA1 region of human chromosome 17q21

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne-Lawrence, S.L.; Welcsh, P.L.; Gallardo, T.D.

    1994-09-01

    Direct cDNA selection was used to obtain candidate genes within the region of human chromosome 17q21 associated with early onset familial breast and ovarian cancer (BRCA1). Four sets of pooled cosmids (10 to 25 per set) derived from this region were used in the selection of cDNAs from four complex human cDNA pools: placenta, fetal head, HeLa cells, and activated T cells. Two YACs within our contig were also used in a separate selection. A reporter gene, estradiol 17 beta-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase (EDH17B), located on one of the cosmids in the contig of the region, was monitored to observe the efficiency of the selection. A >10,000-fold enrichment of EDH17B was seen after two rounds of selection based on the number of EDH17B clones found in the resultant selected library. Selected inserts were cloned into lambda gt10, amplified with the PCR using vector primers, and dot blotted. 200 inserts have been hybridized individually to cosmids from the contig and to the cDNA dot blots. Approximately 70% of these map back to specific cosmids or YACs in the region. These PCR products were sequenced directly and analyzed for homology against each other as well as against sequences within GenBank. At least 23 new genes have been identified and isolated from this region based on sequence and hybridization overlaps. Seventeen of these cDNAs appear to be unique, two are known genes previously mapped to the region, one has homology to a known known Drosophilia gene, one is homologous to a human non-histone chromosomal protein HMG-17, and two are new members of gene families. These cDNAs are being used for mutational analyses in affected women from families with multiple cases of breast and ovarian cancer.

  16. Chromosome

    MedlinePlus

    Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

  17. Localization of chromosome regions in potoroo nuclei ( Potorous tridactylus Marsupialia: Potoroinae).

    PubMed

    Rens, W; O'Brien, P C M; Graves, J A M; Ferguson-Smith, M A

    2003-08-01

    Chromosome paints of the rat kangaroo ( Aepyprymnus rufuscens, 2 n=32) were used to define chromosome regions in the long nosed potoroo ( Potorous tridactylus, 2 n=12 female, 13 male) karyotype and localize these regions in three-dimensionally preserved nuclei of the potoroo to test the hypothesis that marsupial chromosomes have a radial distribution. In human nuclei chromosomes are distributed in a proposed radial fashion. Gene-rich chromosomes in the human interphase nucleus are preferentially located in the central area while gene-poor chromosomes are found more at the periphery of the nucleus; this feature is conserved in primates and chicken. Chromosome ordering in nuclei of P. tridactylus is related to their size and centromere position. Its relationship with replication patterns in interphase nuclei and metaphase was studied. In addition it was observed that the nucleus was not a smooth entity but had projections occupied by specific chromosome regions.

  18. Regional association analysis delineates a sequenced chromosome region influencing antinutritive seed meal compounds in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, R J; Wittkop, B; Rezaidad, A; Hasan, M; Lipsa, F; Stein, A; Friedt, W

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the use of regional association analyses to delineate a sequenced region of a Brassica napus chromosome with a significant effect on antinutritive seed meal compounds in oilseed rape. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) influencing seed colour, fibre content, and phenolic compounds was mapped to the same position on B. napus chromosome A9 in biparental mapping populations from two different yellow-seeded × black-seeded B. napus crosses. Sequences of markers spanning the QTL region identified synteny to a sequence contig from the corresponding chromosome A9 in Brassica rapa. Remapping of sequence-derived markers originating from the B. rapa sequence contig confirmed their position within the QTL. One of these markers also mapped to a seed colour and fibre QTL on the same chromosome in a black-seeded × black-seeded B. napus cross. Consequently, regional association analysis was performed in a genetically diverse panel of dark-seeded, winter-type oilseed rape accessions. For this we used closely spaced simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers spanning the sequence contig covering the QTL region. Correction for population structure was performed using a set of genome-wide SSR markers. The identification of QTL-derived markers with significant associations to seed colour, fibre content, and phenolic compounds in the association panel enabled the identification of positional and functional candidate genes for B. napus seed meal quality within a small segment of the B. rapa genome sequence.

  19. Overlapping Numerical Cognition Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion or Turner Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, T. J.; Takarae, Y.; DeBoer, T.; McDonald-McGinn, D. M.; Zackai, E. H.; Ross, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Children with one of two genetic disorders (chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Turner syndrome) as well typically developing controls, participated in three cognitive processing experiments. Two experiments were designed to test cognitive processes involved in basic aspects numerical cognition. The third was a test of simple manual motor…

  20. Overlapping Numerical Cognition Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion or Turner Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, T. J.; Takarae, Y.; DeBoer, T.; McDonald-McGinn, D. M.; Zackai, E. H.; Ross, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Children with one of two genetic disorders (chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Turner syndrome) as well typically developing controls, participated in three cognitive processing experiments. Two experiments were designed to test cognitive processes involved in basic aspects numerical cognition. The third was a test of simple manual motor…

  1. Age-associated hyper-methylated regions in the human brain overlap with bivalent chromatin domains.

    PubMed

    Watson, Corey T; Disanto, Giulio; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Breden, Felix; Giovannoni, Gavin; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2012-01-01

    Recent associations between age-related differentially methylated sites and bivalently marked chromatin domains have implicated a role for these genomic regions in aging and age-related diseases. However, the overlap between such epigenetic modifications has so far only been identified with respect to age-associated hyper-methylated sites in blood. In this study, we observed that age-associated differentially methylated sites characterized in the human brain were also highly enriched in bivalent domains. Analysis of hyper- vs. hypo-methylated sites partitioned by age (fetal, child, and adult) revealed that enrichment was significant for hyper-methylated sites identified in children and adults (child, fold difference = 2.28, P = 0.0016; adult, fold difference = 4.73, P = 4.00 × 10(-5)); this trend was markedly more pronounced in adults when only the top 100 most significantly hypo- and hyper-methylated sites were considered (adult, fold difference = 10.7, P = 2.00 × 10(-5)). Interestingly, we found that bivalently marked genes overlapped by age-associated hyper-methylation in the adult brain had strong involvement in biological functions related to developmental processes, including neuronal differentiation. Our findings provide evidence that the accumulation of methylation in bivalent gene regions with age is likely to be a common process that occurs across tissue types. Furthermore, particularly with respect to the aging brain, this accumulation might be targeted to loci with important roles in cell differentiation and development, and the closing off of these developmental pathways. Further study of these genes is warranted to assess their potential impact upon the development of age-related neurological disorders.

  2. Sex chromosome system ZZ/ZW in Apareiodon hasemani Eigenmann, 1916 (Characiformes, Parodontidae) and a derived chromosomal region

    PubMed Central

    Bellafronte, Elisangela; Schemberger, Michelle Orane; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Filho, Orlando Moreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Parodontidae fish show few morphological characteristics for the identification of their representatives and chromosomal analyses have provided reliable features for determining the interrelationships in this family. In this study, the chromosomes of Apareiodon hasemani from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil, were analyzed and showed a karyotype with 2n = 54 meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The study revealed active NORs located on pair 11 and additional 18S rDNA sites on pairs 7 and 22. The 5S rDNA locus was found in pair 14. It showed a pericentric inversion regarding the ancestral condition. The satellite DNA pPh2004 was absent in the chromosomes of A. hasemani, a shared condition with most members of Apareiodon. The WAp probe was able to detect the amplification region of the W chromosome, corroborating the common origin of the system within Parodontidae. These chromosomal data corroborate an origin for the ZW system of Parodontidae and aid in the understanding of the differentiation of sex chromosome systems in Neotropical fishes. PMID:23271937

  3. Patient with a 22q11.2 deletion with no overlap of the minimal DiGeorge syndrome critical region (MDGCR).

    PubMed

    McQuade, L; Christodoulou, J; Budarf, M; Sachdev, R; Wilson, M; Emanuel, B; Colley, A

    1999-09-03

    The apparent lack of genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with the DiGeorge anomaly and velocardiofacial syndrome (DGA/VCFS; the "22q11 deletion syndrome") indicates a complex genetic condition. Most cases, whatever the phenotype, have a 1.5-3 Mb chromosomal deletion that includes the minimal DiGeorge critical region (MDGCR). Another potential critical region on 22q11 has been suggested based on two patients with distal deletions outside the MDGCR. We report on a patient with a VCFS phenotype who has a deletion, mapped by short tandem repeat polymorphic loci and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, distal to and not overlapping the MDGCR. This patient is deleted for several genes, including the T-box 1 gene (TBX1; a transcription regulator expressed early in embryogenesis) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; involved in neurotransmitter metabolism). We discuss the role these two genes may play in the clinical phenotype of the patient.

  4. Overlapping two self-avoiding polymers in a closed cylindrical pore: Implications for chromosome segregation in a bacterial cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Youngkyun; Ha, Bae-Yeun

    2010-11-01

    We study the spatial organization and segregation of two self-avoiding polymers trapped inside a closed cylindrical pore. Using molecular-dynamics simulations, we show how confinement shapes the chains, especially their mutual (entropic) force, chain miscibility, and segregation dynamics. Under strong confinement, the chains are shown to repel more strongly and thus segregate better if they are shorter and the confining space is more asymmetric, in contrast to the spherically confined case, where nonlinear chain topology is required for chain partitioning in equilibrium. When applied to bacterial chromosomes, our results imply that chromosome miscibility depends on how they are compacted and structured inside the cell (by proteins and supercoiling). Finally, longitudinal confinement is shown to have nontrivial effects on segregation dynamics by randomizing and thus slowing down the segregation process, which would otherwise be assisted with entropic forces.

  5. An integrated YAC clone contig for the WAGR region on human chromosome 11p13-p14.1

    SciTech Connect

    Gawin, B.; Klamt, B.; Koenig, A.; Thaete, C.

    1995-11-01

    The WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genito-urinary anomalies, and mental retardation) deletion region on chromosome 11p13 has been extensively characterized by deletion analysis and long-range restriction mapping. A dense probe set is available for this genomic region, which harbors a number of disease gene loci, some of which still are not cloned. The identification of candidates for these genes would be greatly facilitated by a complete gene map for this chromosomal segment. As an initial step toward this goal, we have isolated the entire region in 58 overlapping YAC clones. The contig spanning 8 Mb from RAG1 to KCNA4 has been assembled by STS and probe content mapping for 76 loci with an average spacing of about 100 kb. A subset of clones has been analyzed by PFG analysis to position these within the known physical map. Common microsatellite markers permit an alignment of the YAC contig with the genetic and radiation hybrid maps of chromosome 11. Ten known genes, some with much more refined map positions, are placed in the contig. The severalfold coverage of 11p13-p14.1 provides a reliable resource for the future development of a complete gene map of this region. 34 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews.

    PubMed

    Nebel, A; Filon, D; Weiss, D A; Weale, M; Faerman, M; Oppenheim, A; Thomas, M G

    2000-12-01

    High-resolution Y chromosome haplotype analysis was performed in 143 paternally unrelated Israeli and Palestinian Moslem Arabs (I&P Arabs) by screening for 11 binary polymorphisms and six microsatellite loci. Two frequent haplotypes were found among the 83 detected: the modal haplotype of the I&P Arabs (approximately 14%) was spread throughout the region, while its one-step microsatellite neighbor, the modal haplotype of the Galilee sample (approximately 8%), was mainly restricted to the north. Geographic substructuring within the Arabs was observed in the highlands of Samaria and Judea. Y chromosome variation in the I&P Arabs was compared to that of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews, and to that of North Welsh individuals. At the haplogroup level, defined by the binary polymorphisms only, the Y chromosome distribution in Arabs and Jews was similar but not identical. At the haplotype level, determined by both binary and microsatellite markers, a more detailed pattern was observed. Single-step microsatellite networks of Arab and Jewish haplotypes revealed a common pool for a large portion of Y chromosomes, suggesting a relatively recent common ancestry. The two modal haplotypes in the I&P Arabs were closely related to the most frequent haplotype of Jews (the Cohen modal haplotype). However, the I&P Arab clade that includes the two Arab modal haplotypes (and makes up 32% of Arab chromosomes) is found at only very low frequency among Jews, reflecting divergence and/or admixture from other populations.

  7. Crossover Interference on Nucleolus Organizing Region-Bearing Chromosomes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Sandy Y.; Horn, Sarah R.; Radford, Sarah J.; Housworth, Elizabeth A.; Stahl, Franklin W.; Copenhaver, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, crossovers are not independently distributed along the length of a chromosome. Instead, they appear to avoid close proximity to one another—a phenomenon known as crossover interference. Previously, for three of the five Arabidopsis chromosomes, we measured the strength of interference and suggested a model wherein some crossovers experience interference while others do not. Here we show, using the same model, that the fraction of interference-insensitive crossovers is significantly smaller on the remaining two chromosomes. Since these two chromosomes bear the Arabidopsis NOR domains, the possibility that these chromosomal regions influence interference is discussed. PMID:15802520

  8. Crossover interference on nucleolus organizing region-bearing chromosomes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sandy Y; Horn, Sarah R; Radford, Sarah J; Housworth, Elizabeth A; Stahl, Franklin W; Copenhaver, Gregory P

    2005-06-01

    In most eukaryotes, crossovers are not independently distributed along the length of a chromosome. Instead, they appear to avoid close proximity to one another--a phenomenon known as crossover interference. Previously, for three of the five Arabidopsis chromosomes, we measured the strength of interference and suggested a model wherein some crossovers experience interference while others do not. Here we show, using the same model, that the fraction of interference-insensitive crossovers is significantly smaller on the remaining two chromosomes. Since these two chromosomes bear the Arabidopsis NOR domains, the possibility that these chromosomal regions influence interference is discussed.

  9. Molecular definition of the shortest region of deletion overlap in the Langer-Giedion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Johnson, Carey; Wagner, Michael J.; Wells, Dan E.; Turleau, Catherine; Tommerup, Niels; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Sandig, Klaus-Rainer; Meinecke, Peter; Zabel, Bernhard; Horsthemke, Bernhard

    1991-01-01

    The Langer-Giedion syndrome (LGS), which is characterized by craniofacial dysmorphism and skeletal abnormalities, is caused by a genetic defect in 8q24.1. We have used 13 anonymous DNA markers from an 8q24.1-specific microdissection library, as well as c-myc and thyroglobulin gene probes, to map the deletion breakpoints in 16 patients with LGS. Twelve patients had a cytogenetically visible deletion, two patients had an apparently balanced translocation, and two patients had an apparently normal karyotype. In all cases except one translocation patient, loss of genetic material was detected. The DNA markers fall into 10 deletion intervals. Clone L48 (D8S51) defines the shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO), which is estimated to be less than 2 Mbp. Three clones–pl7-2.3EE (D8S43), L24 (D8S45), and L40 (D8S49)–which flank the SRO recognize evolutionarily conserved sequences. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:1836105

  10. A 1.5-Mb contig within the cat eye syndrome critical region at human chromosome 22q11.2.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A; Minoshima, S; Asakawa, S; Shimizu, N; Shizuya, H; Roe, B A; McDermid, H E

    1999-04-15

    We have constructed a 1.5-Mb contig spanning the distal half of the critical region for cat eye syndrome on human chromosome 22 from D22S543 to D22S181. The contig consists of 20 P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones and 11 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones screened from 2 BAC and 2 PAC libraries. Continuous overlap between the clones was confirmed using vectorette PCR and riboprobes. Despite the instability of this region in a previous YAC contig, only 1 BAC showed a minor instability and then in only one isolation. This contig is now providing the basis for genomic sequencing and gene identification in the cat eye syndrome critical region.

  11. [Comparative FISH analysis of C-positive regions of chromosomes of wood mice (Rodentia, Muridae, Sylvaemus)].

    PubMed

    Rubtsov, N B; Karamysheva, T V; Bogdanov, A S; Likhoshvaĭ, T V; Kartavtseva, I V

    2011-09-01

    The homology of DNA of C-positive centromeric regions of chromosomes in wood mice of the genus Sylvaemus (S. uralensis, S. fulvipectus, S. sylvaticus, S. flavicollis, and S. ponticus) was estimated for the first time. DNA probes were generated by microdissection from the centromeric regions of individual autosomes of each species, and their fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with metaphase chromosomes of representatives of all studied wood mouse species was carried out. Unlike in the chromosomal forms and races of S. uralensis, changes in the DNA composition of the chromosomal centromeric regions in the wood mouse species of the genus Sylvaemus (including closely related S. flavicollis and S. ponticus) are both quantitative and qualitative. The patterns of FISH signals after in situ hybridization of the microdissection DNA probes with chromosomes of the species involved in the study demonstrate significant differences between C-positive regions of wood mouse chromosomes in the copy number and the level of homology of repetitive sequences as well as in the localization of homologous repetitive sequences. It was shown that C-positive regions of wood mouse chromosomes can contain both homologous and distinct sets of repetitive sequences. Regions enriched with homologous repeats were detected either directly in C-positive regions of individual chromosomes or only on the short arms of acrocentrics, or at the boundary of C-positive and C-negative regions.

  12. A Genetic and Molecular Analysis of the 46c Chromosomal Region Surrounding the Fmrfamide Neuropeptide Gene in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, M. A.; Roberts, M. S.; Taghert, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the FMRFamide neuropeptide gene region of Drosophila melanogaster. This gene maps to the 46C region of chromosome 2R; this interval previously was not well characterized. For this genetic and molecular analysis, we have used X-ray mutagenesis, EMS mutagenesis, and the recently reported local P element transposition method. We identified four overlapping deletions, two of which have proximal breakpoints that define a 50-60-kb region surrounding the FMRFamide gene in 46C. To this small region, we mapped three lethal complementation groups; 10 additional lethal complementation groups were mapped to more distal regions of 46CD. One of these groups corresponds to even-skipped, the other 12 are previously unidentified. Using various lines of evidence we excluded the possibility that FMRFamide corresponds to any of the three lethal complementation groups mapping to its immediate 50-60-kb vicinity. The positions of two of the three lethal complementation groups were identified with P elements using a local transposition scheme. The third lethal complementation group was excluded as being FMRFamide mutants by sequence analysis and by immunocytochemistry with proFMRFamide precursor-specific antibodies. This analysis has (1) provided a genetic map of the 46CD chromosomal region and a detailed molecular map of a portion of the 46C region and (2) provided additional evidence of the utility of local transposition for targeting nearby genes. PMID:8056304

  13. Conservation of Regional Variation in Sex-Specific Sex Chromosome Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Alison E.; Zimmer, Fabian; Harrison, Peter W.; Mank, Judith E.

    2015-01-01

    Regional variation in sex-specific gene regulation has been observed across sex chromosomes in a range of animals and is often a function of sex chromosome age. The avian Z chromosome exhibits substantial regional variation in sex-specific regulation, where older regions show elevated levels of male-biased expression. Distinct sex-specific regulation also has been observed across the male hypermethylated (MHM) region, which has been suggested to be a region of nascent dosage compensation. Intriguingly, MHM region regulatory features have not been observed in distantly related avian species despite the hypothesis that it is situated within the oldest region of the avian Z chromosome and is therefore orthologous across most birds. This situation contrasts with the conservation of other aspects of regional variation in gene expression observed on the avian sex chromosomes but could be the result of sampling bias. We sampled taxa across the Galloanserae, an avian clade spanning 90 million years, to test whether regional variation in sex-specific gene regulation across the Z chromosome is conserved. We show that the MHM region is conserved across a large portion of the avian phylogeny, together with other sex-specific regulatory features of the avian Z chromosome. Our results from multiple lines of evidence suggest that the sex-specific expression pattern of the MHM region is not consistent with nascent dosage compensation. PMID:26245831

  14. Topological Organization of Multi-chromosomal Regions by Firre

    PubMed Central

    Hacisuleyman, Ezgi; Goff, Loyal A.; Trapnell, Cole; Williams, Adam; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Sun, Lei; McClanahan, Patrick; Hendrickson, David G.; Sauvageau, Martin; Kelley, David R.; Morse, Michael; Engreitz, Jesse; Lander, Eric S.; Guttman, Mitch; Lodish, Harvey F.; Flavell, Richard; Raj, Arjun; Rinn, John L.

    2014-01-01

    RNA is known to be an abundant and important structural component of the nuclear matrix, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA). Yet the molecular identities, functional roles, and localization dynamics of lncRNAs that influence nuclear architecture remain poorly understood. Here, we describe one lncRNA, Firre, that interacts with the nuclear matrix factor hnRNPU, through a 156 bp repeating sequence and Firre localizes across a ~5 Mb domain on the X-chromosome. We further observed Firre localization across at least five distinct trans-chromosomal loci, which reside in spatial proximity to the Firre genomic locus on the X-chromosome. Both genetic deletion of the Firre locus or knockdown of hnRNPU resulted in loss of co-localization of these trans-chromosomal interacting loci. Thus, our data suggest a model in which lncRNAs such as Firre can interface with and modulate nuclear architecture across chromosomes. PMID:24463464

  15. Sex chromosome loss and the pseudoautosomal region genes in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Stephanie; Stoner, Samuel A.; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2016-01-01

    Cytogenetic aberrations, such as chromosomal translocations, aneuploidy, and amplifications, are frequently detected in hematological malignancies. For many of the common autosomal aberrations, the mechanisms underlying their roles in cancer development have been well-characterized. On the contrary, although loss of a sex chromosome is observed in a broad range of hematological malignancies, how it cooperates in disease development is less understood. Nevertheless, it has been postulated that tumor suppressor genes reside on the sex chromosomes. Although the X and Y sex chromosomes are highly divergent, the pseudoautosomal regions are homologous between both chromosomes. Here, we review what is currently known about the pseudoautosomal region genes in the hematological system. Additionally, we discuss implications for haploinsufficiency of critical pseudoautosomal region sex chromosome genes, driven by sex chromosome loss, in promoting hematological malignancies. Because mechanistic studies on disease development rely heavily on murine models, we also discuss the challenges and caveats of existing models, and propose alternatives for examining the involvement of pseudoautosomal region genes and loss of a sex chromosome in vivo. With the widespread detection of loss of a sex chromosome in different hematological malignances, the elucidation of the role of pseudoautosomal region genes in the development and progression of these diseases would be invaluable to the field. PMID:27655702

  16. Regions of the polytene chromosomes of Drosophila virilis carrying multiple dispersed p Dv 111 DNA sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Gubenko, I.S.; Evgen'ev, M.B.

    1986-09-01

    The cloned sequences of p Dv 111 DNA hybridized in situ with more than 170 regions of Drosophila virilis salivary gland chromosomes. Comparative autoradiography of in situ hybridization and the nature of pulse /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 3/H-deoxycytidine incorporation into the polytene chromosomes of D. virilis at the puparium formation stage showed that the hybridization sites of p Dv 111 are distributed not only in the heterochromatic regions but also in the euchromatic regions of the chromosomes that are not late replicating. Two distinct bands of hybridization of p Dv 111 /sup 3/H-DNA were observed in the region of the heat shock puff 20CD. The regions of the distal end of chromosome 2, in which breaks appeared during radiation-induced chromosomal rearrangements, hybridized with the p Dv 111 DNA.

  17. Karyotypes, C-banding, and chromosomal location of active nucleolar organizing regions in Tapinoma (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Palomeque, T; Chica, E; Cano, M A; Díaz de la Guardia, R

    1988-04-01

    The haploid and diploid karyotypes of Tapinoma erraticum (n = 8) and Tapinoma nigerrimum (n = 9) were analyzed using C-banding and observation of NOR sites. C-banding showed the existence of heterochromatin in the paracentromeric regions of all chromosomes. The analysis of NOR sites in these species proved the existence of primary activity NOR in one or two chromosomes, respectively, whereas the other chromosomes showed secondary activity NOR, expressed only in a minority of cells. In both species the NOR were located in paracentromeric regions. These results are discussed in relation to a hypothesis of chromosome differentiation of these species.

  18. Isolation and refined regional mapping of expressed sequences from human chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, F.T.; Yu, J.; Patterson, D.

    1994-10-01

    To increase candidate genes from human chromosome 21 for the analysis of Down syndrome and other genetic diseases localized on this chromosome, we have isolated and studied 9 cDNA clones encoded by chromosome 21. For isolating cDNAs, single-copy microclones from a chromosome 21 microdissection library were used in direct screening of various cDNA libraries. Seven of the cDNA clones have been regionally mapped on chromosome 21 using a comprehensive hybrid mapping panel comprising 24 cell hybrids that divide the chromosome into 33 subregions. These cDNA clones with refined mapping positions should be useful for identification and cloning of genes responsible for the specific component phenotypes of Down syndrome and other diseases on chromosome 21, including progressive myoclonus epilepsy in 21q22.3. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Multiple blood pressure loci with opposing blood pressure effects on rat chromosome 1 in a homologous region linked to hypertension on human chromosome 15.

    PubMed

    Mell, Blair; Abdul-Majeed, Shakila; Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Waghulde, Harshal; Pillai, Resmi; Nie, Ying; Joe, Bina

    2015-01-01

    Genetic dissection of blood pressure (BP) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in rats has facilitated the fine-mapping of regions linked to the inheritance of hypertension. The goal of the current study was to further fine-map one such genomic region on rat chromosome 1 (BPQTL1b1), the homologous region of which on human chromosome 15 harbors BP QTLs, as reported by four independent studies. Of the six substrains constructed and studied, the systolic BP of two of the congenic strains were significantly lower by 36 and 27 mm Hg than that of the salt-sensitive (S) rat (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0003, respectively). The congenic segments of these two strains overlapped between 135.12 and 138.78 Mb and contained eight genes and two predicted miRNAs. None of the annotations had variants within expressed sequences. These data taken together with the previous localization resolved QTL1b1 with a 70% improvement from the original 7.39 Mb to the current 2.247 Mb interval. Furthermore, the systolic BP of one of the congenic substrains was significantly higher by 20 mm Hg (P < 0.0001) than the BP of the S rat. The limits of this newly identified QTL with a BP increasing effect (QTL1b1a) were between 134.12 and 135.76 Mb, spanning 1.64 Mb, containing two protein-coding genes, Mctp2 and Rgma, and a predicted miRNA. There were four synonymous variants within Mctp2. These data provide evidence for two independent BP QTLs with opposing BP effects within the previously identified BP QTL1b1 region. Additionally, these findings illustrate the complexity underlying the genetic mechanisms of BP regulation, wherein inherited elements beyond protein-coding sequences or known regulatory regions could be operational.

  20. Genetic and Molecular Mapping of Chromosome Region 85a in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jones, W. K.; Rawls-Jr., J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Chromosome region 85A contains at least 12 genetic complementation groups, including the genes dhod, pink and hunchback. In order to better understand the organization of this chromosomal segment and to permit molecular studies of these genes, we have carried out a genetic analysis coupled with a chromosome walk to isolate the DNA containing these genes. Complementation tests with chromosomal deficiencies permitted unambiguous ordering of most of the complementation groups identified within the 85A region. Recombinant bacteriophage clones were isolated that collectively span over 120 kb of 85A DNA and these were used to produce a molecular map of the region. The breakpoint sites of a number of 85A chromosome rearrangements were localized on the molecular map, thereby delimiting regions of the DNA that contain the various genetic complementation groups. PMID:2852138

  1. Potential spatial overlap of heritage sites and protected areas in a boreal region of northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Shawn J; Schmiegelow, Fiona K A; Nagy, John A

    2007-04-01

    Under article 8-J of the Convention on Biological Diversity, governments must engage indigenous and local communities in the designation and management of protected areas. A better understanding of the relationship between community heritage sites and sites identified to protect conventional conservation features could inform conservation-planning exercises on indigenous lands. We examined the potential overlap between Gwich'in First Nations' (Northwest Territories, Canada) heritage sites and areas independently identified for the protection of conventional conservation targets. We designed nine hypothetical protected-area networks with different targets for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) habitat, high-quality wetland areas, representative vegetation types, water bodies, environmentally significant area, territorial parks, and network aggregation. We compared the spatial overlap of heritage sites to these nine protected-area networks. The degree of spatial overlap (Jaccard similarity) between heritage sites and the protected-area networks with moderate or high aggregation was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than random spatial overlap, whereas the overlap between heritage sites and the protected-area networks with no aggregation was not significant or significantly lower (p < 0.001) than random spatial overlap. Our results suggest that protected-area networks designed to capture conventional conservation features may protect key heritage sites but only if the underlying characteristics of these sites are considered. The Gwich'in heritage sites are highly aggregated and only protected-area networks that had moderate and high aggregation had significant overlap with the heritage sites. We suggest that conventional conservation plans incorporate heritage sites into their design criteria to complement conventional conservation targets and effectively protect indigenous heritage sites.

  2. Localization of the human mitochondrial citrate transporter protein gene to chromosome 22Q11 in the DiGeorge syndrome critical region.

    PubMed

    Heisterkamp, N; Mulder, M P; Langeveld, A; ten Hoeve, J; Wang, Z; Roe, B A; Groffen, J

    1995-09-20

    A high percentage of patients with DiGeorge syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome have interstitial deletions on chromosome 22q11. The shortest region of overlap is currently estimated to be around 55 kb. Two segments of DNA from chromosome 22q11, located 160 kb apart, were cloned because they contained NotI restriction enzyme sites. In the current study we demonstrate that these segments are absent from chromosomes 22 carrying microdeletions of two different DiGeorge patients. Fluorescence in situ and Southern blot hybridization was further used to show that this locus is within the DiGeorge critical region. Phylogenetically conserved sequences adjacent to one human cell lines. cDNAs isolated with a probe from this segment showed it to contain the gene for teh human mitochondrial citrate transporter protein. Deletion of this gene in DiGeorge syndrome and velocardio-facial syndrome may contribute to the mental deficiency seen in the patients.

  3. Conserved pattern of antisense overlapping transcription in the homologous human ERCC-1 and yeast RAD10 DNA repair gene regions.

    PubMed Central

    van Duin, M; van Den Tol, J; Hoeijmakers, J H; Bootsma, D; Rupp, I P; Reynolds, P; Prakash, L; Prakash, S

    1989-01-01

    We report that the genes for the homologous Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD10 and human ERCC-1 DNA excision repair proteins harbor overlapping antisense transcription units in their 3' regions. Since naturally occurring antisense transcription is rare in S. cerevisiae and humans (this is the first example in human cells), our findings indicate that antisense transcription in the ERCC-1-RAD10 gene regions represents an evolutionarily conserved feature. Images PMID:2471070

  4. Pitt-Rogers-Danks syndrome and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome are caused by a deletion in the same region on chromosome 4p 16.3.

    PubMed Central

    Kant, S G; Van Haeringen, A; Bakker, E; Stec, I; Donnai, D; Mollevanger, P; Beverstock, G C; Lindeman-Kusse, M C; Van Ommen, G J

    1997-01-01

    Recently, a deletion of chromosome 4pter was found in three patients with Pitt-Rogers-Danks syndrome. We investigated two of these patients, by means of DNA and FISH studies, together with two additional patients with Pitt-Rogers-Danks syndrome, to determine the critical region of the deletion in these patients and to compare this with the critical region in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. All four patients showed terminal deletions of chromosome 4p of different sizes. One of them appeared to have an unbalanced karyotype caused by a cryptic translocation t(4;8) in the mother, resulting in a deletion of chromosome 4pter and a duplication of chromosome 8pter. The localisation of the Wolf-Hirschhorn critical region has been confined to approximately 1 Mb between D4S43 and D4S115. Our study shows that the deletions in four patients with the Pitt-Rogers-Danks syndrome overlap the Wolf-Hirschhorn critical region and extend beyond this in both directions. This study, combined with the fact that our third patient, who was previously described as a Pitt-Rogers-Danks patient, but who now more closely resembles a Wolf-Hirschhorn patient, makes it likely that Pitt-Rogers-Danks and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndromes are different clinical phenotypes resulting from a deletion in the same microscopic region on chromosome 4p16. Images PMID:9222965

  5. A region of consistent deletion in neuroblastoma maps within human chromosome 1p36.2-36.3

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.S.; Maris, J.M.; Beltinger, C.

    1995-06-06

    Deletion of the short arm of human chromosome 1 is the most common cytogenetic abnormality observed in neuroblastoma. To characterize the region of consistent deletion, we performed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies on 122 neuroblastoma tumor samples with 30 distal chromosome 1p polymorphisms. LOH was detected in 32 of the 122 tumors (26%). A single region of LOH, marked distally by D1Z2 and proximally by D1S228, was detected in all tumors demonstrating loss. Also, cells from a patient with a constitutional deletion of 1p36, and from a neuroblastoma cell line with a small 1p36 deletion, were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cells from both sources had interstitial deletions of 1p36.2-36.3 which overlapped the consensus region of LOH defined by the tumors. Interstitial deletion in the constitutional case was confirmed by allelic loss studies using the panel of polymorphic markers. Four proposed candidate genes-DAN, ID3 (heir-1), CDC2L1 (p58), and TNFR2-were shown to lie outside of the consensus region of allelic loss, as defined by the above deletions. These results more precisely define the location of a neuroblastoma suppressor gene within 1p36.2-36.3, eliminating 33 centimorgans of proximal 1p36 from consideration. Furthermore, a consensus region of loss, which excludes the four leading candidate genes, was found in all tumors with 1p36 LOH. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields in convective regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, XiaoCong; Liu, YiMin; Bao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields are explored with the aid of a cloud-resolving model (CRM), which provided cloud geometry as well as cloud micro and macro properties. Large-scale forcing data to drive the CRM are from TRMM Kwajalein Experiment and the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment field campaigns during which abundant convective systems were observed. The investigated overlap assumptions include those that were traditional and widely used in the past and the one that was recently addressed by Hogan and Illingworth (2000), in which the vertically projected cloud fraction is expressed by a linear combination of maximum and random overlap, with the weighting coefficient depending on the so-called decorrelation length Lcf. Results show that both shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcings (SWCF/LWCF) are significantly underestimated under maximum (MO) and maximum-random (MRO) overlap assumptions, whereas remarkably overestimated under the random overlap (RO) assumption in comparison with that using CRM inherent cloud geometry. These biases can reach as high as 100 Wm- 2 for SWCF and 60 Wm- 2 for LWCF. By its very nature, the general overlap (GenO) assumption exhibits an encouraging performance on both SWCF and LWCF simulations, with the biases almost reduced by 3-fold compared with traditional overlap assumptions. The superiority of GenO assumption is also manifested in the simulation of shortwave and longwave radiative heating fields, which are either significantly overestimated or underestimated under traditional overlap assumptions. The study also pointed out the deficiency of constant assumption on Lcf in GenO assumption. Further examinations indicate that the CRM diagnostic Lcf varies among different cloud types and tends to be stratified in the vertical. The new parameterization that takes into account variation of Lcf in the vertical well reproduces such a relationship and

  7. DNA repair and crossing over favor similar chromosome regions as discovered in radiation hybrid of Triticum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The uneven distribution of recombination across the length of chromosomes results in inaccurate estimates of genetic to physical distances. In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3B, it has been estimated that 90% of the cross over occurs in distal sub-telomeric regions representing 40% of the...

  8. The impact of a massive star cluster on its surrounding matter in the Antennae overlap region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, C. N.; Boulanger, F.

    2017-04-01

    Super star clusters (SSCs), likely the progenitors of globular clusters, are one of the most extreme forms of star formation. Understanding how SSCs form is an observational challenge. Theoretical studies establish that, to form such clusters, the dynamical timescale of their parent clouds has to be shorter than the timescale of the disruption of their parent clouds by stellar feedback. However, due to insufficient observational support, it is still unclear how feedback from SSCs acts on the matter surrounding them. Studying feedback in SSCs is essential to understanding how such clusters form. Based on ALMA and VLT observations, we study this process in a SSC in the overlap region of the Antennae galaxies (22 Mpc), a spectacular example of a burst of star formation triggered by the encounter of two galaxies. We analyze a unique massive ( 107M⊙) and young (1-3.5 Myr) SSC, still associated with compact molecular and ionized gas emission, which suggest that it may still be embedded in its parent molecular cloud. The cluster has two CO velocity components, a low-velocity one spatially associated with the cluster, and a high-velocity one distributed in a bubble-like shape around the cluster. Our results on the low-velocity component suggest that this gas did not participate in the formation of the SSC. We propose that most of the parent cloud has already been blown away, accelerated at the early stages of the SSC evolution by radiation pressure, in a timescale 1 Myr. The high-velocity component may trace outflowing molecular gas from the parent cloud. Supporting evidence is found in shock-heated H2 gas and escaping Brγ gas associated with this component. The low-velocity component may be gas that was near the SSC when it formed but not part of its parent cloud or clumps that migrated from the SGMC environment. This gas would be dispersed by stellar winds and supernova explosions. The existing data is inconclusive as to whether or not the cluster is bound and will

  9. A Large Pseudoautosomal Region on the Sex Chromosomes of the Frog Silurana tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, Adam J.; Chain, Frédéric J.J.; Zimmerman, Lyle B.; Sesay, Abdul; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Owens, Nick D.L.; Seifertova, Eva; Krylov, Vladimir; Macha, Jaroslav; Tlapakova, Tereza; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Zarsky, Vojtech; Evans, Ben J.

    2013-01-01

    Sex chromosome divergence has been documented across phylogenetically diverse species, with amphibians typically having cytologically nondiverged (“homomorphic”) sex chromosomes. With an aim of further characterizing sex chromosome divergence of an amphibian, we used “RAD-tags” and Sanger sequencing to examine sex specificity and heterozygosity in the Western clawed frog Silurana tropicalis (also known as Xenopus tropicalis). Our findings based on approximately 20 million genotype calls and approximately 200 polymerase chain reaction-amplified regions across multiple male and female genomes failed to identify a substantially sized genomic region with genotypic hallmarks of sex chromosome divergence, including in regions known to be tightly linked to the sex-determining region. We also found that expression and molecular evolution of genes linked to the sex-determining region did not differ substantially from genes in other parts of the genome. This suggests that the pseudoautosomal region, where recombination occurs, comprises a large portion of the sex chromosomes of S. tropicalis. These results may in part explain why African clawed frogs have such a high incidence of polyploidization, shed light on why amphibians have a high rate of sex chromosome turnover, and raise questions about why homomorphic sex chromosomes are so prevalent in amphibians. PMID:23666865

  10. Chromosome Fragile Sites in Arabidopsis Harbor Matrix Attachment Regions That May Be Associated with Ancestral Chromosome Rearrangement Events

    PubMed Central

    dela Paz, Joelle S.; Stronghill, Patti E.; Douglas, Scott J.; Saravia, Sandy; Hasenkampf, Clare A.; Riggs, C. Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana condition a pleiotropic phenotype featuring defects in internode elongation, the homeotic conversion of internode to node tissue, and downward pointing flowers and pedicels. We have characterized five mutant alleles of BP, generated by EMS, fast neutrons, x-rays, and aberrant T–DNA insertion events. Curiously, all of these mutagens resulted in large deletions that range from 140 kbp to over 900 kbp just south of the centromere of chromosome 4. The breakpoints of these mutants were identified by employing inverse PCR and DNA sequencing. The south breakpoints of all alleles cluster in BAC T12G13, while the north breakpoint locations are scattered. With the exception of a microhomology at the bp-5 breakpoint, there is no homology in the junction regions, suggesting that double-stranded breaks are repaired via non-homologous end joining. Southwestern blotting demonstrated the presence of nuclear matrix binding sites in the south breakpoint cluster (SBC), which is A/T rich and possesses a variety of repeat sequences. In situ hybridization on pachytene chromosome spreads complemented the molecular analyses and revealed heretofore unrecognized structural variation between the Columbia and Landsberg erecta genomes. Data mining was employed to localize other large deletions around the HY4 locus to the SBC region and to show that chromatin modifications in the region shift from a heterochromatic to euchromatic profile. Comparisons between the BP/HY4 regions of A. lyrata and A. thaliana revealed that several chromosome rearrangement events have occurred during the evolution of these two genomes. Collectively, the features of the region are strikingly similar to the features of characterized metazoan chromosome fragile sites, some of which are associated with karyotype evolution. PMID:23284301

  11. The sex-specific region of sex chromosomes in animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Gschwend, Andrea R; Weingartner, Laura A; Moore, Richard C; Ming, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of sex chromosomes has increased greatly in recent years due to a number of molecular evolutionary investigations in divergent sex chromosome systems, and these findings are reshaping theories of sex chromosome evolution. In particular, the dynamics of the sex-determining region (SDR) have been demonstrated by recent findings in ancient and incipient sex chromosomes. Radical changes in genomic structure and gene content in the male specific region of the Y chromosome between human and chimpanzee indicated rapid evolution in the past 6 million years, defying the notion that the pace of evolution in the SDR was fast at early stages but slowed down overtime. The chicken Z and the human X chromosomes appeared to have acquired testis-expressed genes and expanded in intergenic regions. Transposable elements greatly contributed to SDR expansion and aided the trafficking of genes in the SDR and its X or Z counterpart through retrotransposition. Dosage compensation is not a destined consequence of sex chromosomes as once thought. Most X-linked microRNA genes escape silencing and are expressed in testis. Collectively, these findings are challenging many of our preconceived ideas of the evolutionary trajectory and fates of sex chromosomes.

  12. Protein composition of interband regions in polytene and cell line chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite many efforts, little is known about distribution and interactions of chromatin proteins which contribute to the specificity of chromomeric organization of interphase chromosomes. To address this issue, we used publicly available datasets from several recent Drosophila genome-wide mapping and annotation projects, in particular, those from modENCODE project, and compared molecular organization of 13 interband regions which were accurately mapped previously. Results Here we demonstrate that in interphase chromosomes of Drosophila cell lines, the interband regions are enriched for a specific set of proteins generally characteristic of the "open" chromatin (RNA polymerase II, CHRIZ (CHRO), BEAF-32, BRE1, dMI-2, GAF, NURF301, WDS and TRX). These regions also display reduced nucleosome density, histone H1 depletion and pronounced enrichment for ORC2, a pre-replication complex component. Within the 13 interband regions analyzed, most were around 3-4 kb long, particularly those where many of said protein features were present. We estimate there are about 3500 regions with similar properties in chromosomes of D. melanogaster cell lines, which fits quite well the number of cytologically observed interbands in salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Conclusions Our observations suggest strikingly similar organization of interband chromatin in polytene chromosomes and in chromosomes from cell lines thereby reflecting the existence of a universal principle of interphase chromosome organization. PMID:22093916

  13. Cytogenetic and molecular delineation of the smallest commonly deleted region of chromosome 5 in malignant myeloid diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Le Beau, M M; Espinosa, R; Neuman, W L; Stock, W; Roulston, D; Larson, R A; Keinanen, M; Westbrook, C A

    1993-01-01

    Loss of a whole chromosome 5 or a deletion of its long arm (5q) is a recurring abnormality in malignant myeloid neoplasms. To determine the location of genes on 5q that may be involved in leukemogenesis, we examined the deleted chromosome 5 homologs in a series of 135 patients with malignant myeloid diseases. By comparing the breakpoints, we identified a small segment of 5q, consisting of band 5q31, that was deleted in each patient. This segment has been termed the critical region. Distal 5q contains a number of genes encoding growth factors, hormone receptors, and proteins involved in signal transduction or transcriptional regulation. These include several genes that are good candidates for a tumor-suppressor gene, as well as the genes encoding five hematopoietic growth factors (CSF2, IL3, IL4, IL5, and IL9). By using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we have refined the localization of these genes to 5q31.1 and have determined the order of these genes and of other markers within 5q31. By hybridizing probes to metaphase cells with overlapping deletions involving 5q31, we have narrowed the critical region to a small segment of 5q31 containing the EGR1 gene. The five hematopoietic growth factor genes and seven other genes are excluded from this region. The EGR1 gene was not deleted in nine other patients with acute myeloid leukemia who did not have abnormalities of chromosome 5. By physical mapping, the minimum size of the critical region was estimated to be 2.8 megabases. This cytogenetic map of 5q31, together with the molecular characterization of the critical region, will facilitate the identification of a putative tumor-suppressor gene in this band. PMID:8516290

  14. Genomewide linkage analysis in Costa Rican families implicates chromosome 15q14 as a candidate region for OCD.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jessica; Badner, Judith; Garrido, Helena; Sheppard, Brooke; Chavira, Denise A; Grados, Marco; Woo, Jonathan M; Doo, Pamela; Umaña, Paula; Fournier, Eduardo; Murray, Sarah Shaw; Mathews, Carol A

    2011-12-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has a complex etiology that encompasses both genetic and environmental factors. However, to date, despite the identification of several promising candidate genes and linkage regions, the genetic causes of OCD are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to conduct linkage studies of childhood-onset OCD, which is thought to have the strongest genetic etiology, in several OCD-affected families from the genetically isolated population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR). The authors used parametric and non-parametric approaches to conduct genome-wide linkage analyses using 5,786 single nucleotide repeat polymorphisms (SNPs) in three CVCR families with multiple childhood-onset OCD-affected individuals. We identified areas of suggestive linkage (LOD score ≥ 2) on chromosomes 1p21, 15q14, 16q24, and 17p12. The strongest evidence for linkage was on chromosome 15q14 (LOD = 3.13), identified using parametric linkage analysis with a recessive model, and overlapping a region identified in a prior linkage study using a Caucasian population. Each CVCR family had a haplotype that co-segregated with OCD across a ~7 Mbp interval within this region, which contains 18 identified brain expressed genes, several of which are potentially relevant to OCD. Exonic sequencing of the strongest candidate gene in this region, the ryanodine receptor 3 (RYR3), identified several genetic variants of potential interest, although none co-segregated with OCD in all three families. These findings provide evidence that chromosome 15q14 is linked to OCD in families from the CVCR, and supports previous findings to suggest that this region may contain one or more OCD susceptibility loci.

  15. Chromosome 18 replaced by two ring chromosomes of chromosome 18 origin.

    PubMed

    Miller, K; Pabst, B; Ritter, H; Nürnberg, P; Siebert, R; Schmidtke, J; Arslan-Kirchner, M

    2003-04-01

    We here describe the first example of the replacement of an autosome by two ring chromosomes originating from the missing chromosome, presented in a patient with a single chromosome 18 and two additional ring chromosomes. Detailed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed the chromosome 18 origin of both ring chromosomes and characterized the small and the large ring chromosome as derivatives of the short and long arm of chromosome 18, respectively. The loss of subtelomeric regions of the short and the long arm of chromosome 18 in the ring chromosomes was confirmed by FISH studies. Molecular studies showed the exclusive presence of the paternal alleles for microsatellite markers located distal to the short and long arm loci D18S843 and D18S474, respectively. This indicates the maternal origin of both rings and provides evidence for substantial deletions of the distal parts of both arms of chromosome 18 in the ring chromosomes. The dysmorphic features of the patient can be explained by these deletions in both chromosome arms, as the clinical findings partly overlap with observations in 18p- and 18q-syndrome and are similar to some cases of ring chromosome 18. Centromere misdivision is suggested as one mechanism involved in the formation of the ring chromosomes.

  16. Assembly and analysis of cosmid contigs in the CEA-gene family region of human chromosome 19.

    PubMed Central

    Tynan, K; Olsen, A; Trask, B; de Jong, P; Thompson, J; Zimmermann, W; Carrano, A; Mohrenweiser, H

    1992-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-like genes are members of a large gene family which is part of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The CEA family is divided into two major subgroups, the CEA-subgroup and the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG)-subgroup. In the course of an effort to develop a set of overlapping cosmids spanning human chromosome 19, we identified 245 cosmids in a human chromosome 19 cosmid library (6-7X redundant) by hybridization with an IgC-like domain fragment of the CEA gene. A fluorescence-based restriction enzyme digest fingerprinting strategy was used to assemble 212 probe-positive cosmids, along with 115 additional cosmids from a collection of approximately 8,000 randomly selected cosmids, into five contigs. Two of the contigs contain CEA-subgroup genes while the remaining three contigs contain PSG-subgroup genes. These five contigs range in size from 100 kb to over 300 kb and span an estimated 1 Mb. The CEA-like gene family was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization to map in the q13.1-q13.2 region of human chromosome 19. Analysis of the two CEA-subgroup contigs provided verification of the contig assembly strategy and insight into the organization of 9 CEA-subgroup genes. PMID:1579453

  17. [B chromosome polymorphism of blackflies (Diptera, Simuliidae) from the north-western region of Russia].

    PubMed

    Chubareva, L A; Petrova, N A

    2006-01-01

    We have studied karyofonds of natural populations and B-chromosome morphology of 8 species of blackflies from the North-Western region of Russia: Odagmia ornata Mg., Hellichiella crassa Rubz., Simulium morsitans Edw., Simulium argyreatum Mg., Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duo-decimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. For this purpose we made slides of squashed blackflies larvae with salivary gland polytene chromosomes stained by aceto-orcein, in addition to similarly stained slides with mitotic chromosomes from gonads and ganglia. Morphology of polytene B-chromosomes of Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duodecimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. has been first described. B-chromosome polymorphism was found in all species, but the number of B chromosomes was conserved within each differences in polytene individual. Stable and distinct interspecific differences in the morphology of polytene B-chromosomes were demonstrated, and these characters are advisable to use to distinguish the species. We have investigated for the first time karyofonds of Od. ornata populations from Arkhangelsk Region (Solovetskie Islands) and Leningrad Region (railway station Sablino), and those of S. argyreatum populations from Murmansk Region (Kandalaksha environs) and Karelia (railway station Chupa). A long term study of Od. ornata and S. argyrestum population from North-Western Russia revealed interspecific and interpopulation dynamics of the occurrence of specimens with B-chromosomes. Some populations showed an increased percentage of individuals with B-chromosomes. It is suggested that B-chromosomes may play a role in adaptation of polulations to severe environmental conditions.

  18. Regional deletion and amplification on chromosome 6 in a uveal melanoma case without abnormalities on chromosomes 1p, 3 and 8.

    PubMed

    van Gils, Walter; Kilic, Emine; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Vaarwater, Jolanda; Verbiest, Michael M; Beverloo, Berna; van Til-Berg, Marjan E; Paridaens, Dion; Luyten, Gregorius P; de Klein, Annelies

    2008-02-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Loss of the long arm and gain of the short arm of chromosome 6 are frequently observed chromosomal aberrations in UM, together with loss of chromosome 1p36, loss of chromosome 3 and gain of chromosome 8. This suggests the presence of one or more oncogenes on 6p and tumor suppressor genes at 6q that are involved in UM development. Both regions, however, have not been well defined yet. Furthermore in other neoplasms gain of 6p and loss of 6q are frequently occurring events. In this case report, we describe the delineation of a partial gain on chromosome 6p and a partial deletion on 6q in a UM with the objective to pinpoint smaller candidate regions on chromosome 6 involved in UM development. Conventional cytogenetics, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) were used to delineate regions of loss and gain on chromosome 6 in this UM patient. With conventional cytogenetics a deleted region was found on chromosome 6q that was further delineated to a region ranging from 6q16.1 to 6q22 using CGH and FISH. A region of gain from 6pter to 6p21.2 was also demarcated with CGH and FISH. No other deletions or amplifications on recurrently involved chromosomes were found in this patient. This study indicates the presence of one or more tumor suppressor genes on chromosomal region 6q16.1-6q22 and the presence of one or more oncogenes on chromosomal region 6pter-6p21.2, which are likely to be important in UM and other tumors.

  19. Regional localization of the gene for thyroid peroxidase to human chromosome 2p25 and mouse chromosome 12C

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Yuichi; Onogi, Satoshi; Fujita, Teizo

    1995-02-10

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) plays a central role in thyroid gland function. The enzyme catalyzes two important reactions of thyroid hormone synthesis, i.e., the iodination of tyrosine residues in thyroglobulin and phenoxy-ester formation between pairs of iodinated tyrosines to generate the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Previously, we isolated the cDNAs encoding human and mouse TPOs and assigned the human TPO gene to the short arm of chromosome 2 by somatic cell hybrid mapping. By a similar analysis of DNA from somatic cell hybrids, the human TPO gene was mapped to 2pter-p12. The mouse TPO gene was localized to chromosome 12 using a rat TPO cDNA as a probe to hybridize with mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrids. In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to confirm the localization of human and mouse TPO genes to human chromosome 2 and mouse chromosome 12 and to assign them regionally to 2p25 and 12C, respectively. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Detailed comparative mapping of cereal chromosome regions corresponding to the Ph1 locus in wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, T.; Roberts, M.; Kurata, N.

    1997-10-01

    Detailed physical mapping of markers from rich chromosome 9, and from syntenous (at the genetic level) regions of other cereal genomes, has resulted in rice yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contigs spanning parts of rice 9. This physical mapping, together with comparative genetic mapping, has demonstrated that synteny has been largely maintained between the genomes of several cereals at the level of contiged YACs. Markers located in one region of rice chromosome 9 encompassed by the YAC contigs have exhibited restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using deletion lines for the Ph1 locus. This has allowed demarcation of the region of rice chromosome 9 syntenous with the phlb and phlc deletions in wheat chromosome 5B. A group of probes located in wheat homoeologous group 5 and barley chromosome 5H, however, have synteny with rice chromosomes other than 9. This suggests that the usefulness of comparative trait analysis and of the rice genome as a tool to facilitate gene isolation will differ from one region to the next, and implies that the rice genome is more ancestral in structure than those of the Triticeae. 38 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. [Late-replicating regions in salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikov, T D; Andreenkova, N G; Beliaeva, E S; Goncharov, F P; Zykova, T Iu; Boldyreva, L V; Pokholkova, g V; Zhimulev, I F

    2013-01-01

    About 240 specific regions that are replicated at the very end of the S-phase have been identified in D. melanogaster polytene chromosomes. These regions have a repressive chromatine state, low gene density, long intergenic distances and are enriched in tissue specific genes. In polytene chromosomes, about a quarter of these regions have no enough time to complete replication. As a result, underreplication zones represented by fewer DNA copy number, appear. We studied 60 chromosome regions that demonstrated the most pronounced under-replication. By comparing the location of these regions on a molecular map with syntenic blocks found earlier for Drosophila species by von Grotthuss et al., 2010, we have shown that across the genus Drosophila, these regions tend to have conserved gene order. This forces us to assume the existence of evolutionary mechanisms aimed at maintaining the integrity of these regions.

  2. Autoimmune Responses to Soluble Aggregates of Amyloidogenic Proteins Involved in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Overlapping Aggregation Prone and Autoimmunogenic regions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Thangakani, A Mary; Nagarajan, R; Singh, Satish K; Velmurugan, D; Gromiha, M Michael

    2016-02-29

    Why do patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases generate autoantibodies that selectively bind soluble aggregates of amyloidogenic proteins? Presently, molecular basis of interactions between the soluble aggregates and human immune system is unknown. By analyzing sequences of experimentally validated T-cell autoimmune epitopes, aggregating peptides, amyloidogenic proteins and randomly generated peptides, here we report overlapping regions that likely drive aggregation as well as generate autoantibodies against the aggregates. Sequence features, that make short peptides susceptible to aggregation, increase their incidence in human T-cell autoimmune epitopes by 4-6 times. Many epitopes are predicted to be significantly aggregation prone (aggregation propensities ≥10%) and the ones containing experimentally validated aggregating regions are enriched in hydrophobicity by 10-20%. Aggregate morphologies also influence Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)--types recognized by the aggregating regions containing epitopes. Most (88%) epitopes that contain amyloid fibril forming regions bind HLA-DR, while majority (63%) of those containing amorphous β-aggregating regions bind HLA-DQ. More than two-thirds (70%) of human amyloidogenic proteins contain overlapping regions that are simultaneously aggregation prone and auto-immunogenic. Such regions help clear soluble aggregates by generating selective autoantibodies against them. This can be harnessed for early diagnosis of proteinopathies and for drug/vaccine design against them.

  3. Autoimmune Responses to Soluble Aggregates of Amyloidogenic Proteins Involved in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Overlapping Aggregation Prone and Autoimmunogenic regions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Thangakani, A. Mary; Nagarajan, R.; Singh, Satish K.; Velmurugan, D.; Gromiha, M. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Why do patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases generate autoantibodies that selectively bind soluble aggregates of amyloidogenic proteins? Presently, molecular basis of interactions between the soluble aggregates and human immune system is unknown. By analyzing sequences of experimentally validated T-cell autoimmune epitopes, aggregating peptides, amyloidogenic proteins and randomly generated peptides, here we report overlapping regions that likely drive aggregation as well as generate autoantibodies against the aggregates. Sequence features, that make short peptides susceptible to aggregation, increase their incidence in human T-cell autoimmune epitopes by 4–6 times. Many epitopes are predicted to be significantly aggregation prone (aggregation propensities ≥10%) and the ones containing experimentally validated aggregating regions are enriched in hydrophobicity by 10–20%. Aggregate morphologies also influence Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - types recognized by the aggregating regions containing epitopes. Most (88%) epitopes that contain amyloid fibril forming regions bind HLA-DR, while majority (63%) of those containing amorphous β-aggregating regions bind HLA-DQ. More than two-thirds (70%) of human amyloidogenic proteins contain overlapping regions that are simultaneously aggregation prone and auto-immunogenic. Such regions help clear soluble aggregates by generating selective autoantibodies against them. This can be harnessed for early diagnosis of proteinopathies and for drug/vaccine design against them. PMID:26924748

  4. High-resolution G-banding and nucleolus-organizer regions of chromosomes of vole Microtus kirgisorum

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurok, N.A.; Rubtsov, N.B.; Ovechkina, Y.Y.

    1995-08-01

    The use of G-banding of chromosomes in combination with the pipette method of chromosome preparation at the early metaphase made it possible to distinguish about 520 segments in the haploid chromosome set of vole Microtus kirgisorum. The idiogram of M. kirgisorum chromosomes was obtained on the basis of detailed investigation of chromosomes at different condensation levels. Data of the localization and the number of nucleolus-organizer regions are given. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Narrowing the genetic interval and yeast artificial chromosome map in the branchio-oto-renal region on chromosome 8q

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Shrawan; Kimberling, W.J.; Pinnt, J.

    1996-01-01

    Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by branchial abnormality, hearing loss, and renal anomalies. Recently, the disease gene has been localized to chromosome 8q. Here, we report genetic studies that further refine the disease gene region to a smaller interval and identify several YACs from the critical region. We studied two large, clinically well-characterized BOR families with a set of 13 polymorphic markers spanning the D8S165-D8S275 interval from the chromosome 8q region. Based on multipoint analysis, the highest likelihood for the location of the BOR gene is between markers D8S543 and D8S530, a distance of about 2 cM. YACs that map in the BOR critical region have been identified and characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A YAC contig, based on the STS content map, that covers a minimum of 4 Mb of human DNA in the critical region of BOR is assembled. This lays the groundwork for the construction of a transcriptional map of this region and the eventual identification of genes involved in BOR syndrome. 40 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Comparative Mapping of the Region of Human Chromosome 7 Deleted in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    DeSilva, Udaya; Massa, Hillary; Trask, Barbara J.; Green, Eric D.

    1999-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a complex developmental disorder resulting from the deletion of a large (∼1.5–2 Mb) segment of human chromosome 7q11.23. Physical mapping studies have revealed that this deleted region, which contains a number of known genes, is flanked by several large, nearly identical blocks of DNA. The presence of such highly related DNA segments in close physical proximity to one another has hampered efforts to elucidate the precise long-range organization of this segment of chromosome 7. To gain insight about the structure and evolutionary origins of this important and complex genomic region, we have constructed a fully contiguous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) contig map encompassing the corresponding region on mouse chromosome 5. In contrast to the difficulties encountered in constructing a clone-based physical map of the human WS region, the BAC/PAC-based map of the mouse WS region was straightforward to construct, with no evidence of large duplicated segments, such as those encountered in the human WS region. To confirm this difference, representative human and mouse BACs were used as probes for performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to metaphase and interphase chromosomes. Human BACs derived from the nonunique portion of the WS region hybridized to multiple, closely spaced regions on human chromosome 7q11.23. In contrast, corresponding mouse BACs hybridized to a single site on mouse chromosome 5. Furthermore, FISH analysis revealed the presence of duplicated segments within the WS region of various nonhuman primates (chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon). Hybridization was also noted at the genomic locations corresponding to human chromosome 7p22 and 7q22 in human, chimpanzee, and gorilla, but not in the other animal species examined. Together, these results indicate that the WS region is associated with large, duplicated blocks of DNA on human chromosome 7q11.23 as well

  7. Identification of chromosome 7 inversion breakpoints in an autistic family narrows candidate region for autism susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Cukier, Holly N; Skaar, David A; Rayner-Evans, Melissa Y; Konidari, Ioanna; Whitehead, Patrice L; Jaworski, James M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Gilbert, John R

    2009-10-01

    Chromosomal breaks and rearrangements have been observed in conjunction with autism and autistic spectrum disorders. A chromosomal inversion has been previously reported in autistic siblings, spanning the region from approximately 7q22.1 to 7q31. This family is distinguished by having multiple individuals with autism and associated disabilities. The region containing the inversion has been strongly implicated in autism by multiple linkage studies, and has been particularly associated with language defects in autism as well as in other disorders with language components. Mapping of the inversion breakpoints by FISH has localized the inversion to the region spanning approximately 99-108.75 Mb of chromosome 7. The proximal breakpoint has the potential to disrupt either the coding sequence or regulatory regions of a number of cytochrome P450 genes while the distal region falls in a relative gene desert. Copy number variant analysis of the breakpoint regions detected no duplication or deletion that could clearly be associated with disease status. Association analysis in our autism data set using single nucleotide polymorphisms located near the breakpoints showed no significant association with proximal breakpoint markers, but has identified markers near the distal breakpoint ( approximately 108-110 Mb) with significant associations to autism. The chromosomal abnormality in this family strengthens the case for an autism susceptibility gene in the chromosome 7q22-31 region and targets a candidate region for further investigation.

  8. A new region of conservation is defined between human and mouse X chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Dinulos, M.B.; Disteche, C.M.; Bassi, M.T.

    1996-07-01

    Comparative mapping of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals have revealed distinct regions of conservation as well as evolutionary rearrangements between human and mouse. Recently, we and others mapped the murine homologue of CLCN4 (Chloride channel 4) to band F4 of the X chromosome in Mus spretus but to chromosome 7 in laboratory strains. We now report the mapping of the murine homologues of APXL (Apical protein Xenopus laevis-like) and OA1 (Ocular albinism type I), two genes that are located on the human X chromosome at band p22.3 and in close proximity to CLCN4. Interestingly, Oa1 and Apxl map to bands F2-F3 in both M. spretus and the laboratory strain C57BL/6J, defining a new rearrangement between human and mouse X chromosomes. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A 500-kb region on chromosome 16p13.1 contains the pseudoxanthoma elasticum locus: high-resolution mapping and genomic structure.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Struk, B; Adams, M D; Ji, W; Haaf, T; Kang, H L; Dho, S H; Xu, X; Ringpfeil, F; Nancarrow, J; Zäch, S; Schaen, L; Stumm, M; Niu, T; Chung, J; Lunze, K; Verrecchia, B; Goldsmith, L A; Viljoen, D; Figuera, L E; Fuchs, W; Lebwohl, M; Uitto, J; Richards, R; Hohl, D; Ramesar, R

    2000-01-01

    We have recently mapped the genetic defect underlying pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), an inherited disorder characterized by progressive calcification of elastic fibers in skin, eye, and cardiovascular system, to chromosome 16p 13.1. Here we report further data on the fine-mapping and genomic structure of this locus. Haplotype analysis of informative PXE families narrowed the locus to an interval of less than 500 kb located between markers D16B9621 and D16S764. Three overlapping YAC clones were found to cover this region through YAC-STS content mapping. An overlapping BAC contig was then constructed to cover this interval and the surrounding region. About 80% of this chromosomal region has been fully sequenced using the BAC shotgun technique. Gene content and sequence analysis predicted four genes (MRP1, MRP6, PM5, and a novel transcript) and two pseudogenes (ARA and PKDI) within this interval. By screening a somatic cell hybrid panel we were able to precision-map the breakpoint of Cy185 and the starting point of a chromosomal duplication within 20 kb of BAC A962B4. The present data further refine the localization of PXE, provide additional physical cloning resources, and will aid in the eventual identification of the genetic defect causing PXE.

  10. Submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances in idiopathic Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS): the SRS phenotype overlaps with the 12q14 microdeletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spengler, S; Schönherr, N; Binder, G; Wollmann, H A; Fricke-Otto, S; Mühlenberg, R; Denecke, B; Baudis, M; Eggermann, T

    2010-05-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a heterogeneous disorder associated with intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction, body asymmetry, a relative macrocephaly, a characteristic triangular face and further dysmorphisms. In about 50% of patients, genetic/epigenetic alterations can be detected: >38% of patients show a hypomethylation of the IGF2/H19 imprinting region in 11p15, whereas the additional 10% carry a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7. In single cases, cytogenetic aberrations can be detected. Nevertheless, there still remain 50% of SRS patients without known genetic/epigenetic alterations. To find out whether submicroscopic imbalances contribute to the aetiology of SRS, 20 idiopathic SRS patients were screened with the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 500 K array set. Apart from known apathogenic copy number variations, we identified one patient with a 12q14 microdeletion. The 12q14 microdeletion syndrome is characterised by dwarfism but it additionally includes mental retardation and osteopoikilosis. The deletion in our patient is smaller than those in the 12q14 microdeletion carriers but it also affects the LEMD3 and the HMGA2 genes. LEMD3 haploinsufficiency and point mutations have been previously associated with osteopoikilosis but radiographs of our patient at the age of 16 years did not reveal any hint for osteopoikilosis lesions. Haploinsufficiency of HMGA2 is probably responsible for aberrant growth in 12q14 microdeletion syndrome. However, in this study, a general role of HMGA2 mutations for SRS was excluded by sequencing of 20 idiopathic patients. In conclusion, our results exclude a common cryptic chromosomal imbalance in idiopathic SRS patients but show that chromosomal aberrations are relevant in this disease. Thus, molecular karyotyping is indicated in SRS and should be included in the diagnostic algorithm.

  11. Isolation, characterization, and regional mapping of microclones from a human chromosome 21 microdissection library

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, J.; Hartz, J.; Yisheng Xu; Gemmill, R.M.; Patterson, D.; Kao, Faten ); Gemmill, R.M.; Patterson, D.; Kao, Fa-Ten ); Korenberg, J.R. )

    1992-08-01

    Thirty-four unique-sequence microclones were isolated from a previously described microdissection library of human chromosome 21 and were regionally mapped using a cell hybrid mapping panel which consists of six cell hybrids and divides chromosome 21 into eight regions. The mapping results showed that the microclones were unevenly distributed along chromosome 21, with the majority of microclones located in the distal half portion of the long arm, between 21q21.3 and 21qter. The number of unique-sequence clones began to decrease significantly from 21q21.2 to centromere and extending to the short arm. This finding is consistent with those reported in other chromosome 21 libraries. Thus, it may be inferred that the proximal portion of the long arm of chromosome 21 contains higher proportions of repetitive sequences, rather than unique sequences of genes. The microclones were also characterized for insert size and were used to identify the corresponding genomic fragments generated by HindIII. In addition, the authors demonstrated that the microclones with short inserts can be efficiently used to identify YAC (yeast artificial chromosome) clones with large inserts, for increased genomic coverage for high-resolution physical mapping. They also used 200 unique-sequence microclones to screen a human liver cDNA library and identified two cDNA clones which were regionally assigned to the 21q21.3-q22.1 region. Thus, generation of unique-sequence microclones from chromosome 21 appears to be useful to isolate and regionally map many cDNA clones, among which will be candidate genes for important diseases on chromosome 21, including Down syndrome, Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and one form of epilepsy.

  12. Delineation of a deletion region critical for corpus callosal abnormalities in chromosome 1q43-q44.

    PubMed

    Nagamani, Sandesh C Sreenath; Erez, Ayelet; Bay, Carolyn; Pettigrew, Anjana; Lalani, Seema R; Herman, Kristin; Graham, Brett H; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata Jm; Proud, Monica; Craigen, William J; Hopkins, Bobbi; Kozel, Beth; Plunkett, Katie; Hixson, Patricia; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai

    2012-02-01

    Submicroscopic deletions involving chromosome 1q43-q44 result in cognitive impairment, microcephaly, growth restriction, dysmorphic features, and variable involvement of other organ systems. A consistently observed feature in patients with this deletion are the corpus callosal abnormalities (CCAs), ranging from thinning and hypoplasia to complete agenesis. Previous studies attempting to delineate the critical region for CCAs have yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of seven patients with deletions of chromosome 1q43-q44. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we mapped the size, extent, and genomic content of these deletions. Four patients had CCAs, and shared the smallest region of overlap that contains only three protein coding genes, CEP170, SDCCAG8, and ZNF238. One patient with a small deletion involving SDCCAG8 and AKT3, and another patient with an intragenic deletion of AKT3 did not have any CCA, implying that the loss of these two genes is unlikely to be the cause of CCA. CEP170 is expressed extensively in the brain, and encodes for a protein that is a component of the centrosomal complex. ZNF238 is involved in control of neuronal progenitor cells and survival of cortical neurons. Our results rule out the involvement of AKT3, and implicate CEP170 and/or ZNF238 as novel genes causative for CCA in patients with a terminal 1q deletion.

  13. Regional localization of chromosome 3-specific DNA fragments by using a hybrid cell deletion mapping panel.

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, M J; Drabkin, H A; Firnhaber, C; Miller, Y E; Scoggin, C H; Smith, D I

    1988-01-01

    A series of human chromosome 3-specific DNA fragments isolated and characterized from a lamda phage genomic library were regionally localized on human chromosome 3. This was accomplished using filter hybridization blot analysis of a human chromosome 3 hybrid cell deletion mapping panel. Twenty-three new anonymous DNA fragments were assigned to one of four physical regions of chromosome 3. Seventeen DNA fragments were mapped to the long arm of chromosome 3, including one DNA fragment that demonstrated a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Five DNA fragments were assigned to 3p14.2----pter, including one highly polymorphic fragment sublocalized at 3p25----pter by in situ hybridization. This DNA fragment is the second reported distal 3p polymorphic probe. One DNA fragment was localized to 3p14----p14.2. In addition, three fragments previously assigned to chromosome 3 were confirmed. Polymorphic DNA probes DNF15S2 (formerly D1S1) and D3S2 were mapped to 3p14.2----pter. The previous 3p25 in situ localization of the c-raf-1 oncogene was supported by deletion panel mapping. The physical localization of these twenty-three new DNA fragments has more than doubled the number of cloned DNA fragments assigned to chromosome 3. These and future regional assignments of DNA fragment probes will facilitate construction of both a physical and genetic linkage map of chromosome 3. They may also be useful in characterizing the chromosomal and molecular aberrations involved in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), renal cell carcinoma, other malignancies, and the 3p14.2 common fragile site. Images p[446]-a Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2902784

  14. Insights into interphase large-scale chromatin structure from analysis of engineered chromosome regions.

    PubMed

    Belmont, A S; Hu, Y; Sinclair, P B; Wu, W; Bian, Q; Kireev, I

    2010-01-01

    How chromatin folds into mitotic and interphase chromosomes has remained a difficult question for many years. We have used three generations of engineered chromosome regions as a means of visualizing specific chromosome regions in live cells and cells fixed under conditions that preserve large-scale chromatin structure. Our results confirm the existence of large-scale chromatin domains and fibers formed by the folding of 10-nm and 30-nm chromatin fibers into larger, spatially distinct domains. Transcription at levels within severalfold of the levels measured for endogenous loci occur within these large-scale chromatin structures on a condensed template linearly compacted several hundred fold to 1000-fold relative to B-form DNA. However, transcriptional induction is accompanied by a severalfold decondensation of this large-scale chromatin structure that propagates hundreds of kilobases beyond the induced gene. Examination of engineered chromosome regions in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and differentiated cells suggests a surprising degree of plasticity in this large-scale chromatin structure, allowing long-range DNA interactions within the context of large-scale chromatin fibers. Recapitulation of gene-specific differences in large-scale chromatin conformation and nuclear positioning using these engineered chromosome regions will facilitate identification of cis and trans determinants of interphase chromosome architecture.

  15. Insights into interphase large-scale chromatin structure from analysis of engineered chromosome regions

    PubMed Central

    Belmont, Andrew S.; Hu, Yan; Sinclair, Paul; Wu, Wei; Bian, Qian; Kireev, Igor

    2012-01-01

    How chromatin folds into mitotic and interphase chromosomes has remained a difficult question for many years. We have used three generations of engineered chromosome regions as a means of visualizing specific chromosome regions in live cells and cells fixed under conditions which preserve large-scale chromatin structure. Our results confirm the existence of large-scale chromatin domains and fibers formed by the folding of 10 and 30 nm chromatin fibers into larger, spatially distinct domains. Transcription at levels within several fold of the levels measured for endogenous loci occur within these large-scale chromatin structures on a condensed template linearly compacted several hundred fold to one thousand fold relative to B-form DNA. However, transcriptional induction is accompanied by a several fold decondensation of this large-scale chromatin structure that propagates hundreds of kb beyond the induced gene. Examination of engineered chromosome regions in mouse ES and differentiated cells suggests a surprising degree of plasticity in this large-scale chromatin structure, allowing long-range DNA interactions within the context of large-scale chromatin fibers. Recapitulation of gene specific differences in large-scale chromatin conformation and nuclear positioning using these engineered chromosome regions will facilitate identification of cis and trans determinants of interphase chromosome architecture. PMID:21467143

  16. Microdissection and microcloning of genomic DNA markers from human chromosomal region 11q23

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, Naohiko Kazusa DNA Research Inst., Chiba ); Yamauchi, Masatake; Saito, Toshiyuki; Katakura, Reiko; Hori, Tada-Aki ); Ohta, Tohru; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Jinno, Yoshihiro; Niikawa, Norio )

    1993-04-01

    A human genomic DNA library was constructed by using a microdissection-microcloning procedure with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques on DNA from the chromosome 11q23 region. A total of 450 recombinant pUC clones were isolated from the library. Their insert sizes ranged from 150 to 850 bp with a mean of 320 bp. Fifty clones were randomly selected and analyzed in detail. Southern blot analyses showed that 21 (42%) clones were unique DNA sequences, 20 (40%) clones were repetitive sequences, and 9 (18%) clones had no detectable hybridization. The unique sequences were used further in a secondary screening of a partially digested human genomic DNA library constructed in phage vector, and 4 clones were isolated. The chromosomal locations of these phage clones were confirmed to be in the q23 region of chromosome 11 by fluorescence in situ suppression hybridization. These pUC microclones isolated from the chromosomal region-specific genomic DNA library will be useful in the construction of physical contig maps with yeast artificial chromosome and/or cosmid clones and in the positional cloning of disease-associated genes localized to the q23 region of chromosome 11. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  17. 3. 6-Mb genomic and YAC physical map of the Down syndrome chromosome region on chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Dufresne-Zacharia, M.C.; Dahmane, N.; Theophile, D.; Orti, R.; Chettouh, Z.; Sinet, P.M.; Delabar, J.M. )

    1994-02-01

    The Down syndrome chromosome region (DCR) on chromosome 21 has been shown to contain a gene(s) important in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. The authors constructed a long-range restriction map of the D21S55-D21S65 region covering the proximal part of the DCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of lymphocyte DNA digested with three rare cutting enzymes, NotI, NruI, and Mlu1, was used to establish two physical linkage groups of 5 and 7 markers, respectively, spanning 4.6 Mb on the NotI map. Mapping analysis of 40 YACs allowed the selection of 13 YACs covering 95% of the D21S55-D21S65 region and spanning 3.6 Mb. The restriction maps of these YACs and their positioning on the genomic map allowed 19 markers to be ordered, including 4 NotI linking clones, 9 polymorphic markers, the CBR gene, and the AML1 gene. The distances between markers could also be estimated. This physical map and the location of eight NotI sites between D21S55 and D21S17 should facilitate the isolation of previously unidentified genes in this region. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Control of bacterial chromosome replication by non-coding regions outside the origin.

    PubMed

    Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Charbon, Godefroid; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2017-08-01

    Chromosome replication in Eubacteria is initiated by initiator protein(s) binding to specific sites within the replication origin, oriC. Recently, initiator protein binding to chromosomal regions outside the origin has attracted renewed attention; as such binding sites contribute to control the frequency of initiations. These outside-oriC binding sites function in several different ways: by steric hindrances of replication fork assembly, by titration of initiator proteins away from the origin, by performing a chaperone-like activity for inactivation- or activation of initiator proteins or by mediating crosstalk between chromosomes. Here, we discuss initiator binding to outside-oriC sites in a broad range of different taxonomic groups, to highlight the significance of such regions for regulation of bacterial chromosome replication. For Escherichia coli, it was recently shown that the genomic positions of regulatory elements are important for bacterial fitness, which, as we discuss, could be true for several other organisms.

  19. Integrated map of the chromosome 8p12-p21 region, a region involved in human cancers and Werner syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Imbert, A.; Chaffanet, M.; Birnbaum, D.; Pebusque, M.J.

    1996-02-15

    This article discusses the genetic mapping of the specific region on human chromosome 8, 8p12-p21, and its implications to human hereditary cancers and diseases. The localization of disease genes such as NEFL and FGFR1 are given, accomplished using contigs which span the region of deletion involved in these hereditary diseases. 59 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Tissue-Specific Differences in the Spatial Interposition of X-Chromosome and 3R Chromosome Regions in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles messeae Fall.

    PubMed Central

    Artemov, Gleb; Bondarenko, Semen; Sapunov, Gleb; Stegniy, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Spatial organization of a chromosome in a nucleus is very important in biology but many aspects of it are still generally unresolved. We focused on tissue-specific features of chromosome architecture in closely related malaria mosquitoes, which have essential inter-specific differences in polytene chromosome attachments in nurse cells. We showed that the region responsible for X-chromosome attachment interacts with nuclear lamina stronger in nurse cells, then in salivary glands cells in Anopheles messeae Fall. The inter-tissue differences were demonstrated more convincingly in an experiment of two distinct chromosomes interposition in the nucleus space of cells from four tissues. Microdissected DNA-probes from nurse cells X-chromosome (2BC) and 3R chromosomes (32D) attachment regions were hybridized with intact nuclei of nurse cells, salivary gland cells, follicle epithelium cells and imaginal disсs cells in 3D-FISH experiments. We showed that only salivary gland cells and follicle epithelium cells have no statistical differences in the interposition of 2BC and 32D. Generally, the X-chromosome and 3R chromosome are located closer to each other in cells of the somatic system in comparison with nurse cells on average. The imaginal disсs cell nuclei have an intermediate arrangement of chromosome interposition, similar to other somatic cells and nurse cells. In spite of species-specific chromosome attachments there are no differences in interposition of nurse cells chromosomes in An. messeae and An. atroparvus Thiel. Nurse cells have an unusual chromosome arrangement without a chromocenter, which could be due to the special mission of generative system cells in ontogenesis and evolution. PMID:25671311

  1. Tissue-specific differences in the spatial interposition of X-chromosome and 3R chromosome regions in the malaria mosquito Anopheles messeae Fall.

    PubMed

    Artemov, Gleb; Bondarenko, Semen; Sapunov, Gleb; Stegniy, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Spatial organization of a chromosome in a nucleus is very important in biology but many aspects of it are still generally unresolved. We focused on tissue-specific features of chromosome architecture in closely related malaria mosquitoes, which have essential inter-specific differences in polytene chromosome attachments in nurse cells. We showed that the region responsible for X-chromosome attachment interacts with nuclear lamina stronger in nurse cells, then in salivary glands cells in Anopheles messeae Fall. The inter-tissue differences were demonstrated more convincingly in an experiment of two distinct chromosomes interposition in the nucleus space of cells from four tissues. Microdissected DNA-probes from nurse cells X-chromosome (2BC) and 3R chromosomes (32D) attachment regions were hybridized with intact nuclei of nurse cells, salivary gland cells, follicle epithelium cells and imaginal disсs cells in 3D-FISH experiments. We showed that only salivary gland cells and follicle epithelium cells have no statistical differences in the interposition of 2BC and 32D. Generally, the X-chromosome and 3R chromosome are located closer to each other in cells of the somatic system in comparison with nurse cells on average. The imaginal disсs cell nuclei have an intermediate arrangement of chromosome interposition, similar to other somatic cells and nurse cells. In spite of species-specific chromosome attachments there are no differences in interposition of nurse cells chromosomes in An. messeae and An. atroparvus Thiel. Nurse cells have an unusual chromosome arrangement without a chromocenter, which could be due to the special mission of generative system cells in ontogenesis and evolution.

  2. A high-density SNP linkage scan with 142 combined subtype ADHD sib pairs identifies linkage regions on chromosomes 9 and 16.

    PubMed

    Asherson, P; Zhou, K; Anney, R J L; Franke, B; Buitelaar, J; Ebstein, R; Gill, M; Altink, M; Arnold, R; Boer, F; Brookes, K; Buschgens, C; Butler, L; Cambell, D; Chen, W; Christiansen, H; Feldman, L; Fleischman, K; Fliers, E; Howe-Forbes, R; Goldfarb, A; Heise, A; Gabriëls, I; Johansson, L; Lubetzki, I; Marco, R; Medad, S; Minderaa, R; Mulas, F; Müller, U; Mulligan, A; Neale, B; Rijsdijk, F; Rabin, K; Rommelse, N; Sethna, V; Sorohan, J; Uebel, H; Psychogiou, L; Weeks, A; Barrett, R; Xu, X; Banaschewski, T; Sonuga-Barke, E; Eisenberg, J; Manor, I; Miranda, A; Oades, R D; Roeyers, H; Rothenberger, A; Sergeant, J; Steinhausen, H-C; Taylor, E; Thompson, M; Faraone, S V

    2008-05-01

    As part of the International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics project we completed an affected sibling pair study of 142 narrowly defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) proband-sibling pairs. No linkage was observed on the most established ADHD-linked genomic regions of 5p and 17p. We found suggestive linkage signals on chromosomes 9 and 16, respectively, with the highest multipoint nonparametric linkage signal on chromosome 16q23 at 99 cM (log of the odds, LOD=3.1) overlapping data published from the previous UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) (LOD>1, approximately 95 cM) and Dutch (LOD>1, approximately 100 cM) studies. The second highest peak in this study was on chromosome 9q22 at 90 cM (LOD=2.13); both the previous UCLA and German studies also found some evidence of linkage at almost the same location (UCLA LOD=1.45 at 93 cM; German LOD=0.68 at 100 cM). The overlap of these two main peaks with previous findings suggests that loci linked to ADHD may lie within these regions. Meta-analysis or reanalysis of the raw data of all the available ADHD linkage scan data may help to clarify whether these represent true linked loci.

  3. The mouse and human excitatory amino acid transporter gene (EAAT1) maps to mouse chromosome 15 and a region of syntenic homology on human chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, M.A.; Arriza, J.L.; Amara, S.G.

    1994-08-01

    The gene for human excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT1) was localized to the distal region of human chromosome 5p13 by in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosome spreads. Interspecific backcross analysis identified the mouse Eaat1 locus in a region of 5p13 homology on mouse chromosome 15. Markers that are linked with EAAT1 on both human and mouse chromosomes include the receptors for leukemia inhibitory factor, interleukin-7, and prolactin. The Eaat1 locus appears not be linked to the epilepsy mutant stg locus, which is also on chromosome 15. The EAAT1 locus is located in a region of 5p deletions that have been associated with mental retardation and microcephaly. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  4. DNA methylation and heterochromatinization in the male-specific region of the primitive Y chromosome of papaya

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenli; Wang, Xiue; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray; Jiang, Jiming

    2008-01-01

    Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes. Recombination suppression in the sex-determining region and accumulation of deleterious mutations lead to degeneration of the Y chromosomes in many species with heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes. However, how the recombination suppressed domain expands from the sex-determining locus to the entire Y chromosome remains elusive. The Y chromosome of papaya (Carica papaya) diverged from the X chromosome approximately 2–3 million years ago and represents one of the most recently emerged Y chromosomes. Here, we report that the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) spans ∼13% of the papaya Y chromosome. Interestingly, the centromere of the Y chromosome is embedded in the MSY. The centromeric domain within the MSY has accumulated significantly more DNA than the corresponding X chromosomal domain, which leads to abnormal chromosome pairing. We observed four knob-like heterochromatin structures specific to the MSY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence assay revealed that the DNA sequences associated with the heterochromatic knobs are highly divergent and heavily methylated compared with the sequences in the corresponding X chromosomal domains. These results suggest that DNA methylation and heterochromatinization play an important role in the early stage of sex chromosome evolution. PMID:18593814

  5. Erratum: Letter to the Editor: Exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma (buphthalmos) from two candidate regions of chromosome arm 6p and chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} is the reprint of a corrected table from a previous paper about the exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma from two candidate regions of chromosome arm 6p and chromosome 11.

  6. Molecular mapping of the Edwards syndrome phenotype to two noncontiguous regions on chromosome 18.

    PubMed Central

    Boghosian-Sell, L.; Mewar, R.; Harrison, W.; Shapiro, R. M.; Zackai, E. H.; Carey, J.; Davis-Keppen, L.; Hudgins, L.; Overhauser, J.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to identify regions on chromosome 18 that may be critical in the appearance of the Edwards syndrome phenotype, we have analyzed six patients with partial duplication of chromosome 18. Four of the patients have duplications involving the distal half of 18q (18q21.1-qter) and are very mildly affected. The remaining two patients have most of 18q (18q12.1-qter) duplicated, are severely affected, and have been diagnosed with Edwards syndrome. We have employed FISH, using DNA probes from a chromosome 18-specific library, for the precise determination of the duplicated material in each of these patients. The clinical features and the extent of the chromosomal duplication in these patients were compared with four previously reported partial trisomy 18 patients, to identify regions of chromosome 18 that may be responsible for certain clinical features of trisomy 18. The comparative analysis confirmed that there is no single region on 18q that is sufficient to produce the trisomy 18 phenotype and identified two regions on 18q that may work in conjunction to produce the Edwards syndrome phenotype. In addition, correlative analysis indicates that duplication of 18q12.3-q22.1 may be associated with more severe mental retardation in trisomy 18 individuals. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8079991

  7. Molecular mapping of the Edwards syndrome phenotype to two noncontiguous regions on chromosome 18

    SciTech Connect

    Boghosian-Sell, L.; Mewar, R.; Harrison, W.; Shapiro, R.M.; Zackai, E.H.; Carey, J.; Davis-Keppen, L.; Hudgins, L.; Overhauser, J.

    1994-09-01

    In an effort to identify regions on chromosome 18 that may be critical in the appearance of the Edwards syndrome phenotype, the authors have analyzed six patients with partial duplication of chromosome 18. Four of the patients have duplications involving the distal half of 18q (18q21.1-qter) and are very mildly affected. The remaining two patients have most of 18q (18q12.1-qter) duplicated, are severely affected, and have been diagnosed with Edwards syndrome. The authors have employed FISH, using DNA probes from a chromosome 18-specific library, for the precise determination of the duplicated material in each of these patients. The clinical features and the extent of the chromosomal duplication in these patients were compared with four previously reported partial trisomy 18 patients, to identify regions of chromosome 18 that may be responsible for certain clinical features of trisomy 18. The comparative analysis confirmed that there is no single region on 18q that is sufficient to produce the trisomy 18 phenotype and identified two regions on 18q that may work in conjunction to produce the Edwards syndrome phenotype. In addition, correlative analysis indicates that duplication of 18q12.3-q22.1 may be associated with more severe mental retardation in trisomy 18 individuals. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Partial monosomy of chromosome 1p36.3: Characterization of the critical region and delineation of a syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Reish, O.; Berry, S.A.; Hirsch, B.

    1995-12-04

    We describe 5 patients ranging in age from 3 to 47 years, with karyotypic abnormalities resulting in monosomy for portion of 1p36.3, microcephaly, mental retardation, prominent forehead, deep-set eyes, depressed nasal bridge, flat midface, relative prognathism, and abnormal ears. Four patients have small hands and feet. All exhibited selfabusive behavior. Additional findings in some of the patients include brain anomalies, optic atrophy, hearing loss and skeletal deformities. The breakpoints within chromosome 1 were designated at 1p36.31 (3 cases), 1p36.32 (1 case) and 1p36.33 (1 case). Thus, the smallest region of deletion overlap is 1p36.33{r_arrow}pter. Detection of the abnormal 1 relied on high resolution G-band analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) utilizing a DNA probe (Oncor D1Z2) containing the repetitive sequences in distal 1p36, confirmed a deletion of one 1 homologue in all 5 cases. The abnormal 1 resulted from a de novo deletion in only one patient. The remaining patients were either confirmed (3 cases) or suspected (1 case) to have unbalanced translocations. Despite the additional genetic imbalance present in these four cases, monosomy of 1p36.33 appears to be responsible for a specific clinical phenotype. Characterization of this phenotype should assist in the clinical diagnosis of this chromosome abnormality. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The BOSS-WiggleZ overlap region - II. Dependence of cosmic growth on galaxy type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, Felipe A.; Beutler, Florian; Blake, Chris; Koda, Jun; Kazin, Eyal; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-02-01

    The anisotropic galaxy two-point correlation function (2PCF) allows measurement of the growth of large-scale structures from the effect of peculiar velocities on the clustering pattern. We present new measurements of the auto- and cross-correlation function multipoles of 69 180 WiggleZ and 46 380 Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS galaxies sharing an overlapping volume of ˜0.2 (h-1 Gpc)3. Analysing the redshift-space distortions (RSD) of galaxy two-point statistics for these two galaxy tracers, we test for systematic errors in the modelling depending on galaxy type and investigate potential improvements in cosmological constraints. We build a large number of mock galaxy catalogues to examine the limits of different RSD models in terms of fitting scales and galaxy type, and to study the covariance of the measurements when performing joint fits. For the galaxy data, fitting the monopole and quadrupole of the WiggleZ 2PCF on scales 24 < s < 80 h-1Mpc produces a measurement of the normalized growth rate fσ8(z = 0.54) = 0.409 ± 0.055, whereas for the CMASS galaxies we found a consistent constraint of fσ8(z = 0.54) = 0.466 ± 0.069, When combining the measurements, accounting for the correlation between the two surveys, we obtain fσ8(z = 0.54) = 0.413 ± 0.048, in agreement with the Λ Cold Dark Matter of structure growth and with other survey measurements.

  10. Condensin I associates with structural and gene regulatory regions in vertebrate chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hun; Zhang, Tao; Wong, Nicholas C; Davidson, Nadia; Maksimovic, Jovana; Oshlack, Alicia; Earnshaw, William C; Kalitsis, Paul; Hudson, Damien F

    2014-01-01

    The condensin complex is essential for correct packaging and segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis in all eukaryotes. To date, the genome wide location and the nature of condensin binding sites has remained elusive in vertebrates. Here we report the genome wide map of condensin I in chicken DT40 cells. Unexpectedly, we find condensin I binds predominately to promoter sequences in mitotic cells. We also find a striking enrichment at both centromeres and telomeres, highlighting the importance of the complex in chromosome segregation. Taken together, the results show condensin I is largely absent from heterochromatic regions. This map of the condensin I binding sites on the chicken genome reveals that patterns of condensin distribution on chromosomes are conserved from prokaryotes, through yeasts to vertebrates. Thus in three kingdoms of life, condensin is enriched on promoters of actively transcribed genes and at loci important for chromosome segregation. PMID:24088984

  11. Physical mapping of the NF2/meningioma region on human chromosome 22q12

    SciTech Connect

    Ruttledge, M.H.; Xie, Y.G.; Han, F.Y.; Janson, M.; Fransson, I.; Werelius, B. ); Giovannini, M.; Evans, G. ); Delattre, O.; Thomas, G. )

    1994-01-01

    Loss of genetic information from chromosome 22 has been implicated in the development of neurofibromatosis type 2, meningioma, and several other neoplasia. Molecular studies indicate that genes within chromosomal band 22q12 may be involved in tumorigenesis. The authors have mapped 29 loci into 16 groups in this region, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fluorescence in situ suppression hybridization, and somatic cell hybrid mapping. The region spans more than 5 Mb of genomic DNA and contains the genes for neurofibromatosis type 2 and meningioma. The order of loci presented here provides the framework for the fine mapping of this region using cosmids and yeast artificial chromosomes, and it facilitates the speedy cloning of novel genes from 22q12. 51 refs., 4 figs.

  12. DNA repair defects associated with chromosomal translocation breaksite regions

    SciTech Connect

    Beecham, E.J.; Link, C.; Bohr, V.A.

    1994-02-01

    Using an assay that measures the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in specific DNA sequences, we have found that the Pvt-1, immunoglobulin H-C{alpha} (IgH-C{alpha}), and IgL-{kappa} loci are poorly repaired in normal B lymphoblasts from plasmacytoma-susceptible BALB/cAnPt mice. Breaksites in these genes are associated with the chromosomal translocations that are found in >95% of BALB/cAnPt plasmacytomas. In contrast to those from BALB/cAnPt mice, B lymphoblasts from plasmacytoma-resistant DBA/2N mice rapidly repair Pvt-1, IgH-C{alpha} and IgL-{kappa}. Further, (BALB/cAnPt x DBA/2N)F{sub 1} hybrids, which are resistant to plasmacytoma development, carry an efficient (DBA/2N-like) repair phenotype. Analysis of allele-specific repair in the IgH-C{alpha} locus indicates that efficient repair is controlled by dominant, transacting factors. In the F{sub 1} heterozygotes, these factors promote efficient repair of BALB/cAnPt IgH-C{alpha} gene sequences. The same sequences are poorly repaired in the BALB/cAnPt parental strain. Analysis of the strand specificity of repair indicates that both strand-selective and nonselective forms of repair determine repair efficiency at the gene level in nonimmortalized murine B lymphoblasts. 36 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. A yeast artificial chromosome contig that spans the RB1-D13S31 interval on human chromosome 13 and encompasses the frequently deleted region in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorn, L.; Roberts, T.; Cowell, J.K.

    1995-12-10

    Abnormalities involving chromosome 13 have been a reported as the only cytogenetic change in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (BCLL). Deletions are the most common cytogenetic abnormality and always involve 13q14, but when translocations are seen, the consistent breakpoint is always in 13q14. It is now established that deletions, distal to the RB1 gene in 13q14, are invariably associated with these translocations. We have recently described the smallest such deletion from a series of rearrangements from these tumors isolated in somatic cell hybrids, which spans approximately 1 Mb. In this report, we present the results of a series of a chromosome walking experiments using YACs and have been able to span this small deletion, which must contain the gene that is frequently deleted in BCLL. Four probes from 13q14 (RB1-mgg15-D13S25-D13S31) were used to isolate corresponding YACs for each of the markers. The chromosomal location of these YACs was verified using FISH, which also demonstrated their nonchimeric nature. Vectorette end rescue was then used to demonstrate the overlap of the YACs and to isolate new clones to complete the contig. The extremes of the contig were shown to cross the chromosome 13 translocation breakpoints isolated in somatic cell hybrids that carry the derivatives of chromosome 13 involved in the smallest BCLL deletion. This YAC contig covers the entire deletion and will prove a valuable resource to begin isolating genes from this region. In addition, we have isolated YACs corresponding to the RB1 locus, which extends the contig over a 3.8-cM distance on the chromosome. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. YAC contigs of the Rab1 and wobbler (wr) spinal muscular atrophy gene region on proximal mouse chromosome 11 and of the homologous region on human chromosome 2p

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, N.; Lengeling, A.; Ronsiek, M.

    1996-03-05

    Despite rapid progress in the physical characterization of murine and human genomes, little molecular information is available on certain regions, e.g., proximal mouse chromosome 11 (Chr 11) and human chromosome 2p (Chr2p). We have localized the wobbler spinal atrophy gene wr to proximal mouse Chr 11, tightly linked to Rab1, a gene coding for a small GTP-binding protein, and Glns-ps1, an intronless pseudogene of the glutamine synthetase gene. We have not used these markers to construct a 1.3-Mb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of the Rab1 region on mouse Chr 11. Four YAC clones isolated from two independent YAC libraries were characterized by rare-cutting analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and sequence-tagged site (STS) isolation and mapping. Rab1 and Glns-ps1 were found to be only 200 kb apart. A potential CpG island near a methylated NarI site and a trapped exon, ETG1.1, were found over 250 kb from Rab1. Two overlapping YACs were identified that contained a 150-kb region of human Chr 2p, comprising the RAB1 locus, AHY1.1, and the human homologue of ETG1.1, indicating a high degree of conservation of this region in the two species. We mapped AHY1.1 and thus human RAB1 on Chr 2p13.4-p14 using somatic cell hybrids and a radiation hybrid panel, thus extending a known region of conserved synteny between mouse Chr 11 and human Chr 2p. Recently, the gene LMGMD2B for a human recessive neuromuscular disease, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B, has been mapped to 2p13-p16. The conservation between the mouse Rab1 and human RAB1 regions will be helpful in identifying candidate genes for the wobbler spinal muscular atrophy and in clarifying a possible relationship between wr and LMGMD2B. 33 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The overlapping brain region accounting for the relationship between procrastination and impulsivity: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peiwei; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-09-30

    Procrastination is a prevalent problematic behavior that brings serious consequences, such as lower levels of health, wealth, and well-being. Previous research has verified that impulsivity is one of the traits most strongly correlated with procrastination. However, little is known about why there is a tight behavioral relationship between them. To address this question, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore the common neural substrates between procrastination and impulsivity. In line with previous findings, the behavioral results showed a strong behavioral correlation between procrastination and impulsivity. Neuroimaging results showed impulsivity and procrastination shared the common neurobiological underpinnings in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) based on the data from 85 participants (sample 1). Furthermore, the mediation analysis revealed that impulsivity mediated the impact of gray matter (GM) volumes of this overlapping region in the DLPFC on procrastination on another independent 84 participants' data (sample 2). In conclusion, the overlapping brain region in the DLPFC would be responsible for the close relationship between procrastination and impulsivity. As a whole, the present study extends our knowledge on procrastination, and provides a novel perspective to explain the tight impulsivity - procrastination relationship. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Localization of the tight junction protein gene TJP1 to human chromosome 15q13, distal to the Prader-Willi/Angelman region, and to mouse chromosome 7

    SciTech Connect

    Mohandas, T.K.; Chen, X.N.; Korenberg, J.R.

    1995-12-10

    The gene encoding the tight junction (zonula occludens) protein, TJP1, was mapped to human chromosome 15q13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a cDNA probe. The Jackson Laboratory backcross DNA panel derived from the cross (C57BL/6JEi X SPRET/Ei) F1 females X SPRET/Ei males was used to map the mouse Tjp1 to chromosome 7 near position 30 on the Chromosome Committee Map, a region with conserved homology to human chromosome 15q13. FISH studies on metaphases from patients with the Prader-Willi (PWS) or the Angelman syndrome (AS) showed that TJP1 maps close but distal to the PWS/AS chromosome region. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Two patients with overlapping de novo duplications of the long arm of chromosome 9, including one case with Di George sequence.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, V; Rosinsky, B; Chin, J; Berry-Kravis, E

    1994-01-01

    Duplications of chromosome 9q are rare. We describe the cytogenetic and phenotypic findings in 2 patients, one with a large duplication covering most of 9q(q12-q33.2) and one with a smaller duplication (q21.12-q22.1) who had Di George sequence (DGS). The chromosome 9 origin of the extra material in the second case was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with a whole chromosome 9 paint. Microdeletions of chromosome 22 are common in DGS and have been reported in CHARGE association. This is the first report of an association of a chromosome 9 abnormality with DGS in the absence of a chromosome 22 abnormality and the seventh report of a patient with a duplication of a large portion of 9q (q11-q13 to q32-q33).

  18. Two patients with overlapping de novo duplications of the long arm of chromosome 9, including one case with Di George sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, V.; Rosinsky, B.; Chin, J.; Berry-Kravis, E.

    1994-01-01

    Duplications of chromosome 9q are rare. The authors describe the cytogenetic and phenotypic findings in 2 patients, one with a large duplication covering most of 9q (q12-q33.2) and one with a smaller duplication (q21.12-q22.1) who had Di George sequence (DGS). The chromosome 9 origin of the extra material in the second case was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with a whole chromosome 9 paint. Microdeletions of chromosome 22 are common in DGS and have been reported in CHARGE association. This is the first report of an association of a chromosome 9 abnormality with DGS in the absence of a chromosome 22 abnormality and the seventh report of a patient with a duplication of a large portion of 9q (q11-q13 to q32-q33). 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. A region of mouse chromosome 16 is syntenic to the DiGeorge, velocardiofacial syndrome minimal critical region.

    PubMed

    Galili, N; Baldwin, H S; Lund, J; Reeves, R; Gong, W; Wang, Z; Roe, B A; Emanuel, B S; Nayak, S; Mickanin, C; Budarf, M L; Buck, C A

    1997-01-01

    DGS and VCFS, haploinsufficiencies characterized by multiple craniofacial and cardiac abnormalities, are associated with a microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2. Here we document synteny between a 150-kb region on mouse chromosome 16 and the most commonly deleted portion of 22q11.2. Seven genes, all of which are transcribed in the early mouse embryo, have been identified. Of particular interest are two serine/threonine kinase genes and a novel goosecoid-like homeobox gene (Gscl). Comparative sequence analysis of a 38-kb segment reveals similarities in gene content, order, exon composition, and transcriptional direction. Therefore, if deletion of these genes results in DGS/VCFS in humans, then haploinsufficiencies involving this region of chromosome 16 should recapitulate the developmental field defects characteristic of this syndrome.

  20. Assignment of fifty-four cosmid clones to five regions of chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Mole, S.E.; Jackson, M.S.; Ponder, B.A.J. ); Tokino, T.; Nakamura, Y. )

    1993-02-01

    The gene implicated in the development of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A, and inherited cancer syndrome transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, has been mapped by genetic linkage to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10. To isolate new markers for this region, we constructed cosmid libraries from two radiation hybrids, R104-2D2 and R244-3A1, derived from the hybrid cell line 762-8A, which contains only human chromosomes 10 and Y in a hamster background. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  1. A yeast artificial chromosome contig of the critical region for cri-du-chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goodart, S A; Simmons, A D; Grady, D; Rojas, K; Moyzis, R K; Lovett, M; Overhauser, J

    1994-11-01

    Cri-du-chat is a chromosomal deletion syndrome characterized by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The clinical symptoms include growth and mental retardation, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and a high-pitched monochromatic cry that is usually considered diagnostic for the syndrome. Recently, a correlation between clinical features and the extent of the chromosome 5 deletions has identified two regions of the short arm that appear to be critical for the abnormal development manifested in this syndrome. Loss of a small region in 5p15.2 correlates with all of the clinical features of cri-du-chat with the exception of the cat-like cry, which maps to 5p15.3. Here we report the construction of a YAC contig that spans the chromosomal region in 5p15.2 that plays a major role in the etiology of the cri-du-chat syndrome. YACs that span the 2-Mb cri-du-chat critical region have been identified and characterized. This YAC contig lays the groundwork for the construction of a transcriptional map of this region and the eventual identification of genes involved in the clinical features associated with the cri-du-chat syndrome. It also provides a new diagnostic tool for cri-du-chat in the shape of a YAC clone that may span the entire critical region.

  2. A yeast artificial chromosome contig of the critical region for cri-du-chat syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Goodart, S.A.; Rojas, K.; Overhauser, J.

    1994-11-01

    Cri-du-chat is a chromosomal deletion syndrome characterized by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The clinical symptoms include growth and mental retardation, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hyptonia, and a high-pitched monochromatic cry that is usually considered diagnostic for the syndrome. Recently, a correlation between clinical features and the extent of the chromosome 5 deletions has identified two regions of the short arm that appear to be critical for the abnormal development manifested in this syndrome. Loss of a small region in 5p15.2 correlates with all of the clinical features of cri-du-chat with the exception of the cat-like cry, which maps to 5p15.3. Here the authors report the construction of a YAC contig that spans the chromosomal region in 5p15.2 that plays a major role in the etiology of the cri-du-chat syndrome. YACs that span the 2-Mb cri-du-chat critical region have been identified and characterized. This YAC contig lays the groundwork for the construction of a transcriptional map of this region and the eventual identification of genes involved in the clinical features associated with the cri-du-chat syndrome. It also provides a new diagnostic tool for cri-du-chat in the shape of a YAC clone that may span the entire critical region. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Isotopic paleoecology of the Pleistocene megamammals from the Brazilian Intertropical Region: Feeding ecology (δ13C), niche breadth and overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantas, Mário André Trindade; Cherkinsky, Alexander; Bocherens, Hervé; Drefahl, Morgana; Bernardes, Camila; França, Lucas de Melo

    2017-08-01

    The extinct megamammals Eremotherium laurillardi (weight 6550 kg), Notiomastodon platensis (w = 6000 kg), Toxodon platensis (w = 3090 kg), Valgipes bucklandi (w = 980 kg) and Equus (Amerhippus) neogaeus (w = 370 kg) are recorded for the late Pleistocene of the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In order to evaluate the isotopic paleoecology (feeding diet, niche breadth and overlap) of these species, 14C dates, δ13C and δ18O analyzes were performed. Our results suggest that E. laurillardi (μδ13C = -4.35 ± 2.87‰; μBA = 0.77 ± 0.25), T. platensis (μδ13C = -5.74 ± 4.80‰; μBA = 0.57 ± 0.40) and N. platensis (μδ13C = -1.17 ± 2.76‰; μBA = 0.56 ± 0.20) were mixed feeders with a wide niche breadth, while E. (A.) neogaeus (μδ13C = 0.73 ± 1.19‰; μBA = 0.38 ± 0.22) was a grazer, and V. bucklandi (δ13C = -10.17‰; BA = 0.13) was a specialist browser. A narrow niche overlap occurred between V. bucklandi and the species that fed principally on C4 plants (>70%; O = 0.24-0.43). In contrast, there was a high niche overlap between E. neogaeus and N. platensis (O = 0.75) and between E. laurillardi and T. platensis (O = 0.86). Therefore, E. laurillardi was probably a key species in this Pleistocene community due to its high body weight and wide niche breadth, suggesting that E. laurillardi was a great competitor for resources in the BIR.

  4. Sororin is enriched at the central region of synapsed meiotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Philip W; Eyster, Craig; Chen, Jingrong; Pezza, Roberto J; Rankin, Susannah

    2017-06-01

    During meiotic prophase, cohesin complexes mediate cohesion between sister chromatids and promote pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Precisely how the activity of cohesin is controlled to promote these events is not fully understood. In metazoans, cohesion establishment between sister chromatids during mitotic divisions is accompanied by recruitment of the cohesion-stabilizing protein Sororin. During somatic cell division cycles, Sororin is recruited in response to DNA replication-dependent modification of the cohesin complex by ESCO acetyltransferases. How Sororin is recruited and acts in meiosis is less clear. Here, we have surveyed the chromosomal localization of Sororin and its relationship to the meiotic cohesins and other chromatin modifiers with the objective of determining how Sororin contributes to meiotic chromosome dynamics. We show that Sororin localizes to the cores of meiotic chromosomes in a manner that is dependent on synapsis and the synaptonemal complex protein SYCP1. In contrast, cohesin, with which Sororin interacts in mitotic cells, shows axial enrichment on meiotic chromosomes even in the absence of synapsis between homologs. Using high-resolution microscopy, we show that Sororin is localized to the central region of the synaptonemal complex. These results indicate that Sororin regulation during meiosis is distinct from its regulation in mitotic cells and may suggest that it interacts with a distinctly different partner to ensure proper chromosome dynamics in meiosis.

  5. Segmental duplications and evolutionary plasticity at tumor chromosome break-prone regions

    PubMed Central

    Darai-Ramqvist, Eva; Sandlund, Agneta; Müller, Stefan; Klein, George; Imreh, Stefan; Kost-Alimova, Maria

    2008-01-01

    We have previously found that the borders of evolutionarily conserved chromosomal regions often coincide with tumor-associated deletion breakpoints within human 3p12-p22. Moreover, a detailed analysis of a frequently deleted region at 3p21.3 (CER1) showed associations between tumor breaks and gene duplications. We now report on the analysis of 54 chromosome 3 breaks by multipoint FISH (mpFISH) in 10 carcinoma-derived cell lines. The centromeric region was broken in five lines. In lines with highly complex karyotypes, breaks were clustered near known fragile sites, FRA3B, FRA3C, and FRA3D (three lines), and in two other regions: 3p12.3-p13 (∼75 Mb position) and 3q21.3-q22.1 (∼130 Mb position) (six lines). All locations are shown based on NCBI Build 36.1 human genome sequence. The last two regions participated in three of four chromosome 3 inversions during primate evolution. Regions at 75, 127, and 131 Mb positions carry a large (∼250 kb) segmental duplication (tumor break-prone segmental duplication [TBSD]). TBSD homologous sequences were found at 15 sites on different chromosomes. They were located within bands frequently involved in carcinoma-associated breaks. Thirteen of them have been involved in inversions during primate evolution; 10 were reused by breaks during mammalian evolution; 14 showed copy number polymorphism in man. TBSD sites showed an increase in satellite repeats, retrotransposed sequences, and other segmental duplications. We propose that the instability of these sites stems from specific organization of the chromosomal region, associated with location at a boundary between different CG-content isochores and with the presence of TBSDs and “instability elements,” including satellite repeats and retroviral sequences. PMID:18230801

  6. Exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma (buphthalmos) from two candidate regions of chromosome arm 6p and chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Akarsu, A.N.; Hossain, A.; Sarfarazi, M.

    1996-01-22

    Primary congenital glaucoma (gene symbol: GLC3) is characterized by an improper development of the aqueous outflow system. The reduced outflow of fluid results in an increased intraocular pressure leading to buphthalmos, optic nerve damage, and eventual visual impairment. GLC3 is a heterogeneous condition with an estimated incidence of 1:2,500 in Middle Eastern and 1:10,000 in Western countries. In many families, GLC3 is an autosomal recessive trait with presentation of an earlier age-of-onset, high intraocular pressure, enlarged cloudy cornea, buphthalmos, and a more aggressive course. The pathogenesis of GLC3 remains elusive despite extensive histologic efforts to identify a single anatomic defect. Recent advances in positional mapping and cloning of human disorders provided an opportunity to identify chromosome locations of the GLC3 phenotype. Our laboratory is currently involved in the mapping of this condition by using a combination of candidate chromosome regions associated with the GLC3 phenotype and by a general positional mapping strategy. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Differentially methylated regions in maternal and paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 7

    PubMed Central

    Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Muurinen, Mari; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Reinius, Lovisa E; Ezer, Sini; Greco, Dario; Kere, Juha

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a hallmark of genomic imprinting and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are found near and in imprinted genes. Imprinted genes are expressed only from the maternal or paternal allele and their normal balance can be disrupted by uniparental disomy (UPD), the inheritance of both chromosomes of a chromosome pair exclusively from only either the mother or the father. Maternal UPD for chromosome 7 (matUPD7) results in Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) with typical features and growth retardation, but no gene has been conclusively implicated in SRS. In order to identify novel DMRs and putative imprinted genes on chromosome 7, we analyzed eight matUPD7 patients, a segmental matUPD7q31-qter, a rare patUPD7 case and ten controls on the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip with 30 017 CpG methylation probes for chromosome 7. Genome-scale analysis showed highly significant clustering of DMRs only on chromosome 7, including the known imprinted loci GRB10, SGCE/PEG10, and PEG/MEST. We found ten novel DMRs on chromosome 7, two DMRs for the predicted imprinted genes HOXA4 and GLI3 and one for the disputed imprinted gene PON1. Quantitative RT-PCR on blood RNA samples comparing matUPD7, patUPD7, and controls showed differential expression for three genes with novel DMRs, HOXA4, GLI3, and SVOPL. Allele specific expression analysis confirmed maternal only expression of SVOPL and imprinting of HOXA4 was supported by monoallelic expression. These results present the first comprehensive map of parent-of-origin specific DMRs on human chromosome 7, suggesting many new imprinted sites. PMID:24247273

  8. Characterization of a panel of somatic cell hybrids for regional mapping of the mouse X chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Avner, P.; Arnaud, D.; Amar, L.; Cambrou, J.; Winking, H.; Russell, L.B.

    1987-08-01

    A panel of five hybrid cell lines containing mouse X chromosomes with various deletions has been obtained by fusing splenocytes from male mice carrying one of a series of reciprocal X-autosome translocations with the azaguanine-resistant Chinese hamster cell line CH3g. These hybrids have been extensively characterized by using the allozymes hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (encoded by the Hprt locus) and ..cap alpha..-galactosidase (Ags) and a series of 11 X-chromosome-specific DNA probes whose localization had been previously established by linkage studies. Such studies have established the genetic breakpoints of the T(X;12)13R1 and T(X;2)14R1 X-autosome translocations on the X chromosome and provided additional information as to the X-chromosome genetic breakpoints of the T(X;16)16H, T(X;4)7R1, and T(X;7)6R1 translocations. The data establish clearly that both the T(X;7)5RI and T(X;12)13R1 X-chromosome breakpoints are proximal to Hprt, the breakpoint of the former being more centromeric, lying as it does in the 9-centimorgan interval between the ornithine transcarbamoylase (Otc) and DXPas7 (M2C) loci. These five hybrid cell lines provide, with the previously characterized EBS4 hybrid cell line, a nested series of seven mapping intervals distributed along the length of the mouse X chromosome. Their characterization not only allows further correlation of the genetic and cytological X-chromosome maps but also should permit the rapid identification of DNA probes specific for particular regions of the mouse X chromosome.

  9. Comparative mapping of DNA markers from the familial Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome regions of human chromosome 21 to mouse chromosomes 16 and 17

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.V.; Nadeau, J.H.; Tanzi, R.E.; Watkins, P.C.; Jagadesh, J.; Taylor, B.A.; Haines, J.L.; Sacchi, N.; Gusella, J.F. )

    1988-08-01

    Mouse trisomy 16 has been proposed as an animal model of Down syndrome (DS), since this chromosome contains homologues of several loci from the q22 band of human chromosome 21. The recent mapping of the defect causing familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) and the locus encoding the Alzheimer amyloid {beta} precursor protein (APP) to human chromosome 21 has prompted a more detailed examination of the extent of conservation of this linkage group between the two species. Using anonymous DNA probes and cloned genes from human chromosome 21 in a combination of recombinant inbred and interspecific mouse backcross analyses, the authors have established that the linkage group shared by mouse chromosome 16 includes not only the critical DS region of human chromosome 21 but also the APP gene and FAD-linked markers. Extending from the anonymous DNA locus D21S52 to ETS2, the linkage map of six loci spans 39% recombination in man but only 6.4% recombination in the mouse. A break in synteny occurs distal to ETS2, with the homologue of the human marker D21S56 mapping to mouse chromosome 17. Conservation of the linkage relationships of markers in the FAD region suggests that the murine homologue of the FAD locus probably maps to chromosome 16 and that detailed comparison of the corresponding region in both species could facilitate identification of the primary defect in this disorder. The break in synteny between the terminal portion of human chromosome 21 and mouse chromosome 16 indicates, however, that mouse trisomy 16 may not represent a complete model of DS.

  10. Comparative mapping of DNA markers from the familial Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome regions of human chromosome 21 to mouse chromosomes 16 and 17.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, S V; Nadeau, J H; Tanzi, R E; Watkins, P C; Jagadesh, J; Taylor, B A; Haines, J L; Sacchi, N; Gusella, J F

    1988-01-01

    Mouse trisomy 16 has been proposed as an animal model of Down syndrome (DS), since this chromosome contains homologues of several loci from the q22 band of human chromosome 21. The recent mapping of the defect causing familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) and the locus encoding the Alzheimer amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) to human chromosome 21 has prompted a more detailed examination of the extent of conservation of this linkage group between the two species. Using anonymous DNA probes and cloned genes from human chromosome 21 in a combination of recombinant inbred and interspecific mouse backcross analyses, we have established that the linkage group shared by mouse chromosome 16 includes not only the critical DS region of human chromosome 21 but also the APP gene and FAD-linked markers. Extending from the anonymous DNA locus D21S52 to ETS2, the linkage map of six loci spans 39% recombination in man but only 6.4% recombination in the mouse. A break in synteny occurs distal to ETS2, with the homologue of the human marker D21S56 mapping to mouse chromosome 17. Conservation of the linkage relationships of markers in the FAD region suggests that the murine homologue of the FAD locus probably maps to chromosome 16 and that detailed comparison of the corresponding region in both species could facilitate identification of the primary defect in this disorder. The break in synteny between the terminal portion of human chromosome 21 and mouse chromosome 16 indicates, however, that mouse trisomy 16 may not represent a complete model of DS. Images PMID:2901095

  11. Detailed comparative map of human chromosome 19q and related regions of the mouse genome.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, L; Carver, E A; Shannon, M E; Kim, J; Geisler, J; Generoso, E E; Stanford, B G; Dunn, W C; Mohrenweiser, H; Zimmermann, W; Watt, S M; Ashworth, L K

    1996-08-01

    One of the larger contiguous blocks of mouse-human genomic homology includes the proximal portion of mouse chromosome 7 and the long arm of human chromosome 19. Previous studies have demonstrated the close relationship between the two regions, but have also indicated significant rearrangements in the relative orders of homologous mouse and human genes. Here we present the genetic locations of the homologs of 42 human chromosome 19q markers in the mouse, with an emphasis on genes also included in the human chromosome 19 physical map. Our results demonstrate that despite an overall inversion of sequences relative to the centromere, apparent "transpositions" of three gene-rich segments, and a local inversion of markers mapping near the 19q telomere, gene content, order, and spacing are remarkably well conserved throughout the lengths of these related mouse and human regions. Although most human 19q markers have remained genetically linked in mouse, one small human segment forms a separate region of homology between human chromosome 19q and mouse chromosome 17. Three of the four rearrangements of mouse versus human 19q sequences involve segments that are located directly adjacent to each other in 19q13.3-q13.4, suggesting either the coincident occurrence of these events or their common association with unstable DNA sequences. These data permit an unusually in-depth examination of this large region of mouse-human genomic homology and provide an important new tool to aid in the mapping of genes and associated phenotypes in both species.

  12. Identification of human chromosome region 3p14. 2-21. 3-specific YAC clones using Alu-PCR products from a radiation hybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Siden, T.S.; Drumheller, T.; Smith, S.E.; Smith, D.I. ); Kumlien, J.; Lehrach, H. ); Roehme, D. )

    1994-03-01

    Deletion of DNA sequences from at least three different regions on the short arm of human chromosome 3 (3p13-14, 3p21 and 3p25) are frequently observed during the development of many solid tumors, including lung cancers and renal cell carcinomas. In order to physically characterize the 3p21 region, the authors previously identified a radiation fusion hybrid that contained about 20 megabases of DNA from chromosome region 3p14.2p21.3. In this study total Alu-PCR products from this hybrid were used as a probe to isolate 86 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones from a 620-kb average insert YAC library (ICRF). Sixty-nine Alu-PCR markers, generated from the YACs, and seven PCR primers were used to screen for overlaps between individual clones. Seven contigs were identified encompassing 32 YAC clones. Based on previous information about localization of the PCR primers, the three largest contigs could be assigned to smaller subregions between 3p14.2 and 3p21.3. By this work a large proportion of the 3p14.21.3 region is covered with large-insert YAC clones.

  13. Organization of chromosome ends in Ustilago maydis. RecQ-like helicase motifs at telomeric regions.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Alonso, P; Guzmán, P

    1998-01-01

    In this study we have established the structure of chromosome ends in the basidiomycete fungus Ustilago maydis. We isolated and characterized several clones containing telomeric regions and found that as in other organisms, they consist of middle repeated DNA sequences. Two principal types of sequence were found: UTASa was highly conserved in nucleotide sequence and located almost exclusively at the chromosome ends, and UTASb was less conserved in nucleotide sequence than UTASa and found not just at the ends but highly interspersed throughout the genome. Sequence analysis revealed that UTASa encodes an open reading frame containing helicase motifs with the strongest homology to RecQ helicases; these are DNA helicases whose function involves the maintenance of genome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in humans, and the suppression of illegitimate recombination in Escherichia coli. Both UTASa and UTASb contain a common region of about 300 bp located immediately adjacent to the telomere repeats that are also found interspersed in the genome. The analysis of the chromosome ends of U. maydis provides information on the general structure of chromosome ends in eukaryotes, and the putative RecQ helicase at UTASa may reveal a novel mechanism for the maintenance of chromosome stability. PMID:9539423

  14. Y-chromosome analysis in Egypt suggests a genetic regional continuity in Northeastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Manni, Franz; Leonardi, Pascal; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Rouba, Hassan; Heyer, Evelyne; Klintschar, Michael; McElreavey, Ken; Quintana-Murci, Lluís

    2002-10-01

    The geographic location of Egypt, at the interface between North Africa, the Middle East, and southern Europe, prompted us to investigate the genetic diversity of this population and its relationship with neighboring populations. To assess the extent to which the modern Egyptian population reflects this intermediate geographic position, ten Unique Event Polymorphisms (UEPs), mapping to the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome, have been typed in 164 Y chromosomes from three North African populations. The analysis of these binary markers, which define 11 Y-chromosome lineages, were used to determine the haplogroup frequencies in Egyptians, Moroccan Arabs, and Moroccan Berbers and thereby define the Y-chromosome background in these regions. Pairwise comparisons with a set of 15 different populations from neighboring European, North African, and Middle Eastern populations and geographic analysis showed the absence of any significant genetic barrier in the eastern part of the Mediterranean area, suggesting that genetic variation and gene flow in this area follow the "isolation-by-distance" model. These results are in sharp contrast with the observation of a strong north-south genetic barrier in the western Mediterranean basin, defined by the Gibraltar Strait. Thus, the Y-chromosome gene pool in the modern Egyptian population reflects a mixture of European, Middle Eastern, and African characteristics, highlighting the importance of ancient and recent migration waves, followed by gene flow, in the region.

  15. Silver-Russell syndrome: a dissection of the genetic aetiology and candidate chromosomal regions

    PubMed Central

    Hitchins, M.; Stanier, P.; Preece, M.; Moore, G.

    2001-01-01

    The main features of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) are pre- and postnatal growth restriction and a characteristic small, triangular face. SRS is also accompanied by other dysmorphic features including fifth finger clinodactyly and skeletal asymmetry. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and various modes of inheritance and abnormalities involving chromosomes 7, 8, 15, 17, and 18 have been associated with SRS and SRS-like cases. However, only chromosomes 7 and 17 have been consistently implicated in patients with a strict clinical diagnosis of SRS. Two cases of balanced translocations with breakpoints in 17q23.3-q25 and two cases with a hemizygous deletion of the chorionic somatomammatropin gene (CSH1) on 17q24.1 have been associated with SRS, strongly implicating this region. Maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 7 (mUPD(7)) occurs in up to 10% of SRS patients, with disruption of genomic imprinting underlying the disease status in these cases. Recently, two SRS patients with a maternal duplication of 7p11.2-p13, and a single proband with segmental mUPD for the region 7q31-qter, were described. These key patients define two separate candidate regions for SRS on both the p and q arms of chromosome 7. Both the 7p11.2-p13 and 7q31-qter regions are subject to genomic imprinting and the homologous regions in the mouse are associated with imprinted growth phenotypes. This review provides an overview of the genetics of SRS, and focuses on the newly defined candidate regions on chromosome 7. The analyses of imprinted candidate genes within 7p11.2-p13 and 7q31-qter, and gene candidates on distal 17q, are discussed.


Keywords: Silver-Russell syndrome; imprinting; mUPD(7); candidates PMID:11748303

  16. Genetic analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in the cyclops region of the zebrafish genome.

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, W S; Egan, E S; Gates, M A; Walker, C; Ullmann, B; Neuhauss, S C; Kimmel, C B; Postlethwait, J H

    1998-01-01

    Genetic screens in zebrafish have provided mutations in hundreds of genes with essential functions in the developing embryo. To investigate the possible uses of chromosomal rearrangements in the analysis of these mutations, we genetically characterized three gamma-ray induced alleles of cyclops (cyc), a gene required for development of midline structures. We show that cyc maps near one end of Linkage Group 12 (LG 12) and that this region is involved in a reciprocal translocation with LG 2 in one gamma-ray induced mutation, cyc(b213). The translocated segments together cover approximately 5% of the genetic map, and we show that this rearrangement is useful for mapping cloned genes that reside in the affected chromosomal regions. The other two alleles, cyc(b16) and cyc(b229), have deletions in the distal region of LG 12. Interestingly, both of these mutations suppress recombination between genetic markers in LG 12, including markers at a distance from the deletion. This observation raises the possibility that these deletions affect a site required for meiotic recombination on the LG 12 chromosome. The cyc(b16) and cyc(b229) mutations may be useful for balancing other lethal mutations located in the distal region of LG 12. These results show that chromosomal rearrangements can provide useful resources for mapping and genetic analyses in zebrafish. PMID:9475747

  17. Characterization of a microdissection library from human chromosome region 3p14

    SciTech Connect

    Bardenheuer, W.; Szymanski, S.; Lux, A.; Schuette, J. ); Luedecke, H.J.; Horsthemke, B. ); Claussen, U.; Senger, G. ); Smith, D.I.; Wang, N.D. )

    1994-01-15

    Structural alterations in human chromosome region 3p14-p23 resulting in the inactivation of one or more tumor suppressor genes are thought to play a pathogenic role in small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and other human neoplasms. To identify putative tumor suppressor genes, 428 recombinant clones from a microdissection library specific for human chromosome region 3p14 were isolated and characterized. Ninety-six of these (22.5%) were human single-copy DNA sequences, 57 of which were unique sequence clones. Forty-four of these were mapped to the microdissected region using a cell hybrid mapping panel. Within this mapping panel, four probes detected two new chromosome breakpoints that were previously indistinguishable from the translocation breakpoint t(3;8) in 3p14.2 in hereditary renal cell carcinoma. One probe maps to the homozygously deleted region of the small cell lung cancer cell line U2020. In addition, microdissection clones have been shown to be suitable for isolation of yeast artificial chromosomes. 52 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Gene recovery microdissection (GRM) a process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, A T; Coleman, M A; Tucker, J D

    2001-02-08

    Gene Recovery Microdissection (GRM) is a unique and cost-effective process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes. It accelerates the pace, reduces the cost, and extends the capabilities of functional genomic research, the means by which scientists will put to life-saving, life-enhancing use their knowledge of any plant or animal genome.

  19. Fine Mapping and Evolution of a QTL Region on Cattle Chromosome 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donthu, Ravikiran

    2009-01-01

    The goal of my dissertation was to fine map the milk yield and composition quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped to cattle chromosome 3 (BTA3) by Heyen et al. (1999) and to identify candidate genes affecting these traits. To accomplish this, the region between "BL41" and "TGLA263" was mapped to the cattle genome sequence assembly Btau 3.1 and a…

  20. Fine Mapping and Evolution of a QTL Region on Cattle Chromosome 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donthu, Ravikiran

    2009-01-01

    The goal of my dissertation was to fine map the milk yield and composition quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped to cattle chromosome 3 (BTA3) by Heyen et al. (1999) and to identify candidate genes affecting these traits. To accomplish this, the region between "BL41" and "TGLA263" was mapped to the cattle genome sequence assembly Btau 3.1 and a…

  1. [Chromosomal anomalies: The experience of the Congenital Anomalies Registry of the Valencia Region].

    PubMed

    Gimeno-Martos, S; Cavero-Carbonell, C; López-Maside, A; Bosch-Sánchez, S; Martos-Jiménez, C; Zurriaga, O

    2016-04-01

    To describe the temporal trend and distribution of chromosomal congenital abnormalities (CA) in the Valencia Region, in less than one year olds, during the period 2007-2011. Live births, still births and termination of pregnancy due to foetal anomaly between 2007 and 2011 with chromosomal CA (Q90-Q99.9 codes of the 10th International Classification of Diseases -British Paediatric Association) were selected from the CA population-based Registry of Valencia Region The prevalence per 10,000 births for the chromosomal CA and for the different types of chromosomal syndromes with 95% confidence intervals was calculated. The analysis was performed by calculating prevalences and data were compared using Pearson Chi-squared test. A total of 895 cases were found, representing a prevalence of 33.5 per 10,000 births (95% CI: 31.0-35.9), highlighting five syndromes: Down's, Edward's, Patau, Turner and Klinefelter. The prevalence of chromosomal CA and Down's syndrome were stable over the period, except in 2010. Down's was the most frequent chromosomal CA (67% of the cases), and the most frequent termination of pregnancy type was for foetal anomaly (69%). Cardiac heart defects represented 70.3% of the associated congenital anomalies. Mothers of children with chromosomal CA were mainly Spanish (73.3%). The age group of mothers over 39 years had a higher prevalence (133.0 per 10,000 births). The province of Castellón had the highest prevalence, 39.1 per 10,000 births. The prevalence has remained stable over the five years, excluding the significant decline in 2010, for chromosomal CA detected and two of the major syndromes. The chromosomal CA are an important public health problem as they represent 15% of all CA identified in the Valencia Region, and agrees with the European data. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Algorithm and implementation of muon trigger and data transmission system for barrel-endcap overlap region of the CMS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotny, W. M.; Byszuk, A.

    2016-03-01

    The CMS experiment Level-1 trigger system is undergoing an upgrade. In the barrel-endcap transition region, it is necessary to merge data from 3 types of muon detectors—RPC, DT and CSC. The Overlap Muon Track Finder (OMTF) uses the novel approach to concentrate and process those data in a uniform manner to identify muons and their transversal momentum. The paper presents the algorithm and FPGA firmware implementation of the OMTF and its data transmission system in CMS. It is foreseen that the OMTF will be subject to significant changes resulting from optimization which will be done with the aid of physics simulations. Therefore, a special, high-level, parameterized HDL implementation is necessary.

  3. The Drosophila suppressor of underreplication protein binds to late-replicating regions of polytene chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Makunin, I V; Volkova, E I; Belyaeva, E S; Nabirochkina, E N; Pirrotta, V; Zhimulev, I F

    2002-01-01

    In many late-replicating euchromatic regions of salivary gland polytene chromosomes, DNA is underrepresented. A mutation in the SuUR gene suppresses underreplication and leads to normal levels of DNA polytenization in these regions. We identified the SuUR gene and determined its structure. In the SuUR mutant stock a 6-kb insertion was found in the fourth exon of the gene. A single SuUR transcript is present at all stages of Drosophila development and is most abundant in adult females and embryos. The SuUR gene encodes a protein of 962 amino acids whose putative sequence is similar to the N-terminal part of SNF2/SWI2 proteins. Staining of salivary gland polytene chromosomes with antibodies directed against the SuUR protein shows that the protein is localized mainly in late-replicating regions and in regions of intercalary and pericentric heterochromatin. PMID:11901119

  4. Identification and uniparental expression of a novel gene from the Prader-Willi region of chromosome 15

    SciTech Connect

    Wevrick, R.; Kerns, J.A.; Francke, U.

    1994-09-01

    The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurobehavioral disorder which occurs at a frequency of about 1/25,000. Most patients ({approximately}70%) have a cytogentic deletion of their paternal 15q11-q13 region, while {approximately}30% have uniparental maternal disomy. The parent of origin dependence of the phenotype is thought to be reflective of the uniparental pattern of expression of genes in the region, a phenomenon known as genomic imprinting. A small subset of PWS patient with a typical cytogenetic rearrangements has defined a critical region for genes involved in PWS. We have used STSs from the region to construct a YAC contig including the entire PWS critical region, which is about 350 kb considering presently characterized deletions. We are now using these YACs to isolate and characterize novel genes potentially involved in PWS. Overlapping YACs from the critical region were subjected to the technique of cDNA selection. Gel-purified YAC DNA was biotinylated during PCR amplification and annealed in solution to amplified cDNA. cDNAs remaining after hybridization washing, and denaturation of the hybrids were tested for localization within the YAC contig. One such cDNA mapped back to the YAC contig and was further analyzed. A full length cDNA clone was isolated from a fetal brain library and sequenced. The pattern of expression was determined in cell lines derived from Prader-Willi and Angelman patients and in normal individuals. The gene was found to have monoallelic, paternal expression in normal individuals and is marginally or not expressed in cell lines derived form Prader-Willi individuals. Expression in cell lines from Angelman patients, who are deleted for the same region on the maternal chromosome 15, was normal. Thus this apparently maternally imprinted gene is a candidate for involvement in the Prader-Willi phenotype.

  5. Multi-generational genome wide association studies identify chromosomal regions associated with ascites phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, K J; Dey, S; Kinney, R; Anthony, N B; Rhoads, D D

    2017-02-21

    Ascites is a multi-faceted disease commonly observed in fast growing broilers, which is initiated when the body is insufficiently oxygenated. A series of events follow, including an increase in pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricle hypertrophy, and accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity and pericardium. Advances in management practices along with improved selection programs have decreased ascites incidence in modern broilers. However, ascites syndrome remains an economically important disease throughout the world, causing estimated losses of $100 million per year. In this study, a 60 K Illumina SNP BeadChip was used to perform a series of genome wide association studies (GWAS) on the 16th and 18th generation of our relaxed (REL) line descended from a commercial elite broiler line beginning in 1995. Regions significantly associated with ascites incidence were identified on chromosome 2 around 70 megabase pairs (Mbp) and on chromosome Z around 60 Mbp. Five candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were evaluated as indicators for these 2 regions in order to identify association with ascites and right ventricle to total ventricle weight (RVTV) ratios. Chromosome 2 SNP showed an association with RVTV ratios in males phenotyped as ascites resistant and ascites susceptible (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). The chromosome Z region also indicates an association with resistant female RVTV values (P = 0.02). Regions of significance identified on chromosomes 2 and Z described in this study will be used as proposed candidate regions for further investigation into the genetics of ascites. This information will lead to a better understanding of the underlying genetics and gene networks contributing to ascites, and thus advances in ascites reduction through commercial breeding schemes.

  6. Characterization of a rice variety with high hydraulic conductance and identification of the chromosome region responsible using chromosome segment substitution lines

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Shunsuke; Tsuru, Yukiko; Kondo, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Toshio; Arai-Sanoh, Yumiko; Ando, Tsuyu; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Yano, Masahiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The rate of photosynthesis in paddy rice often decreases at noon on sunny days because of water stress, even under submerged conditions. Maintenance of higher rates of photosynthesis during the day might improve both yield and dry matter production in paddy rice. A high-yielding indica variety, ‘Habataki’, maintains a high rate of leaf photosynthesis during the daytime because of the higher hydraulic conductance from roots to leaves than in the standard japonica variety ‘Sasanishiki’. This research was conducted to characterize the trait responsible for the higher hydraulic conductance in ‘Habataki’ and identified a chromosome region for the high hydraulic conductance. Methods Hydraulic conductance to passive water transport and to osmotic water transport was determined for plants under intense transpiration and for plants without transpiration, respectively. The varietal difference in hydraulic conductance was examined with respect to root surface area and hydraulic conductivity (hydraulic conductance per root surface area, Lp). To identify the chromosome region responsible for higher hydraulic conductance, chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) derived from a cross between ‘Sasanishiki’ and ‘Habataki’ were used. Key Results The significantly higher hydraulic conductance resulted from the larger root surface area not from Lp in ‘Habataki’. A chromosome region associated with the elevated hydraulic conductance was detected between RM3916 and RM2431 on the long arm of chromosome 4. The CSSL, in which this region was substituted with the ‘Habataki’ chromosome segment in the ‘Sasanishiki’ background, had a larger root mass than ‘Sasanishiki’. Conclusions The trait for increasing plant hydraulic conductance and, therefore, maintaining the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis under the conditions of intense transpiration in ‘Habataki’ was identified, and it was estimated that there is at least one

  7. Characterization of a rice variety with high hydraulic conductance and identification of the chromosome region responsible using chromosome segment substitution lines.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Shunsuke; Tsuru, Yukiko; Kondo, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Toshio; Arai-Sanoh, Yumiko; Ando, Tsuyu; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Yano, Masahiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2010-11-01

    The rate of photosynthesis in paddy rice often decreases at noon on sunny days because of water stress, even under submerged conditions. Maintenance of higher rates of photosynthesis during the day might improve both yield and dry matter production in paddy rice. A high-yielding indica variety, 'Habataki', maintains a high rate of leaf photosynthesis during the daytime because of the higher hydraulic conductance from roots to leaves than in the standard japonica variety 'Sasanishiki'. This research was conducted to characterize the trait responsible for the higher hydraulic conductance in 'Habataki' and identified a chromosome region for the high hydraulic conductance. Hydraulic conductance to passive water transport and to osmotic water transport was determined for plants under intense transpiration and for plants without transpiration, respectively. The varietal difference in hydraulic conductance was examined with respect to root surface area and hydraulic conductivity (hydraulic conductance per root surface area, L(p)). To identify the chromosome region responsible for higher hydraulic conductance, chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) derived from a cross between 'Sasanishiki' and 'Habataki' were used. The significantly higher hydraulic conductance resulted from the larger root surface area not from L(p) in 'Habataki'. A chromosome region associated with the elevated hydraulic conductance was detected between RM3916 and RM2431 on the long arm of chromosome 4. The CSSL, in which this region was substituted with the 'Habataki' chromosome segment in the 'Sasanishiki' background, had a larger root mass than 'Sasanishiki'. The trait for increasing plant hydraulic conductance and, therefore, maintaining the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis under the conditions of intense transpiration in 'Habataki' was identified, and it was estimated that there is at least one chromosome region for the trait located on chromosome 4.

  8. Genomic structure and paralogous regions of the inversion breakpoint occurring between human chromosome 3p12.3 and orangutan chromosome 2.

    PubMed

    Yue, Y; Grossmann, B; Tsend-Ayush, E; Grützner, F; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Yang, F; Haaf, T

    2005-01-01

    Intrachromosomal duplications play a significant role in human genome pathology and evolution. To better understand the molecular basis of evolutionary chromosome rearrangements, we performed molecular cytogenetic and sequence analyses of the breakpoint region that distinguishes human chromosome 3p12.3 and orangutan chromosome 2. FISH with region-specific BAC clones demonstrated that the breakpoint-flanking sequences are duplicated intrachromosomally on orangutan 2 and human 3q21 as well as at many pericentromeric and subtelomeric sites throughout the genomes. Breakage and rearrangement of the human 3p12.3-homologous region in the orangutan lineage were associated with a partial loss of duplicated sequences in the breakpoint region. Consistent with our FISH mapping results, computational analysis of the human chromosome 3 genomic sequence revealed three 3p12.3-paralogous sequence blocks on human chromosome 3q21 and smaller blocks on the short arm end 3p26-->p25. This is consistent with the view that sequences from an ancestral site at 3q21 were duplicated at 3p12.3 in a common ancestor of orangutan and humans. Our results show that evolutionary chromosome rearrangements are associated with microduplications and microdeletions, contributing to the DNA differences between closely related species. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. DELETION MAPPING OF CRITICAL REGION FOR HYPOSPADIAS, PENOSCROTAL TRANSPOSITION AND IMPERFORATE ANUS ON HUMAN CHROMOSOME 13

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Nilda M.; Allgood, Jocelyn; Santos, Lane J.; Lonergan, D.; Batanian, J.R.; Henkemeyer, Mark; Bartsch, Oliver; Schultz, Roger A.; Zinn, Andrew R.; Baker, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Background The 13q-deletion syndrome causes human congenital birth defects due to the loss of regions of one long arm of human chromosome 13. A distal critical region for severe genitourinary and anorectal birth defects in the region of 13q32.2-34 has been suggested; we sought to narrow this critical region. Methods From patients with karyotypes revealing haploinsufficiency for distal chromosome 13q and their parents, peripheral blood was obtained and lymphocytes were immortalized for DNA isolation. Genetic and molecular cytogenetic methods were used to map deletions. Patient and parental samples were genotyped with a panel of 20 microsatellite markers spanning 13q31.3 qter and deletions identified by loss of heterozygosity. Deletions were also mapped using a panel of 35 BAC clones from the same region as probes for fluorescence in-situ hybridization on patient lymphoblastoid metaphase preparations. The data were synthesized and a deletion map defining the critical region was generated. Results Eight patients with known deletions around 13q32qter and their parents were analyzed, and categorized into three groups: three patients with anorectal and genitourinary anomalies (hypospadias, penoscrotal transposition), four male patients without anorectal and genitourinary anomalies, and one XY patient with ambiguous genitalia without anorectal anomalies. We mapped the critical region for anorectal and genitourinary anomalies to a ∼9.5-Mb interval of 13q33.3-q34 delineated by markers D13S280-D13S285; this spans ∼8% of the chromosome and contains 20 annotated genes Conclusion The critical region of chromosome 13q mediating genitourinary/anorectal anomalies has been mapped, and will be narrowed by additional patients and further mapping. Identification of the gene(s) mediating these syndromic genitourinary defects should further our knowledge of molecular mediators of non-syndromic hypospadias, penoscrotal transposition and anorectal malformations. PMID:17476316

  10. Fine mapping analysis confirms and strengthens linkage of four chromosomal regions in familial hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Söderhäll, Cilla; Körberg, Izabella Baranowska; Thai, Hanh T T; Cao, Jia; Chen, Yougen; Zhang, Xufeng; Shulu, Zu; van der Zanden, Loes F M; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Frisén, Louise; Roeleveld, Nel; Markljung, Ellen; Kockum, Ingrid; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Hypospadias is a common male genital malformation and is regarded as a complex disease affected by multiple genetic as well as environmental factors. In a previous genome-wide scan for familial hypospadias, we reported suggestive linkage in nine chromosomal regions. We have extended this analysis by including new families and additional markers using non-parametric linkage. The fine mapping analysis displayed an increased LOD score on chromosome 8q24.1 and 10p15 in altogether 82 families. On chromosome 10p15, with the highest LOD score, we further studied AKR1C2, AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 involved in steroid metabolism, as well as KLF6 expressed in preputial tissue from hypospadias patients. Mutation analysis of the AKR1C3 gene showed a new mutation, c.643G>A (p.(Ala215Thr)), in a boy with penile hypospadias. This mutation is predicted to have an impact on protein function and structure and was not found in controls. Altogether, we homed in on four chromosomal regions likely to harbor genes for hypospadias. Future studies will aim for studying regulatory sequence variants in these regions. PMID:24986825

  11. Commonly deleted region on the long arm of chromosome 7 in differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Nishizuka, S; Tamura, G; Terashima, M; Satodate, R

    1997-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at several chromosomal loci is a common event in human malignancies. Frequent LOH on the long arm of chromosome 7 has been reported in various human malignancies, and investigators have identified the most common site of LOH as 7q31.1. We have identified ten chromosomal loci, including chromosome 7q, that have been shown by previous allelotype study to be sites of frequent LOH in differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach. In the present study, we performed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microsatellite analysis to define the common deleted region on 7q, using 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers in matched tumour and non-tumour DNAs from 53 patients with primary gastric carcinoma of the differentiated type. LOH at any locus on 7q occurred in 34% (18 out of 53) of the tumours. Although many tumours exhibited total or large interstitial deletions, we determined the smallest common deleted region to be at D7S480 (7q31.1). This is identical to the region identified for other human malignancies. These observations indicate that a putative tumour suppressor gene at 7q31.1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

  12. Commonly deleted region on the long arm of chromosome 7 in differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Nishizuka, S.; Tamura, G.; Terashima, M.; Satodate, R.

    1997-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at several chromosomal loci is a common event in human malignancies. Frequent LOH on the long arm of chromosome 7 has been reported in various human malignancies, and investigators have identified the most common site of LOH as 7q31.1. We have identified ten chromosomal loci, including chromosome 7q, that have been shown by previous allelotype study to be sites of frequent LOH in differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach. In the present study, we performed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microsatellite analysis to define the common deleted region on 7q, using 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers in matched tumour and non-tumour DNAs from 53 patients with primary gastric carcinoma of the differentiated type. LOH at any locus on 7q occurred in 34% (18 out of 53) of the tumours. Although many tumours exhibited total or large interstitial deletions, we determined the smallest common deleted region to be at D7S480 (7q31.1). This is identical to the region identified for other human malignancies. These observations indicate that a putative tumour suppressor gene at 7q31.1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Images Figure 1 PMID:9413943

  13. Fine mapping analysis confirms and strengthens linkage of four chromosomal regions in familial hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Söderhäll, Cilla; Körberg, Izabella Baranowska; Thai, Hanh T T; Cao, Jia; Chen, Yougen; Zhang, Xufeng; Shulu, Zu; van der Zanden, Loes F M; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Frisén, Louise; Roeleveld, Nel; Markljung, Ellen; Kockum, Ingrid; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2015-04-01

    Hypospadias is a common male genital malformation and is regarded as a complex disease affected by multiple genetic as well as environmental factors. In a previous genome-wide scan for familial hypospadias, we reported suggestive linkage in nine chromosomal regions. We have extended this analysis by including new families and additional markers using non-parametric linkage. The fine mapping analysis displayed an increased LOD score on chromosome 8q24.1 and 10p15 in altogether 82 families. On chromosome 10p15, with the highest LOD score, we further studied AKR1C2, AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 involved in steroid metabolism, as well as KLF6 expressed in preputial tissue from hypospadias patients. Mutation analysis of the AKR1C3 gene showed a new mutation, c.643G>A (p.(Ala215Thr)), in a boy with penile hypospadias. This mutation is predicted to have an impact on protein function and structure and was not found in controls. Altogether, we homed in on four chromosomal regions likely to harbor genes for hypospadias. Future studies will aim for studying regulatory sequence variants in these regions.

  14. Identification and Validation of Novel Chromosomal Integration and Expression Loci in Escherichia coli Flagellar Region 1

    PubMed Central

    Juhas, Mario; Ajioka, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is used as a chassis for a number of Synthetic Biology applications. The lack of suitable chromosomal integration and expression loci is among the main hurdles of the E. coli engineering efforts. We identified and validated chromosomal integration and expression target sites within E. coli K12 MG1655 flagellar region 1. We analyzed five open reading frames of the flagellar region 1, flgA, flgF, flgG, flgI, and flgJ, that are well-conserved among commonly-used E. coli strains, such as MG1655, W3110, DH10B and BL21-DE3. The efficiency of the integration into the E. coli chromosome and the expression of the introduced genetic circuit at the investigated loci varied significantly. The integrations did not have a negative impact on growth; however, they completely abolished motility. From the investigated E. coli K12 MG1655 flagellar region 1, flgA and flgG are the most suitable chromosomal integration and expression loci. PMID:25816013

  15. Linkage disequilibrium patterns vary with chromosomal location: A case study from the von Willebrand factor region

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, W.S.; Zenger, R.; O'Brien, E.; Jorde, L.B. ); Nyman, D. ); Eriksson, A.W. ); Renlund, M.

    1994-08-01

    Linkage disequilibrium analysis has been used as a tool for analyzing marker order and locating disease genes. Under appropriate circumstances, disequilibrium patterns reflect recombination events that have occurred throughput a population's history. As a result, disequilibrium mapping may be useful in genomic regions of <1 cM where the number of informative meioses needed to detect recombinant individuals within pedigrees is exceptionally high. Its utility for refining target areas for candidate disease genes before initiating chromosomal walks and cloning experiments will be enhanced as the relationship between linkage disequilibrium and physical distance is better understood. To address this issue, the authors have characterized linkage disequilibrium in a 144-kb region of the von Willebrand factor gene on chromosome 12. Sixty CEPH and 12 von Willebrand disease families were genotypes for five PCR-based markers, which include two microsatellite repeats and three single-base-pair substitutions. Linkage disequilibrium and physical distance between polymorphisms are highly correlated (r[sub m] = -.76; P<.05) within this region. None of the five markers showed significant disequilibrium with the von Willebrand disease phenotype. The linkage disequilibrium/physical distance relationship was also analyzed as a function of chromosomal location for this and eight previously characterized regions. This analysis revealed a general trend in which linkage disequilibrium dissipates more rapidly with physical distance in telomeric regions than in centromeric regions. This trend is consistent with higher recombination rates near telomeres. 52 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Regional localization of DNA sequences on chromosome 21 using somatic cell hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Van Keuren, M L; Watkins, P C; Drabkin, H A; Jabs, E W; Gusella, J F; Patterson, D

    1986-01-01

    We have used a panel of Chinese hamster X human somatic cell hybrids, each containing various portions of chromosome 21 as the only detectable human chromosome component, for regional mapping of cloned, chromosome 21-derived DNA sequences. Thirty unique and very low-repeat sequences were mapped to the short arm and three sections of the long arm. Three unique sequences map to the proximal part of the terminal band 21q22.3, and five to the distal part of this band. Some of these may represent parts of gene sequences that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of Down syndrome, as 21q22 is the area required to be present in triplicate for the full clinical picture. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3014865

  17. Functional overlap between regions involved in speech perception and in monitoring one's own voice during speech production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zane Z; Munhall, Kevin G; Johnsrude, Ingrid S

    2010-08-01

    The fluency and the reliability of speech production suggest a mechanism that links motor commands and sensory feedback. Here, we examined the neural organization supporting such links by using fMRI to identify regions in which activity during speech production is modulated according to whether auditory feedback matches the predicted outcome or not and by examining the overlap with the network recruited during passive listening to speech sounds. We used real-time signal processing to compare brain activity when participants whispered a consonant-vowel-consonant word ("Ted") and either heard this clearly or heard voice-gated masking noise. We compared this to when they listened to yoked stimuli (identical recordings of "Ted" or noise) without speaking. Activity along the STS and superior temporal gyrus bilaterally was significantly greater if the auditory stimulus was (a) processed as the auditory concomitant of speaking and (b) did not match the predicted outcome (noise). The network exhibiting this Feedback Type x Production/Perception interaction includes a superior temporal gyrus/middle temporal gyrus region that is activated more when listening to speech than to noise. This is consistent with speech production and speech perception being linked in a control system that predicts the sensory outcome of speech acts and that processes an error signal in speech-sensitive regions when this and the sensory data do not match.

  18. Construction of a 2.8-megabase yeast artificial chromosome contig and cloning of the human methylthioadenosine phosphorylase gene from the tumor suppressor region on 9p21

    SciTech Connect

    Olopade, O.I.; Pomykala, H.M.; Hagos, F.

    1995-07-03

    Many human malignant cells lack methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) enzyme activity. The gene (MTAP) encoding this enzyme was previously mapped to the short arm of chromosome 9, band p21-22, a region that is frequently deleted in multiple tumor types. To clone candidate tumor suppressor genes from the deleted region on 9p21-22, we have constructed a long-range physical map of 2.8 megabases for 9p21 by using overlapping yeast artificial chromosome and cosmid clones. This map includes the type I IFN gene cluster, the recently identified candidate tumor suppressor genes CDKN2 (p16{sup INK4A}) and CDKN2B (p15{sup INK4B}), and several CpG islands. In addition, we have identified other transcription units within the yeast artificial chromosome contig. Sequence analysis of a 2.5-kb cDNA clone isolated from a CpG island that maps between the IFN genes and CDKN2 reveals a predicted open reading frame of 283 amino acids followed by 1302 nucleotides of 3{prime} untranslated sequence. This gene is evolutionarily conserved and shows significant amino acid homologies to mouse and human purine nucleoside phosphorylases and to a hypothetical 25.8-kDa protein in the pet gene (coding for cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex) region of Rhodospirillum rubrum. The location, expression pattern, and nucleotide sequences of this gene suggest that it codes for the MTAP enzyme. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Terminal regions of wheat chromosomes select their pairing partners in meiosis.

    PubMed

    Corredor, Eduardo; Lukaszewski, Adam J; Pachón, Paula; Allen, Diana C; Naranjo, Tomás

    2007-10-01

    Many plant species, including important crops like wheat, are polyploids that carry more than two sets of genetically related chromosomes capable of meiotic pairing. To safeguard a diploid-like behavior at meiosis, many polyploids evolved genetic loci that suppress incorrect pairing and recombination of homeologues. The Ph1 locus in wheat was proposed to ensure homologous pairing by controlling the specificity of centromere associations that precede chromosome pairing. Using wheat chromosomes that carry rye centromeres, we show that the centromere associations in early meiosis are not based on homology and that the Ph1 locus has no effect on such associations. Although centromeres indeed undergo a switch from nonhomologous to homologous associations in meiosis, this process is driven by the terminally initiated synapsis. The centromere has no effect on metaphase I chiasmate chromosome associations: homologs with identical or different centromeres, in the presence and absence of Ph1, pair the same. A FISH analysis of the behavior of centromeres and distal chromomeres in telocentric and bi-armed chromosomes demonstrates that it is not the centromeric, but rather the subtelomeric, regions that are involved in the correct partner recognition and selection.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of chromosome 15 abnormalities in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region by traditional and molecular cytogenetics

    SciTech Connect

    Toth-Fejel, S.; Magenis, R.E.; Leff, S.

    1995-02-13

    With improvements in culturing and banding techniques, amniotic fluid studies now achieve a level of resolution at which the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) region may be questioned. Chromosome 15 heteromorphisms, detected with Q- and R-banding and used in conjunction with PWS/AS region-specific probes, can confirm a chromosome deletion and establish origin to predict the clinical outcome. We report four de novo cases of an abnormal-appearing chromosome 15 in amniotic fluid samples referred for advanced maternal age or a history of a previous chromosomally abnormal child. The chromosomes were characterized using G-, Q-, and R-banding, as well as isotopic and fluorescent in situ hybridization of DNA probes specific for the proximal chromosome 15 long arm. In two cases, one chromosome 15 homolog showed a consistent deletion of the ONCOR PWS/AS region A and B. In the other two cases, one of which involved an inversion with one breakpoint in the PWS/AS region, all of the proximal chromosome 15 long arm DNA probes used in the in situ hybridization were present on both homologs. Clinical follow-up was not available on these samples, as in all cases the parents chose to terminate the pregnancies. These cases demonstrate the ability to prenatally diagnose chromosome 15 abnormalities associated with PWS/AS. In addition, they highlight the need for a better understanding of this region for accurate prenatal diagnosis. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Exclusion of Linkage to the CDL1 Gene Region on Chromosome 3q26.3 in Some Familial Cases of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krantz, Ian D.; Tonkin, Emma; Smith, Melanie; Devoto, Marcella; Bottani, Armand; Simpson, Claire; Hofreiter, Mary; Abraham, Vinod; Jukofsky, Lori; Conti, Brian P.; Strachan, Tom; Jackson, Laird

    2016-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a complex developmental disorder consisting of characteristic facial features, limb abnormalities, hirsutism, ophthalmologic involvement, gastroesophageal dysfunction, hearing loss, as well as growth and neuro-developmental retardation. Most cases of CdLS appear to be sporadic. Familial cases are rare and indicate autosomal dominant inheritance. Several individuals with CdLS have been reported with chromosomal abnormalities, suggesting candidate genomic regions within which the causative gene(s) may lie. A CdLS gene location (CDL1) has been assigned to 3q26.3 based on phenotypic overlap with the duplication 3q syndrome (critical region 3q26.2-q27) and the report of a CdLS individual with a balanced de novo t(3;17)(q26.3;q23.1). It has been postulated that a gene within the dup3q critical region results in the CdLS when deleted or mutated. We have performed a linkage analysis to the minimal critical region for the dup3q syndrome (that encompasses the translocation breakpoint) on chromosome 3q in 10 rare familial cases of CdLS. Nineteen markers spanning a region of approximately 40 Mb (37 cM) were used. Results of a multipoint linkage analysis demonstrated total lod-scores that were negative across the chromosome 3q26-q27 region. In 4/10 families, lod-scores were less than −2 in the 2 cM region encompassing the translocation, while in the remaining 6/10 families, lod-scores could not exclude linkage to this region. These studies indicate that in some multicase families, the disease gene does not map to the CDL1 region at 3q26.3. PMID:11391654

  2. A 2-Mb YAC contig and physical map covering the chromosome 8q12 breakpoint cluster region in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kas, K; Röijer, E; Voz, M; Meyen, E; Stenman, G; Van de Ven, W J

    1997-08-01

    Pleomorphic adenomas are benign epithelial tumors originating from the major and minor salivary glands. Extensive cytogenetic studies have demonstrated that they frequently show chromosome abnormalities involving chromosome 8, with consistent breakpoints at 8q12. In previous studies, we have shown that these breakpoints are located in a 9-cM interval between MOS/D8S285 and D8S260. Here, we describe directional chromosome walking studies starting from D8S260 as well as D8S285. Using the CEPH and ICRF YAC libraries, these studies resulted in the construction of two nonoverlapping YAC contigs of about 2 and 5 Mb, respectively. Initial fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis suggested that the majority of 8q12 breakpoints clustered within the 2-Mb contig, which was mapped to the centromeric part of chromosome band 8q12. This contig has at least double coverage and consists of 34 overlapping YAC clones. The localization of the YACs was confirmed by FISH analysis. On the basis of mapping data of landmarks with an average spacing of 65 kb as well as restriction enzyme analysis, a long-range physical map was established for the chromosome region spanned by the 2-Mb contig. The relative positions of various known genes and expressed sequence tags within this contig were also determined. Subsequent FISH analyses of pleomorphic adenomas using YACs as well as cosmids revealed that all but two of the 8q12 breakpoints in the primary tumors tested mapped within a 300-kb interval between the MOS proto-oncogene and STS EM156. The target gene affected by the chromosome aberrations mapping within this interval was recently shown to be the PLAG1 gene, which encodes a novel zinc finger protein.

  3. Physical and transcriptional map of a 3-Mb region of mouse chromosome 1 containing the gene for the neural tube defect mutant loop-tail (Lp).

    PubMed

    Eddleston, J; Murdoch, J N; Copp, A J; Stanier, P

    1999-03-01

    The Lp mouse mutant provides a model for the severe human neural tube defect (NTD), cranio-rachischisis. To identify the Lp gene, a positional cloning approach has been adopted. Previously, linkage analysis in a large intraspecific backcross was used to map the Lp locus to distal mouse chromosome 1. Here we report a detailed physical map of this region. The interval surrounding Lp has been cloned in a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig consisting of 63 clones spanning approximately 3.2 Mb. Fifty sequence tagged sites (STSs) have been used to construct the contig and establish marker order across the interval. Based on the high level of conserved synteny between distal mouse chromosome 1 and human 1q21-q24, many of these STSs were designed from expressed sequences identified by cross-screening human and mouse databases of expressed sequence tags. Added to other known genes in the region, a total of 29 genes were located and ordered within the contig. Seven novel polymorphisms were identified within the region, allowing refinement of the genetic map and a reduction in the size of the physical interval containing the Lp gene. The Lp interval, between D1Mit113 and Tagln2, can be spanned by two nonchimeric overlapping YACs that define a physical distance of approximately 1 Mb. Within this region, 10 potential candidate genes have been mapped. The materials and genes described here will provide a resource for the identification and further study of the mutated Lp gene that causes this severe neural tube defect and will provide candidates for other defects known to map to the homologous region on human chromosome 1q.

  4. The size and sequence organization of the centromeric region of arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Kumekawa, N; Hosouchi, T; Tsuruoka, H; Kotani, H

    2000-12-31

    We have determined the size of the centromeric region of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5, which corresponds to the genetically defined centromere by Copenhaver et al. (Science, 286, 2468-2474, 1999) on the basis of restriction analysis. As a large clone gap was present in the previously constructed contig map of the centromeric region, the restriction map of this region was constructed using Asc I, Not I, Apa I and Pme I and genomic DNA from a hypomethylated strain. The size of the centromeric region finally estimated by combination with the sequence data of cloned regions at both sides was 4.35 megabases (Mb). This value is over 2 Mb longer than those estimated in our previous work and also by Copenhaver et al. Combing this centromeric region with the physical map previously constructed, the entire length of chromosome 5 becomes 31 Mb. Although the internal moiety of the centromeric region has not been sequenced yet because of extremely high repetition, the result of sequence analysis from both sides toward the inside strongly suggests that the centromeric region is composed of the central 2.9-Mb domain consisting of mainly 180-bp repeats and Athila retrotransposons and flanking regions containing various types of transposons. On the basis of these observations, a structural model for the centromeric region is discussed.

  5. Molecular definition of a region of chromosome 21 that causes features of the Down syndrome phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Korenberg, Julie R.; Kawashima, Hiroko; Pulst, Stefan-M.; Ikeuchi, T.; Ogasawara, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Schonberg, Steven A.; West, Ruth; Allen, Leland; Magenis, Ellen; Ikawa, K.; Taniguchi, N.; Epstein, Charles J.

    1990-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a major cause of mental retardation and heart disease. Although it is usually caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21, a subset of the diagnostic features may be caused by the presence of only band 21q22. We now present evidence that significantly narrows the chromosomal region responsible for several of the phenotypic features of DS. We report a molecular and cytogenetic analysis of a three-generation family containing four individuals with clinical DS as manifested by the characteristic facial appearance, endocardial cushion defect, mental retardation, and probably dermatoglyphic changes. Autoradiograms of quantitative Southern blots of DNAs from two affected sisters, their carrier father, and a normal control were analyzed after hybridization with two to six unique DNA sequences regionally mapped on chromosome 21. These include cDNA probes for the genes for CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mapping in 21q22.1 and for the amyloid precursor protein (APP) mapping in 21q11.2-21.05, in addition to six probes for single-copy sequences: D21S46 in 21q11.2-21.05, D21S47 and SF57 in 21q22.1-22.3, and D21S39, D21S42, and D21S43 in 21q22.3. All sequences located in 21q22.3 were present in three copies in the affected individuals, whereas those located proximal to this region were present in only two copies. In the carrier father, all DNA sequences were present in only two copies. Cytogenetic analysis of affected individuals employing R and G banding of prometaphase preparations combined with in situ hybridization revealed a translocation of the region from very distal 21q22.1 to 21qter to chromosome 4q. Except for a possible phenotypic contribution from the deletion of chromosome band 4q35, these data provide a molecular definition of the minimal region of chromosome 21 which, when duplicated, generates the facial features, heart defect, a component of the mental retardation, and probably several of the dermatoglyphic changes of DS. This region

  6. Localized Mutagenesis of Any Specific Small Region of the Bacterial Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jen-Shiang; Ames, Bruce N.

    1971-01-01

    A method, which we call localized mutagenesis, is described for the isolation of temperature-sensitive and other types of mutations in any specific small region (about 1%) of the bacterial chromosome. The principle of this method is to mutate the transducing DNA rather than the bacterial DNA. One can select for the introduction of this mutated DNA into any particular region of the bacterial chromosome by transducing an auxotrophic marker in that region to prototrophy, thereby introducing new mutations in the neighborhood. We have used this method to isolate many different temperature-sensitive mutations in genes of unknown function in particular regions of the chromosome. Since the method is very simple, it can be used to saturate any region of the map with mutations in essential genes, or for various types of genetic manipulations. Although we have used hydroxylamine-mutagenized phage P22 and Salmonella typhimurium, the method should be applicable to other mutagens and bacteria and transducing phage. PMID:4943557

  7. Genotyping and Mutation Pattern in the Overlapping MHR Region of HBV Isolates in Southern Khorasan, Eastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Ziaee, Masood; Javanmard, Davod; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Hasan Namaei, Mohammad; Azarkar, Ghodsiyeh

    2016-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus, with 8 known distinct genotypes, is one of the most serious health problems which results to liver injuries. The surface gene of Hepatitis B virus completely overlaps with the polymerase gene. Mutations in the RT gene result in changes in the overlapping hepatitis B surface antigen. The present study aimed to evaluate the genotypes and prevalence of mutations in a segment of S and RT gene in HBV isolates in Southern Khorasan, Iran. This was a population-based study comprising 5,235 randomized samples for HBV screening. A nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was followed by direct sequencing, and the sequences blast with present sequences of NCBI database for genotyping. Alignment and phylogenic analysis was performed using MEGA-6 software, and mutation pattern of this segment was finally surveyed in Bioedit software. The mean age was 39.07 ± 14.04 years, with 52.2% female and 47.8% male. All isolates belonged to HBV genotype D, sub-genotype D1. The most amino acid substitutions of surface protein were Q129H (34.42%) and A168V (8.2%), other escape mutants observed in this study were P127L/T, S117G, T125M, S143L, D144E and E164D. In the RT gene, Q149K was the most frequently identified amino acid substitution (9.83%), followed by L122F (8.19%), N118D/T (6.55%), L157M (4.91%), and H124Y (3.27%). This finding represents an ongoing dominancy of HBV genotype D in Eastern Iran, corresponding to other parts of Iran. There were a lot of variations in the S gene leading to an escape mutation, some of which affected the corresponding area of the RT region.

  8. Genotyping and Mutation Pattern in the Overlapping MHR Region of HBV Isolates in Southern Khorasan, Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ziaee, Masood; Javanmard, Davod; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Hasan Namaei, Mohammad; Azarkar, Ghodsiyeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus, with 8 known distinct genotypes, is one of the most serious health problems which results to liver injuries. The surface gene of Hepatitis B virus completely overlaps with the polymerase gene. Mutations in the RT gene result in changes in the overlapping hepatitis B surface antigen. Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the genotypes and prevalence of mutations in a segment of S and RT gene in HBV isolates in Southern Khorasan, Iran. Methods This was a population-based study comprising 5,235 randomized samples for HBV screening. A nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was followed by direct sequencing, and the sequences blast with present sequences of NCBI database for genotyping. Alignment and phylogenic analysis was performed using MEGA-6 software, and mutation pattern of this segment was finally surveyed in Bioedit software. Results The mean age was 39.07 ± 14.04 years, with 52.2% female and 47.8% male. All isolates belonged to HBV genotype D, sub-genotype D1. The most amino acid substitutions of surface protein were Q129H (34.42%) and A168V (8.2%), other escape mutants observed in this study were P127L/T, S117G, T125M, S143L, D144E and E164D. In the RT gene, Q149K was the most frequently identified amino acid substitution (9.83%), followed by L122F (8.19%), N118D/T (6.55%), L157M (4.91%), and H124Y (3.27%). Conclusions This finding represents an ongoing dominancy of HBV genotype D in Eastern Iran, corresponding to other parts of Iran. There were a lot of variations in the S gene leading to an escape mutation, some of which affected the corresponding area of the RT region. PMID:27882062

  9. [Variations of heterochromatic chromosomal regions and chromosome abnormalities in children with autism: identification of genetic markers in autistic spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Vorsanova, S G; Iurov, I Iu; Demidova, I A; Voinova-Ulas, V Iu; Kravets, V S; Solov'ev, I V; Gorbachevskaia, N L; Iurov, Iu B

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of 90 children with autism and their mothers (18 subjects) was carried out. Chromosome fragility and abnormalities were found in four cases: mos 47,XXX[98]/ 46,XX[2]; 46,XY,r(22)(p11q13); 46,XY,inv(2)(p11.2q13),16qh-; 46Y,fra(X)(q27.3)16qh-. Using C-banding and quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), the significantly increased incidence of heterochromatic region variation was shown in autism as compared to the controls (48 and 16%, respectively). Pericentric 9phqh inversion was not characteristic of the patients with autism whereas heterochromatic variations 1phqh, 9qh+ and 16qh- were more frequent in autism (p<0,05). Basing on the data obtained, a possible role of position effect in autism pathogenesis as well as a potential of heterochromatic region variation analysis for the search of biological markers of autistic spectrum disorders are discussed.

  10. The gene for death agonist BID maps to the region of human 22q11.2 duplicated in cat eye syndrome chromosomes and to mouse chromosome 6.

    PubMed

    Footz, T K; Birren, B; Minoshima, S; Asakawa, S; Shimizu, N; Riazi, M A; McDermid, H E

    1998-08-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a duplication of a segment of human chromosome 22q11.2. Only one gene, ATP6E, has been previously mapped to this duplicated region. We now report the mapping of the human homologue of the apoptotic agonist Bid to human chromosome 22 near locus D22S57 in the CES region. Dosage analysis demonstrated that BID is located just distal to the CES region critical for the majority of malformations associated with the syndrome (CESCR), as previously defined by a single patient with an unusual supernumerary chromosome. However, BID remains a good candidate for involvement in CES-related mental impairment, and its overexpression may subtly add to the phenotype of CES patients. Our mapping of murine Bid confirms that the synteny of the CESCR and the 22q11 deletion syndrome critical region immediately telomeric on human chromosome 22 is not conserved in mice. Bid and adjacent gene Atp6e were found to map to mousechromosome 6, while the region homologous to the DGSCR is known to map to mouse chromosome 16.

  11. Physical mapping in the Cri du Chat region on human chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Church, D.M.; Bengtsson, U.; Niebuhr, E.

    1994-09-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome is a segmental aneusomy associated with deletions in the short arm of human chromosome 5. More specifically, the cytogenetic band 5p15.2 must be deleted in order to manifest the typical phenotypic signs. We have studied several cell lines from individuals who have chromosomal abnormalities within this cytogenetic band but who do not have typical Cri du Chat syndrome. In fact, several individual studied have no discernible features of this syndrome. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and PCR analysis on somatic cell hybrids we have mapped the breakpoints relative to each other within this band. There is a great degree of phenotypic heterogeneity between several of the patients, even those which share common breakpoints. This heterogeneity makes it very difficult to narrow the region of interest to a very small (<1 Mb) region. In order to more thoroughly analyze this region, we have assembled a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of part of this region. This contig has been analyzed for STS content and covers approximately a 1.5-2.0 Mb region within 5p15.2. In addition, we have constructed a radiation hybrid map of the region. The YACs contained within the minimal contig have been used as hybridization probes to isolate corresponding cosmid clones within the region of interest. These cosmids, in turn, are being utilized to obtain potential exons using exon amplification. Several cosmids within this region have been isolated by STS content and potential exons have been isolated from them. These exons have been used as probes to isolate cDNA clones from the region. It is our hope that isolation of genes throughout the region of interest will allow a better understanding of the etiology of Cri du Chat.

  12. Characterization of the OmyY1 region on the rainbow trout Y chromosome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Ruth B.; DeKoning, Jenefer J.; Brunelli, Joseph P.; Faber-Hammond, Joshua J.; Hansen, John D.; Christensen, Kris A.; Renn, Suzy C.P.; Thorgaard, Gary H.

    2013-01-01

    We characterized the male-specific region on the Y chromosome of rainbow trout, which contains both sdY (the sex-determining gene) and the male-specific genetic marker, OmyY1. Several clones containing the OmyY1 marker were screened from a BAC library from a YY clonal line and found to be part of an 800 kb BAC contig. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), these clones were localized to the end of the short arm of the Y chromosome in rainbow trout, with an additional signal on the end of the X chromosome in many cells. We sequenced a minimum tiling path of these clones using Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing. The region is rich in transposons and rDNA, but also appears to contain several single-copy protein-coding genes. Most of these genes are also found on the X chromosome; and in several cases sex-specific SNPs in these genes were identified between the male (YY) and female (XX) homozygous clonal lines. Additional genes were identified by hybridization of the BACs to the cGRASP salmonid 4x44K oligo microarray. By BLASTn evaluations using hypothetical transcripts of OmyY1-linked candidate genes as query against several EST databases, we conclude at least 12 of these candidate genes are likely functional, and expressed.

  13. Characterization of the OmyY1 Region on the Rainbow Trout Y Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ruth B.; DeKoning, Jenefer J.; Brunelli, Joseph P.; Faber-Hammond, Joshua J.; Hansen, John D.; Christensen, Kris A.; Renn, Suzy C. P.; Thorgaard, Gary H.

    2013-01-01

    We characterized the male-specific region on the Y chromosome of rainbow trout, which contains both sdY (the sex-determining gene) and the male-specific genetic marker, OmyY1. Several clones containing the OmyY1 marker were screened from a BAC library from a YY clonal line and found to be part of an 800 kb BAC contig. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), these clones were localized to the end of the short arm of the Y chromosome in rainbow trout, with an additional signal on the end of the X chromosome in many cells. We sequenced a minimum tiling path of these clones using Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing. The region is rich in transposons and rDNA, but also appears to contain several single-copy protein-coding genes. Most of these genes are also found on the X chromosome; and in several cases sex-specific SNPs in these genes were identified between the male (YY) and female (XX) homozygous clonal lines. Additional genes were identified by hybridization of the BACs to the cGRASP salmonid 4x44K oligo microarray. By BLASTn evaluations using hypothetical transcripts of OmyY1-linked candidate genes as query against several EST databases, we conclude at least 12 of these candidate genes are likely functional, and expressed. PMID:23671840

  14. Composition and Structure of the Centromeric Region of Rice Chromosome 8W⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianzhong; Yamagata, Harumi; Hayashi-Tsugane, Mika; Hijishita, Saori; Fujisawa, Masaki; Shibata, Michie; Ito, Yukiyo; Nakamura, Mari; Sakaguchi, Miyuki; Yoshihara, Rie; Kobayashi, Harumi; Ito, Kazue; Karasawa, Wataru; Yamamoto, Mayu; Saji, Shoko; Katagiri, Satoshi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Namiki, Nobukazu; Katayose, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sasaki, Takuji

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the organization of eukaryotic centromeres has both fundamental and applied importance because of their roles in chromosome segregation, karyotypic stability, and artificial chromosome-based cloning and expression vectors. Using clone-by-clone sequencing methodology, we obtained the complete genomic sequence of the centromeric region of rice (Oryza sativa) chromosome 8. Analysis of 1.97 Mb of contiguous nucleotide sequence revealed three large clusters of CentO satellite repeats (68.5 kb of 155-bp repeats) and >220 transposable element (TE)–related sequences; together, these account for ∼60% of this centromeric region. The 155-bp repeats were tandemly arrayed head to tail within the clusters, which had different orientations and were interrupted by TE-related sequences. The individual 155-bp CentO satellite repeats showed frequent transitions and transversions at eight nucleotide positions. The 40 TE elements with highly conserved sequences were mostly gypsy-type retrotransposons. Furthermore, 48 genes, showing high BLAST homology to known proteins or to rice full-length cDNAs, were predicted within the region; some were close to the CentO clusters. We then performed a genome-wide survey of the sequences and organization of CentO and RIRE7 families. Our study provides the complete sequence of a centromeric region from either plants or animals and likely will provide insight into the evolutionary and functional analysis of plant centromeres. PMID:15037733

  15. Identification of the human chromosomal region containing the iridogoniodysgenesis anomaly locus by genomic-mismatch scanning.

    PubMed Central

    Mirzayans, F; Mears, A J; Guo, S W; Pearce, W G; Walter, M A

    1997-01-01

    Genome-mismatch scanning (GMS) is a new method of linkage analysis that rapidly isolates regions of identity between two genomes. DNA molecules from regions of identity by descent from two relatives are isolated based on their ability to form extended mismatch-free heteroduplexes. We have applied this rapid technology to identify the chromosomal region shared by two fifth-degree cousins with autosomal dominant iridogoniodysgenesis anomaly (IGDA), a rare ocular neurocristopathy. Markers on the short arm of human chromosome 6p were recovered, consistent with the results of conventional linkage analysis conducted in parallel, indicating linkage of IGDA to 6p25. Control markers tested on a second human chromosome were not recovered. A GMS error rate of approximately 11% was observed, well within an acceptable range for a rapid, first screening approach, especially since GMS results would be confirmed by family analysis with selected markers from the putative region of identity by descent. These results demonstrate not only the value of this technique in the rapid mapping of human genetic traits, but the first application of GMS to a multicellular organism. Images Figure 2 PMID:9245991

  16. Regulatory Regions of the Homeotic Gene Proboscipedia Are Sensitive to Chromosomal Pairing

    PubMed Central

    Kapoun, A. M.; Kaufman, T. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have identified regulatory regions of the homeotic gene proboscipedia that are capable of repressing a linked white minigene in a manner that is sensitive to chromosomal pairing. Normally, the eye color of transformants containing white in a P-element vector is affected by the number of copies of the transgene; homozygous flies have darker eyes than heterozygotes. However, we found that flies homozygous for select pb DNA-containing transgenes had lighter eyes than heterozygotes. Several pb DNA fragments are capable of causing this pairing sensitive (PS) negative regulation of white. Two fragments in the upstream DNA of pb, 0.58 and 0.98 kb, are PS; additionally, two PS sites are located in the second intron, including a 0.5-kb region and 49-bp sequence. This phenotype is not observed when two PS sites are located at different chromosomal insertion sites (in trans-heterozygous transgenic animals), indicating that the pb-DNA-mediated repression of white is dependent on the pairing or proximity of the PS regions. The observed phenomenon is similar to transvection in which certain alleles of a gene can complement each other, but only when homologous chromosomes are paired. Interestingly, the intronic PS regions contain positive regulatory sequences for pb, whereas the upstream PS sites contain pb negative regulatory elements. PMID:7498743

  17. Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) with YAC/BAC-based probes and region-specific microdissection DNA libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Liehr, T.; Weise, A.; Heller, A.; Starke, H.; Mrasek, K.; Kuechler, A.; Weier, H.-U.G.; Claussen, U.

    2003-06-23

    Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) allows the delineation of chromosomal regions with a resolution of a few mega base pairs, i.e., slightly below the size of most visible chromosome bands. Based on the hybridization of over lapping region-specific probe libraries, chromosomal subregions are hybridized with probes that fluoresce in distinct wave length intervals, so they can be assigned predefined pseudo-colors during the digital imaging and visualization process. The present study demonstrates how MCB patterns can be produced by region-specific micro dissection derived (mcd) libraries as well as collections of yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes (YACs and BACs, respectively). We compared the efficiency of an mcd library based approach with the hybridization of collections of locus-specific probes (LSP) for fluorescent banding of three rather differently sized human chromosomes, i.e., chromosomes 2, 13, and 22. The LSP sets were comprised of 107 probes specific for chromosome 2, 82 probes for chromosome 13, and 31 probes for chromosome 22. The results demonstrated a more homogeneous coverage of chromosomes and thus, more desirable banding patterns using the microdissection library-based MCB. This may be related to the observation that chromosomes are difficult to cover completely with YAC and/or BAC clones as single-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments showed. Mcd libraries, on the other hand, provide high complexity probes that work well as region specific paints, but do not readily allow positioning of break points on genetic or physical maps as required for the positional cloning of genes. Thus, combinations of mcd libraries and locus-specific large insert DNA probes appear to be the most efficient tools for high-resolution cytogenetic analyses.

  18. Localization of the human mitochondrial citrate transporter protein gene to chromosome 22q11 in the DiGeorge syndrome critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Heisterkamp, N.; Hoeve, J.T.; Groffen, J.

    1995-09-20

    A high percentage of patients with DiGeorge syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome have interstitial deletions on chromosome 22q11. The shortest region of overlap is currently estimated to be around 500 kb. Two segments of DNA from chromosome 22q11, located 160 kb apart, were cloned because they contained NotI restriction enzyme sites. In the current study we demonstrate that these segments are absent from chromosomes 22 carrying microdeletions of two different DiGeorge patients. Fluorescence in situ and Southern blot hybridization was further used to show that this locus is within the DiGeorge critical region. Phylogenetically conserved sequences adjacent to one of the two NotI sites hybridized to mRNAs in different human cell lines. cDNAs isolated with a probe from this segment showed it to contain the gene for the human mitochondrial citrate transporter protein. Deletion of this gene in DiGeorge may contribute to the mental deficiency seen in the patients. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Fluorescent in situ hybridization shows DIPLOSPOROUS located on one of the NOR chromosomes in apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum) in the absence of a large hemizygous chromosomal region.

    PubMed

    Vašut, Radim J; Vijverberg, Kitty; van Dijk, Peter J; de Jong, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Apomixis in dandelions (Taraxacum: Asteraceae) is encoded by two unlinked dominant loci and a third yet undefined genetic factor: diplosporous omission of meiosis (DIPLOSPOROUS, DIP), parthenogenetic embryo development (PARTHENOGENESIS, PAR), and autonomous endosperm formation, respectively. In this study, we determined the chromosomal position of the DIP locus in Taraxacum by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that genetically map within 1.2-0.2 cM of DIP. The BACs showed dispersed fluorescent signals, except for S4-BAC 83 that displayed strong unique signals as well. Under stringent blocking of repeats by C0t-DNA fragments, only a few fluorescent foci restricted to defined chromosome regions remained, including one on the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) chromosomes that contains the 45S rDNAs. FISH with S4-BAC 83 alone and optimal blocking showed discrete foci in the middle of the long arm of one of the NOR chromosomes only in triploid and tetraploid diplosporous dandelions, while signals in sexual diploids were lacking. This agrees with the genetic model of a single dose, dominant DIP allele, absent in sexuals. The length of the DIP region is estimated to cover a region of 1-10 Mb. FISH in various accessions of Taraxacum and the apomictic sister species Chondrilla juncea, confirmed the chromosomal position of DIP within Taraxacum but not outside the genus. Our results endorse that, compared to other model apomictic species, expressing either diplospory or apospory, the genome of Taraxacum shows a more similar and less diverged chromosome structure at the DIP locus. The different levels of allele sequence divergence at apomeiosis loci may reflect different terms of asexual reproduction. The association of apomeiosis loci with repetitiveness, dispersed repeats, and retrotransposons commonly observed in apomictic species may imply a functional role of these shared features in apomictic reproduction, as is

  20. Nucleolar organizer regions in Sittasomus griseicapillus and Lepidocolaptes angustirostris (Aves, Dendrocolaptidae): Evidence of a chromosome inversion.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Barbosa, Marcelo; da Silva, Rubens Rodrigues; de Sena Correia, Vanessa Carolina; Dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Garnero, Analía Del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2013-03-01

    Cytogenetic studies in birds are still scarce compared to other vertebrates. Woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptidae) are part of a highly specialized group within the Suboscines of the New World. They are forest birds exclusive to the Neotropical region and similar to woodpeckers, at a comparable evolutionary stage. This paper describes for the first time the karyotypes of the Olivaceous and the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper using conventional staining with Giemsa and silver nitrate staining of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs). Metaphases were obtained by fibular bone marrow culture. The chromosome number of the Olivaceous Woodcreeper was 2n = 82 and of the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, 2n = 82. Ag-NORs in the largest macrochromosome pair and evidence of a chromosome inversion are described herein for the first time for this group.

  1. Nucleolar organizer regions in Sittasomus griseicapillus and Lepidocolaptes angustirostris (Aves, Dendrocolaptidae): Evidence of a chromosome inversion

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Barbosa, Marcelo; da Silva, Rubens Rodrigues; de Sena Correia, Vanessa Carolina; dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Garnero, Analía del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies in birds are still scarce compared to other vertebrates. Woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptidae) are part of a highly specialized group within the Suboscines of the New World. They are forest birds exclusive to the Neotropical region and similar to woodpeckers, at a comparable evolutionary stage. This paper describes for the first time the karyotypes of the Olivaceous and the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper using conventional staining with Giemsa and silver nitrate staining of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs). Metaphases were obtained by fibular bone marrow culture. The chromosome number of the Olivaceous Woodcreeper was 2n = 82 and of the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, 2n = 82. Ag-NORs in the largest macrochromosome pair and evidence of a chromosome inversion are described herein for the first time for this group. PMID:23569410

  2. [Comparative Analysis of DNA Homology in Pericentric Regions of Chromosomes of Wood Mice from Genera Apodemus and Sylvaemus].

    PubMed

    Rubtsov, N B; Karamysheva, T V; Bogdanov, A S; Kartavtseva, I V; Bochkarev, M N; Iwasa, M A

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, an analysis of the DNA homology of the pericentric chromosomal regions and pericentric heterochromatin in distantly related species of wood mice (species from the Apodemus genus, as well as from the Apodemus and Sylvaemus genera) was conducted by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with microdissected DNA probes obtained from the corresponding chromosomal regions of these species. Cross-hybridization of microdissected DNA probes obtained from pericentric C-positive blocks of chromosomes of Sylvaemus species with chromosomes of Apodemus species, as well as DNA probes from pericentric C-positive blocks of chromosomes of Apodemus species with chromosomes of Apodemus and Sylvaemus species, showed that DNA repeats homologous to the pericentric regions in other species represented. dispersed repeats in C-negative chromosomal regions, as well as in several regions bordering pericentric C-positive and C-negative regions in heterochromosomes and autosomes and in distal regions in the long arms of several autosomes. The results indicate that the level of DNA homology in pericentric chromosomal regions decreases with an increase in the differentiation level and a decrease in the kinship between the compared forms and species of wood mice. Most likely, degeneration of the DNA repeats is accompanied by a gradual destruction of repeat clusters and their replacement by new, nonhomologous repeats in almost all pericentric regions (some old repetitive sequences might be "extruded" into interstitial or telomeric regions of chromosomes). These processes, which are observed in some species from Sylvaemus genus in distantly related species of Sylvaemus and Apodemus genera, have almost achieved the final stages.

  3. Characterization of chromosomal regions conserved in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and lost by Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Flavie; Fayolle, Corinne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2008-10-01

    The transformation of the enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis into the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis, has been accompanied by extensive genetic loss. This study focused on chromosomal regions conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis and lost during its transformation into Y. pestis. An extensive PCR screening of 78 strains of the two species identified five regions (R1 to R5) and four open reading frames (ORFs; orf1 to orf4) that were conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis and absent from Y. pestis. Their conservation in Y. pseudotuberculosis suggests a positive selective pressure and a role during the life cycle of this species. Attempts to delete two ORFs (orf3 and orf4) from the chromosome of strain IP32953 were unsuccessful, indicating that they are essential for its viability. The seven remaining loci were individually deleted from the IP32953 chromosome, and the ability of each mutant to grow in vitro and to kill mice upon intragastric infection was evaluated. Four loci (orf1, R2, R4, and R5) were not required for optimal growth or virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, orf2, encoding a putative pseudouridylate synthase involved in RNA stability, was necessary for the optimal growth of IP32953 at 37 degrees C in a chemically defined medium (M63S). Deletion of R1, a region predicted to encode the methionine salvage pathway, altered the mutant pathogenicity, suggesting that the availability of free methionine is severely restricted in vivo. R3, a region composed mostly of genes of unknown functions, was necessary for both optimal growth of Y. pseudotuberculosis at 37 degrees C in M63S and for virulence. Therefore, despite their loss in Y. pestis, five of the nine Y. pseudotuberculosis-specific chromosomal loci studied play a role in the survival, growth, or virulence of this species.

  4. Overlap of Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome and Cowden Syndrome Due to De Novo Chromosome 10 Deletion Involving BMPR1A and PTEN: Implications for Treatment and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Alimi, Adebisi; Weeth-Feinstein, Lauren A.; Stettner, Amy; Caldera, Freddy; Weiss, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient with a severe juvenile polyposis phenotype, due to a de novo deletion of chromosome 10q22.3-q24.1. He was initially diagnosed with Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) at age 4 after presenting with hematochezia due to multiple colonic juvenile polyps. He then represented at 23 years with recurrent hematochezia from juvenile polyps in his ileoanal pouch. He is one of the earliest reported cases of JPS associated with a large deletion of chromosome 10. Since his initial diagnosis of JPS further studies have confirmed an association between JPS and mutations in BMPR1A in chromosome band 10q23.2, which is in close proximity to PTEN. Mutations in PTEN cause Cowden syndrome (CS) and other PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes. Due to the chromosome 10 deletion involving contiguous portions of BMPR1A and PTEN in our patient, he may be at risk for CS associated cancers and features, in addition to the polyps associated with JPS. This case presents new challenges in developing appropriate surveillance algorithms to account for the risks associated with each syndrome and highlights the importance of longitudinal follow-up and transitional care between pediatric and adult gastroenterology for patients with hereditary polyposis syndromes. PMID:25846706

  5. Overlap of Juvenile polyposis syndrome and Cowden syndrome due to de novo chromosome 10 deletion involving BMPR1A and PTEN: implications for treatment and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Adebisi; Weeth-Feinstein, Lauren A; Stettner, Amy; Caldera, Freddy; Weiss, Jennifer M

    2015-06-01

    We describe a patient with a severe juvenile polyposis phenotype, due to a de novo deletion of chromosome 10q22.3-q24.1. He was initially diagnosed with Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) at age four after presenting with hematochezia due to multiple colonic juvenile polyps. He then re-presented at 23 years with recurrent hematochezia from juvenile polyps in his ileoanal pouch. He is one of the earliest reported cases of JPS associated with a large deletion of chromosome 10. Since his initial diagnosis of JPS further studies have confirmed an association between JPS and mutations in BMPR1A in chromosome band 10q23.2, which is in close proximity to PTEN. Mutations in PTEN cause Cowden syndrome (CS) and other PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes. Due to the chromosome 10 deletion involving contiguous portions of BMPR1A and PTEN in our patient, he may be at risk for CS associated cancers and features, in addition to the polyps associated with JPS. This case presents new challenges in developing appropriate surveillance algorithms to account for the risks associated with each syndrome and highlights the importance of longitudinal follow-up and transitional care between pediatric and adult gastroenterology for patients with hereditary polyposis syndromes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Towards the cloning of imprinted genes in the Prader-Willi/Angelman region of chromosome 15q11-q13

    SciTech Connect

    Nakao, M.; Sutcliffe, J.S.; Beaudet, A.L.

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are distinct clinical phenotypes resulting from paternal and maternal deficiencies respectively in human chromosome 15q11-q13. The data suggest the presence of oppositely imprinted genes in the region, and the gene for small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated polypeptide N (SNRPN) has been identified as a candidate gene for PWS. Previous strategies for positional cloning identified a number of transcripts from the PWS/AS region, and two of them, PAR-5 (D15S226E) and PAR-1 (D15S227E), are paternally expressed in cultured human cells from patients deleted for 15q11-q13 as is SNRPN. Cosmid contig maps have been developed from the following YACs (contained loci in parentheses): 307A12 (D15S13), 457B4 (SNRPN), 132D4 (D15S10), A229A2, and 378A12 (D15S113), to facilitate molecular studies of PWS and AS. Exon trapping has been employed to isolate putative exons from these overlapping cosmids. Two trapped fragments from the D15S113 region and one fragment from the SNRPN region has been isolated. Sequence information is available for all of the fragments. In addition to imprinting analysis in cultured human cells, we have developed a method to detect imprinting in mouse and human using a GC-clamped denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis strategy, in combination with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The imprinting analyses of putative exons are in progress to investigate their possible candidacy for involvement in PWS or AS phenotypes.

  7. Minute supernumerary ring chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome: further delineation of the critical region.

    PubMed

    Mears, A J; el-Shanti, H; Murray, J C; McDermid, H E; Patil, S R

    1995-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is typically associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome (inv dup 22pter-22q11.2) resulting in four copies of this region. We describe an individual showing the inheritance of a minute supernumerary double ring chromosome 22, which resulted in expression of all cardinal features of CES. The size of the ring was determined by DNA dosage analysis and FISH analysis for five loci mapping to 22q11.2. The probes to the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E were present in four copies, whereas D22S57 and D22S181 were present in two copies. This finding further delineates the distal boundary of the critical region of CES, with ATP6E being the most distal duplicated locus identified. The phenotypically normal father and grandfather of the patient each had a small supernumerary ring chromosome and demonstrated three copies for the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E. Although three copies of this region have been reported in other cases with CES features, it is possible that the presence of four copies leads to greater susceptibility.

  8. Minute supernumerary ring chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome: Further delineation of the critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, A.J.; McDermid, H.E.; El-Shanti, H.

    1995-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is typically associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome (inv dup 22pter-22q11.2) resulting in four copies of this region. We describe an individual showing the inheritance of a minute supernumerary double ring chromosome 22, which resulted in expression of all cardinal features of CES. The size of the ring was determined by DNA dosage analysis and FISH analysis for five loci mapping to 22q11.2. The probes to the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E were present in four copies, whereas D22S57 and D22S181 were present in two copies. This finding further delineates the distal boundary of the critical region of CES, with ATP6E being the most distal duplicated locus identified. The phenotypically normal father and grandfather of the patient each had a small supernumerary ring chromosome and demonstrated three copies for the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E. Although three copies of this region have been reported in other cases with CES features, it is possible that the presence of four copies leads to greater susceptibility. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Y chromosome azoospermia factor region microdeletions and transmission characteristics in azoospermic and severe oligozoospermic patients

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Wei, Zhen-Tong; Jiang, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Song-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is an essential reproductive process that is regulated by many Y chromosome specific genes. Most of these genes are located in a specific region known as the azoospermia factor region (AZF) in the long arm of the human Y chromosome. AZF microdeletions are recognized as the most frequent structural chromosomal abnormalities and are the major cause of male infertility. Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) such as intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) can overcome natural fertilization barriers and help a proportion of infertile couples produce children; however, these techniques increase the transmission risk of genetic defects. AZF microdeletions and their associated phenotypes in infertile males have been extensively studied, and different AZF microdeletion types have been identified by sequence-tagged site polymerase chain reaction (STS-PCR), suspension array technology (SAT) and array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH); however, each of these approaches has limitations that need to be overcome. Even though the transmission of AZF microdeletions has been reported worldwide, arguments correlating ART and the incidence of AZF microdeletions and explaining the occurrence of de novo deletions and expansion have not been resolved. Using the newest findings in the field, this review presents a systematic update concerning progress in understanding the functions of AZF regions and their associated genes, AZF microdeletions and their phenotypes and novel approaches for screening AZF microdeletions. Moreover, the transmission characteristics of AZF microdeletions and the future direction of research in the field will be specifically discussed. PMID:26628946

  10. Fragility of the centromeric region of chromosome 1 associated with combined immunodeficiency in siblings. A recessively inherited entity?

    PubMed

    Fasth, A; Forestier, E; Holmberg, E; Holmgren, G; Nordenson, I; Söderström, T; Wahlström, J

    1990-01-01

    Instability of the centromeric region of chromosome 1, and multibranched configurations formed by the short and long arms were seen in a brother and sister with facial dysmorphism, mental retardation and recurrent infections. No chromosomal abnormalities were seen in the parents, who were first cousins. The fragility of chromosome 1 was identified in amniotic fluid cells of the sister. A combined immunodeficiency characterized by a lack of immunoglobulin production, low numbers of T cells and a lack of cells with NK cell markers was diagnosed. This is the first report of familial occurrence of this unique chromosomal aberration. The cause may be an autosomal recessive gene defect.

  11. Evidence for linkage of a candidate chromosome 1 region to human systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, B P; Cantor, R M; Kalunian, K C; Chen, C J; Badsha, H; Singh, R; Wallace, D J; Kitridou, R C; Chen, S L; Shen, N; Song, Y W; Isenberg, D A; Yu, C L; Hahn, B H; Rotter, J I

    1997-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility confers significant risk for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The MHC region and other polymorphic loci have been associated with SLE. Because more compelling evidence for an involvement of a genetic locus includes linkage, we tested a candidate region homologous to a murine SLE susceptibility region in 52 SLE-affected sibpairs from three ethnic groups. We analyzed seven microsatellite markers from the human chromosome 1q31-q42 region corresponding to the telomeric end of mouse chromosome 1, the region where specific manifestations of murine lupus, including glomerulonephritis and IgG antichromatin, have been mapped. Comparing the mean allele sharing in affected sibpairs of each of these seven markers to their expected values of 0.50, only the five markers located at 1q41-q42 showed evidence for linkage (P = 0.0005-0.08). Serum levels of IgG antichromatin also showed evidence for linkage to two of these five markers (P = 0.04), suggesting that this phenotype is conserved between mice and humans. Compared to the expected random distribution, the trend of increased sharing of haplotypes was observed in affected sibpairs from three ethnic groups (P < 0.01). We concluded that this candidate 1q41-q42 region probably contains a susceptibility gene(s) that confers risk for SLE in multiple ethnic groups. PMID:9045876

  12. Exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) from two candidate regions of chromosomes 1 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    Sarfarazi, M.; Akarsu, A.N.; Barsoum-Homsy, M.

    1994-09-01

    PCG is a genetically heterogeneous condition in which a significant proportion of families inherit in an autosomally recessive fashion. Although association of PCG with chromosomal abnormalities has been repeatedly reported in the literature, the chromosomal location of this condition is still unknown. Therefore, this study is designed to identify the chromosomal location of the PCG locus by positional mapping. We have identified 80 PCG families with a total of 261 potential informative meiosis. A group of 19 pedigrees with a minimum of 2 affected children in each pedigree and consanguinity in most of the parental generation were selected as our initial screening panel. This panel consists of a total of 44 affected and 93 unaffected individuals giving a total of 99 informative meiosis, including 5 phase-known. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing polyacrylamide gels and silver staining to genotype our families. We first screened for markers on 1q21-q31, the reported location for juvenile primary open-angle glaucoma and excluded a region of 30 cM as the likely site for the PCG locus. Association of PCG with both ring chromosome 6 and HLA-B8 has also been reported. Therefore, we genotyped our PCG panel with PCR applicable markers from 6p21. Significant negative lod scores were obtained for D6S105 (Z = -18.70) and D6S306 (Z = -5.99) at {theta}=0.001. HLA class 1 region has also contained one of the tubulin genes (TUBB) which is an obvious candidate for PCG. Study of this gene revealed a significant negative lod score with PCG (Z = -16.74, {theta}=0.001). A multipoint linkage analysis of markers in this and other regions containing the candidate genes will be presented.

  13. Genomic structure and evolution of the ancestral chromosome fusion site in 2q13-2q14.1 and paralogous regions on other human chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuxin; Linardopoulou, Elena; Friedman, Cynthia; Williams, Eleanor; Trask, Barbara J

    2002-11-01

    Human chromosome 2 was formed by the head-to-head fusion of two ancestral chromosomes that remained separate in other primates. Sequences that once resided near the ends of the ancestral chromosomes are now interstitially located in 2q13-2q14.1. Portions of these sequences had duplicated to other locations prior to the fusion. Here we present analyses of the genomic structure and evolutionary history of >600 kb surrounding the fusion site and closely related sequences on other human chromosomes. Sequence blocks that closely flank the inverted arrays of degenerate telomere repeats marking the fusion site are duplicated at many, primarily subtelomeric, locations. In addition, large portions of a 168-kb centromere-proximal block are duplicated at 9pter, 9p11.2, and 9q13, with 98%-99% average sequence identity. A 67-kb block on the distal side of the fusion site is highly homologous to sequences at 22qter. A third ~100-kb segment is 96% identical to a region in 2q11.2. By integrating data on the extent and similarity of these paralogous blocks, including the presence of phylogenetically informative repetitive elements, with observations of their chromosomal distribution in nonhuman primates, we infer the order of the duplications that led to their current arrangement. Several of these duplicated blocks may be associated with breakpoints of inversions that occurred during primate evolution and of recurrent chromosome rearrangements in humans.

  14. Chromosomal protein HMG-14 gene maps to the Down syndrome region of human chromosome 21 and is overexpressed in mouse trisomy 16

    SciTech Connect

    Pash, J.; Popescu, N.; Matocha, M.; Rapoport, S.; Bustin, M. )

    1990-05-01

    The gene for human high-mobility-group (HMG) chromosomal protein HMG-14 is located in region 21q22.3, a region associated with the pathogenesis of Down syndrome, one of the most prevalent human birth defects. The expression of this gene is analyzed in mouse embryos that are trisomic in chromosome 16 and are considered to be an animal model for Down syndrome. RNA blot-hybridization analysis and detailed analysis of HMG-14 protein levels indicate that mouse trisomy 16 embryos have approximately 1.5 times more HMG-14 mRNA and protein than their normal littermates, suggesting a direct gene dosage effect. The HMG-14 gene may be an additional marker for the Down syndrome. Chromosomal protein HMG-14 is a nucleosomal binding protein that may confer distinct properties to the chromatin structure of transcriptionally active genes and therefore may be a contributing factor in the etiology of the syndrome.

  15. Genetic mapping of the branchio-oto-renal syndrome and construction of YAC contig spanning the BOR region on chromosome 8q

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Kimberling, W.J.; Bumegi, J.

    1994-09-01

    Branchio-oto-renal syndrome (BOR) is an autosomal dominant disorder which consists of external, middle and inner ear malformations, branchial cleft sinuses, cervical fistulas, mixed hearing loss and renal anomalies. The prevalence of BOR syndrome is approximately 1:40,000, and it has been reported to occur in about 2% of profoundly deaf children. The BOR syndrome has been localized to chromosome 8q. Initial localization results indicated a distance of about 15 cM between the flanking markers D8S87 and PENK for the BOR gene. This localization has been further refined, using new markers, to a distance of about 7 cM. The multipoint analysis was carried out using markers D8S285, PENK, D8S166, D8S260, D8S510, D8S553, D8S543, D8S530, D8S279, D8S164, D8S286 and D8S275. For cloning the BOR gene, an overlapping Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) contig map of the critical region is being constructed. We have isolated eight YACs from the CEPH Mega YAC library and their size and quality are being characterized by PFGE and FISH analysis. Additional STSs and polymorphic markers developed from the region will be used to further refine the region and close the contig. The availability of this contig will be a useful resource for the systematic search for identifying transcribed sequences from this region.

  16. Physical map and functional studies of the juxtacentromeric region of chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, J.M.; Dode, C.; Piccolo, F.

    1994-09-01

    The structure of the juxtacentromeric region of chromosome 13 has been analyzed in order to investigate a putative position effect of the centromeric heterochromatin and to provide a physical landmark needed in the positional cloning of the autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy gene (SCARMD1). A genomic fragment corresponding to the insertion of a L1 sequence in juxtacentromeric block of satellite 3 has been cloned after PCR amplification of a somatic hybrid containing human chromosome 13 only. The sequence defines a new family of satellite 3 DNA and belongs to the heterochromatin region of chromosome 13. Human satellite 2 and 3 sequences are methylated in every cell except in the germ cell line and extra-embryonic tissues. In ICF syndrome, the alteration of the chromatin structure is associated with a deficit or complete absence of methylation of satellite 2 and 3 sequences. Cloning junctional euchromatic sequences immediately adjacent to heterochromatin will help to characterize the methylation pattern of non-satellite heterochromatized sequences in normal cells and methylation-deficient patients.

  17. Genetic and physical map of the von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis (NF1) region on chromosome 17

    SciTech Connect

    Yagle, M.K.; Parruti, G.; Xu, W.; Solomon, E. ); Ponder, B.A.J. )

    1990-09-01

    The von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) locus has been previously assigned to the proximal long arm of chromosome 17, and two NF1 patients have been identified who have constitutional balanced translocations involving 17q11.2. The authors have constructed a cosmid library from a chromosome-mediated gene transfectant, KLT8, that contains approximately 10% of chromosome 17, including 17q11.2. Cosmids isolated from this library have been mapped across a panel of somatic cell hybrids, including the hybrids from the two patients, and have been localized to seven small regions of proximal 17q. They have 5 cosmids that map directly above the two NF1 translocations, and 11 cosmids that map directly below. Of these, 2 cosmids in each region are linked to the disease locus and 3 of these cosmids show no recombination. One distal cosmid, 2B/B35, detects the two NF1 translocations by pulsed-field gel analysis and has been used to produce a long-range restriction map that covers the translocations.

  18. Lymphocyte Activation Dynamics Is Shaped by Hereditary Components at Chromosome Region 17q12-q21

    PubMed Central

    Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Rubio-Moscardo, Fanny; Olvera, Alex; Argilaguet, Jordi; Kiefer, Kerstin; Mothe, Beatriz; Meyerhans, Andreas; Brander, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the chromosome region 17q12-q21 are risk factors for asthma. Particularly, there are cis-regulatory haplotypes within this region that regulate differentially the expression levels of ORMDL3, GSDMB and ZPBP2 genes. Remarkably, ORMDL3 has been shown to modulate lymphocyte activation parameters in a heterologous expression system. In this context, it has been shown that Th2 and Th17 cytokine production is affected by SNPs in this region. Therefore, we aim to assess the impact of hereditary components within region 17q12-q21 on the activation profile of human T lymphocytes, focusing on the haplotype formed by allelic variants of SNPs rs7216389 and rs12936231. We measured calcium influx and activation markers, as well as the proliferation rate upon T cell activation. Haplotype-dependent differences in mRNA expression levels of IL-2 and INF-γ were observed at early times after activation. In addition, the allelic variants of these SNPs impacted on the extent of calcium influx in resting lymphocytes and altered proliferation rates in a dose dependent manner. As a result, the asthma risk haplotype carriers showed a lower threshold of saturation during activation. Finally, we confirmed differences in activation marker expression by flow cytometry using phytohemagglutinin, a strong polyclonal stimulus. Altogether, our data suggest that the genetic component of pro-inflammatory pathologies present in this chromosome region could be explained by different T lymphocyte activation dynamics depending on individual allelic heredity. PMID:27835674

  19. Cytogenetic mapping with centromeric bacterial artificial chromosomes contigs shows that this recombination-poor region comprises more than half of barley chromosome 3H.

    PubMed

    Aliyeva-Schnorr, Lala; Beier, Sebastian; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Schmutzer, Thomas; Scholz, Uwe; Doležel, Jaroslav; Stein, Nils; Houben, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Genetic maps are based on the frequency of recombination and often show different positions of molecular markers in comparison to physical maps, particularly in the centromere that is generally poor in meiotic recombinations. To decipher the position and order of DNA sequences genetically mapped to the centromere of barley (Hordeum vulgare) chromosome 3H, fluorescence in situ hybridization with mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene chromosomes was performed with 70 genomic single-copy probes derived from 65 fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) contigs genetically assigned to this recombination cold spot. The total physical distribution of the centromeric 5.5 cM bin of 3H comprises 58% of the mitotic metaphase chromosome length. Mitotic and meiotic chromatin of this recombination-poor region is preferentially marked by a heterochromatin-typical histone mark (H3K9me2), while recombination enriched subterminal chromosome regions are enriched in euchromatin-typical histone marks (H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K27me3) suggesting that the meiotic recombination rate could be influenced by the chromatin landscape. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A second gene for cerulean cataracts maps to the {beta} crystallin region on chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, P.; Yount, J.; Lovrien, E.

    1996-08-01

    Cogenital cataracts are one of the most common major eye abnormalities and often lead to blindness in infants. At least a third of all cases are familial. Within this group, highly penetrant, autosomal dominant forms of congenital cataracts (ADCC) are most common. ADCC is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, in which at least eight different loci have been identified for nine clinically distinct forms. Among these, Armitage et al. mapped a gene for cerulean blue cataracts to chromosome 17q24. Bodker et al. described a large family with cerulean blue cataracts, in which the affected daughter of affected first cousins was presumed to be homozygous for the purported gene. We report linkage in this family to the region on chromosome 22q that includes two {beta} crystallin genes (CRYBB2, CRYBB3) and one pseudogene (CRYBB2P1). The affected female in question is homozygous at all markers. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Genetic linkage of mild pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) to markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.D.; Rasmussen, M.; Garber, P.; Rimoin, D.L.; Cohn, D.H. ); Weber, J.L. ); Yuen, J.; Reinker, K. )

    1993-12-01

    Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) is a dominantly inherited form of short-limb dwarfism characterized by dysplastic changes in the spine, epiphyses, and metaphyses and early onset osteoarthropathy. Chondrocytes from affected individuals accumulate an unusual appearing material in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which has led to the hypothesis that a structural abnormality in a cartilage-specific protein produces the phenotype. The authors recently identified a large family with a mild form of pseudoachondroplasia. By genetic linkage to a dinucleotide repeat polymorphic marker (D19S199), they have localized the disease gene to chromosome 19 (maximum lod score of 7.09 at a recombination fraction of 0.03). Analysis of additional markers and recombinations between the linked markers and the phenotype suggests that the disease gene resides within a 6.3-cM interval in the immediate pericentromeric region of the chromosome. 39 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Cytokinesis breaks dicentric chromosomes preferentially at pericentromeric regions and telomere fusions.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Virginia; Barinova, Natalja; Onishi, Masayuki; Pobiega, Sabrina; Pringle, John R; Dubrana, Karine; Marcand, Stéphane

    2015-02-01

    Dicentric chromosomes are unstable products of erroneous DNA repair events that can lead to further genome rearrangements and extended gene copy number variations. During mitosis, they form anaphase bridges, resulting in chromosome breakage by an unknown mechanism. In budding yeast, dicentrics generated by telomere fusion break at the fusion, a process that restores the parental karyotype and protects cells from rare accidental telomere fusion. Here, we observed that dicentrics lacking telomere fusion preferentially break within a 25- to 30-kb-long region next to the centromeres. In all cases, dicentric breakage requires anaphase exit, ruling out stretching by the elongated mitotic spindle as the cause of breakage. Instead, breakage requires cytokinesis. In the presence of dicentrics, the cytokinetic septa pinch the nucleus, suggesting that dicentrics are severed after actomyosin ring contraction. At this time, centromeres and spindle pole bodies relocate to the bud neck, explaining how cytokinesis can sever dicentrics near centromeres.

  3. Patterns of association in the human metaphase complement: ring analysis and estimation of associativity of specific chromosome regions.

    PubMed

    Rodman, T C; Flehinger, B J; Squire, R D

    1978-02-23

    The pattern of metaphase chromosome association in the human complement was studied by two methods of statistical analysis of interchromosomal distances. Those methods included ring analysis in which a characteristic position of the centromere of each chromosome relative to the center of a two dimensional representation of a metaphase complement was defined, and estimation of the capacity for associativity of each of three regions of each chromosome: the centromere (c) and the ends of each arm (p, q). The following information was obtained: 1. In general, the distance from the center is directly related to chromosome size. 2. The most notable deviation from that size-related progression is displayed by the X chromosomes. The markedly peripheral position of the X is characteristic of both X's of the female and the single X of the male. 3. The relative associativity of each chromosome of the complement is, in general, inversely related to size with an additional preferential capacity of associativity displayed by the acrocentric chromosomes. Analyses of the different inter-regional classes established that the supplementary associativity factor of the acrocentric chromosomes was inherent in their pericentromeric and p-arm regions and excluded the ends of the q arms from participation in that factor. 4. Those analyses demonstrated that the specific morphology or 'geometry' of the acrocentric chromosomes contributes little to their high relative associativity. In addition to the tendency for the c/p regions of the acrocentric chromosomes to associate with each other, presumably because of their common function in nucleolar organization, those regions also displayed a propensity to associate with the distal regions of the arms of other chromosomes. A molecular basis for that propensity other than that of ribosomal DNA is postulated to be that of other fractions of highly reiterated DNA sequences. 5. Analysis of the relative associativities of each of the three regions

  4. High resolution genetic and physical mapping of the I-3 region of tomato chromosome 7 reveals almost continuous microsynteny with grape chromosome 12 but interspersed microsynteny with duplications on Arabidopsis chromosomes 1, 2 and 3.

    PubMed

    Lim, G T T; Wang, G-P; Hemming, M N; McGrath, D J; Jones, D A

    2008-12-01

    The tomato I-3 gene introgressed from the Lycopersicon pennellii accession LA716 confers resistance to race 3 of the fusarium wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. We have improved the high-resolution map of the I-3 region of tomato chromosome 7 with the development and mapping of 31 new PCR-based markers. Recombinants recovered from L. esculentum cv. M82 x IL7-2 F2 and (IL7-2 x IL7-4) x M82 TC1F2 mapping populations, together with recombinants recovered from a previous M82 x IL7-3 F2 mapping population, were used to position these markers. A significantly higher recombination frequency was observed in the (IL7-2 x IL7-4) x M82 TC1F2 mapping population based on a reconstituted L. pennellii chromosome 7 compared to the other two mapping populations based on smaller segments of L. pennellii chromosome 7. A BAC contig consisting of L. esculentum cv. Heinz 1706 BACs covering the I-3 region has also been established. The new high-resolution map places the I-3 gene within a 0.38 cM interval between the molecular markers RGA332 and bP23/gPT with an estimated physical size of 50-60 kb. The I-3 region was found to display almost continuous microsynteny with grape chromosome 12 but interspersed microsynteny with Arabidopsis thaliana chromosomes 1, 2 and 3. An S-receptor-like kinase gene family present in the I-3 region of tomato chromosome 7 was found to be present in the microsyntenous region of grape chromosome 12 but was absent altogether from the A. thaliana genome.

  5. Major chromosomal breakpoint intervals in breast cancer co-localize with differentially methylated regions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Man-Hung; Varadan, Vinay; Kamalakaran, Sitharthan; Zhang, Michael Q; Dimitrova, Nevenka; Hicks, James

    2012-01-01

    Solid tumors exhibit chromosomal rearrangements resulting in gain or loss of multiple chromosomal loci (copy number variation, or CNV), and translocations that occasionally result in the creation of novel chimeric genes. In the case of breast cancer, although most individual tumors each have unique CNV landscape, the breakpoints, as measured over large datasets, appear to be non-randomly distributed in the genome. Breakpoints show a significant regional concentration at genomic loci spanning perhaps several megabases. The proximal cause of these breakpoint concentrations is a subject of speculation, but is, as yet, largely unknown. To shed light on this issue, we have performed a bio-statistical analysis on our previously published data for a set of 119 breast tumors and normal controls (Wiedswang et al., 2003), where each sample has both high-resolution CNV and methylation data. The method examined the distribution of closeness of breakpoint regions with differentially methylated regions (DMR), coupled with additional genomic parameters, such as repeat elements and designated "fragile sites" in the reference genome. Through this analysis, we have identified a set of 93 regional loci called breakpoint enriched DMR (BEDMRs) characterized by altered DNA methylation in cancer compared to normal cells that are associated with frequent breakpoint concentrations within a distance of 1 Mb. BEDMR loci are further associated with local hypomethylation (66%), concentrations of the Alu SINE repeats within 3 Mb (35% of the cases), and tend to occur near a number of cancer related genes such as the protocadherins, AKT1, DUB3, GAB2. Furthermore, BEDMRs seem to deregulate members of the histone gene family and chromatin remodeling factors, e.g., JMJD1B, which might affect the chromatin structure and disrupt coordinate signaling and repair. From this analysis we propose that preference for chromosomal breakpoints is related to genome structure coupled with alterations in DNA

  6. Major Chromosomal Breakpoint Intervals in Breast Cancer Co-Localize with Differentially Methylated Regions

    PubMed Central

    Eric Tang, Man-Hung; Varadan, Vinay; Kamalakaran, Sitharthan; Zhang, Michael Q.; Dimitrova, Nevenka; Hicks, James

    2012-01-01

    Solid tumors exhibit chromosomal rearrangements resulting in gain or loss of multiple chromosomal loci (copy number variation, or CNV), and translocations that occasionally result in the creation of novel chimeric genes. In the case of breast cancer, although most individual tumors each have unique CNV landscape, the breakpoints, as measured over large datasets, appear to be non-randomly distributed in the genome. Breakpoints show a significant regional concentration at genomic loci spanning perhaps several megabases. The proximal cause of these breakpoint concentrations is a subject of speculation, but is, as yet, largely unknown. To shed light on this issue, we have performed a bio-statistical analysis on our previously published data for a set of 119 breast tumors and normal controls (Wiedswang et al., 2003), where each sample has both high-resolution CNV and methylation data. The method examined the distribution of closeness of breakpoint regions with differentially methylated regions (DMR), coupled with additional genomic parameters, such as repeat elements and designated “fragile sites” in the reference genome. Through this analysis, we have identified a set of 93 regional loci called breakpoint enriched DMR (BEDMRs) characterized by altered DNA methylation in cancer compared to normal cells that are associated with frequent breakpoint concentrations within a distance of 1 Mb. BEDMR loci are further associated with local hypomethylation (66%), concentrations of the Alu SINE repeats within 3 Mb (35% of the cases), and tend to occur near a number of cancer related genes such as the protocadherins, AKT1, DUB3, GAB2. Furthermore, BEDMRs seem to deregulate members of the histone gene family and chromatin remodeling factors, e.g., JMJD1B, which might affect the chromatin structure and disrupt coordinate signaling and repair. From this analysis we propose that preference for chromosomal breakpoints is related to genome structure coupled with alterations in

  7. Transgenic mouse model of hemifacial microsomia: Cloning and characterization of insertional mutation region on chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Naora, Hiroyuki; Otani, Hiroki; Tanaka, Osamu

    1994-10-01

    The 643 transgenic mouse line carries an autosomal dominant insertional mutation that results in hemifacial microsomia (HFM), including microtia and/or abnormal biting. In this paper, we characterize the transgene integration site in transgenic mice and preintegration site of wildtype mice. The locus, designated Hfm (hemifacial microsomia-associated locus), was mapped to chromosome 10, B1-3, by chromosome in situ hybridization. We cloned the transgene insertion site from the transgenic DNA library. By using the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences, the preintegration region was isolated. The analysis of these regions showed that a deletion of at least 23 kb DNA occurred in association with the transgene integration. Evolutionarily conserved regions were detected within and beside the deleted region. The result of mating between hemizygotes suggests that the phenotype of the homozygote is lethality in the prenatal period. These results suggests that the Hfm locus is necessary for prenatal development and that this strain is a useful animal model for investigating the genetic predisposition to HFM in humans.

  8. A complete YAC contig of the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosome region (15q11-q13) and refined localization of the SNRPN gene

    SciTech Connect

    Mutirangura, A.; Jayakumar, A.; Sutcliffe, J.S.; Nakao, M.; McKinney, M.J.; Beaudet, A.L.; Chinault, A.C.; Ledbetter, D.H. ); Buiting, K.; Horsthemke, B. )

    1993-12-01

    Since a previous report of a partial YAC contig of the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosome region (15q11-q13), a complete contig spanning approximately 3.5 Mb has been developed. YACs were isolated from two human genomic libraries by PCR and hybridization screening methods. Twenty-three sequence-tagged sites (STSs) were mapped within the contig, a density of [approximately]1 per 200 kb. Overlaps between YAC clones were identified by Alu-PCR dot-blot analysis and confirmed by STS mapping or hybridization with ends of YAC inserts. The gene encoding small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated peptide N (SNRPN), recently identified as a candidate gene for Prader-Willi syndrome, was localized within this contig between markers PW71 and TD3-21. Loci mapped within and immediately flanking the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosome region contig are ordered as follows: cen-IR39-ML34-IR4-3R-TD189-1-PW71-SNRPN-TD3-21-LS6-1-GABRB3,D15S97-GABRA5-IR10-1-CMW1-tel. This YAC contig will be a useful resource for more detailed physical mapping of the region, for generation of new DNA markers, and for mapping or cloning candidate genes for the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Specific features in linear and spatial organizations of pericentromeric heterochromatin regions in polytene chromosomes of the closely related species Drosophila virilis and D. kanekoi (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Wasserlauf, Irina; Usov, Konstantin; Artemov, Gleb; Anan'ina, Tatyana; Stegniy, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Heterochromatin plays an important role in the spatial arrangement and evolution of the eukaryotic genetic apparatus. The closely related species Drosophila virilis (phyla virilis) and D. kanekoi (phyla montana) differ in the amount of heterochromatin along the chromosomes as well as by the presence of the metacentric chromosome 2, which emerged as a result of a pericentric inversion during speciation, in the D. kanekoi karyotype. The purpose of this study was to establish if chromosome rearrangements have any influence on the linear redistribution of centromeric heterochromatin in polytene chromosomes and the spatial organization of chromosomes in the nuclei of nurse cell. We have microdissected the chromocenter of D. virilis salivary gland polytene chromosomes; obtained a DNA library of this region (DvirIII); and hybridized (FISH) DvirIII to the salivary gland and nurse cell polytene chromosomes of D. virilis and D. kanekoi. We demonstrated that DvirIII localizes to the pericentromeric heterochromatin regions of all chromosomes and peritelomeric region of chromosome 5 in both species. Unlike D. virilis, the DvirIII signal in D. kanekoi chromosomes is detectable in the telomeric region of chromosome 2. We have also conducted a 3D FISH of DvirIII probe to the D. virilis and D. kanekoi nurse cell chromosomes. In particular, the DvirIII signal in D. virilis was observed in the local chromocenter at one pole of the nucleus, while the signal belonging to the telomeric region of chromosome 5 was detectable at the other pole. In contrast, in D. kanekoi there exist two separate DvirIII-positive regions. One of these regions belongs to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 2 and the other, to pericentromeric regions of the remaining chromosomes. These results suggest that chromosome rearrangements play an important role in the redistribution of heterochromatin DNA sequences in the genome, representing a speciation mechanism, which, in general, could also affect the

  10. The gene for cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) maps to the subtelomeric region on human chromosome 21q and to proximal mouse chromosome 17.

    PubMed Central

    Münke, M; Kraus, J P; Ohura, T; Francke, U

    1988-01-01

    The human gene for cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), the enzyme deficient in classical homocystinuria, has been assigned to the subtelomeric region of band 21q22.3 by in situ hybridization of a rat cDNA probe to structurally rearranged chromosomes 21. The homologous locus in the mouse (Cbs) was mapped to the proximal half of mouse chromosome 17 by Southern analysis of Chinese hamster X mouse somatic cell hybrid DNA. Thus, CBS/Cbs and the gene for alpha A-crystalline (CRYA1/Crya-1 or Acry-1) form a conserved linkage group on human (HSA) chromosome region 21q22.3 and mouse (MMU) chromosome 17 region A-C. Features of Down syndrome (DS) caused by three copies of these genes should not be present in mice trisomic for MMU 16 that have been proposed as animal models for DS. Mice partially trisomic for MMU 16 or MMU 17 should allow gene-specific dissection of the trisomy 21 phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:2894761

  11. A distinct type of heterochromatin at the telomeric region of the Drosophila melanogaster Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sidney H; Nan, Ruth; Accardo, Maria C; Sentmanat, Monica; Dimitri, Patrizio; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin assembly and its associated phenotype, position effect variegation (PEV), provide an informative system to study chromatin structure and genome packaging. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the Y chromosome is entirely heterochromatic in all cell types except the male germline; as such, Y chromosome dosage is a potent modifier of PEV. However, neither Y heterochromatin composition, nor its assembly, has been carefully studied. Here, we report the mapping and characterization of eight reporter lines that show male-specific PEV. In all eight cases, the reporter insertion sites lie in the telomeric transposon array (HeT-A and TART-B2 homologous repeats) of the Y chromosome short arm (Ys). Investigations of the impact on the PEV phenotype of mutations in known heterochromatin proteins (i.e., modifiers of PEV) show that this Ys telomeric region is a unique heterochromatin domain: it displays sensitivity to mutations in HP1a, EGG and SU(VAR)3-9, but no sensitivity to Su(z)2 mutations. It appears that the endo-siRNA pathway plays a major targeting role for this domain. Interestingly, an ectopic copy of 1360 is sufficient to induce a piRNA targeting mechanism to further enhance silencing of a reporter cytologically localized to the Ys telomere. These results demonstrate the diversity of heterochromatin domains, and the corresponding variation in potential targeting mechanisms.

  12. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus C-terminal LANA concentrates at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of a subset of mitotic chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley-Clarke, Brenna; Ballestas, Mary E.; Komatsu, Takashi; Kaye, Kenneth M. . E-mail: kkaye@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

    2007-01-20

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) tethers KSHV terminal repeat (TR) DNA to mitotic chromosomes to efficiently segregate episomes to progeny nuclei. LANA contains N- and C-terminal chromosome binding regions. We now show that C-terminal LANA preferentially concentrates to paired dots at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of a subset of mitotic chromosomes through residues 996-1139. Deletions within C-terminal LANA abolished both self-association and chromosome binding, consistent with a requirement for self-association to bind chromosomes. A deletion abolishing TR DNA binding did not affect chromosome targeting, indicating LANA's localization is not due to binding its recognition sequence in chromosomal DNA. LANA distributed similarly on human and non-human mitotic chromosomes. These results are consistent with C-terminal LANA interacting with a cell factor that concentrates at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of mitotic chromosomes.

  13. Marker development for the EPM1 region of human chromosome 21, q22.3

    SciTech Connect

    Warrington, I.A.; O`Connor, K.; Hebert, S.

    1994-09-01

    New STSs have been developed for a 0.9 Mb region of chromosome 21 that is not represented in existing YAC libraries using an efficient method that is generally applicable to any region of the genome. The region, 21q22.3, is of particular interest because the gene for progressive myoclonic epilepsy of the Unverricht-Lundborg type (EPM1) maps to this region. Until recently there were only three probes for the 1.3 Mb surrounding the EPM1 gene (D21S141,LJ112, LB2T). This very limited number of probes is problematic for obtaining clone coverage and for confirming map position of newly developed markers in the EPM1 region. To develop new markers, a somatic cell hybrid containing chromosome 21 as its only human complement (GMO8854) was digested with NOT1 and hybridized with D21S141. The fragment hybridizing with D21S141 was excised, amplified by Alu-PCR and the amplification products were cloned and sequenced. Of the fifteen clones sequenced, four were duplicates and one consisted entirely of repeat sequences. STSs were developed for the remaining ten unique clones. To determine the map position of the new STSs, quantitive PCR was used in conjunction with whole genome radiation hybrid (RH) mapping. Quantitative PCR confirmed that the STSs mapped to appropriately sized PFGE fragments and whole genome RH mapping showed that the makers were linked and gave order and distance information. Three of the new STSs are in the EPM1 region, providing additional starting points for obtaining clone coverage and gene isolation. This combination of techniques for developing markers and confirming map position is an effective approach for obtaining probes and has general applicability for regions of the genome not represented in YAC or cosmid libraries.

  14. A Transgenomic Cytogenetic Sorghum (Sorghum propinquum) Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Map of Maize (Zea mays L.) Pachytene Chromosome 9, Evidence for Regions of Genome Hyperexpansion

    PubMed Central

    Amarillo, F. Ina E.; Bass, Hank W.

    2007-01-01

    A cytogenetic FISH map of maize pachytene-stage chromosome 9 was produced with 32 maize marker-selected sorghum BACs as probes. The genetically mapped markers used are distributed along the linkage maps at an average spacing of 5 cM. Each locus was mapped by means of multicolor direct FISH with a fluorescently labeled probe mix containing a whole-chromosome paint, a single sorghum BAC clone, and the centromeric sequence, CentC. A maize-chromosome-addition line of oat was used for bright unambiguous identification of the maize 9 fiber within pachytene chromosome spreads. The locations of the sorghum BAC–FISH signals were determined, and each new cytogenetic locus was assigned a centiMcClintock position on the short (9S) or long (9L) arm. Nearly all of the markers appeared in the same order on linkage and cytogenetic maps but at different relative positions on the two. The CentC FISH signal was localized between cdo17 (at 9L.03) and tda66 (at 9S.03). Several regions of genome hyperexpansion on maize chromosome 9 were found by comparative analysis of relative marker spacing in maize and sorghum. This transgenomic cytogenetic FISH map creates anchors between various maps of maize and sorghum and creates additional tools and information for understanding the structure and evolution of the maize genome. PMID:17947405

  15. Breakpoint regions and homologous synteny blocks in chromosomes have different evolutionary histories.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Denis M; Pape, Greg; Donthu, Ravikiran; Auvil, Loretta; Welge, Michael; Lewin, Harris A

    2009-05-01

    The persistence of large blocks of homologous synteny and a high frequency of breakpoint reuse are distinctive features of mammalian chromosomes that are not well understood in evolutionary terms. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary forces that affect genome architecture, synteny relationships among 10 amniotes (human, chimp, macaque, rat, mouse, pig, cattle, dog, opossum, and chicken) were compared at <1 human-Mbp resolution. Homologous synteny blocks (HSBs; N = 2233) and chromosome evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs; N = 1064) were identified from pairwise comparisons of all genomes. Analysis of the size distribution of HSBs shared in all 10 species' chromosomes (msHSBs) identified three (>20 Mbp) that are larger than expected by chance. Gene network analysis of msHSBs >3 human-Mbp and EBRs <1 Mbp demonstrated that msHSBs are significantly enriched for genes involved in development of the central nervous and other organ systems, whereas EBRs are enriched for genes associated with adaptive functions. In addition, we found EBRs are significantly enriched for structural variations (segmental duplications, copy number variants, and indels), retrotransposed and zinc finger genes, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. These results demonstrate that chromosome breakage in evolution is nonrandom and that HSBs and EBRs are evolving in distinctly different ways. We suggest that natural selection acts on the genome to maintain combinations of genes and their regulatory elements that are essential to fundamental processes of amniote development and biological organization. Furthermore, EBRs may be used extensively to generate new genetic variation and novel combinations of genes and regulatory elements that contribute to adaptive phenotypes.

  16. Breakpoint regions and homologous synteny blocks in chromosomes have different evolutionary histories

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Denis M.; Pape, Greg; Donthu, Ravikiran; Auvil, Loretta; Welge, Michael; Lewin, Harris A.

    2009-01-01

    The persistence of large blocks of homologous synteny and a high frequency of breakpoint reuse are distinctive features of mammalian chromosomes that are not well understood in evolutionary terms. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary forces that affect genome architecture, synteny relationships among 10 amniotes (human, chimp, macaque, rat, mouse, pig, cattle, dog, opossum, and chicken) were compared at <1 human-Mbp resolution. Homologous synteny blocks (HSBs; N = 2233) and chromosome evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs; N = 1064) were identified from pairwise comparisons of all genomes. Analysis of the size distribution of HSBs shared in all 10 species' chromosomes (msHSBs) identified three (>20 Mbp) that are larger than expected by chance. Gene network analysis of msHSBs >3 human-Mbp and EBRs <1 Mbp demonstrated that msHSBs are significantly enriched for genes involved in development of the central nervous and other organ systems, whereas EBRs are enriched for genes associated with adaptive functions. In addition, we found EBRs are significantly enriched for structural variations (segmental duplications, copy number variants, and indels), retrotransposed and zinc finger genes, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. These results demonstrate that chromosome breakage in evolution is nonrandom and that HSBs and EBRs are evolving in distinctly different ways. We suggest that natural selection acts on the genome to maintain combinations of genes and their regulatory elements that are essential to fundamental processes of amniote development and biological organization. Furthermore, EBRs may be used extensively to generate new genetic variation and novel combinations of genes and regulatory elements that contribute to adaptive phenotypes. PMID:19342477

  17. Transcript catalogs of human chromosome 21 and orthologous chimpanzee and mouse regions.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Xiaolu; Gardiner, Katheleen J

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive representation of the gene content of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21q) remains of interest for the study of Down syndrome, its associated phenotypic features, and mouse models. Here we compare transcript catalogs for Hsa21q, chimpanzee chromosome 21 (Ptr21q), and orthologous regions of mouse chromosomes 16, 17, and 10 for open reading frame (ORF) characteristics and conservation. The Hsa21q and mouse catalogs contain 552 and 444 gene models, respectively, of which only 162 are highly conserved. Hsa21q transcripts were used to identify orthologous exons in Ptr21q and assemble 533 putative transcripts. Transcript catalogs for all three organisms are searchable for nucleotide and amino acid sequence features of ORF length, repeat content, experimental support, gene structure, and conservation. For human and mouse comparisons, three additional summaries are provided: (1) the chromosomal distribution of novel ORF transcripts versus potential functional RNAs, (2) the distribution of species-specific transcripts within Hsa21q and mouse models of Down syndrome, and (3) the organization of sense-antisense and putative sense-antisense structures defining potential regulatory mechanisms. Catalogs, summaries, and nucleotide and amino acid sequences of all composite transcripts are available and searchable at http://gfuncpathdb.ucdenver.edu/iddrc/chr21/home.php. These data sets provide comprehensive information useful for evaluation of candidate genes and mouse models of Down syndrome and for identification of potential functional RNA genes and novel regulatory mechanisms involving Hsa21q genes. These catalogs and search tools complement and extend information available from other gene annotation projects.

  18. Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions.

    PubMed

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali; González, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Underhill, Peter A

    2009-09-22

    Human origins and migration models proposing the Horn of Africa as a prehistoric exit route to Asia have stimulated molecular genetic studies in the region using uniparental loci. However, from a Y-chromosome perspective, Saudi Arabia, the largest country of the region, has not yet been surveyed. To address this gap, a sample of 157 Saudi males was analyzed at high resolution using 67 Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotypic diversity for its most prominent J1-M267 lineage was estimated using a set of 17 Y-specific STR loci. Saudi Arabia differentiates from other Arabian Peninsula countries by a higher presence of J2-M172 lineages. It is significantly different from Yemen mainly due to a comparative reduction of sub-Saharan Africa E1-M123 and Levantine J1-M267 male lineages. Around 14% of the Saudi Arabia Y-chromosome pool is typical of African biogeographic ancestry, 17% arrived to the area from the East across Iran, while the remainder 69% could be considered of direct or indirect Levantine ascription. Interestingly, basal E-M96* (n = 2) and J-M304* (n = 3) lineages have been detected, for the first time, in the Arabian Peninsula. Coalescence time for the most prominent J1-M267 haplogroup in Saudi Arabia (11.6 +/- 1.9 ky) is similar to that obtained previously for Yemen (11.3 +/- 2) but significantly older that those estimated for Qatar (7.3 +/- 1.8) and UAE (6.8 +/- 1.5). The Y-chromosome genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula seems to be mainly modulated by geography. The data confirm that this area has mainly been a recipient of gene flow from its African and Asian surrounding areas, probably mainly since the last Glacial maximum onwards. Although rare deep rooting lineages for Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J have been detected, the presence of more basal clades supportive of the southern exit route of modern humans to Eurasian, were not found.

  19. Regional assignment of the human homebox-containing gene EN1 to chromosome 2q13-q21

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, A.; Muenke, M. ); Logan, C. ); Joyner, A.L. Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Toronto )

    1993-01-01

    The human homeobox-containing genes EN1 and EN2 are closely related to the Drosophila pattern formation gene engrailed (en), which may be important in brain development, as shown by gene expression studies during mouse embryogenesis. Here, we have refined the localization of EN1 to human chromosome 2q13-q21 using a mapping panel of rodent/human cell hybrids containing different regions of chromosome 2 and a lymphoblastoid cell line with an interstitial deletion, del(2) (q21-q23.2). This regional assignment of EN1 increases to 22 the number of currently known genes on human chromosome 2q that have homologs on the proximal region of mouse chromosome 1. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  20. A Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis of Overlaps in Regional Specialization and Functional Connectivity across Subjective Value and Default Mode Networks

    PubMed Central

    Acikalin, M. Yavuz; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has provided qualitative evidence for overlap in a number of brain regions across the subjective value network (SVN) and the default mode network (DMN). In order to quantitatively assess this overlap, we conducted a series of coordinate-based meta-analyses (CBMA) of results from 466 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments on task-negative or subjective value-related activations in the human brain. In these analyses, we first identified significant overlaps and dissociations across activation foci related to SVN and DMN. Second, we investigated whether these overlapping subregions also showed similar patterns of functional connectivity, suggesting a shared functional subnetwork. We find considerable overlap between SVN and DMN in subregions of central ventromedial prefrontal cortex (cVMPFC) and dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC). Further, our findings show that similar patterns of bidirectional functional connectivity between cVMPFC and dPCC are present in both networks. We discuss ways in which our understanding of how subjective value (SV) is computed and represented in the brain can be synthesized with what we know about the DMN, mind-wandering, and self-referential processing in light of our findings. PMID:28154520

  1. Physical map of the centromeric region of human chromosome 7: relationship between two distinct alpha satellite arrays.

    PubMed Central

    Wevrick, R; Willard, H F

    1991-01-01

    A long-range physical map of the centromeric region of human chromosome 7 has been constructed in order to define the region containing sequences with potential involvement in centromere function. The map is centered around alpha satellite DNA, a family of tandemly repeated DNA forming arrays of hundreds to thousands of kilobasepairs at the primary constriction of every human chromosome. Two distinct alpha satellite arrays (the loci D7Z1 and D7Z2) have previously been localized to chromosome 7. Detailed one- and two- locus maps of the chromosome 7 centromere have been constructed. Our data indicate that D7Z1 and D7Z2 arrays are not interspersed with each other but are both present on a common Mlu I restriction fragment estimated to be 3500 kb and 5500 kb on two different chromosome 7's investigated. These long-range maps, combined with previous measurements of the D7Z1 and D7Z2 array lengths, are used to construct a consensus map of the centromere of chromosome 7. The analysis used to construct the map provides, by extension, a framework for analysis of the structure of DNA in the centromeric regions of other human and mammalian chromosomes. Images PMID:2041770

  2. Y chromosome analysis reveals a sharp genetic boundary in the Carpathian region.

    PubMed

    Stefan, M; Stefanescu, G; Gavrila, L; Terrenato, L; Jobling, M A; Malaspina, P; Novelletto, A

    2001-01-01

    Nine single nucleotide (SNP) or indel binary polymorphisms were used to determine the frequencies and phylogenetic relationships of 12 Y chromosomal haplogroups in 289 males from Romania and the Republic of Moldova. Our data indicated a low but not null rate of the homoplasic appearance of the DYZ3 (-) allelic state. All other markers confirmed the previously proposed phylogeny. Based on the affinities between populations in terms of haplogroup frequencies, this work identified the geographical region of the Carpathians as a break point in the gene geography of Eastern Central Europe, providing a finer definition of one of the possible sharp genetic changes between Western and Eastern Europe.

  3. Genome-wide association analysis to identify chromosomal regions determining components of earliness in wheat.

    PubMed

    Le Gouis, J; Bordes, J; Ravel, C; Heumez, E; Faure, S; Praud, S; Galic, N; Remoué, C; Balfourier, F; Allard, V; Rousset, M

    2012-02-01

    The modification of flowering date is considered an important way to escape the current or future climatic constraints that affect wheat crops. A better understanding of its genetic bases would enable a more efficient and rapid modification through breeding. The objective of this study was to identify chromosomal regions associated with earliness in wheat. A 227-wheat core collection chosen to be highly contrasted for earliness was characterized for heading date. Experiments were conducted in controlled conditions and in the field for 3 years to break down earliness in the component traits: photoperiod sensitivity, vernalization requirement and narrow-sense earliness. Whole-genome association mapping was carried out using 760 molecular markers and taking into account the five ancestral group structure. We identified 62 markers individually associated to earliness components corresponding to 33 chromosomal regions. In addition, we identified 15 other significant markers and seven more regions by testing marker pair interactions. Co-localizations were observed with the Ppd-1, Vrn-1 and Rht-1 candidate genes. Using an independent set of lines to validate the model built for heading date, we were able to explain 34% of the variation using the structure and the significant markers. Results were compared with already published data using bi-parental populations giving an insight into the genetic architecture of flowering time in wheat.

  4. Genetic and radiation hybrid mapping of the hyperekplexia region on chromosome 5q

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, S.G.; O'Connell, P. ); Dixon, M.J. ); Nigro, M.A. ); Kelts, K.A. ); Markand, O.N. ); Shiang, R.; Wasmuth, J.J. ); Terry, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    Hyperekplexia, or startle disease (STHE), is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by muscular rigidity of central nervous system origin, particularly in the neonatal period, and by an exaggerated startle response to sudden, unexpected acoustic or tactile stimuli. STHE responds dramatically to the benzodiazepine drug clonazepam, which acts at gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A) receptors. The STHE locus (STHE) was recently assigned to chromosome 5q, on the basis of tight linkage to the colony-stimulating factor 1-receptor (CSF1-R) locus in a single large family. The authors performed linkage analysis in the original and three additional STHE pedigrees with eight chromosome 5q microsatellite markers and placed several of the most closely linked markers on an existing radiation hybrid (RH) map of the region. The results provide strong evidence for genetic locus homogeneity and assign STHE to a 5.9-cM interval defined by CSF1-R and D5S379, which are separated by an RH map distance of 74 centirays (roughly 2.2-3.7 Mb). Two polymorphic markers (D5S119 and D5S209) lie within this region, but they could not be ordered with respect to STHE. RH mapping eliminated the candidate genes GABRA1 and GABRG2, which encode GABA-A receptor components, by showing that they are telomeric to the target region. 45 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Subtelomeric regions of yeast chromosomes contain a 36 base-pair tandemly repeated sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, H; Haber, J E

    1984-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of a region of DNA derived from the end of one chromosome of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Inspection of the sequence reveals the presence of 12 tandem direct repeats, each 36 nucleotides long and having nearly identical sequence. Each 36 base-pair repeat can be further subdivided into three tandem sub-repeats of a similar 12 base-pair sequence. Analysis of total genomic yeast DNA from several strains by Southern hybridization suggests that the number of tandem 36 base-pair repeat units may vary from approximately 8 to 25 among different telomeric regions. Differences in the number of repeats may have arisen by unequal crossing over between them. Furthermore, the finding that the pattern of bases at multiple variable positions within the repeat unit is not random suggests that these regions may undergo gene conversion events that render them homogeneous. Images PMID:6091055

  6. Developmental roles of 21 Drosophila transcription factors are determined by quantitative differences in binding to an overlapping set of thousands of genomic regions

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, Stewart; Li, Xiao-Yong; Li, Jingyi; Brown, James B.; Chu, Hou Cheng; Zeng, Lucy; Grondona, Brandi P.; Hechmer, Aaron; Simirenko, Lisa; Keranen, Soile V.E.; Knowles, David W.; Stapleton, Mark; Bickel, Peter; Biggin, Mark D.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2009-05-15

    BACKGROUND: We previously established that six sequence-specific transcription factors that initiate anterior/posterior patterning in Drosophila bind to overlapping sets of thousands of genomic regions in blastoderm embryos. While regions bound at high levels include known and probable functional targets, more poorly bound regions are preferentially associated with housekeeping genes and/or genes not transcribed in the blastoderm, and are frequently found in protein coding sequences or in less conserved non-coding DNA, suggesting that many are likely non-functional. RESULTS: Here we show that an additional 15 transcription factors that regulate other aspects of embryo patterning show a similar quantitative continuum of function and binding to thousands of genomic regions in vivo. Collectively, the 21 regulators show a surprisingly high overlap in the regions they bind given that they belong to 11 DNA binding domain families, specify distinct developmental fates, and can act via different cis-regulatory modules. We demonstrate, however, that quantitative differences in relative levels of binding to shared targets correlate with the known biological and transcriptional regulatory specificities of these factors. CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the overlap in binding of biochemically and functionally unrelated transcription factors arises from the high concentrations of these proteins in nuclei, which, coupled with their broad DNA binding specificities, directs them to regions of open chromatin. We suggest that most animal transcription factors will be found to show a similar broad overlapping pattern of binding in vivo, with specificity achieved by modulating the amount, rather than the identity, of bound factor.

  7. Transcriptionally Active Regions Are the Preferred Targets for Chromosomal HPV Integration in Cervical Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Irene Kraus; Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Schmitz, Martina; Dürst, Matthias; Hovig, Eivind

    2015-01-01

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) into the host genome is regarded as a determining event in cervical carcinogenesis. However, the exact mechanism for integration, and the role of integration in stimulating cancer progression, is not fully characterized. Although integration sites are reported to appear randomly distributed over all chromosomes, fragile sites, translocation break points and transcriptionally active regions have all been suggested as being preferred sites for integration. In addition, more recent studies have reported integration events occurring within or surrounding essential cancer-related genes, raising the question whether these may reflect key events in the molecular genesis of HPV induced carcinomas. In a search for possible common denominators of the integration sites, we utilized the chromosomal coordinates of 121 viral-cellular fusion transcripts, and examined for statistical overrepresentation of integration sites with various features of ENCODE chromatin information data, using the Genomic HyperBrowser. We find that integration sites coincide with DNA that is transcriptionally active in mucosal epithelium, as judged by the relationship of integration sites to DNase hypersensitivity and H3K4me3 methylation data. Finding an association between integration and transcription is highly informative with regard to the spatio-temporal characteristics of the integration process. These results suggest that integration is an early event in carcinogenesis, more than a late product of chromosomal instability. If the viral integrations were more likely to occur in destabilized regions of the DNA, a completely random distribution of the integration sites would be expected. As a by-product of integration in actively transcribing DNA, a tendency of integration in or close to genes is likely to be observed. This increases the possibility of viral signals to modulate the expression of these genes, potentially contributing to the progression towards

  8. Human laminin B1 chain. A multidomain protein with gene (LAMB1) locus in the q22 region of chromosome 7.

    PubMed

    Pikkarainen, T; Eddy, R; Fukushima, Y; Byers, M; Shows, T; Pihlajaniemi, T; Saraste, M; Tryggvason, K

    1987-08-05

    We report the isolation and characterization of six overlapping cDNA clones that provide the first and complete amino acid sequence of the human laminin B1 chain. The cDNA clones cover 5613 nucleotides with 5358 nucleotides in an open reading frame encoding 1786 amino acids, including a 21-residue signal peptide-like sequence. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of two types of internal homology repeats that were found in clusters within the polypeptide chain. The type A repeats contain about 50 amino acids of which 8 are cysteine. These repeats are present in two clusters toward the NH2-terminal end of the chain and are separated from each other by about 220 amino acids. The two clusters contain five and eight consecutive repeats each. There are two copies of consecutive type B repeats of about 40 amino acids close to the COOH-terminal end. Computer analysis of the amino acid sequence of the B1 chain revealed the presence of structurally distinct domains that contain cysteine-rich repeats, globular regions, and helical structures. Using somatic cell hybrid methodology and in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes it was established that the human laminin B1 gene (LAMB1) is located in the q22 region of chromosome 7.

  9. High-resolution physical mapping in Pennisetum squamulatum reveals extensive chromosomal heteromorphism of the genomic region associated with apomixis.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yukio; Conner, Joann A; Goel, Shailendra; Morishige, Daryl T; Mullet, John E; Hanna, Wayne W; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2004-04-01

    Gametophytic apomixis is asexual reproduction as a consequence of parthenogenetic development of a chromosomally unreduced egg. The trait leads to the production of embryos with a maternal genotype, i.e. progeny are clones of the maternal plant. The application of the trait in agriculture could be a tremendous tool for crop improvement through conventional and nonconventional breeding methods. Unfortunately, there are no major crops that reproduce by apomixis, and interspecific hybridization with wild relatives has not yet resulted in commercially viable germplasm. Pennisetum squamulatum is an aposporous apomict from which the gene(s) for apomixis has been transferred to sexual pearl millet by backcrossing. Twelve molecular markers that are linked with apomixis coexist in a tight linkage block called the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR), and several of these markers have been shown to be hemizygous in the polyploid genome of P. squamulatum. High resolution genetic mapping of these markers has not been possible because of low recombination in this region of the genome. We now show the physical arrangement of bacterial artificial chromosomes containing apomixis-linked molecular markers by high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization on pachytene chromosomes. The size of the ASGR, currently defined as the entire hemizygous region that hybridizes with apomixis-linked bacterial artificial chromosomes, was estimated on pachytene and mitotic chromosomes to be approximately 50 Mbp (a quarter of the chromosome). The ASGR includes highly repetitive sequences from an Opie-2-like retrotransposon family that are particularly abundant in this region of the genome.

  10. Genome-wide association study identified a narrow chromosome 1 region associated with chicken growth traits.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liang; Luo, Chenglong; Zhang, Chengguang; Zhang, Rong; Tang, Jun; Nie, Qinghua; Ma, Li; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning; Da, Yang; Zhang, Xiquan

    2012-01-01

    Chicken growth traits are important economic traits in broilers. A large number of studies are available on finding genetic factors affecting chicken growth. However, most of these studies identified chromosome regions containing putative quantitative trait loci and finding causal mutations is still a challenge. In this genome-wide association study (GWAS), we identified a narrow 1.5 Mb region (173.5-175 Mb) of chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome (GGA) 1 to be strongly associated with chicken growth using 47,678 SNPs and 489 F2 chickens. The growth traits included aggregate body weight (BW) at 0-90 d of age measured weekly, biweekly average daily gains (ADG) derived from weekly body weight, and breast muscle weight (BMW), leg muscle weight (LMW) and wing weight (WW) at 90 d of age. Five SNPs in the 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region at GGA1 had the highest significant effects for all growth traits in this study, including a SNP at 8.9 Kb upstream of FOXO1A for BW at 22-48 d and 70 d, a SNP at 1.9 Kb downstream of FOXO1A for WW, a SNP at 20.9 Kb downstream of ENSGALG00000022732 for ADG at 29-42 d, a SNP in INTS6 for BW at 90 d, and a SNP in KPNA3 for BMW and LMW. The 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region contained two microRNA genes that could bind to messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of IGF1, FOXO1A and KPNA3. It was further indicated that the 1.5 Mb GGA1 region had the strongest effects on chicken growth during 22-42 d.

  11. Genomic Structure and Evolution of the Ancestral Chromosome Fusion Site in 2q13–2q14.1 and Paralogous Regions on Other Human Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yuxin; Linardopoulou, Elena; Friedman, Cynthia; Williams, Eleanor; Trask, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Human chromosome 2 was formed by the head-to-head fusion of two ancestral chromosomes that remained separate in other primates. Sequences that once resided near the ends of the ancestral chromosomes are now interstitially located in 2q13–2q14.1. Portions of these sequences had duplicated to other locations prior to the fusion. Here we present analyses of the genomic structure and evolutionary history of >600 kb surrounding the fusion site and closely related sequences on other human chromosomes. Sequence blocks that closely flank the inverted arrays of degenerate telomere repeats marking the fusion site are duplicated at many, primarily subtelomeric, locations. In addition, large portions of a 168-kb centromere-proximal block are duplicated at 9pter, 9p11.2, and 9q13, with 98%–99% average sequence identity. A 67-kb block on the distal side of the fusion site is highly homologous to sequences at 22qter. A third ∼100-kb segment is 96% identical to a region in 2q11.2. By integrating data on the extent and similarity of these paralogous blocks, including the presence of phylogenetically informative repetitive elements, with observations of their chromosomal distribution in nonhuman primates, we infer the order of the duplications that led to their current arrangement. Several of these duplicated blocks may be associated with breakpoints of inversions that occurred during primate evolution and of recurrent chromosome rearrangements in humans. [Supplemental material is available online at http://www.genome.org. The following individuals kindly provided reagents, samples, or unpublished information as indicated in the paper: T. Newman, C. Harris, and J. Young.] PMID:12421751

  12. Localisation of a gene for mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 8

    PubMed Central

    Ausseil, J; Loredo-Osti, J; Verner, A; Darmond-Zwaig, C; Maire, I; Poorthuis, B; van Diggelen, O P; Hudson, T; Fujiwara, T; Morgan, K; Pshezhetsky, A

    2004-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIC (MPS IIIC, or Sanfilippo syndrome C) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of acetyl-coenzyme A:α-glucosaminide-N-acetyltransferase. Patients develop progressive neuropsychiatric problems, mental retardation, hearing loss, and relatively minor visceral manifestations. The pattern of transmission is consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The aim of this study was to find a locus for MPS IIIC using a homozygosity mapping approach. A genomewide scan was performed on DNA from 27 affected individuals and 17 of their unaffected relatives. Additional patients were recruited, and DNA was obtained from a total of 44 affected individuals and 18 unaffected family members from 31 families from 10 countries. A working candidate interval was defined by looking for excess homozygosity in patients compared with their relatives. Additional markers were genotyped in regions of interest. Linkage analysis was performed to support the informal analysis. Inspection of the genomewide scan data showed apparent excess homozygosity in patients compared with their relatives for markers on chromosome 8. Additional genotyping identified 15 consecutive markers (from D8S1051 to D8S2332) in an 8.3 cM interval for which the genotypes of affected siblings were identical in state. A maximum multipoint lod score of 10.61 was found at marker D8S519. A locus for MPS IIIC maps to an 8.3 cM (16 Mbp) interval in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 8. PMID:15591281

  13. Haplotype Kernel Association Test as a Powerful Method to Identify Chromosomal Regions Harboring Uncommon Causal Variants

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wan-Yu; Yi, Nengjun; Lou, Xiang-Yang; Zhi, Degui; Zhang, Kui; Gao, Guimin; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Liu, Nianjun

    2014-01-01

    For most complex diseases, the fraction of heritability that can be explained by the variants discovered from genome-wide association studies is minor. Although the so-called ‘rare variants’ (minor allele frequency [MAF] < 1%) have attracted increasing attention, they are unlikely to account for much of the ‘missing heritability’ because very few people may carry these rare variants. The genetic variants that are likely to fill in the ‘missing heritability’ include uncommon causal variants (MAF < 5%), which are generally untyped in association studies using tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or commercial SNP arrays. Developing powerful statistical methods can help to identify chromosomal regions harboring uncommon causal variants, while bypassing the genome-wide or exome-wide next-generation sequencing. In this work, we propose a haplotype kernel association test (HKAT) that is equivalent to testing the variance component of random effects for distinct haplotypes. With an appropriate weighting scheme given to haplotypes, we can further enhance the ability of HKAT to detect uncommon causal variants. With scenarios simulated according to the population genetics theory, HKAT is shown to be a powerful method for detecting chromosomal regions harboring uncommon causal variants. PMID:23740760

  14. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, F.T.

    1994-04-01

    The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

  15. Characterization of the breakpoint regions of a pericentric inversion on chromosome 6

    SciTech Connect

    Gastier, J.M.; Brody, T.; Charfat, O.

    1994-09-01

    We are attempting to clone the breakpoints of a pericentric inversion [inv(6)(p23q23.1)] which segregates in a three generation family. Phenotypic abnormalities associated with this chromosome anomaly include senori-neural hearing loss, eye (anterior segment) abnormalities, dental anomalies, and mild mental retardation. The breakpoints have been microdissected and a small insert library was created. More than 100 sequence tagged sites (STSs) have been developed from these clones for screening of the CEPH mega-YAC library. This work will yield a high density physical map of the breakpoint regions for further characterization of the loci. YACs from the region are being screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to obtain a YAC which crosses the breakpoint as an initial step in defining the molecular basis of the disease phenotype. Progress towards cloning of the breakpoints will be described.

  16. Linking of the human immunoglobulin VK and JKCK regions by chromosomal walking.

    PubMed

    Klobeck, H G; Zimmer, F J; Combriato, G; Zachau, H G

    1987-12-10

    The linking of the human VK and JKCK gene regions (abbreviations in ref. 1) by chromosomal walking is reported. Hybridization experiments with the DNA of a somatic cell hybrid containing the region between JKCK and the telomer show that none of the major VK gene clusters is located downstream of CK. The distance between the VK and JK genes was found to be 23 kb. The JK proximal VK gene is the B3 gene which is the only representative of subgroup IV in the genome. This gene and the neighbouring B2 gene (accompanying paper) are arranged in opposite orientation to JKCK and can therefore rearrange only by an inversion mechanism. This finding is used, together with previous data, to delineate the rearrangement processes in the Burkitt lymphoma derived cell line BL21 as comprising an inversion in the first and a deletion in the second step.

  17. Characterization of a gene from the EDM1-PSACH region of human chromosome 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, G.G.; Giorgi, D.; Martin, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Genetic linkage mapping has indicated that both multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (EDM1), a dominantly inherited chondrodysplasia, and pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH), a skeletal disorder associated with dwarfism, map to a 2-3 Mb region of human chromosome 19p. We have isolated a partial cDNA from this region using hybrid selection, and report on progress towards the characterization of the genomic structure and transcription of the corresponding gene. Sequence analysis of the cDNA to date indicates that this gene is likely to be expressed within extracellular matrix tissues. Defects in this gene or neighboring gene family members may therefore lead to EDM1, PSACH, or other connective tissue and skeletal disorders.

  18. A gene for distal arthrogryposis Type I maps to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Bamshad, M.; Watkins, W.S.; Zenger, R.K.; Bohnsack, J.F.; Carey, J.C.; Otterud, B.; Krakowiak, P.A.; Robertson, M.; Jorde, L.B.

    1994-12-01

    Club foot is one of the most common human congenital malformations. Distal arthrogryposis type I (DA-1) is a frequent cause of dominantly inherited club foot. Performing a genomewide search using short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms, we have mapped a DA-1 gene to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 9 in a large kindred. Linkage analysis has generated a positive lod score of 5.90 at {theta} = 0, with the marker GS-4. Multiple recombinants bracketing the region have been identified. Analysis of an additional family demonstrated no linkage to the same locus, indicating likely locus heterogeneity. Of the autosomal congenital contracture disorders causing positional foot deformities, this is the first to be mapped.

  19. A gene for distal arthrogryposis type I maps to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 9.

    PubMed Central

    Bamshad, M.; Watkins, W. S.; Zenger, R. K.; Bohnsack, J. F.; Carey, J. C.; Otterud, B.; Krakowiak, P. A.; Robertson, M.; Jorde, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    Club foot is one of the most common human congenital malformations. Distal arthrogryposis type I (DA-1) is a frequent cause of dominantly inherited club foot. Performing a genomewide search using short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms, we have mapped a DA-1 gene to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 9 in a large kindred. Linkage analysis has generated a positive lod score of 5.90 at theta = 0, with the marker GS-4. Multiple recombinants bracketing the region have been identified. Analysis of an additional family demonstrated no linkage to the same locus, indicating likely locus heterogeneity. Of the autosomal congenital contracture disorders causing positional foot deformities, this is the first to be mapped. PMID:7977374

  20. NOR sites detected by Ag-dAPI staining of an unusual autosome chromosome of Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) colocalize with C-banded heterochromatic region.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Vanessa Pinatto; Borges, Alex Rodrigues; Fernandez, Maria Aparecida

    2002-01-01

    The study of chromosomes in insects is a good tool in mitotic process analysis, zoographic localization and evolution investigation. Among them, the Sciaridae offers a karyotype with a small number of chromosomes, where the heterochromatin and nucleolar organizer region, NOR, are easily analyzed in metaphase chromosomes obtained from cerebral ganglia squashes. In this work, the heterochromatic regions on Bradysia hygida mitotic chromosomes, revealed by C-banding, were identified as centromeric blocks on A and C chromosomes and as dark interstitial region in B and X chromosomes. By Ag-DAPI staining, active nucleolus organizer region, NOR, was revealed associated to the constitutive heterochromatin in the end of the C autosome chromosome. The C-band regions and the unusual ribosomal site localization are discussed.

  1. Measurement of T1/T2 relaxation times in overlapped regions from homodecoupled 1H singlet signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañar, Laura; Nolis, Pau; Virgili, Albert; Parella, Teodor

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of the HOmodecoupled Band-Selective (HOBS) technique in the conventional Inversion-Recovery and CPMG-based PROJECT experiments is described. The achievement of fully homodecoupled signals allows the distinction of overlapped 1H resonances with small chemical shift differences. It is shown that the corresponding T1 and T2 relaxation times can be individually measured from the resulting singlet lines using conventional exponential curve-fitting methods.

  2. The sequence organization of Yp/proximal Xq homologous regions of the human sex chromosomes is highly conserved.

    PubMed

    Sargent, C A; Briggs, H; Chalmers, I J; Lambson, B; Walker, E; Affara, N A

    1996-03-01

    Detailed deletion analysis of patients with breakpoints in Yp has allowed the definition of two distinct intervals on the Y chromosome short arm outside the pseudoautosomal region that are homologous to Xq2l.3. Detailed YAC contigs have been developed over these regions on both the X and Y chromosomes, and the relative order of markers has been compared to assess whether rearrangements on either sex chromosome have occurred since the transposition events creating these patterns of homology. On the X chromosome, the region forms almost one contiguous block of homology, whereas on the Y chromosome, there has been one major rearrangement leading to the two separate Yp-Xq2l blocks of homology. The rearrangement breakpoint has been mapped. Within these separate X-Y homologous blocks on Yp, the order of loci homologous to X has been conserved to a high degree between the sex chromosomes. With the exception of the amelogenin gene (proximal Yp block), all the XY homologous sequences in the two Yp blocks have homolognes in Xq2l.3, with the former having its X counterpart in Xp22.2. This suggests an independent evolutionary event leading to the formation of the amelogenin X-Y homology.

  3. The sequence organization of Yp/proximal Xq homologous regions of the human sex chromosomes is highly conserved

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, C.A.; Briggs, H.; Chalmers, I.J.

    1996-03-01

    Detailed deletion analysis of patients with breakpoints in Yp has allowed the definition of two distinct intervals on the Y chromosome short arm outside the pseudoautosomal region that are homologous to Xq21.3. Detailed YAC contigs have been developed over these regions on both the X and Y chromosomes, and the relative order of markers has been compared to assess whether rearrangements on either sex chromosome have occurred since the transposition events creating these patterns of homology. On the X chromosome, the region forms almost one contiguous block of homology, whereas on the Y chromosome, there has been one major rearrangement leading to the two separate Yp-Xq21 blocks of homology. The rearrangement breakpoint has been mapped. Within these separate X-Y homologous blocks on Yp, the order of loci homologous to X has been conserved to a high degree between the sex chromosomes. With the exception of the amelogenin gene (proximal Yp block), all the X-Y homologous sequences in the two Yp blocks have homologues in Xq21.3, with the former having its X counterpart in Xp22.2. This suggests an independent evolutionary event leading to the formation of the amelogenin X-Y homology. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A melanocyte-specific gene, Pmel 17, maps near the silver coat color locus on mouse chromosome 10 and is in a syntenic region on human chromosome 12

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, B.S.; Chintamaneni, C.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kim, K.K. ); Kozak, C.A. ); Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J.; Jenkins, N. ); Barton, D.; Francke, U. )

    1991-10-15

    Melanocytes preferentially express an mRNA species, Pmel 17, whose protein product cross-reacts with anti-tyrosinase antibodies and whose expression correlates with the melanin content. The authors have now analyzed the deduced protein structure and mapped its chromosomal location in mouse and human. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the Pmel 17 cDNA showed that the protein is composed of 645 amino acids with a molecular weight of 68,600. The Pmel 17 protein contains a putative leader sequence and a potential membrane anchor segment, which indicates that this may be a membrane-associated protein in melanocytes. The deduced protein contains five potential N-glycosylation sites and relatively high levels of serine and threonine. Three repeats of a 26-amino acid motif appear in the middle of the molecule. The human Pmel 17 gene, designated D12S53E, maps to chromosome 12, region 12pter-q21; and the mouse homologue, designated D12S53Eh, maps to the distal region of mouse chromosome 10, a region also known to carry the coat color locus si (silver).

  5. Physical map-based sizes of the centromeric regions of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosomes 1, 2, and 3.

    PubMed

    Hosouchi, Tsutomu; Kumekawa, Norikazu; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Kotani, Hirokazu

    2002-08-31

    The sizes of the centromeric regions of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosomes 1, 2, and 3 were determined by construction of their physical maps on the basis of restriction analysis. As the reported centromeric regions contain large gaps in the middle due to highly repetitive sequences, appropriate probes for Southern hybridization were prepared from the sequences reported for the flanking regions and from the sequences of BAC and YAC clones newly isolated in this work, and restriction analysis was performed using DNA of a hypomethylated strain (ddm1). The sizes of the genetically defined centromeric regions were deduced to be 9 megabases (Mb), 4.2 Mb and 4.1 Mb, respectively (chromosome 1, from markers T22C23-t7 to T3P8-sp6; chromosome 2, from F5J15-sp6 to T15D9; chromosome 3, from T9G9-sp6 to T15M14; G. P. Copenhaver et al. Science, 286, 2468-2479, 1999). By combining the sizes of the centromeric regions previously estimated for chromosomes 4 and 5 and the sequence data reported for the A. thaliana genome, the total genome size of A. thaliana was estimated to be approximately 146.0 Mb.

  6. Physical localization of eed: A region of mouse chromosome 7 required for gastrulation

    SciTech Connect

    Holdener, B.C.; Thomas, J.W.; Schumacher, A.

    1995-06-10

    In the mouse, the embryonic ectoderm development (eed) region is defined by deletions encompassing the albino (c) locus of chromosome 7. The region is located 1-2 cM distal to the c locus and was of undetermined size. Embryos homozygous for deletions removing eed display defects in axial organization during gastrulation. Two loci, identified by chemical mutagenesis, are known to map within the eed interval. One, {ell}7Rn5, probably represents the gene required for gastrulation. The second, {ell}7Rn6, is required for survival after birth. fit1, a third locus identified by chemical mutagenesis, maps distal to the eed interval and is also required for survival after birth. A 900-kb YAC contig has been constructed, and deletion breakpoints defining the limits of the regions containing these loci have been localized. Their positions place the eed region within a maximum 150-kb interval at the proximal end of the contig, while fit1 maps to a 360-kb interval within the middle of the contig. Several clusters of rare-cutting restriction sites map within these regions and represent potential locations of candidate genes. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Effect of inversion polymorphism on the neutral nucleotide variability of linked chromosomal regions in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, A; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    2000-01-01

    Recombination is a main factor determining nucleotide variability in different regions of the genome. Chromosomal inversions, which are ubiquitous in the genus Drosophila, are known to reduce and redistribute recombination, and thus their specific effect on nucleotide variation may be of major importance as an explanatory factor for levels of DNA variation. Here, we use the coalescent approach to study this effect. First, we develop analytical expressions to predict nucleotide variability in old inversion polymorphisms that have reached mutation-drift-flux equilibrium. The effects on nucleotide variability of a new arrangement appearing in the population and reaching a stable polymorphism are then studied by computer simulation. We show that inversions modulate nucleotide variability in a complex way. The establishment of an inversion polymorphism involves a partial selective sweep that eliminates part of the variability in the population. This is followed by a slow convergence to the equilibrium values. During this convergence, regions close to the breakpoints exhibit much lower variability than central regions. However, at equilibrium, regions close to the breakpoints have higher levels of variability and differentiation between arrangements than regions in the middle of the inverted segment. The implications of these findings for overall variability levels during the evolution of Drosophila species are discussed. PMID:10835391

  8. Molecular topography of the secondary constriction region (qh) of human chromosome 9 with an unusual euchromatic band

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, R.S.; Luk, S.; Brennan, J.P.; Mathews, T.; Conte, R.A.; Macera, M.J. )

    1993-05-01

    Heterochromatin confined to pericentromeric (c) and secondary constriction (qh) regions plays a major role in morphological variation of chromosome 9, because of its size and affinity for pericentric inversion. Consequently, pairing at pachytene may lead to some disturbances between homologous chromosomes having such extreme variations and may result in abnormalities involving bands adjacent to the qh region. The authors encountered such a case, where a G-positive band has originated de nova, suggesting a maternal origin from the chromosome 9 that has had a complete pericentric inversion. In previously reported cases, the presence of an extra G-positive band within the 9qh region has been familial, and in the majority of those cases it was not associated with any clinical consequences. Therefore, this anomaly has been referred to as a [open quotes]rare[close quotes] variant. The qh region consists of a mixture of various tandemly repeated DNA sequences, and routine banding techniques have failed to characterize the origin of this extra genetic material. By the chromosome in situ suppression hybridization technique using whole chromosome paint, the probe annealed with the extra G-band, suggesting a euchromatic origin from chromosome 9, presumably band p12. By the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique using alpha- and beta-satellite probes, the dicentric nature was further revealed, supporting the concept of unequal crossing-over during maternal meiosis I, which could account for a duplication of the h region. The G-positive band most likely became genetically inert when it was sandwiched between two blocks of heterochromatin, resulting in a phenotypically normal child. Therefore, an earlier hypothesis, suggesting its origin from heterochromatin through so-called euchromatinization, is refuted here. If the proband's progeny inherit this chromosome, it shall be envisaged as a rare familial variant whose clinical consequences remain obscure. 52 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Illusion induced overlapped optics.

    PubMed

    Zang, XiaoFei; Shi, Cheng; Li, Zhou; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing; Zhu, HaiBin

    2014-01-13

    The traditional transformation-based cloak seems like it can only hide objects by bending the incident electromagnetic waves around the hidden region. In this paper, we prove that invisible cloaks can be applied to realize the overlapped optics. No matter how many in-phase point sources are located in the hidden region, all of them can overlap each other (this can be considered as illusion effect), leading to the perfect optical interference effect. In addition, a singular parameter-independent cloak is also designed to obtain quasi-overlapped optics. Even more amazing of overlapped optics is that if N identical separated in-phase point sources covered with the illusion media, the total power outside the transformation region is N2I0 (not NI0) (I0 is the power of just one point source, and N is the number point sources), which seems violating the law of conservation of energy. A theoretical model based on interference effect is proposed to interpret the total power of these two kinds of overlapped optics effects. Our investigation may have wide applications in high power coherent laser beams, and multiple laser diodes, and so on.

  10. Further evidence for a relationship between the 5p15 chromosome region and the oculoauriculovertebral anomaly.

    PubMed

    Ala-Mello, Sirpa; Siggberg, Linda; Knuutila, Sakari; von Koskull, Harriet; Taskinen, Mervi; Peippo, Maarit

    2008-10-01

    The oculoauriculovertebral anomaly (OAV) or Goldenhar syndrome is a malformation complex that has been described in several chromosomal rearrangements. Among them a deletion of the terminal 5p has recurred in seven previous patients. We wish to report on an additional such patient in order to reinforce the significance of this genomic region in the cause of at least a subgroup of OAV cases. Future studies, particularly in the OAV patients with a lateral facial cleft, might define one genetic background of the disorder. Our patient had a complex translocation chromosome 45,XX, inv(2) (q32q37)mat, dic(5;21) (p15.3;q22.3)dn, resulting in a terminal 5p deletion, a terminal deletion of 21q demonstrated by FISH studies, and a duplication of 21q22.11-q22.12 documented by molecular karyotyping. In addition to OAV she developed myelodysplasia treated with bone marrow transplantation. We discuss her clinical findings with reference to her karyotype findings and review the patients with OAV and a terminal deletion of 5p. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Genetic linkage mapping of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Oehlmann, R.; Summerville, G.P.; Yeh, G.; Weaver, E.J.; Jimenez, S.A.; Knowlton, R.G. )

    1994-01-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is an inherited chondrodystrophy that results in deformity of articular surfaces and in subsequent degenerative joint disease. The disease is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance. An MED mutation has been mapped by genetic linkage analysis of DNA polymorphisms in a single large pedigree. Close linkage of MED to 130 tested chromosomal markers was ruled out by discordant inheritance patterns. However, strong evidence for linkage of MED to markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19 was obtained. The most closely linked marker was D19S215, with a maximum LOD score of 6.37 at [theta] = .05. Multipoint linkage analysis indicated that MED is located between D19S212 and D19S215, a map interval of 1.7 cM. Discovery of the map location of MED in this family will facilitate identification of the mutant gene. The closely linked DNA polymorphisms will also provide the means to determine whether other inherited chondrodystrophies have underlying defects in the same gene. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Gene Content and Function of the Ancestral Chromosome Fusion Site in Human Chromosome 2q13–2q14.1 and Paralogous Regions

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yuxin; Newman, Tera; Linardopoulou, Elena; Trask, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Various portions of the region surrounding the site where two ancestral chromosomes fused to form human chromosome 2 are duplicated elsewhere in the human genome, primarily in subtelomeric and pericentromeric locations. At least 24 potentially functional genes and 16 pseudogenes reside in the 614-kb of sequence surrounding the fusion site and paralogous segments on other chromosomes. By comparing the sequences of genomic copies and transcripts, we show that at least 18 of the genes in these paralogous regions are transcriptionally active. Among these genes are new members of the cobalamin synthetase W domain (CBWD) and forkhead domain FOXD4 gene families. Copies of RPL23A and SNRPA1 on chromosome 2 are retrotransposed-processed pseudogenes that were included in segmental duplications; we find 53 RPL23A pseudogenes in the human genome and map the functional copy of SNRPA1 to 15qter. The draft sequence of the human genome also provides new information on the location and intron–exon structure of functional copies of other 2q-fusion genes (PGM5, retina-specific F379, helicase CHLR1, and acrosin). This study illustrates that the duplication and rearrangement of subtelomeric and pericentromeric regions have functional relevance to human biology; these processes can change gene dosage and/or generate genes with new functions. [Supplemental material is available online at http://www.genome.org. Sequence data reported in this paper have been deposited in GenBank and assigned the following accession nos.: AF452722, AF452723, and AF452724.] PMID:12421752

  13. Characterization of satellite CentC repeats from heterochromatic regions on the long arm of maize B-chromosome.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shu-Fen; Cheng, Ya-Ming

    2011-02-01

    The B-chromosome of maize contains an A-chromosome centromere-specific satellite CentC repeat in its centromere region (CENB) and at multiple locations in its distal heterochromatic regions (BDHs). Because CentC is highly repetitive, it is a challenge to study CentC sequences within individual centromeres or chromosome regions. The combined structure of CentC and a BDH-specific CL-repeat has allowed us to isolate CentC sequences from BDHs. In the study described herein, we have used a PCR method to amplify 13 CL-CentC variant products that were specifically mapped to A-centromeres (CENAs), the CENB, and BDHs via the tertiary trisomes and hypoploids of five B-10L translocations. Cloning and sequence analyses of these CL-CentC products have revealed a local CentC homogenization within the three CentC-containing regions. Phylogenetic analysis has indicated that the CentC sequences of BDHs are more closely related to those of CENAs in comparison to that of the CENB. Furthermore, the CentC monomers that are within the CENB are more diverse than those within BDHs and CENAs. These results shed light on the evolution of CentC repeats on the B-chromosome and provide a better understanding of B-chromosome evolution.

  14. A region of euchromatin coincides with an extensive tandem repeat on the mouse (Mus musculus) inactive X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Emily M; Seberg, Andrew P; Das, Sunny; Figueroa, Debbie M; Sun, Zhuo; Moseley, Shawn C; Chadwick, Brian P

    2014-09-01

    Euchromatic features are largely absent from the human inactive X chromosome (Xi), with the exception of several large tandem repeats that can be detected as euchromatin bands at metaphase. Despite residing megabases apart, these tandem repeats make frequent inactive X-specific interactions. The mouse homologue has been reported for at least one of the tandem repeats, but whether the mouse Xi is also characterized by distinct bands of euchromatin remains unknown. We examined the mouse Xi for the presence of euchromatin bands by examining the pattern of histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 and detected two major signals. The first band resides in the subtelomeric region of band XF5 and may correspond to the pseudoautosomal region. The second band localizes to XE3 and coincides with an extensive complex repeat composed of a large tandem and inverted repeat segment as well as several large short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-rich tandem repeats. Fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals that sequences with homology to the repeat region are scattered along the length of the Y chromosome. Immunofluorescence analysis of histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9 on metaphase chromosomes indicates that the repeat region corresponds to a band of constitutive heterochromatin on the male X and female active X chromosomes, whereas the euchromatin signal appears to be female specific. These data suggest that the band of euchromatin observed at XE3 is unique to the mouse Xi, comparable to the chromatin arrangement of several large tandem repeats located on the human X chromosome.

  15. Detailed phenotype-genotype study in five patients with chromosome 6q16 deletion: narrowing the critical region for Prader-Willi-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bonaglia, Maria Clara; Ciccone, Roberto; Gimelli, Giorgio; Gimelli, Stefania; Marelli, Susan; Verheij, Joke; Giorda, Roberto; Grasso, Rita; Borgatti, Renato; Pagone, Filomena; Rodrìguez, Laura; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; van Ravenswaaij, Conny; Zuffardi, Orsetta

    2008-12-01

    Most patients with an interstitial deletion of 6q16 have Prader-Willi-like phenotype, featuring obesity, hypotonia, short hands and feet, and developmental delay. In all reported studies, the chromosome rearrangement was detected by karyotype analysis, which provides an overview of the entire genome but has limited resolution. Here we describe a detailed clinical presentation of five patients, two of whom were previously reported, with overlapping interstitial 6q16 deletions and Prader-Willi-like phenotype. Our patients share the following main features with previously reported cases: global developmental delay, hypotonia, obesity, hyperphagia, and eye/vision anomalies. All rearrangement breakpoints have been accurately defined through array-CGH at about 100 Kb resolution. We were able to narrow the shortest region of deletion overlap for the presumed gene(s) involved in the Prader-Willi-like syndrome to 4.1 Mb located at 6q16.1q16.2. Our results support the evidence that haploinsufficiency of the SIM1 gene is responsible for obesity in these patients. A possible involvement of the GRIK2 gene in autistic-like behaviour, of POPDC3 in heart development, and of MCHR2 in the control of feeding behaviour and energy metabolism is also hypothesized.

  16. The human c-ros gene (ROS) is located at chromosome region 6q16----6q22.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, L; Louie, E; Tsujimoto, Y; Balduzzi, P C; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    1986-09-01

    The human homolog, c-ros, of the transforming gene, v-ros, of the avian sarcoma virus, UR2, has been isolated from a human genomic library. A single-copy fragment from the human c-ros genomic clone has been used to map the human c-ros homolog (ROS) to human chromosome region 6q16----6q22 by somatic cell hybrid analysis and chromosomal in situ hybridization. Thus, the c-ros gene joins the c-myb oncogene, which is distal to the c-ros gene on the long arm of human chromosome 6, as a candidate for involvement in chromosome 6q deletions and rearrangements seen in various malignancies.

  17. Framework for a physical map of the human 22q13 region using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, H.; Kim, Ung-Jin; Slepak, T.

    1996-04-01

    Detailed physical maps of entire chromosomes based on combined genetic, cytogenetic, and structural information are essential components for positional cloning and genomic sequencing. Despite the wealth of genetic information of the known diseases in the chromosome 22q13 region, the construction of a detailed physical map of the terminal region is difficult due to the sparsity of the genetic markers. We present here a map of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs that cover a number of genetic loci in the 22q13 region. One hundred thirty-six BACs with an average insert size of 140 kb are assembled into 35 contigs defined by 64 markers in 22q13-qter. Twenty-three anonymous markers are now linked to the previously mapped genetic anchor points. 55 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Investigation of the Chromosome Regions with Significant Affinity for the Nuclear Envelope in Fruit Fly – A Model Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Nicholas Allen; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional nuclear architecture is important for genome function, but is still poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the role of the “boundary conditions” – points of attachment between chromosomes and the nuclear envelope. We describe a method for modeling the 3D organization of the interphase nucleus, and its application to analysis of chromosome-nuclear envelope (Chr-NE) attachments of polytene (giant) chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster salivary glands. The model represents chromosomes as self-avoiding polymer chains confined within the nucleus; parameters of the model are taken directly from experiment, no fitting parameters are introduced. Methods are developed to objectively quantify chromosome territories and intertwining, which are discussed in the context of corresponding experimental observations. In particular, a mathematically rigorous definition of a territory based on convex hull is proposed. The self-avoiding polymer model is used to re-analyze previous experimental data; the analysis suggests 33 additional Chr-NE attachments in addition to the 15 already explored Chr-NE attachments. Most of these new Chr-NE attachments correspond to intercalary heterochromatin – gene poor, dark staining, late replicating regions of the genome; however, three correspond to euchromatin – gene rich, light staining, early replicating regions of the genome. The analysis also suggests 5 regions of anti-contact, characterized by aversion for the NE, only two of these correspond to euchromatin. This composition of chromatin suggests that heterochromatin may not be necessary or sufficient for the formation of a Chr-NE attachment. To the extent that the proposed model represents reality, the confinement of the polytene chromosomes in a spherical nucleus alone does not favor the positioning of specific chromosome regions at the NE as seen in experiment; consequently, the 15 experimentally known Chr-NE attachment positions do not appear to

  19. Investigation of the chromosome regions with significant affinity for the nuclear envelope in fruit fly--a model based approach.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Nicholas Allen; Sharakhov, Igor V; Onufriev, Alexey V

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional nuclear architecture is important for genome function, but is still poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the role of the "boundary conditions"--points of attachment between chromosomes and the nuclear envelope. We describe a method for modeling the 3D organization of the interphase nucleus, and its application to analysis of chromosome-nuclear envelope (Chr-NE) attachments of polytene (giant) chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster salivary glands. The model represents chromosomes as self-avoiding polymer chains confined within the nucleus; parameters of the model are taken directly from experiment, no fitting parameters are introduced. Methods are developed to objectively quantify chromosome territories and intertwining, which are discussed in the context of corresponding experimental observations. In particular, a mathematically rigorous definition of a territory based on convex hull is proposed. The self-avoiding polymer model is used to re-analyze previous experimental data; the analysis suggests 33 additional Chr-NE attachments in addition to the 15 already explored Chr-NE attachments. Most of these new Chr-NE attachments correspond to intercalary heterochromatin--gene poor, dark staining, late replicating regions of the genome; however, three correspond to euchromatin--gene rich, light staining, early replicating regions of the genome. The analysis also suggests 5 regions of anti-contact, characterized by aversion for the NE, only two of these correspond to euchromatin. This composition of chromatin suggests that heterochromatin may not be necessary or sufficient for the formation of a Chr-NE attachment. To the extent that the proposed model represents reality, the confinement of the polytene chromosomes in a spherical nucleus alone does not favor the positioning of specific chromosome regions at the NE as seen in experiment; consequently, the 15 experimentally known Chr-NE attachment positions do not appear to arise due to

  20. Strong regional heterogeneity in base composition evolution on the Drosophila X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Ya; Piao, Shengfu; Akashi, Hiroshi

    2006-09-01

    Fluctuations in base composition appear to be prevalent in Drosophila and mammal genome evolution, but their timescale, genomic breadth, and causes remain obscure. Here, we study base composition evolution within the X chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster and five of its close relatives. Substitutions were inferred on six extant and two ancestral lineages for 14 near-telomeric and 9 nontelomeric genes. GC content evolution is highly variable both within the genome and within the phylogenetic tree. In the lineages leading to D. yakuba and D. orena, GC content at silent sites has increased rapidly near telomeres, but has decreased in more proximal (nontelomeric) regions. D. orena shows a 17-fold excess of GC-increasing vs. AT-increasing synonymous changes within a small (approximately 130-kb) region close to the telomeric end. Base composition changes within introns are consistent with changes in mutation patterns, but stronger GC elevation at synonymous sites suggests contributions of natural selection or biased gene conversion. The Drosophila yakuba lineage shows a less extreme elevation of GC content distributed over a wider genetic region (approximately 1.2 Mb). A lack of change in GC content for most introns within this region suggests a role of natural selection in localized base composition fluctuations.

  1. Variability in the heterochromatin regions of the chromosomes and chromosomal anomalies in children with autism: identification of genetic markers of autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vorsanova, S G; Yurov, I Yu; Demidova, I A; Voinova-Ulas, V Yu; Kravets, V S; Solov'ev, I V; Gorbachevskaya, N L; Yurov, Yu B

    2007-07-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of children with autism (90 subjects) and their mothers (18 subjects) is presented. Anomalies and fragility were found in chromosome X in four cases of autism: mos 47,XXX[98]/46, XX[2]; 46,XY,r(22)(p11q13); 46,XY,inv(2)(p11.2q13),16qh-; and 46,Y,fra(X)(q27.3),16qh-. C staining and quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to demonstrate a significant increase in the frequency of variations in the heterochromatin regions of chromosomes in children with autism as compared with a control group (48% and 16% respectively). Pericentric chromosome inversion 9phqh was not characteristic of patients with autism, while variation in heterochromatin regions 1phqh, 9qh+, and 16qh-were found significantly more frequently in children with autism. These data provide the basis for discussing the possible role of the gene position effect in the pathogenesis of autism and the possible search for biological markers of autistic disorders.

  2. Localization of a human receptor tyrosine kinase (ETK1) to chromosome region 3p11. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, I.P.; Boyd, A.W. ); Lapsys, N.M.; Baker, E.; Sutherland, G.R. ); Campbell, L.J. )

    1994-01-01

    The authors have recently described a human receptor tyrosine kinase (hek) that is expressed by some pre-B and thymic T cell lines, but is not detectable on normal adult human tissues. Gene cloning studies established that hek is a new member of the EPH family of receptor tyrosine kinases. The expression of hek may normally be developmentally regulated and inappropriate expression may contribute to oncogenesis. In the present study, they have used Southern blot analysis of somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize the hek gene to human chromosome region 3p11.2. Karyotype analysis of the cell lines that over-express hek showed no cytogenetically visible abnormality involving the hek locus. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Refined linkage map of chromosome 7 in the region of the cystic fibrosis gene

    PubMed Central

    Lathrop, G. M.; Farrall, M.; O'Connell, P.; Wainwright, B.; Leppert, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Lench, N.; Kruyer, H.; Dean, M.; Park, M.; Woude, G. Vande; Lalouel, J.-M.; Williamson, R.; White, R.

    1988-01-01

    The genetic map in the region of human chromosome 7 that harbors the gene for cystic fibrosis (CF) has been refined by multilocus linkage studies in an expanded database including a large set of normal families. Six loci known to be linked to CF were examined: MET, an oncogene; COL1A2, collagen; TCRB, T-cell-receptor beta polypeptide; and three arbitrary loci—D7S8, D7S13, and D7S16—defined by probes pJ3.11, pB79a, and p7C22, respectively. The gene order with greatest statistical support is COL1A2-D7S13-D7S16-MET-D7S8-TCRB. Linkage analysis in families segregating for CF suggested that the most likely location of the CF gene on this map is between MET and D7S8. PMID:2892400

  4. Population data of Y-chromosomal STRs in Russian males of the Primorye region population.

    PubMed

    Lessig, Rüdiger; Edelmann, Jeanett; Kleemann, Werner J; Kozhemyako, Valeri

    2006-05-25

    Data of eight Y-chromosomal STRs, the so called "minimal core set", were obtained from 152 unrelated males of the Primorye region of Russia. The allelic frequencies correspond to other European populations. The background is a settlement of males from the European part of Russia, Ukraine and other states which were included in the former western part of the Soviet Union. On the other hand the distribution of the most frequent haplotypes differs to the Ukraine and Russian population. The most frequent haplotype was obtained five times in the population corresponding to 3.3%. The haplotype data reported here have been included into the Y-STR database maintained at the Institute of Legal Medicine, Humboldt-University, Berlin.

  5. Genomic evolution and polymorphism: segmental duplications and haplotypes at 108 regions on 21 chromosomes.

    PubMed

    McLure, Craig A; Hinchliffe, Peter; Lester, Susan; Williamson, Joseph F; Millman, John A; Keating, Peter J; Stewart, Brent J; Dawkins, Roger L

    2013-07-01

    We describe here extensive, previously unknown, genomic polymorphism in 120 regions, covering 19 autosomes and both sex chromosomes. Each contains duplication within multigene clusters. Of these, 108 are extremely polymorphic with multiple haplotypes. We used the genomic matching technique (GMT), previously used to characterise the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and regulators of complement activation (RCA). This genome-wide extension of this technique enables the examination of many underlying cis, trans and epistatic interactions responsible for phenotypic differences especially in relation to individuality, evolution and disease susceptibility. The extent of the diversity could not have been predicted and suggests a new model of primate evolution based on conservation of polymorphism rather than de novo mutation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Localisation of the gene for achondroplasia to the telomeric region of chromosome 4p

    SciTech Connect

    Stoilov, I.; Velinov, M.; Kilpatrick, M.W.

    1994-09-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common type of genetic dwarfism, is characterized by a variety of skeletal anomalies including disproportionate short stature and rhizomelic shortening of the extremities. The disorder is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, with a prevalence of 1-15 per 100,000 live births. The etiology of ACH remains unknown, although evidence points to a defect in the maturation of the chondrocytes in the growth plate of the cartilage. To determine the location of the gene responsible for ACH, a panel of 14 families with a total of 43 meioses was genotyped for 40 polymorphic markers for loci randomly distributed throughout the genome. The first significant positive Lod score was obtained for the locus D4S127 (Zmax=3.65 at {theta}=0.03). A series of 20 markers for chromosome 4p16.3 loci were then used to determine the most likely position of the ACH gene. Two additional loci, D4S412 and IDUA, showed strong linkage to the disease (Zmax=3.34 at {theta}=0.03 and Zmax=3.35 at {theta}=0.0, respectively). Multipoint analysis and direct counting of recombinants places the ACH gene in a 2.5 cM region between the marker D4S43 and the chromosome 4p telomere. No evidence was found for genetic heterogeneity. The ACH region contains a number of genes, including that for the fibroblast growth factor receptor FGFR3, which are being evaluated as candidates for the ACH gene. This identification of tightly linked polymorphic markers, as well as being the first step in the characterization of the ACH gene, offers the possibility of DNA based prenatal diagnosis of this disorder.

  7. ChromSorter PC: A database of chromosomal regions associated with human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Etim, Ann; Zhou, Guohui; Wen, Xinyu; Liu, Hang; Ruotti, Victor; Twigger, Simon; Jin, Weihong; Matysiak, Brian; Mathis, Jedidiah; Tonellato, Peter J; Datta, Milton W

    2004-01-01

    Background Our increasing use of genetic and genomic strategies to understand human prostate cancer means that we need access to simplified and integrated information present in the associated biomedical literature. In particular, microarray gene expression studies and associated genetic mapping studies in prostate cancer would benefit from a generalized understanding of the prior work associated with this disease. This would allow us to focus subsequent laboratory studies to genomic regions already related to prostate cancer by other scientific methods. We have developed a database of prostate cancer related chromosomal information from the existing biomedical literature. The input material was based on a broad literature search with subsequent hand annotation of information relevant to prostate cancer. Description The database was then analyzed for identifiable trends in the whole scale literature. We have used this database, named ChromSorter PC, to present graphical summaries of chromosomal regions associated with prostate cancer broken down by age, ethnicity and experimental method. In addition we have placed the database information on the human genome using the Generic Genome Browser tool that allows the visualization of the data with respect to user generated datasets. Conclusions We have used this database as an additional dataset for the filtering of genes identified through genetics and genomics studies as warranting follow-up validation studies. We would like to make this dataset publicly available for use by other groups. Using the Genome Browser allows for the graphical analysis of the associated data . Additional material from the database can be obtained by contacting the authors (mdatta@mcw.edu). PMID:15113398

  8. [Comparative Analysis of DNA Sequences of Regions of X-Chromosome Attachment to the Nuclear Envelope of Nurse Cells Anopheles messeae Fall].

    PubMed

    Artemov, G N; Vasil'eva, O Yu; Stegniy, V N

    2015-07-01

    Polytene chromosomes of ovarian nurse cells of Anopheles mosquitoes form strong contacts with the nuclear envelope. The presence of contacts, their position at nurse cell chromosomes, and their morphological features are species-specific in malaria mosquitoes. It is important to determine the nature of these interspecies differences in the nuclear architecture, both to understand the function of the nucleus and to assess the role of the spatial organization of chromosomes in evolution. Using dot-blot hybridization, we compared DNA sequences of the clone library from the X-chromosome attachment region to the nuclear envelope of ovarian nurse cells of Anopheles messeae with DNA-probes: (1) of the X-chromosome attachment region of An. atroparvus, (2) of the 3R chromosome attachment region ofAn. messeae, and (3) of the chromosome 2 pericentromeric region of An. messeae, without expressed contacts with the nuclear envelope. It has been shown that the chromosome attachment regions have a significantly higher number of homologous DNA sequences as compared with the pericentromeric region of chromosome 2. Sequences that are common for attachment regions are largely potentially able to participate in the formation of chromatin loop domains and to interact with some nucleus frameworks, according to the analysis in the ChrClass program. The obtained results support the important role of DNA in the formation of strong chromosomal attachments to the nuclear envelope in nurse cells of Anopheles mosquitoes.

  9. Terminal microdeletions of 13q34 chromosome region in patients with intellectual disability: Delineation of an emerging new microdeletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, Eyal; Liberman, Meytal; Feingold-Zadok, Michal; Tenne, Tamar; Graham, John M

    2016-05-01

    The increasing use of chromosomal microarray studies in patients with intellectual disability has led to the description of new microdeletion and microduplication syndromes. We report terminal microdeletions in 13q34 chromosome region in 5 adult patients of two unrelated families. Patients harboring 13q34 microdeletions display common clinical features, including intellectual disability, obesity, and mild facial dysmorphism. These individuals can become fairly self-sufficient, however they do not live independently, and require community and social support. Further systematic analysis of the genes comprised in the deleted region will allow the identification of genes whose haploinsufficiency is expected to lead to disease manifestations, in particular intellectual disability.

  10. Evolution of the vertebrate genome as reflected in paralogous chromosomal regions in man and the house mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, L.G. )

    1993-04-01

    Gene constellations on several human chromosomes are interpreted as indications of large regional duplications that took place during evolution of the vertebrate genome. Four groups of paralogous chromosomal regions in man and the house mouse are suggested and are believed to be conserved remnants of the two or three rounds of tetraploidization that are likely to have occurred during evolution of the vertebrates. The phenomenon of differential silencing of genes is described. The importance of conservation of linkage of particular genes is discussed in relation to genetic regulation and cell differentiation. 120 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Tpre, a new alloantigen encoded in the IgT-C region of chromosome 12, is expressed on bone marrow of nude mice, fetal T cell hybrids, and fetal thymus

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    A new T cell alloantigen, Tpre, has been identified by monoclonal F.6.9.1 antibody. This antigen is encoded by a gene linked to the cluster of T cell antigens in the IgT-C region of chromosome 12 (Tthy, Tind, and Tsu). Tpre is distinct from Tthy, Tind, or Tsu because it is expressed on bone marrow cells of the AKR nustr/nustr, the thymus repopulating precursor cell in normal adult marrow, and normal fetal thymocytes. Several fetal and adult T cell hybrids express these antigens independently. Tpre and Tthy are expressed on largely overlapping cell populations in adult thymus. PMID:6600486

  12. Molecular mapping of k2 Mdh1-n y20, an unstable chromosomal region in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.].

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Palmer, Reid G

    2005-11-01

    In the soybean genome, a chromosomal region covering three tightly linked genes, k2, Mdh1-n, and y20, was found very unstable. It was suspected that the instability of the k2 Mdh1-n y20 chromosomal region was caused by a non-autonomous transposable element residing adjacent to or in this region. In this study, we located and mapped this region with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers on the soybean integrated map using five mapping populations. The k2 Mdh1-n y20 chromosomal region was located on molecular linkage group H. The integrated map from five mapping populations consisted of 13 loci in the order Satt541, Satt469, Sat_122, Satt279, Satt253, Satt314, Mdh1-n,y20, k2, Satt302, Satt142, Satt181, and Satt434. The k2 Mdh1-n y20 chromosomal region was very close to Satt314, Satt253, and Satt279. The genetic distance between the Mdh1-n gene and Satt314 was less than 1 cM. The results of the mapping study were consistent with the results from previous studies that the Mdh1-n mutation in T261 (k2 Mdh1-n) and the Mdh1-n y20 mutation in T317 (Mdh1-n y20) were caused by deletions. In addition, another putative deletion was found in the genome of T261 which covered three SSR markers (Satt314, Satt253, and Satt279).

  13. Human chromosome 21 orthologous region on mouse chromosome 17 is a major determinant of Down syndrome-related developmental cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Meng, Kai; Jiang, Xiaoling; Liu, Chunhong; Pao, Annie; Belichenko, Pavel V; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M; Josselyn, Sheena; Liang, Ping; Ye, Ping; Mobley, William C; Yu, Y Eugene

    2014-02-01

    Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome, DS) is the most common genetic cause of developmental cognitive deficits, and the so-called Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) has been proposed as a major determinant of this phenotype. The regions on human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) are syntenically conserved on mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10), Mmu16 and Mmu17. DSCR is conserved between the Cbr1 and Fam3b genes on Mmu16. Ts65Dn mice carry three copies of ∼100 Hsa21 gene orthologs on Mmu16 and exhibited impairments in the Morris water maze and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Converting the Cbr1-Fam3b region back to two copies in Ts65Dn mice rescued these phenotypes. In this study, we performed similar conversion of the Cbr1-Fam3b region in Dp(16)1Yey/+ mice that is triplicated for all ∼115 Hsa21 gene orthologs on Mmu16, which also resulted in the restoration of the wild-type phenotypes in the Morris water maze and hippocampal LTP. However, converting the Cbr1-Fam3b region back to two copies in a complete model, Dp(10)1Yey/+;Dp(16)1Yey/+;Dp(17)1Yey/+, failed to yield the similar phenotypic restorations. But, surprisingly, converting both the Cbr1-Fam3b region and the Hsa21 orthologous region on Mmu17 back to two copies in the complete model did completely restore these phenotypes to the wild-type levels. Our results demonstrated that the Hsa21 orthologous region on Mmu17 is a major determinant of DS-related developmental cognitive deficits. Therefore, the inclusion of the three copies of this Hsa21 orthologous region in mouse models is necessary for unraveling the mechanism underlying DS-associated developmental cognitive deficits and for developing effective interventions for this clinical manifestation.

  14. Mapping and cloning of the critical region for the spineocerebellar ataxia Type 1 gene (SCA1) in a yeast artificial chromosome contig spanning 1. 2 Mb

    SciTech Connect

    Banfi, S.; McCall, A.E.; Zoghbi, H.Y.; Kwiatkowski, T.J. Jr.; Chinault, A.C. ); Ranum, L.P.W.; Orr, H.T. )

    1993-12-01

    The gene responsible for spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) has been localized to a 6.7-cM region between the centromeric marker D6S109 and the telomeric marker D6S89. The authors screened two yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) libraries using sequence-tagged sites at D6S89 and at newly identified markers in 6p22-p23. Fifty YAC clones were identified and 34 insert termini were isolated from some of these YACs for detailed overlap mapping and long-range restriction analysis. A large YAC contig estimated to span 2.5 Mb was developed and genetic analysis in five large SCA1 kindreds using highly informative dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms mapped to this contig allowed the identification of D6S274 as the closest centromeric flanking marker for SCA1. Long-range restriction analysis determined the size for the critical SCA1 region, as defined by the two flanking markers D6S274 and D6S89, to be 1.2 Mb. This region is spanned by a minimum set of four nonchimeric YAC clones. The development of a 2.5-Mb YAC contig in 6p22-p23 provides valuable reagents for characterization of this genomic region and for the cloning of the SCA1 gene. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Male-specific region of the Y chromosome and cardiovascular risk: phylogenetic analysis and gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Lisa D S; Nelson, Christopher P; Eales, James; Denniff, Matthew; Christofidou, Paraskevi; Debiec, Radoslaw; Moore, Jasbir; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Goodall, Alison H; Thompson, John; Samani, Nilesh J; Charchar, Fadi J; Tomaszewski, Maciej

    2013-07-01

    Haplogroup I of male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is associated with 50% increased risk of coronary artery disease. It is not clear to what extent conventional cardiovascular risk factors and genes of the male-specific region may explain this association. A total of 1988 biologically unrelated men from 4 white European populations were genotyped using 11 Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms and classified into 13 most common European haplogroups. Approximately 75% to 93% of the haplotypic variation of the Y chromosome in all cohorts was attributable to I, R1a, and R1b1b2 lineages. None of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including body mass index, blood pressures, lipids, glucose, C-reactive protein, creatinine, and insulin resistance, was associated with haplogroup I of the Y chromosome in the joint inverse variance meta-analysis. Fourteen of 15 ubiquitous single-copy genes of the male-specific region were expressed in human macrophages. When compared with men with other haplogroups, carriers of haplogroup I had ≈ 0.61- and 0.64-fold lower expression of ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat, Y-linked gene (UTY) and protein kinase, Y-linked, pseudogene (PRKY) in macrophages (P=0.0001 and P=0.002, respectively). Coronary artery disease predisposing haplogroup I of the Y chromosome is associated with downregulation of UTY and PRKY genes in macrophages but not with conventional cardiovascular risk factors.

  16. Isolation and identification of a novel tandemly repeated DNA sequence in the centromeric region of human chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Lin, C C; Sasi, R; Lee, C; Fan, Y S; Court, D

    1993-05-01

    EcoRI subclones, designated as 50E1 and 50E4, were independently obtained from a cosmid clone previously mapped to the centromeric region of human chromosome 8. Southern blot hybridization analyses suggested that both subclones contain repetitive DNA sequences different from the chromosome 8 specific alphoid DNA. DNA sequence analysis of the 704 bp insert of 50E1 and the 1,962 bp insert of 50E4 revealed that both inserts contained tandemly repeated units of approximately 220 bp. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies confirmed these two subclones to be specifically located on the centromeric region of chromosome 8. A 220 bp consensus sequence, derived from nine monomeric repeats, showed no significant homology to alphoid consensus sequences or to other currently known human centromeric DNA sequence. Furthermore, no significant homology was found with any other DNA sequence deposited in the EMBL or GenBank databases, indicating that this chromosome 8 specific repetitive DNA sequence is novel. From slot blot experiments it was estimated that 0.013% of the human genome comprises 1,750 of these monomeric repeats, residing on the centromeric region of chromosome 8 in tandem array(s).

  17. Yeast artificial chromosome cloning in the glycerol kinase and adrenal hypoplasia congenita region of Xp21

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, K.C.; Ellison, K.A.; Zhang, Y.H.; Wang, D.F.; Mason, J.; Roth, E.J.; Adams, V.; Fogt, D.D.; Zhu, X.M.; Towbin, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    The adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and glycerol kinase (GK) loci are telomeric to the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus in Xp21. The authors developed a pair of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contigs spanning at least 1.2 Mb and encompassing the region from the telomeric end of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus to beyond YHX39 (DXS727), including the genes for AHC and GK. The centromeric contig consists of 13 YACs reaching more than 600 kb from DMD through GK. The telomeric contig group consists of 8 YACs containing more than 600 kb including the markers YHX39 (DXS727) and QST-59 (DXS319). Patient deletion breakpoints in the region of the two YAC contigs define at least eight intervals, and seven deletion breakpoints are contained within these contigs. In addition to the probes developed from YAC ends, they have mapped eight Alu-PCR probes amplified from a radiation-reduced somatic cell hybrid, two anonymous DNA probes, and one Alu-PCR product amplified from a cosmid end, for a total of 26 new markers within this region of 2 Mb or less. One YAC in the centromeric contig contains an insert encompassing the minimum interval for GK deficiency defined by patient deletion breakpoints, and this clone includes all or part of the GK gene. 33 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Sequence analysis of 21 genes located in the Kartagener syndrome linkage region on chromosome 15q.

    PubMed

    Geremek, Maciej; Schoenmaker, Frederieke; Zietkiewicz, Ewa; Pogorzelski, Andrzej; Diehl, Scott; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witt, Michal

    2008-06-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disorder, which shows extensive genetic heterogeneity and is mostly inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. There are four genes with a proven pathogenetic role in PCD. DNAH5 and DNAI1 are involved in 28 and 10% of PCD cases, respectively, while two other genes, DNAH11 and TXNDC3, have been identified as causal in one PCD family each. We have previously identified a 3.5 cM (2.82 Mb) region on chromosome 15q linked to Kartagener syndrome (KS), a subtype of PCD characterized by the randomization of body organ positioning. We have now refined the KS candidate region to a 1.8 Mb segment containing 18 known genes. The coding regions of these genes and three neighboring genes were subjected to sequence analysis in seven KS probands, and we were able to identify 60 single nucleotide sequence variants, 35 of which resided in mRNA coding sequences. However, none of the variations alone could explain the occurrence of the disease in these patients.

  19. Forensic analysis of polymorphism and regional stratification of Y-chromosomal microsatellites in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Rebała, Krzysztof; Tsybovsky, Iosif S; Bogacheva, Anna V; Kotova, Svetlana A; Mikulich, Alexei I; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2011-01-01

    Nine loci defining minimal haplotypes and four other Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) DYS437, DYS438, DYS439 and GATA H4.1 were analysed in 414 unrelated males residing in four regions of Belarus. Haplotypes of 328 males were further extended by 7 additional Y-STRs: DYS388, DYS426, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS460 and DYS635. The 13-locus haplotype diversity was 0.9978 and discrimination capacity was 78.7%, indicating presence of identical haplotypes among unrelated males. Seven additional Y-STRs enabled almost complete discrimination of undifferentiated 13-locus haplotypes, increasing haplotype diversity to 0.9998 and discrimination capacity to 97.9%. Analysis of molecular variance of minimal haplotypes excluded the use of a Y-STR database for Belarusians residing in northeastern Poland as representative for the Belarusian population in forensic practice, and revealed regional stratification within the country. However, four additional markers (DYS437, DYS438, DYS439 and GATA H4.1) were shown to eliminate the observed geographical substructure among Belarusian males. The results imply that in case of minimal and PowerPlex Y haplotypes, a separate frequency database should be used for northern Belarus to estimate Y-STR profile frequencies in forensic casework. In case of Yfiler haplotypes, regional stratification within Belarus may be neglected.

  20. Deletion and duplication within the p11.2 region of chromosome 17

    SciTech Connect

    McCorquodale, D.J.; McCorquodale, M.; Bereziouk, O.

    1994-09-01

    A 7 1/2-year-old male patient presented with mild mental retardation, speech delay, hyperactivity, behavioral problems, mild facial hypoplasia, short broad hands, digital anomalies, and self-injurious behavior. Chromosomes obtained from peripheral blood cells revealed a deletion of 17p11.2 in about 40% of the metaphases examined, suggesting that the patient had Smith-Magenis Syndrome. A similar pattern of mosaicism in peripheral blood cells, but not in fibroblasts in which all cells displayed the deletion, has been previously reported. Since some cases of Smith-Magenis Syndrome have a deletion that extends into the region associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) Syndrome, we examined interphase cells with a CMT1A-specific probe by the method of fluorescence in situ hybridization. The CMT1A region was not deleted, but about 40% of the cells gave signals indicating a duplication of the CMT1A region. The patient has not presented neuropathies associated with CMT at this time. Future tracking of the patient should be informative.

  1. Identification and cloning in yeast artificial chromosomes of a region of elevated loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 1p31.1 in human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoggard, N.; Hey, Y.; Brintnell, B.; James, L.

    1995-11-20

    We have mapped a region of high loss of heterozygosity in breast cancer to a 2-cM interval between the loci D1S430 and D1S465 on chromosome 1p31.1. This region shows allelic imbalance in around 60% of breast tumors. As part of a strategy to clone the target gene(s) within this interval, we have generated a yeast artificial chromosome contig spanning over 7 Mb. YACs from the CEPH and Zeneca (formerly ICI) libraries have been obtained by screening with PCR-based STSs from the region for both previously identified loci and newly isolated STSs. The YACs have been assembled into a contig by a combination of approaches, including analysis of their STS content, generation of new STSs from the ends of key YACs, and long-range restriction mapping. These YAC clones provide the basis for complete characterization of the region of high loss in breast cancer and for the ultimate identification of the target gene(s). 84 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Integrated mapping analysis of the Werner syndrome region of chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Oshima, J; Yu, C E; Boehnke, M; Weber, J L; Edelhoff, S; Wagner, M J; Wells, D E; Wood, S; Disteche, C M; Martin, G M

    1994-09-01

    The Werner syndrome locus (WRN) is located at 8p11-p12. To facilitate eventual cloning of the WRN gene, a 10,000-rad radiation-reduced hybrid (RH) cell panel was generated to map genetic markers, sequence-tagged sites (STSs), and genes in this region. A hamster cell line carrying an intact human chromosome 8 was fused with another hamster cell line. Two sets of hybrid cell panels from 2 separate fusions were generated; each panel consisted of 50 independent clones; 33 and 34 cell lines from the 2 fusions retained human chromsome material as determined by inter-Alu PCR. The combined panel was genotyped for 52 markers spanning the entire chromosome, including 10 genes, 29 anonymous polymorphic loci, and 13 STSs. Seventeen of these markers have not been previously described. Markers near the centromere were retained at a higher frequency than more distal markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was also used to localize and order a subset of the markers. A RH map of the WRN region was constructed using a maximum likelihood method, giving the following most likely order: D8S131-D8S339 (GSR)-D8S124-D8S278-D8S259-(D8S71)-D8S283- D8S87-D8S105-D8S135 (FGFR1)-D8S135PB-D8S255-ANK1. A genetic map of 15 short tandem repeat polymorphic loci in the WRN region was also constructed. The marker orders from the genetic and RH maps were consistent. In addition, an integrated map of 24 loci in the WRN region was generated using information from both genetic and RH mapping methods. A 1000:1 framework map for 6 loci (LPL-D8S136-D8S137-D8S87-FGFR1-ANK1) was determined by genetic mapping, and the resulting locus order was fixed during analysis of the RH genotype data. The resulting integrated map contained more markers than could confidently be ordered by either genetic or RH mapping alone.

  3. Partial hexasomy for the Prader-Willi-Angelman syndrome critical region due to a maternally inherited large supernumerary marker chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hoppman-Chaney, Nicole L; Dawson, D Brian; Nguyen, Lai; Sengupta, Sunanda; Reynolds, Kara; McPherson, Elizabeth; Velagaleti, Gopalrao

    2010-08-01

    Extra copies of the Prader-Willi-Angelman syndrome critical region (PWASCR) have been shown to have detrimental phenotypic effects depending on the parent of origin. Hexasomy for the PWASCR is rare; only 6 cases have been described to date. We report on a 15-year-old girl referred for developmental delay and seizures with a mosaic tricentric small marker chromosome (SMC) 15 identified by routine G-banding chromosome studies. C-banding and FISH confirmed the presence of three chromosome 15 centromeres as well as four copies of the PWASCR on the SMC in approximately 60% of interphase cells. Microsatellite genotyping documented maternal inheritance of the SMC, and methylation-sensitive multiplex ligation-dependent PCR amplification (MS-MLPA) showed that the extra copies of the PWASCR contained on the marker chromosome bear a methylation pattern similar to a normal maternal chromosome, implying maternal inheritance. These findings are consistent with the patient's phenotype as paternal inheritance of such a marker chromosome is thought to be benign. However, this patient's phenotype is the mildest described to date and may be a result of mosaicism for the SMC.

  4. Genetic linkage studies in familial partial epilepsy: Exclusion of the human chromosome regions syntenic to the El-1 mouse locus

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cendes, I.; Mulley, J.C.; Andermann, E.

    1994-09-01

    Recently, six families with a familial form of partial epilepsy were described. All pedigrees showed autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Affected individuals present with predominantly nocturnal seizures with frontal lobe semiology. In 1959, a genetic mouse model for partial epilepsy, the El mouse, was reported. In the El mouse, a major seizure susceptibility gene, El-1, segregates in an autosomal dominant fashion and has been localized to a region distal to the centromere of mouse chromosome 9. Comparative genetic maps between man and mouse have been used for prediction of localization of several human disease genes. Because the region of mouse chromosome 9 that is the most likely to contain the El-1 locus is syntenic to regions on human chromosomes 3q21-p22, 3q21-q23.3, 6q12 and 15q24, we adopted the candidate gene approach as an initial linkage strategy. Twenty-two polymorphic microsatellite markers covering these regions were used for genotyping individuals in the three larger families ascertained, two of which are Australian and one French-Canadian. Negative two-point lod scores were obtained separately for each family. The analysis of all three families combined significantly excludes the candidate regions on chromosomes 3, 6 and 15.

  5. Follow-Up Association Studies of Chromosome Region 9q and Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip/Palate

    PubMed Central

    Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Govil, Manika; Fonseca, Renata F.; McHenry, Toby; Granjeiro, José M.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Orioli, Iêda M.; Marazita, Mary L.; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2010-01-01

    Cleft lip/palate comprises a large fraction of all human birth defects, and is notable for its significant lifelong morbidity and complex etiology. Several studies have shown that genetic factors appear to play a significant role in the etiology of cleft lip/palate. Human chromosomal region 9q21 has been suggested in previous reports to contain putative cleft loci. Moreover, a specific region (9q22.3-34.1) was suggested to present a ∼45% probability of harboring a cleft susceptibility gene. Fine mapping of fifty SNPs across the 9q22.3-34.11 region was performed to test for association with cleft lip/palate in families from United States, Spain, Turkey, Guatemala, and China. We performed family-based analysis and found evidence of association of cleft lip/palate with STOM (rs306796) in Guatemalan families (P=0.004) and in all multiplex families pooled together (P=0.002). This same SNP also showed borderline association in the US families (P=0.04). Under a nominal value of 0.05, other SNPs also showed association with cleft lip/palate and cleft subgroups. SNPs in STOM and PTCH genes and nearby FOXE1 were further associated with cleft phenotypes in Guatemalan and Chinese families. Gene prioritization analysis revealed PTCH and STOM ranking among the top fourteen candidates for cleft lip/palate among 339 genes present in the region. Our results support the hypothesis that the 9q22.32-34.1 region harbors cleft susceptibility genes. Additional studies with other populations should focus on these loci to further investigate the participation of these genes in human clefting. PMID:20583170

  6. The MaoP/maoS Site-Specific System Organizes the Ori Region of the E. coli Chromosome into a Macrodomain

    PubMed Central

    Valens, Michèle; Thiel, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The Ori region of bacterial genomes is segregated early in the replication cycle of bacterial chromosomes. Consequently, Ori region positioning plays a pivotal role in chromosome dynamics. The Ori region of the E. coli chromosome is organized as a macrodomain with specific properties concerning DNA mobility, segregation of loci and long distance DNA interactions. Here, by using strains with chromosome rearrangements and DNA mobility as a read-out, we have identified the MaoP/maoS system responsible for constraining DNA mobility in the Ori region and limiting long distance DNA interactions with other regions of the chromosome. MaoP belongs to a group of proteins conserved in the Enterobacteria that coevolved with Dam methylase including SeqA, MukBEF and MatP that are all involved in the control of chromosome conformation and segregation. Analysis of DNA rings excised from the chromosome demonstrated that the single maoS site is required in cis on the chromosome to exert its effect while MaoP can act both in cis and in trans. The position of markers in the Ori region was affected by inactivating maoP. However, the MaoP/maoS system was not sufficient for positioning the Ori region at the ¼–¾ regions of the cell. We also demonstrate that the replication and the resulting expansion of bulk DNA are localized centrally in the cell. Implications of these results for chromosome positioning and segregation in E. coli are discussed. PMID:27627105

  7. Positional mapping of loci in the DiGeorge critical region at chromosome 22q11 using a new marker (D22S183).

    PubMed

    Mulder, M P; Wilke, M; Langeveld, A; Wilming, L G; Hagemeijer, A; van Drunen, E; Zwarthoff, E C; Riegman, P H; Deelen, W H; van den Ouweland, A M

    1995-08-01

    The majority of patients with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) and a minority of patients with non-syndromic conotruncal heart defects are hemizygous for a region of chromosome 22q11. The chromosomal region that is commonly deleted is larger than 2 Mb. It has not been possible to narrow the smallest region of overlap (SRO) of the deletions to less than ca 500 kb, which suggests that DGS/VCFS might be a contiguous gene syndrome. The saturation cloning of the SRO is being carried out, and one gene (TUPLE1) has been identified. By using a cosmid probe (M51) and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we show here that the anonymous DNA marker locus D22S183 is within the SRO, between TUPLE1 and D22S75 (probe N25). A second locus with weak homology to D22S183, recognized by cosmid M56, lies immediately outside the common SRO of the DGS and VCFS deletions, but inside the SRO of the DGS deletions. D22S183 sequences are strongly conserved in primates and weaker hybridizing signals are found in DNA of other mammalian species; no transcripts are however detected in polyA+ RNA from various adult human organs. Probe M51 allows fast reliable screening for 22q11 deletions using fluorescence in situ hybridization. A deletion was found in 11 out of 12 DGS patients and in 3 out of 7 VCFS patients. Two patients inherited the deletion from a parent with mild (atypical) symptoms.

  8. Evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in chromosomal regions impacting pregnancy status in cattle.

    PubMed

    Psaros, K M; McDaneld, T G; Kuehn, L A; Snelling, W M; Keele, J W

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive success is an important component of commercial beef cattle production, and identification of DNA markers with predictive merit for reproductive success would facilitate accurate prediction of mean daughter pregnancy rate, enabling effective selection of bulls to improve female fertility. A previous study identified SNP associated with beef cattle reproductive efficiency based on a genomewide association analysis approach using genotyping multiple-animal pools of DNA to increase the number of animals that could be genotyped with available resources. For the current study, we expand on this previous study by individually genotyping cattle from the pooling study for 89 SNP that were associated with female pregnancy rate. The aims of the study were to confirm the results of the pooling study and, more specifically, identify modes of gene action and DNA variations such as haplotypes that would not be possible with pooled genotyping. Eighty-nine SNP selected from the pooling study were evaluated using the Sequenom MassARRAY system to individually genotype animals from populations evaluated in the pooling study, including both and breeds. From this research, regions on chromosomes 5 (26.3-48.1 Mb; UMD3.1 assembly) and 9 (37,436,575 bp; UMD3.1 assembly), first identified in the previous pooling study, were shown through individual genotyping to harbor genetic variation ( < 0.05 genomewide significance) affecting reproductive efficiency in interspecific crosses ( and ) of cattle. Each of these markers exhibited additive (vs. dominant) gene action. Additionally, a haplotype block harboring an allele of origin with negative effects on reproduction was identified on chromosome 5 in interspecific composite breeds of × composites.

  9. Sequence and analysis of the human ABL gene, the BCR gene, and regions involved in the Philadelphia chromosomal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Burian, D.; Clifton, S.W.; Crabtree, J.

    1995-05-01

    The complete human BCR gene (152j-141 nt) on chromosome 22 and greater than 80% of the human ABL gene (179-512 nt) on chromosome 9 have been sequenced from mapped cosmid and plasmid clones via a shotgun strategy. Because these two chromosomes are translocated with breakpoints within the BCR and ABL genes in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias, knowledge of these sequences also might provide insight into the validity of various theories of chromosomal rearrangements. Comparison of these genes with their cDNA sequences reveal the positions of 23 BCR exons and putative alternative BCR first and second exons, as well as the common ABL exons 2-11, respectively. Additionally, these regions include the alternative ABL first exons 1b and 1a, a new gene 5` to the first ABL exon, and an open reading frame with homology to an EST within the BCR fourth intron. Further analysis reveals an Alu homology of 38.83 and 39.35% for the BCR and ABL genes, respectively, with other repeat elements present to a lesser extent. Four new Philadelphia chromosome translocation breakpoints from chronic myelogenous leukemia patients also were sequenced, and the positions of these and several other previously sequenced breakpoints now have been mapped precisely, although no consistent breakpoint features immediately were apparent. Comparative analysis of genomic sequences encompassing the murine homologues to the human ABL exons 1b and 1a, as well as regions encompassing the ABL exons 2 and 3, reveals that although there is a high degree of homology in their corresponding exons and promoter regions, these two vertebrate species show a striking lack of homology outside these regions. 122 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Progress report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Fa-Ten

    1992-08-01

    During the grant period progress has been made in the successful demonstration of regional mapping of microclones derived from microdissection libraries; successful demonstration of the feasibility of converting microclones with short inserts into yeast artificial chromosome clones with very large inserts for high resolution physical mapping of the dissected region; Successful demonstration of the usefulness of region-specific microclones to isolate region-specific cDNA clones as candidate genes to facilitate search for the crucial genes underlying genetic diseases assigned to the dissected region; and the successful construction of four region-specific microdissection libraries for human chromosome 2, including 2q35-q37, 2q33-q35, 2p23-p25 and 2p2l-p23. The 2q35-q37 library has been characterized in detail. The characterization of the other three libraries is in progress. These region-specific microdissection libraries and the unique sequence microclones derived from the libraries will be valuable resources for investigators engaged in high resolution physical mapping and isolation of disease-related genes residing in these chromosomal regions.

  11. Homomorphic ZW chromosomes in a wild strawberry show distinctive recombination heterogeneity but a small sex-determining region.

    PubMed

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2016-09-01

    Recombination in ancient, heteromorphic sex chromosomes is typically suppressed at the sex-determining region (SDR) and proportionally elevated in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). However, little is known about recombination dynamics of young, homomorphic plant sex chromosomes. We examine male and female function in crosses and unrelated samples of the dioecious octoploid strawberry Fragaria chiloensis in order to map the small and recently evolved SDR controlling both traits and to examine recombination patterns on the incipient ZW chromosome. The SDR of this ZW system is located within a 280 kb window, in which the maternal recombination rate is lower than the paternal one. In contrast to the SDR, the maternal PAR recombination rate is much higher than the rates of the paternal PAR or autosomes, culminating in an elevated chromosome-wide rate. W-specific divergence is elevated within the SDR and a single polymorphism is observed in high species-wide linkage disequilibrium with sex. Selection for recombination suppression within the small SDR may be weak, but fluctuating sex ratios could favor elevated recombination in the PAR to remove deleterious mutations on the W. The recombination dynamics of this nascent sex chromosome with a modestly diverged SDR may be typical of other dioecious plants.

  12. A 3 Mb YAC contig in the region of Usher Ib on chromosome 11q

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, P.M.; Overbeck, L.; Weston, M.

    1994-09-01

    Under syndrome type Ib, a recessive disorder characterized by deafness, retinitis pigmentosa, and vestibular dysfunction has been mapped to chromosome 11q13. A 3 Mb YAC contig has been constructed covering the critical region of Usher Ib and spanning over eight loci: D11S1321, D11S527, D11S533, OMP, D11S906, D11S911, D11S937, and D11S918. This contig was constructed by PCR screening using the above described DNA markers of the CEPH mega YAC library. Additional YACs were identified by data presented in the Genethon physical map. A long-range restriction map has been constructed from both YAC and genomic DNA using STS markers as probes. Cosmid libraries from a subset of YACs have been screened for the location of CpG islands. In addition, potential transcribed regions have been identified by 3{prime} exon trapping of cosmid pools and placed on the YAC physical map.

  13. A high-resolution map of the chromosomal region surrounding the nude gene

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, C.C.; Griffith, J.; Morahan, G.

    1995-03-20

    The nude mutation produces the apparently disparate phenotypes of hairlessness and congenital thymic aplasia. These pleiotropic defects are the result of a single, autosomal recessive mutation that was previously mapped to a 9-cM region of murine chromosome 11 bounded by loci encoding the acetylcholine receptor P subunit and myeloperoxidase. In this study, exclusion mapping of a panel of congenic nude strains was used to place the nude locus between the microsatellite loci D11Nds1 and D11Mit8. The relative distance from nude to each of these loci was determined by analyzing a large segregating cross. Thus, nude lies 1.4 cM distal to D11Nds1 and is 0.5 cM proximal to D11Mit8. Mice that carried recombinational breakpoints between D11Nds1 and D11Mit8 were further analyzed at the loci Evi-2 and D11Mit34, which placed nu 0.2 cM proximal to these markers. D11Nds1 and Evi-2/D11Mit34 thus define the new proximal and distal boundaries, respectively, for the nu interval. We also report the typing of the above microsatellite markers in the AKXD, AKXL, BXD, CXB, and BXH recombinant inbred strains, which confirmed the relative order and separation of loci in this region. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Investigation of a QTL region for loin eye area and fatness on pig chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Grapes, Laura; Rothschild, Max F

    2006-06-01

    Previously, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tenth-rib backfat (TENTHRIB) and loin eye area (LEA) were identified on pig Chromosome 1 (SSC 1) near microsatellite S0008 from a three-generation Berkshire x Yorkshire cross (BY). This work attempted to refine these QTL positions and identify genes associated with these QTL. Genotypes of BY (n = 555) were determined by PCR-RFLP or PCR tests for 13 polymorphisms identified in BY F(0) individuals for candidate genes, BAC end sequences, and genomic clones. Using least-squares regression interval mapping, the LEA QTL was estimated at S0008; the TENTHRIB QTL position was shifted approximately 1 cM downstream from S0008. Of the genes/sequences mapped in the QTL region, CL349415 was significantly associated with TENTHRIB (p = 0.02) and solute carrier family 2, member 12 (SLC2A12) was significantly associated with LEA (p = 0.02). These results suggest that the gene(s) responsible for the LEA and TENTHRIB QTL effects are tightly linked to S0008 or that the high informativeness of S0008 relative to surrounding markers is influencing the QTL position estimates. In addition, janus kinase 2 (JAK2) was mapped to a suggestive LEA QTL region and showed association with LEA (p = 0.009), fatness, color, and pH traits in BY.

  15. Estrogen-mediated epigenetic repression of large chromosomal regions through DNA looping

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Pei-Yin; Hsu, Hang-Kai; Singer, Gregory A.C.; Yan, Pearlly S.; Rodriguez, Benjamin A.T.; Liu, Joseph C.; Weng, Yu-I; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Chen, Zhong; Pereira, Julia S.; Lopez, Ricardo; Russo, Jose; Wang, Qianben; Lamartiniere, Coral A.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Huang, Tim H.-M.

    2010-01-01

    The current concept of epigenetic repression is based on one repressor unit corresponding to one silent gene. This notion, however, cannot adequately explain concurrent silencing of multiple loci observed in large chromosome regions. The long-range epigenetic silencing (LRES) can be a frequent occurrence throughout the human genome. To comprehensively characterize the influence of estrogen signaling on LRES, we analyzed transcriptome, methylome, and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1)-binding datasets from normal breast epithelia and breast cancer cells. This “omics” approach uncovered 11 large repressive zones (range, 0.35∼5.98 megabases), including a 14-gene cluster located on 16p11.2. In normal cells, estrogen signaling induced transient formation of multiple DNA loops in the 16p11.2 region by bringing 14 distant loci to focal ESR1-docking sites for coordinate repression. However, the plasticity of this free DNA movement was reduced in breast cancer cells. Together with the acquisition of DNA methylation and repressive chromatin modifications at the 16p11.2 loci, an inflexible DNA scaffold may be a novel determinant used by breast cancer cells to reinforce estrogen-mediated repression. PMID:20442245

  16. Refined linkage map of chromosome 5 in the region of the spinal muscular atrophy gene

    SciTech Connect

    Melki, J.; Burlet, P.; Clermont, O.; Pascal, F.; Paul, B.; Abdelhak, S.; Munnich, A. ); Sherrington, R.; Gurling, H. Middlesex School of Medicine, London ); Nakamura, Yusuke ); Weissenbach, J. Genethon, Evry ); Lathrop, M. )

    1993-03-01

    The genetic map in the region of human chromosome 5 that harbors the gene for autosomal recessive forms of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has been refined by a multilocus linkage study in 50 SMA-segregating families. Among six markers spanning 8 cM for combined sexes, four were shown to be tightly linked to the SMA locus. Multipoing linkage analysis was used to establish the best estimate of the SMA gene location. The data suggest that the most likely location for the SMA locus is between blocks AFM114ye7 (D5S465)/EF5.15 (D5S125) and MAP-1B/JK53 (D5S112) at a sex-combined genetic distance of 2.4 and 1.7 cM, respectively. Thus the SMA gene lies in the 4-cM region between these two blocks. This information is of primary importance for designing strategies for isolating the SMA gene. 16 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Identification and characterization of genomic regions on chromosomes 4 and 8 that control the rate of photosynthesis in rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Shunsuke; Tsuru, Yukiko; Nito, Naoko; Murata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Toshio; Ebitani, Takeshi; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-03-01

    DNA marker-assisted selection appears to be a promising strategy for improving rates of leaf photosynthesis in rice. The rate of leaf photosynthesis was significantly higher in a high-yielding indica variety, Habataki, than in the most popular Japanese variety, Koshihikari, at the full heading stage as a result of the higher level of leaf nitrogen at the same rate of application of nitrogen and the higher stomatal conductance even when the respective levels of leaf nitrogen were the same. The higher leaf nitrogen content of Habataki was caused by the greater accumulation of nitrogen by plants. The higher stomatal conductance of Habataki was caused by the higher hydraulic conductance. Using progeny populations and selected lines derived from a cross between Koshihikari and Habataki, it was possible to identify the genomic regions responsible for the rate of photosynthesis within a 2.1 Mb region between RM17459 and RM17552 and within a 1.2 Mb region between RM6999 and RM22529 on the long arm of chromosome 4 and on the short arm of chromosome 8, respectively. The designated region on chromosome 4 of Habataki was responsible for both the increase in the nitrogen content of leaves and hydraulic conductance in the plant by increasing the root surface area. The designated region on chromosome 8 of Habataki was responsible for the increase in hydraulic conductance by increasing the root hydraulic conductivity. The results suggest that it may be possible to improve photosynthesis in rice leaves by marker-assisted selection that focuses on these regions of chromosomes 4 and 8.

  18. Identification and characterization of genomic regions on chromosomes 4 and 8 that control the rate of photosynthesis in rice leaves

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Shunsuke; Tsuru, Yukiko; Nito, Naoko; Murata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Toshio; Ebitani, Takeshi; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    DNA marker-assisted selection appears to be a promising strategy for improving rates of leaf photosynthesis in rice. The rate of leaf photosynthesis was significantly higher in a high-yielding indica variety, Habataki, than in the most popular Japanese variety, Koshihikari, at the full heading stage as a result of the higher level of leaf nitrogen at the same rate of application of nitrogen and the higher stomatal conductance even when the respective levels of leaf nitrogen were the same. The higher leaf nitrogen content of Habataki was caused by the greater accumulation of nitrogen by plants. The higher stomatal conductance of Habataki was caused by the higher hydraulic conductance. Using progeny populations and selected lines derived from a cross between Koshihikari and Habataki, it was possible to identify the genomic regions responsible for the rate of photosynthesis within a 2.1 Mb region between RM17459 and RM17552 and within a 1.2 Mb region between RM6999 and RM22529 on the long arm of chromosome 4 and on the short arm of chromosome 8, respectively. The designated region on chromosome 4 of Habataki was responsible for both the increase in the nitrogen content of leaves and hydraulic conductance in the plant by increasing the root surface area. The designated region on chromosome 8 of Habataki was responsible for the increase in hydraulic conductance by increasing the root hydraulic conductivity. The results suggest that it may be possible to improve photosynthesis in rice leaves by marker-assisted selection that focuses on these regions of chromosomes 4 and 8. PMID:21296764

  19. [Genetic characterization of populations of the Volga-Ural region according to the variability of the Y-chromosome].

    PubMed

    Trofimova, N V; Litvinov, S S; Khusainova, R I; Penkin, L N; Akhmetova, V L; Akhatova, F S; Khusnutdinova, É K

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of genetic diversity in nine ethnic groups of the Volga-Ural region was carried out using 15 biallelic loci in the nonrecombining region of the Y-chromosome. The major Y-chromosome haplogroups in the region are R1a-M198, R1b-M269, and N-M231. It was found that Bashkirs show the greatest difference from other populations of the Volga-Ural region according both to F(st) and to the principal component analysis. In addition, analysis of the frequency distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups was carried out in the Besermyan population, which was not studied previously from the Y-chromosome perspective. The results of this study revealed the predominance of haplogroup N-M231 (54.7%) in this ethnic group, which may indicate the prevalence of the Finno-Ugric component in the formation of the patrilineal component in the gene pool of the Besermyan ethnic group.

  20. Genes associated with the genesis of leiomyoma of the uterus in a commonly deleted chromosomal region at 7q22.

    PubMed

    Saito, Emi; Okamoto, Aikou; Saito, Misato; Shinozaki, Hideo; Takakura, Satoshi; Yanaihara, Nozomu; Ochiai, Kazunori; Tanaka, Tadao

    2005-03-01

    Uterine leiomyoma occurs in about 20-30% of women over the age of 30, and is the most frequent benign tumor in gynecology. Despite its benign status, leiomyoma of the uterus has been reported to involve chromosomal abnormalities on chromosome 7. To search for genes associated with the genesis and development of this disease, we examined microsatellite alterations on chromosome 7 in 41 uterine leiomyomas, and identified a commonly-deleted region. Allelic imbalance on chromosome 7 was detected with an incidence of 7% (3/41), with the D7S501 locus being the most frequently affected (13%). The commonly deleted region was between D7S2545 and D7S2420. We examined alterations in the expression of genes located within this region by RT-PCR. Only the LAMB1 (Laminin beta1) gene showed a variable expression. Of the 21 cases, 12 showed an increase, and 5 (24%) a decrease in the expression of LAMB1 in the leiomyomatous region. These results suggested that alteration of LAMB1 expression is associated with the genesis and development of uterine leiomyoma.

  1. Excess functional copy of allele at chromosomal region 11p15 may cause Wiedemann-Beckwith (EMG) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, T.; Saitoh, S.; Jinno, Y.; Niikawa, N.; Matsumoto, T.; Narahara, K.; Fukushima, Y.

    1994-02-15

    Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) is a genetic disorder with overgrowth and predisposition to Wilms` tumor. The putative locus of the gene responsible for this syndrome is assigned to chromosome region 11p15.5, and genomic imprinting in this region has been proposed: the paternally derived gene(s) at 11p15.5 is selectively expressed, while the maternally transmitted gene(s) is inactive. The authors examined 18 patients for the parental origin of their 11p15 regions. DNA polymorphism analyses using 6 loci on chromosome 11 showed that 2 patients with duplications of 11p15 regions from their respective fathers and one from the mother, indicating the transmission of an excessive paternal gene at 11p15 to each patient. The result, together with the previous findings in karyotypically normal or abnormal patients and in overgrowth mouse experiments, are consistent with imprinting hypothesis that overexpression of paternally derived gene(s) at 11p15.5, probably the human insulin-like growth factor II (IFG-II) gene, may cause the phenotype. Total constitutional uniparental paternal disomy (UPD) or segmental UPD for the 6 loci examined of chromosome 11 was not observed in our 12 sporadic patients. In order to explain completely the inheritance of this syndrome in patients with various chromosomal constitutions, the authors propose an alternative imprinting mechanism involving the other locus that may be paternally imprinted and may suppress the expression of this gene. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Chromosomal Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

  3. Chromosomal Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

  4. Differential repetitive DNA composition in the centromeric region of chromosomes of Amazonian lizard species in the family Teiidae.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Natalia D M; Carmo, Edson; Neves, Rogerio O; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Differences in heterochromatin distribution patterns and its composition were observed in Amazonian teiid species. Studies have shown repetitive DNA harbors heterochromatic blocks which are located in centromeric and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868), and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758). In Cnemidophorus sp.1, repetitive DNA has multiple signals along all chromosomes. The aim of this study was to characterize moderately and highly repetitive DNA sequences by C ot1-DNA from Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 genomes through cloning and DNA sequencing, as well as mapping them chromosomally to better understand its organization and genome dynamics. The results of sequencing of DNA libraries obtained by C ot1-DNA showed that different microsatellites, transposons, retrotransposons, and some gene families also comprise the fraction of repetitive DNA in the teiid species. FISH using C ot1-DNA probes isolated from both Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 showed these sequences mainly located in heterochromatic centromeric, and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin chromosomes, indicating they play structural and functional roles in the genome of these species. In Cnemidophorus sp.1, C ot1-DNA probe isolated from Ameiva ameiva had multiple interstitial signals on chromosomes, whereas mapping of C ot1-DNA isolated from the Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 highlighted centromeric regions of some chromosomes. Thus, the data obtained showed that many repetitive DNA classes are part of the genome of Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp.1, Kentroyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin, and these sequences are shared among the analyzed teiid species, but they were not always allocated at the same chromosome position.

  5. Differential repetitive DNA composition in the centromeric region of chromosomes of Amazonian lizard species in the family Teiidae

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Natalia D. M.; Carmo, Edson; Neves, Rogerio O.; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Differences in heterochromatin distribution patterns and its composition were observed in Amazonian teiid species. Studies have shown repetitive DNA harbors heterochromatic blocks which are located in centromeric and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868), and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758). In Cnemidophorus sp.1, repetitive DNA has multiple signals along all chromosomes. The aim of this study was to characterize moderately and highly repetitive DNA sequences by Cot1-DNA from Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 genomes through cloning and DNA sequencing, as well as mapping them chromosomally to better understand its organization and genome dynamics. The results of sequencing of DNA libraries obtained by Cot1-DNA showed that different microsatellites, transposons, retrotransposons, and some gene families also comprise the fraction of repetitive DNA in the teiid species. FISH using Cot1-DNA probes isolated from both Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 showed these sequences mainly located in heterochromatic centromeric, and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin chromosomes, indicating they play structural and functional roles in the genome of these species. In Cnemidophorus sp.1, Cot1-DNA probe isolated from Ameiva ameiva had multiple interstitial signals on chromosomes, whereas mapping of Cot1-DNA isolated from the Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 highlighted centromeric regions of some chromosomes. Thus, the data obtained showed that many repetitive DNA classes are part of the genome of Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp.1, Kentroyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin, and these sequences are shared among the analyzed teiid species, but they were not always allocated at the same chromosome position. PMID:27551343

  6. Physical maps and recombination frequency of six rice chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianzhong; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Hayashi-Tsugane, Mika; Ito, Yukiyo; Chiden, Yoshino; Fujisawa, Masaki; Katagiri, Satoshi; Saji, Shoko; Yoshiki, Shoji; Karasawa, Wataru; Yoshihara, Rie; Hayashi, Akiko; Kobayashi, Harumi; Ito, Kazue; Hamada, Masao; Okamoto, Masako; Ikeno, Maiko; Ichikawa, Yoko; Katayose, Yuichi; Yano, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sasaki, Takuji

    2003-12-01

    We constructed physical maps of rice chromosomes 1, 2, and 6-9 with P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. These maps, with only 20 gaps, cover more than 97% of the predicted length of the six chromosomes. We submitted a total of 193 Mbp of non-overlapping sequences to public databases. We analyzed the DNA sequences of 1316 genetic markers and six centromere-specific repeats to facilitate characterization of chromosomal recombination frequency and of the genomic composition and structure of the centromeric regions. We found marked changes in the relative recombination rate along the length of each chromosome. Chromosomal recombination at the centromere core and surrounding regions on the six chromosomes was completely suppressed. These regions have a total physical length of about 23 Mbp, corresponding to 11.4% of the entire size of the six chromosomes. Chromosome 6 has the longest quiescent region, with about 5.6 Mbp, followed by chromosome 8, with quiescent region about half this size. Repetitive sequences accounted for at least 40% of the total genomic sequence on the partly sequenced centromeric region of chromosome 1. Rice CentO satellite DNA is arrayed in clusters and is closely associated with the presence of Centromeric Retrotransposon of Rice (CRR)- and RIce RetroElement 7 (RIRE7)-like retroelement sequences. We also detected relatively small coldspot regions outside the centromeric region; their repetitive content and gene density were similar to those of regions with normal recombination rates. Sequence analysis of these regions suggests that either the amount or the organization patterns of repetitive sequences may play a role in the inactivation of recombination.

  7. Assignment of the human dihydrofolate reductase gene to the q11. -->. q22 region of chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Funanage, V.L.; Myoda, T.T.; Moses, P.A.; Cowell, H.R.

    1984-10-01

    Cells from a dihydrofolate reductase-deficit Chinese hamster ovary cell line were hybridized to human fetal skin fibroblast cells. Nineteen dihydrofolate reductase-positive hybrid clones were isolated and characterized. Cytogenetic and biochemical analyses of these clones have shown that the human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene is located on chromosome 5. Three of these hybrid cell lines contained different terminal deletions of chromosome 5. An analysis of the breakpoints of these deletions has demonstrated that the DHFR gene resides in the q11..-->..q22 region.

  8. Normal phenotype and partial trisomy for the G positive region of chromosome 21.

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, A

    1979-01-01

    A prenatally diagnosed male fetus and his mother, who was referred because of her advanced age, both carried an abnormal bisatellited chromosome 21 as an extra chromosome. The abnormal 21 was monocentric and the G negative band q22 and part of q21 had been deleted during formation. The phenotype of both the mother and child (at birth) was normal. Images PMID:157396

  9. Expansion of the Pseudo-autosomal Region and Ongoing Recombination Suppression in the Silene latifolia Sex Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bergero, Roberta; Qiu, Suo; Forrest, Alan; Borthwick, Helen; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    There are two very interesting aspects to the evolution of sex chromosomes: what happens after recombination between these chromosome pairs stops and why suppressed recombination evolves. The former question has been intensively studied in a diversity of organisms, but the latter has been studied largely theoretically. To obtain empirical data, we used codominant genic markers in genetic mapping of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, together with comparative mapping of S. latifolia sex-linked genes in S. vulgaris (a related hermaphrodite species without sex chromosomes). We mapped 29 S. latifolia fully sex-linked genes (including 21 newly discovered from transcriptome sequencing), plus 6 genes in a recombining pseudo-autosomal region (PAR) whose genetic map length is ∼25 cM in both male and female meiosis, suggesting that the PAR may contain many genes. Our comparative mapping shows that most fully sex-linked genes in S. latifolia are located on a single S. vulgaris linkage group and were probably inherited from a single autosome of an ancestor. However, unexpectedly, our maps suggest that the S. latifolia PAR region expanded through translocation events. Some genes in these regions still recombine in S. latifolia, but some genes from both addition events are now fully sex-linked. Recombination suppression is therefore still ongoing in S. latifolia, and multiple recombination suppression events have occurred in a timescale of few million years, much shorter than the timescale of formation of the most recent evolutionary strata of mammal and bird sex chromosomes. PMID:23733786

  10. Expansion of the pseudo-autosomal region and ongoing recombination suppression in the Silene latifolia sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergero, Roberta; Qiu, Suo; Forrest, Alan; Borthwick, Helen; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2013-07-01

    There are two very interesting aspects to the evolution of sex chromosomes: what happens after recombination between these chromosome pairs stops and why suppressed recombination evolves. The former question has been intensively studied in a diversity of organisms, but the latter has been studied largely theoretically. To obtain empirical data, we used codominant genic markers in genetic mapping of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, together with comparative mapping of S. latifolia sex-linked genes in S. vulgaris (a related hermaphrodite species without sex chromosomes). We mapped 29 S. latifolia fully sex-linked genes (including 21 newly discovered from transcriptome sequencing), plus 6 genes in a recombining pseudo-autosomal region (PAR) whose genetic map length is ∼25 cM in both male and female meiosis, suggesting that the PAR may contain many genes. Our comparative mapping shows that most fully sex-linked genes in S. latifolia are located on a single S. vulgaris linkage group and were probably inherited from a single autosome of an ancestor. However, unexpectedly, our maps suggest that the S. latifolia PAR region expanded through translocation events. Some genes in these regions still recombine in S. latifolia, but some genes from both addition events are now fully sex-linked. Recombination suppression is therefore still ongoing in S. latifolia, and multiple recombination suppression events have occurred in a timescale of few million years, much shorter than the timescale of formation of the most recent evolutionary strata of mammal and bird sex chromosomes.

  11. Simulated binding of transcription factors to active and inactive regions folds human chromosomes into loops, rosettes and topological domains.

    PubMed

    Brackley, Chris A; Johnson, James; Kelly, Steven; Cook, Peter R; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2016-05-05

    Biophysicists are modeling conformations of interphase chromosomes, often basing the strengths of interactions between segments distant on the genetic map on contact frequencies determined experimentally. Here, instead, we develop a fitting-free, minimal model: bivalent or multivalent red and green 'transcription factors' bind to cognate sites in strings of beads ('chromatin') to form molecular bridges stabilizing loops. In the absence of additional explicit forces, molecular dynamic simulations reveal that bound factors spontaneously cluster-red with red, green with green, but rarely red with green-to give structures reminiscent of transcription factories. Binding of just two transcription factors (or proteins) to active and inactive regions of human chromosomes yields rosettes, topological domains and contact maps much like those seen experimentally. This emergent 'bridging-induced attraction' proves to be a robust, simple and generic force able to organize interphase chromosomes at all scales.

  12. Trisomy 8 syndrome owing to isodicentric 8p chromosomes: regional assignment of a presumptive gene involved in corpus callosum development.

    PubMed Central

    Digilio, M C; Giannotti, A; Floridia, G; Uccellatore, F; Mingarelli, R; Danesino, C; Dallapiccola, B; Zuffardi, O

    1994-01-01

    Two patients with trisomy 8 syndrome owing to an isodicentric 8p;8p chromosome are described. Case 1 had a 46,XX/46,XX,-8,+idic(8)(p23) karyotype while case 2, a male, had the same abnormal karyotype without evidence of mosaicism. In situ hybridisation, performed in case 1, showed that the isochromosome was asymmetrical. Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), which is a feature of trisomy 8 syndrome, was found in both patients. Although ACC is associated with aneuploidies for different chromosomes, a review of published reports indicates that, when associated with chromosome 8, this defect is the result of duplication of a gene located within 8p21-pter. Molecular analysis in one of our patients led us to exclude the distal 23 Mb of 8p from this ACC region. Images PMID:8014974

  13. Overlapping and distinct brain regions involved in estimating the spatial position of numerical and non-numerical magnitudes: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Stephan E; Grabner, Roland H; Schneider, Michael; Siegler, Robert S; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    How are numerical and non-numerical magnitudes processed in the brain? Brain imaging research, primarily using comparison paradigms (i.e. judging which of two magnitudes is larger), has provided strong evidence demonstrating that the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is a key region for processing both numerical (e.g. Arabic numerals, arrays of dots) and non-numerical magnitudes (e.g. height, brightness). These studies have suggested that there is both activation overlap and segregation in the brain regions involved in processing different dimensions of magnitude. In the present functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study, we extended this line of investigation by probing the brain mechanisms underlying the mapping of numerical (Arabic numerals) and non-numerical magnitudes (brightness levels) onto a number line. Consistent with previous studies the present results revealed that number and brightness estimation was associated with overlapping activation within right lateralized areas of the posterior IPS. In addition, the contrast between number and brightness estimation revealed that bilateral anterior regions of the IPS are specifically involved in the process of estimating the position of symbolic numbers onto a number line. Furthermore, we found a significant influence of landmark reference points (0, 50 and 100) on brain activation in the right IPS for number estimation only. No regions were found to be specifically associated with brightness estimation. The results of this study reveal that the estimation of both numerical and non-numerical magnitude are associated with the engagement of a right lateralized magnitude system, but that symbolic number estimation is associated with additional engagement of bilateral regions of the anterior IPS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression and regional assignment of Chinese hamster ESD and rRNA genes associated with translocations giving rise to chromosomes Z1 and Z6 in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Stallings, R L; Adair, G M; Lin, J C; Siciliano, M J

    1984-01-01

    The Chinese hamster genes ADK, NP, ESD, PGM2, PEPS, PEPB, GLO, and GSR, all of which are on Chinese hamster chromosome 1, were assigned to CHO-LA chromosomes by analysis of the segregation of CHO isozymes and chromosomes from interspecific somatic cell hybrids made with CHO cells and mouse C11D cells. One allele of each of these eight loci remained linked on the normal chromosome 1 homolog. For seven loci, the other allele remained linked on chromosome Z1, but ESD was shown to have been translocated to chromosome Z6 (Chinese hamster chromosome 5q +). Ag-NOR staining of CHO chromosomes indicated that the (1;5) translocation was very likely reciprocal, since the Chinese hamster chromosome 5, which gave rise to the CHO Z6, lacks an NOR and the Z1 now has one. These data allowed regional assignment of ESD to the distal portion of Chinese hamster chromosome 1p and provided genetic evidence for the origin of CHO chromosomes Z1 and Z6 from Chinese hamster chromosomes 1 and 5. Induced electrophoretic shift mutations of ESD and positive Ag-NOR staining for the rRNA genes on the Z1 showed that the activities of the genes lying close to the translocation breakpoints were maintained.

  15. Overlapping microdeletions involving 15q22.2 narrow the critical region for intellectual disability to NARG2 and RORA.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Di Marco, Chiara; Mucciolo, Mafalda; Vascotto, Marina; Balestri, Paolo; Gérard, Marion; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Andrieux, Joris; Breuning, Martijn; Hoffer, Mariëtte J V; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L; Shimada, Shino; Sangu, Noriko; Shimojima, Keiko; Umezu, Ryoji; Kawame, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Mari; Saito, Kayoko; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca

    2014-03-01

    Microdeletions in the 15q22 region have not been well documented. We collected genotype and phenotype data from five patients with microdeletions involving 15q22.2, which were between 0.7 Mb and 6.5 Mb in size; two were of de novo origin and one was of familial origin. Intellectual disability and epilepsy are frequently observed in patients with 15q22.2 deletions. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis narrowed the critical region for such neurologic symptoms to a genomic region of 654 Kb including the NMDA receptor-regulated 2 gene (NARG2) and the PAR-related orphan receptor A gene (RORA), either of which may be responsible for neurological symptoms commonly observed in patients with deletions in this region. The neighboring regions, including the forkhead box B1 gene (FOXB1), may also be related to the additional neurological features observed in the patients with larger deletions. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic Characterization of the 87c Region of the Third Chromosome of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Gausz, Janos; Bencze, Gabor; Gyurkovics, Henrik; Ashburner, Michael; Ish-Horowicz, David; Holden, Jeanette J.

    1979-01-01

    Ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) was used to induce 39 lethal and 13 karmoisin mutations within Df(3R)kar3J, a nine-band deficiency extending from 87C1 to 87C9 (inclusive). Five complementation groups (four lethal and one visible) were identified and cytologically mapped between 87C4–5 and 87C9, one complementation group per band, with the exception of complementation group A, which is localized to 87C4–5. These positions were determined using a set of overlapping deficiencies, each having at least one breakpoint in the 87C1–9 region. Mutations within a single complementation group have similar lethal phases or subvital phenotypes, consistent with the notion that each complementation group represents a single functional locus. No mutations localized to 87C1–C3. The inability to induce mutations in the 87C1 heat-shock puff locus is consistent with the current interpretation of a duplication of coding sequences at the 87A7 and 87C1 heat-shock puffs. PMID:17248986

  17. A novel human phosphoglucomutase (PGM5) maps to the centromeric region of chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Y.H.; Putt, W.; Fox, M.; Ives, J.H.

    1995-11-20

    The phophoglucomutases (PGM1-3) in humans are surrounded by three genes, PGM1, PGM2, and PGM3. These enzymes are central to carbohydrate metabolism. All three isozymes show genetic variation, and PGM1 has achieved prominence as a key marker in genetic linkage mapping and in forensic science. The human PGM genes are assumed to have arisen by gene duplication since their products are broadly similar in structure and function; however, direct proof of their evolutionary relationship is not available because only PGM1 has been cloned. During a search for other members of the PGM family, a novel sequence with homology to PGM1 was identified. Mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybrids locates this gene to the centromeric region of chromosome 9. RT-PCR and Northern analysis indicate that this is an expressed PGM gene with widespread distribution in adult and fetal tissues. We propose that this gene be designated PGM5 and that it represents a novel member of the PGM family. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Further mapping of an ataxia-telangiectasia locus to the chromosome 11q23 region.

    PubMed Central

    Sanal, O; Wei, S; Foroud, T; Malhotra, U; Concannon, P; Charmley, P; Salser, W; Lange, K; Gatti, R A

    1990-01-01

    We recently mapped the gene for ataxia-telangiectasia group A (ATA) to chromosome 11q22-23 by linkage analysis, using the genetic markers THY1 and pYNB3.12 (D11S144). The most likely order was cent-AT-S144-THY1. The present paper describes further mapping of the AT locus by means of a panel of 10 markers that span approximately 60 cM in the 11q22-23 region centered around S144 and THY1. Location scores indicate that three contiguous subsegments within the [S144-THY1] segment, as well as three contiguous segments telomeric to THY1, are each unlikely to contain the AT locus, while the more centromeric [STMY-S144] segment is most likely to contain the AT locus. These data, together with recent refinements in the linkage and physical maps of 11q22-23, place the AT locus at 11q23. PMID:2220826

  19. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Vijverberg, K; Van Der Hulst, R G M; Lindhout, P; Van Dijk, P J

    2004-02-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The genus includes sexual diploid as well as apomictic polyploid, mostly triploid, plants. Apomictic Taraxacum is diplosporous, parthenogenetic, and has autonomous endosperm formation. Previous studies have indicated that these three apomixis elements are controlled by more than one locus in Taraxacum and that diplospory inherits as a dominant, monogenic trait ( Ddd; DIP). A bulked segregant analysis provided 34 AFLP markers that were linked to DIP and were, together with two microsatellite markers, used for mapping the trait. The map length was 18.6 cM and markers were found on both sides of DIP, corresponding to 5.9 and 12.7 cM, respectively. None of the markers completely co-segregated with DIP. Eight markers were selected for PCR-based marker development, of which two were successfully converted. In contrast to all other mapping studies of apomeiosis to date, our results showed no evidence for suppression of recombination around the DIP locus in Taraxacum. No obvious evidence for sequence divergence between the DIP and non- DIP homologous loci was found, and no hemizygosity at the DIP locus was detected. These results may indicate that apomixis is relatively recent in Taraxacum.

  20. Expression, function, and targeting of the nuclear exporter chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Jo; Kojima, Kensuke; Hail, Numsen; Tabe, Yoko; Andreeff, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of proteins/RNAs is essential to normal cellular function. Indeed, accumulating evidence suggests that cancer cells escape anti-neoplastic mechanisms and benefit from pro-survival signals via the dysregulation of this system. The nuclear exporter chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein is the only protein in the karyopherin-β protein family that contributes to the trafficking of numerous proteins and RNAs from the nucleus. It is considered to be an oncogenic, anti-apoptotic protein in transformed cells, since it reportedly functions as a gatekeeper for cell survival, including affecting p53 function, and ribosomal biogenesis. Furthermore, abnormally high expression of CRM1 is correlated with poor patient prognosis in various malignancies. Therapeutic targeting of CRM1 has emerged as a novel cancer treatment strategy, starting with a clinical trial with leptomycin B, the original specific inhibitor of CRM1, followed by development of several next-generation small molecules. KPT-330, a novel member of the CRM1-selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) class of compounds, is currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the therapy of various malignancies. Results from these trials suggest that SINE compounds may be particularly useful against hematological malignancies, which often become refractory to standard chemotherapeutic agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression, function, and targeting of the nuclear exporter chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein

    PubMed Central

    Ishizawa, Jo; Kojima, Kensuke; Hail, Numsen; Tabe, Yoko; Andreeff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of proteins/RNAs is essential to normal cellular function. Indeed, accumulating evidence suggests that cancer cells escape anti-neoplastic mechanisms and benefit from pro-survival signals via the dysregulation of this system. The nuclear exporter chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein is the only protein in the karyopherin-β protein family that contributes to the trafficking of numerous proteins and RNAs from the nucleus. It is considered to be an oncogenic, anti-apoptotic protein in transformed cells, since it reportedly functions as a gatekeeper for cell survival, including affecting p53 function, and ribosomal biogenesis. Furthermore, abnormally high expression of CRM1 is correlated with poor patient prognosis in various malignancies. Therapeutic targeting of CRM1 has emerged as a novel cancer treatment strategy, starting with a clinical trial with leptomycin B, the original specific inhibitor of CRM1, followed by development of several next-generation small molecules. KPT-330, a novel member of the CRM1-selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) class of compounds, is currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the therapy of various malignancies. Results from these trials suggest that SINE compounds may be particularly useful against hematological malignancies, which often become refractory to standard chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26048327

  2. In silico screening of the chicken genome for overlaps between genomic regions: microRNA genes, coding and non-coding transcriptional units, QTL, and genetic variations.

    PubMed

    Zorc, Minja; Kunej, Tanja

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional regulation of target genes. Regulation requires complementarity between target mRNA and the mature miRNA seed region, responsible for their recognition and binding. It has been estimated that each miRNA targets approximately 200 genes, and genetic variability of miRNA genes has been reported to affect phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility in humans, livestock species, and model organisms. Polymorphisms in miRNA genes could therefore represent biomarkers for phenotypic traits in livestock animals. In our previous study, we collected polymorphisms within miRNA genes in chicken. In the present study, we identified miRNA-related genomic overlaps to prioritize genomic regions of interest for further functional studies and biomarker discovery. Overlapping genomic regions in chicken were analyzed using the following bioinformatics tools and databases: miRNA SNiPer, Ensembl, miRBase, NCBI Blast, and QTLdb. Out of 740 known pre-miRNA genes, 263 (35.5 %) contain polymorphisms; among them, 35 contain more than three polymorphisms The most polymorphic miRNA genes in chicken are gga-miR-6662, containing 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the pre-miRNA region, including five consecutive SNPs, and gga-miR-6688, containing ten polymorphisms including three consecutive polymorphisms. Several miRNA-related genomic hotspots have been revealed in chicken genome; polymorphic miRNA genes are located within protein-coding and/or non-coding transcription units and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with production traits. The present study includes the first description of an exonic miRNA in a chicken genome, an overlap between the miRNA gene and the exon of the protein-coding gene (gga-miR-6578/HADHB), and the first report of a missense polymorphism located within a mature miRNA seed region. Identified miRNA-related genomic hotspots in chicken can serve researchers as a

  3. High-Resolution Physical and Genetic Mapping of the Critical Region for Meckel Syndrome and Mulibrey Nanism on Chromosome 17q22–q23

    PubMed Central

    Paavola, Paulina; Avela, Kristiina; Horelli-Kuitunen, Nina; Bärlund, Maarit; Kallioniemi, Anne; Idänheimo, Niina; Kyttälä, Mira; de la Chapelle, Albert; Palotie, Aarno; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Peltonen, Leena

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we assigned the genes for two autosomal recessive disorders, Meckel syndrome (MKS; MIM 249000) and Mulibrey Nanism [MUL (muscle–liver–brain–eye Nanism); MIM 253250] that are enriched in the Finnish population, to overlapping genomic regions on chromosome 17q. Now, we report the construction of a bacterial clone contig over the critical region for both disorders. Several novel CA-repeat markers were isolated from these clones, which allowed refined mapping of the MKS and MUL loci using haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analysis. The localization of the MKS locus was narrowed to <1 cM between markers D17S1290 and 132-CA, within an ∼800-kb region. The MUL locus was refined into an ∼1400-kb interval between markers D17S1290 and 52-CA. The whole MKS region falls within the MUL region. In the common critical region, the conserved haplotypes were different in MKS and MUL patients. A trancript map was constructed by assigning expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genes, derived from the human gene map, to the bacterial clone contig. Altogether, four genes and a total of 20 ESTs were precisely localized. These data provide the molecular tools for the final identification of the MKS and the MUL genes. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession nos. G42608–G42611, G42376–G42388, and G42200–G42250. The online supplement for primer sequences and PCR product sizes, as well as the STS-content table, are available at http://www.cshl.org/gr.] PMID:10077533

  4. Functional Overlap between Regions Involved in Speech Perception and in Monitoring One's Own Voice during Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Zane Z.; Munhall, Kevin G.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2010-01-01

    The fluency and the reliability of speech production suggest a mechanism that links motor commands and sensory feedback. Here, we examined the neural organization supporting such links by using fMRI to identify regions in which activity during speech production is modulated according to whether auditory feedback matches the predicted outcome or…

  5. Functional Overlap between Regions Involved in Speech Perception and in Monitoring One's Own Voice during Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Zane Z.; Munhall, Kevin G.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2010-01-01

    The fluency and the reliability of speech production suggest a mechanism that links motor commands and sensory feedback. Here, we examined the neural organization supporting such links by using fMRI to identify regions in which activity during speech production is modulated according to whether auditory feedback matches the predicted outcome or…

  6. Identification of a short region on chromosome 6 affecting direct calving ease in Piedmontese cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Silvia; Mancini, Giordano; Chillemi, Giovanni; Pariset, Lorraine; Valentini, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    Calving in cattle is affected by calf morphology and by dam characteristics. It is described by two different traits: maternal calving ease, which is the ability to generate dams with good physiological predisposition to calving, and direct calving ease, which is the ability to generate calves that are easily born. The aim of this study was to identify regions of cattle genome harboring genes possibly affecting direct calving ease in the Piedmontese cattle breed. A population of 323 bulls scored for direct calving ease (EBV) was analyzed by a medium-density SNP marker panel (54,001 SNPs) to perform a genome-wide scan. The strongest signal was detected on chromosome 6 between 37.8 and 38.7 Mb where 13 SNPs associated to direct calving ease were found. Three genes are located in this region: LAP3, encoding for a leucine aminopeptidase involved in the oxytocin hydrolysis; NCAPG, encoding for a non-SMC condensin I complex, which has been associated in cattle with fetal growth and carcass size; and LCORL, which has been associated to height in humans and cattle. To further confirm the results of the genome-wide scan we genotyped additional SNPs within these genes and analyzed their association with direct calving ease. The results of this additional analysis fully confirmed the findings of the GWAS and particularly indicated LAP3 as the most probable gene involved. Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed high correlation between SNPs located within LAP3 and LCORL indicating a possible selection signature due either to increased fitness or breeders' selection for the trait.

  7. Replication of alpha-satellite DNA arrays in endogenous human centromeric regions and in human artificial chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Erliandri, Indri; Fu, Haiqing; Nakano, Megumi; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Miga, Karen H.; Liskovykh, Mikhail; Earnshaw, William C.; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Kouprina, Natalay; Aladjem, Mirit I.; Larionov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In human chromosomes, centromeric regions comprise megabase-size arrays of 171 bp alpha-satellite DNA monomers. The large distances spanned by these arrays preclude their replication from external sites and imply that the repetitive monomers contain replication origins. However, replication within these arrays has not previously been profiled and the role of alpha-satellite DNA in initiation of DNA replication has not yet been demonstrated. Here, replication of alpha-satellite DNA in endogenous human centromeric regions and in de novo formed Human Artificial Chromosome (HAC) was analyzed. We showed that alpha-satellite monomers could function as origins of DNA replication and that replication of alphoid arrays organized into centrochromatin occurred earlier than those organized into heterochromatin. The distribution of inter-origin distances within centromeric alphoid arrays was comparable to the distribution of inter-origin distances on randomly selected non-centromeric chromosomal regions. Depletion of CENP-B, a kinetochore protein that binds directly to a 17 bp CENP-B box motif common to alpha-satellite DNA, resulted in enrichment of alpha-satellite sequences for proteins of the ORC complex, suggesting that CENP-B may have a role in regulating the replication of centromeric regions. Mapping of replication initiation sites in the HAC revealed that replication preferentially initiated in transcriptionally active regions. PMID:25228468

  8. Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions.

    PubMed

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina A; Wozniak, Marcin; Dambueva, Irina; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Luzina, Faina; Miścicka-Sliwka, Danuta; Zakharov, Ilia

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the genetic history of autochthonous South Siberian populations and to estimate the contribution of distinct patrilineages to their gene pools, we have analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal binary markers (YAP, RPS4Y(711), SRY-8299, M89, M201, M52, M170, 12f2, M9, M20, 92R7, SRY-1532, DYS199, M173, M17, Tat, and LLY22 g) in a total sample of 1,358 males from 14 ethnic groups of Siberia (Altaians-Kizhi, Teleuts, Shors, Tuvinians, Todjins, Tofalars, Sojots, Khakassians, Buryats, Evenks), Central/Eastern Asia (Mongolians and Koreans) and Eastern Europe (Kalmyks and Russians). Based on both, the distribution pattern of Y-chromosomal haplogroups and results on AMOVA analysis we observed the statistically significant genetic differentiation between the populations of Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions. We suggest that these regional differences can be best explained by different contribution of Central/Eastern Asian and Eastern European paternal lineages into gene pools of modern South Siberians. The population of the Baikal region demonstrates the prevalence of Central/Eastern Asian lineages, whereas in the populations of Altai and Sayan regions the highest paternal contribution resulted from Eastern European descent is revealed. Yet, our data on Y-chromosome STRs variation demonstrate the clear differences between the South Siberian and Eastern European R1a1-lineages with the evolutionary ages compatible with divergence time between these two regional groups.

  9. Film Excerpts Shown to Specifically Elicit Various Affects Lead to Overlapping Activation Foci in a Large Set of Symmetrical Brain Regions in Males

    PubMed Central

    Karama, Sherif; Armony, Jorge; Beauregard, Mario

    2011-01-01

    While the limbic system theory continues to be part of common scientific parlance, its validity has been questioned on multiple grounds. Nonetheless, the issue of whether or not there exists a set of brain areas preferentially dedicated to emotional processing remains central within affective neuroscience. Recently, a widespread neural reference space for emotion which includes limbic as well as other regions was characterized in a large meta-analysis. As methodologically heterogeneous studies go into such meta-analyses, showing in an individual study in which all parameters are kept constant, the involvement of overlapping areas for various emotion conditions in keeping with the neural reference space for emotion, would serve as valuable confirmatory evidence. Here, using fMRI, 20 young adult men were scanned while viewing validated neutral and effective emotion-eliciting short film excerpts shown to quickly and specifically elicit disgust, amusement, or sexual arousal. Each emotion-specific run included, in random order, multiple neutral and emotion condition blocks. A stringent conjunction analysis revealed a large overlap across emotion conditions that fit remarkably well with the neural reference space for emotion. This overlap included symmetrical bilateral activation of the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the temporo-occipital junction, the basal ganglia, the brainstem, the amygdala, the hippocampus, the thalamus, the subthalamic nucleus, the posterior hypothalamus, the cerebellum, as well as the frontal operculum extending towards the anterior insula. This study clearly confirms for the visual modality, that processing emotional stimuli leads to widespread increases in activation that cluster within relatively confined areas, regardless of valence. PMID:21818311

  10. Overlapping distributions of orexin/hypocretin- and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers in rat brain regions mediating arousal, motivation, and stress.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Brian A; Daniel, Roger A; Berridge, Craig W; Kelley, Ann E

    2003-09-15

    A double-label immunohistochemical study was carried out to investigate overlap between dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) -immunopositive projections and the projections of hypothalamic neurons containing the arousal- and feeding-related peptide, orexin/hypocretin (HCRT), in rat brain. Numerous intermingled HCRT-immunopositive and DbetaH-immunopositive fibers were seen in a ventrally situated corridor extending from the hypothalamus to deep layers of the infralimbic cortex. Both fiber types avoided the nucleus accumbens core, caudate putamen, and the globus pallidus. In the diencephalon, overlap was observed in several hypothalamic areas, including the perifornical, dorsomedial, and paraventricular nuclei, as well as in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus. Intermingled HCRT-containing and DbetaH-containing fibers extended from the hypothalamus into areas within the medial and central amygdala, terminating at the medial border of the lateral subdivision of the central nucleus of the amygdala. Dense overlap between the two fiber types was also observed in the periaqueductal gray, particularly in the vicinity of the dorsal raphe, as well as (to a lesser extent) in the ventral tegmental area, the retrorubral field, and the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Hypocretin-containing cell bodies, located in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus, were embedded within a dense plexus of DbetaH-immunopositive fibers and boutons, with numerous cases of apparent contacts of DbetaH-containing boutons onto HCRT-immunopositive soma and dendrites. HCRT-containing fibers were observed amid the noradrenergic cells of the locus coeruleus, and in the vicinity of the A1, A2, and A5 cell groups. Hence, the projections of these two arousal-related systems, originating in distinctly different parts of the brain, jointly target several forebrain regions and brainstem monoaminergic nuclei involved in regulating core motivational processes. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

  12. Intergenomic single nucleotide polymorphisms as a tool for bacterial artificial chromosome contig building of homoeologous Brassica napus regions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hieu Xuan; Schmidt, Renate

    2014-07-04

    Homoeologous sequences pose a particular challenge if bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs shall be established for specific regions of an allopolyploid genome. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) differentiating between homoeologous genomes (intergenomic SNPs) may represent a suitable screening tool for such purposes, since they do not only identify homoeologous sequences but also differentiate between them. Sequence alignments between Brassica rapa (AA) and Brassica oleracea (CC) sequences mapping to corresponding regions on chromosomes A1 and C1, respectively were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms between the A and C genomes. A large fraction of these polymorphisms was also present in Brassica napus (AACC), an allopolyploid species that originated from hybridisation of A and C genome species. Intergenomic SNPs mapping throughout homoeologous chromosome segments spanning approximately one Mbp each were included in Illumina's GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay and used to screen multidimensional pools of a Brassica napus bacterial artificial chromosome library with tenfold genome coverage. Based on the results of 50 SNP assays, a BAC contig for the Brassica napus A subgenome was established that spanned the entire region of interest. The C subgenome region was represented in three BAC contigs. This proof-of-concept study shows that sequence resources of diploid progenitor genomes can be used to deduce intergenomic SNPs suitable for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based screening of multidimensional BAC pools of a polyploid organism. Owing to their high abundance and ease of identification, intergenomic SNPs represent a versatile tool to establish BAC contigs for homoeologous regions of a polyploid genome.

  13. A method for generating selective DNA probes for the analysis of C-negative regions in human chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Morozkin, E S; Loseva, E M; Karamysheva, T V; Babenko, V N; Laktionov, P P; Vlassov, V V; Rubtsov, N B

    2011-01-01

    Linker-adapter polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR) is among the most efficient techniques for whole genome DNA amplification. The key stage in LA-PCR is the hydrolysis of a DNA sample with restriction endonucleases, and the choice of a restriction endonuclease (or several endonucleases) determines the composition of DNA probes generated in LA-PCR. Computer analysis of the localization of the restriction sites in human genome has allowed us to propose an efficient technique for generating DNA probes by LA-PCR using the restriction endonucleases HaeIII and RsaI. In silico hydrolysis of human genomic DNA with endonucleases HaeIII and RsaI demonstrate that 100- to 1,000-bp DNA fragments are more abundant in the gene-rich regions. Applying in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes, we demonstrated that the produced DNA probes predominantly hybridized to the C-negative chromosomal regions, whereas the FISH signal was almost absent in the C-positive regions. The described protocol for generating DNA probes may be successfully used in subsequent cytogenetic analysis of the C-negative chromosomal regions. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Karyotypic relationships in Asiatic asses (kulan and kiang) as defined using horse chromosome arm-specific and region-specific probes.

    PubMed

    Musilova, Petra; Kubickova, Svatava; Horin, Petr; Vodicka, Roman; Rubes, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    Cross-species chromosome painting has been applied to most of the species making up the numerically small family Equidae. However, comparative mapping data were still lacking in Asiatic asses kulan (Equus hemionus kulan) and kiang (E. kiang). The set of horse arm-specific probes generated by laser microdissection was hybridized onto kulan (E. hemionus kulan) and kiang (E. kiang) chromosomes in order to establish a genome-wide chromosomal correspondence between these Asiatic asses and the horse. Moreover, region-specific probes were generated to determine fusion configuration and orientation of conserved syntenic blocks. The kulan karyotype (2n = 54) was ascertained to be almost identical to the previously investigated karyotype of onager E. h. onager (2n = 56). The only difference is in fusion/fission of chromosomes homologous to horse 2q/3q, which are involved in chromosome number polymorphism in many Equidae species. E. kiang karyotype differs from the karyotype of E. hemionus by two additional fusions 8q/15 and 7/25. Chromosomes equivalent to 2q and 3q are not fused in kiang individuals with 2n = 52. Several discrepancies in centromere positions among kulan, kiang and horse chromosomes have been described. Most of the chromosome fusions in Asiatic asses are of centromere-centromere type. Comparative chromosome painting in kiang completed the efforts to establish chromosomal homologies in all representatives of the family Equidae. Application of region-specific probes allows refinement comparative maps of Asiatic asses.

  15. Mapping of low-frequency chimeric yeast artificial chromosome libraries from human chromosomes 16 and 21 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marrone, B.L.; Campbell, E.W.; Anzick, S.L.; Shera, K.; Campbell, M.; Yoshida, T.M.; McCormick, M.K.; Deaven, L. )

    1994-05-01

    Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones from low-frequency chimeric libraries of human chromosomes 16 and 21 were mapped onto human diploid fibroblast metaphase chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and digital imaging microscopy. YACs mapped onto chromosome 21 were selected to provide subregional location and ordering of known and unknown markers on the long arm of chromosome 21, particularly in the Down syndrome region (q22). YACs mapped onto chromosome 16 were selected to overlap regions spanning chromosome 16 cosmid maps. YAC clones were indirectly labeled with fluorescein, and the total DNA of the chromosome was counterstained with propidium iodide. A single image containing both the FISH signal and the whole chromosome was acquired for each chromosome of interest containing the fluorescent probe signal in a metaphase spread. From the digitized image, the fluorescence intensity profile through the long axis of the chromosome gave the total chromosome length and the probe position. The map position of the probe was expressed as the fractional length (FL) of the total chromosome relative to the end of the short arm (Flpter). From each clone hybridized, 20-40 chromosome images were analyzed. Thirty-eight YACs were mapped onto chromosome 16, and their FLs were distributed along the short and long arms. On chromosome 21, 47 YACs were mapped, including 12 containing known markers. To confirm the order of a dense population of YACs within the Down syndrome region, a two-color mapping strategy was used in which an anonymous YAC was located relative to one or two known markers on the metaphase chromosome. The chromosome FL maps have a 1- to 2-Mb resolution, and the FL measurement of each probe has a typical standard error of 0.5-1 Mb. 14 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Localization of the genetic defect in familial adenomatous polyposis within a small region of chromosome 5

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yusuke; Lathrop, Mark; Leppert, Mark; Dobbs, Marc; Wasmuth, John; Wolff, Erica; Carlson, Mary; Fujimoto, Esther; Krapcho, Karen; Sears, Tena; Woodward, Scott; Hughes, J.; Burt, Randy; Gardner, Eldon; Lalouel, Jean-Marc; White, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a Mendelian disorder that includes familial polyposis coli (FPC) and Gardner syndrome (GS), has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. It is characterized by hundreds to thousands of adenomatous polyps that can progress to carcinoma of the colon, suggesting that the gene that harbors the FAP germ-line mutation may play an important role in the somatic genetic pathway to colon cancer. The defect responsible for FAP was recently mapped to the long arm of chromosome 5 by linkage between the FPC phenotype and a locus defined by DNA probe pC11p11 (D5S71), located at 5q21–22. Because an important next step in the paradigm for identification of a disease gene is to obtain a more precise localization, we isolated and mapped by linkage six additional polymorphic DNA markers in the FAP region. Subsequent linkage analysis in six pedigrees, three having the FPC phenotype and three segregating GS, placed the FAP locus very close to a new marker, YN5.48 (D5S81), that is approximately 17 centimorgans distal to C11p11 on the genetic map. The analysis revealed no evidence of genetic heterogeneity between the two phenotypes, a question that had not been clearly resolved by the earlier studies. The new set of markers in the near vicinity of the FAP locus represents a further step toward isolation of the genetic defect and provides the opportunity for preclinical diagnosis of risk status for colon cancer among individuals in families that are segregating adenomatous polyposis. PMID:2903664

  17. Allelic expression imbalance polymorphisms in susceptibility chromosome regions and the risk and survival of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Lin, Hong-Da; Guo, Xing-Yi; Lin, Ying; Su, Feng-Xi; Jia, Wei-Hua; Tang, Lu-Ying; Zheng, Wei; Long, Ji-Rong; Ren, Ze-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Allelic expression imbalance (AEI) has been applied to indicate potential function of genetic variants. Combining earlier results from global differential allele-specific expression analysis and genome wide association studies (GWASs), we select the single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) exhibiting AEI phenomenon located in breast cancer susceptibility chromosome regions, and evaluate their associations with breast cancer risk and survival. We examined the genotypes of 10 AEI SNPs in 1551 incident breast cancer cases and 1605 age-frequency matched controls from Guangzhou, China. In total, 1168 cases were followed up. MUC16 rs2591592 (AT/AA vs. TT) was associated with an increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer (OR [95%CI]: 1.30 [1.07, 1.57]); SLAMF1 rs1061217 (CT/TT vs. CC) decreased the risk of breast cancer among overweight women (OR [95%CI]: 0.74 [0.57, 0.96]) but increased the risk among normal-weight women (OR [95%CI]: 1.15 [1.01, 1.39]); ZNF331 rs8109631 (AG/AA vs. GG) and CHRAC1 rs10216653 (GC/GG vs. CC) were associated with progression free survival among breast cancer patients with negative ER/PR status and higher clinical stage (HRs [95%CIs]: 2.39 [1.14, 5.00], 1.85 [1.03, 3.32], and 0.49 [0.30, 0.80], respectively). ZNF331 rs8109631 and CHRAC1 rs10216653 were further found to represent several functional SNPs through bioinformatic analysis. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated suggestive associations of AEI polymorphisms with breast cancer risk (MUC16 rs2591592 and SLAMF1 rs1061217) and prognosis (ZNF331 rs8109631 and CHRAC1 rs10216653). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Methylation status of the major breakpoint cluster region in Philadelphia chromosome negative leukemias.

    PubMed

    Litz, C E; McClure, J S; Coad, J E; Goldfarb, A N; Brunning, R D

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown that a 600 bp long cluster of cell lineage specific hypomethylated sites in the major breakpoint cluster region (M-bcr) on chromosome 22 exists in hematopoietic cells. To determine possible relationships between methylation patterns within the M-bcr and the stage of hematopoietic cell development, the M-bcr methylation status of 39 patients with leukemia and lymphoma and two patients with myelodysplastic syndrome with non-rearranged M-bcrs was examined by BgIII-HpaII digestion. In the myeloid malignancies, the presence of a hypermethylated 4.8 kb BgIII-BgIII M-bcr allele was directly proportional to the combined myeloblast and promyelocyte percentage of the specimen, whereas the presence of a 2.5 kb BgIII-HpaII allele was directly proportional to the combined percentage of monocytic cells and neutrophils. All five acute monoblastic leukemias showed a methylation pattern that closely resembled neutrophils. All of thirteen surface immunoglobulin positive B-cell malignancies showed a distinct methylation pattern consisting of three or more BgIII-HpaII restriction fragments of 2.5 kb or less in length. The B-cell precursor leukemias showed heterogeneous M-bcr methylation patterns, with four of seven showing a B-cell pattern and three showing a hypermethylated pattern with 4.8, 3.1/3.0 and/or 2.5 kb BgIII-HpaII M-bcr alleles. It is concluded that the M-bcr methylation status is related to the maturation of the neutrophil series; the surface immunoglobulin positive B-cell malignancies are characterized by a distinct, extreme hypomethylation pattern of the M-bcr; and the B-cell precursor malignancies appear to have a heterogeneous M-bcr methylation pattern.

  19. Long range chromosome organization in Escherichia coli: The position of the replication origin defines the non-structured regions and the Right and Left macrodomains

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The Escherichia coli chromosome is organized into four macrodomains (Ori, Ter, Right and Left) and two non-structured regions. This organization influences the segregation of sister chromatids, the mobility of chromosomal DNA, and the cellular localization of the chromosome. The organization of the Ter and Ori macrodomains relies on two specific systems, MatP/matS for the Ter domain and MaoP/maoS for the Ori domain, respectively. Here by constructing strains with chromosome rearrangements to reshuffle the distribution of chromosomal segments, we reveal that the difference between the non-structured regions and the Right and Left lateral macrodomains relies on their position on the chromosome. A change in the genetic location of oriC generated either by an inversion within the Ori macrodomain or by the insertion of a second oriC modifies the position of Right and Left macrodomains, as the chromosome region the closest to oriC are always non-structured while the regions further away behave as macrodomain regardless of their DNA sequence. Using fluorescent microscopy we estimated that loci belonging to a non-structured region are significantly closer to the Ori MD than loci belonging to a lateral MD. Altogether, our results suggest that the origin of replication plays a prominent role in chromosome organization in E. coli, as it determines structuring and localization of macrodomains in growing cell. PMID:28486476

  20. Segmental Duplications in Euchromatic Regions of Human Chromosome 5: A Source of Evolutionary Instability and Transcriptional Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Courseaux, Anouk; Richard, Florence; Grosgeorge, Josiane; Ortola, Christine; Viale, Agnes; Turc-Carel, Claude; Dutrillaux, Bernard; Gaudray, Patrick; Nahon, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    Recent analyses of the structure of pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions have revealed that these particular regions of human chromosomes are often composed of blocks of duplicated genomic segments that have been associated with rapid evolutionary turnover among the genomes of closely related primates. In the present study, we show that euchromatic regions of human chromosome 5—5p14, 5p13, 5q13, 5q15–5q21—also display such an accumulation of segmental duplications. The structure, organization and evolution of those primate-specific sequences were studied in detail by combining in silico and comparative FISH analyses on human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutang, macaca, and capuchin chromosomes. Our results lend support to a two-step model of transposition duplication in the euchromatic regions, with a founder insertional event at the time of divergence between Platyrrhini and Catarrhini (25–35 million years ago) and an apparent burst of inter- and intrachromosomal duplications in the Hominidae lineage. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggests that the chronology and, likely, molecular mechanisms, differ regarding the region of primary insertion—euchromatic versus pericentromeric regions. Lastly, we show that as their counterparts located near the heterochromatic region, the euchromatic segmental duplications have consistently reshaped their region of insertion during primate evolution, creating putative mosaic genes, and they are obvious candidates for causing ectopic rearrangements that have contributed to evolutionary/genomic instability. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org. The following individuals kindly provided reagents, samples, or unpublished information as indicated in the paper: D. Le Paslier, A. McKenzie, J. Melki, C. Sargent, J. Scharf and S. Selig.] PMID:12618367

  1. Chromosomal microarray testing identifies a 4p terminal region associated with seizures in Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome

    PubMed Central

    South, Sarah T; Lortz, Amanda; Hensel, Charles H; Sdano, Mallory R; Vanzo, Rena J; Martin, Megan M; Peiffer, Andreas; Lambert, Christophe G; Calhoun, Amy; Carey, John C; Battaglia, Agatino

    2016-01-01

    Background Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving variable size deletions of the 4p16.3 region. Seizures are frequently, but not always, associated with WHS. We hypothesised that the size and location of the deleted region may correlate with seizure presentation. Methods Using chromosomal microarray analysis, we finely mapped the breakpoints of copy number variants (CNVs) in 48 individuals with WHS. Seizure phenotype data were collected through parent-reported answers to a comprehensive questionnaire and supplemented with available medical records. Results We observed a significant correlation between the presence of an interstitial 4p deletion and lack of a seizure phenotype (Fisher's exact test p=3.59e-6). In our cohort, there were five individuals with interstitial deletions with a distal breakpoint at least 751 kbp proximal to the 4p terminus. Four of these individuals have never had an observable seizure, and the fifth individual had a single febrile seizure at the age of 1.5 years. All other individuals in our cohort whose deletions encompass the terminal 751 kbp region report having seizures typical of WHS. Additional examples from the literature corroborate these observations and further refine the candidate seizure susceptibility region to a region 197 kbp in size, starting 368 kbp from the terminus of chromosome 4. Conclusions We identify a small terminal region of chromosome 4p that represents a seizure susceptibility region. Deletion of this region in the context of WHS is sufficient for seizure occurrence. PMID:26747863

  2. Characterization of an autism-associated segmental maternal heterodisomy of the chromosome 15q11-13 region.

    PubMed

    Kwasnicka-Crawford, Dorota A; Roberts, Wendy; Scherer, Stephen W

    2007-04-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) critical region have been described in individuals with autism. Maternal duplications and linkage disequilibrium in families with autism suggest the existence of a susceptibility locus at 15q11-q13. Here, we describe a 6-year-old girl diagnosed with autism, developmental delay, and delayed expressive and receptive language. The karyotype was designated de novo 47, XX, idic(15)(q13). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular analysis with 15q11-q13 markers revealed an additional copy of the region being of maternal origin. Duplication of the 15q11-q13 segment represents the most consistent known chromosomal abnormality reported in association with autism. This present case report reinforces the hypothesis that additional copies of this chromosome segment are causally related to autism.

  3. A large, dominant pedigree of atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD): Exclusion from the Down syndrome critical region on chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.; Curtis, A.; Stephenson, A.; Goodship, J.; Burn, J. ); Korenberg, J.R.; Schipper, R.D. ); Allan, L. ); Chenevix-Trench, G. )

    1993-12-01

    The authors describe a large pedigree of individuals with autosomal dominant atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). The pedigree includes affected individuals and individuals who have transmitted the defect but are not clinically affected. AVSDs are a rare congenital heart malformation that occurs as only 2.8% of isolated cardiac lesions. They are the predominant heart defect in children with Down syndrome, making chromosome 21 a candidate for genes involved in atrioventricular septal development. The authors have carried out a linkage study in the pedigree by using 10 simple-sequence polymorphisms from chromosome 21. Multipoint linkage analysis gives lod scores of less than [minus]2 for the region of trisomy 21 associated with heart defects, which excludes a locus within this region as the cause of the defect in this family. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Novel gene conversion between X-Y homologues located in the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome in Felidae (Mammalia)

    PubMed Central

    Pecon Slattery, Jill; Sanner-Wachter, Leslie; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Genes located on the mammalian Y chromosome outside of the pseudoautosomal region do not recombine with those on the X and are predicted to either undergo selection for male function or gradually degenerate because of an accumulation of deleterious mutations. Here, phylogenetic analyses of X-Y homologues, Zfx and Zfy, among 26 felid species indicate two ancestral episodes of directed genetic exchange (ectopic gene conversion) from X to Y: once during the evolution of pallas cat and once in a common predecessor of ocelot lineage species. Replacement of the more rapidly evolving Y homologue with the evolutionarily constrained X copy may represent a mechanism for adaptive editing of functional genes on the nonrecombining region of the mammalian Y chromosome. PMID:10805789

  5. Identification and genetic mapping of a homeobox gene to the 4p16.1 region of human chromosome 4.

    PubMed

    Stadler, H S; Padanilam, B J; Buetow, K; Murray, J C; Solursh, M

    1992-12-01

    A human craniofacial cDNA library was screened with a degenerate oligonucleotide probe based on the conserved third helix of homeobox genes. From this screening, we identified a homeobox gene, H6, which shared only 57-65% amino acid identity to previously reported homeodomains. H6 was physically mapped to the 4p16.1 region by using somatic cell hybrids containing specific deletions of human chromosome 4. Linkage data from a single-stranded conformational polymorphism derived from the 3' untranslated region of the H6 cDNA placed this homeobox gene more than 20 centimorgans proximal of the previously mapped HOX7 gene on chromosome 4. Identity comparisons of the H6 homeodomain with previously reported homeodomains reveal the highest identities to be with the Nk class of homeobox genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

  6. Identification and genetic mapping of a homeobox gene to the 4p16.1 region of human chromosome 4.

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, H S; Padanilam, B J; Buetow, K; Murray, J C; Solursh, M

    1992-01-01

    A human craniofacial cDNA library was screened with a degenerate oligonucleotide probe based on the conserved third helix of homeobox genes. From this screening, we identified a homeobox gene, H6, which shared only 57-65% amino acid identity to previously reported homeodomains. H6 was physically mapped to the 4p16.1 region by using somatic cell hybrids containing specific deletions of human chromosome 4. Linkage data from a single-stranded conformational polymorphism derived from the 3' untranslated region of the H6 cDNA placed this homeobox gene more than 20 centimorgans proximal of the previously mapped HOX7 gene on chromosome 4. Identity comparisons of the H6 homeodomain with previously reported homeodomains reveal the highest identities to be with the Nk class of homeobox genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Images PMID:1360670

  7. The spinal muscular atrophy gene region at 5q13.1 has a paralogous chromosomal region at 6p21.3.

    PubMed

    Banyer, J L; Goldwurm, S; Cullen, L; van der Griend, B; Zournazi, A; Smit, D J; Powell, L W; Jazwinska, E C

    1998-03-01

    Paralogous regions are duplicated segments of chromosomal DNA that have been acquired during the evolution of the genome. Subsequent divergent evolution of the genes within paralogous regions can lead to the formation of gene families. Here, we report the identification of a region on Chromosome (Chr) 6 at 6p21.3 that is paralogous with the Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) gene region on Chr 5 at 5q13.1. Partial characterization of this region identified nine sequences all of which are highly homologous to DNA sequences of the SMA gene region at 5q13.1. These sequences include four beta-glucuronidase sequences, two retrotransposon sequences, a novel cDNA, a Sequence Tagged Site (STS), and one that is homologous to exon 9 of the Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitor Protein (NAIP) gene. The 6p21.3 paralogous SMA region may contain genes that are related to those in the SMA region at 5q13.1; however, a direct association of this region with SMA is unlikely given that no linkage of SMA with Chr 6 has been reported.

  8. GNE-886: A Potent and Selective Inhibitor of the Cat Eye Syndrome Chromosome Region Candidate 2 Bromodomain (CECR2).

    PubMed

    Crawford, Terry D; Audia, James E; Bellon, Steve; Burdick, Daniel J; Bommi-Reddy, Archana; Côté, Alexandre; Cummings, Richard T; Duplessis, Martin; Flynn, E Megan; Hewitt, Michael; Huang, Hon-Ren; Jayaram, Hariharan; Jiang, Ying; Joshi, Shivangi; Kiefer, James R; Murray, Jeremy; Nasveschuk, Christopher G; Neiss, Arianne; Pardo, Eneida; Romero, F Anthony; Sandy, Peter; Sims, Robert J; Tang, Yong; Taylor, Alexander M; Tsui, Vickie; Wang, Jian; Wang, Shumei; Wang, Yongyun; Xu, Zhaowu; Zawadzke, Laura; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Albrecht, Brian K; Magnuson, Steven R; Cochran, Andrea G

    2017-07-13

    The biological function of bromodomains, epigenetic readers of acetylated lysine residues, remains largely unknown. Herein we report our efforts to discover a potent and selective inhibitor of the bromodomain of cat eye syndrome chromosome region candidate 2 (CECR2). Screening of our internal medicinal chemistry collection led to the identification of a pyrrolopyridone chemical lead, and subsequent structure-based drug design led to a potent and selective CECR2 bromodomain inhibitor (GNE-886) suitable for use as an in vitro tool compound.

  9. The S proteins of human coronavirus NL63 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus bind overlapping regions of ACE2.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhui; Sui, Jianhua; Huang, I-Chueh; Kuhn, Jens H; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Marasco, Wayne A; Choe, Hyeryun; Farzan, Michael

    2007-10-25

    The cellular receptor for human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), a group I coronavirus, is angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2). ACE2 is also the receptor for the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a group II coronavirus. Here we describe the ability of HCoV-NL63 to utilize a number of ACE2 variants previously characterized as SARS-CoV receptors. Several ACE2 variants that reduced SARS-CoV S-protein association similarly reduced that of HCoV-NL63, whereas alteration of a number of solvent-exposed ACE2 residues did not interfere with binding by either S protein. One notable exception is ACE2 residue 354, at the boundary of the SARS-CoV binding site, whose alteration markedly inhibited utilization by the HCoV-NL63 but not SARS-CoV S proteins. In addition, the SARS-CoV S-protein receptor-binding domain inhibited entry mediated by the HCoV-NL63 S protein. These studies indicate that HCoV-NL63, like SARS-CoV, associates region of human ACE2 that includes a key loop formed by beta-strands 4 and 5.

  10. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Chd3 and Polytene Chromosome Region 76B-D in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Monica T.; Conant, Alexander W.; Kennison, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster Chd3 gene encodes a member of the CHD group of SNF2/RAD54 ATPases. CHD proteins are conserved from yeast to man and many are subunits of chromatin-remodeling complexes that facilitate transcription. Drosophila CHD3 proteins are not found in protein complexes, but as monomers that remodel chromatin in vitro. CHD3 colocalize with elongating RNA polymerase II on salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Since the role of Chd3 in development was unknown, we isolated and characterized the essential genes within the 640-kb region of the third chromosome (polytene chromosome region 76B-D) that includes Chd3. We recovered mutations in 24 genes that are essential for zygotic viability. We found that transposon-insertion mutants for 46% of the essential genes are included in the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project collection. None of the essential genes that we identified are in a 200-kb region that includes Chd3. We generated a deletion of Chd3 by targeted gene replacement. This deletion had no effect on either viability or fertility. PMID:20439780

  11. Region-specific microdissection library and single-copy microclones for human chromosome 2p11-p13

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jingwei; Qi, Jianxin; Kao, Fa-Ten )

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the construction and characterization of a region-specific microdissection library for human chromosome 2p11-p13. This library (designated 2P4 library) is large, comprising 600,000 recombinant microclones. Thirty to 40% of the clones contain unique sequences. The insert sizes range from 100 to 800 bp, with a mean of 380 bp. A subset of the microclones was selected, based on their weak or no hybridization to total human DNA, for further analysis. Of 50 single-copy microclones analyzed, 35 clones (70%) were derived from human and are chromosome 2-specific. The insert sizes and the hybridizing genomic HindIII fragments of these clones were also determined. The 2P3 microdissection library and the single-copy microclones from the library are useful in preparing STS (sequence-tagged site) to isolate corresponding YAC (yeast artificial chromosome) or other clones with large inserts and for isolating region-specific cDNA clones as candidate genes for cloning disease-related genes assigned to this region.

  12. Transcription map of the tuberous sclerosis complex I candidate region in human chromosome segment 9q34

    SciTech Connect

    Murrell, J.; Trofatter, J.; Rutter, M.

    1994-09-01

    A high resolution and transcription map of the tuberous sclerosis (TSCI) region on human chromosome 9 has been constructed between the polymorphic dinucleotide markers DBH and D9S114. This 600 kb region was originally thought to be 2 Mb which is much less than expected given a genetic distance of 4 cM. A minimum of three YACs from the flow-sorted human chromosome 9 library and two cosmids span this distance. Each YAC was used to identify cosmids from the flow-sorted human chromosome 9 cosmid libraries from Los Alamos National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. All cosmids were then subjected to exon amplification, and the resulting exons mapped back to the cosmids and YACs. Fifty exons, 25 sequence tagged sites which include YAC ends and four simple sequence repeats were used to order the map creating a marker every 5-10 Kb. Exons were also used to obtain cDNAs. Two genes with interesting similarity to known sequences were mapped in this region. One 2.7 Kb cDNA that detected a 5.5 Kb transcript on a Northern has homology to a tumor suppressor gene. The other 2.3 Kb cDNA detected a 7 Kb transcript with Northern analysis. This previously unmapped cDNA has sequence similarity to a homeobox gene. Both transcripts are excellent candidate genes for TSCI.

  13. Genetic map of the spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) region on chromosome 12

    SciTech Connect

    Nechiporuk, A.; Frederick, T.; Pulst, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    The autosomal dominant ataxias (SCAs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by progressive ataxia. At least four gene loci have been identified: SCA1 on chromosome (CHR) 6, SCA2 on CHR12, Machado-Joseph disease on CHR14, and SCA families that are not linked to any of the above loci. In addition, the gene causing dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy has been identified as an expanded CAG repeat on CHR 12p. As a necessary step in identifying the gene for SCA2, we now identified closer flanking markers. To do this we ordered microsatellite markers in the now identified closer flanking markers. To do this we ordered microsatellite markers in the region and then determined pairwise and multipoint lod scores between the markers and SCA2 in three large pedigrees with SCA. The following order was established with odds > 1,000:1 using six non-SCA pedigrees: D12S101-7.1cM-D12S58-0cM-IGF1-3.6cM-D12S78-1.4cM-D12S317-3.7cM-D12S84-0cM-D12S105-7.2cM-D12S79-7.0cM-PLA2. Using this ordered set of markers we examined linkage to SCA2 in three pedigrees of Italian, Austrian and French-Canadian descent. Pairwise linkage analysis resulted in significant positive lod scores for all markers. The highest pairwise lod score was obtained with D12S84/D12S105 (Z{sub max}=7.98, theta{sub max}=0.05). To further define the location of SCA2, we performed multipoint linkage analysis using the genetic map established above. The highest location score was obtained between D12S317 and D12S84/D12S105. A location of SCA2 between these loci was favored with odds > 100:1. These data likely narrow the SCA2 candidate region to approximately 3.7 cM. The relatively large large number of markers tightly linked to SCA2 will facilitate the assignment of additional SCA pedigrees to CHR12, and will help in the presymptomatic diagnosis of individuals in families with proven linkage to CHR12.

  14. Flagellar region 3b supports strong expression of integrated DNA and the highest chromosomal integration efficiency of the Escherichia coli flagellar regions

    PubMed Central

    Juhas, Mario; Ajioka, James W

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is routinely used as the chassis for a variety of biotechnology and synthetic biology applications. Identification and analysis of reliable chromosomal integration and expression target loci is crucial for E. coli engineering. Chromosomal loci differ significantly in their ability to support integration and expression of the integrated genetic circuits. In this study, we investigate E. coli K12 MG1655 flagellar regions 2 and 3b. Integration of the genetic circuit into seven and nine highly conserved genes of the flagellar regions 2 (motA, motB, flhD, flhE, cheW, cheY and cheZ) and 3b (fliE, F, G, J, K, L, M, P, R), respectively, showed significant variation in their ability to support chromosomal integration and expression of the integrated genetic circuit. While not reducing the growth of the engineered strains, the integrations into all 16 target sites led to the loss of motility. In addition to high expression, the flagellar region 3b supports the highest efficiency of integration of all E. coli K12 MG1655 flagellar regions and is therefore potentially the most suitable for the integration of synthetic genetic circuits. PMID:26074421

  15. The origin of the non-recombining region of sex chromosomes in Carica and Vasconcellea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Moore, Richard C; Zee, Francis; Huber, Steven C; Ming, Ray

    2010-09-01

    Carica and Vasconcellea are two closely related sister genera in the family Caricaceae, and were once classified as two sections under Carica. Sex chromosomes have been found in papaya and originated approximately 2-3 million years ago. The objectives of this study were to determine whether sex chromosomes have evolved in Vasconcellea. Six X/Y gene pairs were cloned, sequenced and analyzed from three dioecious, one trioecious and one monoecious species of Vasconcellea. The isolation of distinctive X and Y alleles in dioecious and trioecious species of Vasconcellea demonstrated that sex chromosomes have evolved in this genus. Phylogenetic analyses indicated a monophyletic relationship between the X/Y alleles of Carica and those of Vasconcellea. Distinctive clusters of X/Y alleles were documented in V. parviflora and V. pulchra for all available gene sequences, and in V. goudatinana and V. cardinamarcensis for some X/Y alleles. The X and Y alleles within each species shared most single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes that differed from other species. Limited evidence of gene conversion was documented among the X/Y alleles of some species, but was not sufficient to cause the evolutionary patterns reported herein. The Carica and Vasconcellea sex chromosomes may have originated from the same autosomes bearing the X allelic form that still exist in the monoecious species V. monoica, and have evolved independently after the speciation event that separated Carica from Vasconcellea. Within Vasconcellea, sex chromosomes have evolved at the species level, at least for some species.

  16. The Pseudoautosomal Regions of the U/V Sex Chromosomes of the Brown Alga Ectocarpus Exhibit Unusual Features

    PubMed Central

    Luthringer, Rémy; Lipinska, Agnieszka P.; Roze, Denis; Cormier, Alexandre; Macaisne, Nicolas; Peters, Akira F.; Cock, J. Mark; Coelho, Susana M.

    2015-01-01

    The recombining regions of sex chromosomes (pseudoautosomal regions, PARs) are predicted to exhibit unusual features due to their being genetically linked to the nonrecombining, sex-determining region. This phenomenon is expected to occur in both diploid (XY, ZW) and haploid (UV) sexual systems, with slightly different consequences for UV sexual systems because of the absence of masking during the haploid phase (when sex is expressed) and because there is no homozygous sex in these systems. Despite a considerable amount of theoretical work on PAR genetics and evolution, these genomic regions have remained poorly characterized empirically. We show here that although the PARs of the U/V sex chromosomes of the brown alga Ectocarpus recombine at a similar rate to autosomal regions of the genome, they exhibit many genomic features typical of nonrecombining regions. The PARs were enriched in clusters of genes that are preferentially, and often exclusively, expressed during the sporophyte generation of the life cycle, and many of these genes appear to have evolved since the Ectocarpales diverged from other brown algal lineages. A modeling-based approach was used to investigate possible evolutionary mechanisms underlying this enrichment in sporophyte-biased genes. Our results are consistent with the evolution of the PAR in haploid systems being influenced by differential selection pressures in males and females acting on alleles that are advantageous during the sporophyte generation of the life cycle. PMID:26248564

  17. The Pseudoautosomal Regions of the U/V Sex Chromosomes of the Brown Alga Ectocarpus Exhibit Unusual Features.

    PubMed

    Luthringer, Rémy; Lipinska, Agnieszka P; Roze, Denis; Cormier, Alexandre; Macaisne, Nicolas; Peters, Akira F; Cock, J Mark; Coelho, Susana M

    2015-11-01

    The recombining regions of sex chromosomes (pseudoautosomal regions, PARs) are predicted to exhibit unusual features due to their being genetically linked to the nonrecombining, sex-determining region. This phenomenon is expected to occur in both diploid (XY, ZW) and haploid (UV) sexual systems, with slightly different consequences for UV sexual systems because of the absence of masking during the haploid phase (when sex is expressed) and because there is no homozygous sex in these systems. Despite a considerable amount of theoretical work on PAR genetics and evolution, these genomic regions have remained poorly characterized empirically. We show here that although the PARs of the U/V sex chromosomes of the brown alga Ectocarpus recombine at a similar rate to autosomal regions of the genome, they exhibit many genomic features typical of nonrecombining regions. The PARs were enriched in clusters of genes that are preferentially, and often exclusively, expressed during the sporophyte generation of the life cycle, and many of these genes appear to have evolved since the Ectocarpales diverged from other brown algal lineages. A modeling-based approach was used to investigate possible evolutionary mechanisms underlying this enrichment in sporophyte-biased genes. Our results are consistent with the evolution of the PAR in haploid systems being influenced by differential selection pressures in males and females acting on alleles that are advantageous during the sporophyte generation of the life cycle.

  18. Copy number alterations of chromosomal regions enclosing protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-like genes in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Laczmanska, Izabela; Karpinski, Pawel; Kozlowska, Joanna; Bebenek, Marek; Ramsey, David; Sedziak, Tomasz; Ziolkowski, Piotr; Sasiadek, Maria M

    2014-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases that act in different cellular pathways are described most commonly as tumor suppressors, but also as oncogenes. Their role has previously been described in colorectal cancer, as well as in gastric, breast, thyroid, prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, glioma, liver, leukemia and many other cancers. In a previous study, we have described protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type T, M, Z1 and Q genes (PTPRT, PTPRM, PTPRZ1 and PTPRQ) hypermethylated in sporadic colorectal cancer. Thus, in this study, we examined the relation of unbalanced chromosomal alterations within regions covering these four protein tyrosine phosphatase genes with this cancer. One hundred and two cancer tissues were molecularly characterized, including analysis of the BRAF and K-ras mutations and methylator phenotype. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations was performed using Comparative Genomic Hybridization. We observed amplification of three regions containing genes coding for PTPs, such as PTPRZ1 (7q31.3, amplified in 23.5% of cases), PTPRQ (12q21.2, amplified in 5.9% of cases), PTPRT (20q12, amplified in 29.4% of cases), along with deletions in the region of PTPRM (18p11.2, deleted in 21.6% of cases). These data may suggest that in sporadic colorectal cancer PTPRZ1, PTPRT, PTPRQ probably act as oncogenes, while PTPRM acts as a tumor suppressor gene. Our study also revealed that gains on chromosome 20q12 and losses on chromosome 18p11.2 are connected with the absence of the BRAF mutation and the conventional adenocarcinoma pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased disomic homozygosity in the telomeric region of chromosome 21 among Down Syndrome individuals with duodenal atresia

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, N.E.; Feingold, E.; Sherman, S.L.

    1994-09-01

    Although duodenal atresia (DA) is present in only 4-7% of all Down Syndrome (DS) individuals, 30-50% of all congenital duodenal atresias occur in the DS population, suggesting the presence of gene(s) on chromosome 21 that play an important role in intestinal development. We recently proposed a chromosome 21 gene dosage model to explain the phenotypic variance seen among DS individuals and presented a strategy to map genes involved in these phenotypic traits. We suggest that {open_quote}hyper-dosage{close_quote} resulting from normal allelic differences explains the phenotypic variation. A proportion of trisomic genotypes would exceed some activity threshold and express the trait. In affected individuals, this increase in expression is due to the presence of two identical copies of {open_quote}susceptibility{close_quote} allele, inherited from a heterozygous parent of origin. Individuals with trisomy 21 and a specific phenotypic defect should exhibit increased levels of disomic homozygosity in the region containing the gene involved in the defect`s etiology. These data can be used to map these genes. Using this approach, we have examined markers along the long arm of chromosome 21 among DS individuals with DA and determined the degree of disomic homozygosity at each marker. This frequency was compared to the level of disomic homozygosity among our entire DS study population consisting of approximately 380 DS families to test for linkage between DA and each marker. Preliminary analysis of 13 DS cases with DA indicates an increase in disomic homozygosity along the distal region of the chromosome, from HMG14 to D21S171, the most telomeric marker analyzed. An additional 15 cases are currently being analyzed to confirm and better define this candidate region.

  20. Toward a bacterial genome technology: integration of the Escherichia coli prophage lambda genome into the Bacillus subtilis 168 chromosome.

    PubMed

    Itaya, M

    1995-07-22

    A novel approach to the cloning large DNAs in the Bacillus subtilis chromosome was examined. An Escherichia coli prophage lambda DNA (48.5 kb) was assembled in the chromosome of B. subtilis. The lambda DNA was first subcloned in four segments, having partially overlapping regions. Assembly of the complete prophage was achieved by successive transformation using three discrete DNA integration modes: overlap-elongation, Campbell-type integration, and gap-filling. In the B. subtilis chromosome, DNA was elongated, using contiguous DNA segments, via overlap-elongation. Jumping from one end of a contiguous DNA stretch to another segment was achieved by Campbell-type integration. The remaining gap was sealed by gap-filling. The incorporated lambda DNA thus assembled was stably replicated as part of the 4188 kb B. subtilis chromosome under non-selective conditions. The present method can be used to accommodate larger DNAs in the B. subtilis chromosome and possible applications of this technique are discussed.

  1. [Microcloning and characteristics of DNA from regions of the centromeric heterochromatin of Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Rutsov, N B; Alekseenko, A A; Beliaeva, E S; Volkova, E I; Kokoza, E B; Makunin, I V; Moshkin, Iu M; Shestopal, S A; Zhimulev, I F

    1999-01-01

    A method of microcloning, which involves microsurgical excision of chromosome fragments, DNA amplification by means of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and ligation of amplified products with plasmids, was employed in studying Drosophila polytene chromosomes for the first time. Clones of the DNA library thus obtained contained inserts varying in size from 0.1 to 0.5 kb. DNA sequencing of five clones of the library showed that pericentromeric heterochromatin contained the 17.6 and 297 retrotransposons, the ninja retrotransposon characteristic of D. simulans, and two Drosophila repetitive elements, a8 and a12, the function of which remains unknown.

  2. Random search for shared chromosomal regions in four affected individuals: the assignment of a new hereditary ataxia locus

    SciTech Connect

    Nikali, K.; Suomalainen, A.; Koskinen, T.; Peltonen, L.; Terwilliger, J.; Weissenbach, J.

    1995-05-01

    Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is an autosomal recessively inherited progressive neurological disorder of unknown etiology. This ataxia, identified so far only in the genetically isolated Finnish population, does not share gene locus with any of the previously identified hereditary ataxias, and a random mapping approach was adopted to assign the IOSCA locus. Based on the assumption of one founder mutation, a primary screening of the genome was performed using samples from just four affected individuals in two consanguineous pedigrees. The identification of a shared chromosomal region in these four patients provided the first evidence that the IOSCA gene locus is on chromosome 10q23.3-q24.1, which was confirmed by conventional linkage analysis in the complete family material. Strong linkage disequilibrium observed between IOSCA and the linked markers was utilized to define accurately the critical chromosomal region. The results showed the power of linkage disequilibrium in the locus assignment of diseases with very limited family materials. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Precise estimation of genomic regions controlling lodging resistance using a set of reciprocal chromosome segment substitution lines in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ookawa, Taiichiro; Aoba, Ryo; Yamamoto, Toshio; Ueda, Tadamasa; Takai, Toshiyuki; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Ando, Tsuyu; Adachi, Shunsuke; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ebitani, Takeshi; Kato, Yoichiro; Mulsanti, Indria Wahyu; Kishii, Masahiro; Reynolds, Matthew; Piñera, Francisco; Kotake, Toshihisa; Kawasaki, Shinji; Motobayashi, Takashi; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Severe lodging has occurred in many improved rice varieties after the recent strong typhoons in East and Southeast Asian countries. The indica variety Takanari possesses strong culm characteristics due to its large section modulus, which indicates culm thickness, whereas the japonica variety Koshihikari is subject to substantial bending stress due to its thick cortical fibre tissue. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for lodging resistance and to eliminate the effects of genetic background, we used reciprocal chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) derived from a cross between Koshihikari and Takanari. The oppositional effects of QTLs for section modulus were confirmed in both genetic backgrounds on chromosomes 1, 5 and 6, suggesting that these QTLs are not affected by the genetic background and are controlled independently by a single factor. The candidate region of a QTL for section modulus included SD1. The section modulus of NIL-sd1 was lower than that of Koshihikari, whereas the section modulus of NIL-SD1 was higher than that of Takanari. This result indicated that those regions regulate the culm thickness. The reciprocal effects of the QTLs for cortical fibre tissue thickness were confirmed in both genetic backgrounds on chromosome 9 using CSSLs. PMID:27465821

  4. A ninth locus (RP18) for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa maps in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Xu, S Y; Schwartz, M; Rosenberg, T; Gal, A

    1996-08-01

    We studied a large Danish family of seven generations in which autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), a heterogeneous genetic form of retinal dystrophy, was segregating. After linkage had been excluded to all known adRP loci on chromosomes 3q, 6p, 7p, 7q, 8q, 17p, 17q and 19q, a genome screening was performed. Positive lod scores suggestive of linkage with values ranging between Z = 1.58-5.36 at theta = 0.04-0.20 were obtained for eight loci on proximal 1p and 1q. Close linkage without recombination and a maximum lod score of 7.22 at theta = 0.00 was found between the adRP locus (RP18) in this family and D1S498 which is on 1q very near the centromere. Analysis of multiply informative meioses suggests that in this family D1S534 and D1S305 flank RP18 in interval 1p13-q23. No linkage has been found to loci from this chromosomal region in six other medium sized adRP families in which the disease locus has been excluded from all known chromosomal regions harbouring an adRP gene or locus suggesting that there is (at least) one further adRP locus to be mapped in the future.

  5. Exclusion of linkage between alcoholism and the MNS blood group region on chromosome 4q in multiplex families

    SciTech Connect

    Neiswanger, K.; Kaplan, B.; Hill, S.Y.

    1995-02-27

    Polymorphic DNA markers on the long arm of chromosome 4 were used to examine linkage to alcoholism in 20 multiplex pedigrees. Fifteen loci were determined for 124 individuals. Lod scores were calculated assuming both dominant and recessive disease modes of inheritance, utilizing incidence data by age and gender that allow for correction for variable age of onset and frequency of the disorder by gender. Under the assumption that alcoholism is homogeneous in this set of pedigrees, and that a recessive mode with age and gender correction is the most appropriate, the total lod scores for all families combined were uniformly lower than -2.0. This suggests an absence of linkage between the putative alcoholism susceptibility gene and markers in the region of the MNS blood group (4q28-31), a region for which we had previously found suggestive evidence of linkage to alcoholism. The 100 cM span of chromosome 4 studied includes the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) loci. Using the recessive mode, no evidence for linkage to alcoholism was found for the markers tested, which spanned almost the entire long arm of chromosome 4. Under the dominant mode, no evidence for linkage could be found for several of the markers. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Chromosomal and molecular evidence for presence of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) poseidon (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) in Caucasus region

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.; Tikhonov, Valentin V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We show how combination of chromosomal and molecular markers can be applied for proper species identification in Agrodiaetus Hübner, 1822 blue butterflies. Using this approach we provide first evidence for presence of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) poseidon (Herrich-Schäffer, [1851]) in Georgia. PMID:26140166

  7. Chromosomal and molecular evidence for presence of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) poseidon (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) in Caucasus region.

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Tikhonov, Valentin V

    2015-01-01

    We show how combination of chromosomal and molecular markers can be applied for proper species identification in Agrodiaetus Hübner, 1822 blue butterflies. Using this approach we provide first evidence for presence of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) poseidon (Herrich-Schäffer, [1851]) in Georgia.

  8. Identification of the first gene (FRG1) from the FSHD region on human chromosome 4q35.

    PubMed

    van Deutekom, J C; Lemmers, R J; Grewal, P K; van Geel, M; Romberg, S; Dauwerse, H G; Wright, T J; Padberg, G W; Hofker, M H; Hewitt, J E; Frants, R R

    1996-05-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant, neuromuscular disorder characterized by progressive weakness of muscles in the face, shoulder and upper arm. Deletion of integral copies of a 3.3 kb repeated unit from the subtelomeric region on chromosome 4q35 has been shown to be associated with FSHD. These repeated units which are apparently not transcribed, map very close to the 4q telomere and belong to a 3.3 kb repeat family dispersed over heterochromatic regions of the genome. Hence, position effect variegation (PEV), inducing allele-specific transcriptional repression of a gene located more centromeric, has been postulated as the underlying genetic mechanism of FSHD. This hypothesis has directed the search for the FSHD gene to the region centromeric to the repeated units. A CpG island was identified and found to be associated with the 5' untranslated region of a novel human gene, FRG1 (FSHD Region Gene 1). This evolutionary conserved gene is located about 100 kb proximal to the repeated units and belongs to a multigene family with FRG1 related sequences on multiple chromosomes. The mature chromosome 4 FRG1 transcript is 1042 bp in length and contains nine exons which encode a putative protein of 258 amino acid residues. Transcription of FRG1 was detected in several human tissues including placenta, lymphocytes, brain and muscle. To investigate a possible PEV mechanism, allele-specific FRG1 steady-state transcript levels were determined using RNA-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. A polymorphic fragment contained within the first exon of FRG1 was amplified from reverse transcribed RNA from lymphocytes and muscle biopsies of patients and controls. No evidence for PEV mediated repression of allelic transcription was obtained in these tissues. However, detection of PEV in FSHD patients may require analysis of more specific cell types at particular developmental stages.

  9. Comparative transcription map of the wobbler critical region on mouse chromosome 11 and the homologous region on human chromosome 2p13-14

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Sonja; Resch, Karin; Thiel, Cora; Ulbrich, Michael; Platzer, Matthias; Jockusch, Harald; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Background To support the positional cloning of the mouse mutation wobbler (wr) the corresponding regions on human Chr2p13-14 and mouse Chr11 were analyzed in detail and compared with respect to gene content, order, and orientation. Results The gene content of the investigated regions was highly conserved between the two species: 20 orthologous genes were identified on our BAC/YAC contig comprising 4.5 Mb between REL/Rel and RAB1A/Rab1a. Exceptions were pseudogenes ELP and PX19 whose mouse counterparts were not located within the analyzed region. Two independently isolated genomic clones indicate an inversion between man and mouse with the inverted segment being identical to the wobbler critical interval. We investigated the wobbler critical region by extensive STS/EST mapping and genomic sequencing. Additionally, the full-length cDNA sequences of four newly mapped genes as well as the previously mapped gene Otx1 were established and subjected to mutation analysis. Our data indicate that all genes in the wr critical region have been identified. Conclusion Unexpectedly, neither mutation analysis of cDNAs nor levels of mRNAs indicated which of the candidate genes might be affected by the wr mutation. The possibility arises that there might be hitherto unknown effects of mutations, in addition to structural changes of the mRNA or regulatory abnormalities. PMID:12174196

  10. Physical and transcriptional map of the mouse Chromosome 10 proximal region syntenic to human 6q16-q21.

    PubMed

    Chalhoub, N; Benachenhou, N; Vacher, J

    2001-12-01

    Toward the isolation of the grey-lethal (gl) gene, we have genetically localized this locus on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 10 between the Fyn gene and the D10Mit148 microsatellite marker. Here, we have screened five yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) libraries and isolated more than 100 YAC clones mapping to this region. Forty-two clones were characterized and assembled in an approximately 8.5 megabases (Mb) contig showing high linkage conservation with the human 6q16-q21 interval. During this study, 24 specific novel sequence-tagged sites (STSs) were derived from YAC insert ends, and 15 mouse genes were precisely mapped to the contig. The physical and transcriptional map presented here will provide novel resources to isolate the gl locus associated with osteopetrosis, and will also provide candidate loci for other defects mapped on human Chr 6q.

  11. Cloning and deletion mapping of the recF dnaN region of the Escherichia coli chromosome.

    PubMed

    Ream, L W; Clark, A J

    1983-09-01

    By cloning a 3.6-kb EcoRI fragment of the Escherichia coli chromosome with pBR322 we located more precisely recF relative to dnaN. By deletion mapping we localized functional recF to a 1.65-kb region of the cloned fragment and allowed rough mapping of the C terminus of dnaN. Cloned recF+, separated from functional flanking genes dnaN and gyrB, complemented chromosomal recF mutations presumably by coding for a cytodiffusible product. The protein encoded by dnaN was observed as a band on a polyacrylamide gel from minicells. Identification of a recF protein was not made.

  12. [Comparative FISH analysis of C-positive blocks of centromeric chromosomal regions of pygmy wood mice Sylvaemus uralensis (Rodentia, Muridae)].

    PubMed

    Karamysheva, T V; Bogdanov, A S; Kartavtseva, I V; Likhoshvaĭ, T V; Bochkarev, M N; Kolcheva, N E; Marochkina, V V; Rubtsov, N B

    2010-06-01

    The composition and homology of centromeric heterochromatin DNA has been compared in representatives of the Asian race and two chromosomal forms (Eastern European and Southern European) of the European race of the pygmy wood mouse Sylvaemus uralensis by means of in situ hybridization with metaphase chromosomes of microdissection DNA probes obtained from centromeric C-blocks of mice of the Southern European chromosomal form and the Asian race. Joint hybridization of both DNA probes yielded all possible variants of centromeric regions in terms of the presence of repetitive sequences homologous to those of some or another dissection region, which indicates a diversity of centromeric regions differing in DNA composition. However, most variations of the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) patterns are apparently related to quantitative differences of repetitive elements of the genome. Experiments with the DNA probe obtained from the genome of the Southern European form of the pygmy wood mouse have shown that the number of intense FISH signals roughly corresponds to the number of large C-segments in representatives of the European race, which is characterized by a large amount of the centromeric C-heterochromatin in the karyotype. However, intense signals have been also detected in experiments on hybridization of this probe with chromosomes of representatives of the Asian race, which has no large C-blocks in the karyotype; thus, DNA sequences homologous to heterochromatic ones are also present in nonheterochromatic regions adjacent to C-segments. Despite the variations of the numbers of both intense and weak FISH signals, all chromosomal forms/races of S. uralensis significantly differ from one another in these characters. The number of intense FISH signals in DNA from the samples of pygmy wood mice from eastern Turkmenistan (the Kugitang ridge) and southern Omsk oblast (the vicinity of the Talapker railway station) was intermediate between those in the European and

  13. Exclusion of candidate genes from the chromosome 1q juvenile glaucoma region and mapping of the peripheral cannabis receptor gene (CNR2) to chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sunden, S.L.F.; Nichols, B.E.; Alward, W.L.M.

    1994-09-01

    Juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma has been mapped by linkage to 1q21-q31. Several candidate genes were evaluated in the same family used to identify the primary linkage. Atrionatriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR1) and laminin C1 (LAMC1) have been previously mapped to this region and could putatively play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. A third gene, the peripheral cannabis receptor (CNR2) was not initially mapped in humans but was a candidate because of the relief that cannabis affords some patients with primary open angle glaucoma. Microsatellites associated with NPR1 and LAMC1 revealed multiple recombinations in affected members of this pedigree. CNR2 was shown to be on chromosome 1 by PCR amplification of a 150 bp fragment of the 3{prime} untranslated region in monochromosomal somatic cell hybrids (NIGMS panel No. 2). These primers also revealed a two allele single strand conformation polymorphism which showed multiple recombinants with juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma in large pedigrees, segregating this disorder. The marker was then mapped to 1p34-p36 by linkage, with the most likely location between liver alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) and alpha-L-1 fucosidase (FUCA1).

  14. Molecular genetics of the brown (b)-locus region of mouse chromosome 4. II. Complementation analyses of lethal brown deletions.

    PubMed

    Rinchik, E M

    1994-07-01

    Numerous new mutations at the brown (b) locus in mouse chromosome 4 have been recovered over the years in germ-cell mutagenesis experiments performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A large series of radiation- and chemical-induced b mutations known to be chromosomal deletions, and also known to be prenatally lethal when homozygous, were analyzed by pairwise complementation crosses as well as by pseudodominance tests involving flanking loci defined by externally visible phenotypes. These crosses were designed to determine the extent of each deletion on the genetic and phenotype map of the chromosomal region surrounding the b locus; the crosses also provided basic data that assigned deletions to complementation groups and defined four new loci associated with aberrancies in normal development. Specifically, the pseudodominance tests identified deletions that include the proximally mapping whirler (wi) and the distally mapping depilated (dep) genes, thereby bracketing these loci defined by visible developmental abnormalities with landmarks (deletion breakpoints) that are easily identified on the physical map. Furthermore, the complementation crosses, which were supplemented with additional crosses that allowed determination of the gross time of lethality of selected deletions, defined four new loci required for normal development. Homozygous deletion of one of these loci (b-associated fitness, baf) results in a runting syndrome evident during postnatal development; deletion of one locus [l(4)2Rn] causes death in the late gestation/neonatal period; and deletion of either of two loci [l(4)1Rn or l(4)3Rn] results in embryonic death, most likely in pre-, peri- or postimplantation stages. The placement of these new functionally defined loci on the evolving molecular map of the b region should be useful for continuing the analysis of the roles played in development by genes in this segment of chromosome 4.

  15. The 630-kb lung cancer homozygous deletion region on human chromosome 3p21.3: identification and evaluation of the resident candidate tumor suppressor genes. The International Lung Cancer Chromosome 3p21.3 Tumor Suppressor Gene Consortium.

    PubMed

    Lerman, M I; Minna, J D

    2000-11-01

    We used overlapping and nested homozygous deletions, contig building, genomic sequencing, and physical and transcript mapping to further define a approximately 630-kb lung cancer homozygous deletion region harboring one or more tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) on chromosome 3p21.3. This location was identified through somatic genetic mapping in tumors, cancer cell lines, and premalignant lesions of the lung and breast, including the discovery of several homozygous deletions. The combination of molecular manual methods and computational predictions permitted us to detect, isolate, characterize, and annotate a set of 25 genes that likely constitute the complete set of protein-coding genes residing in this approximately 630-kb sequence. A subset of 19 of these genes was found within the deleted overlap region of approximately 370-kb. This region was further subdivided by a nesting 200-kb breast cancer homozygous deletion into two gene sets: 8 genes lying in the proximal approximately 120-kb segment and 11 genes lying in the distal approximately 250-kb segment. These 19 genes were analyzed extensively by computational methods and were tested by manual methods for loss of expression and mutations in lung cancers to identify candidate TSGs from within this group. Four genes showed loss-of-expression or reduced mRNA levels in non-small cell lung cancer (CACNA2D2/alpha2delta-2, SEMA3B [formerly SEMA(V), BLU, and HYAL1] or small cell lung cancer (SEMA3B, BLU, and HYAL1) cell lines. We found six of the genes to have two or more amino acid sequence-altering mutations including BLU, NPRL2/Gene21, FUS1, HYAL1, FUS2, and SEMA3B. However, none of the 19 genes tested for mutation showed a frequent (>10%) mutation rate in lung cancer samples. This led us to exclude several of the genes in the region as classical tumor suppressors for sporadic lung cancer. On the other hand, the putative lung cancer TSG in this location may either be inactivated by tumor-acquired promoter

  16. Role of the tau gene region chromosome inversion in progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Webb, Amy; Miller, Bruce; Bonasera, Stephen; Boxer, Adam; Karydas, Anna; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2008-11-01

    An inverted region on chromosome 17 has been previously linked to many Pick complex diseases. Due to the inversion, an exact causal locus has been difficult to identify, but the microtubule-associated protein tau gene is a likely candidate gene for its involvement in these diseases with tau inclusion. To search for variants that confer susceptibility to 4 tauopathies and clinically related disorders. Genomewide association study. University research laboratory. A total of 231 samples were genotyped from an unrelated white population of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), frontotemporal dementia, and frontotemporal dementia with amyotrophy. Unaffected individuals from the same population were used as controls. The results from an inverted region of chromosome 17 that contains the MAPT gene. Genotypes of cases and controls were compared using a Fisher exact test on a marker-by-marker basis. Haplotypes were determined by visually inspecting genotypes. Comparing any particular disease and controls, the association was constant across the inverted chromosome segment. Significant associations were seen for PSP and PSP combined with CBD. Of the 2 haplotypes seen in the region, H1 was overrepresented in PSP and CBD cases compared with controls. As expected, the markers are highly correlated and the association is seen across the entire region, which makes it difficult to narrow down a disease-causing variant or even a possible candidate gene. However, considering the pathologic abnormalities of these diseases and the involvement of tau mutations seen in familial forms, the MAPT gene represents the most likely cause driving the association.

  17. Overlap in Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, William W.; Wilson, Concepcion S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the topic of Fuzzy Set Theory to determine the overlap of coverage in bibliographic databases. Highlights include examples of comparisons of database coverage; frequency distribution of the degree of overlap; records with maximum overlap; records unique to one database; intra-database duplicates; and overlap in the top ten databases.…

  18. A 2-Mb YAC/BAC-based physical map of the ovum mutant (Om) locus region on mouse chromosome 11.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Tannoudji, M; Vandormael-Pournin, S; Le Bras, S; Coumailleau, F; Babinet, C; Baldacci, P

    2000-09-15

    The embryonic lethal phenotype observed when DDK females are crossed with males from other strains results from a deleterious interaction between the egg cytoplasm and the paternal pronucleus soon after fertilization. We have previously mapped the Om locus responsible for this phenotype, called the DDK syndrome, to an approximately 2-cM region of chromosome 11. Here, we report the generation of a physical map of 28 yeast and bacterial artificial chromosome clones encompassing the entire genetic interval containing the Om locus. This contig, spanning approximately 2 Mb, was used to map precisely genes and genetic markers of the region. We determined the maximum physical interval for Om to be 1400 kb. In addition, 11 members of the Scya gene family were found to be organized into two clusters at the borders of the Om region. Two other genes (Rad51l3 and Schlafen 2) and one EST (D11Wsu78e) were also mapped in the Om region. This integrated map provides support for the identification of additional candidate genes for the DDK syndrome. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Mapping of the chromosome 1p36 region surrounding the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A locus

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, P.; Gere, S.; Wolpert, C.

    1994-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy. Although CMT2 is clinically indistinguishable from CMT1, the two forms can be differentiated by pathological and neurophysiological methods. We have established one locus, CMT2A on chromosome 1p36, and have established genetic heterogeneity. This locus maps to the region of the deletions associated with neuroblastoma. We have now identified an additional 11 CMT2 families. Three families are linked to chromosome 1p36 while six families are excluded from this region. Another six families are currently under analysis and collection. To date the CMT2A families represent one third of those CMT2 families examined. We have established a microdissection library of the 1p36 region which is currently being characterized for microsatellite repeats and STSs using standard hybridization techniques and a modified degenerate primer method. In addition, new markers (D1S253, D1S450, D1S489, D1S503, GATA27E04, and GATA4H04) placed in this region are being mapped using critical recombinants in the CEPH reference pedigrees. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to confirm mapping. A YAC contig is being assembled from the CEPH megabase library using STSs to isolate key YACs which are extended by vectorette end clone and Alu-PCR. These findings suggest that the CMT2 phenotype is secondary to at least two different genes and demonstrates further heterogeneity in the CMT phenotype.

  20. Mitotic chromosome structure

    SciTech Connect

    Heermann, Dieter W.

    2012-07-15

    Mounting evidence is compiling linking the physical organizational structure of chromosomes and the nuclear structure to biological function. At the base of the physical organizational structure of both is the concept of loop formation. This implies that physical proximity within chromosomes is provided for otherwise distal genomic regions and thus hierarchically organizing the chromosomes. Together with entropy many experimental observations can be explained with these two concepts. Among the observations that can be explained are the measured physical extent of the chromosomes, their shape, mechanical behavior, the segregation into territories (chromosomal and territories within chromosomes), the results from chromosome conformation capture experiments, as well as linking gene expression to structural organization.

  1. Peopling of the North Circumpolar Region – Insights from Y Chromosome STR and SNP Typing of Greenlanders

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Jill Katharina; Pereira, Vania; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The human population in Greenland is characterized by migration events of Paleo- and Neo-Eskimos, as well as admixture with Europeans. In this study, the Y-chromosomal variation in male Greenlanders was investigated in detail by typing 73 Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) and 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs). Approximately 40% of the analyzed Greenlandic Y chromosomes were of European origin (I-M170, R1a-M513 and R1b-M343). Y chromosomes of European origin were mainly found in individuals from the west and south coasts of Greenland, which is in agreement with the historic records of the geographic placements of European settlements in Greenland. Two Inuit Y-chromosomal lineages, Q-M3 (xM19, M194, L663, SA01 and L766) and Q-NWT01 (xM265) were found in 23% and 31% of the male Greenlanders, respectively. The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of the Q-M3 lineage of the Greenlanders was estimated to be between 4,400 and 10,900 years ago (y. a.) using two different methods. This is in agreement with the theory that the North Circumpolar Region was populated via a second expansion of humans in the North American continent. The TMRCA of the Q-NWT01 (xM265) lineage in Greenland was estimated to be between 7,000 and 14,300 y. a. using two different methods, which is older than the previously reported TMRCA of this lineage in other Inuit populations. Our results indicate that Inuit individuals carrying the Q-NWT01 (xM265) lineage may have their origin in the northeastern parts of North America and could be descendants of the Dorset culture. This in turn points to the possibility that the current Inuit population in Greenland is comprised of individuals of both Thule and Dorset descent. PMID:25635810

  2. Targeted sequencing in chromosome 17q linkage region identifies familial glioma candidates in the Gliogene Consortium.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Ali; Amirian, E Susan; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Armstrong, Georgina N; Liu, Yanhong; Tsavachidis, Spyros; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Plon, Sharon E; Lau, Ching C; Claus, Elizabeth B; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Il'yasova, Dora; Schildkraut, Joellen; Ali-Osman, Francis; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Houlston, Richard S; Jenkins, Robert B; Lachance, Daniel; Olson, Sara H; Bernstein, Jonine L; Merrell, Ryan T; Wrensch, Margaret R; Davis, Faith G; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Aldape, Kenneth; Amos, Christopher I; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Melin, Beatrice S; Bondy, Melissa L

    2015-02-05

    Glioma is a rare, but highly fatal, cancer that accounts for the majority of malignant primary brain tumors. Inherited predisposition to glioma has been consistently observed within non-syndromic families. Our previous studies, which involved non-parametric and parametric linkage analyses, both yielded significant linkage peaks on chromosome 17q. Here, we use data from next generation and Sanger sequencing to identify familial glioma candidate genes and variants on chromosome 17q for further investigation. We applied a filtering schema to narrow the original list of 4830 annotated variants down to 21 very rare (<0.1% frequency), non-synonymous variants. Our findings implicate the MYO19 and KIF18B genes and rare variants in SPAG9 and RUNDC1 as candidates worthy of further investigation. Burden testing and functional studies are planned.

  3. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a novel gene DGCR8 located in the DiGeorge syndrome chromosomal region.

    PubMed

    Shiohama, Aiko; Sasaki, Takashi; Noda, Setsuko; Minoshima, Shinsei; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2003-04-25

    We have identified and cloned a novel gene (DGCR8) from the human chromosome 22q11.2. This gene is located in the DiGeorge syndrome chromosomal region (DGCR). It consists of 14 exons spanning over 35kb and produces transcripts with ORF of 2322bp, encoding a protein of 773 amino acids. We also isolated a mouse ortholog Dgcr8 and found it has 95.3% identity with human DGCR8 at the amino acid sequence level. Northern blot analysis of human and mouse tissues from adult and fetus showed rather ubiquitous expression. However, the in situ hybridization of mouse embryos revealed that mouse Dgcr8 transcripts are localized in neuroepithelium of primary brain, limb bud, vessels, thymus, and around the palate during the developmental stages of embryos. The expression profile of Dgcr8 in developing mouse embryos is consistent with the clinical phenotypes including congenital heart defects and palate clefts associated with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS)/conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CAFS)/velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), which are caused by monoallelic microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2.

  4. Inversion of the Chromosomal Region between Two Mating Type Loci Switches the Mating Type in Hansenula polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Hiromi; Kaneko, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Yeast mating type is determined by the genotype at the mating type locus (MAT). In homothallic (self-fertile) Saccharomycotina such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluveromyces lactis, high-efficiency switching between a and α mating types enables mating. Two silent mating type cassettes, in addition to an active MAT locus, are essential components of the mating type switching mechanism. In this study, we investigated the structure and functions of mating type genes in H. polymorpha (also designated as Ogataea polymorpha). The H. polymorpha genome was found to harbor two MAT loci, MAT1 and MAT2, that are ∼18 kb apart on the same chromosome. MAT1-encoded α1 specifies α cell identity, whereas none of the mating type genes were required for a identity and mating. MAT1-encoded α2 and MAT2-encoded a1 were, however, essential for meiosis. When present in the location next to SLA2 and SUI1 genes, MAT1 or MAT2 was transcriptionally active, while the other was repressed. An inversion of the MAT intervening region was induced by nutrient limitation, resulting in the swapping of the chromosomal locations of two MAT loci, and hence switching of mating type identity. Inversion-deficient mutants exhibited severe defects only in mating with each other, suggesting that this inversion is the mechanism of mating type switching and homothallism. This chromosomal inversion-based mechanism represents a novel form of mating type switching that requires only two MAT loci. PMID:25412462

  5. Interchromosomal core duplicons drive both evolutionary instability and disease susceptibility of the Chromosome 8p23.1 region

    PubMed Central

    Mohajeri, Kiana; Cantsilieris, Stuart; Huddleston, John; Nelson, Bradley J.; Coe, Bradley P.; Campbell, Catarina D.; Baker, Carl; Harshman, Lana; Munson, Katherine M.; Kronenberg, Zev N.; Kremitzki, Milinn; Raja, Archana; Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Graves, Tina A.; Wilson, Richard K.; Ventura, Mario; Eichler, Evan E.

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent rearrangements of Chromosome 8p23.1 are associated with congenital heart defects and developmental delay. The complexity of this region has led to inconsistencies in the current reference assembly, confounding studies of genetic variation. Using comparative sequence-based approaches, we generated a high-quality 6.3-Mbp alternate reference assembly of an inverted Chromosome 8p23.1 haplotype. Comparison with nonhuman primates reveals a 746-kbp duplicative transposition and two separate inversion events that arose in the last million years of human evolution. The breakpoints associated with these rearrangements map to an ape-specific interchromosomal core duplicon that clusters at sites of evolutionary inversion (P = 7.8 × 10−5). Refinement of microdeletion breakpoints identifies a subgroup of patients that map to the same interchromosomal core involved in the evolutionary formation of the duplication blocks. Our results define a higher-order genomic instability element that has shaped the structure of specific chromosomes during primate evolution contributing to rearrangements associated with inversion and disease. PMID:27803192

  6. Inversion of the chromosomal region between two mating type loci switches the mating type in Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Hiromi; Kaneko, Yoshinobu

    2014-11-01

    Yeast mating type is determined by the genotype at the mating type locus (MAT). In homothallic (self-fertile) Saccharomycotina such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluveromyces lactis, high-efficiency switching between a and α mating types enables mating. Two silent mating type cassettes, in addition to an active MAT locus, are essential components of the mating type switching mechanism. In this study, we investigated the structure and functions of mating type genes in H. polymorpha (also designated as Ogataea polymorpha). The H. polymorpha genome was found to harbor two MAT loci, MAT1 and MAT2, that are ∼18 kb apart on the same chromosome. MAT1-encoded α1 specifies α cell identity, whereas none of the mating type genes were required for a identity and mating. MAT1-encoded α2 and MAT2-encoded a1 were, however, essential for meiosis. When present in the location next to SLA2 and SUI1 genes, MAT1 or MAT2 was transcriptionally active, while the other was repressed. An inversion of the MAT intervening region was induced by nutrient limitation, resulting in the swapping of the chromosomal locations of two MAT loci, and hence switching of mating type identity. Inversion-deficient mutants exhibited severe defects only in mating with each other, suggesting that this inversion is the mechanism of mating type switching and homothallism. This chromosomal inversion-based mechanism represents a novel form of mating type switching that requires only two MAT loci.

  7. Chromosome 16q22 variants in a region associated with cardiovascular phenotypes correlate with ZFHX3 expression in a transcript-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ruairidh I R; Owens, W Andrew; Cunnington, Michael S; Mayosi, Bongani M; Koref, Mauro Santibáñez; Keavney, Bernard D

    2014-12-24

    The ZFHX3 gene, located in Chromosome 16q22.3, codes for a transcription factor which is widely expressed in human tissues. Genome-wide studies have identified associations between variants within the gene and Kawasaki disease and atrial fibrillation. ZFHX3 has two main transcripts that utilise different transcription start sites. We examined the association between genetic variants in the 16q22.3 region and expression of ZFHX3 to identify variants that regulate gene expression. We genotyped 65 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to tag genetic variation at the ZFHX3 locus in two cohorts, 451 British individuals recruited in the North East of England and 310 mixed-ancestry individuals recruited in South Africa. Allelic expression analysis revealed that the minor (A) allele of rs8060701, a variant in the first intron of ZFHX3, was associated with a 1.16-fold decrease in allelic expression of both transcripts together, (p = 4.87e-06). The minor (C) allele of a transcribed variant, rs10852515, in the second exon of ZFHX3 isoform A was independently associated with a 1.36-fold decrease in allelic expression of ZFHX3 A (p = 7.06e-31), but not overall ZFHX3 expression. However, analysis of total gene expression of ZFHX3 failed to detect an association with genotype at any variant. Differences in linkage disequilibrium between the two populations allowed fine-mapping of the locus to a 7 kb region overlapping exon 2 of ZFHX3 A. We did not find any association between ZFHX3 expression and any of the variants identified by genome wide association studies. ZFHX3 transcription is regulated in a transcript-specific fashion by independent cis-acting transcribed polymorphisms. Our results demonstrate the power of allelic expression analysis and trans-ethnic fine mapping to identify transcript-specific cis-acting regulatory elements.

  8. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of Inv Dup(15) chromosomes, using probes specific for the Pradar-Willi/Angelman syndrome region: Clinical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Leana-Cox, J. ); Jenkins, L. ); Palmer, C.G.; Plattner, R. ); Sheppard, L. ); Flejter, W.L. ); Zackowski, J. ); Tsien, F. ); Schwartz, S. )

    1994-05-01

    Twenty-seven cases of inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup[15]) were investigated by FISH with two DNA probes specific for the Prader-Willi syndrome/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region on proximal 15q. Sixteen of the marker chromosomes displayed two copies of each probe, while in the remaining 11 markers no hybridization was observed. A significant association was found between the presence of this region and an abnormal phenotype (P<.01). This is the largest study to date of inv dup(15) chromosomes, that uses molecular cytogenetic methods and is the first to report a significant association between the presence of a specific chromosomal region in such markers and an abnormal phenotype. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Delineation by fluorescence in situ hybridization of a single hemizygous chromosomal region associated with aposporous embryo sac formation in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris.

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shailendra; Chen, Zhenbang; Conner, Joann A; Akiyama, Yukio; Hanna, Wayne W; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    Apomixis is a means of asexual reproduction by which plants produce embryos without meiosis and fertilization; thus the embryo is of clonal, maternal origin. We previously reported molecular markers showing no recombination with the trait for aposporous embryo sac development in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, and the collective single-dose alleles defined an apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm that the ASGR is a hemizygous genomic region and to determine its chromosomal position with respect to rDNA loci and centromere repeats. We also documented chromosome transmission from P. squamulatum in several backcrosses (BCs) with P. glaucum using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). One to three complete P. squamulatum chromosomes were detected in BC(6), but only one of the three hybridized with the ASGR-linked markers. In P. squamulatum and in all BCs examined, the apospory-linked markers were located in the distal region of the short arm of a single chromosome. All alien chromosomes behaved as univalents during meiosis and segregated randomly in BC(3) and later BC generations, but presence of the ASGR-carrier chromosome alone was sufficient to confer apospory. FISH results support our hypotheses that hemizygosity, proximity to centromeric sequences, and chromosome structure may all play a role in low recombination in the ASGR. PMID:12663545

  10. Mapping of four distinct BCR-related loci to chromosome region 22q11: order of BCR loci relative to chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia breakpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Croce, C.M.; Huebner, K.; Isobe, M.; Fainstain, E.; Lifshitz, B.; Shtivelman, E.; Canaani, E.

    1987-10-01

    A probe derived from the 3' region of the BCR gene (breakpoint cluster region gene) detects four distinct loci in the human genome. One of the loci corresponds to the complete BCR gene, whereas the other contain a 3' segment of the gene. After HindIII cleavage of human DNA, these four loci are detected as 23-, 19-, 13-, and 9-kikobase-pair fragments, designated BCR4, BCR3, BCR2, and BCR1, respectively, with BCR1 deriving from the original complete BCR gene. All four BCR loci segregate 100% concordantly with human chromosome 22 in a rodent-human somatic cell hybrid panel and are located at chromosome region 22q11.2 by chromosomal in situ hybridization. The BCR2 and BCR4 loci are amplified in leukemia cell line K562 cells, indicating that they fall within the amplification unit that includes immunoglobulin lambda light chain locus (IGL) and ABL locus on the K562 Philadelphia chromosome (Ph/sup 1/). Similarly, in mouse-human hybrids retaining a Ph/sup 1/ chromosome derived from an acute lymphoblastic leukemia-in the absence of the 9q/sup +/ and 22, only BCR2 and BCR4 loci are retained. Thus, the order of loci on chromosome 22 is centromere ..-->.. BCR2, BCR4, and IGL ..-->.. BCR1 ..-->.. BCR3 ..-->.. SIS, possibly eliminating BCR2 and BCR4 loci as candidate targets for juxtaposition to the ABL gene in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia Ph/sup 1/ chromosome.

  11. Analysis of plant meiotic chromosomes by chromosome painting.

    PubMed

    Lysak, Martin A; Mandáková, Terezie

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome painting (CP) refers to visualization of large chromosome regions, entire chromosome arms, or entire chromosomes via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For CP in plants, contigs of chromosome-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the target species or from a closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) are typically applied as painting probes. Extended pachytene chromosomes provide the highest resolution of CP in plants. CP enables identification and tracing of particular chromosome regions and/or entire chromosomes throughout all meiotic stages as well as corresponding chromosome territories in premeiotic interphase nuclei. Meiotic pairing and structural chromosome rearrangements (typically inversions and translocations) can be identified by CP. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols of CP and CCP in plant species including chromosome preparation, BAC DNA labeling, and multicolor FISH.

  12. SNP rs6457327 in the HLA region on chromosome 6p is predictive of the transformation of follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, Pamela; Skibola, Christine F.; Conde, Lucia; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Matthews, Janet; Iqbal, Sameena; Carlotti, Emanuela; Bödör, Csaba; Montoto, Silvia; Calaminici, Maria; Gribben, John G.; Lister, T. Andrew; Fitzgibbon, Jude

    2011-01-01

    Inherited risk determinants for follicular lymphoma (FL) have recently been described in the immune gene-rich human leukocyte antigen region on chromosome 6p. The known importance of host immune response to FL survival led us to evaluate these germline factors in FL outcome. We confirm the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms rs10484561 (P = 3.5 × 10−9) and rs6457327 (P = .008) with risk of FL and demonstrate that rs6457327 predicts both time to (P = .02) and risk of (P < .01) FL transformation independently of clinical variables, including the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index. PMID:21233317

  13. The mouse mutation sarcosinemia (sar) maps to chromosome 2 in a region homologous to human 9q33-q34

    SciTech Connect

    Brunialti, A.L.B.; Guenet, J.L.; Harding, C.O.; Wolff, J.A.

    1996-08-15

    The autosomal recessive mouse mutation sarcosinemia (sar), which was discovered segregating in the progeny of a male whose premeiotic germ cells had been treated with the mutagen ethylnitrosourea, is characterized by a deficiency in sarcosine dehydrogenase activity. Using an intersubspecific cross, we mapped the sar locus to mouse chromosome 2, approximately 15-18 cM from the centromere. The genetic localization of this locus in the mouse allows the identification of a candidate region in human (9q33-q34) where the homologous disease should map. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Analysis of two novel cDNAs from the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Z.Y.; Lee, C.C.; Jiralerspong, S.

    1994-09-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. To date, only one gene encoding snRNA U3 has been mapped to this region. Here we report the identification of two novel genes, designated 463 and B9, which have been mapped to the SMS region. A full-length cDNA corresponding to each of these genes has been cloned and sequenced. Deletion analysis has been conducted on somatic cell hybrids retaining the del(17)(p11.2) chromosome from each of 15 SMS patients by PCR of sequence tagged sites for the cDNAs and confirmed by Southern analysis. The gene 463 is deleted in 15/15 patients analyzed to date, whereas the gene B9 is deleted in 10/15 of the patients analyzed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is used to analyze additional SMS patients for hemizygosity at these loci. A physical map of the region is being constructed to determine the relative location of these cDNAs within 17p11.2. Our studies to date, thus, suggest that although both genes 463 and B9 are located within 17p11.2, gene 463 is more likely to be associated with SMS. Complete and exhaustive definition of the critical interval is required to demonstrate the role and importance of gene 463 in SMS.

  15. Potential Symbiosis-Specific Genes Uncovered by Sequencing a 410-Kilobase DNA Region of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Göttfert, Michael; Röthlisberger, Sandra; Kündig, Christoph; Beck, Christoph; Marty, Roger; Hennecke, Hauke

    2001-01-01

    The physical and genetic map of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum chromosome revealed that nitrogen fixation and nodulation genes are clustered. Because of the complex interactions between the bacterium and the plant, we expected this chromosomal sector to contain additional genes that are involved in the maintenance of an efficient symbiosis. Therefore, we determined the nucleotide sequence of a 410-kb region. The overall G+C nucleotide content was 59.1%. Using a minimum gene length of 150 nucleotides, 388 open reading frames (ORFs) were selected as coding regions. Thirty-five percent of the predicted proteins showed similarity to proteins of rhizobia. Sixteen percent were similar only to proteins of other bacteria. No database match was found for 29%. Repetitive DNA sequence-derived ORFs accounted for the rest. The sequenced region contained all nitrogen fixation genes and, apart from nodM, all nodulation genes that were known to exist in B. japonicum. We found several genes that seem to encode transport systems for ferric citrate, molybdate, or carbon sources. Some of them are preceded by −24/−12 promoter elements. A number of putative outer membrane proteins and cell wall-modifying enzymes as well as a type III secretion system might be involved in the interaction with the host. PMID:11157954

  16. Assembling the Setaria italica L. Beauv. genome into nine chromosomes and insights into regions affecting growth and drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Kevin J.; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Yang, Kai-Jung; Li, Mengyun; Teng, Yuchuan; Chen, Shihmay; Ku, Maurice S. B.; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    The diploid C4 plant foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv.) is an important crop in many parts of Africa and Asia for the vast consumption of its grain and ability to grow in harsh environments, but remains understudied in terms of complete genomic architecture. To date, there have been only two genome assembly and annotation efforts with neither assembly reaching over 86% of the estimated genome size. We have combined de novo assembly with custom reference-guided improvements on a popular cultivar of foxtail millet and have achieved a genome assembly of 477 Mbp in length, which represents over 97% of the estimated 490 Mbp. The assembly anchors over 98% of the predicted genes to the nine assembled nuclear chromosomes and contains more functional annotation gene models than previous assemblies. Our annotation has identified a large number of unique gene ontology terms related to metabolic activities, a region of chromosome 9 with several growth factor proteins, and regions syntenic with pearl millet or maize genomic regions that have been previously shown to affect growth. The new assembly and annotation for this important species can be used for detailed investigation and future innovations in growth for millet and other grains. PMID:27734962

  17. Three-region specific microdissection libraries for the long arm of human chromosome 2, regions q33-q35, q31-q32, and q23-q24

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, J.; Tong, S.; Whittier, A.

    1995-09-01

    Three region-specific libraries have been constructed from the long arm of human chromosome 2, including regions 2q33-35 (2Q2 library), 2q31-32 (2Q3) and 2q23-24 (2Q4). Chromosome microdissection and the MboI linker-adaptor microcloning techniques were used in constructing these libraries. The libraries comprised hundreds of thousands of microclones in each library. Approximately half of the microclones in the library contained unique or low-copy number sequence inserts. The insert sizes ranged between 50 and 800 bp, with a mean of 130-190 bp. Southern blot analysis of individual unique sequence microclones showed that 70-94% of the microclones were derived from the dissected region. 31 unique sequence microclones from the 2Q2 library, 31 from 2Q3, and 30 from 2Q4, were analyzed for insert sizes, the hybridizing genomic HindIII fragment sizes, and cross-hybridization to rodent species. These libraries and the short insert microclones derived from the libraries should be useful for high resolution physical mapping, sequence-ready reagents for large scale genomic sequencing, and positional cloning of disease-related genes assigned to these regions, e.g. the recessive familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis assigned to 2q33-q35, and a type I diabetes susceptibility gene to 2q31-q33. 17 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Regional assignment of the human uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) gene to chromosome 10q25.2----q26.3.

    PubMed

    Astrin, K H; Warner, C A; Yoo, H W; Goodfellow, P J; Tsai, S F; Desnick, R J

    1991-05-01

    Uroporphyrinogen III synthase [UROS; hydroxymethylbilane hydro-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.2.1.75] is the fourth enzyme in the human heme biosynthetic pathway. The recent isolation of the cDNA encoding human UROS facilitated its chromosomal localization. Human UROS sequences were specifically amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from genomic DNA of two independent panels of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids. There was 100% concordance for the presence of the human UROS PCR product and human chromosome 10. For each of the other chromosomes, there was 19%-53% discordance with human UROS. The chromosomal assignment was confirmed by Southern hybridization analysis of DNA from somatic cell hybrids with the full-length UROS cDNA. Using human-rodent hybrids containing different portions of human chromosome 10, we assigned the UROS gene to the region 10q25.2----q26.3.

  19. A 1.6-Mb P1-based physical map of the Down syndrome region on chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Miki; Suzuki, Kazunobu |; Ichikawa, Hitoshi

    1996-04-01

    The Down Syndrome (DS) region on chromosome 21, which is responsible for the main features of DS such as characteristic facial features, a congenital heart defect, and mental retardation, has been defined by molecular analysis of DS patients with partial trisomy 21. The 2.5-Mb region around the marker D21S55 between D21S17 and ERG in 21q22 is thought to be important, although contributions of other regions cannot be excluded. In this region, we focused on a 1.6-Mb region between a NotI site, LA68 (D21S396, which is mapped distal to D21S17) and ERG, because analysis of a Japanese DS family with partial trisomy 21 revealed that the proximal border of its triplicated region was distal to LA68. We constructed P1 contigs with 46 P1 clones covering more than 95% of the 1.6-Mb region. A high-resolution restriction map using BamHI was also constructed for more details analysis. Our P1 contig map supplements other physical maps previously reported and provides useful materials for further analysis including isolation and sequencing of the DS region. 31 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A Meiotic Drive Element in the Maize Pathogen Fusarium verticillioides Is Located Within a 102 kb Region of Chromosome V

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Jay; Patel, Tejas; Merrill, Brianna; Nsokoshi, Chabu; McCall, Morgan; Proctor, Robert H.; Brown, Daren W.; Hammond, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is an agriculturally important fungus because of its association with maize and its propensity to contaminate grain with toxic compounds. Some isolates of the fungus harbor a meiotic drive element known as Spore killer (SkK) that causes nearly all surviving meiotic progeny from an SkK × Spore killer-susceptible (SkS) cross to inherit the SkK allele. SkK has been mapped to chromosome V but the genetic element responsible for meiotic drive has yet to be identified. In this study, we used cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers to genotype individual progeny from an SkK × SkS mapping population. We also sequenced the genomes of three progeny from the mapping population to determine their single nucleotide polymorphisms. These techniques allowed us to refine the location of SkK to a contiguous 102 kb interval of chromosome V, herein referred to as the Sk region. Relative to SkS genotypes, SkK genotypes have one extra gene within this region for a total of 42 genes. The additional gene in SkK genotypes, herein named SKC1 for Spore Killer Candidate 1, is the most highly expressed gene from the Sk region during early stages of sexual development. The Sk region also has three hyper-variable regions, the longest of which includes SKC1. The possibility that SKC1, or another gene from the Sk region, is an essential component of meiotic drive and spore killing is discussed. PMID:27317777

  1. Fine Mapping of Candidate Regions for Bipolar Disorder Provides Strong Evidence for Susceptibility Loci on Chromosomes 7q

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyan; Cheng, Rong; Juo, Suh-Hang; Liu, Jianjun; Loth, Jo Ellen; Endicott, Jean; Gilliam, Conrad; Baron, Miron

    2010-01-01

    Genomewide scans of bipolar disorder (BP) have not produced consistent linkage findings. Follow-up studies using enlarged samples and enhanced marker density can bolster or refute claims of linkage and pave the way to gene discovery. We conducted linkage and association analyses, using a ~3-cM density map of 10 candidate regions, in a large BP pedigree sample (865 individuals from 56 pedigrees). The candidate regions were identified in a previous 10-cM genome-wide scan using a subset of this sample (373 individuals from 40 pedigrees). The present sample consists of the expanded original pedigrees (‘core’ pedigrees) and 16 additional pedigrees. We obtained experiment-wide significant linkage on chromosome 7q34 (LOD score 3.53, p<0.001), substantially stronger than that observed in the genome-wide scan. Support for linkage was sustained on chromosomes 2p13, 4q31, 8q13, 13q32, 14q21 and 17q11, though at a more modest level. Family-based association analysis was consistent with the linkage results at all regions with linkage evidence, except 4q an 8q, but the results fell short of statistical significance. Three of the previously implicated regions – 9q31, 10q21 and 10q24 – showed substantial reduction in evidence of linkage. Our results strongly support 7q34 as a region harboring susceptibility locus for BP. Somewhat lesser, yet notable support was obtained for 2p13, 4q31, 8q13, 13q32, 14q21 and 17q11. These regions could be considered prime candidates for future gene finding efforts. PMID:21302345

  2. Comparative analysis of Y chromosome structure in Bos taurus and B. indicus by FISH using region-specific, microdissected, and locus-specific DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Goldammer, T; Brunner, R M; Schwerin, M

    1997-01-01

    Results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of Bos taurus and B. indicus Y chromosomes using the bovine locus-specific Y probes BC1.2 and lambda ES6.0 and region-specific probes of B. indicus and B. taurus Y chromosomes, which were generated by microdissection and DOP-PCR, indicate that the Y chromosomes of B. indicus (BIN Y) and B. taurus (BTA Y) differ by a pericentric inversion. Parts of the short and long arms of the Y chromosome in B. taurus and the distal half of the Y chromosome in B. indicus were microdissected, amplified by DOP-PCR, biotinylated, and rehybridized in situ to the corresponding metaphase chromosomes to test the chromosome fragment specificity of the DNA probes. The region-specific painting probes were used for hybridization to metaphase chromosomes of the other species. The DNA painting probes BTA Yp12 and BTA Yq12.1-ter derived from BTA Y hybridized to the distal and proximal halves of BIN Y, respectively. Complex hybridization signals on BTA Yq12.1-->qter were generated with the DNA probe BIN Yqcen-centr (centromere-central) after FISH. The results demonstrate that BTA Yp is homologous to the distal half of BIN Y and that BTA Yq corresponds to the proximal part of BIN Yq. Hybridization of the Y chromosome-specific DNA probes lambda ES6.0 to BTA Yp12-->p11 and near to the telomere of BIN Y and BC1.2 to BTA Yq12-->q13 and to the telomere of BIN Y indicate an opposite orientation of the homologous chromosome fragments BTA Yp and of the distal half of BIN Yq.

  3. Metabolic and Molecular Changes of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Lines Carrying Different Solanum pennellii Wild Chromosomal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Rigano, Maria Manuela; Raiola, Assunta; Docimo, Teresa; Ruggieri, Valentino; Calafiore, Roberta; Vitaglione, Paola; Ferracane, Rosalia; Frusciante, Luigi; Barone, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    Solanum lycopersicum represents an important dietary source of bioactive compounds including the antioxidants flavonoids and phenolic acids. We previously identified two genotypes (IL7-3 and IL12-4) carrying loci from the wild species Solanum pennellii, which increased antioxidants in the fruit. Successively, these lines were crossed and two genotypes carrying both introgressions at the homozygous condition (DHO88 and DHO88-SL) were selected. The amount of total antioxidant compounds was increased in DHOs compared to both ILs and the control genotype M82. In order to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying the positive interaction between the two wild regions pyramided in DHO genotypes, detailed analyses of the metabolites accumulated in the fruit were carried out by colorimetric methods and LC/MS/MS. These analyses evidenced a lower content of flavonoids in DHOs and in ILs, compared to M82. By contrast, in the DHOs the relative content of phenolic acids increased, particularly the fraction of hexoses, thus evidencing a redirection of the phenylpropanoid flux toward the biosynthesis of phenolic acid glycosides in these genotypes. In addition, the line DHO88 exhibited a lower content of free phenolic acids compared to M82. Interestingly, the two DHOs analyzed differ in the size of the wild region on chromosome 12. Genes mapping in the introgression regions were further investigated. Several genes of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway were identified, such as one 4-coumarate:CoA ligase and two UDP-glycosyltransferases in the region 12-4 and one chalcone isomerase and one UDP-glycosyltransferase in the region 7-3. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrated a different expression of the detected genes in the ILs and in the DHOs compared to M82. These analyses, combined with biochemical analyses, suggested a central role of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase in redirecting the phenylpropanoid pathways toward the biosynthesis of phenolic acids in the pyramided lines

  4. Localization of the human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) gene to the pericentromeric region of human chromosome 8

    SciTech Connect

    Burkin, D.J.; Jones, C. ); Kimbro, K.S.; Taylor, M.W. ); Barr, B.L.; Gupta, S.L. )

    1993-07-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the first enzyme in the catabolic pathway for tryptophan. This extrahepatic enzyme differs from the hepatic enzyme, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), in molecular as well as enzymatic characteristics, although both enzymes catalyze the same reaction: cleavage of tryptophan into N-formylkynurenine. The induction of IDO by IFN-[gamma] plays a role in the antigrowth effect of IFN-[gamma] in cell cultures and in the inhibition of intracellular pathogens, e.g., Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia psittaci. Tryptophan is also the precursor for the synthesis of serotonin, and reduced levels of tryptophan and serotonin found in AIDS patients have been correlated with the presence of IFN-[gamma] and consequent elevation of IDO activity. The IDO enzyme has been purified and characterized, and its cDNA and genomic DNA clones have been isolated and analyzed. DNA from hybrid cells containing fragments of human chromosome 8 was used to determine the regional localization of the IDO gene on chromosome 8. The hybrids R30-5B and R30-2A contain 8p11 [yields] qter and 8q13 [yields] qter, respectively. Hybrid 229-3A contains the 8pter [yields] q11. The hybrid R30-2A was negative for the IDO gene, whereas R30-5B and 229-3A were positive as analyzed by PCR and verified by Southern blotting. Only the region close to the centromere is shared by R30-5B and 229-3A hybrids. The results indicate that the IDO gene is located on chromosome 8p11 [yields] q11.

  5. Human homeo box-containing genes located at chromosome regions 2q31----2q37 and 12q12----12q13.

    PubMed Central

    Cannizzaro, L A; Croce, C M; Griffin, C A; Simeone, A; Boncinelli, E; Huebner, K

    1987-01-01

    Four human homeo box-containing cDNAs isolated from mRNA of an SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell line have been regionally localized on the human gene map. One cDNA clone, c10, was found to be nearly identical to the previously mapped Hox-2.1 gene at 17q21. A second cDNA clone, c1, which is 87% homologous to Hox-2.2 at the nucleotide level but is distinct from Hox-2.1 and Hox-2.2, also maps to this region of human chromosome 17 and is probably another member of the Hox-2 cluster of homeo box-containing genes. The third cDNA clone, c8, in which the homeo box is approximately 84% homologous to the mouse Hox-1.1 homeo box region on mouse chromosome 6, maps to chromosome region 12q12----12q13, a region that is involved in chromosome abnormalities in human seminomas and teratomas. The fourth cDNA clone, c13, whose homeo box is approximately 73% homologous to the Hox-2.2 homeo box sequence, is located at chromosome region 2q31----q37. The human homeo box-containing cluster of genes at chromosome region 17q21 is the human cognate of the mouse homeo box-containing gene cluster on mouse chromosome 11. Other mouse homeo box-containing genes of the Antennapedia class (class I) map to mouse chromosomes 6 (Hox-1, proximal to the IgK locus) and 15 (Hox-3). A mouse gene, En-1, with an engrailed-like homeo box (class II) and flanking region maps to mouse chromosome 1 (near the dominant hemimelia gene). Neither of the class I homeo box-containing genes--c8 and c13--maps to a region of obvious homology to chromosomal positions of the presently known mouse homeo box-containing genes. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:2886047

  6. Ovarian cancer has frequent loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 12p12.3-13.1 (region of TEL and Kip1 loci) and chromosome 12q23-ter: evidence for two new tumour-suppressor genes.

    PubMed Central

    Hatta, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Yokota, J.; Koeffler, H. P.

    1997-01-01

    Identification of the key genetic alterations leading to ovarian cancer is in its infancy. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is a powerful method for detecting regions of altered tumour-suppressor genes. Focusing on chromosome 12, we examined 23 ovarian cancer samples for LOH using 31 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and found the chromosomal localization of two putative tumour-suppressor genes. Two commonly deleted regions were 12p12.3-13.1 in 6/23 (26%) and 12q23-ter in 7/23 (30%) samples. LOH on chromosome 12 was more common in late-stage ovarian carcinomas. The region of LOH at 12p12.3-13.1 includes the genes that code for the ETS-family transcriptional factor, known as TEL, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, known as p27Kip1. Mutational analysis of both TEL and p27Kip1 using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) showed no abnormalities, suggesting that the altered gene in this region is neither of these genes. Taken together, our data suggest that new tumour-suppressor genes in the region of chromosomes 12p12.3-13.1 and 12q23-ter may be involved in the development of ovarian cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9155043

  7. Chromosome 5 workshop.

    PubMed

    Crowe, R R; Vieland, V

    1998-01-01

    In schizophrenia, evidence consistent with linkage in the 5q23.3-q31.1 region emerged from three independent samples. In addition, a moderately retarded woman with schizophrenia with an interstitial deletion overlapping this region was reported at the workshop. A second region of interest for schizophrenia is the 5p14.1-p13.1 region, where lod scores as high as 4.37 were found in one pedigree. Chromosome 5p15 gave a non-parametric linkage (NPL) score of 2.18 (p < 0.02) in one study. Several genome scans have not found evidence of excess allele sharing in these regions, although in most cases the genome scans did not include the markers that had resulted in provisional evidence of linkage. A large pedigree of bipolar illness has shown provisional evidence of linkage at, or near, the dopamine transporter locus at 5p15.3; the maximum lod score obtained was 2.72 at D5S417. In other regions, a genome scan of bipolar disorder gave NPL scores of 2.98 at D5S812 and 3.76 at D5S423. The third disorder of interest is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) because two studies have reported an association with the 480 bp allele at the dopamine transporter locus. A poster presented at the Congress reported a failure to replicate the association in a sample with considerable power to detect the effect size previously reported.

  8. Temporal Fluctuation in North East Baltic Sea Region Cattle Population Revealed by Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal DNA Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Marianna; Bläuer, Auli; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Harjula, Janne; Nyström Edmark, Veronica; Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Sajantila, Antti; Lidén, Kerstin; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Ancient DNA analysis offers a way to detect changes in populations over time. To date, most studies of ancient cattle have focused on their domestication in prehistory, while only a limited number of studies have analysed later periods. Conversely, the genetic structure of modern cattle populations is well known given the undertaking of several molecular and population genetic studies. Results Bones and teeth from ancient cattle populations from the North-East Baltic Sea region dated to the Prehistoric (Late Bronze and Iron Age, 5 samples), Medieval (14), and Post-Medieval (26) periods were investigated by sequencing 667 base pairs (bp) from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 155 bp of intron 19 in the Y-chromosomal UTY gene. Comparison of maternal (mtDNA haplotypes) genetic diversity in ancient cattle (45 samples) with modern cattle populations in Europe and Asia (2094 samples) revealed 30 ancient mtDNA haplotypes, 24 of which were shared with modern breeds, while 6 were unique to the ancient samples. Of seven Y-chromosomal sequences determined from ancient samples, six were Y2 and one Y1 haplotype. Combined data including Swedish samples from the same periods (64 samples) was compared with the occurrence of Y-chromosomal haplotypes in modern cattle (1614 samples). Conclusions The diversity of haplogroups was highest in the Prehistoric samples, where many haplotypes were unique. The Medieval and Post-Medieval samples also show a high diversity with new haplotypes. Some of these haplotypes have become frequent in modern breeds in the Nordic Countries and North-Western Russia while other haplotypes have remained in only a few local breeds or seem to have been lost. A temporal shift in Y-chromosomal haplotypes from Y2 to Y1 was detected that corresponds with the appearance of new mtDNA haplotypes in the Medieval and Post-Medieval period. This suggests a replacement of the Prehistoric mtDNA and Y chromosomal haplotypes by new types of cattle. PMID:25992976

  9. Micro-geographic distribution of Y-chromosomal variation in the central-western European region Brabant.

    PubMed

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Jacobs, Manon; Coomans, Monique; Larno, Lucie; Decorte, Ronny

    2011-03-01

    One of the future issues in the forensic application of the haploid Y-chromosome (Y-chr) is surveying the distribution of the Y-chr variation on a micro-geographical scale. Studies on such a scale require observing Y-chr variation on a high resolution, high sampling efforts and reliable genealogical data of all DNA-donors. In the current study we optimised this framework by surveying the micro-geographical distribution of the Y-chr variation in the central-western European region named Brabant. The Duchy of Brabant was a historical region in the Low Countries containing three contemporary Belgian provinces and one Dutch province (Noord-Brabant). 477 males from five a priori defined regions within Brabant were selected based on their genealogical ancestry (known pedigree at least before 1800). The Y-haplotypes were determined based on 37 Y-STR loci and the finest possible level of substructuring was defined according to the latest published Y-chr phylogenetic tree. In total, eight Y-haplogroups and 32 different subhaplogroups were observed, whereby 70% of all participants belonged to only four subhaplogroups: R1b1b2a1 (R-U106), R1b1b2a2* (R-P312*), R1b1b2a2g (R-U152) and I1* (I-M253*). Significant micro-geographical differentiation within Brabant was detected between the Dutch (Noord-Brabant) vs. the Flemish regions based on the differences in (sub)haplogroup frequencies but not based on Y-STR variation within the main subhaplogroups. A clear gradient was found with higher frequencies of R1b1b2 (R-M269) chromosomes in the northern vs. southern regions, mainly related to a trend in the frequency of R1b1b2a1 (R-U106). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ENU mutation mapped to a distal region of chromosome 11 is a major determinant of bone size.

    PubMed

    Edderkaoui, Bouchra; Kesavan, Chandrasekhar; Baylink, David J; Wergedal, Jon E; Srivastava, Apurva K; Mohan, Subburaman

    2013-12-15

    Using a phenotype driven n-ethyl-nitrosourea (ENU) screen in growth hormone-deficient mice, we have identified a mutant (named 14104) that exhibited a smaller bone size. Phenotype measurements by microcomputed tomography revealed that mutant mice exhibited a 43 and 34% reduction in tissue area and bone area, respectively at the femur middiaphysis. Dynamic histomorphometry revealed a 30 and 15% lower bone formation rate at the periosteal and endosteal surface, respectively. Breaking strength of the femur was reduced by 30% in the mutant mice. To determine if the 14104 locus is involved in a mechanical loading signaling pathway, the skeletal anabolic response to tibia axial loading was evaluated. The increase in trabecular response in the loaded region was severely compromised by the 14014 mutation. To identify the location of mutation, we performed linkage analysis using 62 polymorphic markers in the B6-DBA/2J F2 mice. The genome-wide linkage analysis identified the location of the mutation to a 72 to 83 cM region on chromosome 11 with peak logarithm of the odds scores of 15 for periosteal circumference at marker D11mit338. Sequence analysis revealed no mutation in the coding region of 11 potential candidate genes. Based on these data and published data on the skeletal phenotype of genes in this region, we concluded that the 109-119 Mb region of chromosome 11 harbors a bone size gene that regulates periosteal bone formation. The mutant strain developed in this study provides an important tool to identify a novel mechanosensitive gene that determines bone size during postnatal development.

  11. Tetralogy of Fallot associated with deletion in the DiGeorge region of chromosome 22 (22q11)

    SciTech Connect

    D`Angelo, J.A.; Pillers, D.M.; Jett, P.L.

    1994-09-01

    Cardiac conotruncal defects, such as Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), are associated with DiGeorge syndrome which has been mapped to the q11 region of chromosome 22 and includes abnormalities of neural crest and branchial arch development. Patients with conotruncal defects and velo-cardio-facial syndrome may have defects in the 22q11 region but not show the complete DiGeorge phenotype consisting of cardiac, thymus, and parathyroid abnormalities. We report two neonates with TOF and small deletions in the DiGeorge region of chromosome 22 (46,XX,del(22)(q11.21q11.23) and 46,XY,del(22)(q11.2q11.2)) using both high-resolution cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The first patient is a female with TOF and a family history of congenital heart disease. The mother has pulmonic stenosis and a right-sided aortic arch, one brother has TOF, and a second brother has a large VSD. The patient had intrauterine growth retardation and had thrombocytopenia due to maternal IgG platelet-directed autoantibody. Lymphocyte populations, both T and B cells, were reduced in number but responded normally to stimulation. The findings were not attributed to a DiGeorge phenotype. Although she had transient neonatal hypocalcemia, her parathyroid hormone level was normal. The patient was not dysmorphic in the newborn period but her mother had features consistent with velo-cardio-facial syndrome. The second patient was a male with TOF who was not dysmorphic and had no other significant clinical findings and no family history of heart disease. Lymphocyte testing did not reveal a specific immunodeficiency. No significant postnatal hypocalcemia was noted. These cases illustrate that there is a wide spectrum of clinical features associated with defects of the 22q11 region. We recommend karyotype analysis, including FISH probes specific to the DiGeorge region, in any patient with conotruncal cardiac defects.

  12. Comparative mapping of DNA probes derived from the V{sub k} immunoglobulin gene regions on human and great ape chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, N.; Wienberg, J.; Ermert, K.

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of cosmid clones of human V{sub K} gene regions to human and primate chromosomes contributed to the dating of chromosome reorganizations in evolution. A clone from the K locus at 2p11-p12 (cos 106) hybridized to the assumed homologous chromosome bands in the chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (PTR) and P. paniscus (PPA), the Gorilla gorilla (GGO), and the orangutan Pongo Pygmaeus (PPY). Human and both chimpanzees differed from gorilla and orangutan by the mapping of cos 170, a clone derived from chromosome 2cen-q11.2; the transposition of this orphon to the other side of the centromere can, therefore, be dated after the human/chimpanzee and gorilla divergence. Hybridization to homologous bands was also found with a cosmid clone containing a V{sub K}I orphon located on chromosome 1 (cos 115, main signal at 1q31-q32), although the probe is not fully unique. Also, a clone derived from the orphon V{sub K} region on chromosome 22q11 (cos 121) hybridized to the homologous bands in the great apes. This indicates that the orphons on human chromosomes 1 and 22 had been translocated early in primate evolution. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Genome-Based Identification of Chromosomal Regions Specific for Salmonella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen-Wester, Imke; Hensel, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Acquisition of genomic elements by horizontal gene transfer represents an important mechanism in the evolution of bacterial species. Pathogenicity islands are a subset of horizontally acquired elements present in various pathogens. These elements are frequently located adjacent to tRNA genes. We performed a comparative genome analysis of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Typhimurium and Escherichia coli and scanned tRNA loci for the presence of species-specific, horizontally acquired genomic elements. A large number of species-specific elements were identified. Here, we describe the characteristics of four large chromosomal insertions at tRNA genes of Salmonella spp. The tRNA-associated elements harbor various genes previously identified as single virulence genes, indicating that these genes have been acquired with large chromosomal insertions. Southern blot analyses confirmed that the tRNA-associated elements are specific to Salmonella and also indicated a heterogeneous distribution within the salmonellae. Systematic scanning for insertions at tRNA genes thus represents a tool for the identification of novel pathogenicity islands. PMID:11953370

  14. Isolation and characterization of a gene from the DiGeorge chromosomal region homologous to the mouse Tbx1 gene.

    PubMed

    Chieffo, C; Garvey, N; Gong, W; Roe, B; Zhang, G; Silver, L; Emanuel, B S; Budarf, M L

    1997-08-01

    DiGeorge syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, conotruncal anomaly face syndrome, and isolated and familial forms of conotruncal cardiac defects have been associated with deletions of chromosomal region 22q11.2. This report describes the identification, cloning, and characterization of the human TBX1 gene, which maps to the center of the DiGeorge chromosomal region. Further, we have extended the mouse cDNA sequence to permit comparisons between human and mouse Tbx1. TBX1 is a member of a phylogenetically conserved family of genes that share a common DNA-binding domain, the T-box. T-box genes are transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes. There is 98% amino acid identity between human and mouse TBX1 proteins overall, and within the T-box domain, the proteins are identical except for two amino acids. Expression of human TBX1 in adult and fetal tissues, as determined by Northern blot analysis, is similar to that found in the mouse. Additionally, using 3 'RACE, we obtained a differentially spliced message in adult skeletal muscle. Mouse Tbx1 has been previously shown to be expressed during early embryogenesis in the pharyngeal arches, pouches, and otic vesicle. Later in development, expression is seen in the vertebral column and tooth bud. Thus, human TBX1 is a candidate for some of the features seen in the 22q11 deletion syndrome.